WorldWideScience

Sample records for left undisturbed rats

  1. HISTOLOGIC AND ENZYMATIC COMPARISON BETWEEN PANGOLIN AND RAT LEFT MYOCARDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medubi LJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pangolin is presumably a primitive mammal compared to rat. However, its cardiac contractile function is maintained longer than that of rat following cutting it away from the body immediately after euthanize. This investigation aim therefore to elucidate the microanatomy of the left ventricle in the pangolins in comparison with that of Wistar rats. Biochemical enzyme quantification was also carried out in both mammals to evaluate differences in the levels of activities of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase.Following euthanasia and dissection along the thoracic wall, the left ventricles were recovered and divided into two parts. One part was fixed in 10% formal-saline and processed for paraffin embedding while the other was homogenized in sucrose and used for lactate dehydrogenase quantification.Differences in the microanatomy of the left ventricles between pangolins and rats are reported essentially related with cardiomyocyte thickness, elastic fibers distribution, nuclear shapes, and perinuclear spaces. In addition, LDH activity appeared significantly higher in pangolins. Some of the detected differences could be correlated with animal size and perhaps, modes of life.These preliminary results generate expectations about the future possibility of being pangolins suitable models for cardiovascular research. Further investigations are needed in this regard.

  2. Functional β2-adrenoceptors in rat left atria: effect of foot-shock stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, André Luiz de; Hyslop, Stephen; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora M; Spadari, Regina C

    2017-09-01

    Altered sensitivity to the chronotropic effect of catecholamines and a reduction in the β 1 /β 2 -adrenoceptor ratio have previously been reported in right atria of stressed rats, human failing heart, and aging. In this report, we investigated whether left atrial inotropism was affected by foot-shock stress. Male rats were submitted to 3 foot-shock sessions and the left atrial inotropic response, adenylyl cyclase activity, and β-adrenoceptor expression were investigated. Left atria of stressed rats were supersensitive to isoprenaline when compared with control rats and this effect was abolished by ICI118,551, a selective β 2 -receptor antagonist. Schild plot slopes for the antagonism between CGP20712A (a selective β 1 -receptor antagonist) and isoprenaline differed from unity in atria of stressed but not control rats. Atrial sensitivity to norepinephrine, as well as basal and forskolin- or isoprenaline-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were not altered by stress. The effect of isoprenaline on adenylyl cyclase stimulation was partially blocked by ICI118,551 in atrial membranes of stressed rats. These findings indicate that foot-shock stress equally affects inotropism and chronotropism and that β 2 -adrenoceptor upregulation contributes to the enhanced inotropic response to isoprenaline.

  3. Transcriptional alterations in the left ventricle of three hypertensive rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Catherine; Kurdi, Mazen; Bricca, Giampiero; Hodroj, Wassim; Paultre, Christian; Randon, Jacques; Gustin, Marie-Paule

    2006-11-27

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is commonly associated with hypertension and represents an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the cardiac overload related to hypertension is associated to a specific gene expression pattern independently of genetic background. Gene expression levels were obtained with microarrays for 15,866 transcripts from RNA of left ventricles from 12-wk-old rats of three hypertensive models [spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Lyon hypertensive rat (LH), and heterozygous TGR(mRen2)27 rat] and their respective controls. More than 60% of the detected transcripts displayed significant changes between the three groups of normotensive rats, showing large interstrain variability. Expression data were analyzed with respect to hypertension, LVH, and chromosomal distribution. Only four genes had significantly modified expression in the three hypertensive models among which a single gene, coding for sialyltransferase 7A, was consistently overexpressed. Correlation analysis between expression data and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) over all rats identified a larger set of genes whose expression was continuously related with LVMI, including known genes associated with cardiac remodeling. Positioning the detected transcripts along the chromosomes pointed out high-density regions mostly located within blood pressure and cardiac mass quantitative trait loci. Although our study could not detect a unique reprogramming of cardiac cells involving specific genes at early stage of LVH, it allowed the identification of some genes associated with LVH regardless of genetic background. This study thus provides a set of potentially important genes contained within restricted chromosomal regions involved in cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Effects of isoflurane concentration on basic echocardiographic parameters of the left ventricle in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, H.; Papoušek, František; Neckář, Jan; Pirk, J.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2012), s. 419-423 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA501110901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : anesthesia * isoflurane * echocardiography * left ventricular function * rat heart Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  5. A new proposal for laparoscopic left colectomy in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Castro Durães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new technique for laparoscopic segmental colectomy and primary anastomosis in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly assigned to three groups of ten animals each. All animals underwent segmental resection of the left colon and end-to-end anastomosis. In Group I, the animals underwent laparoscopic surgery with carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum at a pressure of 5 mmHg. In Group II, the animals underwent pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide at a pressure of 12 mmHg. In Group III, the control group, the animals underwent open surgery. All animals were reopened on the 7th postoperative day and were evaluated for peritonitis, abscesses, anastomotic dehiscence and bowel obstruction, and the anastomosis bursting pressure was measured. RESULTS: No obstructions, peritonitis or abscesses were found in any of the animals. An animal in Group I exhibited a blocked anastomosis leakage. The average anastomosis bursting pressure in the 30 animals was 187.02 ± 68.35 mmHg. There was no significant difference in the anastomosis bursting pressure among the groups (p = 0.503 CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic experimental model was feasible and safe for segmental colectomy and anastomosis of the left colon in rats.

  6. Left hemispheric dominance of vestibular processing indicates lateralization of cortical functions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Christoph; Lange, Elena; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Reuss, Stefan; Dieterich, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Lateralization of cortical functions such as speech dominance, handedness and processing of vestibular information are present not only in humans but also in ontogenetic older species, e.g. rats. In human functional imaging studies, the processing of vestibular information was found to be correlated with the hemispherical dominance as determined by the handedness. It is located mainly within the right hemisphere in right handers and within the left hemisphere in left handers. Since dominance of vestibular processing is unknown in animals, our aim was to study the lateralization of cortical processing in a functional imaging study applying small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and galvanic vestibular stimulation in an in vivo rat model. The cortical and subcortical network processing vestibular information could be demonstrated and correlated with data from other animal studies. By calculating a lateralization index as well as flipped region of interest analyses, we found that the vestibular processing in rats follows a strong left hemispheric dominance independent from the "handedness" of the animals. These findings support the idea of an early hemispheric specialization of vestibular cortical functions in ontogenetic older species.

  7. Separate neurochemical classes of sympathetic postganglionic neurons project to the left ventricle of the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R J; Grkovic, I; Allen, A M; Anderson, C R

    2006-04-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the rat heart was investigated by retrograde neuronal tracing and multiple label immunohistochemistry. Injections of Fast Blue made into the left ventricular wall labelled sympathetic neurons that were located along the medial border of both the left and right stellate ganglia. Cardiac projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons could be grouped into one of four neurochemical populations, characterised by their content of calbindin and/or neuropeptide Y (NPY). The subpopulations of neurons contained immunoreactivity to both calbindin and NPY, immunoreactivity to calbindin only, immunoreactivity to NPY only and no immunoreactivity to calbindin or NPY. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons were also labelled in vitro with rhodamine dextran applied to the cut end of a cardiac nerve. The same neurochemical subpopulations of sympathetic neurons were identified by using this technique but in different proportions to those labelled from the left ventricle. Preganglionic terminals that were immunoreactive for another calcium-binding protein, calretinin, preferentially surrounded retrogradely labelled neurons that were immunoreactive for both calbindin and NPY. The separate sympathetic pathways projecting to the rat heart may control different cardiac functions.

  8. The position of the left and right ventricular outlets during septation. A comparison of chicken and rat development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J. A.; Lamers, W. H.; Los, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the relative position of the outflow tracts of chicken and rat hearts with respect to the ventricles during septation. For this purpose the position of the left and right ventricular outlet including the aortic and pulmonary valve primordia and the left and right

  9. [Intervention of systolic pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in rats under cold stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C F; Wang, S G; Peng, Y G; Shi, Y; Du, Y P; Shi, G X; Wen, T; Wang, Y K; Su, H

    2016-06-20

    To investigate the effects of different drugs on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats under cold stress. A total of 40 male spontaneously hypertensive rats aged 10 weeks (160~200 g) were given adaptive feeding for 7 days at a temperature of 20±1°C and then randomly divided into control group, cold stress group, metoprolol group, amlodipine group, and benazepril group, with 8 rats in each group. SBP, body weight, and heart rate were measured once a week. After the rats were sacrificed by exsanguination, left ventricular weight (LVW) was measured, and left ventricular weight index (LVWI; mg/g) was calculated. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure the concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) in plasma and myocardium, and the chemical method was used to measure the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma and myocardium. RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of endothelin-A receptor. Compared with the cold stress group, all medication groups showed significant reductions in SBP since week 5 (Pcold stress group showed a significant increase in LVWI compared with the control group (3.38±0.27 mg/g vs 2.89±0.19 mg/g, Pcold stress group (2.98±0.28 mg/g vs 3.38±0.27 mg/g, Pcold stress group showed a significant reduction in plasma NO concentration compared with the control group (104.9±19.5 μmol/L vs 129.3±17.8 μmol/L, Pcold stress group, all the medication groups showed significant increases in blood NO concentration (Pcold stress group showed a significant increase in myocardial ET-1 concentration compared with the control group (6.3±1.5 pg/100 mg vs 4.5±1.9 pg/100 mg, Pcold stress group, the amlodipine group showed a significant reduction in myocardial ET-1 concentration (4.4±1.0 pg/100 mg vs 6.3±1.5 pg/100 mg, Pcold stress group had significantly higher mRNA expression of endothelin-A receptor than the control group (0.86±0.23 vs 0.45±0.16, Pcold

  10. Enhanced mesenchymal cell engraftment by IGF-1 improves left ventricular function in rats undergoing myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Chiharu; Otani, Hajime; Sato, Daisuke; Okada, Takayuki; Hattori, Reiji; Imamura, Hiroji

    2010-01-07

    We hypothesized that enhanced mesenchymal cell (MC) engraftment with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) improves left ventricular (LV) function and survival. IGF-1 (10 microg/ml) increased adhesion and inhibited apoptosis under hypoxia in vitro through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in bone marrow-derived MCs obtained from transgenic rats expressing green fluorescence protein. Myocardial infarction (MI) in rats was produced by ligature of the left coronary artery. One month after MI, rat hearts were injected with MCs in the presence or absence of 10 microg/ml IGF-1 with or without PI3K inhibitor, 5 microM LY294002. IGF-1 significantly increased engraftment of MCs between 6 h and 3 days after transplantation associated with the increase in stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha in the infracted LV. The transplanted MCs had disappeared 1 month after transplantation in all groups. MC transplantation with IGF-1 significantly increased neovascularization and inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis 3 days and 1 month after MC transplantation. This was associated with improved LV function 1 month after MC transplantation and eventually survival. LY294002 abrogated all of the beneficial effects of MC transplantation with IGF-1. IGF-1 alone had no effect on neovascularization and did not improve LV function and/or survival. These results suggest that IGF-1 improves engraftment of MCs at the time of transplantation via activation of PI3K and this improved engraftment of MCs may be attributed to an increased neovascularization and inhibition of cardiomyocyte death, leading to improvement of LV function and prolongation of survival despite the eventual loss of the transplanted MCs.

  11. Prevention of airway hyperresponsiveness induced by left ventricular dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petak Ferenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of strategies for treatment of the altered static lung volume and against the development of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR following a left ventricular dysfunction (LVD induced by myocardial ischaemia was investigated in a rat model of sustained postcapillary pulmonary hypertension. Methods Airway resistance (Raw was identified from the respiratory system input impedance (Zrs in four groups of rats. End-expiratory lung volume (EELV was determined plethysmographically, and Zrs was measured under baseline conditions and following iv infusions of 2, 6 or 18 μg/kg/min methacholine. Sham surgery was performed in the rats in Group C, while the left interventricular coronary artery was ligated and Zrs and its changes following identical methacholine challenges were reassessed in the same rats 8 weeks later, during which no treatment was applied (Group I, or the animals were treated daily with a combination of an angiotensin enzyme converter inhibitor and a diuretic (enalapril and furosemide, Group IE, or a calcium channel blocker (diltiazem, Group ID. The equivalent dose of methacholine causing a 100% increase in Raw (ED50 was determined in each group. Diastolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PapD was assessed by introducing a catheter into the pulmonary artery. Results The sustained presence of a LVD increased PapD in all groups of rats, with variable but significant elevations in Groups I (p = 0.004, ID (p = 0.013 and IE (p = 0.006. A LVD for 8 weeks induced no changes in baseline Raw but elevated the EELV independently of the treatments. In Group I, BHR consistently developed following the LVD, with a significant decrease in ED50 from 10.0 ± 2.5 to 6.9 ± 2.5 μg/kg/min (p = 0.006. The BHR was completely abolished in both Groups ID and IE, with no changes in ED50 (9.5 ± 3.6 vs. 10.7 ± 4.7, p = 0.33 and 10.6 ± 2.1 vs. 9.8 ± 3.5 μg/kg/min p = 0.56, respectively

  12. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Nagai-Okatani

    Full Text Available Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases.

  13. Pulmonary arterial hypertension reduces energy efficiency of right, but not left, rat ventricular trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Toan; Nisbet, Linley; Taberner, Andrew; Loiselle, Denis; Han, June-Chiew

    2018-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) triggers right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy and left ventricle (LV) atrophy, which progressively leads to heart failure. We designed experiments under conditions mimicking those encountered by the heart in vivo that allowed us to investigate whether consequent structural and functional remodelling of the ventricles affects their respective energy efficiencies. We found that peak work output was lower in RV trabeculae from PAH rats due to reduced extent and velocity of shortening. However, their suprabasal enthalpy was unaffected due to increased activation heat, resulting in reduced suprabasal efficiency. There was no effect of PAH on LV suprabasal efficiency. We conclude that the mechanism underlying the reduced energy efficiency of hypertrophied RV tissues is attributable to the increased energy cost of Ca 2+ cycling, whereas atrophied LV tissues still maintain normal mechano-energetic performance. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) greatly increases the afterload on the right ventricle (RV), triggering RV hypertrophy, which progressively leads to RV failure. In contrast, the disease reduces the passive filling pressure of the left ventricle (LV), resulting in LV atrophy. We investigated whether these distinct structural and functional consequences to the ventricles affect their respective energy efficiencies. We studied trabeculae isolated from both ventricles of Wistar rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH and their respective Control groups. Trabeculae were mounted in a calorimeter at 37°C. While contracting at 5 Hz, they were subjected to stress-length work-loops over a wide range of afterloads. They were subsequently required to undergo a series of isometric contractions at various muscle lengths. In both protocols, stress production, length change and suprabasal heat output were simultaneously measured. We found that RV trabeculae from PAH rats generated higher activation heat, but developed normal active stress. Their

  14. Left and right ventricle late remodeling following myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanon, Ivanita; Valero-Muñoz, María; Fernandes, Aurélia Araújo; Ribeiro, Rogério Faustino; Rodríguez, Cristina; Miana, Maria; Martínez-González, José; Spalenza, Jessica S; Lahera, Vicente; Vassallo, Paula F; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in cardiac remodeling in left (LV) and right ventricles (RV) after myocardial infarction (MI) are still unclear. We assayed factors involved in collagen turnover in both ventricles following MI in rats either presenting signs of heart failure (pulmonary congestion and increased LVEDP) or not (INF-HF or INF, respectively). MI was induced in male rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Four weeks after MI gene expression of collagen I, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and lysyl oxidase (LOX), metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2) as well as cardiac hemodynamic in both ventricles were evaluated. Ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy and an increase in interstitial fibrosis and myocyte size were observed in the RV and LV from INF-HF animals, whereas only LV dilatation and fibrosis in RV was present in INF. The LV fibrosis in INF-HF was associated with higher mRNA of collagen I, CTGF, TGF-β and LOX expressions than in INF and SHAM animals, while MMP2/TIMP2 mRNA ratio did not change. RV fibrosis in INF and INF-HF groups was associated with an increase in LOX mRNA and a reduction in MMP2/TIMP2 ratio. CTGF mRNA was increased only in the INF-HF group. INF and INF-HF animals presented different patterns of remodeling in both ventricles. In the INF-HF group, fibrosis seems to be consequence of collagen production in LV, and by reductions in collagen degradation in RV of both INF and INF-HF animals.

  15. Left and right ventricle late remodeling following myocardial infarction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanita Stefanon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in cardiac remodeling in left (LV and right ventricles (RV after myocardial infarction (MI are still unclear. We assayed factors involved in collagen turnover in both ventricles following MI in rats either presenting signs of heart failure (pulmonary congestion and increased LVEDP or not (INF-HF or INF, respectively. METHODS: MI was induced in male rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Four weeks after MI gene expression of collagen I, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β and lysyl oxidase (LOX, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2 as well as cardiac hemodynamic in both ventricles were evaluated. RESULTS: Ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy and an increase in interstitial fibrosis and myocyte size were observed in the RV and LV from INF-HF animals, whereas only LV dilatation and fibrosis in RV was present in INF. The LV fibrosis in INF-HF was associated with higher mRNA of collagen I, CTGF, TGF-β and LOX expressions than in INF and SHAM animals, while MMP2/TIMP2 mRNA ratio did not change. RV fibrosis in INF and INF-HF groups was associated with an increase in LOX mRNA and a reduction in MMP2/TIMP2 ratio. CTGF mRNA was increased only in the INF-HF group. CONCLUSIONS: INF and INF-HF animals presented different patterns of remodeling in both ventricles. In the INF-HF group, fibrosis seems to be consequence of collagen production in LV, and by reductions in collagen degradation in RV of both INF and INF-HF animals.

  16. The Change of Left Ventricular Function in Rats with Subclinical Hypothyroid and the Effects of Thyroxine Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuedi; Gao, Cuixia; Gong, Ningning; Wang, Yu; Tian, Limin

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between serca2a, Ryr2, adipokines, and the left ventricular function in the subclinical hypothyroidism with different TSH levels and to determine the impact of L-T4 treatment on these indexes. Sixty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group; sHT A, B, and C group; and sHT + T4 group. The sHT rats were induced by methimazole (MMI), and the sHT + T4 rats were administered with L-T4 treatment after 8 weeks of MMI administration. Serum TT4, TSH, APN, chemerin, and TNF- α were detected by radioimmunoassay kits and ELISA kits; left ventricular function was measured by PowerLab system via subclavian artery catheter. The expression of Serca2a, Ryr2, APN, chemerin, and TNF- α were detected by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The sHT groups had significantly higher TSH, chemerin, and TNF- α and lower Serca2a, Ryr2, and APN. The left ventricular pressure and heart rate in sHT groups were significantly lower in control and sHT + T4 group. Histopathological examination revealed the pathological changes in the sHT rats' heart. L-T4 administration reduced TSH level and improved left ventricular function. TSH can impair left ventricular function by regulating several factors, and L-T4 treatment ameliorates it in sHT rats.

  17. Alpha1A-adrenergic receptor-directed autoimmunity induces left ventricular damage and diastolic dysfunction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Wenzel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agonistic autoantibodies to the alpha(1-adrenergic receptor occur in nearly half of patients with refractory hypertension; however, their relevance is uncertain. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We immunized Lewis rats with the second extracellular-loop peptides of the human alpha(1A-adrenergic receptor and maintained them for one year. Alpha(1A-adrenergic antibodies (alpha(1A-AR-AB were monitored with a neonatal cardiomyocyte contraction assay by ELISA, and by ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human alpha(1A-adrenergic receptor transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rats were followed with radiotelemetric blood pressure measurements and echocardiography. At 12 months, the left ventricles of immunized rats had greater wall thickness than control rats. The fractional shortening and dp/dt(max demonstrated preserved systolic function. A decreased E/A ratio in immunized rats indicated a diastolic dysfunction. Invasive hemodynamics revealed increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressures and decreased dp/dt(min. Mean diameter of cardiomyocytes showed hypertrophy in immunized rats. Long-term blood pressure values and heart rates were not different. Genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, collagens, extracellular matrix proteins, calcium regulating proteins, and proteins of energy metabolism in immunized rat hearts were upregulated, compared to controls. Furthermore, fibrosis was present in immunized hearts, but not in control hearts. A subset of immunized and control rats was infused with angiotensin (Ang II. The stressor raised blood pressure to a greater degree and led to more cardiac fibrosis in immunized, than in control rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that alpha(1A-AR-AB cause diastolic dysfunction independent of hypertension, and can increase the sensitivity to Ang II. We suggest that alpha(1A-AR-AB could contribute to cardiovascular endorgan damage.

  18. Paeoniflorin improves cardiac function and decreases adverse postinfarction left ventricular remodeling in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hengwen Chen,* Yan Dong,* Xuanhui He, Jun Li, Jie Wang Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Paeoniflorin (PF is the active component of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. or Paeonia veitchii Lynch. This study was, therefore, aimed to evaluate the improvement and mechanism of the PF on ventricular remodeling in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Materials and methods: In this study, AMI model was established by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery in Wistar rats. After 4 weeks gavage of PF, the apparent signs and the left ventricle weight index of Wistar rats were observed. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Changes in cardiac morphology were observed by pathologic examination, and apoptosis was observed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 interleukin-10 (IL-10 and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot method were applied to detect Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. Results: Compared with the model control, the survival conditions of rats in all treatment groups were generally improved after PF treatment. LVEF was significantly increased, and both left ventricular end-diastolic inner diameter and left ventricular end-systolic inner diameter were significantly reduced. Moreover, pathologic examination showed that the myocardium degeneration of the rats treated with PF was decreased, including neater arrangement, more complete myofilament, more uniform gap and less interstitial collagen fibers. Furthermore, the mitochondrial structure of cardiomyocytes was significantly improved. The ultrastructure was clear, and the arrangement of myofilament was more regular. Also, the expression of

  19. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  20. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Chen

    Full Text Available In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE. During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE, whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.

  1. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE). During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE), whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27977796

  2. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  3. Glutamatergic stimulation of the left dentate gyrus abolishes depressive-like behaviors in a rat learned helplessness paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeho; Cho, Hojin; Kim, Gun Tae; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Goo

    2017-10-01

    Episodic experiences of stress have been identified as the leading cause of major depressive disorder (MDD). The occurrence of MDD is profoundly influenced by the individual's coping strategy, rather than the severity of the stress itself. Resting brain activity has been shown to alter in several mental disorders. However, the functional relationship between resting brain activity and coping strategies has not yet been studied. In the present study, we observed different patterns of resting brain activity in rats that had determined either positive (resilient to stress) or negative (vulnerable to stress) coping strategies, and examined whether modulation of the preset resting brain activity could influence the behavioral phenotype associated with negative coping strategy (i.e., depressive-like behaviors). We used a learned helplessness paradigm-a well-established model of MDD-to detect coping strategies. Differences in resting state brain activity between animals with positive and negative coping strategies were assessed using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Glutamatergic stimulation was used to modulate resting brain activity. After exposure to repeated uncontrollable stress, seven of 23 rats exhibited positive coping strategies, while eight of 23 rats exhibited negative coping strategies. Increased resting brain activity was observed only in the left ventral dentate gyrus of the positive coping rats using FDG-PET. Furthermore, glutamatergic stimulation of the left dentate gyrus abolished depressive-like behaviors in rats with negative coping strategies. Increased resting brain activity in the left ventral dentate gyrus helps animals to select positive coping strategies in response to future stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. (−-Epicatechin Reduces Blood Pressure and Improves Left Ventricular Function and Compliance in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Jackson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available (−-Epicatechin (E is a flavanol found in green tea and cocoa and has been shown to attenuate tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α-mediated inflammation, improve nitric oxide levels, promote endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activation and inhibit NADPH oxidase. This study investigated the effect of 28 days of low epicatechin dosing (1 mg/kg/day on the cardiovascular function of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Wistar rats (n = 120, 8 weeks of age underwent uninephrectomy and were randomised into four groups (uninephrectomy (UNX, UNX + E, DOCA, DOCA + E. DOCA and DOCA + E rats received 1% NaCl drinking water along with subcutaneous injections of 25 mg deoxycorticosterone-acetate (in 0.4 mL of dimethylformamide every fourth day. UNX + E and DOCA + E rats received 1 mg/kg/day of epicatechin by oral gavage. Single-cell micro-electrode electrophysiology, Langendorff isolated-heart assessment and isolated aorta and mesenteric organ baths were used to assess cardiovascular parameters. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was used as a marker of oxidative stress. Myocardial stiffness was increased and left ventricular compliance significantly diminished in the DOCA control group, and these changes were attenuated by epicatechin treatment (p < 0.05. Additionally, the DOCA + E rats showed significantly reduced blood pressure and malondialdehyde concentrations; however, there was no improvement in left ventricular hypertrophy, electrophysiology or vascular function. This study demonstrates the ability of epicatechin to reduce blood pressure, prevent myocardial stiffening and preserve cardiac compliance in hypertrophied DOCA-salt rat hearts.

  5. Performance of two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography for the assessment of infarct size and left ventricular function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozawa E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although echocardiography has been used in rats, few studies have determined its efficacy for estimating myocardial infarct size. Our objective was to estimate the myocardial infarct size, and to evaluate anatomic and functional variables of the left ventricle. Myocardial infarction was produced in 43 female Wistar rats by ligature of the left coronary artery. Echocardiography was performed 5 weeks later to measure left ventricular diameter and transverse area (mean of 3 transverse planes, infarct size (percentage of the arc with infarct on 3 transverse planes, systolic function by the change in fractional area, and diastolic function by mitral inflow parameters. The histologic measurement of myocardial infarction size was similar to the echocardiographic method. Myocardial infarct size ranged from 4.8 to 66.6% when determined by histology and from 5 to 69.8% when determined by echocardiography, with good correlation (r = 0.88; P < 0.05; Pearson correlation coefficient. Left ventricular diameter and mean diastolic transverse area correlated with myocardial infarct size by histology (r = 0.57 and r = 0.78; P < 0.0005. The fractional area change ranged from 28.5 ± 5.6 (large-size myocardial infarction to 53.1 ± 1.5% (control and correlated with myocardial infarct size by echocardiography (r = -0.87; P < 0.00001 and histology (r = -0.78; P < 00001. The E/A wave ratio of mitral inflow velocity for animals with large-size myocardial infarction (5.6 ± 2.7 was significantly higher than for all others (control: 1.9 ± 0.1; small-size myocardial infarction: 1.9 ± 0.4; moderate-size myocardial infarction: 2.8 ± 2.3. There was good agreement between echocardiographic and histologic estimates of myocardial infarct size in rats.

  6. Quantification of the rat left ventricle force and Ca2+ -frequency relationships: similarities to dog and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David G; Parilak, Leonard D; LeWinter, Martin M; Knot, Harm J

    2004-01-01

    To measure and quantify the force-frequency (FFR) and Ca(2+)-frequency (CaFR) relationships in isolated rat left ventricular (LV) muscle at physiological heart rates and compare the obtained FFR to that measured in larger mammalian muscle from dog and human using the same experimental protocol. Rat papillary muscle was isolated from the LV of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, and dog and human muscles were from free-wall LV biopsies, loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator Fura-2, allowed to recover from isolation trauma and then subjected to direct electrical stimulation while measuring force production and intracellular Ca(2+) transients. We obtained a positive FFR between 1 and 4 Hz that is qualitatively similar to that found in isolated LV epicardial muscle strips from dogs and humans with normal LV function. The FFR reflects the cytosolic Ca(2+) transients in amplitude. Isoproterenol yielded an enhancement in force, but flattening of the FFR, whereas cyclopiazonic acid caused depression of FFR amplitude without changing frequency-dependent shape. We describe an experimental protocol that consistently yields positive FFRs in rat, dog and human LV muscle at stimulation rates between 1 and 4 Hz, without significant qualitative differences. We attribute previously observed negative FFR in rat muscle to an increase in SERCA activity early after excision and preparation of the muscle strips.

  7. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in mechanically ventilated rats following LPS-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpanath, Thomas G V; Smeding, Lonneke; Hirsch, Alexander; Lagrand, Wim K; Schultz, Marcus J; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2015-10-07

    High tidal volume ventilation has shown to cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), possibly contributing to concomitant extrapulmonary organ dysfunction. The present study examined whether left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on tidal volume size and whether this effect is augmented during lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced lung injury. Twenty male Wistar rats were sedated, paralyzed and then randomized in four groups receiving mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg or 19 ml/kg with or without intrapulmonary administration of LPS. A conductance catheter was placed in the left ventricle to generate pressure-volume loops, which were also obtained within a few seconds of vena cava occlusion to obtain relatively load-independent LV systolic and diastolic function parameters. The end-systolic elastance / effective arterial elastance (Ees/Ea) ratio was used as the primary parameter of LV systolic function with the end-diastolic elastance (Eed) as primary LV diastolic function. Ees/Ea decreased over time in rats receiving LPS (p = 0.045) and high tidal volume ventilation (p = 0.007), with a lower Ees/Ea in the rats with high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS compared to the other groups (p tidal volume ventilation without LPS (p = 0.223). A significant interaction (p tidal ventilation and LPS for Ees/Ea and Eed, and all rats receiving high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS died before the end of the experiment. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorated LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction while preventing death following LPS-induced lung injury in mechanically ventilated rats. Our data advocates the use of low tidal volumes, not only to avoid VILI, but to avert ventilator-induced myocardial dysfunction as well.

  8. Photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopic study of undisturbed nacre from red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-07-01

    In this work, photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy has been utilized to study interfacial interactions of undisturbed nacre and nacre powder from red abalone shell. The spectra of both undisturbed nacre and nacre powder showed characteristic bands of aragonite and proteins. Although nacre powder and undisturbed nacre are chemically identical, PA-FTIR spectrum of undisturbed nacre is found to be significantly different from that of nacre powder. A broad and strong band is observed at around 1485 cm -1 in nacre powder. The intensity of this band is notably reduced in undisturbed nacre. This result is explained on the basis of interfacial interactions between aragonite platelets and acidic proteins. It is also observed that band at around 1788 cm -1 originates from three overlapping bands 1797, 1787 and 1778 cm -1. The band at around 1787 cm -1 is assigned to C dbnd O stretching of carboxylate groups of acidic proteins. The other two bands at 1797 and 1778 cm -1, originate from aragonite and have been assigned to combination bands, ν 3 + ν 4a and ν 3 + ν 4b, respectively. For the study of stratification in undisturbed nacre, PA-FTIR spectra have been collected in step scan mode. The variation in spectra with depth can be attributed to changes in conformation of proteins as well as interfacial interactions.

  9. Plzf as a Candidate Gene Predisposing the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat to Hypertension, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, and Interstitial Fibrosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liška, F.; Mancini, M.; Krupková, M.; Chylíková, B.; Křenová, D.; Šeda, O.; Šilhavý, Jan; Mlejnek, Petr; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; d´Amati, G.; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2014), s. 99-106 ISSN 0895-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0756; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/0696; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) PRVOUK-P25/LF1/2 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hypertension * left ventricular hypertrophy * myocardial interstitial fibrosis * spontaneously hypertensive rat * Plzf (promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger) gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2014

  10. Comparison of neurodegeneration between right and left hippocampus area in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezo Nahavandi

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed different manifestations of depression after UCMS. It showed that UCMS could lead to mental depression. This study showed that the right hippocampus was more sensitive to stress than the left hippocampus. In fact, UCMS resulted in depression. The study showed that the right hippocampus was more sensitive to stress than the left hippocampus. Therefore, the main function of the right hemisphere, which is adaptation to the new environment, is disturbed more.

  11. Effect of exercise training on Ca2+ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A.; Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R.; Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M.; Felix, L.B.; Cruz, J.S.; Mill, J.G.; Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca 2+ ) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca 2+ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca 2+ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca 2+ sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F 0 ), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca 2+ sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F 0 , full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of left ventricular myocytes

  12. Effect of exercise training on Ca{sup 2+} release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular do Exercício, Escola de Educação Física e Esportes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felix, L.B. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Cruz, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Laboratório de Membranas Excitáveis e Biologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mill, J.G. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca{sup 2+} sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of

  13. Effect of exercise training on Ca²⁺ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M A; Quintão-Júnior, J F; Drummond, L R; Lavorato, V N; Drummond, F R; Amadeu, M A; Oliveira, E M; Felix, L B; Cruz, J S; Mill, J G; Natali, A J; Prímola-Gomes, T N

    2014-11-01

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca²⁺) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca²⁺ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca²⁺ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca²⁺ sparks (HC=7.61 ± 0.26 vs NC=4.79 ± 0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260 ± 0.08 vs NC=0.324 ± 0.10 ΔF/F0), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05 ± 0.08 vs NC=1.26 ± 0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51 ± 0.12 vs NC=14.97 ± 0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84 ± 0.06 vs NC=6.31 ± 0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68 ± 0.12 vs NC=10.21 ± 0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca²⁺ sparks=6.26 ± 0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282 ± 0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14 ± 0.01 µm, total duration=13.34 ± 0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43 ± 0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43 ± 0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release

  14. Effect of exercise training on Ca2+ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Carneiro-Júnior

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca2+ release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca2+ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca2+ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC and hypertensive control (HC, and normotensive (NT and hypertensive trained (HT animals (7 rats per group. NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2 and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6 increased (270% and decreased (88%, respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230% and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%. Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca2+ sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm, total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms, time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms, and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms. These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca2+ sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms. Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of left ventricular myocytes.

  15. Effect of exercise training on Ca2+ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M A; Quintão-Júnior, J F; Drummond, L R; Lavorato, V N; Drummond, F R; Amadeu, M A; Oliveira, E M; Felix, L B; Cruz, J S; Mill, J G; Natali, A J; Prímola-Gomes, T N

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca2+) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca2+ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca2+ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca2+ sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F0), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca2+ sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of left ventricular myocytes.

  16. Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on left ventricular function in adult rats: an in vivo Pinhole Gated SPECT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weytjens Caroline

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM may cause left ventricular (LV dysfunction directly resulting in increased susceptibility to heart failure. Using pinhole collimators and advances in data processing, gated SPECT was recently adapted to image the rat heart. The present study was aimed to assess this new imaging technique for quantifying LV function and remodeling from the Streptozotocin (STZ rat model compared to controls. Methods Twenty one rats were randomly assigned to control or diabetic group. Six months after the induction of diabetes by STZ, Pinhole 99 m Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT was performed for determining rat LV volumes and function. Post-mortem histopathologic analysis was performed to evaluate the determinant of LV remodeling in this model. Results After six months, the normalized to body weight LV End-systolic volume was significantly different in diabetic rats compared to controls (0.46 ± 0.02 vs 0.33 ± 0.03 μL/g; p = 0.01. The normalized LV End-diastolic volume was also different in both groups (1.51 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.05 μL/g; p = 0.001 and the normalized stroke volume was significantly higher in STZ-rats (1.05 ± 0.02 vs 0.54 ± 0.06 μL/g; p = 0.001. The muscular fibers were thinner at histology in the diabetic rats (0.44 ± 0.07 vs 0.32 ± 0.06 AU; p = 0.01. Conclusion Pinhole 99 m Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT can successfully be applied for the evaluation of cardiac function and remodeling in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this model, LV volumes were significantly changed compared to a control population, leading to a LV dysfunction. These findings were consistent with the histopathological abnormalities. Finally, these data further suggest the presence of diabetes cardiomyopathy.

  17. Right vs. left sensorimotor cortex suction-ablation in the rat: no difference in beam-walking recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L B

    1995-03-13

    The ability of rats to traverse a narrow elevated beam has been used to quantitate recovery of hindlimb motor function after unilateral injury to the sensorimotor cortex. We tested the hypothesis that the rate of spontaneous beam-walking recovery varies with the side of the cortex lesion. Groups of rats that were trained at the beam-walking task underwent suction-ablation of either the right or left hindlimb sensorimotor cortex. There was no difference in hindlimb motor function between the groups on the first post-operative beam-waking trial carried out the day after cortex ablation and no difference between the groups in overall recovery rates over the next two weeks. Subsequent analyses of lesion surface parameters showed no differences in lesion size or extent. Regardless of the side of the lesion, there were also no differences between the right and left hemispheres in norepinephrine content of the lesioned or contralateral cortex. We conclude that the side of sensorimotor cortex ablation injury does not differentially affect the rate of spontaneous motor recovery as measured with the beam-walking task.

  18. Memantine prevents cardiomyocytes nuclear size reduction in the left ventricle of rats exposed to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Meneghini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have suggested that receptor blockers act as neuroprotective agents; however, no study has specifically investigated the impact that these drugs have on the heart. We sought to evaluate the effects of memantine on nuclear size reduction in cardiac cells exposed to cold stress. METHOD: We used male EPM-Wistar rats (n=40 divided into 4 groups: 1 Matched control (CON; 2 Memantine-treated rats (MEM; 3 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia (IH and 4 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia that were also treated with memantine (IHM. Animals in the MEM and IHM groups were treated by oral gavage administration of 20 mg/kg/day memantine over an eight-day period. Animals in the IH and IHM groups were submitted to 4 hours of hypothermia in a controlled environment with a temperature of - 8ºC on the last day of the study. RESULTS: The MEM group had the largest cardiomyocyte nuclear size (151 ± 3.5 μm³ vs. CON: 142 ± 2.3 μm³; p<0.05, while the IH group had the smallest mean value of nuclear size. The nuclear size of the IHM group was preserved (125 ± 2.9 μm³ compared to the IH group (108 ± 1.7 μm³; p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Memantine prevented the nuclear size reduction of cardiomyocytes in rats exposed to cold stress.

  19. Sex differences in connexin-43 expression in left ventricles of aging rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Dupont, E.; Soukup, Tomáš; Okruhlicová, L.; Severs, N. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2005), s. 705-708 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant - others:MYORES(XE) 511978; CZ-SK(CZ) 02-2004-05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : connexin-43 * rat cardiomyocytes * male and female specificity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Left Ventricular Mass in Rats with Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Haydardedeoglu, Ali Evren; Boztok Özgermen, Deva Basak; Yavuz, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY: Doxorubicin is a drug that used by a majority in the treatment of carcinomas. The most obvious known side effect is cardiomyopathy. Many studies have been carried out to eliminate side effects of the doxorubicin, and stem cell studies have been added in recent years. In this study, it was aimed to investigate fetal-derived mesenchymal stem cells (F-MSCs) treatment of doxorubicininduced cardiomyopathy by morphological methods. A total of 24 rats which were divided into three separate ...

  1. Analysis of the stability of housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silva Julian

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been associated with oxidative stress and various cardiovascular consequences, such as increased cardiovascular disease risk. Quantitative real-time PCR is frequently employed to assess changes in gene expression in experimental models. In this study, we analyzed the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (an experimental model of OSA on housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats. Analyses via four different approaches-use of the geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder algorithms; and 2−ΔCt (threshold cycle data analysis-produced similar results: all genes were found to be suitable for use, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 18S being classified as the most and the least stable, respectively. The use of more than one housekeeping gene is strongly advised.

  2. Blood flow of the right and left submandibular gland during unilateral carotid artery occlusion in rat: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vág, J; Hably, C; Fazekas, A; Bartha, J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of unilateral carotid artery occlusion on the blood flow of submandibular gland in anesthetized rats and identify the role of nitric oxide (NO) in blood flow changes after the artery occlusion. L-NAME (N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester; 10 mg/kg/day, per os) dissolved in tap water was used to block nitric oxide synthase. Glandular blood flow was measured using Sapirstein's indicator (86Rb) distribution technique. In the control animals the blood flow of left (ligated side) submandibular gland was lower than in the right (unligated side) one (right: 76.4+/-15.4 ml/min/100 g, 64.1+/-13.4 ml/min/100 g, ptinder this condition.

  3. Comparison between Radionuclide Ventriculography and Echocardiography for Quantification of Left Ventricular Systolic Function in Rats Exposed to Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fonseca Lemos de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Radionuclide ventriculography (RV is a validated method to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function (LVSF in small rodents. However, no prior study has compared the results of RV with those obtained by other imaging methods in this context. Objectives: To compare the results of LVSF obtained by RV and echocardiography (ECHO in an experimental model of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (DXR in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats serving as controls (n = 7 or receiving DXR (n = 22 in accumulated doses of 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg were evaluated with ECHO performed with a Sonos 5500 Philips equipment (12-MHz transducer and RV obtained with an Orbiter-Siemens gamma camera using a pinhole collimator with a 4-mm aperture. Histopathological quantification of myocardial fibrosis was performed after euthanasia. Results: The control animals showed comparable results in the LVSF analysis obtained with ECHO and RV (83.5 ± 5% and 82.8 ± 2.8%, respectively, p > 0.05. The animals that received DXR presented lower LVSF values when compared with controls (p < 0.05; however, the LVSF values obtained by RV (60.6 ± 12.5% were lower than those obtained by ECHO (71.8 ± 10.1%, p = 0.0004 in this group. An analysis of the correlation between the LVSF and myocardial fibrosis showed a moderate correlation when the LVSF was assessed by ECHO (r = -0.69, p = 0.0002 and a stronger correlation when it was assessed by RV (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001. On multiple regression analysis, only RV correlated independently with myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: RV is an alternative method to assess the left ventricular function in small rodents in vivo. When compared with ECHO, RV showed a better correlation with the degree of myocardial injury in a model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity.

  4. Comparison between radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography for quantification of left ventricular systolic function in rats exposed to doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de; Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Romano, Minna Moreira Dias; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Simões, Marcus Vinicius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radionuclide ventriculography (RV) is a validated method to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) in small rodents. However, no prior study has compared the results of RV with those obtained by other imaging methods in this context. Objectives: To compare the results of LVSF obtained by RV and echocardiography (ECHO) in an experimental model of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (DXR) in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats serving as controls (n = 7) or receiving DXR (n = 22) in accumulated doses of 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg were evaluated with ECHO performed with a Sonos 5500 Philips equipment (12-MHz transducer) and RV obtained with an Orbiter-Siemens gamma camera using a pinhole collimator with a 4-mm aperture. Histopathological quantification of myocardial fibrosis was performed after euthanasia. Results: The control animals showed comparable results in the LVSF analysis obtained with ECHO and RV (83.5 ± 5% and 82.8 ± 2.8%, respectively, p > 0.05). The animals that received DXR presented lower LVSF values when compared with controls (p < 0.05); however, the LVSF values obtained by RV (60.6 ± 12.5%) were lower than those obtained by ECHO (71.8 ± 10.1%, p = 0.0004) in this group. An analysis of the correlation between the LVSF and myocardial fibrosis showed a moderate correlation when the LVSF was assessed by ECHO (r = -0.69, p = 0.0002) and a stronger correlation when it was assessed by RV (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001). On multiple regression analysis, only RV correlated independently with myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: RV is an alternative method to assess the left ventricular function in small rodents in vivo. When compared with ECHO, RV showed a better correlation with the degree of myocardial injury in a model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. (author)

  5. Comparison between radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography for quantification of left ventricular systolic function in rats exposed to doxorubicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de; Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Romano, Minna Moreira Dias; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Simões, Marcus Vinicius, E-mail: msimoes@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Cardiologia; O' Connell, João Lucas; Pulici, Érica Carolina Campos [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), MG (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Background: Radionuclide ventriculography (RV) is a validated method to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) in small rodents. However, no prior study has compared the results of RV with those obtained by other imaging methods in this context. Objectives: To compare the results of LVSF obtained by RV and echocardiography (ECHO) in an experimental model of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (DXR) in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats serving as controls (n = 7) or receiving DXR (n = 22) in accumulated doses of 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg were evaluated with ECHO performed with a Sonos 5500 Philips equipment (12-MHz transducer) and RV obtained with an Orbiter-Siemens gamma camera using a pinhole collimator with a 4-mm aperture. Histopathological quantification of myocardial fibrosis was performed after euthanasia. Results: The control animals showed comparable results in the LVSF analysis obtained with ECHO and RV (83.5 ± 5% and 82.8 ± 2.8%, respectively, p > 0.05). The animals that received DXR presented lower LVSF values when compared with controls (p < 0.05); however, the LVSF values obtained by RV (60.6 ± 12.5%) were lower than those obtained by ECHO (71.8 ± 10.1%, p = 0.0004) in this group. An analysis of the correlation between the LVSF and myocardial fibrosis showed a moderate correlation when the LVSF was assessed by ECHO (r = -0.69, p = 0.0002) and a stronger correlation when it was assessed by RV (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001). On multiple regression analysis, only RV correlated independently with myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: RV is an alternative method to assess the left ventricular function in small rodents in vivo. When compared with ECHO, RV showed a better correlation with the degree of myocardial injury in a model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. (author)

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia: A research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luis Gustavo Campos; Dalio, Marcelo Bellini; Joviliano, Edwaldo Edner; Feres, Omar; Piccinato, Carlos Eli

    2015-01-01

    Determine the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia. An experimental study was designed using 48 Wistar rats divided into four groups (n = 12): Control; Ischemia (I)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes; Hyperbaric oxygen treatment during ischemia (HBO2)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes and hyperbaric oxygen during the first 90 minutes; Pre-treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (PHBO2)--90 minutes of hyperbaric oxygen treatment before total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes. Skeletal muscle injury was evaluated by measuring levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK); muscular malondialdehyde (MDA), muscular glycogen, and serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA). AST was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2 compared with control (P = .001). There was no difference in LDH. CPK was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p = .014). MDA was significantly higher in PHBO2, compared with other groups (p = .042). Glycogen was significantly decreased in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p < .001). Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in acute total hindlimb ischemia exerted no protective effect on muscle injury, regardless of time of application. When applied prior to installation of total ischemia, hyperbaric oxygen treatment aggravated muscle injury.

  7. Sympathetic nervous dysregulation in the absence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suuronen Erik J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with cardiovascular dysfunction, derived in part from impairment of sympathetic nervous system signaling. Glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids are potent stimulants of sympathetic activity and norepinephrine (NE release. We hypothesized that sustained hyperglycemia in the high fat diet-fed streptozotocin (STZ rat model of sustained hyperglycemia with insulin resistance would exhibit progressive sympathetic nervous dysfunction in parallel with deteriorating myocardial systolic and/or diastolic function. Methods Cardiac sympathetic nervous integrity was investigated in vivo via biodistribution of the positron emission tomography radiotracer and NE analogue [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine ([11C]HED. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was evaluated by echocardiography. Plasma and cardiac NE levels and NE reuptake transporter (NET expression were evaluated as correlative measurements. Results The animal model displays insulin resistance, sustained hyperglycemia, and progressive hypoinsulinemia. After 8 weeks of persistent hyperglycemia, there was a significant 13-25% reduction in [11C]HED retention in myocardium of STZ-treated hyperglycemic but not euglycemic rats as compared to controls. There was a parallel 17% reduction in immunoblot density for NE reuptake transporter, a 1.2 fold and 2.5 fold elevation of cardiac and plasma NE respectively, and no change in sympathetic nerve density. No change in ejection fraction or fractional area change was detected by echocardiography. Reduced heart rate, prolonged mitral valve deceleration time, and elevated transmitral early to atrial flow velocity ratio measured by pulse-wave Doppler in hyperglycemic rats suggest diastolic impairment of the left ventricle. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that sustained hyperglycemia is associated with elevated myocardial NE content and dysregulation of sympathetic nervous system

  8. Necromass in undisturbed and logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Carlos. Passos

    2007-01-01

    Necromass is an important stock of carbon in tropical forests. We estimated volume, density, and mass of fallen and standing necromass in undisturbed and selectively logged forests at Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10.488S, 58.478W). We also measured standing dead trees at the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil (3.088S, 54.948W) complementing our earlier study there...

  9. Necromass production: studies in undisturbed and logged Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICHAEL PALACE; MICHAEL KELLER; HUDSON SILVA

    2008-01-01

    Necromass stocks account for up to 20% of carbon stored in tropical forests and have been estimated to be 14–19% of the annual aboveground carbon flux. Both stocks and fluxes of necromass are infrequently measured. In this study, we directly measured the production of fallen coarse necromass (>2 cm diameter) during 4.5 years using repeated surveys in undisturbed...

  10. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  11. Differential control of collagen synthesis by the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems in the rat left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dab, Houcine; Hachani, Rafik; Hodroj, Wassim; Sakly, Mohsen; Bricca, Giampiero; Kacem, Kamel

    2009-12-03

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis of the indirect (via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)) and direct (via AT1 receptors) contributions of Angiotensin II (Ang II) on the synthesis of collagen types I and III in the left ventricle (LV) in vivo. Sympathectomy and blockade of the Ang II receptor AT1 were performed alone or in combination in normotensive rats. The mRNA and protein synthesis of collagen types I and III were examined by Q-RT-PCR and immunoblotting in the LV. Collagen types I and III mRNA were decreased respectively by 53% and 22% after sympathectomy and only collagen type I mRNA was increased by 52% after AT1 receptor blockade. mRNA was not changed for collagen type I but was decreased by 25% for collagen type III after double treatment. Only collagen protein type III was decreased after sympathectomy by 12%, but collagen proteins were increased respectively for types I and III by 145% and 52% after AT1 receptor blockade and by 45% and 60% after double treatment. Deducted interpretations from our experimental approach suggest that Ang II stimulates indirectly (via SNS) and inhibits directly (via AT1 receptors) the collagen type I at transcriptional and protein levels. For collagen type III, it stimulates indirectly the transcription and inhibited directly the protein level. Therefore, the Ang II regulates collagen synthesis differently through indirect and direct pathways.

  12. Biaxial Properties of the Left and Right Pulmonary Arteries in a Monocrotaline Rat Animal Model of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, Erica R; Vélez-Rendón, Daniela; Valdez-Jasso, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    In a monocrotaline (MCT) induced-pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rat animal model, the dynamic stress-strain relation was investigated in the circumferential and axial directions using a linear elastic response model within the quasi-linear viscoelasticity theory framework. Right and left pulmonary arterial segments (RPA and LPA) were mechanically tested in a tubular biaxial device at the early stage (1 week post-MCT treatment) and at the advanced stage of the disease (4 weeks post-MCT treatment). The vessels were tested circumferentially at the in vivo axial length with matching in vivo measured pressure ranges. Subsequently, the vessels were tested axially at the mean pulmonary arterial pressure by stretching them from in vivo plus 5% of their length. Parameter estimation showed that the LPA and RPA remodel at different rates: axially, both vessels decreased in Young's modulus at the early stage of the disease, and increased at the advanced disease stage. Circumferentially, the Young's modulus increased in advanced PAH, but it was only significant in the RPA. The damping properties also changed in PAH; in the LPA relaxation times decreased continuously as the disease progressed, while in the RPA they initially increased and then decreased. Our modeling efforts were corroborated by the restructuring organization of the fibers imaged under multiphoton microscopy, where the collagen fibers become strongly aligned to the 45 deg angle in the RPA from an uncrimped and randomly organized state. Additionally, collagen content increased almost 10% in the RPA from the placebo to advanced PAH.

  13. The influence of the perinatal chronic hyperglycaemia on the pattern of NOS isoforms expression in left ventricle myocardium in male rats of pre-pubertal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gancheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to find out the features of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS isoforms expression in longitudinal and transversal layers of the myocardium of the left ventricle in male rats of 3 months, which are descendants of female rats with experimental gestational diabetes (EGD. Materials and methods. Study was carried out on 10 male rats descendants of female rats with normal course of pregnancy and 10 descendants of female rats with EGD. We evaluated the expression of neuronal, endothelial and inducible isoforms of NOS in histological sections both of transversal and longitudinal layers of the myocardium of left ventricle. With the aim to analyze the pattern of the NOS isoforms expression in 5 um histological slices of left ventricle myocardium we have carried out a complex of histochemical assays. Slices were allocated to 3 groups: 1st one was incubated with rabbit IgG to neuronal NOS (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA in dilution of 1:200; 2nd group underwent the incubation with rabbit IgG to endothelial NOS (eNos (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA in dilution 1:200; 3rd group was incubated with mice IgG to inducible NOS (iNos conjugated with FITC (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA in dilution of 1:200. The analysis of images was carried out with VIDAS-2.5 application package (Kontron Elektronik, Germany. Microimages of the left ventricle myocardium obtained with AxioScope (Carl Zeiss, Germany and COHU 4922 (COHU Inc., USA camera were processed in the system of digital image analysis VIDAS-386 (Kontron Elektronik, Germany. Results. In the study we have found that prenatal hyperglycaemia leads to the significant changes of the expression of NOS isoforms in the myocardium of left ventricle in male rats descendants of females with EGD, and the contain and the allocation of these enzymes are dependent both on type of the enzyme and its location in muscular layers. For eNOS the increase of the expression and the allocation in both transversal and

  14. Analytical description of transfer of Pu-239 in undisturbed soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianshan, Ren; Linsalata, P; Cohen, N

    1986-04-01

    The paper reports on an analytical model for describing the horizontal and down-ward transfer of /sup 239/Pu in undisturbed soil based on observed data. The model has been developed to predict how the depth distribution of /sup 239/Pu in soil would change with time. This information is essential for estimation of the quantities of /sup 239/Pu that have entered surface water body via erosion and runoff processes and for estimation of the long-term impact of /sup 239/Pu isice the commencement of nuclear fallout deposition.

  15. Analysis of the stability of housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Guilherme Silva; Oliveira, Renato Watanabe de; Tufik, Sergio; Chagas, Jair Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with oxidative stress and various cardiovascular consequences, such as increased cardiovascular disease risk. Quantitative real-time PCR is frequently employed to assess changes in gene expression in experimental models. In this study, we analyzed the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (an experimental model of OSA) on housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats. Analyses via four different approaches-use of the geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder algorithms; and 2-ΔCt (threshold cycle) data analysis-produced similar results: all genes were found to be suitable for use, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 18S being classified as the most and the least stable, respectively. The use of more than one housekeeping gene is strongly advised. RESUMO A apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) tem sido associada ao estresse oxidativo e a várias consequências cardiovasculares, tais como risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular. A PCR quantitativa em tempo real é frequentemente empregada para avaliar alterações na expressão gênica em modelos experimentais. Neste estudo, analisamos os efeitos da hipóxia intermitente crônica (um modelo experimental de AOS) na expressão de genes de referência no ventrículo cardíaco esquerdo de ratos. Análises a partir de quatro abordagens - uso dos algoritmos geNorm, BestKeeper e NormFinder e análise de dados 2-ΔCt (ciclo limiar) - produziram resultados semelhantes: todos os genes mostraram-se adequados para uso, sendo que gliceraldeído-3-fosfato desidrogenase e 18S foram classificados como o mais e o menos estável, respectivamente. A utilização de mais de um gene de referência é altamente recomendada.

  16. Different brain activation under left and right ventricular stimulation: an fMRI study in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia in the anterior wall of the left ventricule (LV) and in the inferior wall and/or right ventricle (RV) shows different manifestations that can be explained by the different innervations of cardiac afferent nerves. However, it remains unclear whether information from different areas of the heart, such as the LV and RV, are differently processed in the brain. In this study, we investigated the brain regions that process information from the LV or RV using cardiac electrical stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in anesthetized rats because the combination of these two approaches cannot be used in humans. An electrical stimulation catheter was inserted into the LV or RV (n = 12 each). Brain fMRI scans were recorded during LV or RV stimulation (9 Hz and 0.3 ms width) over 10 blocks consisting of alternating periods of 2 mA for 30 sec followed by 0.2 mA for 60 sec. The validity of fMRI signals was confirmed by first and second-level analyses and temporal profiles. Increases in fMRI signals were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and the right somatosensory cortex under LV stimulation. In contrast, RV stimulation activated the right somatosensory cortex, which was identified more anteriorly compared with LV stimulation but did not activate the anterior cingulate cortex. This study provides the first evidence for differences in brain activation under LV and RV stimulation. These different brain processes may be associated with different clinical manifestations between anterior wall and inferoposterior wall and/or RV myocardial ischemia.

  17. Use of gated N-13-NH3 micro-PET to examine left ventricular function in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanski, Mariusz K.; Kruizinga, Silvana; Tio, Rene A.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Schaefers, Michael A.; Stegger, Lars; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Hillege, Hans L.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    Introduction: Myocardial perfusion gating techniques offer the possibility of measurement of left ventricular end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in clinical and preclinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate left ventricular

  18. Ligation of the left renal vein in epm1-wistar rats: functional and morphologic alterations in the kidneys, testes and suprarenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Costa Baptista-Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ligation of the left renal vein (LLVR in man is a contraversial procedure in view of the risks of lesion to the renal parenchyma. With the objective of studying the morphologic and functional alterations caused by these lesions, we conducted experimental research with rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 64 male adult EPM1-WISTAR rats were used, divided into 8 groups - 4 for LLRV and four for control. Each LLRV group and corresponding control group were sacrificed progressively on the 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th day after the initial surgery. RESULTS: We found morphofunctional alterations only in animals that underwent LLRV in the four periods of sacrifice.The proteinuria creatinine in serum, testosterone in serum and serum corticosterone in serum showed practically no alteration in relation to the normal values for rats. Statistically significant severe histological lesions were found in the kidneys and testes of the LLRV groups. Lesions in the suprarenal glands were also present in these groups, but no sufficient to demonstrate statistical significance CONCLUSION: Based on these results we can conclude that the ligation of the left renal vein is a procedure of high risk in these animals.

  19. Availability of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume E-mail: guillaume.echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-07-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, {sup 99}Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of {sup 99}Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of {sup 99}Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of {sup 99}Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of {sup 99}Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of {sup 99}Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors.

  20. Availability of 99Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, 99 Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ( 99 TcO 4 - ). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of 99 Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of 99 Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of 99 Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of 99 Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of 99 Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of 99 Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors

  1. A novel hydrodynamic approach of drag-reducing polymers to improve left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xinlu Zhang,1,* Xu Wang,2,* Feng Hu,1 Boda Zhou,3 Hai-Bin Chen,1 Daogang Zha,1 Yili Liu,1 Yansong Guo,4 Lemin Zheng,2 Jiancheng Xiu1 1Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, 3Department of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Ministry of Health, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 4Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs, when added in minute concentrations, have been shown to decrease peripheral vascular resistance. In this study, the effect of DRPs on the hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling was evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Male SHR and age-matched Wistar rats were divided into four groups and received intravenous injection of normal saline (NS or DRPs. Body weight (BW, heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP were measured. Echocardiography was used to evaluate the changes in left ventricle (LV function and global wall motion. The LV and aorta were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Cell size of cardiomyocytes and aortic medial thickness were evaluated for each section. The expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 of LV and aorta was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in the increase of SBP among SHR + NS, SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups. SHR + NS group had markedly smaller left ventricular end

  2. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. ► Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. ► Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. ► L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. ► Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg −1 body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-κB. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be

  3. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  4. Effect of osteoporosis on fixation of osseointegrated implants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; He, Sheng; Hua, Yunwei; Hu, Jing

    2017-11-01

    The effect of osteoporosis on implant osseointegration has been widely investigated, whereas osteoporosis may also newly occur in patient with previously osseointegrated implant. This study was designed to investigate the effect of osteoporosis on implant fixation in rats after successful osseointegration had been obtained. Seventy female Sprague-Dawley rats were included, and each animal received two titanium implants in the distal metaphysis of femur bilaterally. Eight weeks later, ten rats were sacrificed to confirm the establishment of implant osseointegration. All left rats were randomly subjected to bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation. Three, six, and twelve weeks later, implant osseointegration, peri-implant bone tissue, and biomechanical properties of implant were analyzed. Right femurs with implants were used for micro-CT and histological analysis, and left femurs with implants were used for biomechanical test. Micro-CT, histology, and biomechanical test confirmed the destructive effect of OVX on previously osseointegrated implant in rats; when compared to sham-operated rats, peri-implant bone volume, trabecular architecture, bone-to-implant contact ratio, as well as biomechanical parameters decreased progressively within 12 weeks. Results also indicated that the effect of OVX on undisturbed bone (proximal tibiae) was much stronger than that on peri-implant bone. Osteoporosis produced a progressive negative effect on previously osseointegrated implant in distal femora of rats during 12 weeks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2426-2432, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Quantitative imaging of cation adsorption site densities in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Gustafsson, Jon-Petter; Koestel, John

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of present soil system models assume a homogeneous distribution and accessibility of cation adsorption sites (CAS) within soil structural units like e.g. soil horizons. This is however in conflict with several recent studies finding that CAS in soils are not uniformly but patchily distributed at and below the cm-scale. It is likely that the small-scale distribution of CAS has significant impact on the performance of these models. However, systematic approaches to map CAS densities in undisturbed soil with 3-D resolution that could lead to respective model improvements are still lacking. We therefore investigated the 3-D distribution of the CAS in undisturbed soils using X-ray scanning and barium ions as a contrast agent. We appraised the validity of the approach by comparing X-ray image-derived cation exchange coefficients (CEC) with ones obtained using the ammonium acetate method. In the process, we evaluated whether there were larger CAS concentrations at aggregate and biopore boundaries as it is often hypothesized. We sampled eight small soil cores (approx. 10 ccm) from different locations with contrasting soil texture and organic matter contents. The samples were first saturated with a potassium chloride solution (0.1 mol per liter), whereupon a 3-D X-ray image was taken. Then, the potassium chloride solution was flushed out with a barium chloride solution (0.3 mol per liter) with barium replacing the potassium from the CAS due to its larger exchange affinity. After X-ray images as well as electrical conductivity in the effluent indicated that the entire sample had been saturated with the barium chloride, the sample was again rinsed using the potassium chloride solution. When the rinsing was complete a final 3-D X-ray image was acquired. The difference images between final and initial 3-D X-ray images were interpreted as depicting the adsorbed barium as the density of barium exceeds the one of potassium by more than 2 times. The X-ray image

  6. A STUDY OF CHANGES IN DEFORMATION AND METABOLISM IN LEFT VENTRICLE AS A FUNCTION OF HYPERTROPHY IN SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS USING MICROPET TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant, T; Huesman, Ronald, H; Reutter, Bryan, W; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Veress, Alexander, I; Weiss, Jeffrey, A; Yang, Yongfeng

    2017-06-13

    Problem: In the case of hypertrophy caused by pressure overload (hypertension) there is an increase in cardiac mass and modification cardiac metabolism. Aim: This study was designed to study the changes in glucose metabolism, ejection fraction, and deformation in the left ventricle with the progression of hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Dynamic PET data were acquired using the microPET II at UC Davis. Two rats were imaged at 10-week intervals for 18 months. Each time a dose of approximately 1- 1.5 mCi of F-18-FDG was injected into a normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the same dose was injected into a SHR rat. Each rat was imaged using a gated dynamic acquisition for 80 minutes acquiring list mode data with cardiac gating of approximately 600-900 million total counts. For the analysis of glucose of metabolism, the list mode data were histogrammed into a dynamic sequence (42 frames over 80 mins). For each time frame, projection data of 1203 140x210 sinograms of 0.582 mm bins were formed by summing the last three gates before and one after the R-wave trigger to correspond to the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Dynamic sequences of 128x128x83 matrices of 0.4x0.4x0.582 mm3 voxels in x, y, and z were reconstructed using an iterative MAP reconstruction which used a prior that penalized the high frequency components of the reconstruction using appropriate weighting between 26 nearest neighboring voxels. Time activity curves were generated from the dynamic reconstructed sequence for the blood and left ventricular tissue regions of interest which were fit to a 2-compartment model to obtain a least squares fit for the kinetic parameters. For the analysis of deformation, the list mode data were histogrammed into 8 gates of the cardiac cycle, each gate was the total sum of the later 60 mins of the 80 min acquisition. Images of 128x128x83 matrices for each gate were reconstructed using the same iterative MAP reconstruction used to

  7. Unsaturated transport of inorganic cations in undisturbed soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, P.M.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    The unsaturated transport of Sr, Co, and Ca were studied in undisturbed soil columns (14 x 40 cm) of saprolitic shale to evaluate the significance of time dependent mass transfer and multispecies competitive exchange during transport. Observed breakthrough curves (BTCs) for Sr and Co were delayed relative to nonreactive Br BTC indicating that the former tracers were adsorbed by the soil. Effluent concentrations of Sr and Co were modeled with the classical convective dispersive (CD) equation and nonequilibrium mass transfer considerations did not appear necessary. Cation exchange equilibria relationships obtained from both shake batch and miscible displacement methods adequately described the thermodynamic processes which were prevalent during transport. These results suggest that the preferential transport of a reactive tracer is negligible for the realistic unsaturated conditions used in the study, and that the massive saprolite within the soil is a chemically active constituent during transport of reactive solutes. The implications of these findings for modeling in-situ subsurface contaminant transport are discussed. 7 refs., 9 figs

  8. Monitoring of Gasoline-ethanol Degradation In Undisturbed Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österreicher-Cunha, P.; Nunes, C. M. F.; Vargas, E. A.; Guimarães, J. R. D.; Costa, A.

    Environmental contamination problems are greatly emphasised nowadays because of the direct threat they represent for human health. Traditional remediation methods fre- quently present low efficiency and high costs; therefore, biological treatment is being considered as an accessible and efficient alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing, commonly used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon spills, stimulates the degradation capacity of indigenous microorganisms by providing better subsur- face oxygenation. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are mixed (78:22 v/v); some authors indicate that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in subsurface is hin- dered by the presence of much more rapidly degrading ethanol. Contaminant distribu- tion and degradation in the subsurface can be monitored by several physical, chemical and microbiological methodologies. This study aims to evaluate and follow the degra- dation of a gasoline-ethanol mixture in a residual undisturbed tropical soil from Rio de Janeiro. Bioventing was used to enhance microbial degradation. Shifts in bacte- rial culturable populations due to contamination and treatment effects were followed by conventional microbiology methods. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measure- ments, which consist of the emission of electro-magnetic waves into the soil, yield a visualisation of contaminant degradation because of changes in soil conductivity due to microbial action on the pollutants. Chemical analyses will measure contaminant residue in soil. Our results disclosed contamination impact as well as bioventing stim- ulation on soil culturable heterotrophic bacterial populations. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a wider evaluation of processes occurring in soil.

  9. Genetic and epigenetic divergence between disturbed and undisturbed subpopulations of a Mediterranean shrub: a 20-year field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Little is known on the potential of ecological disturbance to cause genetic and epigenetic changes in plant populations. We take advantage of a long-term field experiment initiated in 1986 to study the demography of the shrub Lavandula latifolia , and compare genetic and epigenetic characteristics of plants in two adjacent subplots, one experimentally disturbed and one left undisturbed, 20 years after disturbance. Experimental setup was comparable to an unreplicated 'Before-After-Control-Impact' (BACI) design where a single pair of perturbed and control areas were compared. When sampled in 2005, plants in the two subplots had roughly similar ages, but they had established in contrasting environments: dense conspecific population ('Undisturbed' subpopulation) versus open area with all conspecifics removed ('Disturbed' subpopulation). Plants were characterized genetically and epigenetically using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and two classes of methylation-sensitive AFLP (MSAP) markers. Subpopulations were similar in genetic diversity but differed in epigenetic diversity and multilocus genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Epigenetic divergence between subpopulations was statistically unrelated to genetic divergence. Bayesian clustering revealed an abrupt linear boundary between subpopulations closely coincident with the arbitrary demarcation line between subplots drawn 20 years back, which supports that genetic and epigenetic divergence between subpopulations was caused by artificial disturbance. There was significant fine-scale spatial structuring of MSAP markers in both subpopulations, which in the Undisturbed one was indistinguishable from that of AFLP markers. Genetic differences between subpopulations could be explained by divergent selection alone, while the concerted action of divergent selection and disturbance-driven appearance of new methylation variants in the Disturbed subpopulation is proposed to explain epigenetic differences. This

  10. Sex differences and left-right asymmetries in expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in developing rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hami, Javad; Sadr-Nabavi, Ariane; Sankian, Mojtaba; Haghir, Hossein

    2012-04-01

    Sex differences and laterality of rat hippocampus with respect to insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor (InsR) expression as two important contributors to/regulators of developmental and cognitive functions were examined using real-time PCR and western blot analysis at P0, P7 and P14. Expression of the IGF-1R gene was lowest at P0 in all studied hippocampi. In males, we found the highest expression at P7 in the right hippocampus, and at P14 in the left one. In contrast, the peaked IGF-1R expression occurred at P7 in female hippocampi independent of laterality. Hippocampal InsR expression in males decreased significantly between P0 and P7, followed by a marked upregulation at P14. Conversely, the expression of InsR in females peaked at P7 and then decreased again significantly at P14. We found significant interhemispheric differences in IGF-1R mRNA levels in both male and female hippocampi at different time points. In contrast, we only found significant interhemispheric differences in InsR mRNA expression in P14 male rats, with higher values in the left hippocampus. Interestingly, changes in mRNA expression and in protein levels followed the same developmental pattern, indicating that IGF-1R and InsR transcription is not subject to modulatory effects during the first two weeks of development. These findings indicate that there are prominent interhemispheric and sex differences in IGF-1R and InsR expression in the developing rat hippocampus, suggesting a probable mechanism for the control of gender and laterality differences in development and function of the hippocampus.

  11. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  12. Left Ventricular Gene Expression Profile of Healthy and Cardiovascular Compromised Rat Models Used in Air Pollution Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The link between pollutant exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted mechanistic research with animal models of CVD. We hypothesized that the cardiac gene expression patterns of healthy and genetically compromised, CVD-prone rat models, with or without metabolic impa...

  13. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Yu-luan; He, Li [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiao, Jun [Department of Cardiology, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, Chongqing (China); Xia, Shuang; Deng, Song-bai [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiu, Yun [Institute of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); She, Qiang [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-17

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (I{sub to}) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM+TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of I{sub to} was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated I{sub to} reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced I{sub to} of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM.

  14. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Yu-luan; He, Li; Xiao, Jun; Xia, Shuang; Deng, Song-bai; Xiu, Yun; She, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (I to ) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM+TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg −1 ·day −1 ). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of I to was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated I to reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced I to of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM

  15. LBA-ECO TG-07 Trace Gas Fluxes, Undisturbed and Logged Sites, Para, Brazil: 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M. Keller; R.K. Varner; J.D. Dias; H.S. Silva; P.M. Crill; Jr. de Oliveira; G.P. Asner

    2009-01-01

    Trace gas fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide were measured manually at undisturbed and logged forest sites in the Tapajos National Forest, near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Manual measurements were made approximately weekly at both the undisturbed and logged sites. Fluxes from clay and sand soils were completed at the undisturbed sites....

  16. Measuring Regional Changes in the Diastolic Deformation of the Left Ventricle of SHR Rats Using microPET Technology and Hyperelastic Warping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant T; VERESS , ALEXANDER I.; WEISS, JEFFREY A.; HUESMAN, RONALD H.; REUTTER, BRYAN W.; TAYLOR , SCOTT E.; SITEK , AREK; FENG, BING; YANG , YONGFENG; GULLBERG, GRANT T.

    2008-04-04

    The objective of this research was to assess applicability of a technique known as hyperelastic warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle (LV) directly from microPET image data sets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image data sets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target images. For validation, the template image was defined as the end-systolic microPET image data set from a Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The target image was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a FE model of diastolic filling. Regression analysis revealed highly significant correlations between the simulated forward FE solution and image derived warping predictions for fiber stretch (R2 = 0.96), circumferential strain (R2 = 0.96), radial strain (R2 = 0.93), and longitudinal strain (R2 = 0.76) (p<0.001for all cases). The technology was applied to microPET image data of two spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a WKY control. Regional analysis revealed that, the lateral freewall in the SHR subjects showed the greatest deformation compared with the other wall segments. This work indicates that warping can accurately predict the strain distributions during diastole from the analysis of microPET data sets.

  17. Measuring Regional Changes in the Diastolic Deformation of the Left Ventricle of SHR Rats Using microPET Technology and Hyperelastic Warping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Grant T; VERESS, ALEXANDER I.; WEISS, JEFFREY A.; HUESMAN, RONALD H.; REUTTER, BRYAN W.; TAYLOR, SCOTT E.; SITEK, AREK; FENG, BING; YANG, YONGFENG; GULLBERG, GRANT T.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess applicability of a technique known as hyperelastic warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle (LV) directly from microPET image data sets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image data sets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target images. For validation, the template image was defined as the end-systolic microPET image data set from a Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The target image was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a FE model of diastolic filling. Regression analysis revealed highly significant correlations between the simulated forward FE solution and image derived warping predictions for fiber stretch (R2 = 0.96), circumferential strain (R2 = 0.96), radial strain (R2 = 0.93), and longitudinal strain (R2 = 0.76) (p < 0.001 for all cases). The technology was applied to microPET image data of two spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a WKY control. Regional analysis revealed that, the lateral freewall in the SHR subjects showed the greatest deformation compared with the other wall segments. This work indicates that warping can accurately predict the strain distributions during diastole from the analysis of microPET data sets

  18. MiR-139-3p is related to left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in many physiological and pathological processes. Previous studies have reported the role of miR-139-3p in cancer. However, its specific roles and functions in the heart undergoing hypertrophy have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, a significant upregulation of miR-139-3p expression was demonstrated in the left ventricular myocardium of two-kidney one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Based on computational analysis, we observed that miR-139-3p can control the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1 as a target gene, which is essential for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This study provides first information that the highly expressed miR-139-3p might be closely involved in MAPK1-mediated cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptotic processes in 2K1C rat.

  19. Serca2a and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20mg/kg/week for 4weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+dP/dtmax, -dP/dtmin and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  1. Maternal Deprivation of Lewis Rat Pups Increases the Severity of Experi-mental Periodontitis in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Torbjørn; Gundersen, Yngvar; Murison, Robert; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P; Gjermo, Per; Opstad, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Early life adverse events may influence susceptibility/resistance to chronic inflammatory diseases later in life by permanently dysregulating brain-controlled immune-regulatory systems. We have investigated the impact of infant-mother separation during early postnatal life on the severity of experimental periodontitis, as well as systemic stress and immune responses, in adulthood. Pups of periodontitis resistant Lewis rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily during postnatal days 2-14 (termed maternal deprivation; MD), separated for 15 min daily during the same time period (termed handling; HD), or left undisturbed. As adults, their behaviour was tested in a novel stressful situation, and ligature-induced periodontitis applied for 21 days. Two h before sacrifice all rats were exposed to a gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to induce a robust immune and stress response. Compared to undisturbed controls, MD rats developed significantly more periodontal bone loss as adults, whereas HD rats showed a tendency to less disease. MD and HD rats exhibited depression-like behaviour in a novel open field test, while MD rats showed higher glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) expression in the hippocampus, and HD rats had altered methylation of genes involved in the expression of hippocampal Gr. LPS provoked a significantly lower increase in circulating levels of the cytokine TGF-1β in MD and HD rats, but there were no significant differences in levels of the stress hormone corticosterone. Stressful environmental exposures in very early life may alter immune responses in a manner that influences susceptibility/resistance to periodontitis.

  2. Serca2a and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt max , − dP/dt min and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  3. Comparison of Shear Strength Properties for Undisturbed and Reconstituted Parit Nipah Peat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Abdullah, M. E.; Zakaria, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Shear strength of soil is required to determine the soil stability and design the foundations. Peat is known as a soil with complex natural formations which also contributes problems to the researchers, developers, engineers and contractors in constructions and infrastructures. Most researchers conducted experiment and investigation of shear strength on peat using shear box test and simple shear test, but only a few had discovered the behavior of peat using triaxial consolidated undrained test. The aim of this paper is to determine the undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat and undisturbed peat of Parit Nipah, Johor for comparison purposes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed opening sieve 3.35 mm and preconsolidation pressure at 100 kPa. The result of undrained shear strength of reconstituted peat was 21kPa for cohesion with the angle of friction, 41° compare to the undisturbed peat with cohesion 10 kPa and angle of friction, 16°. The undrained shear strength properties result obtained shows that the reconstituted peat has higher strength than undisturbed peat. For relationship deviator stress-strain, σd max and excess pore pressure, Δu, it shows that both of undisturbed and reconstituted gradually increased when σ’ increased, but at the end of the test, the values are slightly dropped. The physical properties of undisturbed and reconstituted peat were also investigated to correlate with the undrained shear strength results.

  4. Lactate up-regulates the expression of lactate oxidation complex-related genes in left ventricular cardiac tissue of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gabriel-Costa

    Full Text Available Besides its role as a fuel source in intermediary metabolism, lactate has been considered a signaling molecule modulating lactate-sensitive genes involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Even though the flux of lactate is significantly high in the heart, its role on regulation of cardiac genes regulating lactate oxidation has not been clarified yet. We tested the hypothesis that lactate would increase cardiac levels of reactive oxygen species and up-regulate the expression of genes related to lactate oxidation complex.Isolated hearts from male adult Wistar rats were perfused with control, lactate or acetate (20mM added Krebs-Henseleit solution during 120 min in modified Langendorff apparatus. Reactive oxygen species (O2●-/H2O2 levels, and NADH and NADPH oxidase activities (in enriched microsomal or plasmatic membranes, respectively were evaluated by fluorimetry while SOD and catalase activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry. mRNA levels of lactate oxidation complex and energetic enzymes MCT1, MCT4, HK, LDH, PDH, CS, PGC1α and COXIV were quantified by real time RT-PCR. Mitochondrial DNA levels were also evaluated. Hemodynamic parameters were acquired during the experiment. The key findings of this work were that lactate elevated cardiac NADH oxidase activity but not NADPH activity. This response was associated with increased cardiac O2●-/H2O2 levels and up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, LDH and PGC1α with no changes in HK, PDH, CS, COXIV mRNA levels and mitochondrial DNA levels. Lactate increased NRF-2 nuclear expression and SOD activity probably as counter-regulatory responses to increased O2●-/H2O2.Our results provide evidence for lactate-induced up-regulation of lactate oxidation complex associated with increased NADH oxidase activity and cardiac O2●-/H2O2 driving to an anti-oxidant response. These results unveil lactate as an important signaling molecule regulating components of the lactate oxidation complex in

  5. Coarse woody debris in undisturbed and logged forests in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rodrigo Jr. Pereira; Jose Natalino M. Silva

    2004-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of the carbon cycle in tropical forests. We measured the volume and density of fallen CWD at two sites, Cauaxi and Tapajós in the Eastern Amazon. At both sites we studied undisturbed forests (UFs) and logged forests 1 year after harvest. Conventional logging (CL) and reduced impact logging (RIL) were...

  6. Occurrence of an exotic earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) in undisturbed soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac. A. Callaham; Paul F. Hendrix; Ross J. Phillips

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the occurrence of an aggressive invasive earthworm species in undisturbed forest soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia, USA. Earthworms were sorted from samples collected in pitfall traps that had been set in mature, mesic oak-hickory forests in remote, high elevation, locations across northern Georgia. Specimens were...

  7. Community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in undisturbed vegetation revealed by analyses of LSU rdna sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren; Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic symbiosis with plant roots and are found in most ecosystems. In this study the community structure of AMF in a clade of the genus Glomus was examined in undisturbed costal grassland using LSU rDNA sequences amplified from roots of Hieracium...

  8. Differential control of MMP and t-PA/PAI-1 expressions by sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems in rat left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dab, Houcine; Hachani, Rafik; Hodroj, Wassim; Sakly, Mohsen; Bricca, Giampiero; Kacem, Kamel

    2009-10-05

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II (Ang II) has both direct (via AT1 receptors) and indirect (via sympathostimulator pathway) actions on the synthesis and activity of the enzymes involved in the extracellular matrix degradation in vivo. For this purpose, sympathectomy and blockade of the Ang II receptor AT1 were performed alone or in combination in normotensive rats. The mRNA of the plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1), the mRNA, protein and activity of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 were examined by Q-RT-PCR, immunoblotting and zymographic methods in the left ventricle. t-PA and PAI-1 mRNA were decreased after sympathectomy and remained unchanged after AT1 receptors blockade. mRNA was increased for t-PA and decreased by similar degree for PAI-1 after double treatment. MMPs mRNA and protein levels were decreased either after sympathectomy or AT1 receptors blockade and an additive effect was acquired after double treatment. MMPs activity was decreased by similar degree in the three treated groups. Deducted interpretations from our experimental approach suggest that Ang II inhibits directly (via AT1 receptors) and indirectly (via sympathostimulator pathway) t-PA mRNA synthesis. It seems unable to influence directly PAI-1 mRNA, but stimulates indirectly PAI-1 mRNA synthesis. Ang II stimulates directly (via AT1 receptors) and indirectly (via sympathostimulator pathway) MMPs synthesis at both transcriptional and protein levels. The enzymatic activity of MMPs does not seem to be influenced directly by Ang II but it could be stimulated indirectly (via sympathostimulator pathway).

  9. Elsaesser variable analysis of fluctuations in the ion foreshock and undisturbed solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, James; Treumann, Rudolf A.; Marsch, Eckart

    1994-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluctuations in the solar wind have been investigated previously by use of Elsaesser variables. In this paper, we present a comparison of the spectra of Elsaesser variables in the undisturbed solar wind at 1 AU and in the ion foreshock in front of the Earth. Both observations take place under relatively strong solar wind flow speed conditions (approximately equal 600 km/s). In the undisturbed solar wind we find that outward propagating Alfven waves dominate, as reported by other observers. In the ion foreshock the situation is more complex, with neither outward nor inward propagation dominating over the entire range investigated (1-10 mHz). Measurements of the Poynting vectors associated with the fluctuations are consistent with the Elsaesser variable analysis. These results generally support interpretations of the Elsaesser variables which have been made based strictly on solar wind data and provide additional insight into the nature of the ion foreshock turbulence.

  10. Large zero-tension plate lysimeters for soil water and solute collection in undisturbed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peters

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the field. To investigate the influence of the lysimeter on the water flow field in the soil, a numerical 2-D simulation study was conducted for homogeneous soils with uni- and bimodal pore-size distributions and stochastic Miller-Miller heterogeneity. The collection efficiency was found to be highly dependent on the hydraulic functions, infiltration rate, and lysimeter size, and was furthermore affected by the degree of heterogeneity. In homogeneous soils with high saturated conductivities the devices perform poorly and even large lysimeters (width 250 cm can be bypassed by the soil water. Heterogeneities of soil hydraulic properties result into a network of flow channels that enhance the sampling efficiency of the lysimeter plates. Solute breakthrough into zero-tension lysimeter occurs slightly retarded as compared to the free soil, but concentrations in the collected water are similar to the mean flux concentration in the undisturbed soil. To validate the results from the numerical study, a dual tracer study with seven lysimeters of 1.25×1.25 m area was conducted in the field. Three lysimeters were installed underneath a 1.2 m filling of contaminated silty sand, the others deeper in the undisturbed soil. The lysimeters directly underneath the filled soil material collected water with a collection efficiency of 45%. The deeper lysimeters did not collect any water. The arrival of the tracers showed that almost all collected water came from preferential flow paths.

  11. Dominance of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis in an undisturbed wild meadow ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Bélanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years after its arrival in Quebec (Canada, the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae has become one of the dominant coccinellid species in agricultural, forested and urban areas. Several studies conducted in North American agricultural ecosystems show that the arrival of H. axyridis and other exotic coccinellid species was followed by decreases in the populations of native coccinellid species. In this study, the abundances of H. axyridis and other native and exotic species were determined in an undisturbed wild meadow located in a protected area. In 2009 and 2010, mainly Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae and Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae infested with aphids were surveyed. A total of 1522 individuals, belonging to seven different species, were recorded. In 2009, on all the plants monitored, H. axyridis was clearly the dominant species (69% of the coccinellid assemblage. In addition, this exotic species constituted 84% of the coccinellid assemblage, including Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L. and Coccinella septempunctata (L. It is likely the dominance of the eurytopic Asian lady beetle in agricultural, forested, urban and undisturbed open ecosystems, poses a threat to native lady beetles. These results also provide evidence that undisturbed wild meadow ecosystems will not constitute a natural refuge from Harmonia axyridis for native species of lady beetles.

  12. DETERMINING UNDISTURBED GROUND TEMPERATURE AS PART OF SHALLOW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The undisturbed ground temperature is one of the key thermogeological parameters for the assessment and utilization of shallow geothermal resources. Geothermal energy is the type of energy which is stored in the ground where solar radiation has no effect. The depth at which the undisturbed ground temperature occurs, independent of seasonal changes in the surface air temperature, is functionally determined by climate parameters and thermogeological properties. In deeper layers, the increase of ground temperature depends solely on geothermal gradient. Determining accurate values of undisturbed ground temperature and depth of occurrence is crucial for the correct sizing of a borehole heat exchanger as part of the ground-source heat pump system, which is considered the most efficient technology for utilising shallow geothermal resources. The purpose of this paper is to define three specific temperature regions, based on the measured ground temperature data collected from the main meteorological stations in Croatia. The three regions are: Northern Croatia, Adriatic region, and the regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar.

  13. Evaluating equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport of bromide and isoproturon in disturbed and undisturbed soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Pot, V.; Šimunek, J.; Andreux, F.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, displacement experiments of isoproturon were conducted in disturbed and undisturbed columns of a silty clay loam soil under similar rainfall intensities. Solute transport occurred under saturated conditions in the undisturbed soil and under unsaturated conditions in the sieved soil because of a greater bulk density of the compacted undisturbed soil compared to the sieved soil. The objective of this work was to determine transport characteristics of isoproturon relative to bromide tracer. Triplicate column experiments were performed with sieved (structure partially destroyed to simulate conventional tillage) and undisturbed (structure preserved) soils. Bromide experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using convective-dispersive and dual-permeability (DP) models (HYDRUS-1D). Isoproturon breakthrough curves (BTCs) were analyzed using the DP model that considered either chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium transport. The DP model described the bromide elution curves of the sieved soil columns well, whereas it overestimated the tailing of the bromide BTCs of the undisturbed soil columns. A higher degree of physical non-equilibrium was found in the undisturbed soil, where 56% of total water was contained in the slow-flow matrix, compared to 26% in the sieved soil. Isoproturon BTCs were best described in both sieved and undisturbed soil columns using the DP model combined with the chemical non-equilibrium. Higher degradation rates were obtained in the transport experiments than in batch studies, for both soils. This was likely caused by hysteresis in sorption of isoproturon. However, it cannot be ruled out that higher degradation rates were due, at least in part, to the adopted first-order model. Results showed that for similar rainfall intensity, physical and chemical non-equilibrium were greater in the saturated undisturbed soil than in the unsaturated sieved soil. Results also suggested faster transport of isoproturon in the undisturbed soil due

  14. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  15. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2003-01-01

    The vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements under lysimetric laboratory conditions during irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year, except 131 I. A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, which makes it possible to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The relaxation times of radionuclides in respective soil horizons can also be evaluated. (author)

  16. Modeling long-term suspended-sediment export from an undisturbed forest catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Francke, Till; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Most estimates of suspended sediment yields from humid, undisturbed, and geologically stable forest environments fall within a range of 5 - 30 t km-2 a-1. These low natural erosion rates in small headwater catchments (≤ 1 km2) support the common impression that a well-developed forest cover prevents surface erosion. Interestingly, those estimates originate exclusively from areas with prevailing vertical hydrological flow paths. Forest environments dominated by (near-) surface flow paths (overland flow, pipe flow, and return flow) and a fast response to rainfall, however, are not an exceptional phenomenon, yet only very few sediment yields have been estimated for these areas. Not surprisingly, even fewer long-term (≥ 10 years) records exist. In this contribution we present our latest research which aims at quantifying long-term suspended-sediment export from an undisturbed rainforest catchment prone to frequent overland flow. A key aspect of our approach is the application of machine-learning techniques (Random Forest, Quantile Regression Forest) which allows not only the handling of non-Gaussian data, non-linear relations between predictors and response, and correlations between predictors, but also the assessment of prediction uncertainty. For the current study we provided the machine-learning algorithms exclusively with information from a high-resolution rainfall time series to reconstruct discharge and suspended sediment dynamics for a 21-year period. The significance of our results is threefold. First, our estimates clearly show that forest cover does not necessarily prevent erosion if wet antecedent conditions and large rainfalls coincide. During these situations, overland flow is widespread and sediment fluxes increase in a non-linear fashion due to the mobilization of new sediment sources. Second, our estimates indicate that annual suspended sediment yields of the undisturbed forest catchment show large fluctuations. Depending on the frequency of large

  17. A simplified 137Cs transport model for estimating erosion rates in undisturbed soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinbao; Long Yi; He Xiubin; Fu Jiexiong; Zhang Yunqi

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs is an artificial radionuclide with a half-life of 30.12 years which released into the environment as a result of atmospheric testing of thermo-nuclear weapons primarily during the period of 1950s-1970s with the maximum rate of 137 Cs fallout from atmosphere in 1963. 137 Cs fallout is strongly and rapidly adsorbed by fine particles in the surface horizons of the soil, when it falls down on the ground mostly with precipitation. Its subsequent redistribution is associated with movements of the soil or sediment particles. The 137 Cs nuclide tracing technique has been used for assessment of soil losses for both undisturbed and cultivated soils. For undisturbed soils, a simple profile-shape model was developed in 1990 to describe the 137 Cs depth distribution in profile, where the maximum 137 Cs occurs in the surface horizon and it exponentially decreases with depth. The model implied that the total 137 Cs fallout amount deposited on the earth surface in 1963 and the 137 Cs profile shape has not changed with time. The model has been widely used for assessment of soil losses on undisturbed land. However, temporal variations of 137 Cs depth distribution in undisturbed soils after its deposition on the ground due to downward transport processes are not considered in the previous simple profile-shape model. Thus, the soil losses are overestimated by the model. On the base of the erosion assessment model developed by Walling, D.E., He, Q. [1999. Improved models for estimating soil erosion rates from cesium-137 measurements. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 611-622], we discuss the 137 Cs transport process in the eroded soil profile and make some simplification to the model, develop a method to estimate the soil erosion rate more expediently. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple profile-shape model and the simple transport model, the soil losses related to different 137 Cs loss proportions of the reference inventory at the Kaixian site of the

  18. Biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana (Mill) on the Myocardium of Left Ventricle of High Salt-Fed Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olushola, Ayoola I; Aderibigbe, Komolafe O; Stephen, Saka O; Ayodeji, Odukoya S

    2017-10-01

    The cardioprotective effects of Persea americana extract was investigated on biochemical activities of high salt-fed adult Wistar rats in this study. Forty healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 120 to 150 g were randomly assigned into 8 groups of 5 rats each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H). Rats in groups A, F, G, and H were fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D, and E were fed on the high-salt diet for 4 weeks. Concomitantly, daily administration of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the P americana extract were given orally to groups C and F, D and G, and E and H, respectively, while rats in groups A and B were administered distilled water. Blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture; concentration of sodium ion, potassium ion, nitric oxide, and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were determined. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test for multiple comparison. Results revealed that concentration of potassium ion and nitric oxide was significantly lower ( P < .05) in high salt-fed groups. Sodium ion concentration and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were higher in high salt-fed group while P americana prevented biochemical perturbations in other experimental groups. In conclusion, high salt-diet induced biochemical alterations which were significantly protected by oral administration of P americana extract.

  19. Crude extract and purified components isolated from the stems of Tinospora crispa exhibit positive inotropic effects on the isolated left atrium of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praman, Siwaporn; Mulvany, Michael J.; Williams, David E.

    2013-01-01

    of 5 bioactive compounds: higenamine, salsolinol, tyramine, adenosine and uridine. Higenamine, salsolinol (at low concentration) and tyramine acted via the adrenergic receptors to increase the force of the atrial contraction, whereas a high concentration of salsolinol acted indirectly by stimulating...... an increase in the force of contraction of the electrical field stimulated left atrium. This effect was inhibited by propranolol, atenolol, ICI-118,551, phentolamine and atropine. The positive inotropic effect on the reserpenized isolated left atrium of the Tinospora crispa extract was significantly inhibited...... by propranolol, atenolol and ICI-118,551. Phentolamine, on the other hand, caused potentiation and the effect was inhibited when propranolol was also added. Higenamine caused an increase in the force of contraction of the electrical field stimulated left atrium and this effect was significantly inhibited by ICI...

  20. Exposure to Music and Noise During Pregnancy Influences Neurogenesis and Thickness in Motor and Somatosensory Cortex of Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hee Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Prenatal environmental conditions affect the development of the fetus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to music and noise during pregnancy on neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. Methods The pregnant rats in the music-applied group were exposed to 65 dB of comfortable music for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. The pregnant rats in the noise-applied group were exposed to 95 dB of sound from a supersonic sound machine for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. After birth, the offspring were left undisturbed together with their mother. The rat pups were sacrificed at 21 days after birth. Results Exposure to music during pregnancy increased neurogenesis in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. In contrast, rat pups exposed to noise during pregnancy showed decreased neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex. Conclusions Our study suggests that music and noise during the developmental period are important factors influencing brain development and urogenital disorders.

  1. Infiltration characteristics of non-aqueous phase liquids in undisturbed loessal soil cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunqiang; SHAO Ming'an

    2009-01-01

    The widespread contamination of soils and aquifers by non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL), such as crude oil, poses serious environmental and health hazards globally. Understanding the infiltration characteristics of NAPL in soil is crucial in mitigating or remediating soil contamination. The infiltration characteristics of crude and diesel oils into undisturbed loessal soil cores, collected in polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical columns, were investigated under a constant fluid head (3 cm) of either crude oil or diesel oil. The infiltration rate of both crude and diesel oils decreased exponentially as wetting depth increased with time. Soil core size and bulk density both had a significant effect on NAPL infiltration through the undisturbed soil cores; a smaller core size or a greater bulk density both reduced oil penetration to depth. Compacting soil in areas susceptible to oil spills may be an effective way to reduce contamination. The infiltration of NAPL into soil cores was spatially anisotropic and heterogeneous, thus recording the data at four points on the soil core is a good way to improve the accuracy of experimental results. Our results provided information about crude and diesel oils, rather than their components, and may have practical value for remediation of contaminated loessal soils.

  2. Infiltration characteristics of non-aqueous phase liquids in undisturbed loessal soil cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an

    2009-01-01

    The widespread contamination of soils and aquifers by non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL), such as crude oil, poses serious environmental and health hazards globally. Understanding the infiltration characteristics of NAPL in soil is crucial in mitigating or remediating soil contamination. The infiltration characteristics of crude and diesel oils into undisturbed loessal soil cores, collected in polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical columns, were investigated under a constant fluid head (3 cm) of either crude oil or diesel oil. The infiltration rate of both crude and diesel oils decreased exponentially as wetting depth increased with time. Soil core size and bulk density both had significant effects on NAPL infiltration through the undisturbed soil cores; a smaller core size or a greater bulk density could reduce oil penetration to depth. Compacting soil in areas susceptible to oil spills may be an effective stratage to reduce contamination. The infiltration of NAPL into soil cores was spatially anisotropic and heterogeneous, thus recording the data at four points on the soil core is a good stratage to improve the accuracy of experimental results. Our results revealed that crude and diesel oils, rather than their components, have a practical value for remediation of contaminated loessal soils.

  3. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L.E.S. Wagner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the absence of large disturbances, we found that live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness did not differ in 1997 compared to 2007. Fish abundance and species richness on patches was largely related to the presence of shelters (caves and/or holes, live coral cover and patch size (volume. The presence of the ectoparasite-eating cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, was also positively related to fish species richness. Our results underscore the importance of physical reef characteristics, such as patch size and shelter availability, in addition to biotic characteristics, such as live coral cover and cleaner wrasse abundance, in supporting reef fish species richness and abundance through time in a relatively undisturbed and understudied region.

  4. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from undisturbed soil cores sampled along a natural clay gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    correlated to the accumulated outflow and was described as a diffusion controlled process, using ¾(accumulated outflow). The mass of leached particles was positively correlated to the clay content as well as to water-dispersible colloids. Particulate phosphorus (P) was linearly correlated to concentration......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...

  5. Derivation of 137Cs deposition density from measurement of 137Cs inventories in undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.; Hiep, H.T.; Quang, N.H.; Huy, N.Q.; Binh, N.T.; Hai, P.S.; Long, N.Q.; Bac, V.T

    2012-01-01

    The 137 Cs inventories in undisturbed soils were measured for 292 locations across the territory of Vietnam. the logarithmic inventory values were regressed against characteristics of sampling sites, such as geographical coordinates, annual rainfall and physico-chemical parameters of soil. The regression model containing latitude and annual rainfall as determinants could explain 76% of the variations in logarithmic inventory values across the territory. The model part was interpreted as the logarithmic 137 Cs deposition density. At the 95% confidence level, 137 Cs deposition density could be predicted be the model ± 7% relative uncertainty. the latitude mean 137 Cs deposition density increases northward from 237 Bq m -2 to 1097 Bq m -2 , while the corresponding values derived from the UNSCEAR (1969) global pattern are 300 Bq m -2 and 600 Bq m -2 . High 137 Cs inputs were found in high-rainfall areas in northern and central parts of the territory. (author)

  6. A method for measuring element fluxes in an undisturbed soil: nitrogen and carbon from earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouche, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Data on chemical cycles, as nitrogen or carbon cycles, are extrapolated to the fields or ecosystems without the possibility for checking conclusions; i.e. from scientific knowledge (para-ecology). A new method, by natural introduction of an earthworm compartment into an undisturbed soil, with earthworms labelled both by isotopes ( 15 N, 14 C) and by staining is described. This method allows us to measure fluxes of chemicals. The first results, gathered during the improvement of the method in partly artificial conditions, are cross-checked with other data given by direct observation in the field. Measured flux (2.2 mg N/g fresh mass empty gut/day/15 0 C) is far more important than para-ecological estimations; animal metabolism plays directly an important role in nitrogen and carbon cycles. (author)

  7. Estimate of biomass and carbon pools in disturbed and undisturbed oak forests in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zribi, L.; Chaar, H.; Khaldi, A.; Henchi, B.; Mouillot, F.; Gharbi, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To estimate biomass and carbon accumulation in a young and disturbed forest (regenerated after a tornado) and an aged cork oak forest (undisturbed forest) as well as its distribution among the different pools (tree, litter and soil). Area of study. The north west of Tunisia. Material and methods. Carbon stocks were evaluated in the above and belowground cork oak trees, the litter and the 150 cm of the soil. Tree biomass was estimated in both young and aged forests using allometric biomass equations developed for wood stem, cork stem, wood branch, cork branch, leaves, roots and total tree biomass based on combinations of diameter at breast height, total height and crown length as independent variables. Main results. Total tree biomass in forests was 240.58 Mg ha-1 in the young forest and 411.30 Mg ha-1 in the aged forest with a low root/shoot ratio (0.41 for young forest and 0.31 for aged forest). Total stored carbon was 419.46 Mg C ha-1 in the young forest and 658.09 Mg C ha-1 in the aged forest. Carbon stock (Mg C ha-1) was estimated to be113.61(27.08%) and 194.08 (29.49%) in trees, 3.55 (0.85%) and 5.73 (0.87%) in litter and 302.30 (72.07%) and 458.27 (69.64%) in soil in the young and aged forests, respectively. Research highlights. Aged undisturbed forest had the largest tree biomass but a lower potential for accumulation of carbon in the future; in contrast, young disturbed forest had both higher growth and carbon storage potential. (Author)

  8. Continuous arterial PO2 profiles in unrestrained, undisturbed aquatic turtles during routine behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, James W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammals and birds maintain high arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) values in order to preserve near-complete hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen (O2) saturation. In diving mammals and birds, arterial O2 follows a primarily monotonic decline and then recovers quickly after dives. In laboratory studies of submerged freshwater turtles, arterial O2 depletion typically follows a similar pattern. However, in these studies, turtles were disturbed, frequently tethered to external equipment and confined either to small tanks or breathing holes. Aquatic turtles can alter cardiac shunting patterns, which will affect arterial PO2 values. Consequently, little is known about arterial O2 regulation and use in undisturbed turtles. We conducted the first study to continuously measure arterial PO2 using implanted microelectrodes and a backpack logger in undisturbed red-eared sliders during routine activities. Arterial PO2 profiles during submergences varied dramatically, with no consistent patterns. Arterial PO2 was also lower than previously reported during all activities, with values rarely above 50 mmHg (85% Hb saturation). There was no difference in mean PO2 between five different activities: submerged resting, swimming, basking, resting at the surface and when a person was present. These results suggest significant cardiac shunting occurs during routine activities as well as submergences. However, the lack of relationship between PO2 and any activity suggests that cardiac shunts are not regulated to maintain high arterial PO2 values. These data support the idea that cardiac shunting is the passive by-product of regulation of vascular resistances by the autonomic nervous system. PMID:27618860

  9. Continuous arterial PO2 profiles in unrestrained, undisturbed aquatic turtles during routine behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hicks, James W

    2016-11-15

    Mammals and birds maintain high arterial partial pressure of oxygen (P O 2 ) values in order to preserve near-complete hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen (O 2 ) saturation. In diving mammals and birds, arterial O 2 follows a primarily monotonic decline and then recovers quickly after dives. In laboratory studies of submerged freshwater turtles, arterial O 2 depletion typically follows a similar pattern. However, in these studies, turtles were disturbed, frequently tethered to external equipment and confined either to small tanks or breathing holes. Aquatic turtles can alter cardiac shunting patterns, which will affect arterial P O 2  values. Consequently, little is known about arterial O 2 regulation and use in undisturbed turtles. We conducted the first study to continuously measure arterial P O 2  using implanted microelectrodes and a backpack logger in undisturbed red-eared sliders during routine activities. Arterial P O 2  profiles during submergences varied dramatically, with no consistent patterns. Arterial P O 2  was also lower than previously reported during all activities, with values rarely above 50 mmHg (85% Hb saturation). There was no difference in mean P O 2  between five different activities: submerged resting, swimming, basking, resting at the surface and when a person was present. These results suggest significant cardiac shunting occurs during routine activities as well as submergences. However, the lack of relationship between P O 2  and any activity suggests that cardiac shunts are not regulated to maintain high arterial P O 2  values. These data support the idea that cardiac shunting is the passive by-product of regulation of vascular resistances by the autonomic nervous system. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Gamma ray transmission for hydraulic conductivity measurement of undisturbed soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Camargo Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective to determine the Hydraulic Conductivity K(theta function for different depth levels z, of columns of undisturbed soil, using the gamma ray transmission technique applied to the Sisson method. The results indicated a growing behavior for K(theta and a homogeneous soil density, both in relation to the increase of the depth. The methodology of gamma ray transmission showed satisfactory results on the determination of the hydraulic conductivity in columns of undisturbed soil, besides being very reliable and a nondestructive method.O estudo da condutividade hidráulica para solos não saturados é essencial quando aplicado às situações relacionadas à irrigação, drenagem e transporte de nutrientes no solo, é uma importante propriedade para desenvolvimentos de culturas agrícolas. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de determinar a função Condutividade Hidráulica K(teta, em diferentes níveis z de profundidade, em colunas de solo indeformado, utilizando a transmissão de raios gama aplicada ao método de Sisson. Os resultados indicam um comportamento crescente para K(teta e uma densidade de solo homogênea, ambos em relação ao aumento da profundidade. A metodologia de transmissão de raios gama mostrou resultados bastante satisfatórios na determinação da condutividade hidráulica em colunas de solo indeformado, além de ser muito confiável e não destrutivo.

  11. The effect of magnesium sulfate concentration on the effective concentration of rocuronium, and sugammadex-mediated reversal, in isolated left phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm preparations from the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Choon-Kyu; Sung, Tae-Yun; Choi, Seok-Jun; Choi, Hey-Ran; Kim, Yong Beom; Lee, Jung-Un; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2018-05-30

    Perioperative magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used for analgesic, anti-arrhythmic, and obstetric purposes. The effects of MgSO4 on the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by rocuronium, and the sugammadex reversal thereof, have not been clearly quantified. We investigated the effect increase concentrations of MgSO4 on the NMB by rocuronium, and sugammadex reversal, in isolated left phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm (PNHD) preparations from the rat. Rat PNHD preparations were randomly allocated to one of four groups varying in terms of MgSO4 concentration (1, 2, 3, and 4 mM, each n = 10, in Krebs solution). The train-of-four (TOF) and twitch height responses were recorded mechanomyographically. The preparations were treated with incrementally increasing doses of rocuronium and each group's effective concentration (EC)50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium were calculated via nonlinear regression. Then, sugammadex was administered in doses equimolar to rocuronium. The recovery index, time to T1 height >95% of control, and the time to a TOF ratio (TOFR) >0.9 after sugammadex administration were measured. The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium fell significantly as the magnesium level increased. The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium did not differ between the 3 and 4 mM groups. The recovery index, time to T1 height >95% of control, and time to a TOFR >0.9 after sugammadex administration did not differ among the four groups. Increases in the magnesium concentration in rat PNHD preparations proportionally enhanced the NMB induced by rocuronium but did not affect reversal by equimolar amounts of sugammadex.

  12. Effects of bromopride on the healing of left colonic anastomoses in rats with induced abdominal sepsis Efeitos da bromoprida na cicatrização de anastomoses no cólon esquerdo de ratos sob sepse abdominal induzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Marques e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of bromopride on the healing of left colonic anastomoses in rats with induced abdominal sepsis. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into two groups to receive either bromopride (experimental group- E or saline (control group- C. Each group was divided into subgroups of ten animals each to be euthanized on third (E3 and C3 or seventh day (E7 and C7 after surgery. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The rats underwent segmental left colon resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Adhesion formation, tensile strength and hydroxyproline concentration were assessed. Histomorphometry of collagen and histopathological analysis were also performed. RESULTS: On postoperative third day, anastomoses in bromopride-treated animals showed lower tensile strength (p=0.02 and greater reduction in hydroxyproline concentration (p=0.04 than in control animals. There was no statistical difference in these parameters on seventh day, and the remaining parameters were similar across subgroups. Collagen content was also similar across subgroups. CONCLUSION: In the presence of abdominal sepsis, the administration of bromopride was associated with decreased tensile strength and hydroxyproline concentration in left colonic anastomoses in rats three days after surgery.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da bromoprida sobre a cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon esquerdo de ratos na presença de sepse abdominal. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos distribuídos em grupos contendo 20 animais para administração de bromoprida ou salina. Cada grupo foi dividido em subgrupos contendo dez animais, para eutanásia no terceiro ou no sétimo dia de pós-operatório. A indução da sepse foi realizada pelo método de ligadura e punção do ceco. Foi realizada ressecção de um segmento do cólon esquerdo e anastomose término-terminal. À re-laparotomia, foi avaliada a quantidade total de aderências e removido um segmento colônico contendo a anastomose

  13. Left ventricular wall stress and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase gene expression in renal hypertensive rats: dose-dependent effects of ACE inhibition and AT1-receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierhut, W; Studer, R; Laurent, D; Kästner, S; Allegrini, P; Whitebread, S; Cumin, F; Baum, H P; de Gasparo, M; Drexler, H

    1996-05-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with altered Ca2+ handling and may predispose to the development of LV dysfunction and cardiac failure. At the cellular level, the re-expression of ANF represents a well-established marker of myocyte hypertrophy while the decreased expression of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase is thought o play a crucial role in the alterations of Ca2+ handling and LV function. We assessed the dose-dependent effect of chronic ACE inhibition or AT1 receptor blockade on cardiac function in relation to the cardiac expression of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and ANF. Renal hypertensive rats (2K-1C) were treated for 12 weeks with three different doses of the ACE inhibitor benazepril, the AT1-receptor antagonist valsartan (each drug 0.3, 3, and 10 mg/kg per day i.p.) or placebo. LV dimensions, hypertrophy and wall stress were determined in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging and the gene expressions of ANF and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were quantified by Northern blot. Low doses of both drugs did not affect blood pressure, hypertrophy, systolic wall stress and the ANF and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase gene expression. High doses of each drug reduced systolic blood pressure, wall stress, and LV hypertrophy to a similar extent and to values comparable to normotensive, age-matched rats. In addition, high dose treatment reduced LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volume as compared to untreated 2K-1C animals and normalized the mRNA levels of both ANF and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (as compared to normotensive animals). We conclude that in this model, high doses of ACE inhibition and AT1-receptor blockade are necessary to normalize systolic blood pressure, LV hypertrophy and systolic LV wall stress which, in turn, is associated with restoration of a normal cardiac phenotype with respect to SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and ANF and normalization of cardiac function.

  14. Concrete - Opalinus clay interaction: in-situ experiment and technique for coring undisturbed interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, U.; Dolder, F.; Jenni, A.; Schwyn, B.; Frieg, B.; Eul, A.

    2012-01-01

    undisturbed samples of the different interfaces with concrete. A first sampling campaign in 2009 used a simple stabilisation technique with a central anchor rod that was glued in before coring. It was impossible to retrieve completely undisturbed samples. A new technique was developed for the drilling campaign during February 2012, and it was successfully applied in all four sampling boreholes carried out, retrieving a total of 150 kg of core and 10 physically and chemically undisturbed interface samples. The technique comprised intersection drilling at 45 deg. inclination and 220 mm OD to within 50 cm of the vertical concrete pile. The base was reamed planar, and templates were installed to drill a circular arrangement of 6 boreholes with 46 mm OD, three at a time. These small boreholes extended across the entire pile (1.4-1.6 m), and anchor rods made of fibre glass and filled with cement were embedded with epoxy resin. A different template was subsequently used to over-core (131 mm OD / 101 mm core DM, double-barrel, acrylic liner) cutting through the reinforcements. Stabilized composite cores of 1.4-1.6 m length could be retrieved in this manner. (authors)

  15. Nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions from a riparian wetland soil: An undisturbed soil column study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Leoz, Borja [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Antigueedad, Inaki [Department of Geodynamic, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48940 Leioa (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [Department of Ecosystems, NEIKER-Tecnalia, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Ruiz-Romera, Estilita, E-mail: estilita.ruiz@ehu.es [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Riparian wetlands bordering intensively managed agricultural fields can act as biological filters that retain and transform agrochemicals such as nitrate and pesticides. Nitrate removal in wetlands has usually been attributed to denitrification processes which in turn imply the production of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O). Denitrification processes were studied in the Salburua wetland (northern Spain) by using undisturbed soil columns which were subsequently divided into three sections corresponding to A-, Bg- and B2g-soil horizons. Soil horizons were subjected to leaching with a 200 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -} L{sup -1} solution (rate: 90 mL day{sup -1}) for 125 days at two different temperatures (10 and 20 {sup o}C), using a new experimental design for leaching assays which enabled not only to evaluate leachate composition but also to measure gas emissions during the leaching process. Column leachate samples were analyzed for NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration, and dissolved organic carbon. Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) were determined in the undisturbed soil columns. The A horizon at 20 {sup o}C showed the highest rates of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal (1.56 mg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O production (5.89 mg CO{sub 2} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1} and 55.71 {mu}g N-N{sub 2}O kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}). For the Salburua wetland riparian soil, we estimated a potential nitrate removal capacity of 1012 kg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, and potential greenhouse gas emissions of 5620 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} and 240 kg N-N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. - Research Highlights: {yields}A new experimental design is proposed for leaching assays to simulate nitrogen transformations in riparian wetland soil. {yields}Denitrification is the main process responsible for nitrate removal in the riparian zone of Salburua wetland. {yields

  16. 3D-printing of undisturbed soil imaged by X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Matthias; Koestel, John; Schwen, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The unique pore structures in Soils are altered easily by water flow. Each sample has a different morphology and the results of repetitions vary as well. Soil macropores in 3D-printed durable material avoid erosion and have a known morphology. Therefore potential and limitations of reproducing an undisturbed soil sample by 3D-printing was evaluated. We scanned an undisturbed soil column of Ultuna clay soil with a diameter of 7 cm by micro X-ray computer tomography at a resolution of 51 micron. A subsample cube of 2.03 cm length with connected macropores was cut out from this 3D-image and printed in five different materials by a 3D-printing service provider. The materials were ABS, Alumide, High Detail Resin, Polyamide and Prime Grey. The five print-outs of the subsample were tested on their hydraulic conductivity by using the falling head method. The hydrophobicity was tested by an adapted sessile drop method. To determine the morphology of the print-outs and compare it to the real soil also the print-outs were scanned by X-ray. The images were analysed with the open source program ImageJ. The five 3D-image print-outs copied from the subsample of the soil column were compared by means of their macropore network connectivity, porosity, surface volume, tortuosity and skeleton. The comparison of pore morphology between the real soil and the print-outs showed that Polyamide reproduced the soil macropore structure best while Alumide print-out was the least detailed. Only the largest macropore was represented in all five print-outs. Printing residual material or printing aid material remained in and clogged the pores of all print-out materials apart from Prime Grey. Therefore infiltration was blocked in these print-outs and the materials are not suitable even though the 3D-printed pore shapes were well reproduced. All of the investigated materials were insoluble. The sessile drop method showed angles between 53 and 85 degrees. Prime Grey had the fastest flow rate; the

  17. Comparison of diffusion from a small island and an undisturbed ocean site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Brown, R.M.; SethuRaman, S.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the differences in diffusion from an obstacle to free air flow in the ocean and from an undisturbed ocean site. A small island was used as the obstacle and simultaneous releases of oil-fog smoke were made from the island and from a nearby boat. The widths of the plumes and their concentrations distributions were measured quantitatively during traverses across the plumes by a second boat. Extensive series of photographs were taken of the plumes from the surface and from the air. Meteorological measurements were made at two locations on the island, from the boats and from an aircraft. One test series was conducted during unstable conditions and a second series with neutral and stable conditions.Width of the island plume over short periods was from 1.5 to 4 times that of the boat plume with the greatest difference during stable periods. Over longer periods, the differences were somewhat greater and much of the dispersion was caused by plume meander. Height of the island plume averaged about twice that of the boat plume. Normalized maximum centerline concentrations from the boat plume were 1.4 times those of the island plume during unstable periods but about twice during stable and neutral conditions. Averaged over all tests, dispersion from the island was about twice as great as from the boat

  18. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2002-01-01

    Vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements in lysimetric laboratory conditions applying irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year (except radioiodine). A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, allowing us to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The data from the time dependence of the depth activity distribution (radionuclide concentration along the vertical soil profile) were used to test the model. The migration rate constants and migration rates were found to be affected by the contaminating radionuclides as well as by the site, type and depth of the soil. The relaxation times of the radionuclides in the soil horizons were calculated. The effects on the rate parameters of the permanent grass cover and the zeolite applied onto the arable soil surfaces were also investigated

  19. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R., E-mail: acandrello@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Araujo, Ednaldo S. [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Thomaz, Edivaldo L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste - UNICENTRO, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geografia; Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Augusto [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Macedo, Iris L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental

    2009-07-01

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 +- 15 Bq.m{sup -2} for South region to 15 +- 2 Bq.m{sup -2} for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  20. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Augusto; Macedo, Iris L.

    2009-01-01

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 ± 15 Bq.m -2 for South region to 15 ± 2 Bq.m -2 for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  1. The ecological half-life of 137Cs in undisturbed silt soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The time necessary to safely cultivate agricultural areas after they have been contaminated by radioactivity (e.g. after the Chernobyl accident) is not determined by the physical half-life of the radioactive isotopes in question but by their (usually much shorter) ecological half-life (). This half-life not only depends on the type of soil but also on whether the soil was fertilized or not. Therefore it is not possible to determine an ecological half-life that is universally valid. However, the value for undisturbed, unfertilized soil should provide a general indication for the duration of ecological half-life. In a silt soil in Vienna, Austria, the ecological half-life of 137 Cs was determined to be 0.8 years, which is much shorter than the physical half-life of 30 years. - Highlights: ► Absolute measurements of 137 Cs radioactivity in leaves of perennial plants. ► The natural 40 K radioactivity served as reference. ► The ecological half-life of 137 Cs in loamy soil was determined.

  2. Comparative study of methods to estimate hydraulic parameters in the hydraulically undisturbed Opalinus Clay (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Matray, J.-M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses, (France); Yu, C.; Gonçalvès, J. [Aix Marseille Université UMR 6635 CEREGE Technopôle Environnement Arbois-Méditerranée Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); and others

    2017-04-15

    The deep borehole (DB) experiment gave the opportunity to acquire hydraulic parameters in a hydraulically undisturbed zone of the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland). Three methods were used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values of the Opalinus Clay formation and its bounding formations through the 248 m deep borehole BDB-1: application of a Poiseuille-type law involving petrophysical measurements, spectral analysis of pressure time series and in situ hydraulic tests. The hydraulic conductivity range in the Opalinus Clay given by the first method is 2 × 10{sup -14}-6 × 10{sup -13} m s{sup -1} for a cementation factor ranging between 2 and 3. These results show low vertical variability whereas in situ hydraulic tests suggest higher values up to 7 × 10{sup -12} m s{sup -1}. Core analysis provides economical estimates of the homogeneous matrix hydraulic properties but do not account for heterogeneities at larger scale such as potential tectonic conductive features. Specific storage values obtained by spectral analysis are consistent and in the order of 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}, while formulations using phase shift and gain between pore pressure signals were found to be inappropriate to evaluate hydraulic conductivity in the Opalinus Clay. The values obtained are globally in good agreement with the ones obtained previously at the rock laboratory. (authors)

  3. Neonatal handling induces anovulatory estrous cycles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Since previous work has shown that stimulation early in life decreases sexual receptiveness as measured by the female lordosis quotient, we suggested that neonatal handling could affect the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The effects of neonatal handling on the estrous cycle and ovulation were analyzed in adult rats. Two groups of animals were studied: intact (no manipulation, N = 10 and handled (N = 11. Pups were either handled daily for 1 min during the first 10 days of life or left undisturbed. At the age of 90 days, a vaginal smear was collected daily at 9:00 a.m. and analyzed for 29 days; at 9:00 a.m. on the day of estrus, animals were anesthetized with thiopental (40 mg/kg, ip, the ovaries were removed and the oviduct was dissected and squashed between 2 glass slides. The number of oocytes of both oviductal ampullae was counted under the microscope. The average numbers for each phase of the cycle (diestrus I, diestrus II, proestrus and estrus during the period analyzed were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between intact and handled females during any of the phases. However, the number of handled females that showed anovulatory cycles (8 out of 11 was significantly higher than in the intact group (none out of 10. Neonatal stimulation may affect not only the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, as previously demonstrated, but also the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in female rats.

  4. Serca2a and Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares [Department of Physiology and Biophysic, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de [Department of Pharmacy, University Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Bissoli, Nazaré Souza, E-mail: nazarebissoli@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt{sub max}, − dP/dt{sub min} and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  5. Calculation of cardiac pressures using left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) derived from radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommer, E.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop formulas to determine cardiac pressures in an undisturbed flow in patients without valvular or shunt diseases. These are based entirely on the results of left ventricular ejection fraction rates, permitting pressure analysis of several compartments at the same tine. According to BORER et al. they also enable determination of left ventricular 'Functional Reserve' after bycycle exercise as well as left ventricular 'Relaxation Reserve'. They support the views of NYHA in determining the grades of cardiac insufficiency proving the system- and low-pressure participation. A single formula for pulmonary flow can determine the pulmonary arterial pressure. The left ventricular enddiastolic pressure can also be exclusively calculated by values of left ventricular functions, thus both formulas may be used in disorders of the mitral valves. The possibility to calculate pressures of all the compartments of the heart from left ventricular ejection rate shows, that in undisturbed flow global heart function depends on left ventricular function. Therefore the mutual dependence of these formulas presents an intercompartimental pressure regulation of the heart through pulmonary flow and pulmonary vascular pressure, which leaves an aspect of autonomous cardiac regulation open to discussion. (orig.) [de

  6. Estudo histomorfométrico dos cardiomiócitos do ventrículo esquerdo das ratas albinas durante a prenhez Histomorphometrical study of cardiomyocytes of the left ventricular of albino rats during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Liberatori Filho

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. No presente estudo propusemo-nos a avaliar, por meio da microscopia de luz, os aspectos morfológicos e morfométricos dos cardiomiócitos do ventrículo esquerdo de ratas albinas durante a prenhez. MÉTODOS. Acasalamos doze ratas virgens que foram dividas ao acaso em quatro grupos, de acordo com a idade gestacional. Os animais correspondentes a cada grupo foram sacrificados ao 1o(G-A, 7o(G-B, 14o(G-C e 21o(G-D dias de prenhez, sendo coletados fragmentos do terço médio do ventrículo esquerdo, os quais após processamento apropriado, permitiram observação adequada à microscopia de luz. A cariometria foi realizada mensurando-se os diâmetros maiores e menores dos cardiomiócitos com o auxílio de um tambor rotativo modelo K 8 X adaptado a um microscópio de luz. RESULTADOS. O estudo em nível da microscopia de luz praticamente não mostrou alterações com o decorrer da prenhez. No entanto, a morfometria revelou que os volumes dos cardiomiócitos estão aumentados no 14o dia da prenhez, mostrando-se estatisticamente significante quando comparado aos demais grupos estudados. Assim, nossos resultados demonstraram haver hipertrofia ventricular esquerda durante a gestação. CONCLUSÃO. Durante a gestação há um processo dinâmico reversível de remodelação ventricular em conseqüência das alterações adaptativas gravídicas.PURPOSE. In the present study we evaluated, by light microscopy, and throughout morphometry, whether hypertrophy of cardiac striated muscular fibers of left ventricular occur in albino rat, during pregnancy. METHODS. After maiting, 12 nuliparous rats were divided into four groups with three animals for each group. The female rats corresponding to each group were killed at 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days of pregnancy. RESULTS. Observation, on light microscopy (H.E had at one view, did not display any alterations during pregnancy. However, the morphometry revealed that nuclei of cardiomyocytes are augmented in

  7. Nitrate Leaching from Winter Cereal Cover Crops Using Undisturbed Soil-Column Lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, John J; Ricigliano, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L.), along with a no-cover control, using eight tension-drained undisturbed soil column lysimeters in a completely randomized design with two replicates. The lysimeters were configured to exclude runoff and to estimate NO-N leaching and flow-weighted NO-N concentration (FWNC). The temporal pattern of NO-N leaching showed a consistent highly significant ( leaching with cover crops compared with no cover but showed only small and periodically significant ( leaching was more affected by the quantity of establishment-season (mid-October to mid-December) precipitation than by cover crop species. For example, compared with no cover, winter cereal covers reduced NO-N leaching 95% in a dry year and 50% in wet years, with corresponding reductions in FWNC of 92 and 43%, respectively. These results are important for scientists, nutrient managers, and policymakers because they directly compare NO-N leaching from winter cereal covers and expand knowledge for developing management practices for winter cereals that can improve water quality and increase N efficiency in cropping systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Small scale temporal distribution of radiocesium in undisturbed coniferous forest soil: Radiocesium depth distribution profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramage, Mengistu T; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    The depth distribution of pre-Fukushima and Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in undisturbed coniferous forest soil was investigated at four sampling dates from nine months to 18 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The migration rate and short-term temporal variability among the sampling profiles were evaluated. Taking the time elapsed since the peak deposition of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs and the median depth of the peaks, its downward displacement rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.67 mm yr(-1) with a mean of 0.46 ± 0.25 mm yr(-1). On the other hand, in each examined profile considerable amount of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found in the organic layer (51%-92%). At this moment, the effect of time-distance on the downward distribution of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs seems invisible as its large portion is still found in layers where organic matter is maximal. This indicates that organic matter seems the primary and preferential sorbent of radiocesium that could be associated with the physical blockage of the exchanging sites by organic-rich dusts that act as a buffer against downward propagation of radiocesium, implying radiocesium to be remained in the root zone for considerable time period. As a result, this soil section can be a potential source of radiation dose largely due to high radiocesium concentration coupled with its low density. Generally, such kind of information will be useful to establish a dynamic safety-focused decision support system to ease and assist management actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface evolution and carbon sequestration in disturbed and undisturbed wetland soils of the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. J.; Rodríguez, J. F.; Saco, P. M.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the soil carbon storage and sequestration rates of undisturbed natural wetlands and disturbed wetlands subject to restriction of tidal flow and subsequent rehabilitation in an Australian estuary. Disturbed and undisturbed estuarine wetlands of the Hunter estuary, New South Wales, Australia were selected as the study sites for this research. Vertical accretion rates of estuarine substrates were combined with soil carbon concentrations and bulk densities to determine the carbon store and carbon sequestration rates of the substrates tested. Relationships between estuary water level, soil evolution and vertical accretion were also examined. The carbon sequestration rate of undisturbed wetlands was lower (15% for mangrove and 55% for saltmarsh) than disturbed wetlands, but the carbon store was higher (65% for mangrove and 60% for saltmarsh). The increased carbon sequestration rate of the disturbed wetlands was driven by substantially higher rates of vertical accretion (95% for mangrove and 345% for saltmarsh). Estuarine wetland carbon stores were estimated at 700-1000 Gg C for the Hunter estuary and 3900-5600 Gg C for New South Wales. Vertical accretion and carbon sequestration rates of estuarine wetlands in the Hunter are at the lower end of the range reported in the literature. The comparatively high carbon sequestration rates reported for the disturbed wetlands in this study indicate that wetland rehabilitation has positive benefits for regulation of atmospheric carbon concentrations, in addition to more broadly accepted ecosystem services.

  10. Mobility of radionuclides and trace elements in soil from legacy NORM and undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Meland, Sondre; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2014-05-01

    Investigation of radionuclides (232Th and 238U) and trace elements (Cr, As and Pb) in soil from two legacy NORM (former mining sites) and one undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich site was conducted as a part of the ongoing environmental impact assessment in the Fen Complex area (Norway). The major objectives were to determine the radionuclide and trace element distribution and mobility in soils as well as to analyze possible differences between legacy NORM and surrounding undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich soils. Inhomogeneous soil distribution of radionuclides and trace elements was observed for each of the investigated sites. The concentration of 232Th was high (up to 1685 mg kg(-1), i.e., ∼7000 Bq kg(-1)) and exceeded the screening value for the radioactive waste material in Norway (1 Bq g(-1)). Based on the sequential extraction results, the majority of 232Th and trace elements were rather inert, irreversibly bound to soil. Uranium was found to be potentially more mobile, as it was associated with pH-sensitive soil phases, redox-sensitive amorphous soil phases and soil organic compounds. Comparison of the sequential extraction datasets from the three investigated sites revealed increased mobility of all analyzed elements at the legacy NORM sites in comparison with the undisturbed 232Th-rich site. Similarly, the distribution coefficients Kd (232Th) and Kd (238U) suggested elevated dissolution, mobility and transportation at the legacy NORM sites, especially at the decommissioned Nb-mining site (346 and 100 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively), while the higher sorption of radionuclides was demonstrated at the undisturbed 232Th-rich site (10,672 and 506 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively). In general, although the concentration ranges of radionuclides and trace elements were similarly wide both at the legacy NORM and at the undisturbed 232Th-rich sites, the results of soil sequential extractions together with Kd values supported the expected differences

  11. Quantitative imaging of the 3-D distribution of cation adsorption sites in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Petter Gustafsson, Jon; Koestel, John

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have shown that the distribution of cation adsorption sites (CASs) is patchy at a millimetre to centimetre scale. Often, larger concentrations of CASs in biopores or aggregate coatings have been reported in the literature. This heterogeneity has implications on the accessibility of CASs and may influence the performance of soil system models that assume a spatially homogeneous distribution of CASs. In this study, we present a new method to quantify the abundance and 3-D distribution of CASs in undisturbed soil that allows for investigating CAS densities with distance to the soil macropores. We used X-ray imaging with Ba2+ as a contrast agent. Ba2+ has a high adsorption affinity to CASs and is widely used as an index cation to measure the cation exchange capacity (CEC). Eight soil cores (approx. 10 cm3) were sampled from three locations with contrasting texture and organic matter contents. The CASs of our samples were saturated with Ba2+ in the laboratory using BaCl2 (0.3 mol L-1). Afterwards, KCl (0.1 mol L-1) was used to rinse out Ba2+ ions that were not bound to CASs. Before and after this process the samples were scanned using an industrial X-ray scanner. Ba2+ bound to CASs was then visualized in 3-D by the difference image technique. The resulting difference images were interpreted as depicting the Ba2+ bound to CASs only. The X-ray image-derived CEC correlated significantly with results of the commonly used ammonium acetate method to determine CEC in well-mixed samples. The CEC of organic-matter-rich samples seemed to be systematically overestimated and in the case of the clay-rich samples with less organic matter the CEC seemed to be systematically underestimated. The results showed that the distribution of the CASs varied spatially within most of our samples down to a millimetre scale. There was no systematic relation between the location of CASs and the soil macropore structure. We are convinced that the approach proposed here will strongly

  12. Rapid phenotyping of crop root systems in undisturbed field soils using X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Johannes; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Colombi, Tino; Walter, Achim

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a powerful tool for root phenotyping. Compared to rather classical, destructive methods, CT encompasses various advantages. In pot experiments the growth and development of the same individual root can be followed over time and in addition the unaltered configuration of the 3D root system architecture (RSA) interacting with a real field soil matrix can be studied. Yet, the throughput, which is essential for a more widespread application of CT for basic research or breeding programs, suffers from the bottleneck of rapid and standardized segmentation methods to extract root structures. Using available methods, root segmentation is done to a large extent manually, as it requires a lot of interactive parameter optimization and interpretation and therefore needs a lot of time. Based on commercially available software, this paper presents a protocol that is faster, more standardized and more versatile compared to existing segmentation methods, particularly if used to analyse field samples collected in situ. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first study approaching to develop a comprehensive segmentation method suitable for comparatively large columns sampled in situ which contain complex, not necessarily connected root systems from multiple plants grown in undisturbed field soil. Root systems from several crops were sampled in situ and CT-volumes determined with the presented method were compared to root dry matter of washed root samples. A highly significant (P < 0.01) and strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) was found, demonstrating the value of the presented method in the context of field research. Subsequent to segmentation, a method for the measurement of root thickness distribution has been used. Root thickness is a central RSA trait for various physiological research questions such as root growth in compacted soil or under oxygen deficient soil conditions, but hardly assessable in high throughput until today, due

  13. Transport and modeling of estrogenic hormones in a dairy farm effluent through undisturbed soil lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Laure D; Bidwell, Vincent J; Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C; Northcott, Grant L

    2010-04-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including estrone (E1) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), in surface waters has been associated with physiological dysfunction in a number of aquatic organisms. One source of surface and groundwater contamination with E1 and E2 is the land application of animal wastes. The processes involved in the transport of these hormones in the soil, when applied with animal wastes, are still unclear. Therefore, a field-transport experiment was carried out, where a dairy farm effluent spiked with E1 and E2 was applied on large (50 cm diameter and 70 cm depth) undisturbed soil lysimeters. The concentrations of E1 and E2 in the leachate were monitored over a 3-month period, during which irrigation was applied. The experimental data suggest that E1 and E2 were transported through preferential/macropore flow pathways. The data from the experiment also show that E1 and E2 are leached earlier than the inert tracer (bromide). This observation can be explained either by the presence of antecedent concentrations in the soil or by an enhanced transport of E1 and E2 through the soil. A state-space mixing-cell model was further developed in order to describe the transport of E1 and E2 by three transport processes in parallel. The inverse modeling of the leaching data did not support the hypothesis that antecedent concentrations of estrogens could be responsible for the observed breakthrough curves but confirmed that estrogens were transported mainly via preferential/macropore flow and also via an enhanced transport. The parameter values that characterized this enhanced transport strongly suggest that this enhanced transport is mediated by colloids. For the first time, the simultaneous transport of E1 and E2 was modeled under transient conditions, taking into account the advection-dispersion, preferential/macropore flow, and colloidal-enhanced transport processes as well as E1 and E2 dissipation in the soil. These findings have major implications in

  14. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m -2 , 240 ± 65 Bq m -2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m -2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m -2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the

  15. The Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist Almorexant Promotes Sleep Without Impairment of Performance in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypocretin receptor (HcrtR antagonist almorexant (ALM has potent hypnotic actions but little is known about neurocognitive performance in the presence of ALM. HcrtR antagonists are hypothesized to induce sleep by disfacilitation of wake-promoting systems whereas GABAA receptor modulators such as zolpidem (ZOL induce sleep through general inhibition of neural activity. To test the hypothesis that less functional impairment results from HcrtR antagonist-induced sleep, we evaluated the performance of rats in the Morris Water Maze in the presence of ALM vs. ZOL. Performance in spatial reference memory (SRM and spatial working memory (SWM tasks were assessed during the dark period after equipotent sleep-promoting doses (100 mg/kg, po following undisturbed and sleep deprivation (SD conditions. ALM-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle (VEH-treated rats for all SRM performance measures (distance travelled, latency to enter, time within, and number of entries into, the target quadrant after both the undisturbed and 6 h SD conditions. In contrast, rats administered ZOL showed impairments in all parameters measured compared to VEH or ALM in the undisturbed conditions. Following SD, ZOL-treated rats also showed impairments in all measures. ALM-treated rats were similar to VEH-treated rats for all SWM measures (velocity, time to locate the platform and success rate at finding the platform within 60 s after both the undisturbed and SD conditions. In contrast, ZOL-treated rats showed impairments in velocity and in the time to locate the platform. Importantly, ZOL rats only completed the task 23-50% of the time while ALM and VEH rats completed the task 79-100% of the time. Thus, following equipotent sleep-promoting doses, ZOL impaired rats in both memory tasks while ALM rats performed at levels comparable to VEH rats. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that less impairment results from HcrtR antagonism than from GABAA

  16. The 7Be profiles in the undisturbed soil used for reference site to estimate the soil erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raksawong, S; Bhongsuwan, T; Krmar, M

    2017-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7 Be is increasingly used to obtain information on event-related soil erosion rates within agricultural landscapes. In this study, we select two undisturbed and flat areas to calculate the reference inventory and relaxation mass depth by using 7 Be technique to document short-term erosion. Our results showed that the depth distribution of 7 Be in undisturbed soil profiles was 1.0 cm in sites S02 and S03; the initial activities were 31.6 and 38.8 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. The relaxation mass depths were 5.4 and 7.2 kg.m -2 and the measured reference 7 Be inventories were 71 and 110 Bq.m -2 for sites S02 and S03, respectively. The difference values of the relaxation mass depth and the reference inventory of both sites implied that for determining a short term soil erosion using 7 Be, the reference site was suggested to be selected as close as possible to the study site. (paper)

  17. Social jet-lag potentiates obesity and metabolic syndrome when combined with cafeteria diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Bautista, Estefania; Velasco-Ramos, Mario; Osnaya-Ramírez, Iván; Ángeles-Castellanos, Manuel; Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina

    2017-07-01

    Modern lifestyle promotes shifted sleep onset and shifted wake up time between weekdays and weekends, producing a condition termed "social-jet lag." Disrupted sleep promotes increased appetite for carbohydrate and fat-rich food, which in long term leads to overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. In order to mimic the human situation we produced an experimental model of social-jet lag (Sj-l). With this model, we explored the link between shifted sleep time with consumption of a cafeteria diet (CafD) and the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The first experiment was designed to create and confirm the model of Sj-l. Rats (n=8-10/group) were exposed to a shifted sleep time protocol achieved by placing the rats in slow rotating wheels from Monday to Friday during the first 4h of the light period, while on weekends they were left undisturbed. The second experiment (n=8-12/group) explored the combined effect of Sj-l with the opportunity to ingest CafD. All protocols lasted 12weeks. We evaluated the development of overweight and indicators of metabolic syndrome. The statistical significance for all variables was set at Pdislipidemia. Present data provide an experimental model of social-jet lag that combined with overconsumption of CafD, and maximized the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Importantly, access to CafD during the night did not lead to overweight nor metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly Palatable Food during Adolescence Improves Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Rats that Experienced Neonatal Maternal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum consumption of highly palatable food (HPF during adolescence on the adverse behavioral outcome of neonatal maternal separation.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 hours daily during the first 2 weeks of birth (maternal separation, MS or left undisturbed (nonhandled, NH. Half of MS pups received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28 (MS+HPF. Pups were subjected to behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to stress challenge was analyzed by radioimmunoassay.ResultsDaily caloric intake and body weight gain did not differ among the experimental groups. Ambulatory activities were decreased defecation activity and rostral grooming were increased in MS controls (fed with chow only compared with NH rats. MS controls spent less time in open arms, and more time in closed arms during the elevated plus maze test, than NH rats. Immobility duration during the forced swim test was increased in MS controls compared with NH rats. Cookie access normalized the behavioral scores of ambulatory and defecation activities and grooming, but not the scores during the elevated plus maze and swim tests in MS rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was blunted in MS rats fed with chow only, and cookie access normalized it.ConclusionProlonged access to HPF during adolescence and youth partly improves anxiety-related, but not depressive, symptoms in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, possibly in relation with improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis.

  19. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  20. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  1. Plasma Insulin and the Time Pattern of Feeding in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.; de Ruiter, L.

    1977-01-01

    Blood levels of glucose and insulin during meals and between-meal-intervals were measured in virtually undisturbed rats. After a peak due to glucose absorbed from the meal blood sugar soon reverts to the pre-meal level. Insulin shows a similar peak followed by a continuing decline so that just

  2. Evidence of discontinuous and continuous gas migration through undisturbed and self-sealed Cox clay-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, C. A.; M'Jahad, S.; Skoczylas, F.; Talandier, J.; Ghayaza, M.

    2012-01-01

    it is a long-lasting procedure, it allows to assess both gas migration modes at the sample outlet (i.e. discontinuous or continuous). In our laboratory, by using the step-by-step method under in situ confining stresses (5 to 12 MPa), and argon as gas, former studies have mainly investigated discontinuous gas passage for vertical, horizontal or inclined cores from the Bure site. A number of samples was self-sealed, mainly those from horizontal or inclined cores. Variations by one order of magnitude have been recorded between results on horizontal and inclined cores or vertical cores. While GBP values range from 1.26 MPa and up to 3 MPa for the first test series on vertical cores, it is almost an order of magnitude lower for the second test series (horizontal or inclined cores), with values ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MPa. This difference is mainly associated to gas passage through self-sealed fractures, in relation with clay transverse anisotropy. Indeed, COx clay-stone is a sedimentary indurated clay, composed of sub-horizontal diagenetic bedding planes: whenever GBP tests are performed along the bedding planes, lower values may be expected (due to a greater number of sealed cracks, created during sample preparation) rather than when performing GBP experiments perpendicularly to the bedding planes. Despite this extensive research, which was backed by numerical simulations of homogeneous media with LML and EDF-ASTER codes, several scientific questions remain. In particular, argillite self-sealing or undisturbed states may display different gas migration properties: it is expected that undisturbed matter will let gas pass at higher pressure than if self-sealed. Also, the discontinuous gas migration mode may be related to diffusion or capillary snap off, or to both phenomena. And discontinuous breakthrough does not suffice to describe fully the gas migration phenomena through undisturbed or self-sealed argillite, for it occurs distinctly from continuous passage and gas

  3. Recommendations for computer code selection of a flow and transport code to be used in undisturbed vadose zone calculations for TWRS immobilized wastes environmental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VOOGD, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of three software proposals is performed to recommend a computer code for immobilized low activity waste flow and transport modeling. The document uses criteria restablished in HNF-1839, ''Computer Code Selection Criteria for Flow and Transport Codes to be Used in Undisturbed Vadose Zone Calculation for TWRS Environmental Analyses'' as the basis for this analysis

  4. Longitudinal variation in suspended sediment and turbidity of two undisturbed streams in northwestern California in relation to the monitoring of water quality above and below a land disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve G. Markman

    1990-01-01

    Abstract - In-stream water quality regulations of California state that silvicultural disturbances must not increase turbidity levels more than 20 percent above naturally occurring background levels. These regulations fail to take into account the natural variation of turbidity and suspended sediment concentration along a short stretch of an undisturbed stream. At...

  5. The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds – a review of the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the riparian zone

  6. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  7. The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett

    2012-01-01

    This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…

  8. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  9. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  10. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dousset, S., E-mail: sylvie.dousset@limos.uhp-nancy.f [Nancy-Universite, CNRS, LIMOS, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Thevenot, M. [Universite de Lille 1, CNRS, Geosystemes, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Schrack, D. [INRA-SAD ASTER, 88500 Mirecourt (France); AFSSA, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches en Hydrologie, 54000 Nancy (France); Gouy, V.; Carluer, N. [UR Milieux Aquatiques, Ecologie et Pollution, Cemagref, 69336 Lyon Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  11. Influence of organic amendments on diuron leaching through an acidic and a calcareous vineyard soil using undisturbed lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenot, M.; Dousset, S.; Rousseaux, S.; Andreux, F.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different organic amendments on diuron leaching was studied through undisturbed vineyard soil columns. Two composts (A and D), the second at two stages of maturity, and two soils (VR and Bj) were sampled. After 1 year, the amount of residues (diuron + metabolites) in the leachates of the VR soil (0.19-0.71%) was lower than in the Bj soil (4.27-8.23%), which could be explained by stronger diuron adsorption on VR. An increase in the amount of diuron leached through the amended soil columns, compared to the blank, was observed for the Bj soil only. This result may be explained by the formation of mobile complexes between diuron and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) through the Bj soil, or by competition between diuron and WEOM for the adsorption sites in the soil. For both soils, the nature of the composts and their degree of maturity did not significantly influence diuron leaching. - The application of organic amendments increased diuron leaching through a sandy-loam soil, in contrast to a clay-loam soil

  12. Influence of organic amendments on diuron leaching through an acidic and a calcareous vineyard soil using undisturbed lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenot, M. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)], E-mail: mathieu.thevenot@u-bourgogne.fr; Dousset, S. [UMR 5561 Biogeosciences, CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Rousseaux, S. [EA 4149 Laboratoire de Recherche en Vigne et Vin, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, rue Claude Ladrey, 21000 Dijon (France); Andreux, F. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)

    2008-05-15

    The influence of different organic amendments on diuron leaching was studied through undisturbed vineyard soil columns. Two composts (A and D), the second at two stages of maturity, and two soils (VR and Bj) were sampled. After 1 year, the amount of residues (diuron + metabolites) in the leachates of the VR soil (0.19-0.71%) was lower than in the Bj soil (4.27-8.23%), which could be explained by stronger diuron adsorption on VR. An increase in the amount of diuron leached through the amended soil columns, compared to the blank, was observed for the Bj soil only. This result may be explained by the formation of mobile complexes between diuron and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) through the Bj soil, or by competition between diuron and WEOM for the adsorption sites in the soil. For both soils, the nature of the composts and their degree of maturity did not significantly influence diuron leaching. - The application of organic amendments increased diuron leaching through a sandy-loam soil, in contrast to a clay-loam soil.

  13. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S; Thévenot, M; Schrack, D; Gouy, V; Carluer, N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Schrack, D.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  15. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  16. The behavior of radioactive 137Cs and stable Cs at the isolated undisturbed mountain pond in Fukui, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Kazumi; Kimura, Makio; Ando, Kenji; Amano, Hikaru

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of radioactive 137 Cs and stable Cs at the isolated undisturbed mountain pond in Fukui, Japan was studied for the pond water, the sedimentary grains and the soil near the pond. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in the pond water ranged from 0.23 to 0.85 Bq/m 3 and from 0.005 to 0.018 mg/m 3 , respectively. The sedimentary grains were sorted by sieving into fractions with diameter from 2 mm to less than 38 μm. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in the sorted grains were measured, and those of the adsorbed state were determined by subtracting the concentration of the grain matrix. The adsorbed concentrations increased with decrease in particle diameter and depended less on the kind of samples. The in-situ distribution coefficient Kd depended largely on particle diameter and increased with the decrease in diameter. The values of Kd ranged from about 20 to 1200 m 3 /kg for stable Cs and about 15 to 1000 m 3 /kg for 137 Cs, and the Kd of 137 Cs seemed to be slightly smaller than that of stable Cs. The concentration of stable Cs in the sedimentary mud was found to be close to that of the fine grains. The concentrations of stable Cs in the soil near the pond was about 7.7 mg/kg, and that of 137 Cs was about 0.6 kBq/kg for the surface layer soil and decreased with increase in soil depth. (author)

  17. Migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in undisturbed soil profiles under controlled and close-to-real conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Rosen, K.; Fernandez, V.; Juhan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Migration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in undisturbed soil was studied in large lysimeters three and four years after contamination, as part of a larger European project studying radionuclide soil-plant interactions. The lysimeters were installed in greenhouses with climate control and contaminated with radionuclides in an aerosol mixture, simulating fallout from a nuclear accident. The soil types studied were loam, silt loam, sandy loam and loamy sand. The soils were sampled to 30-40 cm depth in 1997 and 1998. The total deposition of 137 Cs ranged from 24 to 45 MBq/m 2 , and of 90 Sr from 23 to 52 MBq/m 2 . It was shown that migration of 137 Cs was fastest in sandy loam, and of 90 Sr fastest in sandy loam and loam. The slowest migration of both nuclides was found in loamy sand. Retention within the upper 5 cm was 60% for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, while in loamy sand it was 97 and 96%, respectively. In 1998, migration rates, calculated as radionuclide weighted median depth (migration centre) divided by time since deposition were 1.1 cm/year for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, 0.8 and 1.0 cm/year, respectively, in loam, 0.6 and 0.8 cm/year in silt loam, and 0.4 and 0.6 cm/year for 137 Cs and 90 Sr, respectively, in loamy sand. A distinction is made between short-term migration, caused by events soon after deposition and less affected by soil type, and long-term migration, more affected by e.g. soil texture. Three to four years after deposition, effects of short-term migration is still dominant in the studied soils

  18. Acid-base buffering of soils in transitional and transitional-accumulative positions of undisturbed southern-taiga landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakova, E. S.; Ishkova, I. V.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    The method of continuous potentiometric titration (CPT) of soil water suspensions was used to evaluate the acid-base buffering of samples from the major genetic horizons of podzolic soils on a slope and soddy gley soils on the adjacent floodplain of a rivulet. In the soils of the slope, the buffering to acid upon titration from the pH of the initial titration point (ITP) to pH 3 in all the horizons was 1.5-2.0 times lower than that in the podzolic soils of the leveled interfluve, which could be due to the active leaching of exchangeable bases and oxalate-soluble aluminum and iron compounds with the later soil flows. In the soddy gley soils, the buffering to acid in the mineral horizons was 2-10 times higher than that in the podzolic soils. A direct dependence of the soil buffering to acid on the total content of exchangeable bases and on the content of oxalate-soluble aluminum compounds was found. A direct dependence of the buffering to basic upon titration from the ITP to pH 10 on the contents of the oxalate-soluble aluminum and organic matter was observed in the mineral horizons of all the studied soils. The soil treatment with Tamm's reagent resulted in the decrease of the buffering to acid in the soddy gley soils of the floodplain, as well as in the decrease of the buffering to basic in the soils on the slopes and in the soddy gley soils. It was also found that the redistribution of the mobile aluminum compounds between the eluvial, transitional, and transitional-accumulative positions in the undisturbed southern taiga landscapes leads to significant spatial differentiation of the acid-base buffering of the mineral soil horizons with a considerable increase in the buffer capacity of the soils within the transitional-accumulative terrain positions.

  19. Left regular bands of groups of left quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1988-10-01

    A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs

  20. The density of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in South East Australia is greater in undisturbed than in disturbed habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Hinson , Eloise M.; Duncan , Michael; Lim , Julianne; Arundel , Jonathan; Oldroyd , Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractApis mellifera is an important pollinator but is sometimes associated with adverse effects on natural ecosystems. We surveyed pairs of disturbed and undisturbed sites across three biomes in South East Australia. We used pheromone lures to trap drones, genotyped the drones to infer the number of colonies within flight range and then estimated colony densities using synthetic sampling distributions. Estimated colony densities ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 colonies km−2 ...

  1. Comparison of absolute biochemical parameters of undisturbed soils in Mediterranean environments (NE Spain) with corresponding parameters relative to soil organic carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez de Ridder, Patrícia; Marando, Graciela; Josa March, Ramon; Ginovart Gisbert, Marta; Ras Sabido, Antoni; Bonmati Pont, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The study of soil quality requires the establishment of quality standards. To this end, several authors have highlighted the need to create databases of quality indicators, such as biochemical properties, for different types of undisturbed soils under various climates and to establish standardised methodologies for their development. In Spain, studies of the quality of native soils were initiated > 15 years ago by several groups of authors from differing locations, but little is known regardi...

  2. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  3. Neutrosophic Left Almost Semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the theory of neutrosophy to study left almost semigroup shortly LAsemigroup. We generalize the concepts of LA-semigroup to form that for neutrosophic LA-semigroup. We also extend the ideal theory of LA-semigroup to neutrosophy and discuss different kinds of neutrosophic ideals. We also find some new type of neutrosophic ideal which is related to the strong or pure part of neutrosophy. We have given many examples to illustrate the theory of neutrosophic LA-semigroup and display many properties of neutrosophic LA-semigroup in this paper.

  4. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  5. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  6. Effect of maternal probiotic intervention on HPA axis, immunity and gut microbiota in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Barouei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine whether maternal probiotic intervention influences the alterations in the brain-immune-gut axis induced by neonatal maternal separation (MS and/or restraint stress in adulthood (AS in Wistar rats. DESIGN: Dams had free access to drinking water supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12® (3 × 10(9 CFU/mL and Propionibacterium jensenii 702 (8.0 × 10(8 CFU/mL from 10 days before conception until postnatal day (PND 22 (weaning day, or to control ad lib water. Offspring were subjected to MS from PND 2 to 14 or left undisturbed. From PND 83 to 85, animals underwent 30 min/day AS, or were left undisturbed as controls. On PND 24 and 86, blood samples were collected for corticosterone, ACTH and IgA measurement. Colonic contents were analysed for the composition of microflora and luminal IgA levels. RESULTS: Exposure to MS significantly increased ACTH levels and neonatal fecal counts of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, E. coli, enterococci and clostridia, but reduced plasma IgA levels compared with non-MS animals. Animals exposed to AS exhibited significantly increased ACTH and corticosterone levels, decreased aerobic bacteria and bifidobacteria, and increased Bacteroides and E. coli counts compared to non-AS animals. MS coupled with AS induced significantly decreased anaerobes and clostridia compared with the non-stress adult controls. Maternal probiotic intervention significantly increased neonatal corticosterone levels which persisted until at least week 12 in females only, and also resulted in elevated adult ACTH levels and altered neonatal microflora comparable to that of MS. However, it improved plasma IgA responses, increased enterococci and clostridia in MS adults, increased luminal IgA levels, and restored anaerobes, bifidobacteria and E. coli to normal in adults. CONCLUSION: Maternal probiotic intervention induced activation of neonatal stress pathways and an imbalance in gut microflora. Importantly

  7. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD Book Project: Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Dixon, John C.; Zwolinski, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    The currently prepared SEDIBUD Book on "Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments" (edited by Achim A. Beylich, John C. Dixon and Zbigniew Zwolinski and published by Cambridge University Press) is summarizing and synthesizing the achievements of the International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G./A.I.G.) Working Group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments), which has been active since 2005 (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html). Amplified climate change and ecological sensitivity of largely undisturbed polar and high-altitude cold climate environments have been highlighted as key global environmental issues. The effects of projected climate change will change surface environments in cold regions and will alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment in these largely undisturbed environments is acute. Our book addresses this existing key knowledge gap. The applied approach of integrating comparable and longer-term field datasets on contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes from a number of different defined cold climate catchment geosystems for better understanding (i) the environmental drivers and rates of contemporary denudational surface processes and (ii) possible effects of projected climate change in cold regions is unique in the field of geomorphology. Largely undisturbed cold climate environments can provide baseline data for modeling the effects of environmental change. The book synthesizes work carried out by numerous SEDIBUD Members over the last decade in numerous cold climate catchment geosystems worldwide. For reaching a global cover of different cold climate environments the book is - after providing an introduction part and a basic part on climate change in cold environments and general implications for solute and sedimentary fluxes - dealing in different

  8. Comparison of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from disturbed and adjacent undisturbed regions of a coastal salt marsh in Clinton, Connecticut, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, John C.; Lefor, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of salt marsh plant species Spartina alterniflora, S. patens, Distichlis spicata, and others were examined for the presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Samples were taken from introduced planted material in a salt marsh restoration project and from native material in adjacent marsh areas along the Indian River, Clinton, Connecticut, USA. After ten years the replanted area still has sites devoid of vegetation. The salt marsh plants introduced there were devoid of VAM fungi, while high marsh species from the adjacent undisturbed region showed consistent infection, leading the authors to suggest that VAM fungal infection of planting stocks may be a factor in the success of marsh restoration.

  9. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  10. Analysis of morphological variability and heritability in the head of the Argentine Black and White Tegu (Salvator merianae): undisturbed vs. disturbed environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Carolina; Giri, Federico; Siroski, Pablo; Amavet, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    The heterogeneity of biotic and abiotic factors influencing fitness produce selective pressures that promote local adaptation and divergence among different populations of the same species. In order for adaptations to be maintained through evolutionary time, heritable genetic variation controlling the expression of the morphological features under selection is necessary. Here we compare morphological shape variability and size of the cephalic region of Salvator merianae specimens from undisturbed environments to those of individuals from disturbed environments, and estimated heritability for shape and size using geometric morphometric and quantitative genetics tools. The results of these analyzes indicated that there are statistically significant differences in shape and size between populations from the two environments. Possibly, one of the main determinants of cephalic shape and size is adaptation to the characteristics of the environment and to the trophic niche. Individuals from disturbed environments have a cephalic region with less shape variation and also have a larger centroid size when compared to individuals from undisturbed environments. The high heritability values obtained for shape and size in dorsal view and right side view indicate that these phenotypic characters have a great capacity to respond to the selection pressures to which they are subjected. Data obtained here could be used as an important tool when establishing guidelines for plans for the sustainable use and conservation of S. merianae and other species living in disturbed areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  12. Analysis of c-Fos induction in response to social interaction in male and female Fisher 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Amy E; Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Chun, Lauren E; Spencer, Robert L; Varlinskaya, Elena; Deak, Terrence

    2017-10-01

    Sex differences in the expression of social behavior are typically apparent in adolescent and adult rats. While the neurobiology underlying juvenile social play behavior has been well characterized, less is known about discrete brain regions involved in adult responsiveness to a same sex peer. Furthermore, whether adult males and females differ in their responsiveness to a social interaction in terms of neuronal activation indexed via immediate early gene (IEG) expression remains to be determined. Thus, the present study was designed to identify key sites relevant to the processing of sensory stimuli (generally) or social stimuli (specifically) after brief exposure to a same-sex social partner by assessing IEG expression. Four-month-old male and female Fisher (F) 344 rats (N=38; n=5-8/group) were either left undisturbed in their home cage as controls (HCC), exposed to a testing context alone for 30min (CXT), or were placed in the context for 20min and then allowed to socially interact (SI) with a sex-matched conspecific for 10min. Females demonstrated greater levels of social behavior, relative to males. Analysis of c-Fos induction revealed that females exhibited greater c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex, regardless of condition. In many brain regions, induction was similar in the CXT and SI groups. However, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), females exhibited greater c-Fos induction in response to the social interaction relative to their male counterparts, indicating a sex difference in responsivity to social stimuli. Taken together, these data suggest that the BNST is a sexually dimorphic region in terms of activation in response to social stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms.

  14. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  15. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  16. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  18. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  19. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behara Satyanarayana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%, followed by Sundar (27% and Limbang (15%. The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%. The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  1. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

  2. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzaty Horsali, Nurul Amira; Mat Zauki, Nurul Ashikin; Otero, Viviana; Nadzri, Muhammad Izuan; Ibrahim, Sulong; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS) and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM) observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%), followed by Sundar (27%) and Limbang (15%). The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%). The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index) was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present. PMID:29479500

  3. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Behara; M Muslim, Aidy; Izzaty Horsali, Nurul Amira; Mat Zauki, Nurul Ashikin; Otero, Viviana; Nadzri, Muhammad Izuan; Ibrahim, Sulong; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite-ALOS) and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method-PCQM) observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%), followed by Sundar (27%) and Limbang (15%). The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans , Rhizophora apiculata , Sonneratia caseolaris , S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%). The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok-suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index) was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  4. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  5. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...... [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients....

  6. ''Natural'' left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed

  7. Adolescence fluoxetine increases serotonergic activity in the raphe-hippocampus axis and improves depression-like behaviors in female rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang Bae; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Vitaly; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if fluoxetine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, would reverse adverse behavioral effects of neonatal maternal separation in female rats. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 3h during postnatal day (PND) 1-14 (maternal separation; MS) or left undisturbed (non-handled; NH). Female NH and MS pups received intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) or vehicle daily from PND 35 until the end of the whole experimental period. Rats were either subjected to behavioral tests during PND 44-54, or sacrificed for neurochemical analyses during PND 43-45. Daily food intake and weight gain of both NH and MS pups were suppressed by fluoxetine, with greater effects in MS pups. MS experience increased immobility and decrease swimming in forced swim test. Swimming was increased, although immobility was not significantly decreased, in MS females by adolescence fluoxetine. However, adolescence fluoxetine increased immobility during forced swim test and decreased time spent in open arms during elevated plus maze test in NH females. Fluoxetine normalized MS-induced decrease of the raphe 5-HT levels and increased 5-HT metabolism in the hippocampus in MS females, and increased the hypothalamic 5-HT both in NH and MS. Fluoxetine decreased the raphe 5-HT and increased the plasma corticosterone in NH females. Results suggest that decreased 5-HTergic activity in the raphe nucleus is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression-like behaviors, and increased 5-HTergic activities in the raphe-hippocampus axis may be a part of anti-depressant efficacy of fluoxetine, in MS females. Also, an extra-hypothalamic 5-HTergic activity may contribute to the increased anorectic efficacy of fluoxetine in MS females. Additionally, decreased 5-HT in the raphe and elevated plasma corticosterone may be related with fluoxetine-induced depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors in NH females. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  9. Lessons From Experiments in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gramsbergen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human.

  10. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    At the height of mass activity on the Left, the ascendancy of the women's liberation movement (WLM), and the beginnings of real social and personal change for men and women, the 1970s are increasingly seen as the decade when sixties permissiveness began to be truly felt in Britain. This article...... draws upon a personal archive of correspondence from this turbulent decade, between two revolutionary women, Di Parkin and Annie Howells. It argues that the women's letters form an important contribution to new understandings about the construction of the post-war gendered self. The letters represent...... an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  11. Time left in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; King, Adam Philip; Gallistel, C R

    2007-02-22

    Evidence suggests that the online combination of non-verbal magnitudes (durations, numerosities) is central to learning in both human and non-human animals [Gallistel, C.R., 1990. The Organization of Learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA]. The molecular basis of these computations, however, is an open question at this point. The current study provides the first direct test of temporal subtraction in a species in which the genetic code is available. In two experiments, mice were run in an adaptation of Gibbon and Church's [Gibbon, J., Church, R.M., 1981. Time left: linear versus logarithmic subjective time. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 7, 87-107] time left paradigm in order to characterize typical responding in this task. Both experiments suggest that mice engaged in online subtraction of temporal values, although the generalization of a learned response rule to novel stimulus values resulted in slightly less systematic responding. Potential explanations for this pattern of results are discussed.

  12. Cardiac microvascular rarefaction in hyperthyroidism-induced left ventricle dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Felipe; Estato, Vanessa; Carvalho, Vinícius Frias; Torres, Rafael Carvalho; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    The pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroidism-induced left ventricle (LV) dysfunction and hypertrophy directly involves the heart and indirectly involves the neuroendocrine systems. The effects of hyperthyroidism on the microcirculation are still controversial in experimental models. We investigated the effects of hyperthyroidism on the cardiac function and microcirculation of an experimental rat model. Male Wistar rats (170-250 g) were divided into two groups: the euthyroid group (n = 10), which was treated with 0.9% saline solution, and the hyperthyroid group (n = 10), which was treated with l-thyroxine (600 μg/kg/day, i.p.) during 14 days. An echocardiographic study was performed to evaluate the alterations in cardiac function, structure and geometry. The structural capillary density and the expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptor in the LV were analyzed using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Hyperthyroidism was found to induce profound cardiovascular alterations, such as systolic hypertension, tachycardia, LV dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial fibrosis. This study demonstrates the existence of structural capillary rarefaction and the down-regulation of the cardiac angiotensin II AT1 receptor in the myocardium of hyperthyroid rats in comparison with euthyroid rats. Microvascular rarefaction may be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperthyroidism-induced cardiovascular alterations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow soils and its relation to 137Cs soil-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmer, Michael; Hromatka, Angelika; Lettner, Herbert; Strebl, Friederike

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow sites and its relation to the soil-to-plant transfer. Soil and plant samples were taken in August 1999 from an altitude transect (800-1600 m.a.s.l.) at Gastein valley, Austria. Soil samples were subdivided into 3-cm layers for analyses of total, K 2 SO 4 -extractable and microbially stored 137 Cs. Microbial biomass was measured by the fumigation extraction method, and fungal biomass was quantified using ergosterol as biomarker molecule. In general, the quantity of 137 Cs stored in the living soil microbial biomass was relatively small. At the high-altitude meadows, showing high amounts of fungal biomass, microbially stored 137 Cs amounted to 0.64 ± 0.14 kBq m -2 which corresponds to about 1.2-2.7% of the total 137 Cs soil inventory. At lower altitudes, microbial 137 Cs content was distinctly smaller and in most cases not measurable at all using the fumigation extraction method. However, a positive correlation between the observed soil-to-plant aggregated transfer factor, microbially stored 137 Cs and fungal biomass was found, which indicates a possible role of fungal biomass in the storage and turnover of 137 Cs in soils and in the 137 Cs uptake by plants

  14. Measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 as undisturbed tracers for the representing of atmospheric transport after disposal of radioactivity from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T.; Salvamoser, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) operates since 1996 a sampling and measurement device for the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 in Offenbach. These measurements are embedded in the German Measurement and Information System for Monitoring Environmental Radioactivity (Integriertes Mess- und Informationssystem zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet in der Umwelt, IMIS) [1]. In addition to these measurements the DWD is sampling rare gases in Potsdam and since 2014 in Trier in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS). In the frame of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)-program of the WMO the DWD operated a sampling station at the Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) from 1999 to 2005. This location at the Zugspitze is well suited for the observation of long distance transport of Kr-85 in the higher atmosphere. The DWD in Offenbach operates a complex analytical system for the measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 since 1998. This system consists of sampling with first enrichment, second enrichment, gas chromatographic separation and preparation of Krypton and Xenon and measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133. Using the example Fukushima, it is shown, that the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 are well undisturbed tracers for atmospheric transport in case of a nuclear accident or routine nuclear reprocessing plants. Measurements of Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Kr-85 are correlated with source and atmospheric transport to the sampling sites at Offenbach and Potsdam.

  15. Generation of Novel Traj18-Deficient Mice Lacking Vα14 Natural Killer T Cells with an Undisturbed T Cell Receptor α-Chain Repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyambayar Dashtsoodol

    Full Text Available Invariant Vα14 natural killer T (NKT cells, characterized by the expression of a single invariant T cell receptor (TCR α chain encoded by rearranged Trav11 (Vα14-Traj18 (Jα18 gene segments in mice, and TRAV10 (Vα24-TRAJ18 (Jα18 in humans, mediate adjuvant effects to activate various effector cell types in both innate and adaptive immune systems that facilitates the potent antitumor effects. It was recently reported that the Jα18-deficient mouse described by our group in 1997 harbors perturbed TCRα repertoire, which raised concerns regarding the validity of some of the experimental conclusions that have been made using this mouse line. To resolve this concern, we generated a novel Traj18-deficient mouse line by specifically targeting the Traj18 gene segment using Cre-Lox approach. Here we showed the newly generated Traj18-deficient mouse has, apart from the absence of Traj18, an undisturbed TCRα chain repertoire by using next generation sequencing and by detecting normal generation of Vα19Jα33 expressing mucosal associated invariant T cells, whose development was abrogated in the originally described Jα18-KO mice. We also demonstrated here the definitive requirement for NKT cells in the protection against tumors and their potent adjuvant effects on antigen-specific CD8 T cells.

  16. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  17. Solute diffusivity in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...

  18. Effect of housing rats in dim light or long nights on heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Toni A; Sharp, Jody L; Lawson, David M

    2008-07-01

    Housing laboratory animals under lighting conditions that more closely mimic the natural environment may improve their wellbeing. This study examined the effects of dim light or a long-night photocycle on resting heart rate (HR) of rats and their HR responses to acute procedures. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, instrumented with radiotelemetry transmitters and housed individually under a 12:12-h light:dark photocycle with 10 lx illumination (dim light) or under an 8:16-h light:dark photocycle with 200 lx illumination (long nights), were compared with control rats individually housed under a 12:12-h light:dark photocycle with 200 lx illumination. Dim light and long nights significantly reduced the HR of undisturbed SD and SHR male and SHR female rats during the day and at night; however, the HR of undisturbed SD females was not affected. When rats were subjected acutely to husbandry, experimental, or stressful procedures, dim light or long nights (or both) reduced HR responses to some procedures, did not alter responses to others, and increased responses to yet other procedures. The pattern of effects varied between strains and between male and female rats. Because basal HR was reduced when rats were housed under 10 lx illumination or an 8:16-h light:dark photocycle, we concluded that housing rats under 12:12-h light:dark, 200 lx ambient light conditions was potentially stressful, We also concluded that dim light or long nights did not uniformly reduce the increased HR responses induced by acute procedures.

  19. Far-field sorption data bases for performance assessment of a L/ILW repository in an undisturbed Palfris marl host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1997-12-01

    A Palfris marl formation at Wellenberg (Gemeinde Wolfenschiessen, NW) has been chosen by NAGRA as a potential repository site for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, L/ILW. In the coming years a series of performance assessment studies will be performed for this site. One set of key data required for such safety analysis calculations is sorption data bases (SDB) for safety relevant radionuclides in the far-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to generate sorption data bases appropriate for the in situ conditions existing along the different potential flow paths in an undisturbed marl host rock formation. An important aim was to document the sources of sorption data used and, in particular, the processes by which data selections were mad.e. The main guiding principles here were 'transparency' and 'traceability'. Inherent within this whole process is also the justification for, and defensibility of, the selected values. Much of the sorption data used to generate the SDB for marl came from the open literature. A major part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these initial literature values are modified so that they apply to the actual marl mineralogies and groundwater chemistries. The resulting 'reference R d values' are then further modified using so called Lab -> Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which are appropriate to the in situ bulk rock conditions. The Lab -> Field transfer factors attempt to correct for the differences in sorption site availability between the crushed rock state used in batch tests and the intact rock state existing in reality in the host rock. There are two main groundwater chemistries and five characteristic mineralogical compositions which cover the three broad types of flow paths which have been identified in the Palfris marl formation. In principle the methodology described here to construct sorption data bases for marl is applicable to any type of

  20. Far-field sorption data bases for performance assessment of a L/ILW repository in an undisturbed Palfris marl host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    A Palfris marl formation at Wellenberg (Gemeinde Wolfenschiessen, NW) has been chosen by NAGRA as a potential repository site for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, L/ILW. In the coming years a series of performance assessment studies will be performed for this site. One set of key data required for such safety analysis calculations is sorption data bases (SDB) for safety relevant radionuclides in the far-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to generate sorption data bases appropriate for the in situ conditions existing along the different potential flow paths in an undisturbed marl host rock formation. An important aim was to document the sources of sorption data used and, in particular, the processes by which data selections were mad.e. The main guiding principles here were `transparency` and `traceability`. Inherent within this whole process is also the justification for, and defensibility of, the selected values. Much of the sorption data used to generate the SDB for marl came from the open literature. A major part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these initial literature values are modified so that they apply to the actual marl mineralogies and groundwater chemistries. The resulting `reference R{sub d} values` are then further modified using so called Lab -> Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which are appropriate to the in situ bulk rock conditions. The Lab -> Field transfer factors attempt to correct for the differences in sorption site availability between the crushed rock state used in batch tests and the intact rock state existing in reality in the host rock. There are two main groundwater chemistries and five characteristic mineralogical compositions which cover the three broad types of flow paths which have been identified in the Palfris marl formation. In principle the methodology described here to construct sorption data bases for marl is applicable to any

  1. Noninferiority, randomized, controlled trial comparing embryo development using media developed for sequential or undisturbed culture in a time-lapse setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardarson, Thorir; Bungum, Mona; Conaghan, Joe; Meintjes, Marius; Chantilis, Samuel J; Molnar, Laszlo; Gunnarsson, Kristina; Wikland, Matts

    2015-12-01

    To study whether a culture medium that allows undisturbed culture supports human embryo development to the blastocyst stage equivalently to a well-established sequential media. Randomized, double-blinded sibling trial. Independent in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. One hundred twenty-eight patients, with 1,356 zygotes randomized into two study arms. Embryos randomly allocated into two study arms to compare embryo development on a time-lapse system using a single-step medium or sequential media. Percentage of good-quality blastocysts on day 5. Percentage of day 5 good-quality blastocysts was 21.1% (standard deviation [SD] ± 21.6%) and 22.2% (SD ± 22.1%) in the single-step time-lapse medium (G-TL) and the sequential media (G-1/G-2) groups, respectively. The mean difference (-1.2; 95% CI, -6.0; 3.6) between the two media systems for the primary end point was less than the noninferiority margin of -8%. There was a statistically significantly lower number of good-quality embryos on day 3 in the G-TL group [50.7% (SD ± 30.6%) vs. 60.8% (SD ± 30.7%)]. Four out of the 11 measured morphokinetic parameters were statistically significantly different for the two media used. The mean levels of ammonium concentration in the media at the end of the culture period was statistically significantly lower in the G-TL group as compared with the G-2 group. We have shown that a single-step culture medium supports blastocyst development equivalently to established sequential media. The ammonium concentrations were lower in the single-step media, and the measured morphokinetic parameters were modified somewhat. NCT01939626. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  3. An elusive persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Soward; F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractA case report of a persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium with a fibromuscular left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a small atrial septal defect. The anomalous vessel escaped detection during two right and left heart catheterizations from the right arm and

  4. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B.

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P CO 2 . In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab→Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some appreciation of the uncertainties

  5. Leaching of radiostrontium in undisturbed columns of calcareous alluvial soil as affected by level of activity applied and rate of high calcium water of Tigris river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, A.A.; Razaq, I.B.; Ali, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Leaching of 85 Sr in calcareous alluvial medium textured soil was undertaken for 126 days. Radiostrontium in three levels of 4.62(L1), 9.25(L2), and 18.50(L3) MBq column -1 was applied to undisturbed soil columns, 110cm long and 12cm inner diameter. Irrigation water of Tigris river was used as a leaching solution supplied automatically in 1.4, 2.0, and 3.0cm day -1 by rain simulator systems. Gamma radiation along the soil columns was scanned periodically during the course of leaching. Leaching of Sr from the surface layer was in two stages. The first stage covered the first 22 days and the second included the following 104 days. Strontium retained (y) as a function of time (x) fitted reasonably well (r>0.96) to the equations y=a+mlnx and lny=a+mx for the first and the second stage, respectively. Tigris river irrigation water was found as effective as the dilute Ca solution (proposed by some investigators) in displacing Sr. The leaching with 3.0cm day -1 for 126 days resulted in 23, 23, and 21 per cent of total Sr remaining in the upper 5 cm of soil columns under L1, L2 and L3, respectively. However, the area under the distribution curves followed the ratio 1.0:2.4:3.7 under L1, L2, and L3, respectively. The pattern of Sr distribution in calcareous alluvial soil depended not only on the rate and amount of water application but also on the level of Sr applied. Although the soil columns were leached with 378 cm of water for 126 days, the Sr front did not pass the 30 cm depth. This finding indicates the high retention of this soil for Sr and the potential hazard of radiostrontium arising from its existence in the layer of maximum root density. (author). 18 refs., 2 figures, 2 tables

  6. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P{sub CO{sub 2}}. In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab{yields}Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some

  7. Transmural changes in mast cell density in rat heart after infarct induction in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.; Reiters, P. H.; Daemen, M. J.; Smits, J. F.; van der Vusse, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The cardiac distribution of mast cells was investigated after the induction of acute myocardial infarction in the rat. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded by ligation in the infarct group, whereas in sham rats only a superficial ligature was placed beside the LAD. Rats of

  8. Increased angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the left ventricle after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C.W. Busatto

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity has been observed in the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. Since most studies have been conducted in chronically infarcted individuals exhibiting variable degrees of heart failure, the present study was designed to determine ACE activity in an earlier phase of MI, before heart failure development. MI was produced in 3-month old male Wistar rats by ligation of the anterior branches of the left coronary artery, control rats underwent sham surgery and the animals were studied 7 or 15 days later. Hemodynamic data obtained for the anesthetized animals showed normal values of arterial blood pressure and of end-diastolic pressure in the right and left ventricular cavities of MI rats. Right and left ventricular (RV, LV muscle and scar tissue homogenates were prepared to determine ACE activity in vitro by measuring the velocity of His-Leu release from the synthetic substrate Hyp-His-Leu. ACE activity was corrected to the tissue wet weight and is reported as nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1. No significant change in ACE activity in the RV homogenates was demonstrable. A small nonsignificant increase of ACE activity (11 ± 9%; P0.05 was observed 7 days after MI in the surviving left ventricular muscle. Two weeks after surgery, however, ACE activity was 46 ± 11% (P<0.05 higher in infarcted rats compared to sham-operated rats. The highest ACE activity was demonstrable in the scar tissue homogenate. In rats studied two weeks after surgery, ACE activity in the LV muscle increased from 105 ± 7 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 in control hearts to 153 ± 11 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 (P<0.05 in the remaining LV muscle of MI rats and to 1051 ± 208 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 (P<0.001 in the fibrous scar. These data indicate that ACE activity increased in the heart after infarction before heart failure was demonstrable by hemodynamic measurements. Since the blood vessels of the scar drain to the remaining LV myocardium, the

  9. Histological study of the left colon of rats after extra-mucosal seromyotomy (continent valves: evaluation of colonic emptying Estudo histológico do cólon esquerdo de ratos após a confecção de seromiotomias extra-mucosas (válvulas continentes: avaliação do grau de esvaziamento do conteúdo colônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Deoti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an animal model with the objective of studying the continence of the biological valves surgically performed in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty four rats were operated on and divided into three groups (G. G1 (sham animals which underwent laparotomy only; G2 (perineal amputation without valves: animals which underwent amputation of the anal sphincter complex combined with a perineal colostomy; G3 (abdominoperineal amputation combined with valves: animals which underwent abdominoperineal amputation combined with three, equidistant and circumferential (360(0, extra-mucosal seromyotomies, of the descending colon, which were sutured to create biological valves combined with perineal colostomy. Animals were euthanized in the late postoperative period and surgical valves were saved for histopathological study. RESULTS: Surgical procedure provoked intestinal dilation, as well as segmented chambers along the descending colon. Retained fecalomas between the valves and proximal to them were also noted. Six rats died of intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction at the surgical site. The sequence of events was: stasis, obstruction, distention, perforation, peritonitis and death. Histopathology showed inflammation due to foreign body type reaction around the sutured colon causing partial concentric stenosis, capable of interfering normal mechanical activity of the distal colon. This process resulted in retardation of the intestinal transit. CONCLUSION: Extra-mucosal seromyotomies, with seromuscular suture, can be used as an operative procedure capable of causing retardation in the intestinal transit of rats.OBJETIVO: Modelo de experimentação, com confecção de válvulas biológicas no cólon esquerdo de ratos com o objetivo de estudar o grau de continência dessas válvulas. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro ratos foram operados e distribuidos em três grupos: G1 (grupo simulado submetido apenas à laparotomia, G2 (grupo amputado

  10. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  11. Basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancar, B.

    2007-01-01

    A 91-year-old female patient was treated with irradiation for histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek. The tumour, measuring 3 x 3 cm, with the depth of 2 cm, was extending up to the lower lid of the left eye. (author)

  12. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  13. Congenital Absence of Left Circumflex Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ansari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of left circumflex artery is a rare congenitalanomaly of the coronary arteries. The prevalence of theanomaly in different studies ranges from 0.6% to 1.3%. Ofthese, 80% are benign and asymptomatic and 20% are clinicallyimportant. We report a 56-year-old man presented withacute resting chest pain who was diagnosed as having acuteanterolateral infarction accompanied by electrocardiographicchanges and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary angiographyin different views was conducted, however, no left circumflexartery was found. The territory supplied by the artery had beenperfused by the super dominant right coronary artery. Therewas no left circumflex coronary artery with anomalous origin.Sever stenosis of left anterior ascending artery superimposedto the absent left circumflex artery was presented as acute anterolateralinfarction. Although absence of the artery is mostlyconsidered as a benign condition, atherosclerotic lesions maybe more important in such cases because of diminished compensatingmechanisms.

  14. VARIATION IN THE OPENINGS (OSTIA OF LEFT PULMONARY VEINS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  15. Repair of aorto-left ventricular tunnel arising from the left sinus of valsalva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Maleki, Mahmood Hosseinzadeh; Javan, Hadi; Zirak, Nahid

    2010-05-01

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that bypasses the aortic valve via a para-valvular connection from the left ventricle to the aorta. In most cases, the tunnel arises from the right aortic sinus. In this case report, we are presenting a case of ALVT, of which the aortic orifice arose from the left aortic sinus, requiring special attention to avoid the left coronary artery injury at the time of surgical repair.

  16. Left Atrial Decompression by Percutaneous Left Atrial Venting Cannula Insertion during Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO frequently suffer from pulmonary edema due to left ventricular dysfunction that accompanies left heart dilatation, which is caused by left atrial hypertension. The problem can be resolved by left atrium (LA decompression. We performed a successful percutaneous LA decompression with an atrial septostomy and placement of an LA venting cannula in a 38-month-old child treated with venoarterial ECMO for acute myocarditis.

  17. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  18. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, A.; Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E.; Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C.; Planeta, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  19. TMS over the Left Angular Gyrus Impairs the Ability to Discriminate Left from Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Ellison, Amanda; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of the ability to discriminate left from right are hardly explored. Clinical studies from patients with impairments of left-right discrimination (LRD) and neuroimaging data suggest that the left angular gyrus is particularly involved in LRD. Moreover, it is argued that the often reported sex…

  20. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Luo, Xinle; Yu, Nansheng; Zeng, Bingfang

    2007-01-01

    To explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, China, during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had sham-operation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 sham-operated rats served as control group. After the fracture the rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated with normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (pnormalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase BMD in osteoporotic bone, but also enhance the bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fracture healing in fractured osteoporotic bone.

  1. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zeng, Bingfang; Luo, Xinle; Yu, Nansheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhaou Medical College, Guangzhaou, China during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had shamoperation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 shamoperated rats served as control group. After the fracture rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (p<0.05), and presented with stronger callus formation, shorter fracture healing time and faster normalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase in osteoporotic bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fractured osteoporotic bone. (author)

  2. Social aspects of left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout human history left-handedness has been considered as sinful. It has been associated with the devil, weakness, female gender, unhealthiness, evil, something that has to be turned to a “good” - right side by force. Left-handedness is being more and more acceptable at rational level, but in everyday life it is still considered to be unusual if someone writes with the left hand. Lessening of the number of lefthanders is associated with ageing. There are about 13% lefthanders among people in twenties and less than 1% lefthanders among those in eighties. This finding may be explaned with more pronounced socio-cultural pressure on left-handed people in the past, compared to nowadays. On the other hand, this may also support the hypothesis about a reduced life span of lefthanded people. With cross-exercising of left-handedness, certain typical characteristics and behavioral patterns appear in these people. This was a sort of provoked behavior and an attack on the integrity of an emotional attitude toward oneself. Stuttering may also appear as a consequence of unsuccessful cross-exercising of left-handedness. The hypothesis about left-handedness as an advantage is supported with the reports about relatively more lefthanders in some specific groups such as: mathematicians, sculptors, architects, painters, musicians, actors, tennis players, as well as famous army commanders and rulers.

  3. The effect of erythropoietin on healing of obstructive vs nonobstructive left colonic anastomosis: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renda Nurten

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anastomotic leakage is an important problem following primary resection in the left colon and is even more prominent when obstruction is present. We aimed to evaluate the possible effects of erythropoietin on the healing of anastomosis under both obstructive and non-obstructive states. Methods Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. In group I, two cm left colonic resection and primary anastomosis were done. In group II, left colon were completely ligated and 24 hours later animals were re-operated for segmental resection. The same procedures were performed for rats in group III and IV in respect to group I and II and, 500 IU/kg a day erythropoietin were given in the latter two groups for seven days. For the quantative description of anastomotic healing mechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters were employed on the seventh day and the animals were sacrificied. Results Although erythropoietin had positive effects on bursting pressure in group IV when compared to group II, it has no effect in group III. Despite the increased tissue hydroxyproline levels in group IV, erythropoietin failed to show any effects in group III. Erythropoietin had positive effects on neovascularization, fibroblast proliferiation and storage of collagen in group IV. Conclusion We failed to find any direct and evident effects of erythropoietin on healing of left colonic anastomosis. On the other hand, erythropoietin might prevent negative effects of obstruction on healing.

  4. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... systolic force and left ventricular geometry and function have not been investigated in high-risk hypertrophic hypertensive patients. Participants in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension echocardiography substudy without prevalent cardiovascular disease or atrial fibrillation (n...... = 567) underwent standard Doppler echocardiography. Left atrial systolic force was obtained from the mitral orifice area and Doppler mitral peak A velocity. Patients were divided into groups with normal or increased left atrial systolic force (>14.33 kdyn). Left atrial systolic force was high in 297...

  5. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  6. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  7. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C; Pinto, Yigal M

    2003-06-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there are structural changes in myofilaments, disorganization of the cytoskeletal framework and increased collagen synthesis. LVH is associated with progressive left ventricular remodeling that culminates to heart failure. The modern treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy is now largely based on the hypothesis that neuroendocrine activation is important in the progression of the disease and inhibition of neurohormones is likely to have long-term benefit with regard to morbidity and mortality. Drugs specifically designed to unload the left ventricle, such as diuretics and vasodilators, appears to be less effective in reducing LV mass and improving prognosis. Thus, the evolution of treatment for LVH itself has provided much enlightenment for our understanding of the fundamental biology of the disorder.

  8. Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors.

  9. Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors

  10. Assessment of left ventricular global function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuel, H.-P.; Baehre, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV), i.e. noninvasive evaluation of left venticular performance following the application of radionuclides has had a major impact on many aspects of cardiology and has proven its clinical value and reliability in the last few years. This article deals mainly with the changes in global left ventricular function. The clinical applications of RNV for coronary artery diseases and valvular heart diseases are described. (Auth.)

  11. Comparison of two surgical techniques for creating an acute myocardial infarct in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Achcar Capriglione

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a comparative assessment of two surgical techniques that are used creating an acute myocardial infarc by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery in order to generate rats with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Methods: The study was completely randomized and comprised 89 halothane-anaesthetised rats, which were divided into three groups. The control group (SHAM comprised fourteen rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was not occluded. Group 1 (G1: comprised by 35 endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Group 2 (G2: comprised 40 rats being manually ventilated using a nasal respirator whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Other differences between the two techniques include the method of performing the thoracotomy and removing the pericardium in order to expose the heart, and the use of different methods and suture types for closing the thorax. Seven days after surgery, the cardiac function of all surviving rats was determined by echocardiography. Results: No rats SHAM group had progressed to death or had left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%. Nine of the 16 surviving G1 rats (56.3% and six of the 20 surviving G2 rats (30% had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Conclusion: The results indicate a tendency of the technique used in G1 to be better than in G2. This improvement is probably due to the greater duration of the open thorax, which reduces the pressure over time from the surgeon, allowing occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery with higher accuracy.

  12. Aetiological factors in left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateralisation associates the extremities and senses of one side of the body, which are connected by afferent and efferent pathways, with the primary motor and sensory areas of the hemisphere on the opposite side. Dominant laterality denotes the appearance of a dominant extremity or sense in the performance of complex psychomotor activities. Laterality is manifested both as right-handedness or left-handedness, which are functionally equivalent and symmetrical in the performance of activities. Right-handedness is significantly more common than left-handedness. Genetic theory is most widely accepted in explaining the onset of lateralisation. According to this theory, the models of brain organisation asymmetry (anatomical, functional, and biochemical are strongly, genetically determined. However, the inability to clearly demonstrate the association between genetic factors and left-handedness has led researchers to investigate the effects of the environment on left-handedness. Of particular interest are the intrauterine environment and the factors influencing foetal development, of which hormones and ultrasound exposure are the most significant. It has been estimated that an extra five cases of nonright-handed lateralisation can be expected in every 100 males who were exposed to ultrasound in utero compared to those who were not. Socio-cultural pressure on left-handed individuals was much more severe in the past, which is confirmed by scientific findings that left-handedness is present in 13% of individuals in their twenties, while in less than 1% of individuals in their eighties.

  13. New strict left bundle branch block criteria reflect left ventricular activation differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Kasper Janus Grønn; Risum, Niels; Hjortshøj, Søren Pihlkjær

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left ven....... CONCLUSION: Interventricular electrical delay predicts left ventricular remodeling after CRT and new, strict ECG criteria of LBBB are superior in predicting remodeling.......AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left...... ventricular electrical delay (RV-LV-IED) was measured. Response to CRT was defined as ≥15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume. RESULTS: Eighteen of 20 (90%) patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 18 of 29 (62%) with ischemic heart disease (IHD) responded to CRT, p

  14. Mapping of the left-sided phrenic nerve course in patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Martin; Wutzler, Alexander; Parwani, Abdul S; Attanasio, Philipp; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Boldt, Leif-Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been associated with left-sided phrenic nerve palsy. Knowledge of the individual left phrenic nerve course therefore is essential to prevent nerve injury. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an intraprocedural pace mapping and reconstruction of the left phrenic nerve course and to characterize which anatomical areas are affected. In patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablation, a three-dimensional map of the left atrial anatomical structures was created. The left-sided phrenic nerve course was determined by high-output pace mapping and reconstructed in the map. In this study, 40 patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardias were included. Left phrenic nerve capture was observed in 23 (57.5%) patients. Phrenic nerve was captured in 22 (55%) patients inside the left atrial appendage, in 22 (55%) in distal parts, in 21 (53%) in medial parts, and in two (5%) in ostial parts of the appendage. In three (7.5%) patients, capture was found in the distal coronary sinus and in one (2.5%) patient in the left atrium near the left atrial appendage ostium. Ablation target was changed due to direct spatial relationship to the phrenic nerve in three (7.5%) patients. No phrenic nerve palsy was observed. Left-sided phrenic nerve capture was found inside and around the left atrial appendage in the majority of patients and additionally in the distal coronary sinus. Phrenic nerve mapping and reconstruction can easily be performed and should be considered prior catheter ablations in potential affected areas. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Undisturbed stance control in healthy adults is achieved differently along anteroposterior and mediolateral axes: evidence from visual feedback of various signals from center of pressure trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Patrice R

    2009-05-01

    Provided through the screen of a monitor, the participant's resultant center of pressure (CPRes) movements from a force platform device, modified the postural performance of a healthy individual. However, these effects could largely vary with the axis that researchers consider (mediolateral [ML] or anteroposterior [AP]), because they know these controls are involved in 2 distinct ankle and hip mechanisms. To demonstrate this organization, the author tested a group of healthy adults in several conditions that gave the whole or some part of the information in the CPRes displacements. Compared with the CPRes feedback, left and right plantar CP or body weight distribution feedback deteriorated the control of the vertically projected center of gravity (CGv) along the ML and AP axes, whose amplitudes increased, respectively. These data highlight the primary role of loading or unloading and pressure variations in the achievement of postural control along each ML or AP axis, respectively. It is interesting that merging these 2 pieces of information (CPRes displacements) helped participants optimize their postural performance.

  16. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... with the cleavage-lines of industrial society, but that it is an orientational metaphor which is articulated with others-in/out, up/down and front/back-and that we are in the process of moving beyond the industrial society right/left prototype. The second part looks at where New Labour is heading when moving beyond...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  17. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Iain M.

    2018-01-01

    Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease. PMID:29755990

  18. Grammatical distinctions in the left frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, K A; Pascual-Leone, A; Mottaghy, F M; Gangitano, M; Caramazza, A

    2001-08-15

    Selective deficits in producing verbs relative to nouns in speech are well documented in neuropsychology and have been associated with left hemisphere frontal cortical lesions resulting from stroke and other neurological disorders. The basis for these impairments is unresolved: Do they arise because of differences in the way grammatical categories of words are organized in the brain, or because of differences in the neural representation of actions and objects? We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefrontal cortex and to assess its role in producing nouns and verbs. In one experiment subjects generated real words; in a second, they produced pseudowords as nouns or verbs. In both experiments, response latencies increased for verbs but were unaffected for nouns following rTMS. These results demonstrate that grammatical categories have a neuroanatomical basis and that the left prefrontal cortex is selectively engaged in processing verbs as grammatical objects.

  19. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  20. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry....... Surprisingly, existing methods only deal with special cases. In this paper, we clarify different kinds of left-truncation and suggest estimators for semiparametric survival models under specific truncation schemes. The large-sample properties of the estimators are established. Small-sample properties...

  1. Left ventricular function in right ventricular overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Shiro; Handa, Shunnosuke; Abe, Sumihisa; Onishi, Shohei; Nakamura, Yoshiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study clarified regional and global functions of the distorted left ventricle due to right ventricular overload by gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Cardiac catheterization and RNV were performed in 13 cases of atrial septal defect (ASD), 13 of pure mitral stenosis (MS), 10 of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and 10 of normal subjects (NL). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was 32.9±13.9, 45.0±12.2, 88.3±17.1, and 21.2±4.5 mmHg, respectively. The end-systolic LAO view of the left ventricle was halved into septal and free-wall sides. The end-diastolic halves were determined in the same plane. Ejection fractions of the global left ventricle (LVEF), global right ventricle (RVEF), the septal half of the left ventricle (SEPEF), and the free-wall half of the left ventricle (FWEF) were obtained. LVEF was 56.8±9.8% in NL, 52.8±10.5% in ASD, and 49.5±12.9% in PPH. In MS, LVEF (47.0±13.0%) was smaller than those in the other groups. RVEF was 37.0±5.2% in NL, 43.7±15.5% in ASD, and 32.8±11.5% in MS. In PPH, RVEF (25.0±10.6%) was smaller than those in the other groups. SEPEF was smaller in ASD (42.5±13.2%), MS (40.4±13.1%), PPH (40.5±12.5%) than in NL (53.5±8.5%). Systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was disturbed by right ventricular overload. RVEF (r=-0.35, p<0.05) and SEPEF (r=-0.51, p<0.01) had negative correlations with RVSP. As RVSP rose, systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was more severely disturbed. FWEF was the same among the four groups; NL (57.0±12.6%), ASD (48.6±15.2%), MS (50.5±12.0%), and PPH (51.1±12.3%). There was a good correlation between SEPEF and LVEF in NL (r=0.81), although in PPH this correlation was poor (r=0.64). These data showed that the distorted left ventricular due to right ventricular overload maintains its global function with preserved function of the free-wall side. (J.P.N.)

  2. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  3. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Jagia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best of our knowledge, use of multi-detector computed tomography in aortic atresia with well developed left ventricle has not been reported in literature till date.

  4. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  5. Echocardiographic study of left atrial myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal J

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed pre-operatively by echocardiography. All cases showed characteristic echocardio-graphic features of variegated shadows behind the mitral valve in diastole and within the left atrium in systole. In two cases the my-xomas were surgically removed and confirmed on histology. In one case the post-operative echocardiogram showed complete dis-appearance of the abnormal shadows. Echocardiography is the most reliable method today for the diagnosis of a myxoma.

  6. Undisturbed dust as a metric of long-term indoor insecticide exposure: Residential DDT contamination from indoor residual spraying and its association with serum levels in the VHEMBE cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bornman, Riana; Crause, Madelein; Obida, Muvhulawa; Barr, Dana Boyd; Bradman, Asa; Bouwman, Henk; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Although approximately 123 million people may be exposed to high levels of insecticides through the use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control, few studies exist on indoor insecticide contamination due to IRS and its relationship with human exposure. In the present study, we developed a sampling method to collect undisturbed dust from 50 homes in Limpopo, South Africa, a region where dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used in IRS programs to prevent malaria for ~70years. We quantified DDT and its degradation products, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in dust samples to determine dust loading levels and compared these levels to paired serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE in women residents. p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE had the highest detection frequencies in both dust (58% and 34% detection, respectively) and serum samples (98% and 100% detection, respectively). Significantly higher detection frequencies for o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD were observed in dust samples collected in buildings that had been previously sprayed for malaria control. We also observed a significant, positive association between dust loading and serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE (Spearman's rho=0.68 and 0.54, respectively). Despite the low detection frequency in dust, our results indicate that undisturbed dust may be a good metric to quantify long-term home exposure to DDT-related compounds and that contamination of the home environment may be an important determinant/source of DDT and DDE exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Left ventricular assist device implantation via left thoracotomy: alternative to repeat sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Howser, Renee; Donaldson, Terri; Merrill, Walter H; Dignan, Rebecca J; Drinkwater, Davis C; Christian, Karla G; Butler, Javed; Chomsky, Don; Wilson, John R; Clark, Rick; Davis, Stacy F

    2002-03-01

    Repeat sternotomy for left ventricular assist device insertion may result in injury to the right heart or patent coronary grafts, complicating intraoperative and postoperative management. In 4 critically ill patients, left thoracotomy was used as an alternative to repeat sternotomy. Anastomosis of the outflow conduit to the descending thoracic aorta provided satisfactory hemodynamic support.

  8. Left-forbidding cooperating distributed grammar systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldefus, F.; Masopust, Tomáš; Meduna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 40-42 (2010), s. 3661-3667 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : cooperating distributed grammar system * cooperating derivation mode * left-forbidding grammar * generative power * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510003440

  9. Magnetization of left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    We propose a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic fields in negative refraction index composite metamaterials. Considering the propagation of a high-frequency modulated amplitude electric field in a left-handed material (LHM), we show that the ponderomotive interaction between the field and low-frequency potential distributions leads to spontaneous generation of magnetic fields, whose form and properties are discussed

  10. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An abdominal ultrasound scan showed multiple stones in the gallbladder with no evidence of acute cholecystitis and a common bile duct (CBD) diameter of 4 mm. Owing to the atypical nature of her pain, a computed tomography (CT) scan was requested which showed a left-sided gallbladder containing gallstones (Fig. 1).

  11. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Left-right subtraction of brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Sakuma, Sadayuki

    1986-01-01

    A new image-processing method to obtain a left-right subtraction image of CT was designed for the automated detection of abnormalities in brain CT. An original CT image was divided in two by a centerline. Then the right half of the image was subtracted from the left half by calculating the absorption value of the pixels on the symmetrical positions against the centerline. The mean and the standard deviation of the absorption value of the pixels in the subtraction image were used as parameters for analysis, and the detectability of abnormal CT findings was evaluated in 100 cases - 50 cases each with normal and abnormal CT. The presence of abnormalities could be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 90 %, and an overall accuracy of 88 % when the borderline of these parameters between normal and abnormal CT was set at the mean + 2SD in the normal group. As a further analysis, the CT image was subdivided into several areas from a functional or anatomical viewpoint, such as cerebral vascular territories, and the left-right subtraction image of each area was obtained. The possibilities of diagnosing the location of an abnormality and of detecting smaller lesions with this method were shown. Left-right subtraction was considered to be a useful method for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities in the automated diagnosis of brain CT. (author)

  13. Left ventricular hypertrophy : virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, S; Sharma, UC; Pinto, YM

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, there

  14. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2003-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there

  15. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  16. Proximal-tubule-like epithelium in Bowman's capsule in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Changes with age.

    OpenAIRE

    Haensly, W. E.; Granger, H. J.; Morris, A. C.; Cioffe, C.

    1982-01-01

    Kidneys were samples from male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive rats (WKY) in four groups. Renal tissues were examined in 64 rats: 6 SHR and 6 WKY rats 8 and 16 weeks of age and 10 SHR and 10 WKY rats 32 and 64 weeks of age. Tissue samples were fixed, processed, and stained by routine histologic procedures. The parietal layer of Bowman's capsule in 100-115 renal corpuscles from right to left kidney sections was classified as squamous or cuboidal epithelium. The cuboidal ...

  17. Left ventricular function in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, B.; Amenta, A.; Kane, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was determined in 42 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation during upright exercise by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction and volume with radionuclide ventriculography. Classification of the patients according to exercise tolerance showed that patients with normal exercise tolerance (greater than or equal to 7.0 minutes) had a significantly higher ejection fraction at rest (probability [p] . 0.02) and during exercise (p . 0.0002), higher cardiac index at exercise (p . 0.0008) and lower exercise end-systolic volume (p . 0.01) than did patients with limited exercise tolerance. Similar significant differences were noted in younger patients compared with older patients in ejection fraction at rest and exercise (both p . 0.001) and cardiac index at rest (p . 0.03) and exercise (p . 0.0005). The end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise in 60% of the patients. The patients with a decrease in volume were significantly younger and had better exercise tolerance and a larger end-diastolic volume at rest than did patients who showed an increase in volume. The mean corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients with abnormal than in those with normal exercise reserve (mean +/- standard deviation 476 +/- 146 versus 377 +/- 92 mm Hg, p less than 0.05). Thus, in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: 1) left ventricular systolic function during exercise was related to age, exercise tolerance and corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio, and 2) the end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise, especially in younger patients and patients with normal exercise tolerance or a large volume at rest

  18. Induction of interleukin-1β mRNA after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M.; Sauter, A.; Boddeke, H.W.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO).

  19. INDUCTION OF INTERLEUKIN-1-BETA MESSENGER-RNA AFTER FOCAL CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTTINI, M; SAUTER, A; BODDEKE, HWGM

    The expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery

  20. Thyroid status affects the rat cardiac beta-adrenoceptor system transiently and time-dependently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, J.; Batink, H. D.; Taguchi, K.; de Jong, J.; Michel, M. C.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, A.

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-dependency of the influence of dysthyroid states on the beta-adrenoceptor system in rat heart left ventricle. Therefore, the influence of acute and chronic hyper- and hypothyroidism on beta-adrenoceptor-induced left ventricular responses,

  1. Left bronchial artery arising from a replaced left hepatic artery in a patient with massive hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jae Myung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 70-year-old man with a 3-year history of bronchiectasis presented with massive hemoptysis that had lasted for 3 days. In our attempt to perform bronchial artery embolization, upper abdominal angiography was required to locate the left bronchial artery, which in this case was of anomalous origin, arising from a replaced left hepatic artery, which arose from the left gastric artery-a very unusual anatomical variant. We performed embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely, with no additional complications after conservative treatment.

  2. Bone repair after osteotomy with diamond burs and CVD ultrasonic tips – histological study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matuda, Fábio S.; Pagani, Clovis; Miranda, Carolina B.; Crema, Aline A. S.; Brentel, Aline S.; Carvalho, Yasmin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study histologically evaluated the behavior of bone tissue of rats submitted to osteotomy with conventional diamond burs in high speed and a new ultrasonic diamond tips system (CVD – Chemical Vapor Deposition), at different study periods. The study was conducted on 24 Wistar rats. Osteotomy was performed on the posterior paws of each rat, with utilization of diamond burs in high speed under thorough water cooling at the right paw, and CVD tips at the left paw. Animals were killed a...

  3. Analysis on Bilateral Hindlimb Mapping in Motor Cortex of the Rat by an Intracortical Microstimulation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Seong, Han Yu; Cho, Ji Young; Choi, Byeong Sam; Min, Joong Kee; Kim, Yong Hwan; Roh, Sung Woo; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2014-01-01

    Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) is a technique that was developed to derive movement representation of the motor cortex. Although rats are now commonly used in motor mapping studies, the precise characteristics of rat motor map, including symmetry and consistency across animals, and the possibility of repeated stimulation have not yet been established. We performed bilateral hindlimb mapping of motor cortex in six Sprague-Dawley rats using ICMS. ICMS was applied to the left and the righ...

  4. Evaluation of left ventricular function by cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1982-01-01

    Left ventricular function was evaluated by CT, which was compared with the data of left ventriculography for various cardiac diseases. The end diastolic volume of the left ventricle can be readily computed from CT, with a satisfactory correlation with that of left ventriculography (r = 0.95). The left ventricular ejection fraction, calculated from the areal ratio of the left ventricular lumen in end-diastolic imaging to that in end-sytolic imaging, also roughly reflects left ventricular contractile function, but shows correlation with left ventriculography by only r = 0.79. Although the cardiac output is not sensitive for functional evaluation, it can be directly calculated by means of dynamic scanning and shows a satisfactory correlation with the ear piece pigment dilution (r = 0.85). Evaluation of left ventricular function by CT shows a high precision in comparison with left ventriculography, but still lacks temporal resolving power. (Chiba, N.)

  5. Effect of Batroxobin on Expression of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule in Temporal Infarction Rats and Spatial Learning and Memory Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Batroxobin expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in left temporal ischemic rats with spatial memory disorder was investigated by means of Morri's water maze and immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that the mean reaction time and distance of temporal ischemic rats for searching a goal were significantly longer than those of sham-operated rats and at the same time NCAM expression of left temporal ischemic region was significantly increased. However, the mean reaction time and distance of Batroxobin-treated rats were shorter and they used normal strategies more often and earlier than those of ischemic rats. The number of NCAM immune reactive cells of Batroxobin-treated rats was more than that of ischemic group. In conclusion, Batroxobin can improve spatial memory disorder of temporal ischemic rats and the regulation of the expression of NCAM is probably related to the neuroprotective mechanism.

  6. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  7. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  8. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  9. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  10. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  11. A constrained supersymmetric left-right model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Martin [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València, Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E. [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Theory Division, CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-03-02

    We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model’s capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.

  12. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Corballis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  13. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  14. A disappearing left-sided neck mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-07-04

    The patient was a 48-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with complaints of a left-sided painful neck mass, which changed in size relative to ingestion of meals. He denied voice change, fever, chills, weight loss, dysphagia and hoarseness. Physical examination was unremarkable. CT scan demonstrated a 3.9 mm calculus of the submandibular gland duct. Therapeutic sialendocopy was successfully performed.

  15. The New Arab Left and 1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In Arab political culture, the Naksa of 1967 had a number of watershed effects. Scholars have paid a lot of attention to the decline of secular Arab nationalism and the concurrent rise of Islamism. Much less research has been done on the way 1967 spurred radical left organizations, also known as ...... moment that followed. This moment has had a lasting impact on Arab political culture and is being re-interpreted in interesting ways today by Arab revolutionaries post-2011....

  16. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Jagia; Arun Sharma; Saurabh K Gupta; Munish Guleria

    2016-01-01

    Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best ...

  17. Total agenesis of the left pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Fº

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the report of a 46-year-old patient with the preoperative diagnosis of an atrial septal defect (ASD of the ostium secudum type. After sternectomy, partial agenesis of the left pericardium was diagnosed. It is our opinion that, if the radiographic picture is suggestive of this entity, a clinical search for cardiopulmonary anomalies should be performed, because the majority of these associated anomalies can and should be surgically corrected.

  18. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  19. Implantation of a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device via left thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang Hyun; Deo, Salil V; Schirger, John A; Pereira, Naveen L; Stulak, John M; Park, Soon J

    2012-11-01

    Left thoracotomy was used as an approach for the implantation of pulsatile ventricular assist devices. Avoiding the standard approach of median sternotomy is attractive in patients undergoing complicated redo cardiac surgery, especially with prior mediastinal radiation. We report a case of the use of left thoracotomy for the implantation of the HeartMate II axial-flow pump. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left h...

  1. Effects of bromopride on expression of metalloproteinases and interleukins in left colonic anastomoses: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.M.; Jerônimo, M.S.; Silva-Pereira, I.; Bocca, A.L.; Sousa, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Anastomotic dehiscence is the most severe complication of colorectal surgery. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukins (ILs) can be used to analyze the healing process of anastomosis. To evaluate the effects of bromopride on MMP and cytokine gene expression in left colonic anastomoses in rats with or without induced abdominal sepsis, 80 rats were divided into two groups for euthanasia on the third or seventh postoperative day (POD). They were then divided into subgroups of 20 rats for sepsis induction or not, and then into subgroups of 10 rats for administration of bromopride or saline. Left colonic anastomosis was performed and abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. A colonic segment containing the anastomosis was removed for analysis of gene expression of MMP-1α, MMP-8, MMP-13, IL-β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). On the third POD, bromopride was associated with increased MMP-1α, MMP-13, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 gene expression. On the seventh POD, all MMP transcripts became negatively modulated and all IL transcripts became positively modulated. In the presence of sepsis, bromopride administration increased MMP-8 and IFN-γ gene expression and decreased MMP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 gene expression on the third POD. On the seventh POD, we observed increased expression of MMP-13 and all cytokines, except for TNF-α. In conclusion, bromopride interferes with MMP and IL gene expression during anastomotic healing. Further studies are needed to correlate these changes with the healing process

  2. Effects of bromopride on expression of metalloproteinases and interleukins in left colonic anastomoses: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Jerônimo, M.S. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva-Pereira, I.; Bocca, A.L. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Sousa, J.B. [Departamento de Clínica Cirúrgica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Anastomotic dehiscence is the most severe complication of colorectal surgery. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukins (ILs) can be used to analyze the healing process of anastomosis. To evaluate the effects of bromopride on MMP and cytokine gene expression in left colonic anastomoses in rats with or without induced abdominal sepsis, 80 rats were divided into two groups for euthanasia on the third or seventh postoperative day (POD). They were then divided into subgroups of 20 rats for sepsis induction or not, and then into subgroups of 10 rats for administration of bromopride or saline. Left colonic anastomosis was performed and abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. A colonic segment containing the anastomosis was removed for analysis of gene expression of MMP-1α, MMP-8, MMP-13, IL-β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). On the third POD, bromopride was associated with increased MMP-1α, MMP-13, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 gene expression. On the seventh POD, all MMP transcripts became negatively modulated and all IL transcripts became positively modulated. In the presence of sepsis, bromopride administration increased MMP-8 and IFN-γ gene expression and decreased MMP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 gene expression on the third POD. On the seventh POD, we observed increased expression of MMP-13 and all cytokines, except for TNF-α. In conclusion, bromopride interferes with MMP and IL gene expression during anastomotic healing. Further studies are needed to correlate these changes with the healing process.

  3. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  5. The influence of sleep deprivation and obesity on DNA damage in female Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuli M. Tenorio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. METHOD: Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group. The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. RESULTS: Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.

  6. The influence of sleep deprivation and obesity on DNA damage in female Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Neuli M; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Fracalossi, Ana Carolina C; Carlin, Viviane; Hirotsu, Camila; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group). The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.

  7. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  8. Asymmetry in the brain influenced the neurological deficits and infarction volume following the middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Meizeng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paw preference in rats is similar to human handedness, which may result from dominant hemisphere of rat brain. However, given that lateralization is the uniqueness of the humans, many researchers neglect the differences between the left and right hemispheres when selecting the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ischemia in the dominant hemisphere on neurobehavioral function and on the cerebral infarction volume following MCAO in rats. Methods The right-handed male Sprague-Dawley rats asserted by the quadrupedal food-reaching test were subjected to 2 hours MCA occlusion and then reperfusion. Results The neurological scores were significantly worse in the left MCAO group than that in the right MCAO group at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h (p 0.05 respectively. There was a trend toward better neurobehavioral function recovery in the right MCAO group than in the left MCAO group. The total infarct volume in left MCAO was significantly larger than that in the right (p Conclusion The neurobehavioral function result and the pathological result were consistent with the hypothesis that paw preference in rats is similar to human handedness, and suggested that ischemia in dominant hemisphere caused more significant neurobehavioral consequence than in another hemisphere following MCAO in adult rats. Asymmetry in rat brain should be considered other than being neglected in choice of rat MCAO model.

  9. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left

  10. The resting electrocardiogram of t. cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 125 rats were infected with the Colômbia strain of T. cruzi (2000 parasites/g shortly after weaning. Of these, 58 survived the acute phase and were used in the present experiment. Twenty eight similar but not infected rats served as controls. All rats were submitted to the resting ECG When they were 6 months old. Classic and 3 precordial leads were employed in order to record the ECG as completely as possible. Electrocardiographic changes similar to those found in human chronic Chagas' heart disease and not previously described in this model were found in 44% of the T. cruzi-infected rats: left axis deviation (22%, right axis deviation (7%, lengthened and bizarre QRS complex (14% and abnormal J point elevation (3%. On the basis of these results, we believe that the resting ECG constitutes a valuable tool for studying experimental chronic Chagas' heart disease in rats.

  11. The New Left in the European Democracies: The Case of the German Radical Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Damiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The new form of the social and political conflict cannot be explained by the traditional categories of right and left, but it articulates to them on two plans, that of the establishment, intended like plan of the structured political conflict from the traditional actors, and that of the anti-establishment, in which new representations of politics emerge. The New Left is characterized by type of intermittent participation and new perspectives on mobilization inside the parties and the social movements. This type of parties differs moreover from the traditional ones left of the socialist and social democratic left in not arranging of organizations collaterals placed under the direction of the leadership of the same party. The mobilization that spontaneously assumes not conventional forms of active participation of the citizens, or is primed by the action of an associative network of which the same parties take part, than however does not monopo-lize the collective action. In this regard, the attention will be dedicated to the study of Die Linke: an anti-establishment party of the non-socialist German left-wing, heir to the communist tradition. The choice was affected to the German model because: 1 Germany is a country with a strong social democratic tradition, but 25 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall the German political system identifies a new antagonist political party; 2 Die Linke represents an interesting case in the political landscape of the European radical left because is a one-party that gives up at the federation of parties to try to unify the political parties of German radical left-wing.

  12. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  13. Morphological studies on the healing process of extraction wound in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the extraction wound in irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone formation and resorption. 282 Wistar rats of about 100g body weight were used. The region of the left upper molars of experimental rats was exposed to 1000 rad or 2000 rad of 60 Co. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of from 1 day to 28 days after extraction. Control rats were sacrificed at same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was examined histologically, histometrically, histochemically and ultrastructurally. In irradiated rats, the healing process of extraction wound was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue and periosteal new bone formation was interfered. Histochemical examination revealed that the osteoblasts of irradiated rats reduced enzymatic activity compared with control rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblasts of irradiated rats and osteoid formation was reduced. In irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were more numerous and increased more rapidly as compared with control rats, whereas, histometrically, there was no significant difference in the amount of bone loss between control and irradiated rats. Histochemically, there was no distinct difference in the enzymatic activity in osteoclasts between control and irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of irradiated rats. The findings suggest that irradiation induced cytological changes in not only oseoblasts but also osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author)

  14. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  15. Isomyosin expression patterns during rat heart morphogenesis: an immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I. J.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of cardiac alpha and beta myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression during rat heart morphogenesis was performed. In tubular hearts (embryonic days, ED10-11) coexpression of both cardiac alpha and beta MHC was found throughout the heart, except for the left free wall of the

  16. Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169

  17. Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction and left atrium reverse remodeling after mitral regurgitation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lucia R; Meneghelo, Zilda M; Le Bihan, David C S; Barretto, Rodrigo B M; Carvalho, Antonio C; Moises, Valdir A

    2014-11-06

    Left atrium enlargement has been associated with cardiac events in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). Left atrium reverse remodeling (LARR) occur after surgical correction of MR, but the preoperative predictors of this phenomenon are not well known. It is therefore important to identify preoperative predictors for postoperative LARR. We enrolled 62 patients with chronic severe MR (prolapse or flail leaflet) who underwent successful mitral valve surgery (repair or replacement); all with pre- and postoperative echocardiography. LARR was defined as a reduction in left atrium volume index (LAVI) of ≥ 25%. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of LARR. LARR occurred in 46 patients (74.2%), with the mean LAVI decreasing from 85.5 mL/m2 to 49.7 mL/m2 (p <0.001). These patients had a smaller preoperative left ventricular systolic volume (p =0.022) and a higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p =0.034). LVEF was identified as the only preoperative variable significantly associated with LARR (odds ratio, 1.086; 95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.178). A LVEF cutoff value of 63.5% identified patients with LARR of ≥ 25% with a sensitivity of 71.7% and a specificity of 56.3%. LARR occurs frequently after mitral valve surgery and is associated with preoperative LVEF higher than 63.5%.

  18. Photonic-resonant left-handed medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianqi

    2006-01-01

    A new scheme to realize simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability in a coherent atomic vapor medium (photonic-resonant material) via a coherent driving mechanism is suggested. It is verified that the atomic system coherently driven by a strong optical field will give rise to a negative refractive index in certain probe frequency ranges. One of the most remarkable features of the present scheme is such that a slab fabricated by the left-handed vapor medium is an ideal candidate for designing perfect lenses since the photonic-resonant atomic vapor cannot only exhibit an isotropic negative refractive index, but also provide a good impedance match at the air-medium interfaces

  19. Mycobacterium chimaera left ventricular assist device infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Leora B; Louie, Eddie; Hill, Fred; Levine, Jamie; Phillips, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after cardiac surgery has recently been linked to bioaerosols from contaminated heater-cooler units. The majority of cases have occurred after valvular surgery or aortic graft surgery and nearly half have resulted in death. To date, infections in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been characterized in the literature. We report two cases of device-associated M. chimaera infection in patients with continuous-flow LVADs and describe challenges related to diagnosis and management in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Heart Failure with Transient Left Bundle Branch Block in the Setting of Left Coronary Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Juraschek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary arterial fistulas are rare communications between vessels or chambers of the heart. Although cardiac symptoms associated with fistulas are well described, fistulas are seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with left shoulder pain, signs of heart failure, and a new left bundle branch block (LBBB. Cardiac catheterization revealed a small left anterior descending (LAD-to-pulmonary artery (PA fistula. Diuresis led to subjective improvement of the patient's symptoms and within several days the LBBB resolved. We hypothesize that the coronary fistula in this patient contributed to transient ischemia of the LAD territory through a coronary steal mechanism. We elected to observe rather than repair the fistula, as his symptoms and ECG changes resolved with treatment of his heart failure.

  1. Coronary artery to left ventricle fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vivek

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary cameral fistulas are an uncommon entity, the etiology of which may be congenital or traumatic. They involve abnormal termination of a coronary artery, usually the right coronary, into a cardiac chamber, usually the right ventricle. Case Presentation We describe a case of female patient with severe aortic stenosis and interventricular septal hypertrophy that underwent bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement with concomitant septal myectomy. On subsequent follow-up an abnormal flow traversing the septum into the left ventricle was identified and Doppler interrogation demonstrated a continuous flow, with a predominantly diastolic component, consistent with coronary arterial flow. Conclusion The literature on coronary cameral fistulas is reviewed and the etiology of the diagnostic findings discussed. In our patient, a coronary artery to left ventricle fistula was the most likely explanation secondary to trauma to the septal perforator artery during myectomy. Since the patient was asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis no intervention was recommended and has done well on follow-up.

  2. Nonlinear left-handed transmission line metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A B; Weide, D W van der

    2008-01-01

    Metamaterials, exhibiting simultaneously negative permittivity ε and permeability μ, more commonly referred to as left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) and also known as negative-index materials, have received substantial attention in the scientific and engineering communities [1]. Most studies of LHMs (and electromagnetic metamaterials in general) have been in the linear regime of wave propagation and have already inspired new types of microwave circuits and devices. The results of these studies have already been the subject of numerous reviews and books. This review covers a less explored but rapidly developing area of investigation involving media that combine nonlinearity (dependence of the permittivity and permeability on the magnitude of the propagating field) with the anomalous dispersion exhibited by LHM. The nonlinear phenomena in such media will be considered on the example of a model system: the nonlinear left-handed transmission line. These nonlinear phenomena include parametric generation and amplification, harmonic and subharmonic generation as well as modulational instabilities and envelope solitons. (topical review)

  3. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  4. challenges left-handed students face in kenyan girls' secondary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Previous research on left-handedness has mainly taken place in developed countries. This ... participants were five left-handed science students and their respective subject teachers from a ... Qualitative data was collected through classroom.

  5. Behavioral evidence for left-hemisphere specialization of motor planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Meulenbroek, R.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the left hemisphere is dominant for the planning of motor actions. This left-hemisphere specialization hypothesis was proposed in various lines of research, including patient studies, motor imagery studies, and studies involving neurophysiological techniques. However,

  6. Incidental retroaortic left innominate vein in adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Semionov, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Retro-aortic left innominate vein is a rare vascular abnormality, usually associated with congenital heart disease. Here we report a case of isolated retro-aortic left innominate vein in an adult female.

  7. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  8. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  9. A Right Brain/Left Brain Model of Acting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlen, Clark

    Using current right brain/left brain research, this paper develops a model that explains acting's underlying quality--the actor is both himself and the character. Part 1 presents (1) the background of the right brain/left brain theory, (2) studies showing that propositional communication is a left hemisphere function while affective communication…

  10. Left Ventricular Geometry In Nigerians With Type II Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy is independently associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular and all cause mortality. In a relatively healthy hypertensive adult population, type II diabetes is associated with higher left ventricular mass, concentric left ventricular geometry and lower ...

  11. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  12. Related anomalies of origin of left vertebral and left inferior thyroid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, K.; Freckmann, N.; Boeker, D.K.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Altona, Hamburg

    1981-01-01

    The known rare occurrence of related anomalies of origin of vertebral and inferior thyroid arteries appears not to be documented in the angiographic literature. Three cases with manifestation on the left side are presented. Embryology is discussed briefly. Knowledge of such anomalies is of importance to surgeons as well as angiographers. (orig.) [de

  13. Visceral subpleural hematoma of the left diaphragmatic surface following left upper division segmentectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Mizukami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary visceral subpleural hematoma is rare. We report visceral subpleural hematoma of the left diaphragmatic surface following left upper division segmentectomy. This very rare case was difficult to distinguish from thoracic abscess. Case presentation A 68-year-old man with hypertension had undergone video-assisted thoracoscopic left upper division segmentectomy for suspected lung carcinoma. Deep vein thrombosis of the lower leg was identified and edoxaban, a so-called novel oral anticoagulant, was started on postoperative day 7. The chest drainage tube was removed on postoperative day 12 because of persistent air leakage, but fever appeared the same day. Computed tomography revealed a cavity with mixed air and fluid, so antibiotics were started on suspicion of abscess. Computed tomography-guided drainage was attempted, but proved unsuccessful. Fever continued and surgical investigation was therefore performed. Visceral subpleural hematoma was identified under the diaphragmatic surface of the left basal lung. We excised the pleura, then performed drainage and applied running sutures. The parenchyma and visceral pleura were covered with polyglycolic acid sheet and fibrin glue. Edoxaban was restarted on postoperative day 12 of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and no recurrence of hematoma has been revealed. Conclusions Visceral subpleural hematoma after thoracic surgery is extremely rare. Furthermore, correct diagnosis was difficult and surgery offered a good diagnostic and therapeutic procedure.

  14. Count-based left ventricular volume determination utilizing a left posterior oblique view for attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovitch, M.A.; Kalff, V.; Koral, K.

    1984-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the inherent error of the left ventricular volume measurement from the gated equilibrium blood pool scintigram utilizing the count-based technique. The study population consisted of 26 patients who had undergone biplane contrast ventriculography. The patients were imaged with a parallel-hole collimator in the left anterior oblique position showing the septum to best advantage. A reference blood sample was counted and radionuclide volumes calculated without correction for attenuation. Attenuation corrected volumes were derived with the factor 1/e/sup -/+d/, where d = distance from skin marker to center of the left ventricle in the orthogonal left posterior oblique view and μ = linear attenuation coefficient. A series of μ values from 0.08 to 0.15 cm -1 was evaluated. The tightest 95% confidence limits achieved for an end-diastolic 150-ml ventricle were +/- 44ml, and for an end-systolic 75-ml ventricle +/- 32 ml. In view of the magnitude of inherent error, the count-based volume measurement may be more suitable for group analyses and in cases in which an individual patient serves as his own control

  15. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  16. Effects of sedation on echocardiographic variables of left atrial and left ventricular function in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica L; Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis; Bonagura, John D

    2012-10-01

    Although sedation is frequently used to facilitate patient compliance in feline echocardiography, the effects of sedative drugs on echocardiographic variables have been poorly documented. This study investigated the effects of two sedation protocols on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats, with special emphasis on the assessment of left atrial size and function, as well as left ventricular diastolic performance. Seven cats underwent echocardiography (transthoracic two-dimensional, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging) before and after sedation with both acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM), or acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM), butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV). Heart rate increased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol/ketamine (mean±SD of increase, 40±26 beats/min) and non-invasive systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol (mean±SD of decrease, 12±19 mmHg). The majority of echocardiographic variables were not significantly different after sedation compared with baseline values. Both sedation protocols resulted in mildly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and mildly increased left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness. This study therefore failed to demonstrate clinically meaningful effects of these sedation protocols on echocardiographic measurements, suggesting that sedation with acepromazine, butorphanol and/or ketamine can be used to facilitate echocardiography in healthy cats.

  17. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components which react with sunlight to form secondary pollutants, has recently been linked to increased risk of adverse cardiac responses. The components, and therefore health effects, of atmospheric smog are determined by the fuel used to generate them. In this study we examined the difference between isoprene- and toluene-generated smog in causing cardiac effects in rats and hypothesized that both atmospheres would cause cardiac electrical and functional changes in rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to either atmospheric smog generated by the USEPA’s mobile reaction chamber using either isoprene or toluene, or filtered air for four hours. One day later, rats were anesthetized and left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe and arrhythmia sensitivity to aconitine. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was lower in toluene-exposed animals but not isoprene when compared to air. Increases in LVP with increasing doses of dobutamine were impaired only in toluene-exposed rats. Both isoprene and toluene impaired the rate of ventri

  18. LEFT RENAL TUMOR: A RARE CADAVERIC FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A benign tumour is a non - cancerous growth that does not spread (metastasize to other parts of the body and is not usually life - threatening. Many researchers believe that most of the following types of kidney tumours are benign. However, others feel that some of these tumours have the potential to develop into renal cell carcinoma. There are no diagnostic tests that can confirm if a benign tumour has the potential to become cancerous. Benign tumours are sometimes found along with renal cell carcinoma when a removed kidney is examined by a pathologist. For these reasons, benign kidney tumours are treated like malignant tumours. In this case we have observed a male cadaver with a large tumour in the left kidney during our routine dissections of undergraduates .

  19. Rectal volvulus following laparoscopic left hemicolectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul Anthony; Lee, Han Sian; Din, Islah; Vimalachandran, Dale

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old lady with a history of Dukes B2 (T3N0M0) colorectal cancer presented some 2 years following a laparoscopic left hemicolectomy with a 4-day history of absolute constipation. A plain radiograph demonstrated large bowel obstruction, and subsequent CT of the abdomen showed the level of the obstruction to be at the rectum. Initially the aetiology was believed to be recurrence at the site of the anastomosis; however, subsequent review of the imaging and indeed endoscopic examination of the rectum showed it to be volvulus. This was initially treated with endoscopic decompression and later by the insertion of a flatus tube to good effect. The patient was discharged 3 days later with no recurrence of her symptoms at 2 months. PMID:23608861

  20. Cardiopulmonary Changes with Moderate Decompression in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R.; Little, T.; Doursout, M.-F.; Butler, B. D.; Chelly, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were compressed to 616 kPa for 120 min then decompressed at 38 kPa/min to assess the cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to moderate decompression stress. In one series of experiments the rats were chronically instrumented with Doppler ultrasonic probes for simultaneous measurement of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, left and right ventricular wall thickening fraction, and venous bubble detection. Data were collected at base-line, throughout the compression/decompression protocol, and for 120 min post decompression. In a second series of experiments the pulmonary responses to the decompression protocol were evaluated in non-instrumented rats. Analyses included blood gases, pleural and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and hemoglobin concentration, pulmonary edema, BAL and lung tissue phospholipids, lung compliance, and cell counts. Venous bubbles were directly observed in 90% of the rats where immediate post-decompression autopsy was performed and in 37% using implanted Doppler monitors. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and right ventricular wall thickening fractions were significantly decreased post decompression, whereas systemic vascular resistance was increased suggesting a decrease in venous return. BAL Hb and total protein levels were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression, pleural and plasma levels were unchanged. BAL white blood cells and neutrophil percentages were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression and pulmonary edema was detected. Venous bubbles produced with moderate decompression profiles give detectable cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in the rat.

  1. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON LIPID PROFILE AND SOME HORMONES IN OBESE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABR, S.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; GHAREIB, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the long term effect of chromium picolinate (intake 30 and 60 days) on lipid profile, testosterone, thyroid hormones, corticosterone and insulin was studied in obese male rats. A total of 48 male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. The rats were distributed into four equal main groups: 1- Normal rats left without any treatment and served as a control group. 2- Normal rats treated with chromium picolinate at a dose of 40 μg/kg/day. 3-Obese rats (after the induction of obesity) using fed high fat diet. 4- Obese rats treated with chromium picolinate. The results obtained showed that normal rats treated with chromium picolinate for 30 or 60 days had no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) when compared with the control group. The testosterone and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats treated with chromium picolinate for 60 days. Insulin level was significantly increased in treated rats for 60 days when compared with the control ones. In obese rats, the lipid profile and corticosterone were significantly increased at 30 and 60 days, while the insulin levels were increased in obese rats fed on high fat diet for 30 days as compared with the control rats. The administration of chromium picolinate to obese rats succeeded to decrease the lipid profile, corticosterone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 days) when compared with the obese rats. It could be concluded from this study that chromium picolinate possess beneficial effects in decreasing lipid profile in obese rats. Therefore, additional of chromium picolinate may be useful in obese rats to burn excess body fat and in treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Since it cause decrease in testosterone level, its use was advised to restrict to relatively old age

  2. Polycythemia vera presenting with left hemichoreiform movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tamiharu; Shimomura, Chikako; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1985-01-01

    A 65-year-old man developed abruptly choreiform movements involving the left face, arm and leg one day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed red face and palms, hyperemic conjunctivae and atrial fibrillations. Blood pressure was 168/90. Spleen was not palpable. Hemichoreiform movements of the left face and limbs were observed. There was no other neurological abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed RBC 880x10 4 , Hb 22.4g/dl, Hct 63%, WBC 8,100, platelets 22.9x10 4 , ESR 0mm/hr, RBC oxygen saturation 97%, serum iron 67 μg/dl, LDH 593 units, uric acid 14mg/dl, and erythropoietine (HI method) 19mIU/ml (normal 28-88). Bone marrow showed myeloid nucleated cell count 38.6x10 4 . ECG showed atrial fibrillations. Chest X-ray and scintigrams of liver and spleen were normal. CSF was normal. Brain CT scan on admission disclosed a low density area in right caudate nucleus. The choreiform movements were rapidly mitigated by venesection and by oral administration of haloperidol(3mg daily). There weeks after discontinuing haloperidol, the hemichorea returned. The routine hematology showed RBC 870x10 4 , Hb 19.8g/dl, Hct 62%, WBC 10,200, and plateret 37.4x10 4 . Another venesection reduced the chorea. Pipobroman was administered to control the polycythemia vera. He has been free of choreic movements thereafter. Choreiform movement is rarely observed in polycythemia vera. The pathogenesis is still unknown. The venous congestion, however, may play a role in this case because the choreic movements disappeared by venesection. (author)

  3. The effect of percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhihong; Wu Hong; Qin Yongwen; Hu Jianqiang; Ding Zhongru; Liu Zongjun; Liu Biao; Zheng Xing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage (LAA) with a new self-manufactured LAA occluder on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in canine. Methods: A new self-manufactured LAA occluder was implanted into the LAA through a transseptal catheter in 20 dogs. Before and after the procedure, the experimental dogs were anaesthetized and examined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to measure the diameter and the volume of the left atrium, the left superior pulmonary vein flow velocity and the left atrioventricular valve flow velocity separately. The contrast radiography of the LAA and the left coronary arteriography were performed. Results: The new LAA occluder was implanted successfully in 14 dogs. No obvious changes in the diameter and the volume of the left atrium, in left superior pulmonary vein flow velocity and in left atrioventricular valve flow velocity were found. On arteriography, left circumflex artery was normally displayed after the procedure. No migration of the occluder was seen on TTE and angiography after procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage with a new self-manufactured LAA occluder has no obvious effect on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in experimental canine, which indicates that the new-type device is a safe and feasible occluder for LAA. (authors)

  4. Lung transplantation in the rat. III. Functional studies in iso- and allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marck, K.W.; Prop, J.; Wildevuur, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Recently a microsurgical technique for orthotopic left lung transplantation in the rat was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the operation itself and of an unmodified rejection reaction on the function of the transplanted rat lung. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in 59 rats (34 isografts and 25 allografts). Isografts demonstrated a mean left lung perfusion of 23.1% in the first two postoperative weeks. Seven out of the 10 animals, subjected to a repeated scintigraphy 5-10 weeks later, had an increased graft perfusion, resulting in an almost normal mean left lung perfusion of 34.8%. At that time chest roentgenography revealed a good aeration of the grafts, that at autopsy had a normal aspect. Allografts showed an initial mean left lung perfusion (24.6%) similar to the isografts, which, however, declined sharply a few days later (4.3%). At that time chest roentgenography revealed totally opalescent grafts that at autopsy had the hepatized aspect characteristic of lung allograft rejection. These results of isogeneic and allogeneic lung transplantation in the rat were comparable with those of canine auto- and allotransplantation. For immunogenetic and economical reasons lung transplantation in the rat is a good alternative animal model in lung transplantation research

  5. Asymmetry in the brain influenced the neurological deficits and infarction volume following the middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Meizeng; Gao Huanmin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Paw preference in rats is similar to human handedness, which may result from dominant hemisphere of rat brain. However, given that lateralization is the uniqueness of the humans, many researchers neglect the differences between the left and right hemispheres when selecting the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ischemia in the dominant hemisphere on neurobehavioral function and on the cerebral infarction vol...

  6. Effect of housing rats within a pyramid on stress parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Surekha; Rao, Guruprasad; Murthy, K Dilip; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2003-11-01

    The Giza pyramids of Egypt have been the subject of much research. Pyramid models with the same base to height ratio as of the Great Pyramid of Giza, when aligned on a true north-south axis, are believed to generate, transform and transmit energy. Research done with such pyramid models has shown that they induced greater relaxation in human subjects, promoted better wound healing in rats and afforded protection against stress-induced neurodegnerative changes in mice. The present study was done to assess the effects of housing Wistar rats within the pyramid on the status of oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in their erythrocytes and cortisol levels in their plasma. Rats were housed in cages under standard laboratory conditions. Cages were left in the open (normal control), under a wooden pyramid model (experimental rats) or in a cubical box of comparable dimensions (6 hr/day for 14 days). Erythrocyte malondialdehyde and plasma cortisol levels were significantly decreased in rats kept within the pyramid as compared to the normal control and those within the square box. Erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in the rats kept in the pyramid as compared to the other two groups. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters between the normal control and rats kept in the square box. The results showed that exposure of adult female Wistar rats to pyramid environment reduces stress oxidative stress and increases antioxidant defense in them.

  7. RatMap--rat genome tools and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB-Genetics at Goteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided.

  8. Calorie restriction attenuates cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Miwa; Nakashima, Chieko; Takahashi, Keiji; Murase, Tamayo; Hattori, Takuya; Ito, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2013-11-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) can modulate the features of obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently characterized DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats develop hypertension and manifest left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, as well as increased cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. We have now investigated the effects of CR on cardiac pathophysiology in DS/obese rats. DS/obese rats were fed either normal laboratory chow ad libitum or a calorie-restricted diet (65% of the average food intake for ad libitum) from 9 to 13 weeks. Age-matched homozygous lean (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+) or DS/lean) littermates served as controls. CR reduced body weight in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats, as well as attenuated the development of hypertension in DS/obese rats without affecting blood pressure in DS/lean rats. CR also reduced body fat content, ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, and attenuated cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation in DS/obese rats. In addition, it increased serum adiponectin concentration, as well as downregulated the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1A receptor genes in the heart of DS/obese rats. Our results thus show that CR attenuated obesity and hypertension, as well as left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in DS/obese rats, with these latter effects being associated with reduced cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation.

  9. Effect of Guci powder on toe swelling induced by egg white in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Hao, Shaojun; Shen, Huiling; Ma, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Xuehui; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To observe the effect of Guci Powder on foot swelling induced by egg white in rats. 50 male rats were randomly divided into normal saline group (n=10), white vinegar group (n=10) and Guning lotion group (n=10). There were 10 rats in the high-dose group and 10 in the low-dose group. The rats in each group were treated with the drug on the left and right feet of the rats. 0.5 hours after the last administration, the rats in each group were inflamed. The left hindsole plantar volume was measured respectively, so that the difference of the posterior toe volume before inflammation was taken as the swelling degree, and the swelling degree of each group was calculated. Compared with physiological saline group, the rats' egg white toe swelling (Pegg white toe in rats was inhibited at 0.5˜2h (Pegg white in rats, and the external application of bone spur powder has anti-inflammatory and swelling effect.

  10. Cardio-protective effects of carnitine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptozotocin-induced diabetes (STZ-D in rats has been associated with carnitine deficiency, bradycardia and left ventricular enlargement. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine whether oral carnitine supplementation would normalize carnitine levels and cardiac function in STZ-D rats. Methods Wistar rats (48 were made hyperglycemic by STZ at 26 weeks of age. Same age normal Wistar rats (24 were used for comparison. Echocardiograms were performed at baseline 2, 6, 10, and 18 weeks after STZ administration in all animals. HbA1c, serum carnitine and free fatty acids (FFA were measured at the same times. Since STZ-D rats become carnitine deficient, 15 STZ-D rats received supplemental oral carnitine for 16 weeks. Results The heart rates for the STZ-D rats (290 ± 19 bpm were less than control rats (324 ± 20 bpm (p Conclusion Thus, supplemental oral carnitine in STZ-D rats normalized serum carnitine, heart rate regulation and left ventricular size. These findings suggest a metabolic mechanism for the cardiac dysfunction noted in this diabetic animal model.

  11. What's Left of the Left-Right Dimension? Why the Economic Policy Positions of Europeans Do Not Fit the Left-Right Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjes, Simon

    2018-01-01

    In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension. There is also a role for the legacy of communist dictatorship: citizens who were socialised in democratic countries have views that fit the left-right dimension better than those socialised during communism.

  12. UFO in the Left Atrium: How to Capture Metal Debris Floating in the Left Atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassini, Gaetano; Moltrasio, Massimo; Conti, Sergio; Biagioli, Viviana; Tondo, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Electrophysiology procedures involving left atrium navigation are becoming more frequent, mostly due to the increase of atrial fibrillation ablation. Mapping catheters of different shapes and size as well as dedicated sheaths are mandatory tools for the accomplishment of procedural end point. Therefore, technical issues are expected, usually unrelated to significant risk. However, any accidental intra-atrial device loss of integrity implies a risk of cerebrovascular embolization. The lack of clear evidence on how to manage these events and the need for a quick solution complicate the scenario. We report an empirical solution in the case of debris floating in the left atrium. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase image characterization of ventricular contraction in left anterior hemiblock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akifumi; Mizuno, Haruyoshi; Tahara, Yorio; Ishikawa, Kyozo

    1991-01-01

    We investigated whether or not left anterior hemiblock is present in patients with left axis deviation using first-harmonic Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool images. Gated blood-pool images were taken in 50 patients without contraction abnormality. They included 14 normal subjects, 8 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB), 20 with left axis deviation (LAD) and 8 with both RBBB and LAD (RBBB+LAD). ECG gated blood-pool scans were acquired in the anterior and 'best septal' left anterior oblique projections. First, the phase images were displayed cinematically as a continuous-loop movie. Next, for quantitative analysis of the phase image, the whole left ventricular and left ventricular high lateral regions of interest were drawn. The 'regional phase shift' (RPS) was then defined as {RPS=A-a} where 'A' is the mean value of the whole left ventricular phase angles and 'a' is that of phase angles in the high lateral region. The left ventricular phase changes and the RPSs in the RBBB and LAD groups were similar to those in the normal group. In the RBBB+LAD group, the latest phase changes occurred in the high anterolateral region. The RPSs of this group were significantly lower than those in the other 3 groups (p<0.01). These data suggest that left anterior hemiblock might coexist with RBBB in patients with RBBB+LAD, whereas left anterior hemiblock might not exist in the majority of patients with LAD alone. (author)

  14. [Surgical angioplasty of the left main coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranes, Mile; Velinović, Milos; Kocica, Mladen; Mikić, Aleksandar; Velimirović, Dusan; Djukić, Petar

    2010-01-01

    The conventional treatment for isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery is bypass surgery (myocardial revascularization). However, the process of atherosclerosis is not arrested by myocardial revascularization and it will lead to the occlusion of the left main coronary artery. Revascularization will establish retrograde perfusion for 50-70% of the myocardium of the left ventricle. Direct surgical angioplasty of the left main coronary artery enables normal physiological perfusion of the whole myocardium and better myocardial function. The aim of our study is to point out a new surgical approach of treating left main coronary artery stenosis. Between October 2002 and October 2003, direct surgical angioplasty of the main left coronary artery was performed on three patients with isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery using the anterior approach and the pericardium as a patch. The procedure was performed under total endotracheal anaesthesia and standard cardiopulmonary circulation, moderate hypothermia, anterograde St. Tomas cardioplegia and local cooling. Patients were followed clinically, echocardiographically and by load-tests. All three patients were without complications. In postoperative follow-up (54-68 months) neither angina pectoris nor electrocardiographically registered ischaemic changes were found. Load-tests performed every six months on all three patients were negative. Surgical angioplasty of isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery is a preferred method for treating this type of coronary disease. Contraindications for this type of treatment are stenosis of the left main coronary artery with bifurcation and advanced calcification of the left main coronary artery.

  15. Left hand polydactyly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumoli, Nicola; Gandini, Daniele; Wamala, Edris Kalanzi; Cei, Marco

    2008-11-24

    Polydactyly is a congenital anomaly with a wide range of manifestations that occurs in many forms, ranging from varying degrees of mere splitting to completely duplicated thumb. When duplication occurs alone, it is usually unilateral and sporadic. In this case report we describe an otherwise healthy 19-year-old woman of Tibetan heritage with isolated left hand preaxial polydactyly. She experienced working related difficulties in her daily yak's milking. She subsequently underwent surgical correction, and the over number thumb was removed with associated meticulous skeletal and soft tissue reconstruction. Polydactyly is the most common congenital digital anomaly of the hand and foot. It can occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Surgery is necessary to create a single, functioning thumb and is indicated to improve cosmesis. Skin, nail, bone, ligament, and musculoskeletal elements must be combined to reconstruct an optimal digit. In this case (Tibetan society is almost exclusively a sheep-breeding one) surgery was necessary to leave a single, functioning thumb for her work as yak milkmaid.

  16. Assessment of left atrial volume and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Lønborg, Jacob; Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    dynamic LA volume changes. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) appears more appropriate for such measures. We sought to determine the relationship between LA size assessed with TTE and LA size and function assessed with CMR and MSCT. Fifty......-four patients were examined 3 months post myocardial infarction with echocardiography, CMR and MSCT. Left atrial volumes and LA reservoir function were assessed by TTE. LA time-volume curves were determined and LA reservoir function (cyclic change and fractional change), passive emptying function (reservoir...... between CMR and MSCT, with a small to moderate bias in LA(max) (4.9 ± 10.4 ml), CC (3.1 ± 9.1 ml) and reservoir volume (3.4 ± 9.1 ml). TTE underestimates LA(max) with up to 32% compared with CMR and MSCT (P ...

  17. Left-right symmetric superstring supergravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burova, M.V.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    A left-right (L-R) symmetric model of four-dimensional supergravitation with a SO(10) gauge group obtained as the low-energy limit is superstring theory is considered. The spectrum of the gauge fields and their interactions are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam theory. In addition, the model includes heavy W R ± and Z μ ' bosons. Beside the N g =3 generations of the 16-plets the SO(10) model includes the fragments of such generations which play the role of Higgs particles and also scalar chiral filds, the number of which exceeds by one the number of generations. As a result the neutrinos of each generation obtain a stable small Majorana mass. It is shown that the scalar field potential leads to spontaneous violation of the SU(2) R group and L-R symmetry and at low energies the standard Weinberg-Salam theory appears. However, reasonable values of X bosons masses M x and sun 2 Θ W (Θ W is the Weinberg angle) can be obtained in the model only in the case of high mass scale M R ∼10 10 -10 12 GeV of the right group SU(2) R violation

  18. Endocarditis in left ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Kumar, Monisha Priyadarshini; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in developed nations. End stage heart failure often requires cardiac transplantation for survival. The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been one of the biggest evolvements in heart failure management often serving as bridge to transplant or destination therapy in advanced heart failure. Like any other medical device, LVAD is associated with complications with infections being reported in many patients. Endocarditis developing secondary to the placement of LVAD is not a frequent, serious and difficult to treat condition with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few retrospective studies and case reports reporting the same. In our review, we found the most common cause of endocarditis in LVAD was due to bacteria. Both bacterial and fungal endocarditis were associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this review we will be discussing the risk factors, organisms involved, diagnostic tests, management strategies, complications, and outcomes in patients who developed endocarditis secondary to LVAD placement. PMID:27672540

  19. Left ventricular noncompaction: Clinical-echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a disorder in endomyocardial morphogenesis, seen either isolated (in the absence of other cardiac anomalies or in association with congenital heart disease and some neuromuscular diseases. Intrauterine arrest of the compaction of myocardial fibers is postulated to be the reason of LVNC. Recognition of this condition is extremely important due to its high mortality and morbidity that lead to progressive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of LVNC among consecutive outpatients according to clinical and echocardiographyic findings. Methode. A total of 3,854 consecutive patients examined at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases within a period January 2006 - January 2007 were included in the study. All the patients underwent echocardiographic examination using the same equipment (Vivid 7, GE Medical System. Echocardiographic parameters and clinical presentation in patients with echocardiographic criteria for LVNC were analyzed. Results. Analyzing 3,854 consecutive outpatients, using two-dimensional Color Doppler echocardiography from January 2006 to January 2007, 12 patients met the criteria for LVNC. Seven of them were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 45 ± 15 years. Analyzing clinical manifestation of LVNC it was found that seven patients had signs of heart failure, six had arrhythmias with no embolic events. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the real prevalence of LVNC may be higher than expected. New studies have to be done to solve this problem.

  20. Microwave hyperthermia enhancement of methotrexate absorption in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Yuen, M.K.; Jung, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    The author studied enhanced absorption of methotrexate (MTX) in brains of male Wistar (10 weeks old, 500g) subjected to microwave hyperthermia. The rat was anesthetized using 40 mg/kg of sodium pentobarbital, IP and was placed in a stereotaxic head holder. Microwave energy (2450 MHz, 2.6 W/cm/sup 2/, CW) were applied directly to the left side of the rat's head by a coaxial applicator for 20 min. The body temperature was kept at 37.8 0 C. The brain temperature recorded in a similar group of animals using a Vitek probe was about 45 0 C. Three different MTX dosages, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, were injected intravenously immediately following microwave irradiation into three groups of rats in 1.5, 3 and 6 min., respectively. MTX was allowed to circulate for five min. before brains were removed for analysis. Standard HPLC procedures were applied to samples from anterior and posterior left hemisphere of the cerebrum, and the cerebellum. Samples from the right hemisphere were used for controls. The average absorption at the posterior left hemisphere was found to be 2.4, 9.6 and 12.4μg of MTX/g of brain tissue for 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. These results indicate that MTX absorption is significantly increased in rat brains subjected to microwave hyperthermia treatment

  1. El aumento de la expresión del ARNm de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina I homóloga (ECA-2 inducido por atorvastatina se asocia a menor fibrosis e hipertrofia ventricular izquierda en un modelo de cardiomiopatía diabética Atorvastatin induced increase in homologous angiotensin i converting enzyme (ACE2 mRNA is associated to decreased fibrosis and decreased left ventricular hypertrophy in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto de atorvastatina sobre la progresión del remodelado cardiaco y la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. Materiales y métodos. La diabetes fue inducida en ratas Holtzman con una inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina. Los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos: (1 ratas control, (2 ratas diabéticas y (3 ratas diabéticas tratadas con atorvastatina (50 mg/kg/día. Después de ocho semanas de tratamiento, los corazones fueron extraídos para el análisis morfométrico, la cuantificación de colágeno y la determinación de los niveles de ARNm de ECA y ECA-2. Resultados. El índice de hipertrofia ventricular y el depósito de colágeno se incrementaron significativamente en las ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina previno estos cambios sin modificar los niveles de colesterol. La hiperglicemia produjo un incremento significativo en los niveles del ARNm de ECA y una marcada disminución en la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina indujo la expresión del ARNm de ECA-2 e inhibió la sobreexpresión del ARNm de ECA en el miocardio de las ratas diabéticas. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados indican que la atorvastatina, independientemente de su capacidad para disminuir el colesterol, normaliza la relación de la expresión de ECA/ECA-2 y atenúa el desarrollo del remodelado adverso en el corazón diabético.Objectives. This study has investigated the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of cardiac remodelling and ACE- 2 expression in diabetic myocardium in rats. Materials and Methods. Diabetes was induced in Holtzman rats with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The animals were divided into 3 groups: (1 normal control rats, (2 diabetic rats and (3 diabetic rats treated orally with atorvastatin (50 mg/kg/day. After eight weeks of treatment, the hearts were removed for morphometric studies, collagen

  2. Isolated Left Pulmonary Artery Agenesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis without any cardiovascular malformation is a rare anomaly. We present the imaging findings of a patient who was diagnosed as isolated left pulmonary artery agenesis. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital due to dyspnea during exercise for five years. Chest X-ray revealed minimally small left pulmonary hilum and left lung. She was admitted to our clinic with the suspicion of pulmonary artery pathology. Absent perfusion of the left lung with normal ventilation was visualized on scintigraphy. MDCT angiography of pulmonary arteries showed absent left main pulmonary artery with systemic collaterals around left hemithorax. Pulmonary artery agenesis can be asymptomatic and isolated until adulthood. Both scintigraphy and CT angiography images of pulmonary artery agenesis of a patient are rare in the literature. Pulmonary ventilation- perfusion scintigraphy can be used not only for pulmonary embolism but also pathologies involving pulmonary artery and its branches. (MIRT 2012;21:80-83

  3. Evaluation of left cardiac function by exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Horayama, Norihisa; Hamada, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi; Takezawa, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    Left ventricular systolic and diastolic features at rest and exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were evaluated by Fourier analysis of blood pool scintigraphy (intracorporeal labelling with sup(99m)Tc-RBC). In the normal group (17 subjects), the left ventricular ejection fraction showed a linear increase, but no abnormality of regional ventricular wall motion, by multistage exercises. The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy group showed higher left ventricular ejection fractions at rest than those of the normal group, and in the HCM group (non-obstructive, from morphological features; 7 cases) the left ventricular ejection fraction did not increase any more when it reached a certain plateau in accordance with increased stress. In the HOCM (obstructive; 5 cases), the left ventricular ejection fraction showed a decreasing tendency as the stress was increased and also showed contractile abnormalities from the left ventricular center to the apex. Fourier analysis was effective for the evaluation of these changes. (Chiba, N.)

  4. Effect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage function and thrombotic potential in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçelik, Muhammed Bora; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçekcioğlu, Hülya; Uçar, Özgül; Duran, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage functions, spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In 58 patients with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrilation and preserved left ventricular systolic function, left atrial appendage functions, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast grading and left ventricular diastolic functions were evaluated using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiogram. Patients divided in two groups: Group D (n=30): Patients with diastolic dysfunction, Group N (n=28): Patients without diastolic dysfunction. Categorical variables in two groups were evaluated with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The significance of the lineer correlation between the degree of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and clinical measurements was evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Peak pulmonary vein D velocity of the Group D was significantly higher than the Group N (p=0.006). However, left atrial appendage emptying velocity, left atrial appendage lateral wall velocity, peak pulmonary vein S, pulmonary vein S/D ratio were found to be significantly lower in Group D (p=0.028, patrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities respectively (r=-0.438, r=-0.328, r=-0.233, r=-0.447). Left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities were significantly lower in SEC 2-3-4 than SEC 1 (p=0.003, p=0.029, patrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial appendage functions are decreased in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may constitute a potential risk for formation of thrombus and stroke.

  5. Study on Application of Static Magnetic Field for Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of the application of static magnetic field (SMF on pain relief, we performed a study on rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA. Sixty female Sprague–Dawley (SD rats (age: 6 weeks, body weight: approximately 160 g were divided into three groups [SMF-treated AA rats (Group I, non-SMF-treated AA rats (Group II and control rats (Group III]. The SD rats were injected in the left hind leg with 0.6 mg/0.05 ml Mycobacterium butyrium to induce AA. The rats were bred for 6 months as chronic pain model. Thereafter, the AA rats were or were not exposed to SMF for 12 weeks. We assessed the changes in the tail surface temperature, locomotor activity, serum inflammatory marker and bone mineral density (BMD using thermography, a metabolism measuring system and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method, respectively. The tail surface temperature, locomotor activity and femoral BMD of the SMF-exposed AA rats were significantly higher than those of the non-SMF-exposed AA rats, and the serum inflammatory marker was significantly lower. These findings suggest that the pain relief effects are primarily due to the increased blood circulation caused by the rise in the tail surface temperature. Moreover, the pain relief effects increased with activity and BMD of the AA rats.

  6. Left Sided Amyand's Hernia, A Rare Occurance: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Mohan, G; Srinivasan, A; Ravindran, G; Ramalingam, A

    2013-06-01

    This is a case report about a 35 year old man admitted with complains of obstructed left sided inguinal hernia. On exploration of the left inguinal canal to our surprise a normal appendix was found in addition to a gangrenous omentum. Resection of the gangrenous omentum was done. Appendectomy was done. This case is reported for its rare occurance as only three such cases of left sided amyand's hernia has been reported so far in literature[4-6].

  7. On left (θ,ϕ-derivations in BCI-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Muhiuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of (regular left (θ,ϕ-derivations of a BCI-algebra is introduced, some useful examples are discussed, and related properties are investigated. Conditions for a left (θ,ϕ-derivation to be regular are provided. The concepts of a d(θ,ϕ-invariant left (θ,ϕ-derivation and θ-ideal are introduced, and their relations are discussed. Furthermore, some more interesting results are established.

  8. Total anomalous systemic venous drainage in left heterotaxy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandenahally, Ravindranath S; Deora, Surender; Math, Ravi S

    2013-04-01

    Total anomalous systemic venous drainage is an extremely rare congenital heart defect. In this study we describe an 11-year-old girl who presented with a history of fatigue and central cyanosis that she had had since early childhood with unremarkable precordial examination results. Investigations revealed left heterotaxy with all systemic venous drainage to the left-sided atrium with non-compaction of the left ventricle.

  9. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  11. The Prognostic Value of Left Atrial Peak Reservoir Strain in Acute Myocardial Infarction Is Dependent on Left Ventricular Longitudinal Function and Left Atrial Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Andersen, Mads J; Valeur, Nana

    2013-01-01

    of PALS and left ventricular longitudinal strain (global longitudinal strain) in large-scale populations in regard to prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 843 patients (mean age 62.1+/-11.8; 74% male) with acute myocardial infarction and measured global longitudinal strain, left......BACKGROUND: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) during the reservoir phase has been proposed as a measure of left atrium function in a range of cardiac conditions, with the potential for added pathophysiological insight and prognostic value. However, no studies have assessed the interrelation...

  12. Detection of left ventricular thrombi by computerised tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, C.K.; Sketch, M.H.; Mahoney, P.D.; Lynch, J.D.; Mooss, A.N.; Kenney, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen patients suspected of having left ventricular mural thrombi were studied. All had suffered transmural myocardial infarction. Fifteen patients had a ventricular aneurysm. One had had systemic emboli. The mean length of time between the myocardial infarction and the study was 14.8 months, with a range of one month to 79 months. All patients underwent computerised tomography of the heart, M-mode echocardiography (M-mode), and two-dimensional echocardiography (2-D). Eight patients underwent left ventricular cineangiography. Five patients had surgical confirmation. Computerised tomography, two-dimensional, and M-mode echocardiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in 10, eight, and one of the 16 patients, respectively. Left ventricular cineangiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in four out of eight patients. Computerised tomography and left ventricular cineangiography correctly predicted the presence or absence of left ventricular thrombi in all five patients who underwent operation. In the same group, however, two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography failed to predict the presence of thrombi in one and three patients, respectively. Among the 11 patients without surgical confirmation, one, in whom no left ventricular thrombi were shown by M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography, was found to have thrombi on computerised tomography. In another, two-dimensional echocardiography was positive but this finding was not confirmed either by computerised tomography or by left ventricular angiography. (author)

  13. Current status of ultrafast CT to evaluate the left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, R.M.; Rees, M.R.; Maranhao, V.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrafast CT with the cine mode can enable reliable assessment of left ventricular mass and function. Two oblique planar views, the long axis and short axis, are required. Right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, stroke volume and ejection fraction, left ventricular segmental wall motion, and left ventricular mass can be measured. This exhibit emphasizes the methods and pitfalls in acquiring this information. Results from the authors' studies thus far to validate these measurements against reference standards are reviewed

  14. Extreme premature with persistent left superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz-Rivera, Carlos Manuel; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Parra-Pérez, Mariana Yazmin

    2017-10-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a congenital anomaly, that results when there is an absence of the normal regression of the left common precardinal vein during embryogenesis. Usually, this anomaly remains asymptomatic, however, when the PLSVC drains into the left atrium this could lead to a right-to-left shunt. Additionally, this can result in inadvertent delivery of air or thrombus into the systemic circulation with potential neurologic, cardiac and renal complications. In this article, we present a case of an extreme premature Mexican newborn in which the diagnosis was made after placement of a percutaneous central venues catheter.

  15. Serum expression of HA and LN in lewis rat models of autoimmune myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Li'na; Li Tieling; Zhang Yajing; Yang Tingshu; Ding Yu; Guo Shuli; Zhao Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of dynamic changes of serum expressions of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Methods: Fifty Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were established with injection of recombinant cardiac C protein with complete freund adjuvant into two foot-pads plus intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin. At 1w, 2w, 4w, 6w and 8w, 10 models were sacrificed each time;cardiac tissues were examined with HE stain for myocardial inflammatory score and examined with picrosirius red stain for myocardial fibrosis score, also, serum HA and LN expressions were determined with RIA. These examinations were performed in 10 undisturbed animals as controls. Results: The myocardial inflammatory scores of the models at 1w were about the same as those in the controls, but the scores rapidly increased from 2w on to 4w then fell gradually. The myocardial fibrosis scores of the models at 1wk were also not much different from those in controls. The fibrosis scores increased rapidly at 4w and maintained at high level up to 8w. The changes of serum expressions of HA and LN roughly paralleled those of myocardial fibrosis scores i. e. rapidly increased at 4w up to 8w. Conclusion: Serum expressions of HA and LN could faithfully reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis in rat models of EAM. HA and LN were useful markers of myocardial fibrois and were of prognostic importance. (authors)

  16. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 reduces hypothalamic excitation in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus plays an important role in the progression of heart failure (HF. We investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition in the PVN attenuates the activities of sympathetic nervous system (SNS and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin over a period of 2 weeks (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg. On day 19, rats received intragastric administration daily with either COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (CLB or normal saline. Treatment with CLB reduced mortality and attenuated both myocardial atrophy and pulmonary congestion in HF rats. Compared with the HF rats, ventricle to body weight (VW/BW and lung to body weight (LW/BW ratios, heart rate (HR, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP and maximum rate of change in left ventricular pressure (LV±dp/dtmax were improved in HF+CLB rats. Angiotensin II (ANG II, norepinephrine (NE, COX-2 and glutamate (Glu in the PVN were increased in HF rats. HF rats had higher levels of ANG II and NE in plasma, higher level of ANG II in myocardium, and lower levels of ANP in plasma and myocardium. Treatment with CLB attenuated these HF-induced changes. HF rats had more COX-2-positive neurons and more corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH positive neurons in the PVN than did control rats. Treatment with CLB decreased COX-2-positive neurons and CRH positive neurons in the PVN of HF rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PVN COX-2 may be an intermediary step for PVN neuronal activation and excitatory neurotransmitter release, which further contributes to sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure. Treatment with COX-2 inhibitor attenuates sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure.

  17. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  18. Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handal Anabella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG, and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary.

  19. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  20. Left atrial strain: a new parameter for assessment of left ventricular filling pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Mandoli, Giulia Elena; Loiacono, Ferdinando; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Henein, Michael; Mondillo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate diagnosis, treatment and prognostication in many cardiac conditions, there is a need for assessment of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. While systole depends on ejection function of LV, diastole and its disturbances influence filling function and pressures. The commonest condition that represents the latter is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in which LV ejection is maintained, but diastole is disturbed and hence filling pressures are raised. Significant diastolic dysfunction results in raised LV end-diastolic pressure, mean left atrial (LA) pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, all referred to as LV filling pressures. Left and right heart catheterization has traditionally been used as the gold standard investigation for assessing these pressures. More recently, Doppler echocardiography has taken over such application because of its noninvasive nature and for being patient friendly. A number of indices are used to achieve accurate assessment of filling pressures including: LV pulsed-wave filling velocities (E/A ratio, E wave deceleration time), pulmonary venous flow (S wave and D wave), tissue Doppler imaging (E' wave and E/E' ratio) and LA volume index. LA longitudinal strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is also sensitive in estimating intracavitary pressures. It is angle-independent, thus overcomes Doppler limitations and provides highly reproducible measures of LA deformation. This review examines the application of various Doppler echocardiographic techniques in assessing LV filling pressures, in particular the emerging role of STE in assessing LA pressures in various conditions, e.g., HF, arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation.

  1. Left-handedness and language lateralization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Schapiro, Mark B; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-01-18

    This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and righthanded children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemispheric lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right-hemispheric lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%), respectively. Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bronchial compression by an enlarged left atrium in infants; a cause of hypovascularity of the left lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corr, L.; Hallidie-Smith, K.A.; McCarthy, P.A.; Lavender, J.P.

    1988-09-01

    In three infants seen recently at our institution we noted signs of compression of the left main bronchus associated with enlarged left atria. None of our cases demonstrated the more usual signs of hyperinflation which are a hyperlucent lung field, depressed hemidiaphragm and mediastinal shift away from the affected side. In addition, hypoperfusion of the left lung was noted in each case. We believe that bronchial compression due to an enlarged left atrium, with consequent hypoxic vasoconstriction is a clinically significant entity, which is not well described and may be unappreciated in infants in whom the typical signs of hyperinflation are absent.

  3. Histological evaluation of biocompatibility of Cynoscion acoupa otoliths in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Talita Santos; UNIT-Universidade Tiradentes/ ITP- Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Oliveira, Clauberto Rodrigues de; UNIT-Universidade Tiradentes/ ITP- Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Melo, Genecy Calado de; Santos, José Cleveilton dos; Rodrigues, Sheyla Alves; Xavier-Filho, Lauro; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Cynoscion acoupa´s otoliths by in vivo assays performed in Wistar rats. The material was prepared using 2g of powded Cynoscion acoupa’s otoliths and 0.5g of hydrolyzed collagen diluted in distilled water. The biological tests consisted of the use of 24 Wistar rats, which were implanted in polyethylene tubes containing otoliths (HI) on the right side of the back, empty tubes (IC) on the left. The animals were euthanized 3, 7 and...

  4. Structural alterations in heart valves during left ventricular pressure overload in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, I. E.; Havenith, M. G.; Smits, J. F.; Daemen, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Heart valves are an important denominator of the function of the heart but detailed studies of structural alterations of heart valves after hemodynamic changes are lacking. Structural alterations of heart valves, including DNA synthesis, collagen mRNA, and protein concentration were measured in

  5. Merits of Non-Invasive Rat Models of Left Ventricular Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure (HF) is defined primarily by the impairment of cardiac function and consequent inability of the heart to supply tissues with ample oxygen. To study HF etiology, investigators have applied many different techniques to elicit this condition in animals, with varying de...

  6. Left ventricular function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Ryutaro; Ifuku, Masayasu

    1985-01-01

    The present study was to investigate of left ventricular (LV) function during exercise in 26 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM) usingTc-99m equilibrium angiocardiography, and to elucidate the mechanism of impaired functional reserve during exercise. In patients with HCM, LV ejection fraction decreased from 65 ± 8 (mean ± SD) % at rest to 59 ± 18 % at peak exercise, in contrast to an increase among controls (from 56 ± 9 % to 64 ± 9 %). As compared with resting values, cardiac output increased to 168 ± 24 % at peak exercise in HCM, but the increase was significantly less than that in controls (215 ± 47 %). Stroke volume decreased gradually to 83 ± 16 % during exercise in HCM, while it increased to 114 ± 10 % at an exercise level of half intensity, and it decreased slightly to 106 ± 16 % at peak exercise. LV end-systolic volume decreased among controls to 78 ± 27 % at peak exercise, but remained unchanged in HCM (118 ± 58 %). An increase in peak ejection rate at peak exercise was less in HCM than in controls (143 ± 26 % vs 170 ± 42 %). No significant differences were observed between the two groups concerning changes in indices of LV diastolic function including LV end-diastolic volume, peak filling rate or 1/3 filling rate during exercise. In the analysis of LV function curves, pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure increased to a greater extent in HCM than in controls (19 ± 6 mmHg vs 11 ± 6 mmHg); whereas, an increase in the stroke work index was less in HCM (80 ± 26 g.m/m 2 /beat vs 121 ± 21 g.m/m 2 /beat) at peak exercise. Thus, the LV function curve shifted downward and to the right in patients with HCM. The above findings indicate that LV functional reserve during exercise is impaired, especially as to systolic function in patients with HCM, while deterioration of diastolic function may be partly compromised by elevated filling pressure. (J.P.N.)

  7. Hemodynamic, morphometric and autonomic patterns in hypertensive rats - renin-angiotensin system modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Zamo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop left ventricular hypertrophy, increased blood pressure and blood pressure variability, which are important determinants of heart damage, like the activation of renin-angiotensin system. AIMS: To investigate the effects of the time-course of hypertension over 1 hemodynamic and autonomic patterns (blood pressure; blood pressure variability; heart rate; 2 left ventricular hypertrophy; and 3 local and systemic Renin-angiotensin system of the spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomized into two groups: young (n=13 and adult (n=12. Hemodynamic signals (blood pressure, heart rate, blood pressure variability (BPV and spectral analysis of the autonomic components of blood pressure were analyzed. LEFT ventricular hypertrophy was measured by the ratio of LV mass to body weight (mg/g, by myocyte diameter (μm and by relative fibrosis area (RFA, %. ACE and ACE2 activities were measured by fluorometry (UF/min, and plasma renin activity (PRA was assessed by a radioimmunoassay (ng/mL/h. Cardiac gene expressions of Agt, Ace and Ace2 were quantified by RT-PCR (AU. RESULTS: The time-course of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats increased BPV and reduced the alpha index in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Adult rats showed increases in left ventricular hypertrophy and in RFA. Compared to young spontaneously hypertensive rats, adult spontaneously hypertensive rats had lower cardiac ACE and ACE2 activities, and high levels of PRA. No change was observed in gene expression of Renin-angiotensin system components. CONCLUSIONS: The observed autonomic dysfunction and modulation of Renin-angiotensin system activity are contributing factors to end-organ damage in hypertension and could be interacting. Our findings suggest that the management of hypertensive disease must start before blood pressure reaches the highest stable levels and the consequent

  8. Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan; Li, P. Andy; Sun, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral sei...

  9. Hyperglycemia can delay left ventricular dysfunction but not autonomic damage after myocardial infarction in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brum Patricia C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although clinical diabetes mellitus is obviously a high risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI, in experimental studies disagreement exists about the sensitivity to ischemic injury of an infarcted myocardium. Recently, our group demonstrated that diabetic animals presented better cardiac function recovery and cellular resistance to ischemic injury than nondiabetics. In the present study, we evaluated the chronic effects of MI on left ventricular (LV and autonomic functions in streptozotocin (STZ diabetic rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control (C, n = 15, diabetes (D, n = 16, MI (I, n = 21, and diabetes + MI (DI, n = 30. MI was induced 15 days after diabetes (STZ induction. Ninety days after MI, LV and autonomic functions were evaluated (8 animals each group. Left ventricular homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting to evaluate the expression of calcium handling proteins. Results MI area was similar in infarcted groups (~43%. Ejection fraction and +dP/dt were reduced in I compared with DI. End-diastolic pressure was additionally increased in I compared with DI. Compared with DI, I had increased Na+-Ca2+ exchange and phospholamban expression (164% and decreased phosphorylated phospholamban at serine16 (65% and threonine17 (70% expression. Nevertheless, diabetic groups had greater autonomic dysfunction, observed by baroreflex sensitivity and pulse interval variability reductions. Consequently, the mortality rate was increased in DI compared with I, D, and C groups. Conclusions LV dysfunction in diabetic animals was attenuated after 90 days of myocardial infarction and was associated with a better profile of calcium handling proteins. However, this positive adaptation was not able to reduce the mortality rate of DI animals, suggesting that autonomic dysfunction is associated with increased mortality in this group. Therefore, it is possible that the better cardiac function has been transitory

  10. Linear regression models for quantitative assessment of left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in left ventricular structures and function have been reported in cardiomyopathies. No prediction models have been established in this environment. This study established regression models for prediction of left ventricular structures in normal subjects. A sample of normal subjects was drawn from a large urban ...

  11. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring on left ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Systemic hypertension (HTN) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are individually associated with left ventricular structural and functional adaptations. However, little is known about the impact of OSA on the left ventricle in Africans with HTN. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the association between ...

  12. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity may be related to many factors such as race, gender and haemodynamic status. Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described among Caucasians. Objectives: To describe the sex specific pattern of left ...

  13. Orthodontic intervention of an impacted upper left central incisor due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fixed orthodontic appliance was used to facilitate traction and correction of malalignement of the impacted upper left central incisor.Treatment outcome: Successful removal of the odontoma, full exposure of the crown of upper left central incisor and good alignment on the arch were achieved. Crowding on the upper and ...

  14. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H

    2013-01-01

    The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.

  15. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    42) and 24.17 ± 4.39 ... Aortic root diameter (Ao), left atrial dimension (LAD), left ventricu- ... Key: *Statistically significant, a= Chi-square, SCA= sickle cell anaemia, SD= standard deviation. ..... of fluctuations in response to changes in sympathetic.

  16. Hemangioma of the left coronary artery: Diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, A.; Wiesmann, W.; Peters, P.E.; Haesfeld, M.; Sciuk, J.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a histologically proven hemangioma in the left coronary artery of the left ventricle of a 24-year-old woman. The results of the different medical imaging methods applied are described and the treatment of cardiac angiomas is discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Radionuclide evaluation of left ventricular function with nonimaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, J P; Blaufox, M D

    1979-10-01

    Portable nonimaging probes have been developed that can evaluate left ventricular function using radionuclide techniques. Two modes of data acquisition are possible with these probe systems, first-pass and gated. Precordial radiocardiograms obtained after a bolus injection can be used to determine cardiac output, pulmonary transit time, pulmonary blood volume, left ventricle ejection fraction, and left-to-right shunts. Gated techniques can be used to determine left ventricular ejection fraction and sytolic time intervals. Probe-determined indices of left ventricular function agree excellently with comparable measurements determined by conventional camera-computer methods as well as by invasive techniques. These have begun to be used in a preliminary manner in a variety of clinical problems associated with left ventricular dysfunction. This review discusses the types of probe systems available, the methods used in positioning them, and details the specifics of their data acquisition and processing capacity. The major criticisms of probe methods are that they are nonimaging and that they measure global rather than regional left ventricular function. In spite of these criticisms, probe systems, because of their portability, high sensitivity, and relatively low cost are useful supplements to conventional camera-computer systems for the measurement of parameters of left ventricular performance using radionuclide techniques.

  18. Left subclavian artery revascularization as part of thoracic stent grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saouti, N.; Hindori, V.; Morshuis, W.J.; Heijmen, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intentional covering of the left subclavian artery (LSA) as part of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can cause (posterior) strokes or left arm malperfusion. LSA revascularization can be done as prophylaxis against, or as treatment of, these complications. We report our

  19. Reversible left ventricular dysfunction - important clinical problem of contemporary cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, A.

    1994-01-01

    An important clinical issue there is determination whether left ventricular damages are reversible or not single photon emission computed tomography and positron computed tomography techniques are shown to provide valuable data in this problem. Article describes basic syndromes connected with left ventricular dysfunction, namely: hibernating myocardium, stunned myocardium and ischemic myocardium preconditioning. (author). 18 refs

  20. Evaluation of left ventricular function using digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozuka, Takahiro; Ohta, Mitsushige

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion images, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 45 patients with ischemic heart disease. Validity of the technique was compared with data obtained from cine left ventriculogram in all patients and 201 T1 myocardial images in 20 patients. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) calculated from DSA were correlated closely with those from cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.92, r = 0.94 and r = 0.86, respectively). Regional contractility at the antero-lateral wall of the left ventricle, assessed by DSA, was also correlated well with cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.75). Evaluation of the inferior wall motion showed less correlation in both procedures (r = 0.68). Phase and amplitude analysis with the same technique with radionuclide cardiac angiography was successfully applied in left ventriculogram obtained by DSA. The procedure seems to be helpful for objective evaluation of the left ventricular wall motion. Myocardial perfusion image, obtained with modified Radtke's technique, showed good coincidence with 201 T1 images. Thus, DSA is applicable for evaluation of function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion in patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  1. The organisational and ideological development of Green Left

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucardie, Anthonie; Voerman, Gerrit; Botella, Joan; Ramiro, Luis

    2003-01-01

    In 1991 the Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN) dissolved itself into the new organisation GreenLeft, founded in 1990. Thus, GreenLeft may be considered the major ‘post-communist party’ in the Netherlands. Yet it is not the only one. A minority of former CPN-members established in 1992 the New

  2. Urban School Principals and the "No Child Left Behind" Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary E.; Canfield-Davis, Kathy; Anderson, Keith LeMar

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how six practicing school principals responded to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind law (United States Congress Public Law 107-110, 2002, January, No Child Left Behind Act, http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf ) in light of the multicultural leadership demands presented by an urban…

  3. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Sheon-Young; Chang Ick-Soon; Kim Hark-Mahn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation). Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation) mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  4. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sheon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  5. Transient left atrial dysfunction is a feature of Takotsubo syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiermaier, Thomas; Graf, Tobias; Möller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by a transient left and/or right ventricular dysfunction as a consequence of a distinctive pattern of regional wall motion abnormalities. However, a systematic evaluation of the left atrial (LA) function in patients with TTS is lacking. The ai...

  6. Right-Brained Kids in Left-Brained Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1976-01-01

    Students who learn well through left hemisphere brain input (oral and written) have minimal practice in using the right hemisphere, while those who are more proficient in right hemisphere (visual) input processing are handicapped by having to use primarily their left brains. (MB)

  7. Evaluation of left ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Thomsen, C; Mehlsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were determined in 17 patients with different levels of left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 1.5 Tesla Magnet was used obtaining ECG triggered single and multiple slices. Calculated cardiac outputs were compared...

  8. Benign Multicystic Mesothelioma in the Left Round Ligament: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, So Young; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Park, Seong Jin; Cho, Gyu Seok; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2010-01-01

    Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare mesothelial lesion that forms multicystic masses in the upper abdomen, pelvis, and retroperitoneum. Most cases have a benign course. We present the ultrasound and MR findings of benign multicystic mesothelioma in the left round ligament, which caused a left inguinal hernia in a 46-year-old woman

  9. Benign Multicystic Mesothelioma in the Left Round Ligament: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, So Young; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Park, Seong Jin; Cho, Gyu Seok; Kwak, Jeong Ja [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare mesothelial lesion that forms multicystic masses in the upper abdomen, pelvis, and retroperitoneum. Most cases have a benign course. We present the ultrasound and MR findings of benign multicystic mesothelioma in the left round ligament, which caused a left inguinal hernia in a 46-year-old woman.

  10. Congenital bicuspid stenosis with left ventricular hypoplasia in a kitten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nie, C J; van Messel, M A; Straatman, T J

    1980-01-15

    Congenital bicuspid stenosis with left ventricular hypoplasia was diagnosed in a kitten. Clinical weakness, dyspnoea and marked cardiomegaly (X rays) were related to postmortem findings. The cardiomegaly had resulted from an enlargement of the left auricular appendage. It is supposed the cardiomegaly developed after the closing of the foramen ovale.

  11. Atorvastatin therapy during the peri-infarct period attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Liang Tang

    Full Text Available Although statins impart a number of cardiovascular benefits, whether statin therapy during the peri-infarct period improves subsequent myocardial structure and function remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated the effects of atorvastatin on cardiac function, remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI. Two groups of rats were subjected to permanent coronary occlusion. Group II (n = 14 received oral atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d daily for 3 wk before and 4 wk after MI, while group I (n = 12 received equivalent doses of vehicle. Infarct size (Masson's trichrome-stained sections was similar in both groups. Compared with group I, echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and fractional area change (FAC were higher while LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV and LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters (LVESD and LVEDD were lower in treated rats. Hemodynamically, atorvastatin-treated rats exhibited significantly higher dP/dt(max, end-systolic elastance (Ees, and preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW and lower LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP. Morphometrically, infarct wall thickness was greater in treated rats. The improvement of LV function by atorvastatin was associated with a decrease in hydroxyproline content and in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocyte nuclei. We conclude that atorvastatin therapy during the peri-infarct period significantly improves LV function and limits adverse LV remodeling following MI independent of a reduction in infarct size. These salubrious effects may be due in part to a decrease in myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis.

  12. Effect of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction on Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne K. Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA volumes are known to be increased in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and are a predictor of adverse outcome. In addition, LA function is impaired and is presumed to be due to left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction as a result of hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. In the current study, we assess the incremental effect of outflow tract obstruction (and concomitant mitral regurgitation on LA function as assessed by LA strain. Patients with HCM (50 obstructive, 50 nonobstructive were compared to 50 normal controls. A subset of obstructive patients who had undergone septal myectomy was also studied. Utilising feature-tracking software applied to cardiovascular magnetic resonance images, LA volumes and functional parameters were calculated. LA volumes were significantly elevated and LA ejection fraction and strain were significantly reduced in patients with HCM compared with controls and were significantly more affected in patients with obstruction. LA volumes and function were significantly improved after septal myectomy. LVOT obstruction and mitral regurgitation appear to further impair LA mechanics. Septal myectomy results in a significant reduction in LA volumes, paralleled by an improvement in function.

  13. Topography of the accessory left gastric artery (ALGA) analyzed by CT angiography from the left hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yasukazu; Takasaka, Isao; Onaya, Hiroaki

    2003-01-01

    To avoid gastric complications when we perform transcatheter treatment via left hepatic artery, we analyzed the topography of ALGA (accessory left gastric artery) by left hepatic arteriography and CT angiography from left hepatic artery. Six hundred seventy eight cases of CT angiography were performed between 1995 and 2000. Among them, selective left hepatic arteriography was done in 85 cases. We analyzed the frequency and the course of ALGA on the hepatic angiogram and CT angiogram. ALGA were identified in eighteen (21.2 %) of the 85 cases. We classified them into eleven cases of the proximal type and six cases of the distal type. When ALGA bifurcated from the left hepatic artery very close to the bifurcation of A2 (dorsolateral branch) and A3 (ventrolateral branch), we classified them as the distal type on hepatic angiogram. On the other hand, when ALGA bifurcated from the left hepatic artery apart from the bifurcation of A2 and A3 they were classified as the proximal type. In one rare case ALGA originated from the dorsolateral branch of the left hepatic artery. ALGA were classified as the distal and proximal types. Distal type of ALGA often overlapped dorsolateral branch of the left hepatic artery, and it was sometimes difficult to notice the existence of them. We should check the existence of ALGA on the arterial phase of dynamic CT before we plan to make a transcatheter treatment from the left hepatic artery. Then we can avoid gastric complications caused by a transcatheter treatment from the left hepatic artery. (author)

  14. Left ventricular lipoma with pseudoaneurysm-like appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarai, Shun-ichi; Yaginuma, Gen-ya; Abe, Kazuo; Hamasaki, Azumi; Ishikawa, Kazunori; Tanaka, Daizo

    2010-06-01

    We describe an extremely rare cardiac lipoma, with electrocardiographic changes in ST segments and T waves, suggesting ischemic heart disease. The abnormal electrocardiogram was identified during a routine physical examination of an asymptomatic 57-year-old man. Coronary angiography showed no stenotic or occlusive lesions in the coronary arteries except that the left anterior descending artery followed a winding course in the apical region. Left ventriculography revealed a pseudoaneurysm-like mass around the apical portion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cardiac lipoma that communicated with the left ventricle and resembled a pseudoaneurysm. After complete resection of the lipoma and left ventricle patch plasty, the postoperative course was uneventful. Histologically, the tumor was an intramyocardiac lipoma with no evidence of malignancy. To our knowledge, we are the first to describe an intramyocardiac lipoma resembling a left ventricle pseudoaneurysm.

  15. Annular subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C; Filho, A S; Esteves, J P; Abreu, W N; Vinhaes, L A; de Almeida Souza, J A; Machado, A

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of left ventricular aneurysm, a 16-year-old black boy and a 23-year-old white girl, from Bahia, Brazil, are presented. In both patients there was enlargement of the cardiac silhouette and a prominent bulge of the left inferior border. On the right oblique view a ring of calcium at the ventricular opening of the aneurysms was visualized. A left ventriculogram showed a huge aneurysm in the first case and a bulge on the lateral wall of the left ventricle in the other. Cardiac catheterization showed a rise in left and right ventricular end-diastolic pressures and in the mean pulmonary artery pressure. In the first case the contour of the right ventricular pressure curve showed a restrictive pattern. The similarities of these aneurysms with the annular submitral type described in young black Africans are stressed.

  16. A case of luftsichel sign for left upper lobe collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden Erol Ünlüer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of dyspnea in Emergency Department (ED patients is broad and atelectasis is one of the differentials among these. We present a 29-year-old women presented to our ED for evaluation of shortness of breath. On her chest examination, air entry and breath sounds were diminished on the left side but normal on the right. A posteroanterior chest radiograph showed radioluscent area in the upper zone of the left lung, around the aortic arch and also hyperdens area neighbouring this, like covered by a veil. Luftsichel sign together with this hiperdensity were consistent with the diagnose of left lung upper lobe collapse. The Luftsichel sign represents the hyperexpanded superior segment of the left lower lobe interposed between the atelectatic left upper lobe and aortic arch. Patient was discharged to home with chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises together with analgesic prescreption.

  17. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats

  18. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Left ventricular mass in borderline hypertension assessed by echo cardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzasalma, L.; Ghione, S.; Palonebo, C.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between clinical measurement of blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension appears to be weak in most studies. On the contrary, stronger correlations with target organ damage in general, and left ventricular hypertrophy in particular, have been reported for blood pressure measurements obtained by ambulatory monitoring; this finding may indicate a possible role for blood pressure response to naturally occurring stresses in determining left ventricular hypertrophy. Aim of this study was to investigate, in 18 patients with borderline arterial hypertension, the relationships between echocardiographically assessed left ventricular mass and, respectively, casual BP and BP responses to some standardized stress tests. Only three patients had a diastolic wall thickness of the interventricular septum and of the posterior wall ≥1.2 cm and none had a pathologically increased left ventricular mass index. The following statistically significant correlations were found: casual diastolic BP vs. left ventricular mass index (r=0.53, p<0.02), systolic BP response to bicycle exercise test vs. left ventricular mass index (r=0.55, p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that almost fifty percent of the variability of left ventricular mass index could be predicted by these two BP measurements. These findings suggest that besides the chronically increased afterload, also the transient hypertensive responses to naturally occuring physical stresses may have a role in determining the extent of cardiac structural changes in borderline hypertensive patients. In addition, they indicate a direct relation between left ventricular mass and blood pressure levels also in borderline hypertension, as previously shown for established hypertension, despite the fact that left ventricular hypertrophy represents only an occasional finding in early stages of hypertension

  20. Adrenomedulline improves ischemic left colonic anastomotic healing in an experimental rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Karatepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leakage from colonic anastomosis is a major complication causing increased mortality and morbidity. Ischemia is a well-known cause of this event. This study was designed to investigate the effects of adrenomedullin on the healing of ischemic colon anastomosis in a rat model. METHODS: Standardized left colon resection 3 cm above the peritoneal reflection and colonic anastomosis were performed in 40 Wistar rats that were divided into four groups. To mimic ischemia, the mesocolon was ligated 2 cm from either side of the anastomosis in all of the groups. The control groups (1 and 2 received no further treatment. The experimental groups (3 and 4 received adrenomedullin treatment. Adrenomedullin therapy was started in the perioperative period in group 3 and 4 rats (the therapeutic groups. Group 1 and group 3 rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 3. Group 2 and group 4 rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. After careful relaparotomy, bursting pressure, hydroxyproline, malondialdehyde, interleukin 6, nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were measured. Histopathological characteristics of the anastomosis were analyzed. RESULTS: The group 3 animals had a significantly higher bursting pressure than group 1 (p<0.05. Hydroxyproline levels in group 1 were significantly lower than in group 3 (p<0.05. The mean bursting pressure was significantly different between group 2 and group 4 (p<0.05. Hydroxyproline levels in groups 3 and 4 were significantly increased by adrenomedullin therapy relative to the control groups (p<0.05. When all groups were compared, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly lower in the control groups (p<0.05. When vascular endothelial growth factor levels were compared, no statistically significant difference between groups was observed. Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly decreased by adrenomedullin therapy (p<0.05. The

  1. Increased prevalences of left-handedness and left-eye sighting dominance in individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHandedness and eye sighting dominance were assessed in a sample of 50 individuals (25 male, 25 female; aged 5 – 38 years) with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). The prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness were compared to the normative prevalences in the general population. We

  2. Asynchronous ripple oscillations between left and right hippocampi during slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Claudio; Maldonado, Pedro E; Valdés, José L

    2017-01-01

    Spatial memory, among many other brain processes, shows hemispheric lateralization. Most of the published evidence suggests that the right hippocampus plays a leading role in the manipulation of spatial information. Concurrently in the hippocampus, memory consolidation during sleep periods is one of the key steps in the formation of newly acquired spatial memory traces. One of the most characteristic oscillatory patterns in the hippocampus are sharp-wave ripple (SWR) complexes. Within this complex, fast-field oscillations or ripples have been demonstrated to be instrumental in the memory consolidation process. Since these ripples are relevant for the consolidation of memory traces associated with spatial navigation, and this process appears to be lateralized, we hypothesize that ripple events between both hippocampi would exhibit different temporal dynamics. We tested this idea by using a modified "split-hyperdrive" that allows us to record simultaneous LFPs from both right and left hippocampi of Sprague-Dawley rats during sleep. We detected individual events and found that during sleep periods these ripples exhibited a different occurrence patterns between hemispheres. Most ripple events were synchronous between intra- rather than inter-hemispherical recordings, suggesting that ripples in the hippocampus are independently generated and locally propagated within a specific hemisphere. In this study, we propose the ripples' lack of synchrony between left and right hippocampi as the putative physiological mechanism underlying lateralization of spatial memory.

  3. Aparecimento de plantas espontâneas com e sem perturbação do solo em condições mediterrânicas Appearance of spontaneous plants from disturbed and undisturbed soil under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A diminuição da perturbação do solo é de extrema importância para a manutenção e preservação dos sistemas agrícolas. Por isso, o estudo realizado neste trabalho tinha como objectivo verificar o aparecimento das plantas espontâneas a partir do solo com e sem perturbação. A população de plantas emergidas inicialmente, no Outono, foi controlada com perturbação do solo através da simulação da mobilização realizada pelo escarificador e sem perturbação do solo em que se aplicou um herbicida total e não residual. A experimentação foi efectuada em solos Mediterrâneos durante quatro anos, com um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados e oito repetições. De acordo com os resultados, verifica-se que a perturbação do solo efectuada para controlar a flora espontânea no Outono influencia significativamente o aparecimento das plantas em condições mediterrânicas e permite obter maior densidade populacional, que aumenta com o acréscimo da precipitação acumulada. Daqui conclui-se que em sistemas com diminuição da perturbação do solo, como por exemplo, de sementeira directa, é possível decrescer a infestação nas culturas de Outono-Inverno.The reduction of soil disturbance is extremely important for the conservation of soil and thus for the sustainability of agricultural systems. Soil disturbance interferes with a number of soil parameters including its fauna and flora. This paper deals with the comparison of the appearance of spontaneous plants from disturbed and undisturbed soil. A study was conducted to compare the appearance of spontaneous flora in autumn after the simulation of soil tillage by a tine cultivator with the control of the already emerged plants through the application of a total herbicide and without any soil disturbance. The trials were realized on typical Mediterranean soils (Luvisol over a period of four years in a completely randomized block design and with eight replications. The

  4. Isolated left-sided pulmonary artery agenesis with left lung hypoplasia: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Govindaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral absence of pulmonary artery or pulmonary artery agenesis (UAPA is a rare congenital malformation that can present as an isolated lesion or in association with other cardiac anomalies. Though congenital, presentation in adults are also reported. Most common presentation in adults is of exercise intolerance. The developing lung on the affected side is hypoplastic. Diagnosis of UAPA is established by imaging methods like CT and MRI . There is no specific treatment for this condition. Treatment depends on patients symptomatology, presence of pulmonary hypertension and collateral circulation. Presence of pulmonary hypertension carries a bad prognosis. We present two adult patients with isolated left sided unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with ipsilateral lung hypoplasia. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT chest and perfusion scan.

  5. Left-right asymmetry in neutrino-produced hadron jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagh, H.C.; Bingham, H.H.; Lawry, T.J.; Lys, J.; Lynch, G.R.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stevenson, M.L.; Huson, F.R.; Schmidt, E.; Smart, W.; Treadwell, E.; Cence, R.J.; Harris, F.A.; Jones, M.D.; Koide, A.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Lubatti, H.J.; Moriyasu, K.; Wolin, E.

    1989-01-01

    In an experiment (E546) to study interactions of left-angle E right-angle=100 GeV and left-angle Q 2 right-angle=17 GeV 2 neutrinos in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber, we have looked for a left-right asymmetry in the azimuthal angle φ of individual hadrons about the direction of the lepton momentum transfer (q vector). Significant asymmetry is found for forward positive hadrons; for x F >0.10, we find left-angle cosφ right-angle=-0.029±0.008, where x F is the Feynman x variable. Negative hadrons with x F >0.10 show no asymmetry, left-angle cosφ right-angle=0.004±0.011. A model which includes parton intrinsic transverse momentum k t reproduces the asymmetry of combined positive and negative hadrons with x F >0.10, left-angle cosφ right-angle=-0.018±0.0065, if left-angle k t 2 right-angle=0.065±0.024 GeV 2 /c 2 . But the model predicts almost equal asymmetries for positive and negative hadrons. The model also agrees poorly with the observed dependence on the kinematic variables x and Q 2 if the k t distribution is assumed to be independent of kinematic variables

  6. Anosognosia for hemiparesis after left-sided stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Vucurevic, Goran; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Glassl, Oliver; Geber, Christian; Dieterich, Marianne; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2014-12-01

    In patients with left-sided lesions, anosognosia for hemiparesis (AHP) seems to be a rare phenomenon. It has been discussed whether this rareness might be due to an inevitable bias due to language dysfunction and whether the left hemisphere's role for our self-awareness of motor actions thus is underestimated. By applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined whether patients with AHP following a left hemisphere stroke show a regular, left-sided or a reversed, right-sided lateralization of language functions. Only the former observation would argue for an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. In a consecutive series of 44 acute left-sided stroke patients, only one patient (=2%) was identified showing AHP. In this case, we could verify by using fMRI that lateralization of AHP and spatial neglect on the one hand and of language functions on the other hand were reversed. The present single case observation thus argues against an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. We discuss the data in the context of previous observations in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neglect severity after left and right brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchan, Julia; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-05-01

    While unilateral spatial neglect after left brain damage is undoubtedly less common than spatial neglect after a right hemisphere lesion, it is also assumed to be less severe. Here we directly test this latter hypothesis using a continuous measure of neglect severity: the so-called Center of Cancellation (CoC). Rorden and Karnath (2010) recently validated this index for right brain damaged neglect patients. A first aim of the present study was to evaluate this new measure for spatial neglect after left brain damage. In a group of 48 left-sided stroke patients with and without neglect, a score greater than -0.086 on the Bells Test and greater than -0.024 on the Letter Cancellation Task turned out to indicate neglect behavior for acute left brain damaged patients. A second aim was to directly compare the severity of spatial neglect after left versus right brain injury by using the new CoC measure. While neglect is less frequent following left than right hemisphere injury, we found that when this symptom occurs it is of similar severity in acute left brain injury as in patients after acute right brain injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Left main coronary artery disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Carlos; Capodanno, Davide; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Banning, Adrian; Stone, Gregg W; Taggart, David P; Sabik, Joseph; Serruys, Patrick W

    2018-06-01

    The advent of coronary angiography in the 1960s allowed for the risk stratification of patients with stable angina. Patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease have an increased risk of death related to the large amount of myocardium supplied by this vessel. Although coronary angiography remains the preferred imaging modality for the evaluation of left main coronary artery stenosis, this technique has important limitations. Angiograms of the left main coronary artery segment can be difficult to interpret, and almost one-third of patients can be misclassified when fractional flow reserve is used as the reference. In patients with clinically significant unprotected left main coronary artery disease, surgical revascularization was shown to improve survival compared with medical therapy and has been regarded as the treatment of choice for unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Two large-scale clinical trials published in 2016 support the usefulness of catheter-based revascularization in selected patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease. In this Review, we describe the pathophysiology of unprotected left main coronary artery disease, discuss diagnostic approaches in light of new noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques, and detail risk stratification models to aid the Heart Team in the decision-making process for determining the best revascularization strategy for these patients.

  9. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.J.; Okada, R.D.; Ewy, G.A.; Hellman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle, M-mode echocardiograms and systolic time intervals were obtained in 13 patients while they were clinically hyperthyroid and again when they were euthyroid following radioactive iodine therapy. Echocardiographic tracings of the septum and left ventricular posterior wall were digitized and analyzed to provide the maximum velocity of shortening and maximum velocity of lengthening. These velocities were normalized for left ventricular diastolic dimension. The left ventricular minor axis fractional shortening and the normalized maximum velocity of shortening were both increased during the hyperthyroid state. The normalized maximum velocity of lengthening, a measure of diastolic left ventricular function, was also increased during the hyperthyroid state when compared to the euthyroid state. The preejection period index and the preejection period/left ventricular ejection time ratio were lower when the patients were hyperthyroid than when they were euthyroid. These data confirm the increased inotropic state and demonstrated increased diastolic relaxation velocities of the hyperthyroid left ventricle

  10. Enhanced anastomotic healing by Daikenchuto (TJ-100) in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Toshiaki; Kawada, Kenji; Hirai, Kenjiro; Toda, Kosuke; Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Hasegawa, Suguru; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2018-01-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, is widely used to treat various gastrointestinal disorders. This study aimed to investigate whether DKT could promote the anastomotic healing in a rat model. Pedicled colonic segments were made in left colon by ligation of the feeding arteries, and then intestinal continuity was restored. Colonic blood flow was analyzed by using ICG fluorescence imaging: Fmax, Tmax, T1/2, and Slope were calculated. Anastomotic leakage (AL) was found in 6 of ...

  11. Fatal stroke after completion pneumonectomy for torsion of left upper lobe following left lower lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolakis Efstratios

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lobar torsion after lung surgery is a rare complication with an incidence of 0.09 to 0.4 %. It may occur after twisting of the bronchovascular pedicle of the remaining lobe after lobectomy, usually on the right side. The 180-degree rotation of the pedicle produces an acute obstruction of the lobar bronchus (atelectasis and of the lobar vessels as well. Without prompt treatment it progresses to lobar ischemia, pulmonary infarction and finally fatal gangrene. Case Presentation A 62 years old female patient was admitted for surgical treatment of lung cancer. She underwent elective left lower lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma (pT2 N0. The operation was unremarkable, and the patient was extubated in the operating room. After eight hours the patient established decrease of pO2 and chest x-ray showed atelectasis of the lower lobe. To establish diagnosis, bronchoscopy was performed, demonstrating obstructed left lobar bronchus. The patient was re-intubated, and admitted to the operating room where reopening of the thoracotomy was performed. Lobar torsion was diagnosed, with the diaphragmatic surface of the upper lobe facing in an anterosuperior orientation. A completion pneumonectomy was performed. At the end of the procedure the patient developed a right pupil dilatation, presumably due to a cerebral embolism. A subsequent brain angio-CT scan established the diagnosis. She died at the intensive care unit 26 days later. Conclusion The thoracic surgeon should suspect this rare early postoperative complication after any thoracic operation in every patient with atelectasis of the neighboring lobe. High index of suspicion and prompt diagnosis may prevent catastrophic consequences, such as, infarction or gangrene of the pulmonary lobe. During thoracic operations, especially whenever the lung or lobe hilum is full mobilized, fixation of the remaining lobe may prevent this life threatening complication.

  12. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjewar SS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swapnil S Lanjewar,1 Lovely Chhabra,1 Vinod K Chaubey,1 Saurabh Joshi,1 Ganesh Kulkarni,1 Chandrasekhar Kothagundla,1 Sudesh Kaul,1 David H Spodick21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration.Methods: We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were computed and compared between the two subgroups.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1 between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy.Conclusion: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.Keywords: emphysema, electrocardiogram, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic

  13. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  14. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkvatan, A.; Yelgec, N.S.; Calikoglu, U.; Olcer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  15. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkvatan, A. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yelgec, N.S. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Calikoglu, U.; Olcer, T. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  16. Hypercholesterolemia downregulates autophagy in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricz, Zoltán; Koncsos, Gábor; Rajtík, Tomáš; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Csonka, Csaba; Szobi, Adrián; Adameová, Adriana; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-03-23

    We have previously shown that efficiency of ischemic conditioning is diminished in hypercholesterolemia and that autophagy is necessary for cardioprotection. However, it is unknown whether isolated hypercholesterolemia disturbs autophagy or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether isolated hypercholesterolemia modulates cardiac autophagy-related pathways or programmed cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necroptosis in rat heart. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal chow (NORM; n = 9) or with 2% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid-enriched diet (CHOL; n = 9) for 12 weeks. CHOL rats exhibited a 41% increase in plasma total cholesterol level over that of NORM rats (4.09 mmol/L vs. 2.89 mmol/L) at the end of diet period. Animals were sacrificed, hearts were excised and briefly washed out. Left ventricles were snap-frozen for determination of markers of autophagy, mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and necroptosis by Western blot. Isolated hypercholesterolemia was associated with a significant reduction in expression of cardiac autophagy markers such as LC3-II, Beclin-1, Rubicon and RAB7 as compared to controls. Phosphorylation of ribosomal S6, a surrogate marker for mTOR activity, was increased in CHOL samples. Cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, increased in CHOL hearts, while no difference in the expression of necroptotic marker RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL was detected between treatments. This is the first comprehensive analysis of autophagy and programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and necroptosis in hearts of hypercholesterolemic rats. Our data show that isolated hypercholesterolemia suppresses basal cardiac autophagy and that the decrease in autophagy may be a result of an activated mTOR pathway. Reduced autophagy was accompanied by increased apoptosis, while cardiac necroptosis was not modulated by isolated hypercholesterolemia. Decreased basal autophagy and elevated apoptosis may be responsible for the

  17. Immune responses to implanted human collagen graft in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quteish, D.; Dolby, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Immunity to collagen implants may be mediated by cellular and humoral immune responses. To examine the possibility of such immunological reactivity and crossreactivity to collagen, 39 Sprague-Dawley rats (female, 10 weeks old, approximately 250 g wt) were implanted subcutaneously at thigh sites with crosslinked, freeze-dried human placental type I collagen grafts (4x4x2 mm) which had been irradiated (520 Gray) or left untreated. Blood was obtained by intracardiac sampling prior to implantation or from normal rats, and at various times afterwards when the animals were sacrificed. The sera from these animals were examined for circulating antibodies to human, bovine and rat tail (type I) collagens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, the lymphoblastogenic responses of spleen lymphocytes from the irradiated collagen-implanted animals were assessed in culture by measuring thymidine uptake with autologous and normal rat sera in the presence of human bovine type I collagens. Implantation of the irradiated and non-irradiated collagen graft in rats led to a significant increase in the level of circulating antibodies to human collagen. Also antibody to bovine and rat tail collagens was detectable in the animals implanted with irradiated collagen grafts but at a lower level than the human collagen. There was a raised lymphoblastogenic response to both human and bovine collagens. The antibody level and lymphoblastogenesis to the tested collagens gradually decreased towards the end of the post-implantation period. (author)

  18. Experimental study of sucralfate intervention for paraquat poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junbo, Zhu; Yongtao, Yu; Hongbo, Li; Fenshuang, Zheng; Ruyun, Lin; Chun'ai, Yang

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the effects of sucralfate intervention as a novel treatment for paraquat (PQ) poisoning in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After PQ poisoning, the SD rats were randomly divided into the PQ control group (treated with normal saline), the sodium bicarbonate (SB) treatment group, and the sucralfate (LTL) treatment group. Then, the rats were administered normal saline, sodium bicarbonate solution, or sucralfate suspension as an intervention by gastric lavage. At 1, 3, 6, and 10days after poisoning, the left lungs of some rats were removed to determine the lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. Additionally, the serum cytokine levels were measured, and the lung and kidney tissues were pathologically examined. After treatment, the signs and symptoms of the rats were improved, the mortality rate was reduced, the W/D weight ratio of the lung was lower, the cytokine levels [transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] were decreased, and the pathological injuries of the lungs and kidneys were improved. Moreover, sucralfate was significantly more effective than the control (normal saline) group and the SB treatment group. The results showed that early gastrointestinal lavage with sucralfate effectively reduced the inflammatory response and lung and kidney injuries and improved the survival of the SD rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.; Kelly, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationships of different forms of exercise training to left ventricular mass and body mass are investigated by echocardiographic studies of weight lifters, long-distance runners, and comparatively sized untrained control subjects. Left ventricular mass determinations by the Penn convention reveal increased absolute left ventricular masses in long-distance runners and competitive weight lifters with respect to controls matched for age, body weight, and body surface area, and a significant correlation between ventricular mass and lean body mass. When normalized to lean body mass, the ventricular masses of distance runners are found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups, suggesting that dynamic training elevates left ventricular mass compared to static training and no training, while static training increases ventricular mass only to the extent that lean body mass is increased.

  20. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  1. Delusional misidentifications and duplications: right brain lesions, left brain delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2009-01-06

    When the delusional misidentification syndromes reduplicative paramnesia and Capgras syndromes result from neurologic disease, lesions are usually bifrontal and/or right hemispheric. The related disorders of confabulation and anosognosis share overlapping mechanisms and anatomic pathology. A dual mechanism is postulated for the delusional misidentification syndromes: negative effects from right hemisphere and frontal lobe dysfunction as well as positive effects from release (i.e., overactivity) of preserved left hemisphere areas. Negative effects of right hemisphere injury impair self-monitoring, ego boundaries, and attaching emotional valence and familiarity to stimuli. The unchecked left hemisphere unleashes a creative narrator from the monitoring of self, memory, and reality by the frontal and right hemisphere areas, leading to excessive and false explanations. Further, the left hemisphere's cognitive style of categorization, often into dual categories, leads it to invent a duplicate or impostor to resolve conflicting information. Delusions result from right hemisphere lesions. But it is the left hemisphere that is deluded.

  2. Unusual metastasis of left colon cancer: considerations on two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, Adelmo; Moccia, Giancarlo; Malinconico, Francesca Antonella; Gilio, Francesco; Iside, Giovanni; Califano, Umberto G A; Foroni, Fabrizio; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Parmeggiani, Domenico; Agresti, Massimo

    2009-04-01

    Usually, left colon cancer metastasis concerns liver, abdominal lymph nodes and lungs. Other localizations are quite rare occurrences. In spite of this, some uncommon metastasis sites are reported in literature, such as: peritoneum, ovaries, uterus, kidney testis, bones, thyroid, oral cavity and central nervous system. We report two cases of unusual localizations of left colon cancer metastasis localization, one into the retroperitoneal space and the other at the left axillary lynphnodes and between liver and pancreas. In the first reported case the diffusion pathway may have been the lymphatic mesocolic vessels, partially left in place from the previous surgery. In the second case the alleged metastatic lane may have been through the periumbilical lymph nodes to the parasternal lymph nodes and then to the internal mammary ones, finally reaching the axillary limph nodes.

  3. Sonographic determination of spleen to left kidney ratio among Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light ... Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between .... obtained in the coronal plane passing through the renal.

  4. Right and left ventricular performance by nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, T.; Uehara, T.; Hayashida, K.; Kozuka, T.

    1983-01-01

    Right and left ventricular performance by Nuclear Stethoscope using Kr-81m and Tc-99m-RBC were performed. And physiological and pharmacological interventions were also investigated for the evaluation of coronary artery diseases (CAD)

  5. Ostial left main coronary stenosis in a frequent flyer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, John F

    2009-05-15

    A 52 year old gentleman presented with chest pain, after a long distance flight from India; he had made long haul flights every 2 weeks over the last 5 years as part of his job. His ECG revealed T wave inversion in leads V1-3. Cardiac biomarkers including troponin were negative; we proceeded to exercise stress testing (EST). This revealed 2 mm ST depression at 2 min of the standard Bruce protocol, associated with chest pain. He was taken immediately to the coronary catheterization laboratory; engagement of the left main caused pressure damping with 6 French, then 5 French diagnostic Judkins left 4 catheters. An ostial left main stenosis was seen; the right and left coronary trees otherwise had no significant stenoses. He had normal LV function. He underwent inpatient CABG 7 days later.

  6. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a cervicomediastinal ... Her voice was hoarse but there was no eye signs suggestive of thyrotoxicosis. ... A presumptive diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with retrosternal extension was made.

  8. Left coronary arterial blood flow: Noninvasive detection by Doppler US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramiak, R.; Holen, J.; Moss, A.J.; Gutierrez, O.H.; Picone, A.L.; Roe, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) and pulsed Doppler ultrasound studies with spectral analysis were used to detect the left coronary arterial blood flow in patients who were undergoing routine echocardiography. The pulmonary artery is a stable ultrasonic landmark from which detection of the blood flow can be effected. The left coronary artery can be distinguished by its blood flow toward the cardiac apex and by specific, functional flow features. Flow patterns vary among the left main, circumflex, and anterior descending arteries; patterns also vary with respiration cycles. In the present study, coronary arterial blood flow was detected in 58 of 70 patients (83%). Findings were validated by selectively injecting an agitated saline contrast medium into the left coronary artery and, in another study, by comparing human Doppler phasic flow waveforms with electromagnetic flowmeter recordings obtained in dogs

  9. The Colombian Left: A Paradoxical Past; A Promising Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bergquist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the paradoxical history of the left in Colombia: how and why one of the weakest lefts in Latin America brought about the strongest and most lasting Marxist insurrection in the hemisphere in the decades following the Cuban Revolution. The article argues that the terms of this paradox are related, that the historic weakness of the left partly explains the force and longevity of revolutionary guerrillas, and that said paradox helps clarify not only the failure of several attempts to achieve a negotiated settlement of the armed conflict, but also the negative vote in the October 2016 plebiscite. Finally, it envisions a more promising future for the country’s left, provided that a lasting peace is consolidated.

  10. Times of Crisis : Success or Decline of the Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Tarditi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that especially since the 2008 has shown the deep weakness of the capitalistic economic model induces to reflect on the role of the radical left parties and on their capacity to propose alternative policies, interpreting the citizens’ demands. Starting from these premises this article analyses three parties of the radical left party family- United Left, Left Freedom and Ecology and Syriza- that act respectively in Spain, Italy and Greece, three of the European democracies most affected by the social consequences of the crisis. The article proposes a diachronic comparison of the three parties’ policy pro-posals, organizational model and strategies in order to explain their greater or lesser ability to attract con-sensus in the last years.

  11. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J

    2010-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right...... the right or left SMG. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence that the right SMG contributes to accurate and efficient phonological decisions in the healthy brain, with no evidence that the left and right SMG can compensate for one another during TMS. Our findings motivate detailed...... hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS...

  12. Contemporary Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M.; Claggett, Brian; Kitzman, Dalane

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although age-Associated changes in left ventricular diastolic function are well recognized, limited data exist characterizing measures of diastolic function in older adults, including both reference ranges reflecting the older adult population and prognostically relevant values...

  13. Left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabbekoorn, M.; Horlings, H. M.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Windhausen, A.; Van der Sloot, J. A. P.; Lagrand, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved diagnostic tools and expanded treatment options, left-sided native valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection remains a serious and destructive disease. The high morbidity and mortality, however, can be reduced by early recognition, correct diagnosis, and

  14. Left ventricular structure and function in black normotensive type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Black normotensive patients, left ventricular function, type 2 DM. Résumé ... sickle cell disease and structural heart disease were excluded ... Pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity ... had abnormal ECG pattern compared with 30%.

  15. Fetal Diagnosis of Abnormal Origin of the Left Pulmonary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Justin T; Tretter, Eric M; Rafii, Daniela Y; Anderson, Robert H; Bhatla, Puneet

    2016-08-01

    Isolated anomalies of the branch pulmonary arteries are rare, more often occurring in the setting of complex congenital heart disease. These isolated anomalies are often not identified in the prenatal period. We describe two cases of isolated anomalies of the left pulmonary artery which were identified on fetal echocardiography and confirmed postnatally, an anomalous left pulmonary artery arising from the base of the left-sided brachiocephalic artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch, and a left pulmonary artery sling. These two cases support our current understanding of normal and abnormal development of the extrapericardial arterial vessels and highlight the importance of meticulous attention when sweeping from the three-vessel tracheal view. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quantitation of global and regional left ventricular function by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, RJ; Reiber, JHC; Reiber, JHC; VanDerWall, EE

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several imaging strategies for assessing left ventricular function. As a three-dimensional imaging technique, all measurements can be performed without relying on geometrical assumptions. Global and regional function parameters can be derived from

  17. Esophageal morphometric and biomechanical changes during aging in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    of the present study is to investigate the esophageal geometry and biomechanical changes during aging in rats. Materials and methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats, aged from 6 to 22 months, were used in the study. The body weight and the wet weight per length of esophageal segment were measured at the termination...... was found among 12, 18 and 22 months groups (p>0.05). The longitudinal stress-strain curves shifted from right to the left during aging (pstiffness has no obvious...... change after 12 months in the circumferential direction. Furthermore, we confirm that the esophagus was stiffer in the longitudinal direction than in the circumferential direction. Conclusions A pronounced morphometric and biomechanical remodeling was occurred in the rat esophagus during aging...

  18. Association of plasma angiotensin-(1-7 level and left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Hao

    Full Text Available We recently found that overexpression of angiotensin (Ang-converting enzyme 2, which metabolizes Ang-II to Ang-(1-7 and Ang-I to Ang-(1-9, may prevent diabetes-induced left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in rats. Our objective was to evaluate the association of plasma Ang-(1-7 level and left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.We measured the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF, ratio of early to late left ventricular filling velocity (E/A and ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow to annular velocity (E/Ea by ultrasonography in 110 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for more than 5 years. Anthropometric and fasting blood values were obtained from medical records. The plasma Ang-(1-7 level in patients with a poor EF (15 was significantly lower than that in patients with E/Ea ≤15. Ang-(1-7 level was negatively correlated with E/Ea and Log-N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and positively with EF and E/A. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that Ang-(1-7, hemoglobin A1c and Ang-II levels as well as duration of diabetes predicted EF; Ang-(1-7 level, fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and duration of diabetes predicted E/A; and Ang-(1-7 and hemoglobin A1c levels predicted E/Ea.Plasma Ang-(1-7 level is independently associated with left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and may be a biomarker for assessing cardiac function in such patients.

  19. Intraoperative bowel irrigation improves anastomotic collagen metabolism in the left-sided colonic obstruction but not covering colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraker, N; Bender, O; Memişoğlu, K; Yalçiner, A

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intraoperative colonic irrigation and proximal diverting end colostomy after segmental bowel resection in experimental left-colonic obstruction on anastomotic healing. Simple obstruction of descending colon was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 24 h we performed segmental colonic resection and anastomosis in the control group (n = 15); resection, anastomosis, and covering colostomy in the colostomy group (n = 14); resection and anastomosis after antegrade colonic lavage through cecum by using isotonic saline solution in the irrigation group (n = 13). In rats that were killed 7 days later anastomotic dehiscence and bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline concentration at the anastomosis were measured. No significant differences were observed between groups in terms of anastomotic dehiscence, bursting site, or pressure. The hydroxyproline concentration was significantly higher in the irrigation group than the control group (P = 0.025) and the colostomy group (P = 0.029), but no difference was noted between the control group and the colostomy group. These findings suggest that intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation in the acute left-sided colonic obstruction positively affects collagen metabolism at the anastomotic site; if the anastomosis is performed without bowel cleansing, covering colostomy does not improve collagen metabolism.

  20. Left-handed materials in metallic magnetic granular composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, S.T.; Lin, Z.F.; Hu, L.-B.

    2003-01-01

    There is recently interests in the 'left-handed' materials. In these materials the direction of the wave vector of electromagnetic radiation is opposite to the direction of the energy flow. We present simple arguments that suggests that magnetic composites can also be left-handed materials. However, the physics involved seems to be different from the original argument. In our argument, the imaginary part of the dielectric constant is much larger than the real part, opposite to the original argument

  1. Political Left and Right: Our Hands-On Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Frits Bienfait; Walter E. A. van Beek

    2014-01-01

    The origins and immediate vitality of the left/right divide which emerged in French revolutionary politics from 1789 can only be understood against the background of a much older classification dynamic based on the primacy of the right hand, first described by Robert Hertz in 1909. This dynamic infused political thinking first in Versailles and since 1815 in democracies throughout the world. In the process, the classical left/right polarity acquired a new dimension: the complementary notions ...

  2. Jordan and left derivations on locally C*-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, Naseer

    2002-07-01

    We show that left derivations as well as Jordan derivations on locally G*-algebras are always continuous. We also obtain some noncommutative extensions of the classical Singer-Wermer theorem for locally C*-algebras: (1) Every left derivation D on a locally (7*-algebra A is identically zero. (2) Every Jordan derivation D on a locally C*-algebra A which satisfies [D(x), x]D(x]=0 for all x in A, is identically zero. (author)

  3. Left Atrium Papillary Fibroelastomas: A Cause of Cerebral Emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ciss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary fibroelastomas are cardiac benign tumours. Among the benign cardiac tumor, papillary fibroelastomas are reported second after myxomas. Most often diagnosed incidentally, papillary fibroelastomas may embolize to cerebral circulation. Valvular locations are predominant; location in left atrium is rare. In this paper, we present a case of papillary fibroelastoma located in left atrium with symptoms of cerebral embolization. Transoesophageal echocardiography diagnosed a mobile mass. The patient was treated with surgical resection without further embolic complication.

  4. Tensor product of left n-invertible operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duggal, B.P.; Müller, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 215, č. 2 (2013), s. 113-125 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Banach space * essentially left n- invertible operator * left n-invertible operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.630, year: 2013 http://journals.impan.pl/cgi-bin/doi?sm215-2-2

  5. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  6. Right Site, Wrong Route - Cannulating the Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Peter; Arukala, Sanjay K; Sule, Anupam A

    2018-01-09

    Central venous catheters are placed in approximately five million patients annually in the US. The preferred site of insertion is one with fewer risks and easier access. Although the right internal jugular vein is preferred, on occasion, the left internal jugular may have to be accessed. A patient was admitted for septic shock, cerebrovascular accident, and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A central venous line was needed for antibiotic and vasopressor administration. Due to trauma from a fall to the right side and previously failed catheterization attempts at the left subclavian and femoral veins, the left internal jugular vein was accessed. On chest radiography for confirmation, the left internal jugular central venous catheter was seen projecting down the left paraspinal region. It did not take the expected course across the midline toward the right and into the superior vena cava (SVC). A review of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest with contrast done on a prior admission revealed a duplicated SVC on the left side that had not been reported in the original CT scan interpretation. A left-sided SVC is present in approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of the population, with 90% of these draining into the coronary sinus. During placements of central venous lines and pacemakers, irritation of the coronary sinus may result in hypotension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, or cardiac arrest. A widened mediastinum can be an indication of a duplicated SVC. When attempting a left internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement, it is important to be aware of venous anomalies in order to prevent complications.

  7. Variation of left heart function and thyroid hormone in cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junchi; Du Sujun; Mao Shaorong; Lu Jun; Tang Xiaoling

    1996-01-01

    The observation of 52 cases of cirrhosis left heart function indices traced with 113 In m in quiet and motion, and the combining determination of thyroid hormone serum levels with RIA are described. The cirrhosis to the function of liver damage increased, the indices of left heart function has great change. Moreover, the serum levels of T 3 , FT 3 in thyroid hormone are decreased obviously and the serum level of rT 3 is also increased significantly

  8. Weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    The present status of weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry is reviewed. The theoretical basis for asymptotic parity conservation, manifest left-right symmetry in charged current weak interactions, natural parity conservation in neutral currents and CP-violation in the context of SU(2)/sub L/ circled x SU (2)/sub R/ circled x U(1) models are outlined in detail. Various directions for further research in the theoretical and experimental side are indicated

  9. Automatic extraction of left ventricle in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Zhao Shujun; Yao Zhiming; Wang Daoyu

    1999-01-01

    An automatic method of extracting left ventricle from SPECT myocardial perfusion data was introduced. This method was based on the least square analysis of the positions of all short-axis slices pixels from the half sphere-cylinder myocardial model, and used a iterative reconstruction technique to automatically cut off the non-left ventricular tissue from the perfusion images. Thereby, this technique provided the bases for further quantitative analysis

  10. Foucault's Flirt? Neoliberalism, the Left and the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    2015-01-01

    An essay on the review of works interpreting the lectures of Michel Foucault on neoliberalism is presented. It offers a history of neoliberalism as a way to reinvent the left and examines the way Foucault betrayed the left while resisting to be connected with a normative political programme...... or principle for a neoliberal stance. The author relates the risks in neoliberal thought for losing what is specific in definitive statements and the loss of neoliberal thought coherence within a reality....

  11. Giant left atrium encountered during right-sided thoracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Advani

    Full Text Available Giant left atrium is an uncommon pathology to encounter during bedside chest ultrasound, but is an important structure to be aware of when considering thoracentesis. This cardiac structure could easily be mistaken for loculated pleural fluid. This case also supports growing evidence that expert users can safely perform thoracentesis without completely reversing therapeutic anticoagulation. Keywords: Giant left atrium, Thoracentesis, Rheumatic heart disease, Ultrasound

  12. Neuronal network disturbance after focal ischemia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Yamada, K.; Mushiroi, T.; Kuroda, R.; Mogami, H.

    1989-01-01

    We studied functional disturbances following left middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Neuronal function was evaluated by [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography 1 day after occlusion. We analyzed the mechanisms of change in glucose utilization outside the infarct using Fink-Heimer silver impregnation, axonal transport of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated-horseradish peroxidase, and succinate dehydrogenase histochemistry. One day after occlusion, glucose utilization was remarkably reduced in the areas surrounding the infarct. There were many silver grains indicating degeneration of the synaptic terminals in the cortical areas surrounding the infarct and the ipsilateral cingulate cortex. Moreover, in the left thalamus where the left middle cerebral artery supplied no blood, glucose utilization significantly decreased compared with sham-operated rats. In the left thalamus, massive silver staining of degenerated synaptic terminals and decreases in succinate dehydrogenase activity were observed 4 and 5 days after occlusion. The absence of succinate dehydrogenase staining may reflect early changes in retrograde degeneration of thalamic neurons after ischemic injury of the thalamocortical pathway. Terminal degeneration even affected areas remote from the infarct: there were silver grains in the contralateral hemisphere transcallosally connected to the infarct and in the ipsilateral substantia nigra. Axonal transport study showed disruption of the corticospinal tract by subcortical ischemia; the transcallosal pathways in the cortex surrounding the infarct were preserved. The relation between neural function and the neuronal network in the area surrounding the focal cerebral infarct is discussed with regard to ischemic penumbra and diaschisis

  13. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF, and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. Objective: To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. Methods: A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind, and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e' were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. Results: One hundred seventeen patients (82.9% were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months. LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m2 ± 10.6 mL/m2 to 22.6 mL/m2 ± 1.1 mL/m2, p < 0.001 compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m2 ± 14.3 mL/m2 to 37.5 mL/m2 ± 14.5 mL/m2, p = ns. Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001 but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns. The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001. Conclusion: Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  14. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Simone Nascimento dos, E-mail: simonens@cardiol.br [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil); Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento dos; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m{sup 2} ± 10.6 mL/m{sup 2} to 22.6 mL/m{sup 2} ± 1.1 mL/m{sup 2}, p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.3 mL/m{sup 2} to 37.5 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.5 mL/m{sup 2}, p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  15. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Simone Nascimento dos; Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento dos; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m 2 ± 10.6 mL/m 2 to 22.6 mL/m 2 ± 1.1 mL/m 2 , p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m 2 ± 14.3 mL/m 2 to 37.5 mL/m 2 ± 14.5 mL/m 2 , p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure

  16. Skin Sodium Concentration Correlates with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus P; Raff, Ulrike; Kopp, Christoph; Scheppach, Johannes B; Toncar, Sebastian; Wanner, Christoph; Schlieper, Georg; Saritas, Turgay; Floege, Jürgen; Schmid, Matthias; Birukov, Anna; Dahlmann, Anke; Linz, Peter; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Schmieder, Roland E; Titze, Jens M; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD is incompletely understood. Sodium intake, which is usually assessed by measuring urinary sodium excretion, has been inconsistently linked with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, tissues such as skin and muscle may store sodium. Using 23 sodium-magnetic resonance imaging, a technique recently developed for the assessment of tissue sodium content in humans, we determined skin sodium content at the level of the calf in 99 patients with mild to moderate CKD (42 women; median [range] age, 65 [23-78] years). We also assessed total body overhydration (bioimpedance spectroscopy), 24-hour BP, and left ventricular mass (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Skin sodium content, but not total body overhydration, correlated with systolic BP ( r =0.33, P =0.002). Moreover, skin sodium content correlated more strongly than total body overhydration did with left ventricular mass ( r =0.56, P skin sodium content is a strong explanatory variable for left ventricular mass, unaffected by BP and total body overhydration. In conclusion, we found skin sodium content to be closely linked to left ventricular mass in patients with CKD. Interventions that reduce skin sodium content might improve cardiovascular outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Enhancing No Child Left Behind-School mental health connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P; Burke, Robert; Hare, Isadora; Mills, Carrie; Owens, Celeste; Moore, Elizabeth; Weist, Mark D

    2006-11-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was signed into law by President George W. Bush in January 2002 and is regarded as the most significant federal education policy initiative in a generation. The primary focus of the No Child Left Behind Act is on promoting educational success for all children; however, the legislation also contains opportunities to advance school-based mental health. Unfortunately, the complexities of the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act have made it difficult for educators, stakeholders, and mental health professionals to understand the legal and practical interface between No Child Left Behind and the school mental health movement. Therefore, the goals of this article are to (1) raise awareness about the challenges educators and school mental health professionals face as a result of the implementation of No Child Left Behind and (2) provide ideas and recommendations to advance the interface between No Child Left Behind and school mental health, which will support key provisions of the act and the growth of the field.

  18. Temporal order processing of syllables in the left parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Dana; Baker, Julie M; Sanchez, Carmen E; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2009-10-07

    Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results revealed increased neural recruitment in the left inferior parietal lobe when participants made judgments about syllable order compared with both syllable identification and gender identification. These findings suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe plays an important role in processing syllable order and support the hypothesized role of this region as an interface between auditory speech and the articulatory code. Furthermore, a breakdown in this interface may explain some components of the speech deficits observed after posterior damage to the left hemisphere.

  19. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Hanson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate definitive calculi. After a temporary improvement in flank pain with medication, the patient experienced acute worsening of her left flank pain. Urology was consulted and further imaging was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was consistent with bilateral hydronephrosis and rupture of the left renal calyx. Given the patient’s worsening pain in the setting of left calyceal rupture, the urology team planned for placement of a left ureteral stent. However, before the patient could receive her stent, she progressed to active labor and delivered a viable female infant vaginally. Following delivery, the patient’s flank pain resolved rapidly and spontaneously, so no surgical intervention was performed. A summary of the literature and the details of this specific clinical situation are provided.

  20. The new left and democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Panizza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Without embarking on a theoretical debate over the meaning of the term, it is obvious that the left is on the rise in Latin America. However, we should not ignore the fact that the coming to power of left-wing and centre-left parties and movements presents a certain amount of paradoxes and questions. One of the most important of the many paradoxes is the fact that, in spite of the leftwards electoral shift in the region, there is no evidence that the electorate of Latin America has moved to the left in a significant manner. As for the questions, these concern the connection between left-wing governments and democracy, and especially the future challenges that these governments must face to preserve and develop democracy. In an attempt to unravel the paradox and answer these questions, this article examines the roots, contexts and political challenges of left-wing governments in Latin America. To this end, the author analyses a number of issues, such as the tensions between different logics of political representation and their implications for democracy, in addition to discussing the conditions under which the tensions between the different logics of political representation can contribute (or not to the developing of democracy in the region.

  1. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2010-09-21

    Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over the right or left SMG. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence that the right SMG contributes to accurate and efficient phonological decisions in the healthy brain, with no evidence that the left and right SMG can compensate for one another during TMS. Our findings motivate detailed studies of phonological processing in patients with acute or long-term damage of the right SMG.

  2. Radical Left in Albania and Kosovo: Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Këlliçi Klejd

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research question for this paper is: Are there radical left wing movements in Albania and Kosovo and what are their main traits? Through answering this question, we will explore the development (or lack thereof of radical left wing movements. With radical left we intend movements that reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism and its values and practices without opposing democracy. Through a thorough desk research and several interviews with experts and activists both in Albania and Kosovo, we look at the two case Political Opportunity Structures to study the emergence, the strategies, success or failures of the radical left. In Albania the radical left has been in decline since 1992, with only a recent revival from 2009 on. In Kosovo, the Lëvizja Vetëvendojse! (Self-Determination Movement, a civil movement transformed in a party, has succeeded in imposing its left agenda. Both cases employ a new rhetoric unrelated to the past communist regimes thus changing the perspective of political debate in both countries.

  3. Left versus right deceased donor renal allograft outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    It has been suggested that the left kidney is easier to transplant than the right kidney because of the longer length of the left renal vein, facilitating the formation of the venous anastomosis. There are conflicting reports of differing renal allograft outcomes based on the side of donor kidney transplanted (left or right).We sought to determine the effect of side of donor kidney on early and late allograft outcome in our renal transplant population. We performed a retrospective analysis of transplanted left-right deceased donor kidney pairs in Ireland between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. We used a time to death-censored graft failure approach for long-term allograft survival and also examined serum creatinine at different time points post-transplantation. All outcomes were included from day of transplant onwards. A total of 646 transplants were performed from 323 donors. The incidence of delayed graft function was 16.1% in both groups and there was no significant difference in acute rejection episodes or serum creatinine from 1 month to 8 years post-transplantation.There were 47 death-censored allograft failures in the left-sided group compared to 57 in the right-sided group (P = 0.24). These observations show no difference in renal transplant outcome between the recipients of left- and right-sided deceased donor kidneys.

  4. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  5. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduced the Compensatory Effects of IGF-I Growth Signaling in the Aging Rat Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Ping; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Han, Chien-Kuo; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Padma, V Vijaya; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aging is a physiological process that involves progressive impairment of normal heart functions due to increased vulnerability to damage. This study examines secondhand smoke exposure in aging rats to determine the age-related death-survival balance. Rats were placed into a SHS exposure chamber and exposed to smog. Old age male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10 cigarettes for 30 min, day and night, continuing for one week. After 4 weeks the rats underwent morphological and functional studies. Left ventricular sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. TUNEL detected apoptosis cells and protein expression related death and survival pathway were analyzed using western blot. Death receptor-dependent apoptosis upregulation pathways and the mitochondria apoptosis proteins were apparent in young SHS exposure and old age rats. These biological markers were enhanced in aging SHS-exposed rats. The survival pathway was found to exhibit compensation only in young SHS-exposed rats, but not in the aging rats. Further decrease in the activity of this pathway was observed in aging SHS-exposed rats. TUNEL apoptotic positive cells were increased in young SHS-exposed rats, and in aging rats with or without SHS-exposure. Aging reduces IGF-I compensated signaling with accelerated cardiac apoptotic effects from second-hand smoke.

  6. Immunology taught by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klenerman, P; Barnes, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunology may be best taught by viruses, and possibly by humans, but the rats of New York City surprisingly also have plenty to offer. A survey published in 2014 of the pathogens carried by rats trapped in houses and parks in Manhattan identified a huge burden of infectious agents in these animals, including several novel viruses. Among these are Norway rat hepaciviruses (NrHVs), which belong to the same family as hepatitis C virus (HCV). NrHVs were found in rat livers, raising the possibili...

  7. Effects of diabetes on tooth movement and root resorption after orthodontic force application in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, K; Hotokezaka, H; Hashimoto, M; Nakano-Tajima, T; Kurohama, T; Kondo, T; Darendeliler, M A; Yoshida, N

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of diabetes on orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. Twenty-three 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into control (n = 7), diabetes (n = 9), and diabetes + insulin (n = 7) groups. Diabetes was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats with a blood glucose level exceeding 250 mg/dl were assigned to the diabetes group. Insulin was administered daily to the diabetes + insulin group. A nickel-titanium closed-coil spring of 10 g was applied for 2 weeks to the maxillary left first molar in all rats to induce mesial tooth movement. Tooth movement was measured using microcomputed tomography images. To determine the quantity of root resorption, the mesial surfaces of the mesial and distal roots of the first molar were analyzed using both scanning electron microscopy and scanning laser microscopy. After 2 weeks, the amount of tooth movement in the diabetic rats was lower than that in the control rats. Root resorption was also significantly lower in the diabetic rats. These responses of the rats caused by diabetes were mostly diminished by insulin administration. Diabetes significantly reduced orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. The regulation of blood glucose level through insulin administration largely reduced these abnormal responses to orthodontic force application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Ying; Wang Shanju; Xu Tingting; Jiang Miaona; Jia Yujie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis. Methods: SD rat models of liver fibrosis was induced by CCl 4 (n=57). Liver function (GPT, GOT) and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels (HA, LN, C-IV, PC-III, with RIA) were tested in these models and 10 control rats. Eleven model rats were left untreated, the others were treated with Ganfukang of different concentrations and the above hepatic parameters were again determined after completion of treatment. Results: Lever function was much deteriorated and serum markers levels significantly increased in the model rats (vs controls, P<0.01). After treatment with Ganfukang, the improvement was significant (vs untreated models, P<0.01). Conclusion: Ganfukang is of definite therapeutic value for experimental hepatic fibrosis in rat models. (authors)

  9. Relationship of left ventricular systolic function to persistence or development of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okin, Peter M; Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva

    2014-01-01

    left ventricular systolic function in patients with new or persistent ECG LVH. METHODS: Baseline and year-3 ECG LVH and left ventricular midwall shortening (MWS) were examined in 725 hypertensive patients in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiographic...... 1.03-3.50, P = 0.040) at year 3. CONCLUSION: Persistence or development of new ECG LVH during antihypertensive therapy is associated with an increased risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction after 3 years' follow-up. These findings provide insight into a possible mechanism by which changes......BACKGROUND: Persistence or development of ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by Cornell product criteria is associated with an increased risk of developing heart failure compared with regression or continued absence of LVH. We postulated that this association might be in part mediated via worse...

  10. The left atrium, atrial fibrillation, and the risk of stroke in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Devereux, R.B.; Lyle, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    was superior to atenolol-based treatment for reducing new-onset AF and complications, especially stroke, associated with new-onset or pre-existing AF. Potential mechanisms of AF prevention by angiotensin receptor blockade supported by LIFE results include greater reduction in left atrial size and LV......The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study provided extensive data on predisposing factors, consequences, and prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Randomized losartan-based treatment...... hypertrophy. Differential effects of antihypertensive treatment on the left atrium and left ventricle may help prevent AF and reduce risk of stroke associated with hypertensive heart disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  11. Is there any relationship between right and left hand dominance and right and left nasal airflow dominance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A; Eccles, R

    2017-10-01

    Left- or right-handedness is a common human trait, and it has been previously reported that human nasal airflow dominance correlates with hand dominance. Any relationship between hand dominance and nasal airflow dominance would be unusual. This study aimed to measure nasal airflow and look for any relationship to handedness. The modified Glatzel mirror was used to record the dominant nasal passage at 15-minute intervals over a 6-hour period in 29 healthy participants consisting of 15 left-handers and 14 right-handers. In left-handers, the percentage of time that the left nasal passage was dominant ranged from 0 to 100 per cent. In right-handers, the percentage of time that the right nasal passage was dominant ranged from 4.2 to 95.8 per cent. No correlation between nasal airflow dominance and hand dominance was identified. The results do not support the hypothesis that nasal airflow and handedness are related.

  12. The time course of myonuclear accretion during hypertrophy in young adult and older rat plantaris muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, S.F.T.; Jaspers, R.T.; Jones, D.A.; Degens, H.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether accretion of myonuclei precedes or follows the increase in fibre cross-sectional area and whether this time course is affected by age, left plantaris muscle of 5- and 25-month-old male Wistar rats was overloaded by denervation of its synergists for 1, 2 or 4 weeks.

  13. Hypothyroidism in the rat results in decreased soleus motoneurone soma size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakels, R; Nijenhuis, Albertine; Mast, L; Kernell, D

    1998-01-01

    Adult female rats were thyroidectomized. After an average of 17 weeks, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into the right side soleus muscle. Two days later, left side soleus muscle properties were recorded and muscles and spinal cord were removed for further histological measurements. Soleus

  14. Protective effects of valsartan and benazepril combined with atorvastatin on cardiorenal syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S-Y; Peng, D-F; Hu, Y-J; Chen, J

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effects of valsartan (Val) and benazepril, (Ben) combined with atorvastatin (Ato), on cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) in rats. After establishing cardiorenal syndrome model, the rats were randomly divided into control, Ato, Ben+Ato and Val+Ato groups, which were treated with corresponding drugs. Before and 4 weeks after treatment, the serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), type-B natriuretic peptide (BNP), aldosterone (ALD), angiotensin (Ang) II, C-reactive protein (CRP), blood lipid and urine protein were determined. The left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) as well as maximum rising and falling rates of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax) were detected. The heart weight index was also determined. 6, 3, 1 and 2 rats control, Ato, Ben+Ato and Val+Ato groups died, respectively. Compared with control group, the serum Cr, BUN, BNP, ALD, CRP and urinary protein levels in treatment groups significantly decreased, and the blood lipid level, LVDP, LVEDP and heart weight index significantly decreased, with increased LVSP. No statistically significant difference was observed among treatment groups. Valsartan and benazepril, combined with atorvastatin, can have significant protective effects on cardiorenal functions of rats with CRS, with no significant difference between these two drugs.

  15. Expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M; Appel, K; Sauter, A; GebickeHaerter, PJ; Boddeke, HWGM

    Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha was studied in the brain of rats after focal cerebral ischaemia by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Using a specific antisense riboprobe for in situ hybridization histochemistry, cells positive for tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA were

  16. Longitudinal strain predicts left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsomino, Sandro; Lucà, Fabiana; Parise, Orlando; Lorusso, Roberto; Rao, Carmelo Massimiliano; Vizzardi, Enrico; Gensini, Gian Franco; Maessen, Jos G

    2013-11-01

    We explored the influence of global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography on left ventricular mass regression (LVMR) in patients with pure aortic stenosis (AS) and normal left ventricular function undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The study population included 83 patients with severe AS (aortic valve area regression (all P regression in patients with pure AS undergoing AVR. Our findings must be confirmed by further larger studies.

  17. Ultrasound-guided catheterization of the left subclavian vein without recognition of persistent left superior vena cava

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sun Young; Yoo, Jae Hwa; Kim, Mun Gyu; Kim, Sang Ho; Park, Byoung-Won; Oh, Hong Chul; Kim, Hojoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is rare, but the most common thoracic venous anomaly. We report a case of PLSVC unrecognized during left subclavian vein catheterization using real-time ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach. Patient concerns: A 79-year-old man with history of hypertension presented with traumatic subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and epidural hemorrhage. Before the operation, a central venous catheter (CVC) was placed into the ...

  18. Left Ulnar Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Left Hand Swelling Simulated by Elephantiasis in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Pin Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elephantiasis is a condition featured by gross enlargement of body parts to massive proportions. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a multisystem genetic disorder. Vascular anomaly is one among the complications of NF1. We report a case of NF1 who had a left hand vascular pseudoaneurysm with left hand swelling mimicking elephantiasis. The characteristics of sonography make it an excellent imaging modality to investigate this sort of superficial vascular lesion.

  19. Modulation of left primary motor cortex excitability after bimanual training and intermittent theta burst stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neva, Jason L; Vesia, Michael; Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2014-03-15

    Bimanual visuomotor movement training (BMT) enhances the excitability of human preparatory premotor and primary motor (M1) cortices compared to unimanual movement. This occurs when BMT involves mirror symmetrical movements of both upper-limbs (in-phase) but not with non-symmetrical movements (anti-phase). The neural mechanisms mediating the effect of BMT is unclear, but may involve interhemispheric connections between homologous M1 representations as well as the dorsal premotor cortices (PMd). The purpose of this study is to assess how intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of the left PMd affects left M1 excitability, and the possible combined effects of iTBS to left PMd applied before a single session of BMT. Left M1 excitability was quantified using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in terms of both the amplitudes and spatial extent of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) before and multiple time points following (1) BMT, (2) iTBS to left PMd or (3) iTBS to left PMd and BMT. Although there was not a greater increase in either specific measure of M1 excitability due to the combination of the interventions, iTBS applied before BMT showed that both the spatial extent and global MEP amplitude for the ECR became larger in parallel, whereas the spatial extent was enhanced with BMT alone and global MEP amplitude was enhanced with iTBS to left PMd alone. These results suggest that the modulation of rapid functional M1 excitability associated with BMT and iTBS of the left PMd could operate under related early markers of neuro-plastic mechanisms, which may be expressed in concurrent and distinct patterns of M1 excitability. Critically, this work may guide rehabilitation training and stimulation techniques that modulate cortical excitability after brain injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A; Henchen, Christopher J; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, Yasuji, E-mail: oshiro4211@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Okinawa Hospital, 20-14 Ganeko 3-chome, Ginowan city, Okinawa 901-2214 (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Ohta, Morio [Department of Surgery, Nakagami Hospital, 6-25-5 Chibana, Okinawa-city, Okinawa 904-2195 (Japan); Teruya, Takao [Second Department of Surgery, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung.

  2. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Yasuji; Murayama, Sadayuki; Ohta, Morio; Teruya, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung

  3. Evaluation of left ventricular function by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ootaki, Makoto; Matsuyama, Seiya; Kanemoto, Nariaki; Furuya, Hideo

    1985-01-01

    Effects of contrast medium doses on left ventriculographic images using intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA-LVG) were assessed. The validity of IVDSA-LVG in evaluating ejection fraction (FF) and left ventricular regional wall motion was determined by comparison with conventional left ventriculography using direct injection (direct LVG). The advantages of left ventriculography using intraarterial subtraction angiography (IADSA-LVG) performed by injecting small doses of contrast media directly into the left ventricle were stressed. 1. To assess the effects of doses of contrast media on IVDSA-LVG, 10, 20, and 30 ml Urografin-76 were injected into the superior vena cava in 16 patients, and the resulting images were compared in each patient. With only 10 ml contrast medium, left ventricular opacification was fairly good, and regional wall motion was evaluated in many cases, but 30 ml were needed to calculate ventricular volume and EF. 2. To determine the validity of IVDSA-LVG in evaluating EF and regional wall motion, we compared IVDSA-LVG using 30 ml of contrast medium with direct LVG in 18 patients. There was a good correlation between the two methods in determining EF (r = 0.877), and 90 % of the interpretations of regional wall motion were in agreement by the two methods. IVDSA-LVG was useful and accurate in evaluating EF and regional wall motion of the left ventricle. 3. IADSA-LVG was performed for five patients, and good quality images were obtained in many cases, even with relatively small doses (10 ml) of contrast media. These results suggested that this method may be used in cases with impaired LV function, to avoid hemodynamic derangement induced by conventional direct LVG using large doses of contrast medium. (author)

  4. Improving left spatial neglect through music scale playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò Francesco; Cioffi, Maria Cristina; Ronchi, Roberta; Maravita, Angelo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Zigiotto, Luca; Perucca, Laura; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed whether the auditory reference provided by a music scale could improve spatial exploration of a standard musical instrument keyboard in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. As performing music scales involves the production of predictable successive pitches, the expectation of the subsequent note may facilitate patients to explore a larger extension of space in the left affected side, during the production of music scales from right to left. Eleven right-brain-damaged stroke patients with left spatial neglect, 12 patients without neglect, and 12 age-matched healthy participants played descending scales on a music keyboard. In a counterbalanced design, the participants' exploratory performance was assessed while producing scales in three feedback conditions: With congruent sound, no-sound, or random sound feedback provided by the keyboard. The number of keys played and the timing of key press were recorded. Spatial exploration by patients with left neglect was superior with congruent sound feedback, compared to both Silence and Random sound conditions. Both the congruent and incongruent sound conditions were associated with a greater deceleration in all groups. The frame provided by the music scale improves exploration of the left side of space, contralateral to the right hemisphere, damaged in patients with left neglect. Performing a scale with congruent sounds may trigger at some extent preserved auditory and spatial multisensory representations of successive sounds, thus influencing the time course of space scanning, and ultimately resulting in a more extensive spatial exploration. These findings offer new perspectives also for the rehabilitation of the disorder. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Renal denervation improves cardiac function in rats with chronic heart failure: Effects on expression of β-adrenoceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Sharma, Neeru M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the sympathetic drive contributes to cardiac remodeling and dysfunction during chronic heart failure (HF). The present study was undertaken to assess whether renal denervation (RDN) would abrogate the sympathoexcitation in HF and ameliorate the adrenergic dysfunction and cardiac damage. Ligation of the left coronary artery was used to induce HF in Sprague-Dawley rats. Four weeks after surgery, RDN was performed, 1 wk before the final measurements. At the end of the protocol, cardiac function was assessed by measuring ventricular hemodynamics. Rats with HF had an average infarct area >30% of the left ventricle and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) >20 mmHg. β1- and β2-adrenoceptor proteins in the left ventricle were reduced by 37 and 49%, respectively, in the rats with HF. RDN lowered elevated levels of urinary excretion of norepinephrine and brain natriuretic peptide levels in the hearts of rats with HF. RDN also decreased LVEDP to 10 mmHg and improved basal dP/dt to within the normal range in rats with HF. RDN blunted loss of β1-adrenoceptor (by 47%) and β2-adrenoceptor (by 100%) protein expression and improved isoproterenol (0.5 μg/kg)-induced increase in +dP/dt (by 71%) and −dP/dt (by 62%) in rats with HF. RDN also attenuated the increase in collagen 1 expression in the left ventricles of rats with HF. These findings demonstrate that RDN initiated in chronic HF condition improves cardiac function mediated by adrenergic agonist and blunts β-adrenoceptor expression loss, providing mechanistic insights for RDN-induced improvements in cardiac function in the HF condition. PMID:27288440

  6. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varix draining via the left inferior phrenic vein into the left hepatic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibukuro, Kenji; Mori, Koichi; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Yukako; Tagawa, Kazumi

    1999-01-01

    We encountered a patient with gastric varix draining not via the usual left suprarenal vein but via the left inferior phrenic vein joining the left hepatic vein. Transfemoral balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of the varix was performed under balloon occlusion of the left inferior phrenic vein via the left hepatic vein and retrograde injection of the sclerosing agent (5% of ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix. Disappearance of the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic examination 2 months later.

  7. Effect of Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone and cortisol in male rats under stress of maximum intensive training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ling; Si Xulan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) in male rats under the stress of maximum intensive training. Methods: Wistar male rat models of stress under maximum intensity training were established (n=40) and half of them were treated with Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription twenty undisturbed rats served as controls. Testosterone and cortisol serum levels were determined with RIA at the end of the seven weeks' experiment. Results: Maximum intensive training would cause the level of the serum testosterone lowered, the concentration of the cortisol elevated and the ratio of T/C reduced. The serum T levels and T/C ratio were significantly lower and cortisol levels significantly higher in the untreated models than those in the treated models and controls (P<0.01). The levels of the two hormones were markedly corrected in the treated models with no significantly differences from those in the controls. However, the T/C ratio was still significantly lower than that in the controls (P <0.05) due to a relatively slightly greater degree of reduction of T levels. Conclusion: Anti-fatigue prescription can not only promote the recovery of fatigue after the maximum intensive training but also strengthen the anabolism of the rats. (authors)

  8. RatMap—rat genome tools and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M.; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB–Genetics at Göteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided. PMID:15608244

  9. Evaluation of left ventricular function using digital subtraction ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiannikas, J.; Detrano, R.

    1986-01-01

    Digital subtraction ventriculography following injections of contrast via peripheral veins provides excellent images to assess left ventricular function. The images are essentially identical to those following DCV, but allow more uniform mixing of contrast in the left ventricular chamber. Furthermore, few, if any, cardiac arrhythmias occur, hence obviating difficulties that arise from DCV. The spatial resolution of the method is such that regional wall motion assessment of ventricular function is more accurate than that of other noninvasive imaging methods. The use of video-densitometry allows accurate assessment of left ventricular function even when the left ventricular cavity is nonsymmetrically deformed and aneurysmal. In the setting of the cardiac catheterization laboratory, digital ventriculography may provide a safer means of assessing left ventricular function when critical coronary or myocardial disease is present and allows multiple assessments of ventricular function during the same study. Although excellent correlations with standard ventriculography have been noted by all workers, significant discrepancies still exist in individual patients, particularly in the calculations of end diastolic volumes. In the authors experience and in those of most workers, the largest discrepancies existed in patients in whom suboptimal studies are included for analysis. The most frequent reason for the occasional suboptimal study as with all digital subtraction work is the misregistration that results from motion

  10. CT assessment of tracheobronchial anomaly in left pulmonary artery sling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu-Min M.; Zhu, Ming; Sun, Ai-Min M.; Wang, Qian [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2010-11-15

    The left pulmonary artery sling (LPAS) is a rare vascular anomaly where the left pulmonary artery arises from the right pulmonary artery, passes over the right bronchus, and goes posteriorly between the trachea and esophagus. The LPAS is frequently associated with cardiac and non-cardiac defects including tracheobronchial abnormalities. To evaluate the utility of multislice CT (MSCT) and helical CT (HCT) in diagnosing and defining the tracheobronchial anomaly and anatomic relationships between the trachea and aberrant left pulmonary artery. MSCT or HCT was performed in 27 children to determine the tracheobronchial anatomy and identify tracheobronchial stenosis. Eighteen children underwent surgery. According to the Wells [6] classification of LPAS, which includes two main types and two subtypes, there were eight cases of type 1A, five cases of type 1B, six cases of type 2A and eight cases of type 2B in this group. Twenty-four of the 27 children had substantial tracheobronchial stenosis. Four died before surgery; the 18 had reanastomosis of the left pulmonary artery. Five children also had tracheoplasty; three died after surgery. CT, especially MSCT, is an ideal modality for simultaneously identifying aberrant left pulmonary artery and any associated tracheobronchial anomaly. The Wells classification is useful for operative planning. (orig.)

  11. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined. Objective. The aim of the study was: (a re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order, and (b examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods. Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth putative agents are examined. Results. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6 can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively. The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Conclusion. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  12. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragović, Milan; Milenković, Sanja; Kocijancić, Dusica; Zlatko, Sram

    2013-01-01

    Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control) are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness) with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome) implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined). The aim of the study was: (a) re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order), and (b) examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy). Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females) from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order) and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth) putative agents are examined. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6) can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively).The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  13. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  14. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  15. Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories.

  16. Correlation of vocals and lyrics with left temporal musicogenic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-En J; Lim, Siew-Na; Chen, Lu-An; Jou, Shuo-Bin; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yao; Cheng, Mei-Yun; Chang, Chun-Wei; Li, Han-Tao; Chiang, Hsing-I; Wu, Tony

    2018-03-15

    Whether the cognitive processing of music and speech relies on shared or distinct neuronal mechanisms remains unclear. Music and language processing in the brain are right and left temporal functions, respectively. We studied patients with musicogenic epilepsy (ME) that was specifically triggered by popular songs to analyze brain hyperexcitability triggered by specific stimuli. The study included two men and one woman (all right-handed, aged 35-55 years). The patients had sound-triggered left temporal ME in response to popular songs with vocals, but not to instrumental, classical, or nonvocal piano solo versions of the same song. Sentimental lyrics, high-pitched singing, specificity/familiarity, and singing in the native language were the most significant triggering factors. We found that recognition of the human voice and analysis of lyrics are important causal factors in left temporal ME and provide observational evidence that sounds with speech structure are predominantly processed in the left temporal lobe. A literature review indicated that language-associated stimuli triggered ME in the left temporal epileptogenic zone at a nearly twofold higher rate compared with the right temporal region. Further research on ME may enhance understanding of the cognitive neuroscience of music. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  18. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  19. Wound healing in the jugal mucosa of rats with a cold blade scalpel and an ultrasonic harmonic scalpel

    OpenAIRE

    Masi,Elen Carolina David João De; Rocha,Sergio Luis; Mocellin,Marcos; Faria,João Luis Garcia de

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound harmonic scalpel has been recently introduced in otorhinolaryngological procedures. AIM: to assess macro and microscopic evolution of the healing process of wounds created in the jugal mucosa of rats by the use of ultrasound scalpel. METHOD: we used 30 Wistar rats in which we made mucosal incisions on the right jugal mucosa with the ultrasound harmonic scalpel (USHS) and on the left side with the cold blade scalpel (CBS). Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations were carried out on ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac diethylammonium gel on acute phase of ligature induced periodontitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Marco A.; Paixão, Mônica S.; Rachid, Ítalo; Bannet, Leonard Edward; Patrus, Ana Helena; Mattos, Thiago Borges; Queiroz, Dinalva; Ruela, Ronaldo; Costa, Jose M. C; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a diclofenac diethylammonium gel 10 mg/g (DD) on acute phase of ligature induced periodontitis model in rats. Experimental Periodontitis Disease (EPD) was induced in 30 Wistar rats subjected to ligature placement on left molars. Animals were treated with (DD), immediately after (EPD) induction. Saline-based gel (SG) was utilized as negative control and DD gel 10 mg/g was the tested substance. Animals were randomly assigned into the groups. The period...