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Sample records for left undisturbed rats

  1. HISTOLOGIC AND ENZYMATIC COMPARISON BETWEEN PANGOLIN AND RAT LEFT MYOCARDIUM

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    Medubi LJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pangolin is presumably a primitive mammal compared to rat. However, its cardiac contractile function is maintained longer than that of rat following cutting it away from the body immediately after euthanize. This investigation aim therefore to elucidate the microanatomy of the left ventricle in the pangolins in comparison with that of Wistar rats. Biochemical enzyme quantification was also carried out in both mammals to evaluate differences in the levels of activities of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase.Following euthanasia and dissection along the thoracic wall, the left ventricles were recovered and divided into two parts. One part was fixed in 10% formal-saline and processed for paraffin embedding while the other was homogenized in sucrose and used for lactate dehydrogenase quantification.Differences in the microanatomy of the left ventricles between pangolins and rats are reported essentially related with cardiomyocyte thickness, elastic fibers distribution, nuclear shapes, and perinuclear spaces. In addition, LDH activity appeared significantly higher in pangolins. Some of the detected differences could be correlated with animal size and perhaps, modes of life.These preliminary results generate expectations about the future possibility of being pangolins suitable models for cardiovascular research. Further investigations are needed in this regard.

  2. [Echocardiographic study of left ventricular geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

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    Escudero, Eduardo M; Pinilla, Oscar A; Carranza, Verónica B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram left ventricular (LV) geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Echocardiographic study, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in 114 male, 4-month old rats, 73 SHR and 41 Wistar (W). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), stroke volume, and mid ventricular shortening were calculated with echocardiographic parameters. Normal LV was defined considering the mean plus 2 SD of LVMI and RWT in W. Patterns of abnormal LV geometry were: LV concentric remodeling, LVMI 0.71; eccentric, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LVMI > 2.06 mg/g - RWT 2.06 mg/g - RWT > 0.71. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiac output (CO) were used to obtain total peripheral resistance (TPR). twelve % of SHR had normal LV geometry; 18% LV concentric remodeling; 33% concentric LVH and 37% eccentric LVH. LV concentric remodeling showed the smallest CO and highest TPR of any group. Eccentric LVH presented similar SBP as the other SHR groups and high CO with lower TPR. Our findings in SHR exhibit different patterns of LV geometry like in humans. These results strengthen the similarities between SHR and human essential hypertension.

  3. Hydrodynamic erosion process of undisturbed clay

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    Zhao, G.; Visser, P.J.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrodynamic erosion process of undisturbed clay due to the turbulent flow, based on theoretical analysis and experimental results. The undisturbed clay has the unique and complicated characteristics of cohesive force among clay particles, which are highly different from

  4. Effects of isoflurane concentration on basic echocardiographic parameters of the left ventricle in rats

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    Říha, H.; Papoušek, František; Neckář, Jan; Pirk, J.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2012), s. 419-423 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA501110901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : anesthesia * isoflurane * echocardiography * left ventricular function * rat heart Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  5. A new proposal for laparoscopic left colectomy in a rat model

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    Leonardo de Castro Durães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new technique for laparoscopic segmental colectomy and primary anastomosis in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly assigned to three groups of ten animals each. All animals underwent segmental resection of the left colon and end-to-end anastomosis. In Group I, the animals underwent laparoscopic surgery with carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum at a pressure of 5 mmHg. In Group II, the animals underwent pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide at a pressure of 12 mmHg. In Group III, the control group, the animals underwent open surgery. All animals were reopened on the 7th postoperative day and were evaluated for peritonitis, abscesses, anastomotic dehiscence and bowel obstruction, and the anastomosis bursting pressure was measured. RESULTS: No obstructions, peritonitis or abscesses were found in any of the animals. An animal in Group I exhibited a blocked anastomosis leakage. The average anastomosis bursting pressure in the 30 animals was 187.02 ± 68.35 mmHg. There was no significant difference in the anastomosis bursting pressure among the groups (p = 0.503 CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic experimental model was feasible and safe for segmental colectomy and anastomosis of the left colon in rats.

  6. Aminoguanidine prevents age-related deterioration in left ventricular-arterial coupling in Fisher 344 rats.

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    Chang, Kuo-Chu; Hsu, Kwan-Lih; Chou, Tsai-Fwu; Lo, Huey-Ming; Tseng, Yung-Zu

    2004-08-01

    In recent studies, aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of advanced glycation endproducts, has been identified as a prominent agent that can prevent the age-related aortic stiffening and cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether AG had effects on the left ventricular (LV)-arterial coupling in aged Fisher 344 rats in terms of the ventricular and arterial chamber properties. Normotensive rats were treated from 18 to 24 months with AG (1 g l(-1) in drinking water) and compared with a control group. LV pressure and ascending aortic flow signals were recorded to construct the ventricular and arterial end-systolic pressure-stroke volume relationships to calculate LV end-systolic elastance (Ees) and effective arterial volume elastance (Ea), respectively. The optimal afterload (Qload) determined by the ratio of Ea to Ees was used to measure the efficiency of mechanical energy transferred from the left ventricle to the arterial system. In comparison with the 6-month-old rats, the 24-month-old animals had decreased Ees, at 567.4 +/- 26.7 vs 639.0 +/- 20.7 mmHg ml(-1), decreased Ea, at 411.5 +/- 18.6 vs 577.9 +/- 15.7 mmHg ml(-1), and decreased Q(load), at 0.9428 +/- 0.0024 vs 0.9962 +/- 0.0014. Treatment with AG for 6 months did not significantly affect Ees; however, when normalized to LV weight (i.e., Eesn = Ees/LV weight), Eesn showed a significant rise of 22.8%, suggesting that AG may retard the aging process on the intrinsic contractility of the left ventricle. On the other hand, the decrease in Ea in aging rats was prevented by AG, as reflected in the increase of 19.7% in this variable (P < 0.05). The 24-month-old treated rats also exhibited a significant rise of 21.6% in Ea/Ees, causing an increase of 5.2% in Qload (P < 0.05). We conclude that in healthy older Fisher 344 rats without diabetes, long-term treatment with AG may improve both the arterial and ventricular function and optimize the matching condition for the left ventricular

  7. The position of the left and right ventricular outlets during septation. A comparison of chicken and rat development

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    Wagenaar, J. A.; Lamers, W. H.; Los, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the relative position of the outflow tracts of chicken and rat hearts with respect to the ventricles during septation. For this purpose the position of the left and right ventricular outlet including the aortic and pulmonary valve primordia and the left and right

  8. Are there gender differences in left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats?

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    Ednei Luiz Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An unclear issue is whether gender may influence at cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI. We evaluated left ventricle remodeling in female and male rats post-MI. Methods: Rats were submitted to anterior descending coronary occlusion. Echocardiographic evaluations were performed on the first and sixth week post-occlusion to determine myocardial infarction size and left ventricle systolic function (FAC, fractional area change. Pulsed Doppler was applied to analyze left ventricle diastolic function using the following parameters: E wave, A wave, E/A ratio. Two-way ANOVA was applied for comparisons, complemented by the Bonferroni test. A P≤=0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no significant differences between genders for morphometric parameters on first (MI [Female (FE: 44.0±5.0 vs. Male (MA: 42.0±3.0%]; diastolic [FE: 0.04±0.003 vs. MA: 0.037±0.005, mm/g] and systolic [FE: 0.03±0.0004 vs. MA: 0.028±0.005, mm/g] diameters of left ventricle and sixth (MI [FE: 44.0±5.0 vs. MA: 42.0±3.0, %]; diastolic [FE: 0.043±0.01 vs. MA: 0.034±0.005, mm/g] and systolic [FE: 0.035±0.01 vs. MA: 0.027±0.005, mm/g] of LV week. Similar findings were reported for left ventricle functional parameters on first (FAC [FE: 34.0±6.0 vs. MA: 32.0±4.0, %]; wave E [FE: 70.0±18.0 vs. MA: 73.0±14.0, cm/s]; wave A [FE: 20.0±12.0 vs. MA: 28.0±13.0, cm/s]; E/A [FE: 4.9±3.4 vs. MA: 3.3±1.8] and sixth (FAC [FE: 29.0±7.0 vs. MA: 31.0±7.0, %]; wave E [FE: 85.0±18.0 vs. MA: 87.0±20.0, cm/s]; wave A [FE: 20.0±11.0 vs. MA: 28.0±17.0, cm/s]; E/A [FE: 6.2±4.0 vs. MA: 4.6±3.4] week. Conclusion: Gender does not influence left ventricle remodeling post-MI in rats.

  9. Pregnancy Differentially Regulates the Collagens Types I and III in Left Ventricle from Rat Heart

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    Sarai Limon-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathologic cardiac remodeling has been widely documented; however, the physiological cardiac remodeling induced by pregnancy and its reversion in postpartum are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the changes in collagen I (Col I and collagen III (Col III mRNA and protein levels in left ventricle from rat heart during pregnancy and postpartum. Col I and Col III mRNA expression in left ventricle samples during pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed by using quantitative PCR. Data obtained from gene expression show that Col I and Col III in left ventricle are upregulated during pregnancy with reversion in postpartum. In contrast to gene expression, the protein expression evaluated by western blot showed that Col I is downregulated and Col III is upregulated in left ventricle during pregnancy. In conclusion, the pregnancy differentially regulates collagens types I and III in heart; this finding could be an important molecular mechanism that regulates the ventricular stiffness in response to blood volume overload present during pregnancy which is reversed in postpartum.

  10. Endothelin-B Receptors and Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Regional versus Global Ischaemia-Reperfusion in Rat Hearts

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    Sofia-Iris Bibli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is implicated in left ventricular dysfunction after ischaemia-reperfusion. ETA and ETB receptors mediate diverse actions, but it is unknown whether these actions depend on ischaemia type and duration. We investigated the role of ETB receptors after four ischaemia-reperfusion protocols in isolated rat hearts. Methods. Left ventricular haemodynamic variables were measured in the Langendorff-perfused model after 40- and 20-minute regional or global ischaemia, followed by 30-minute reperfusion. Wild-type (n=39 and ETB-deficient (n=41 rats were compared. Infarct size was measured using fluorescent microspheres after regional ischaemia-reperfusion. Results. Left ventricular dysfunction was more prominent in ETB-deficient rats, particularly after regional ischaemia. Infarct size was smaller (P=0.006 in wild-type (31.5±4.4% than ETB-deficient (45.0±7.3% rats after 40 minutes of regional ischaemia-reperfusion. Although the recovery of left ventricular function was poorer after 40-minute ischaemia-reperfusion, end-diastolic pressure in ETB-deficient rats was higher after 20 than after 40 minutes of regional ischaemia-reperfusion. Conclusion. ETB receptors exert cytoprotective effects in the rat heart, mainly after regional ischaemia-reperfusion. Longer periods of ischaemia suppress the recovery of left ventricular function after reperfusion, but the role of ETB receptors may be more important during the early phases.

  11. Biochemical and histopathologic analysis of the effects of periodontitis on left ventricular heart tissues of rats.

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    Köse, O; Arabacı, T; Gedikli, S; Eminoglu, D Ö; Kermen, E; Kızıldağ, A; Kara, A; Ozkanlar, S; Yemenoglu, H

    2017-04-01

    Current epidemiological works have suggested that chronic infections, such as periodontitis, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertrophy and heart failure. However, mechanisms behind the association are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of periodontitis on the serum lipid levels, inflammatory marker levels and left ventricular heart muscle tissues of rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (without ligature) and experimental periodontitis (EP; ligatured). Periodontitis was induced by placing ligatures (3.0 silk) at a submarginal position of the lower first molar teeth for 5 wk. Serum samples were collected for biochemical studies (C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and serum lipids), after which the rats were killed and heart tissue samples were obtained for histopathological and immunological studies (nuclear factor kappa B and β-myosin heavy chain). Significant increases in C-reactive protein and interleukin-1β levels and no statistically significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α level were observed in the EP group compared to the control group. In addition, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the EP group. Stereological and immunological findings showed that the number of nuclear factor kappa B-p65- and β-myosin heavy chain-positive cardiomyocytes increased significantly in the left ventricular tissue samples of the rats with periodontitis. Early chronic phase effects of periodontitis on heart tissue are in the form of degenerative and hypotrophic changes. Prolonging the exposure to systemic inflammatory stress may increase the risk of occurrence of hypertrophic changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Intervention of systolic pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in rats under cold stress].

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    Sun, C F; Wang, S G; Peng, Y G; Shi, Y; Du, Y P; Shi, G X; Wen, T; Wang, Y K; Su, H

    2016-06-20

    To investigate the effects of different drugs on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats under cold stress. A total of 40 male spontaneously hypertensive rats aged 10 weeks (160~200 g) were given adaptive feeding for 7 days at a temperature of 20±1°C and then randomly divided into control group, cold stress group, metoprolol group, amlodipine group, and benazepril group, with 8 rats in each group. SBP, body weight, and heart rate were measured once a week. After the rats were sacrificed by exsanguination, left ventricular weight (LVW) was measured, and left ventricular weight index (LVWI; mg/g) was calculated. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure the concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) in plasma and myocardium, and the chemical method was used to measure the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma and myocardium. RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of endothelin-A receptor. Compared with the cold stress group, all medication groups showed significant reductions in SBP since week 5 (Pcold stress group showed a significant increase in LVWI compared with the control group (3.38±0.27 mg/g vs 2.89±0.19 mg/g, Pcold stress group (2.98±0.28 mg/g vs 3.38±0.27 mg/g, Pcold stress group showed a significant reduction in plasma NO concentration compared with the control group (104.9±19.5 μmol/L vs 129.3±17.8 μmol/L, Pcold stress group, all the medication groups showed significant increases in blood NO concentration (Pcold stress group showed a significant increase in myocardial ET-1 concentration compared with the control group (6.3±1.5 pg/100 mg vs 4.5±1.9 pg/100 mg, Pcold stress group, the amlodipine group showed a significant reduction in myocardial ET-1 concentration (4.4±1.0 pg/100 mg vs 6.3±1.5 pg/100 mg, Pcold stress group had significantly higher mRNA expression of endothelin-A receptor than the control group (0.86±0.23 vs 0.45±0.16, Pcold

  13. Simultaneous measurement of arterial and left ventricular pressure in conscious freely moving rats by telemetry.

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    Segreti, Jason A; Polakowski, James S; Blomme, Eric A; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive cardiovascular assessment in conscious rodents by utilizing telemetry has been limited by the restriction of current devices to one pressure channel. The purpose of this study was to test and validate a dual pressure transmitter that allows the simultaneous measurement of arterial pressure (AP) and left ventricular pressure (LVP) in conscious freely moving rats. Six rats were surgically implanted with dual pressure transmitters. Baseline hemodynamics and circadian rhythm were observed to return within 7days. AP, heart rate (HR), LVP and indices of left ventricular contractility were stable and demonstrated a prominent circadian rhythm over a two-week period of uninterrupted recordings. Administration of the vasodilator nifedipine produced the anticipated dose-dependent decrease in AP which was accompanied by a baroreflex mediated increase in HR and cardiac contractility. The negative inotrope verapamil produced the expected dose-dependent decreases in AP and cardiac contractility. Finally, a terminal validation of the dual pressure transmitter was performed under anesthesia by measuring AP and LVP simultaneously via telemetry and from a fluid filled arterial catheter and an intraventricular Millar catheter, respectively. A range of pressures and cardiac contractility were studied by administering sequential intravenous infusions of the positive inotrope dobutamine followed by verapamil. Linear regression analysis revealed a high level of agreement between pressures measured by the dual pressure transmitter and the exteriorized catheters. Histopathologic analysis of the heart revealed mild peri-catheter fibrosis. In conclusion, the simultaneous measurement of AP and LVP offers the potential for more detailed cardiovascular assessment in conscious rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevention of airway hyperresponsiveness induced by left ventricular dysfunction in rats

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    Petak Ferenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of strategies for treatment of the altered static lung volume and against the development of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR following a left ventricular dysfunction (LVD induced by myocardial ischaemia was investigated in a rat model of sustained postcapillary pulmonary hypertension. Methods Airway resistance (Raw was identified from the respiratory system input impedance (Zrs in four groups of rats. End-expiratory lung volume (EELV was determined plethysmographically, and Zrs was measured under baseline conditions and following iv infusions of 2, 6 or 18 μg/kg/min methacholine. Sham surgery was performed in the rats in Group C, while the left interventricular coronary artery was ligated and Zrs and its changes following identical methacholine challenges were reassessed in the same rats 8 weeks later, during which no treatment was applied (Group I, or the animals were treated daily with a combination of an angiotensin enzyme converter inhibitor and a diuretic (enalapril and furosemide, Group IE, or a calcium channel blocker (diltiazem, Group ID. The equivalent dose of methacholine causing a 100% increase in Raw (ED50 was determined in each group. Diastolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PapD was assessed by introducing a catheter into the pulmonary artery. Results The sustained presence of a LVD increased PapD in all groups of rats, with variable but significant elevations in Groups I (p = 0.004, ID (p = 0.013 and IE (p = 0.006. A LVD for 8 weeks induced no changes in baseline Raw but elevated the EELV independently of the treatments. In Group I, BHR consistently developed following the LVD, with a significant decrease in ED50 from 10.0 ± 2.5 to 6.9 ± 2.5 μg/kg/min (p = 0.006. The BHR was completely abolished in both Groups ID and IE, with no changes in ED50 (9.5 ± 3.6 vs. 10.7 ± 4.7, p = 0.33 and 10.6 ± 2.1 vs. 9.8 ± 3.5 μg/kg/min p = 0.56, respectively

  15. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

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    Chiaki Nagai-Okatani

    Full Text Available Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases.

  16. Krill oil attenuates left ventricular dilatation after myocardial infarction in rats

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    Fosshaug Linn E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the western world, heart failure (HF is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular mortality. Supplement with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA has been shown to improve cardiac function in HF and to decrease mortality after myocardial infarction (MI. The molecular structure and composition of n-3 PUFA varies between different marine sources and this may be of importance for their biological effects. Krill oil, unlike fish oil supplements, contains the major part of the n-3 PUFA in the form of phospholipids. This study investigated effects of krill oil on cardiac remodeling after experimental MI. Rats were randomised to pre-treatment with krill oil or control feed 14 days before induction of MI. Seven days post-MI, the rats were examined with echocardiography and rats in the control group were further randomised to continued control feed or krill oil feed for 7 weeks before re-examination with echocardiography and euthanization. Results The echocardiographic evaluation showed significant attenuation of LV dilatation in the group pretreated with krill oil compared to controls. Attenuated heart weight, lung weight, and levels of mRNA encoding classical markers of LV stress, matrix remodeling and inflammation reflected these findings. The total composition of fatty acids were examined in the left ventricular (LV tissue and all rats treated with krill oil showed a significantly higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in the LV tissue, although no difference was seen between the two krill oil groups. Conclusions Supplement with krill oil leads to a proportional increase of n-3 PUFA in myocardial tissue and supplement given before induction of MI attenuates LV remodeling.

  17. Pulmonary arterial hypertension reduces energy efficiency of right, but not left, rat ventricular trabeculae.

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    Pham, Toan; Nisbet, Linley; Taberner, Andrew; Loiselle, Denis; Han, June-Chiew

    2018-01-24

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) triggers right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy and left ventricle (LV) atrophy, which progressively leads to heart failure. We designed experiments under conditions mimicking those encountered by the heart in vivo that allowed us to investigate whether consequent structural and functional remodelling of the ventricles affects their respective energy efficiencies. We found that peak work output was lower in RV trabeculae from PAH rats due to reduced extent and velocity of shortening. However, their suprabasal enthalpy was unaffected due to increased activation heat, resulting in reduced suprabasal efficiency. There was no effect of PAH on LV suprabasal efficiency. We conclude that the mechanism underlying the reduced energy efficiency of hypertrophied RV tissues is attributable to the increased energy cost of Ca 2+ cycling, whereas atrophied LV tissues still maintain normal mechano-energetic performance. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) greatly increases the afterload on the right ventricle (RV), triggering RV hypertrophy, which progressively leads to RV failure. In contrast, the disease reduces the passive filling pressure of the left ventricle (LV), resulting in LV atrophy. We investigated whether these distinct structural and functional consequences to the ventricles affect their respective energy efficiencies. We studied trabeculae isolated from both ventricles of Wistar rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH and their respective Control groups. Trabeculae were mounted in a calorimeter at 37°C. While contracting at 5 Hz, they were subjected to stress-length work-loops over a wide range of afterloads. They were subsequently required to undergo a series of isometric contractions at various muscle lengths. In both protocols, stress production, length change and suprabasal heat output were simultaneously measured. We found that RV trabeculae from PAH rats generated higher activation heat, but developed normal active stress. Their

  18. Baroreflex failure increases the risk of pulmonary edema in conscious rats with normal left ventricular function.

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    Sakamoto, Kazuo; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Saku, Keita; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Tobushi, Tomoyuki; Oga, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Takuya; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2016-01-15

    In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the complex pathogenesis hinders development of effective therapies. Since HFpEF and arteriosclerosis share common risk factors, it is conceivable that stiffened arterial wall in HFpEF impairs baroreflex function. Previous investigations have indicated that the baroreflex regulates intravascular stressed volume and arterial resistance in addition to cardiac contractility and heart rate. We hypothesized that baroreflex dysfunction impairs regulation of left atrial pressure (LAP) and increases the risk of pulmonary edema in freely moving rats. In 15-wk Sprague-Dawley male rats, we conducted sinoaortic denervation (SAD, n = 6) or sham surgery (Sham, n = 9), and telemetrically monitored ambulatory arterial pressure (AP) and LAP. We compared the mean and SD (lability) of AP and LAP between SAD and Sham under normal-salt diet (NS) or high-salt diet (HS). SAD did not increase mean AP but significantly increased AP lability under both NS (P = 0.001) and HS (P = 0.001). SAD did not change mean LAP but significantly increased LAP lability under both NS (SAD: 2.57 ± 0.43 vs. Sham: 1.73 ± 0.30 mmHg, P = 0.01) and HS (4.13 ± 1.18 vs. 2.45 ± 0.33 mmHg, P = 0.02). SAD markedly increased the frequency of high LAP, and SAD with HS prolonged the duration of LAP > 18 mmHg by nearly 20-fold compared with Sham (SAD + HS: 2,831 ± 2,366 vs. Sham + HS: 148 ± 248 s, P = 0.01). We conclude that baroreflex failure impairs volume tolerance and together with salt loading increases the risk of pulmonary edema even in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction. Baroreflex failure may contribute in part to the pathogenesis of HFpEF. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Isotropic thaw subsidence in undisturbed permafrost landscapes

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    Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.; Streletskiy, Dmitry A.; Little, Jonathon D.; Nelson, Frederick E.

    2013-12-01

    in undisturbed terrain within some regions of the Arctic reveal limited correlation between increasing air temperature and the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer above ice-rich permafrost. Here we describe landscape-scale, thaw-induced subsidence lacking the topographic contrasts associated with thermokarst terrain. A high-resolution, 11 year record of temperature and vertical movement at the ground surface from contrasting physiographic regions of northern Alaska, obtained with differential global positioning systems technology, indicates that thaw of an ice-rich layer at the top of permafrost has produced decimeter-scale subsidence extending over the entire landscapes. Without specialized observation techniques the subsidence is not apparent to observers at the surface. This "isotropic thaw subsidence" explains the apparent stability of active layer thickness records from some landscapes of northern Alaska, despite warming near-surface air temperatures. Integrated over extensive regions, it may be responsible for thawing large volumes of carbon-rich substrate and could have negative impacts on infrastructure.

  20. Alpha1A-adrenergic receptor-directed autoimmunity induces left ventricular damage and diastolic dysfunction in rats.

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    Katrin Wenzel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agonistic autoantibodies to the alpha(1-adrenergic receptor occur in nearly half of patients with refractory hypertension; however, their relevance is uncertain. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We immunized Lewis rats with the second extracellular-loop peptides of the human alpha(1A-adrenergic receptor and maintained them for one year. Alpha(1A-adrenergic antibodies (alpha(1A-AR-AB were monitored with a neonatal cardiomyocyte contraction assay by ELISA, and by ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human alpha(1A-adrenergic receptor transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rats were followed with radiotelemetric blood pressure measurements and echocardiography. At 12 months, the left ventricles of immunized rats had greater wall thickness than control rats. The fractional shortening and dp/dt(max demonstrated preserved systolic function. A decreased E/A ratio in immunized rats indicated a diastolic dysfunction. Invasive hemodynamics revealed increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressures and decreased dp/dt(min. Mean diameter of cardiomyocytes showed hypertrophy in immunized rats. Long-term blood pressure values and heart rates were not different. Genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, collagens, extracellular matrix proteins, calcium regulating proteins, and proteins of energy metabolism in immunized rat hearts were upregulated, compared to controls. Furthermore, fibrosis was present in immunized hearts, but not in control hearts. A subset of immunized and control rats was infused with angiotensin (Ang II. The stressor raised blood pressure to a greater degree and led to more cardiac fibrosis in immunized, than in control rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that alpha(1A-AR-AB cause diastolic dysfunction independent of hypertension, and can increase the sensitivity to Ang II. We suggest that alpha(1A-AR-AB could contribute to cardiovascular endorgan damage.

  1. Paeoniflorin improves cardiac function and decreases adverse postinfarction left ventricular remodeling in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction

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    Chen H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hengwen Chen,* Yan Dong,* Xuanhui He, Jun Li, Jie Wang Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Paeoniflorin (PF is the active component of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. or Paeonia veitchii Lynch. This study was, therefore, aimed to evaluate the improvement and mechanism of the PF on ventricular remodeling in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Materials and methods: In this study, AMI model was established by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery in Wistar rats. After 4 weeks gavage of PF, the apparent signs and the left ventricle weight index of Wistar rats were observed. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Changes in cardiac morphology were observed by pathologic examination, and apoptosis was observed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 interleukin-10 (IL-10 and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot method were applied to detect Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. Results: Compared with the model control, the survival conditions of rats in all treatment groups were generally improved after PF treatment. LVEF was significantly increased, and both left ventricular end-diastolic inner diameter and left ventricular end-systolic inner diameter were significantly reduced. Moreover, pathologic examination showed that the myocardium degeneration of the rats treated with PF was decreased, including neater arrangement, more complete myofilament, more uniform gap and less interstitial collagen fibers. Furthermore, the mitochondrial structure of cardiomyocytes was significantly improved. The ultrastructure was clear, and the arrangement of myofilament was more regular. Also, the expression of

  2. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

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    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  3. Neonatal domoic acid increases receptor density of α2 adrenoceptors and GABAA α5 receptors in limbic brain regions of adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Majken; Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Wegener, Gregers

    -14 with saline or low sub-convulsive doses of the glutamate agonist DOM (20µg/kg), weaned on day 22 and left undisturbed except for routine husbandry. At ~120 days of age the rats were euthanized by decapitation. The brains were removed, frozen in isopentane/dry ice and cut into 20 µM thick slices. Receptor...

  4. The left ventricular contractility of the rat heart is modulated by changes in flow and a1-adrenoceptor stimulation

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    P.F. Vassallo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial contractility depends on several mechanisms such as coronary perfusion pressure (CPP and flow as well as on a1-adrenoceptor stimulation. Both effects occur during the sympathetic stimulation mediated by norepinephrine. Norepinephrine increases force development in the heart and produces vasoconstriction increasing arterial pressure and, in turn, CPP. The contribution of each of these factors to the increase in myocardial performance needs to be clarified. Thus, in the present study we used two protocols: in the first we measured mean arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure and rate of rise of left ventricular pressure development in anesthetized rats (N = 10 submitted to phenylephrine (PE stimulation before and after propranolol plus atropine treatment. These observations showed that in vivo a1-adrenergic stimulation increases left ventricular-developed pressure (Pa1-adrenoceptors and increased flow, increased cardiac performance acting simultaneously and synergistically.

  5. Quantification of the rat left ventricle force and Ca2+ -frequency relationships: similarities to dog and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David G; Parilak, Leonard D; LeWinter, Martin M; Knot, Harm J

    2004-01-01

    To measure and quantify the force-frequency (FFR) and Ca(2+)-frequency (CaFR) relationships in isolated rat left ventricular (LV) muscle at physiological heart rates and compare the obtained FFR to that measured in larger mammalian muscle from dog and human using the same experimental protocol. Rat papillary muscle was isolated from the LV of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, and dog and human muscles were from free-wall LV biopsies, loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator Fura-2, allowed to recover from isolation trauma and then subjected to direct electrical stimulation while measuring force production and intracellular Ca(2+) transients. We obtained a positive FFR between 1 and 4 Hz that is qualitatively similar to that found in isolated LV epicardial muscle strips from dogs and humans with normal LV function. The FFR reflects the cytosolic Ca(2+) transients in amplitude. Isoproterenol yielded an enhancement in force, but flattening of the FFR, whereas cyclopiazonic acid caused depression of FFR amplitude without changing frequency-dependent shape. We describe an experimental protocol that consistently yields positive FFRs in rat, dog and human LV muscle at stimulation rates between 1 and 4 Hz, without significant qualitative differences. We attribute previously observed negative FFR in rat muscle to an increase in SERCA activity early after excision and preparation of the muscle strips.

  6. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in mechanically ventilated rats following LPS-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpanath, Thomas G V; Smeding, Lonneke; Hirsch, Alexander; Lagrand, Wim K; Schultz, Marcus J; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2015-10-07

    High tidal volume ventilation has shown to cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), possibly contributing to concomitant extrapulmonary organ dysfunction. The present study examined whether left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on tidal volume size and whether this effect is augmented during lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced lung injury. Twenty male Wistar rats were sedated, paralyzed and then randomized in four groups receiving mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg or 19 ml/kg with or without intrapulmonary administration of LPS. A conductance catheter was placed in the left ventricle to generate pressure-volume loops, which were also obtained within a few seconds of vena cava occlusion to obtain relatively load-independent LV systolic and diastolic function parameters. The end-systolic elastance / effective arterial elastance (Ees/Ea) ratio was used as the primary parameter of LV systolic function with the end-diastolic elastance (Eed) as primary LV diastolic function. Ees/Ea decreased over time in rats receiving LPS (p = 0.045) and high tidal volume ventilation (p = 0.007), with a lower Ees/Ea in the rats with high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS compared to the other groups (p tidal volume ventilation without LPS (p = 0.223). A significant interaction (p tidal ventilation and LPS for Ees/Ea and Eed, and all rats receiving high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS died before the end of the experiment. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorated LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction while preventing death following LPS-induced lung injury in mechanically ventilated rats. Our data advocates the use of low tidal volumes, not only to avoid VILI, but to avert ventilator-induced myocardial dysfunction as well.

  7. Fetal-adult cardiac transcriptome analysis in rats with contrasting left ventricular mass reveals new candidates for cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Katja Grabowski

    Full Text Available Reactivation of fetal gene expression patterns has been implicated in common cardiac diseases in adult life including left ventricular (LV hypertrophy (LVH in arterial hypertension. Thus, increased wall stress and neurohumoral activation are discussed to induce the return to expression of fetal genes after birth in LVH. We therefore aimed to identify novel potential candidates for LVH by analyzing fetal-adult cardiac gene expression in a genetic rat model of hypertension, i.e. the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP. To this end we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis in SHRSP to identify differences in expression patterns between day 20 of fetal development (E20 and adult animals in week 14 in comparison to a normotensive rat strain with contrasting low LV mass, i.e. Fischer (F344. 15232 probes were detected as expressed in LV tissue obtained from rats at E20 and week 14 (p < 0.05 and subsequently screened for differential expression. We identified 24 genes with SHRSP specific up-regulation and 21 genes with down-regulation as compared to F344. Further bioinformatic analysis presented Efcab6 as a new candidate for LVH that showed only in the hypertensive SHRSP rat differential expression during development (logFC = 2.41, p < 0.001 and was significantly higher expressed in adult SHRSP rats compared with adult F344 (+ 76% and adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (+ 82%. Thus, it represents an interesting new target for further functional analyses and the elucidation of mechanisms leading to LVH. Here we report a new approach to identify candidate genes for cardiac hypertrophy by combining the analysis of gene expression differences between strains with a contrasting cardiac phenotype with a comparison of fetal-adult cardiac expression patterns.

  8. Fetal-Adult Cardiac Transcriptome Analysis in Rats with Contrasting Left Ventricular Mass Reveals New Candidates for Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Katja; Riemenschneider, Mona; Schulte, Leonard; Witten, Anika; Schulz, Angela; Stoll, Monika; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of fetal gene expression patterns has been implicated in common cardiac diseases in adult life including left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) in arterial hypertension. Thus, increased wall stress and neurohumoral activation are discussed to induce the return to expression of fetal genes after birth in LVH. We therefore aimed to identify novel potential candidates for LVH by analyzing fetal-adult cardiac gene expression in a genetic rat model of hypertension, i.e. the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). To this end we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis in SHRSP to identify differences in expression patterns between day 20 of fetal development (E20) and adult animals in week 14 in comparison to a normotensive rat strain with contrasting low LV mass, i.e. Fischer (F344). 15232 probes were detected as expressed in LV tissue obtained from rats at E20 and week 14 (p < 0.05) and subsequently screened for differential expression. We identified 24 genes with SHRSP specific up-regulation and 21 genes with down-regulation as compared to F344. Further bioinformatic analysis presented Efcab6 as a new candidate for LVH that showed only in the hypertensive SHRSP rat differential expression during development (logFC = 2.41, p < 0.001) and was significantly higher expressed in adult SHRSP rats compared with adult F344 (+ 76%) and adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (+ 82%). Thus, it represents an interesting new target for further functional analyses and the elucidation of mechanisms leading to LVH. Here we report a new approach to identify candidate genes for cardiac hypertrophy by combining the analysis of gene expression differences between strains with a contrasting cardiac phenotype with a comparison of fetal-adult cardiac expression patterns. PMID:25646840

  9. The Unilateral Urogenital Anomalies (UUA) Rat: A New Mutant Strain Associated with Unilateral Renal Agenesis, Cryptorchidism, and Malformations of Reproductive Organs Restricted to the Left Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakasu, Kohei; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2009-01-01

    We established an inbred rat strain with unilateral urogenital anomalies from an incidentally identified male rat with unilateral renal agenesis and an undescended left testis. These rats were characterized by unilateral renal agenesis in both sexes, undescended testes with agenesis and hypoplasia of the accessory sex organs in male rats, and complete and partial agenesis of the uterine horn in female rats. All of these urogenital anomalies were unilateral and restricted to the left side; we named this phenotype unilateral urogenital anomalies (UUA). Breeding tests showed that these abnormalities were inherited as polygenic traits. The weight of right kidneys of affected rats was 1.7-fold higher than that of normal rats; histologically, glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilations, and tubular casts were detected at 30 wk of age. These alterations may have resulted from compensatory renal adaptation to the lack of 1 kidney. The cryptorchid left testes of affected male rats showed atrophy of seminiferous tubules and degeneration of spermatocytes and spermatids. These results indicate that the UUA rat may be a good model to study the etiology of unilateral renal agenesis accompanied by agenesis of the reproductive tract and to study compensatory alterations resulting from the congenital loss of 1 kidney. PMID:19619415

  10. Plzf as a Candidate Gene Predisposing the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat to Hypertension, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, and Interstitial Fibrosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liška, F.; Mancini, M.; Krupková, M.; Chylíková, B.; Křenová, D.; Šeda, O.; Šilhavý, Jan; Mlejnek, Petr; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; d´Amati, G.; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2014), s. 99-106 ISSN 0895-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0756; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/0696; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) PRVOUK-P25/LF1/2 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hypertension * left ventricular hypertrophy * myocardial interstitial fibrosis * spontaneously hypertensive rat * Plzf (promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger) gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2014

  11. Comparison of neurodegeneration between right and left hippocampus area in rats

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    Arezo Nahavandi

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed different manifestations of depression after UCMS. It showed that UCMS could lead to mental depression. This study showed that the right hippocampus was more sensitive to stress than the left hippocampus. In fact, UCMS resulted in depression. The study showed that the right hippocampus was more sensitive to stress than the left hippocampus. Therefore, the main function of the right hemisphere, which is adaptation to the new environment, is disturbed more.

  12. Effect of exercise training on Ca{sup 2+} release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular do Exercício, Escola de Educação Física e Esportes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felix, L.B. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Cruz, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Laboratório de Membranas Excitáveis e Biologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mill, J.G. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca{sup 2+} sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of

  13. Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on left ventricular function in adult rats: an in vivo Pinhole Gated SPECT study

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    Weytjens Caroline

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM may cause left ventricular (LV dysfunction directly resulting in increased susceptibility to heart failure. Using pinhole collimators and advances in data processing, gated SPECT was recently adapted to image the rat heart. The present study was aimed to assess this new imaging technique for quantifying LV function and remodeling from the Streptozotocin (STZ rat model compared to controls. Methods Twenty one rats were randomly assigned to control or diabetic group. Six months after the induction of diabetes by STZ, Pinhole 99 m Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT was performed for determining rat LV volumes and function. Post-mortem histopathologic analysis was performed to evaluate the determinant of LV remodeling in this model. Results After six months, the normalized to body weight LV End-systolic volume was significantly different in diabetic rats compared to controls (0.46 ± 0.02 vs 0.33 ± 0.03 μL/g; p = 0.01. The normalized LV End-diastolic volume was also different in both groups (1.51 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.05 μL/g; p = 0.001 and the normalized stroke volume was significantly higher in STZ-rats (1.05 ± 0.02 vs 0.54 ± 0.06 μL/g; p = 0.001. The muscular fibers were thinner at histology in the diabetic rats (0.44 ± 0.07 vs 0.32 ± 0.06 AU; p = 0.01. Conclusion Pinhole 99 m Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT can successfully be applied for the evaluation of cardiac function and remodeling in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this model, LV volumes were significantly changed compared to a control population, leading to a LV dysfunction. These findings were consistent with the histopathological abnormalities. Finally, these data further suggest the presence of diabetes cardiomyopathy.

  14. Outcome of Prolonged Ventricular Fibrillation and CPR in a Rat Model of Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

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    Xiangshao Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic left ventricular (LV dysfunction are assumed to have a lower chance of successful CPR and lower likelihood of ultimate survival. However, these assumptions have rarely been documented. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF and CPR in a rat model of chronic LV dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to (1 chronic LV dysfunction: animals underwent left coronary artery ligation; and (2 sham control. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac performance before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Four weeks after surgical intervention, 8 min of VF was induced and defibrillation was delivered after 8 min of CPR. LV dilation and low ejection fraction were observed 4 weeks after coronary ligation. With optimal chest compressions, coronary perfusion pressure values during CPR were well maintained and indistinguishable between groups. There were no differences in resuscitability and numbers of shock required for successful resuscitation between groups. Despite the significantly decreased cardiac index in LV dysfunction animals before induction of VF, no differences in cardiac index were observed between groups following resuscitation, which was associated with the insignificant difference in postresuscitation survival. In conclusion, the outcomes of CPR were not compromised by the preexisting chronic LV dysfunction.

  15. An injectable capillary-like microstructured alginate hydrogel improves left ventricular function after myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Domenico G Della; Willenberg, Bradley J; Qi, Yanfei; Simmons, Chelsey S; Rubiano, Andres; Ferreira, Leonardo F; Huo, Tianyao; Petersen, John W; Ruchaya, Prashant J; Wate, Prateek S; Wise, Elizabeth A; Handberg, Eileen M; Cogle, Christopher R; Batich, Christopher D; Byrne, Barry J; Pepine, Carl J

    2016-10-01

    A new post-myocardial infarction (MI) therapy is injection of high-water-content polymeric biomaterial gels (hydrogels) into damaged myocardium to modulate cardiac negative remodeling and preserve heart function. We investigated the therapeutic potential of a novel gelatinized alginate hydrogel with a unique microstructure of uniform capillary-like channels (termed Capgel). Shortly (48h) after induced anterior MI, Sprague Dawley rats received intramyocardial injection of Capgel directly into the antero-septal wall at the infarct border zone (n=12) or no injection (n=10, controls). Echocardiograms were performed at 48h (week 0) and 4weeks (week 4) to evaluate left ventricular function. Echocardiograms showed 27% improvement of left ventricular systolic function over time with gel injection: fractional shortening increased from 26±3% at week 0 to 33±2% at week 4 (p=0.001). Capgel was present at the injection site after 4weeks, but was minimal at 8weeks. The remaining gel was heavily populated by CD68(+) macrophages with CD206(+) clusters and blood vessels. An in vitro experiment was performed to assess Angiotensin-(1-7) released from Capgel. Angiotensin-(1-7) was released from the Capgel in a sustained manner for 90days. Use of Capgel, a degradable, bioactive hydrogel composed of gelatinized capillary-alginate gel, appears safe for intramyocardial injection, is associated with improved left ventricular function after MI in rats, and may provide a long-term supply of Angiotensin-(1-7). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Memantine prevents cardiomyocytes nuclear size reduction in the left ventricle of rats exposed to cold stress

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    Adriano Meneghini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have suggested that receptor blockers act as neuroprotective agents; however, no study has specifically investigated the impact that these drugs have on the heart. We sought to evaluate the effects of memantine on nuclear size reduction in cardiac cells exposed to cold stress. METHOD: We used male EPM-Wistar rats (n=40 divided into 4 groups: 1 Matched control (CON; 2 Memantine-treated rats (MEM; 3 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia (IH and 4 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia that were also treated with memantine (IHM. Animals in the MEM and IHM groups were treated by oral gavage administration of 20 mg/kg/day memantine over an eight-day period. Animals in the IH and IHM groups were submitted to 4 hours of hypothermia in a controlled environment with a temperature of - 8ºC on the last day of the study. RESULTS: The MEM group had the largest cardiomyocyte nuclear size (151 ± 3.5 μm³ vs. CON: 142 ± 2.3 μm³; p<0.05, while the IH group had the smallest mean value of nuclear size. The nuclear size of the IHM group was preserved (125 ± 2.9 μm³ compared to the IH group (108 ± 1.7 μm³; p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Memantine prevented the nuclear size reduction of cardiomyocytes in rats exposed to cold stress.

  17. Dimethyloxalylglycine treatment of brain-dead donor rats improves both donor and graft left ventricular function after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Péter; Li, Shiliang; Korkmaz-Icöz, Sevil; Radovits, Tamás; Mayer, Tobias; Al Said, Samer; Brlecic, Paige; Karck, Matthias; Merkely, Béla; Szabó, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 pathway signalling has a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) activates the HIF-1 pathway by stabilizing HIF-1α. In a rat model of brain death (BD)-associated donor heart dysfunction we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment of brain-dead donors with DMOG would result in a better graft heart condition. BD was induced in anesthetized Lewis rats by inflating a subdurally placed balloon catheter. Controls underwent sham operations. Then, rats were injected with an intravenous dose of DMOG (30 mg/kg) or an equal volume of physiologic saline. After 5 hours of BD or sham operation, hearts were perfused with a cold (4°C) preservation solution (Custodiol; Dr. Franz Köhler Chemie GmbH; Germany), explanted, stored at 4°C in Custodiol, and heterotopically transplanted. Graft function was evaluated 1.5 hours after transplantation. Compared with control, BD was associated with decreased left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. DMOG treatment after BD improved contractility (end-systolic pressure volume relationship E'max: 3.7 ± 0.6 vs 3.1 ± 0.5 mm Hg/µ1; p brain-dead group. After heart transplantation, DMOG treatment of brain-dead donors significantly improved the altered systolic function and decreased inflammatory infiltration, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and DNA strand breakage. In addition, compared with the brain-dead group, DMOG treatment moderated the pro-apoptotic changes in the gene and protein expression. In a rat model of potential brain-dead heart donors, pre-treatment with DMOG resulted in improved early recovery of graft function after transplantation. These results support the hypothesis that activation of the HIF-1 pathway has a protective role against BD-associated cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex differences in connexin-43 expression in left ventricles of aging rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Dupont, E.; Soukup, Tomáš; Okruhlicová, L.; Severs, N. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2005), s. 705-708 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant - others:MYORES(XE) 511978; CZ-SK(CZ) 02-2004-05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : connexin-43 * rat cardiomyocytes * male and female specificity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  19. Blood flow of the right and left submandibular gland during unilateral carotid artery occlusion in rat: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vág, J; Hably, C; Fazekas, A; Bartha, J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of unilateral carotid artery occlusion on the blood flow of submandibular gland in anesthetized rats and identify the role of nitric oxide (NO) in blood flow changes after the artery occlusion. L-NAME (N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester; 10 mg/kg/day, per os) dissolved in tap water was used to block nitric oxide synthase. Glandular blood flow was measured using Sapirstein's indicator (86Rb) distribution technique. In the control animals the blood flow of left (ligated side) submandibular gland was lower than in the right (unligated side) one (right: 76.4+/-15.4 ml/min/100 g, 64.1+/-13.4 ml/min/100 g, ptinder this condition.

  20. Comparison between radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography for quantification of left ventricular systolic function in rats exposed to doxorubicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de; Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Romano, Minna Moreira Dias; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Simões, Marcus Vinicius, E-mail: msimoes@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Cardiologia; O' Connell, João Lucas; Pulici, Érica Carolina Campos [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), MG (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Background: Radionuclide ventriculography (RV) is a validated method to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) in small rodents. However, no prior study has compared the results of RV with those obtained by other imaging methods in this context. Objectives: To compare the results of LVSF obtained by RV and echocardiography (ECHO) in an experimental model of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (DXR) in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats serving as controls (n = 7) or receiving DXR (n = 22) in accumulated doses of 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg were evaluated with ECHO performed with a Sonos 5500 Philips equipment (12-MHz transducer) and RV obtained with an Orbiter-Siemens gamma camera using a pinhole collimator with a 4-mm aperture. Histopathological quantification of myocardial fibrosis was performed after euthanasia. Results: The control animals showed comparable results in the LVSF analysis obtained with ECHO and RV (83.5 ± 5% and 82.8 ± 2.8%, respectively, p > 0.05). The animals that received DXR presented lower LVSF values when compared with controls (p < 0.05); however, the LVSF values obtained by RV (60.6 ± 12.5%) were lower than those obtained by ECHO (71.8 ± 10.1%, p = 0.0004) in this group. An analysis of the correlation between the LVSF and myocardial fibrosis showed a moderate correlation when the LVSF was assessed by ECHO (r = -0.69, p = 0.0002) and a stronger correlation when it was assessed by RV (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001). On multiple regression analysis, only RV correlated independently with myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: RV is an alternative method to assess the left ventricular function in small rodents in vivo. When compared with ECHO, RV showed a better correlation with the degree of myocardial injury in a model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. (author)

  1. Comparison between Radionuclide Ventriculography and Echocardiography for Quantification of Left Ventricular Systolic Function in Rats Exposed to Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fonseca Lemos de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Radionuclide ventriculography (RV is a validated method to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function (LVSF in small rodents. However, no prior study has compared the results of RV with those obtained by other imaging methods in this context. Objectives: To compare the results of LVSF obtained by RV and echocardiography (ECHO in an experimental model of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (DXR in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats serving as controls (n = 7 or receiving DXR (n = 22 in accumulated doses of 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg were evaluated with ECHO performed with a Sonos 5500 Philips equipment (12-MHz transducer and RV obtained with an Orbiter-Siemens gamma camera using a pinhole collimator with a 4-mm aperture. Histopathological quantification of myocardial fibrosis was performed after euthanasia. Results: The control animals showed comparable results in the LVSF analysis obtained with ECHO and RV (83.5 ± 5% and 82.8 ± 2.8%, respectively, p > 0.05. The animals that received DXR presented lower LVSF values when compared with controls (p < 0.05; however, the LVSF values obtained by RV (60.6 ± 12.5% were lower than those obtained by ECHO (71.8 ± 10.1%, p = 0.0004 in this group. An analysis of the correlation between the LVSF and myocardial fibrosis showed a moderate correlation when the LVSF was assessed by ECHO (r = -0.69, p = 0.0002 and a stronger correlation when it was assessed by RV (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001. On multiple regression analysis, only RV correlated independently with myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: RV is an alternative method to assess the left ventricular function in small rodents in vivo. When compared with ECHO, RV showed a better correlation with the degree of myocardial injury in a model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity.

  2. Comparison between radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography for quantification of left ventricular systolic function in rats exposed to doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de; Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Romano, Minna Moreira Dias; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Simões, Marcus Vinicius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radionuclide ventriculography (RV) is a validated method to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) in small rodents. However, no prior study has compared the results of RV with those obtained by other imaging methods in this context. Objectives: To compare the results of LVSF obtained by RV and echocardiography (ECHO) in an experimental model of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (DXR) in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats serving as controls (n = 7) or receiving DXR (n = 22) in accumulated doses of 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg were evaluated with ECHO performed with a Sonos 5500 Philips equipment (12-MHz transducer) and RV obtained with an Orbiter-Siemens gamma camera using a pinhole collimator with a 4-mm aperture. Histopathological quantification of myocardial fibrosis was performed after euthanasia. Results: The control animals showed comparable results in the LVSF analysis obtained with ECHO and RV (83.5 ± 5% and 82.8 ± 2.8%, respectively, p > 0.05). The animals that received DXR presented lower LVSF values when compared with controls (p < 0.05); however, the LVSF values obtained by RV (60.6 ± 12.5%) were lower than those obtained by ECHO (71.8 ± 10.1%, p = 0.0004) in this group. An analysis of the correlation between the LVSF and myocardial fibrosis showed a moderate correlation when the LVSF was assessed by ECHO (r = -0.69, p = 0.0002) and a stronger correlation when it was assessed by RV (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001). On multiple regression analysis, only RV correlated independently with myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: RV is an alternative method to assess the left ventricular function in small rodents in vivo. When compared with ECHO, RV showed a better correlation with the degree of myocardial injury in a model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. (author)

  3. Necromass production: studies in undisturbed and logged Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICHAEL PALACE; MICHAEL KELLER; HUDSON SILVA

    2008-01-01

    Necromass stocks account for up to 20% of carbon stored in tropical forests and have been estimated to be 14–19% of the annual aboveground carbon flux. Both stocks and fluxes of necromass are infrequently measured. In this study, we directly measured the production of fallen coarse necromass (>2 cm diameter) during 4.5 years using repeated surveys in undisturbed...

  4. Necromass in undisturbed and logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Carlos. Passos

    2007-01-01

    Necromass is an important stock of carbon in tropical forests. We estimated volume, density, and mass of fallen and standing necromass in undisturbed and selectively logged forests at Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10.488S, 58.478W). We also measured standing dead trees at the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil (3.088S, 54.948W) complementing our earlier study there...

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia: A research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luis Gustavo Campos; Dalio, Marcelo Bellini; Joviliano, Edwaldo Edner; Feres, Omar; Piccinato, Carlos Eli

    2015-01-01

    Determine the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia. An experimental study was designed using 48 Wistar rats divided into four groups (n = 12): Control; Ischemia (I)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes; Hyperbaric oxygen treatment during ischemia (HBO2)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes and hyperbaric oxygen during the first 90 minutes; Pre-treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (PHBO2)--90 minutes of hyperbaric oxygen treatment before total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes. Skeletal muscle injury was evaluated by measuring levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK); muscular malondialdehyde (MDA), muscular glycogen, and serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA). AST was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2 compared with control (P = .001). There was no difference in LDH. CPK was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p = .014). MDA was significantly higher in PHBO2, compared with other groups (p = .042). Glycogen was significantly decreased in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p < .001). Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in acute total hindlimb ischemia exerted no protective effect on muscle injury, regardless of time of application. When applied prior to installation of total ischemia, hyperbaric oxygen treatment aggravated muscle injury.

  6. Undisturbed trapping boundary for energetic electrons at low altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    Dawn-dusk traversals of the auroral zone by the German polar orbiting satellite Azur are used to reexamine the previously reported dawn-dusk asymmetry of the boundary position of the 40-keV electrons. This asymmetry, i.e., higher latitudes of the boundary positions in the dawn sector than in the dusk sector, disappears during prolonged periods of low electrojet activity. Symmetric boundary positions, i.e., significantly lower than average boundary positions in the dawn sector, are found whenever the electron flux decreases smoothly to the cosmic ray background over the polar cap and when there is no enhanced precipitation. Similar, undisturbed flux profiles observed by Ogo 6 at E>30keV are used to extend the study to all local times. The resulting average boundary contour has an almost circular shape, centered at 2 0 away from the magnetic pole on the midnight meridian and is compared with the average position of quiet auroral arcs and also with the average pattern of field-aligned currents for AL<100nT. The average boundary contour of undisturbed 30- and 40-keV electron flux profiles is interpreted as the high-latitude limit of stable trapping in the undisturbed magnetosphere

  7. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  8. High molecular mass proteomics analyses of left ventricle from rats subjected to differential swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Luiz A O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular exercises are commonly described as an important factor in health improvement, being directly related to contractile force development in cardiac cells. In order to evaluate the links between swimming exercise intensity and cardiac adaptation by using high molecular mass proteomics, isogenic Wistar rats were divided into four groups: one control (CG and three training groups (TG’s, with low, moderate and high intensity of exercises. In order to evaluate the links between swimming exercise intensity and cardiac adaptation by using high molecular mass proteomics, isogenic Wistar rats were divided into four groups: one control (CG and three training groups (TG’s, with low, moderate and high intensity of exercises. Results Findings here reported demonstrated clear morphologic alterations, significant cellular injury and increased energy supplies at high exercise intensities. α-MyHC, as well proteins associated with mitochondrial oxidative metabolism were shown to be improved. α-MyHC expression increase 1.2 fold in high intensity training group when compared with control group. α-MyHC was also evaluated by real-time PCR showing a clear expression correlation with protein synthesis data increase in 8.48 fold in high intensity training group. Other myofibrillar protein, troponin , appear only in high intensity group, corroborating the cellular injury data. High molecular masses proteins such as MRS2 and NADH dehydrogenase, involved in metabolic pathways also demonstrate increase expression, respectily 1.5 and 1.3 fold, in response to high intensity exercise. Conclusions High intensity exercise demonstrated an increase expression in some high molecular masses myofibrilar proteins, α-MyHC and troponin. Furthermore this intensity also lead a significant increase of other high molecular masses proteins such as MRS2 and NADH dehydrogenase in comparison to low and moderate intensities. However, high intensity exercise also

  9. Cardio-protecteffect of qiliqiangxin capsule on left ventricular remodeling, dysfunction and apoptosis in heart failure rats after chronic myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tuo; Zhang, Yuhui; Yin, Shijie; Gan, Tianyi; An, Tao; Zhang, Rongcheng; Wang, Yunhong; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Qiong; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Qiliqiangxin (QL) capsule is a traditional Chinese medicine which has been approved for the treatment of chronic heart failure. Evidences proved that QL capsules further reduced the NT-proBNP levels and improved left ventricular ejection fraction in CHF patients but the evidence supporting its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Myocardial infarction (MI) -Heart failure (HF) Sprague-Dawley ratsmodel and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) were used. Animals were assigned into 4 groups, normal group (n=6), shame-operation group (n=6), MI rats 4 weeks after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation were randomized into vehicle group (n=8), QL group (n=8). QL significantly attenuated cardiac dysfunction and ventricle remodeling as echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements showed improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, fractional shortening, ±dp/dt and left ventricular end diastolic and systolic diameters in QL treated group compared with the vehicle group. Improvements ininterstitial fibrosisand mitochondrial structures were also exhibited by Sirius Red staining, RT-PCR and electron microscopy. QL treatment improved apoptosis and VEGF expression in rats marginal infract area. Complementary experiments analyzed the improved apoptosis and up-regulate of VEGF in ischemia-hypoxia cultivated NRCMs is in an Akt dependent manner and can be reversed by Akt inhibitor. QL capsule can improve cardiac dysfunction and ventricular remodeling in MI-HF ratsmodel, this cardiac protective efficacy may be concerned with attenuated apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis. Up-regulated VEGF expression and Akt phosphorylation may take part in this availability.

  10. Resistance training may concomitantly benefit body composition, blood pressure and muscle MMP-2 activity on the left ventricle of high-fat fed diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Richard Diego; Durigan, Rita de Cássia Marqueti; de Souza Lino, Anderson Diogo; de Souza Campos, Markus Vinicius; Souza, Maria das Graças; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa Silvestre; Bouskela, Eliete; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistance training (RT) on body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), and activity of muscle MMP-2 in the left ventricle of high-fat fed rats. We have evaluated 32 male Wistar rats divided into four experimental groups (n=8/each) according to diet and exercise status: sedentary (SED; standard diet), sedentary obese (SED-OB; diet: 30% of fat), RT (RT; standard diet) and RT obese (RT-OB; diet: 30% of fat). After weaning (day 21), animals were subjected to the experimental diet according to their groups during 24 weeks. A 12-week strength-training period was used, during which the rats climbed a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. Sessions were performed three times/week (Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays), with 4-9 climbs/session and 8-12 dynamic movements/climb. RT induced higher muscle MMP-2 activity in the left ventricle in RT and RT-OB groups. Moreover, this study demonstrated that RT promoted lower body and fat masses, fat percentage, systolic and diastolic BPs and higher fat free mass in both trained groups. RT increased muscle MMP-2 activity in the left ventricle, induced positive changes on body composition and lowered BPs in high-fat diet fed rats, suggesting that it may be a useful tool to prevent alterations induced by high-fat diet consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure and Functional Characteristics of Rat's Left Ventricle Cardiomyocytes under Antiorthostatic Suspension of Various Duration and Subsequent Reloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I. V.; Mirzoev, T. M.; Biryukov, N. S.; Veselova, O. M.; Larina, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the research was to identify the structural and functional characteristics of the rat's left ventricle under antiorthostatic suspension within 1, 3, 7 and 14 days, and subsequent 3 and 7-day reloading after a 14-day suspension. The transversal stiffness of the cardiomyocyte has been determined by the atomic force microscopy, cell respiration—by polarography and proteins content—by Western blotting. Stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton increases as soon as one day after the suspension and increases up to the 14th day, and starts decreasing during reloading, reaching the control level after 7 days. The stiffness of the contractile apparatus and the intensity of cell respiration also increases. The content of non-muscle isoforms of actin in the cytoplasmic fraction of proteins does not change during the whole experiment, as does not the beta-actin content in the membrane fraction. The content of gamma-actin in the membrane fraction correlates with the change in the transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton. Increased content of alpha-actinin-1 and alpha-actinin-4 in the membrane fraction of proteins during the suspension is consistent with increased gamma-actin content there. The opposite direction of change of alpha-actinin-1 and alpha-actinin-4 content suggests their involvement into the signal pathways. PMID:23093854

  12. Long-Term Left Ventricular Remodelling in Rat Model of Nonreperfused Myocardial Infarction: Sequential MR Imaging Using a 3T Clinical Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad G. Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate whether 3T clinical MRI with a small-animal coil and gradient-echo (GE sequence could be used to characterize long-term left ventricular remodelling (LVR following nonreperfused myocardial infarction (MI using semi-automatic segmentation software (SASS in a rat model. Materials and Methods. 5 healthy rats were used to validate left ventricular mass (LVM measured by MRI with postmortem values. 5 sham and 7 infarcted rats were scanned at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery to allow for functional and structural analysis of the heart. Measurements included ejection fraction (EF, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, and LVM. Changes in different regions of the heart were quantified using wall thickness analyses. Results. LVM validation in healthy rats demonstrated high correlation between MR and postmortem values. Functional assessment at 4 weeks after MI revealed considerable reduction in EF, increases in ESV, EDV, and LVM, and contractile dysfunction in infarcted and noninfarcted regions. Conclusion. Clinical 3T MRI with a small animal coil and GE sequence generated images in a rat heart with adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for successful semiautomatic segmentation to accurately and rapidly evaluate long-term LVR after MI.

  13. Dynamic expression profiles of MMPs/TIMPs and collagen deposition in mechanically unloaded rat heart: implications for left ventricular assist device support-induced cardiac alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Yu-Xian; Du, Xiao-Jie; Sun, Quan-Ge; Tian, Ying-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) ameliorate heart failure by reducing preload and afterload. However, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition after application of LVADs is not clearly defined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate ECM remodeling after mechanical unloading in a rat heart transplant model. Sixty male Lewis rats were subjected to abdominal heterotopic heart transplantation, and the transplanted hearts were pressure- and volume-unloaded. The age- and weight- matched male Lewis rats who had undergone open thoracic surgeries were used as the control. Left ventricle ECM accumulation and the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after transplantation/sham surgery. Compared with the control group, myocardial ECM deposition significantly increased on the seventh and fourteenth days after heart transplantation (P < 0.05) and peaked on the 14th day. The gelatinase activity as well as mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 significantly increased after transplantation (P < 0.05). Both mRNA and protein levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 significantly increased compared with those of the control group. Mechanical unloading may lead to adverse remodeling of the ECM of the left ventricle. The underlying mechanism may due to the imbalance of the MMP/TIMP system, especially the remarkable upregulation of TIMPs in the pressure and volume unloaded heart.

  14. Availability of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume E-mail: guillaume.echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-07-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, {sup 99}Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of {sup 99}Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of {sup 99}Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of {sup 99}Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of {sup 99}Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of {sup 99}Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors.

  15. Alfalfa Responses to Gypsum Application Measured Using Undisturbed Soil Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is an excellent source of Ca and S, both of which are required for crop growth. Large amounts of by-product gypsum [Flue gas desulfurization gypsum-(FGDG] are produced from coal combustion in the United States, but only 4% is used for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of (1 untreated, (2 short-term (4-year annual applications of gypsum totaling 6720 kg ha−1, and (3 long-term (12-year annual applications of gypsum totaling 20,200 kg ha−1 on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth and nutrient uptake, and gypsum movement through soil. The study was conducted in a greenhouse using undisturbed soil columns of two non-sodic soils (Celina silt loam and Brookston loam. Aboveground growth of alfalfa was not affected by gypsum treatments when compared with untreated (p > 0.05. Total root biomass (0–75 cm for both soils series was significantly increased by gypsum application (p = 0.04, however, increased root growth was restricted to 0–10 cm depth. Soil and plant analyses indicated no unfavorable environmental impact from of the 4-year and 12-year annual application of FGDG. We concluded that under sufficient water supply, by-product gypsum is a viable source of Ca and S for land application that might benefit alfalfa root growth, but has less effect on aboveground alfalfa biomass production. Undisturbed soil columns were a useful adaptation of the lysimeter method that allowed detailed measurements of alfalfa nutrient uptake, root biomass, and yield and nutrient movement in soil.

  16. Analysis of the stability of housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Guilherme Silva; Oliveira, Renato Watanabe de; Tufik, Sergio; Chagas, Jair Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with oxidative stress and various cardiovascular consequences, such as increased cardiovascular disease risk. Quantitative real-time PCR is frequently employed to assess changes in gene expression in experimental models. In this study, we analyzed the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (an experimental model of OSA) on housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats. Analyses via four different approaches-use of the geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder algorithms; and 2-ΔCt (threshold cycle) data analysis-produced similar results: all genes were found to be suitable for use, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 18S being classified as the most and the least stable, respectively. The use of more than one housekeeping gene is strongly advised. RESUMO A apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) tem sido associada ao estresse oxidativo e a várias consequências cardiovasculares, tais como risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular. A PCR quantitativa em tempo real é frequentemente empregada para avaliar alterações na expressão gênica em modelos experimentais. Neste estudo, analisamos os efeitos da hipóxia intermitente crônica (um modelo experimental de AOS) na expressão de genes de referência no ventrículo cardíaco esquerdo de ratos. Análises a partir de quatro abordagens - uso dos algoritmos geNorm, BestKeeper e NormFinder e análise de dados 2-ΔCt (ciclo limiar) - produziram resultados semelhantes: todos os genes mostraram-se adequados para uso, sendo que gliceraldeído-3-fosfato desidrogenase e 18S foram classificados como o mais e o menos estável, respectivamente. A utilização de mais de um gene de referência é altamente recomendada.

  17. Left ventricular SERCA2a gene down-regulation does not parallel ANP gene up-regulation during post-MI remodelling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, Fabrice; Chen, Ying; Gellen, Barnabas; Heimburger, Michèle; Choqueux, Christine; Escoubet, Brigitte; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Mercadier, Jean-Jacques

    2005-08-01

    In most animal models of chronic hemodynamic overload of the left ventricle (LV) as well as in human end stage heart failure, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) mRNA levels are decreased in parallel with increased atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) mRNA levels. The situation in the remote myocardium following myocardial infarction (MI) is unclear. (1) To examine SERCA2a mRNA levels in the non-infarcted LV myocardium of rats at the chronic stage of experimental MI and (2) To examine whether a negative linear correlation exists between SERCA2a and ANP mRNA levels in this model. Anesthetized adult male Wistar rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham operation. Three months later, the rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated rats (sham, n=21), HF-free rats with MI (non-failing (NF)-MI, n=29) and rats with both MI and HF (congestive heart failure (CHF)-MI, n=14). LV remodelling and function were assessed by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. SERCA2a and ANP mRNA levels were determined by Northern and dot blot analysis with specific cDNA probes. LV SERCA2a mRNA levels varied markedly in sham-operated rats (0.9-1.8). Mean ANP mRNA level increased markedly and mean SERCA2a mRNA level decreased moderately in the remote myocardium. In some NF-MI rats, SERCA2a mRNA levels were higher than those in some sham controls. Whereas ANP mRNA levels correlated well with MI severity (r2=0.79, p<0.001), this was not the case for SERCA2a mRNA levels (r2=0.42, p<0.01). We found no negative correlation between ANP and SERCA2a mRNA levels. SERCA2a gene down-regulation in the non-infarcted myocardium of rats with MI does not correlate with ANP gene up-regulation, suggesting that the two genes are not antithetically regulated.

  18. Quantitative imaging of cation adsorption site densities in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Gustafsson, Jon-Petter; Koestel, John

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of present soil system models assume a homogeneous distribution and accessibility of cation adsorption sites (CAS) within soil structural units like e.g. soil horizons. This is however in conflict with several recent studies finding that CAS in soils are not uniformly but patchily distributed at and below the cm-scale. It is likely that the small-scale distribution of CAS has significant impact on the performance of these models. However, systematic approaches to map CAS densities in undisturbed soil with 3-D resolution that could lead to respective model improvements are still lacking. We therefore investigated the 3-D distribution of the CAS in undisturbed soils using X-ray scanning and barium ions as a contrast agent. We appraised the validity of the approach by comparing X-ray image-derived cation exchange coefficients (CEC) with ones obtained using the ammonium acetate method. In the process, we evaluated whether there were larger CAS concentrations at aggregate and biopore boundaries as it is often hypothesized. We sampled eight small soil cores (approx. 10 ccm) from different locations with contrasting soil texture and organic matter contents. The samples were first saturated with a potassium chloride solution (0.1 mol per liter), whereupon a 3-D X-ray image was taken. Then, the potassium chloride solution was flushed out with a barium chloride solution (0.3 mol per liter) with barium replacing the potassium from the CAS due to its larger exchange affinity. After X-ray images as well as electrical conductivity in the effluent indicated that the entire sample had been saturated with the barium chloride, the sample was again rinsed using the potassium chloride solution. When the rinsing was complete a final 3-D X-ray image was acquired. The difference images between final and initial 3-D X-ray images were interpreted as depicting the adsorbed barium as the density of barium exceeds the one of potassium by more than 2 times. The X-ray image

  19. Ligation of the left renal vein in epm1-wistar rats: functional and morphologic alterations in the kidneys, testes and suprarenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Costa Baptista-Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ligation of the left renal vein (LLVR in man is a contraversial procedure in view of the risks of lesion to the renal parenchyma. With the objective of studying the morphologic and functional alterations caused by these lesions, we conducted experimental research with rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 64 male adult EPM1-WISTAR rats were used, divided into 8 groups - 4 for LLRV and four for control. Each LLRV group and corresponding control group were sacrificed progressively on the 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th day after the initial surgery. RESULTS: We found morphofunctional alterations only in animals that underwent LLRV in the four periods of sacrifice.The proteinuria creatinine in serum, testosterone in serum and serum corticosterone in serum showed practically no alteration in relation to the normal values for rats. Statistically significant severe histological lesions were found in the kidneys and testes of the LLRV groups. Lesions in the suprarenal glands were also present in these groups, but no sufficient to demonstrate statistical significance CONCLUSION: Based on these results we can conclude that the ligation of the left renal vein is a procedure of high risk in these animals.

  20. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. ► Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. ► Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. ► L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. ► Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg −1 body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-κB. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be

  1. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  2. Transcriptional Changes Associated with Long-Term Left Ventricle Volume Overload in Rats: Impact on Enzymes Related to Myocardial Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Roussel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with left ventricle (LV volume overload (VO remain in a compensated state for many years although severe dilation is present. The myocardial capacity to fulfill its energetic demand may delay decompensation. We performed a gene expression profile, a model of chronic VO in rat LV with severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR for 9 months, and focused on the study of genes associated with myocardial energetics. Methods. LV gene expression profile was performed in rats after 9 months of AR and compared to sham-operated controls. LV glucose and fatty acid (FA uptake was also evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography in 8-week AR rats treated or not with fenofibrate, an activator of FA oxidation (FAO. Results. Many LV genes associated with mitochondrial function and metabolism were downregulated in AR rats. FA β-oxidation capacity was significantly impaired as early as two weeks after AR. Treatment with fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, normalized both FA and glucose uptake while reducing LV dilation caused by AR. Conclusion. Myocardial energy substrate preference is affected early in the evolution of LV-VO cardiomyopathy. Maintaining a relatively normal FA utilization in the myocardium could translate into less glucose uptake and possibly lesser LV remodeling.

  3. A STUDY OF CHANGES IN DEFORMATION AND METABOLISM IN LEFT VENTRICLE AS A FUNCTION OF HYPERTROPHY IN SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS USING MICROPET TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant, T; Huesman, Ronald, H; Reutter, Bryan, W; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Veress, Alexander, I; Weiss, Jeffrey, A; Yang, Yongfeng

    2017-06-13

    Problem: In the case of hypertrophy caused by pressure overload (hypertension) there is an increase in cardiac mass and modification cardiac metabolism. Aim: This study was designed to study the changes in glucose metabolism, ejection fraction, and deformation in the left ventricle with the progression of hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Dynamic PET data were acquired using the microPET II at UC Davis. Two rats were imaged at 10-week intervals for 18 months. Each time a dose of approximately 1- 1.5 mCi of F-18-FDG was injected into a normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the same dose was injected into a SHR rat. Each rat was imaged using a gated dynamic acquisition for 80 minutes acquiring list mode data with cardiac gating of approximately 600-900 million total counts. For the analysis of glucose of metabolism, the list mode data were histogrammed into a dynamic sequence (42 frames over 80 mins). For each time frame, projection data of 1203 140x210 sinograms of 0.582 mm bins were formed by summing the last three gates before and one after the R-wave trigger to correspond to the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Dynamic sequences of 128x128x83 matrices of 0.4x0.4x0.582 mm3 voxels in x, y, and z were reconstructed using an iterative MAP reconstruction which used a prior that penalized the high frequency components of the reconstruction using appropriate weighting between 26 nearest neighboring voxels. Time activity curves were generated from the dynamic reconstructed sequence for the blood and left ventricular tissue regions of interest which were fit to a 2-compartment model to obtain a least squares fit for the kinetic parameters. For the analysis of deformation, the list mode data were histogrammed into 8 gates of the cardiac cycle, each gate was the total sum of the later 60 mins of the 80 min acquisition. Images of 128x128x83 matrices for each gate were reconstructed using the same iterative MAP reconstruction used to

  4. LBA-ECO TG-07 Trace Gas Fluxes, Undisturbed and Logged Sites, Para, Brazil: 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M. Keller; R.K. Varner; J.D. Dias; H.S. Silva; P.M. Crill; Jr. de Oliveira; G.P. Asner

    2009-01-01

    Trace gas fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide were measured manually at undisturbed and logged forest sites in the Tapajos National Forest, near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Manual measurements were made approximately weekly at both the undisturbed and logged sites. Fluxes from clay and sand soils were completed at the undisturbed sites....

  5. LBA-ECO ND-11 Regeneration in Undisturbed and Logged Forests, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of field surveys to determine: regeneration diversity and size distribution of plants in primary undisturbed forest; and...

  6. LBA-ECO TG-07 Tree Geometry in an Undisturbed Forest in Cauaxi, Para, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Canopy measurements in an undisturbed eastern Amazon forest (Cauxi, Para, Brazil. See Figure 1) were derived from a one-time event in 2000 using a hand-held laser...

  7. LBA-ECO ND-11 Regeneration in Undisturbed and Logged Forests, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of field surveys to determine: regeneration diversity and size distribution of plants in primary undisturbed forest; and...

  8. LBA-ECO TG-07 Tree Geometry in an Undisturbed Forest in Cauaxi, Para, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Canopy measurements in an undisturbed eastern Amazon forest (Cauxi, Para, Brazil. See Figure 1) were derived from a one-time event in 2000 using a...

  9. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  10. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Yu-luan; He, Li [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiao, Jun [Department of Cardiology, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, Chongqing (China); Xia, Shuang; Deng, Song-bai [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiu, Yun [Institute of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); She, Qiang [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-17

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (I{sub to}) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM+TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of I{sub to} was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated I{sub to} reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced I{sub to} of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM.

  11. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Yu-luan; He, Li; Xiao, Jun; Xia, Shuang; Deng, Song-bai; Xiu, Yun; She, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (I to ) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM+TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg −1 ·day −1 ). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of I to was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated I to reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced I to of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM

  12. Serca2a and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20mg/kg/week for 4weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+dP/dtmax, -dP/dtmin and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MiR-139-3p is related to left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in many physiological and pathological processes. Previous studies have reported the role of miR-139-3p in cancer. However, its specific roles and functions in the heart undergoing hypertrophy have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, a significant upregulation of miR-139-3p expression was demonstrated in the left ventricular myocardium of two-kidney one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Based on computational analysis, we observed that miR-139-3p can control the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1 as a target gene, which is essential for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This study provides first information that the highly expressed miR-139-3p might be closely involved in MAPK1-mediated cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptotic processes in 2K1C rat.

  14. Measuring Regional Changes in the Diastolic Deformation of the Left Ventricle of SHR Rats Using microPET Technology and Hyperelastic Warping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant T; VERESS , ALEXANDER I.; WEISS, JEFFREY A.; HUESMAN, RONALD H.; REUTTER, BRYAN W.; TAYLOR , SCOTT E.; SITEK , AREK; FENG, BING; YANG , YONGFENG; GULLBERG, GRANT T.

    2008-04-04

    The objective of this research was to assess applicability of a technique known as hyperelastic warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle (LV) directly from microPET image data sets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image data sets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target images. For validation, the template image was defined as the end-systolic microPET image data set from a Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The target image was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a FE model of diastolic filling. Regression analysis revealed highly significant correlations between the simulated forward FE solution and image derived warping predictions for fiber stretch (R2 = 0.96), circumferential strain (R2 = 0.96), radial strain (R2 = 0.93), and longitudinal strain (R2 = 0.76) (p<0.001for all cases). The technology was applied to microPET image data of two spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a WKY control. Regional analysis revealed that, the lateral freewall in the SHR subjects showed the greatest deformation compared with the other wall segments. This work indicates that warping can accurately predict the strain distributions during diastole from the analysis of microPET data sets.

  15. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  16. Retention and Solute Transport Properties in Disturbed and Undisturbed Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Previatello da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Solute transport parameters can be determined in miscible displacement experiments, usually performed in columns with disturbed (sieved soil samples. Experiments with undisturbed samples are uncommon, due to the difficulty of taking undisturbed samples at the size required for these experiments. Structural alteration of the disturbed material implies modifications in the pore geometry that determines hydraulic properties, including hydraulic conductivity and retention and properties related to miscible displacement. An existing model for prediction of breakthrough curves based on retention properties was tested using material from a medium-textured Ferralsol, and alterations caused by sample disturbance were investigated. Soil water retention curves and miscible displacement parameters were determined in breakthrough experiments with nitrate salts in columns filled with undisturbed and disturbed soil samples. Data obtained from the undisturbed samples showed a higher dispersion, suggesting homogenization of pore geometry and a reduction in the representative elementary volume by the disaggregation and sieving of the soil material. The transport parameters for nitrate determined in disturbed and undisturbed samples were significantly different and the model was able to simulate the observed breakthrough curves after fitting the pore connectivity parameter.

  17. Biological properties of disturbed and undisturbed Cerrado sensu stricto from Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, A S F; Magalhaes, L B; Santos, V M; Nunes, L A P L; Dias, C T S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure soil microbial biomass and soil surface fauna in undisturbed and disturbed Cerrado sensu stricto (Css) from Sete Cidades National Park, Northeast Brazil. The following sites were sampled under Cerrado sensu stricto (Css) at the park: undisturbed and disturbed Css (slash-and-burn agricultural practices). Total organic and microbial biomass C were higher in undisturbed than in disturbed sites in both seasons. However, microbial biomass C was higher in the wet than in the dry season. Soil respiration did not vary among sites but was higher in the wet than in the dry season. The densities of Araneae, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera were higher in the undisturbed site, whereas the densities of Formicidae were higher in the disturbed site. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis separated undisturbed from disturbed sites according to soil biological properties. Disturbance by agricultural practices, such as slash-and-burn, probably resulted in the deterioration of the biological properties of soil under native Cerrado sensu stricto in the Sete Cidades National Park.

  18. Comparison of Shear Strength Properties for Undisturbed and Reconstituted Parit Nipah Peat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Abdullah, M. E.; Zakaria, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Shear strength of soil is required to determine the soil stability and design the foundations. Peat is known as a soil with complex natural formations which also contributes problems to the researchers, developers, engineers and contractors in constructions and infrastructures. Most researchers conducted experiment and investigation of shear strength on peat using shear box test and simple shear test, but only a few had discovered the behavior of peat using triaxial consolidated undrained test. The aim of this paper is to determine the undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat and undisturbed peat of Parit Nipah, Johor for comparison purposes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed opening sieve 3.35 mm and preconsolidation pressure at 100 kPa. The result of undrained shear strength of reconstituted peat was 21kPa for cohesion with the angle of friction, 41° compare to the undisturbed peat with cohesion 10 kPa and angle of friction, 16°. The undrained shear strength properties result obtained shows that the reconstituted peat has higher strength than undisturbed peat. For relationship deviator stress-strain, σd max and excess pore pressure, Δu, it shows that both of undisturbed and reconstituted gradually increased when σ’ increased, but at the end of the test, the values are slightly dropped. The physical properties of undisturbed and reconstituted peat were also investigated to correlate with the undrained shear strength results.

  19. Dietary pre-exposure of rats to fish oil does not enhance myocardial efficiency of isolated working hearts or their left ventricular trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Soyeon; Han, June-Chiew; Nisbet, Linley A; LeGrice, Ian J; Taberner, Andrew J; Loiselle, Denis S

    2014-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies, supported by clinical and experimental findings, have suggested beneficial effects of dietary fish or fish oil supplementation on cardiovascular health. One such experimental study showed a profound (100%) increase in myocardial efficiency (i.e. the ratio of work output to metabolic energy input) of the isolated whole heart, achieved by a corresponding decrease in the rate of myocardial oxygen consumption. However, a number of other investigations have returned null results on the latter energetic index. Such conflicting findings have motivated us to undertake a re-examination. To that effect, we investigated the effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on myocardial mechano–energetics, with our primary focus on cardiac efficiency. We used both isolated hearts and isolated left ventricular trabeculae of rats fed with one of three distinct diets: reference (REF), fish oil-supplemented (FO) or saturated fat-supplemented (SFA). For all three groups, and at both spatial levels, we supplied 10 mm glucose as the exogenous metabolic substrate. In the working heart experiments, we found no difference in the average mechanical efficiency among the three dietary groups: 14.8 ± 1.1% (REF), 13.9 ± 0.6% (FO) and 13.6 ± 0.7% (SFA). Likewise, we observed no difference in peak mechanical efficiency of left ventricular trabeculae among the REF, FO and SFA groups: 13.3 ± 1.4, 11.2 ± 2.2 and 12.5 ± 1.5%, respectively. We conclude that there is no effect of a period of pre-exposure to a diet supplemented with either fish oil or saturated fatty acids on the efficiency of the myocardium at either spatial level: tissue or whole heart. PMID:24535444

  20. Serca2a and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt max , − dP/dt min and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  1. Transport of a genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens and its parent strain through undisturbed tropical soil cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimaraes, V.F.; Cruz, I.V.; Hagler, A.N.; Mendonca-Hagler, L.C.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The transport of a genetically modified strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens, BR12, and its parent, BR5, was studied after irrigation of undisturbed clayey and sandy soil cores, simulating heavy tropical rainfall (56.6 mm/h). Vertical transport of both inoculant strains was detected in all soil cores.

  2. Dust emissions from undisturbed and disturbed, crusted playa surfaces: cattle trampling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry playa lake beds can be significant sources of fine dust emission. This study used a portable field wind tunnel to quantify the PM10 emissions from a bare, fine-textured playa surface located in the far northern Chihuahua Desert. The natural, undisturbed crust and its subjection to two levels of ...

  3. Coarse woody debris in undisturbed and logged forests in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rodrigo Jr. Pereira; Jose Natalino M. Silva

    2004-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of the carbon cycle in tropical forests. We measured the volume and density of fallen CWD at two sites, Cauaxi and Tapajós in the Eastern Amazon. At both sites we studied undisturbed forests (UFs) and logged forests 1 year after harvest. Conventional logging (CL) and reduced impact logging (RIL) were...

  4. Community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in undisturbed vegetation revealed by analyses of LSU rdna sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren; Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic symbiosis with plant roots and are found in most ecosystems. In this study the community structure of AMF in a clade of the genus Glomus was examined in undisturbed costal grassland using LSU rDNA sequences amplified from roots of Hieracium...

  5. AFLP fingerprinting of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) from undisturbed Dutch grasslands: implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.

    2008-01-01

    Undisturbed grasslands are considered rich sources of promising genotypes for the development of new varieties of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Grasslands that have not been resown with commercial cultivars nor treated with high doses of nitrogen fertilizer have become rare in the

  6. Large zero-tension plate lysimeters for soil water and solute collection in undisturbed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peters

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the field. To investigate the influence of the lysimeter on the water flow field in the soil, a numerical 2-D simulation study was conducted for homogeneous soils with uni- and bimodal pore-size distributions and stochastic Miller-Miller heterogeneity. The collection efficiency was found to be highly dependent on the hydraulic functions, infiltration rate, and lysimeter size, and was furthermore affected by the degree of heterogeneity. In homogeneous soils with high saturated conductivities the devices perform poorly and even large lysimeters (width 250 cm can be bypassed by the soil water. Heterogeneities of soil hydraulic properties result into a network of flow channels that enhance the sampling efficiency of the lysimeter plates. Solute breakthrough into zero-tension lysimeter occurs slightly retarded as compared to the free soil, but concentrations in the collected water are similar to the mean flux concentration in the undisturbed soil. To validate the results from the numerical study, a dual tracer study with seven lysimeters of 1.25×1.25 m area was conducted in the field. Three lysimeters were installed underneath a 1.2 m filling of contaminated silty sand, the others deeper in the undisturbed soil. The lysimeters directly underneath the filled soil material collected water with a collection efficiency of 45%. The deeper lysimeters did not collect any water. The arrival of the tracers showed that almost all collected water came from preferential flow paths.

  7. Asymmetric expression level of clock genes in left vs. right nasal mucosa in humans with and without allergies and in rats: Circadian characteristics and possible contribution to nasal cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kyun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag

    2018-01-01

    Numerous peripheral tissues possess self-sustaining daily biologic rhythms that are regulated at the molecular level by clock genes such as PER1, PER2, CLOCK, and BMAL1. Physiological function of nasal mucosa exhibits rhythmic variability to a day-night environmental cycle. Nevertheless, little is known of the expression and distribution pattern of clock genes in nasal mucosa. The present study investigates the expression level and distribution pattern of PER1, PER2, CLOCK, and BMAL1 genes in nasal mucosa of healthy controls, allergic rhinitis patients, and normal rats. In human and rat nasal mucosa, the levels of these genes are asymmetrically expressed in nasal mucosa derived from right and left cavities in normal controls, allergic patients, and rat. In human nasal mucosa, the expression levels of these genes were higher in the decongested side than the congested mucosa. In rat nasal mucosa, these clock genes are expressed in a rhythmic circadian manner under the regular light/dark cycles. The expression levels of MUC5AC, a key mucin genes produced in superficial epithelium, are higher in decongested side than that congested side in human nasal mucosa. In rat nasal mucosa, MUC5AC levels showed a circadian rhythm which was associated with different expression levels in nasal mucosa derived from the right and left nasal cavities. Taken together with these results, the present study shows that the clock genes such as PER1, PER2, CLOCK, and BMAL1 are present in human and rat nasal mucosa, and suggest that these clock genes may control the pathophysiological function of nasal mucosa as circadian oscillators and affect the maintenance of the nasal cycle.

  8. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in grazed and undisturbed mountain peatlands in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are widespread throughout the tropical Andean páramo. Despite the large carbon stocks in these ecosystems, carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 flux data are lacking. In addition, cattle grazing is widespread in the páramo and could alter gas fluxes. Therefore, our objectives were to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes with the static chamber technique in an undisturbed and in an intensively cattle grazed peatland in the mountains of Ecuador. We found that hummocks in the undisturbed site had higher net ecosystem exchange (NEE, gross primary production (GPP, ecosystem respiration (ER, and CH4 fluxes, compared to lawns. In contrast, microtopography at the grazed site did not predict CO2 fluxes, whereas vegetation cover was correlated for all three metrics (NEE, ER, and GPP. At low vegetation cover, NEE was positive (losing carbon. CH4 emissions in the undisturbed site were low (8.1 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. In contrast, CH4 emissions at the grazed site were much greater (132.3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. This is probably attributable to trampling and nutrient inputs from cattle. In summary, the two peatlands differed greatly in CO2 and CH4 exchange rates, which could be due to the variation in climate and hydrology, or alternatively to intensive grazing by cattle.

  9. Dominance of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis in an undisturbed wild meadow ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Bélanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years after its arrival in Quebec (Canada, the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae has become one of the dominant coccinellid species in agricultural, forested and urban areas. Several studies conducted in North American agricultural ecosystems show that the arrival of H. axyridis and other exotic coccinellid species was followed by decreases in the populations of native coccinellid species. In this study, the abundances of H. axyridis and other native and exotic species were determined in an undisturbed wild meadow located in a protected area. In 2009 and 2010, mainly Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae and Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae infested with aphids were surveyed. A total of 1522 individuals, belonging to seven different species, were recorded. In 2009, on all the plants monitored, H. axyridis was clearly the dominant species (69% of the coccinellid assemblage. In addition, this exotic species constituted 84% of the coccinellid assemblage, including Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L. and Coccinella septempunctata (L. It is likely the dominance of the eurytopic Asian lady beetle in agricultural, forested, urban and undisturbed open ecosystems, poses a threat to native lady beetles. These results also provide evidence that undisturbed wild meadow ecosystems will not constitute a natural refuge from Harmonia axyridis for native species of lady beetles.

  10. LBA-ECO TG-07 Trace Gas Fluxes, Undisturbed and Logged Sites, Para, Brazil: 2000-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Trace gas fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide were measured manually at undisturbed and logged forest sites in the Tapajos...

  11. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  12. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elena L E S; Roche, Dominique G; Binning, Sandra A; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the absence of large disturbances, we found that live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness did not differ in 1997 compared to 2007. Fish abundance and species richness on patches was largely related to the presence of shelters (caves and/or holes), live coral cover and patch size (volume). The presence of the ectoparasite-eating cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, was also positively related to fish species richness. Our results underscore the importance of physical reef characteristics, such as patch size and shelter availability, in addition to biotic characteristics, such as live coral cover and cleaner wrasse abundance, in supporting reef fish species richness and abundance through time in a relatively undisturbed and understudied region.

  13. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L.E.S. Wagner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the absence of large disturbances, we found that live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness did not differ in 1997 compared to 2007. Fish abundance and species richness on patches was largely related to the presence of shelters (caves and/or holes, live coral cover and patch size (volume. The presence of the ectoparasite-eating cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, was also positively related to fish species richness. Our results underscore the importance of physical reef characteristics, such as patch size and shelter availability, in addition to biotic characteristics, such as live coral cover and cleaner wrasse abundance, in supporting reef fish species richness and abundance through time in a relatively undisturbed and understudied region.

  14. Alterations in Glutathione Redox Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Function in the Left Ventricle of Elderly Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rat is a genetic model in which the homozygous (FA/FA male animals develop obesity and type 2 diabetes. Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular complications, due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory signals, are the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. The precise molecular mechanism of contractile dysfunction and disease progression remains to be clarified. Therefore, we have investigated molecular and metabolic targets in male ZDF (30–34 weeks old rat heart compared to age matched Zucker lean (ZL controls. Hyperglycemia was confirmed by a 4-fold elevation in non-fasting blood glucose (478.43 ± 29.22 mg/dL in ZDF vs. 108.22 ± 2.52 mg/dL in ZL rats. An increase in reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and oxidative protein carbonylation was observed in ZDF rats. A significant increase in CYP4502E1 activity accompanied by increased protein expression was also observed in diabetic rat heart. Increased expression of other oxidative stress marker proteins, HO-1 and iNOS was also observed. GSH concentration and activities of GSH-dependent enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and GSH reductase, were, however, significantly increased in ZDF heart tissue suggesting a compensatory defense mechanism. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, Complex I and Complex IV were significantly reduced in the heart ventricle of ZDF rats in comparison to ZL rats. Western blot analysis has also suggested a decreased expression of IκB-α and phosphorylated-JNK in diabetic heart tissue. Our results have suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in ZDF rats might be associated, at least in part, with altered NF-κB/JNK dependent redox cell signaling. These results might have implications in the elucidation of the mechanism of disease progression and designing strategies for diabetes prevention.

  15. Effect of Exercise Training and L-arginine on Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Function in the Post-ischemic Failing Rat Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Nazem, Farzad; Nazari, Afshin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training (ET) and L-arginine on oxidative stress and ventricular function in rat with myocardial infarction (MI). Four weeks after the surgical procedures, 40 Wistar male rats were randomized to the following groups: MI-sedentary (Sed); MI-exercise (Ex); MI-sedentary + L-arginine (Sed + LA); and MI-exercise + L-arginine (Ex + LA); the rats were subjected to aerobic training in the form of treadmill running. Rats in the L-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % L-arginine. Before and after the training program, all subjects underwent resting echocardiography. Catalase (CAT) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured. Cardiac output, stroke volume and fractional shortening in Ex and Ex + LA groups significantly increased in comparison with the Sed group. Cardiac systolic function indices in Ex + LA group were significantly greater than Ex group. Also, GPx activity and MDA, respectively, increased and decreased in response to ET, but no change was observed in MPO and CAT. These results suggest that ET increased LV function by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant defense system in rats with MI. In addition in response to training, L-arginine appears to have additive effect on cardiac function, but have no effect on oxidative stress indices.

  16. Biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana (Mill) on the Myocardium of Left Ventricle of High Salt–Fed Adult Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olushola, Ayoola I.; Aderibigbe, Komolafe O.; Stephen, Saka O.; Ayodeji, Odukoya S.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The cardioprotective effects of Persea americana extract was investigated on biochemical activities of high salt–fed adult Wistar rats in this study. Method. Forty healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 120 to 150 g were randomly assigned into 8 groups of 5 rats each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H). Rats in groups A, F, G, and H were fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D, and E were fed on the high-salt diet for 4 weeks. Concomitantly, daily administration of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the P americana extract were given orally to groups C and F, D and G, and E and H, respectively, while rats in groups A and B were administered distilled water. Blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture; concentration of sodium ion, potassium ion, nitric oxide, and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were determined. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test for multiple comparison. Results. Results revealed that concentration of potassium ion and nitric oxide was significantly lower (P < .05) in high salt–fed groups. Sodium ion concentration and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were higher in high salt–fed group while P americana prevented biochemical perturbations in other experimental groups. Conclusion. In conclusion, high salt–diet induced biochemical alterations which were significantly protected by oral administration of P americana extract. PMID:29228805

  17. Colloid and Phosphorus Leaching From Undisturbed Soil Cores Sampled Along a Natural Clay Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... followed by lower and stable colloid and phosphorus concentrations. The mass of particles leached at first flush was independent of clay content and was attributed to the instant release of particles associated with the macropore walls and released upon contact with flowing water. Below a clay content of È...

  18. A method for measuring element fluxes in an undisturbed soil: nitrogen and carbon from earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouche, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Data on chemical cycles, as nitrogen or carbon cycles, are extrapolated to the fields or ecosystems without the possibility for checking conclusions; i.e. from scientific knowledge (para-ecology). A new method, by natural introduction of an earthworm compartment into an undisturbed soil, with earthworms labelled both by isotopes ( 15 N, 14 C) and by staining is described. This method allows us to measure fluxes of chemicals. The first results, gathered during the improvement of the method in partly artificial conditions, are cross-checked with other data given by direct observation in the field. Measured flux (2.2 mg N/g fresh mass empty gut/day/15 0 C) is far more important than para-ecological estimations; animal metabolism plays directly an important role in nitrogen and carbon cycles. (author)

  19. Study of nitrogen losses at the microcosm in undisturbed soil samples subjected to thermal shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cancelo-González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory thermal shocks of different intensity and rainfall simulations were performed in undisturbed Leptic Umbrisol soil samples. Samples were collected in field using specially designed lysimeter boxes to allow sampling, thermal shocks and surface runoff and subsurface flow water collection during the rainfall simulations. Temperature was recorded during heating and degree-hours of accumulated heat were calculated and nitrogen losses in surface and subsurface water collected after two rainfall simulations were determined. Results show losses of total nitrogen from treatments 200 oC and 67 degrees-hours heat supplied in the leachate obtained after 150 mm of simulated rainfall compared with non-heat treated soils. Is remarkable that soils subjected to higher intensity heat treatments (400 oC and 278 67 degrees-hours show greater losses of N-Nitrate and N-Ammonia by subsurface flow, while this behavior was not observed in the other heat treatments.

  20. Gamma ray transmission for hydraulic conductivity measurement of undisturbed soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Camargo Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective to determine the Hydraulic Conductivity K(theta function for different depth levels z, of columns of undisturbed soil, using the gamma ray transmission technique applied to the Sisson method. The results indicated a growing behavior for K(theta and a homogeneous soil density, both in relation to the increase of the depth. The methodology of gamma ray transmission showed satisfactory results on the determination of the hydraulic conductivity in columns of undisturbed soil, besides being very reliable and a nondestructive method.O estudo da condutividade hidráulica para solos não saturados é essencial quando aplicado às situações relacionadas à irrigação, drenagem e transporte de nutrientes no solo, é uma importante propriedade para desenvolvimentos de culturas agrícolas. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de determinar a função Condutividade Hidráulica K(teta, em diferentes níveis z de profundidade, em colunas de solo indeformado, utilizando a transmissão de raios gama aplicada ao método de Sisson. Os resultados indicam um comportamento crescente para K(teta e uma densidade de solo homogênea, ambos em relação ao aumento da profundidade. A metodologia de transmissão de raios gama mostrou resultados bastante satisfatórios na determinação da condutividade hidráulica em colunas de solo indeformado, além de ser muito confiável e não destrutivo.

  1. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.; Scott, R. L.; Rosolem, R.; da Rocha, H. R.

    2015-06-01

    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determined the main components of the water balance for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso". We developed an empirical model to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) by using flux tower measurements and vegetation conditions inferred from the enhanced vegetation index and reference evapotranspiration. Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, surface runoff, and water table level were assessed from ground measurements. We used data from two cerrado sites, Pé de Gigante (PDG) and Instituto Arruda Botelho (IAB). Flux tower data from the PDG site collected from 2001 to 2003 were used to develop the empirical model to estimate ET. The other hydrological processes were measured at the field scale between 2011 and 2014 at the IAB site. The empirical model showed significant agreement (R2 = 0.73) with observed ET at the daily timescale. The average values of estimated ET at the IAB site ranged from 1.91 to 2.60 mm day-1 for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Canopy interception ranged from 4 to 20 % and stemflow values were approximately 1 % of the gross precipitation. The average runoff coefficient was less than 1 %, while cerrado deforestation has the potential to increase that amount up to 20-fold. As relatively little excess water runs off (either by surface water or groundwater), the water storage may be estimated by the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Our results provide benchmark values of water balance dynamics in the undisturbed cerrado that will be useful to evaluate past and future land-cover and land-use changes for this region.

  2. Estimate of biomass and carbon pools in disturbed and undisturbed oak forests in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Zribi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. To estimate biomass and carbon accumulation in a young and disturbed forest (regenerated after a tornado and an aged cork oak forest (undisturbed forest as well as its distribution among the different pools (tree, litter and soil. Area of study. The north west of Tunisia Material and methods. Carbon stocks were evaluated in the above and belowground cork oak trees, the litter and the 150 cm of the soil. Tree biomass was estimated in both young and aged forests using allometric biomass equations developed for wood stem, cork stem, wood branch, cork branch, leaves, roots and total tree biomass based on combinations of diameter at breast height, total height and crown length as independent variables. Main results. Total tree biomass in forests was 240.58 Mg ha-1 in the young forest and 411.30 Mg ha-1 in the aged forest with a low root/shoot ratio (0.41 for young forest and 0.31 for aged forest. Total stored carbon was 419.46 Mg C ha-1 in the young forest and 658.09 Mg C ha-1 in the aged forest. Carbon stock (Mg C ha-1 was estimated to be113.61(27.08% and 194.08 (29.49% in trees, 3.55 (0.85% and 5.73 (0.87% in litter and 302.30 (72.07% and 458.27 (69.64% in soil in the young and aged forests, respectively. Research highlights. Aged undisturbed forest had the largest tree biomass but a lower potential for accumulation of carbon in the future; in contrast, young disturbed forest had both higher growth and carbon storage potential. Keywords: Tree biomass; disturbance; allometry; cork oak forests; soil organic carbon stock.

  3. Estimate of biomass and carbon pools in disturbed and undisturbed oak forests in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zribi, L.; Chaar, H.; Khaldi, A.; Henchi, B.; Mouillot, F.; Gharbi, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To estimate biomass and carbon accumulation in a young and disturbed forest (regenerated after a tornado) and an aged cork oak forest (undisturbed forest) as well as its distribution among the different pools (tree, litter and soil). Area of study. The north west of Tunisia. Material and methods. Carbon stocks were evaluated in the above and belowground cork oak trees, the litter and the 150 cm of the soil. Tree biomass was estimated in both young and aged forests using allometric biomass equations developed for wood stem, cork stem, wood branch, cork branch, leaves, roots and total tree biomass based on combinations of diameter at breast height, total height and crown length as independent variables. Main results. Total tree biomass in forests was 240.58 Mg ha-1 in the young forest and 411.30 Mg ha-1 in the aged forest with a low root/shoot ratio (0.41 for young forest and 0.31 for aged forest). Total stored carbon was 419.46 Mg C ha-1 in the young forest and 658.09 Mg C ha-1 in the aged forest. Carbon stock (Mg C ha-1) was estimated to be113.61(27.08%) and 194.08 (29.49%) in trees, 3.55 (0.85%) and 5.73 (0.87%) in litter and 302.30 (72.07%) and 458.27 (69.64%) in soil in the young and aged forests, respectively. Research highlights. Aged undisturbed forest had the largest tree biomass but a lower potential for accumulation of carbon in the future; in contrast, young disturbed forest had both higher growth and carbon storage potential. (Author)

  4. Continuous arterial PO2 profiles in unrestrained, undisturbed aquatic turtles during routine behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hicks, James W

    2016-11-15

    Mammals and birds maintain high arterial partial pressure of oxygen (P O 2 ) values in order to preserve near-complete hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen (O 2 ) saturation. In diving mammals and birds, arterial O 2 follows a primarily monotonic decline and then recovers quickly after dives. In laboratory studies of submerged freshwater turtles, arterial O 2 depletion typically follows a similar pattern. However, in these studies, turtles were disturbed, frequently tethered to external equipment and confined either to small tanks or breathing holes. Aquatic turtles can alter cardiac shunting patterns, which will affect arterial P O 2  values. Consequently, little is known about arterial O 2 regulation and use in undisturbed turtles. We conducted the first study to continuously measure arterial P O 2  using implanted microelectrodes and a backpack logger in undisturbed red-eared sliders during routine activities. Arterial P O 2  profiles during submergences varied dramatically, with no consistent patterns. Arterial P O 2  was also lower than previously reported during all activities, with values rarely above 50 mmHg (85% Hb saturation). There was no difference in mean P O 2  between five different activities: submerged resting, swimming, basking, resting at the surface and when a person was present. These results suggest significant cardiac shunting occurs during routine activities as well as submergences. However, the lack of relationship between P O 2  and any activity suggests that cardiac shunts are not regulated to maintain high arterial P O 2  values. These data support the idea that cardiac shunting is the passive by-product of regulation of vascular resistances by the autonomic nervous system. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Continuous arterial PO2 profiles in unrestrained, undisturbed aquatic turtles during routine behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, James W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammals and birds maintain high arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) values in order to preserve near-complete hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen (O2) saturation. In diving mammals and birds, arterial O2 follows a primarily monotonic decline and then recovers quickly after dives. In laboratory studies of submerged freshwater turtles, arterial O2 depletion typically follows a similar pattern. However, in these studies, turtles were disturbed, frequently tethered to external equipment and confined either to small tanks or breathing holes. Aquatic turtles can alter cardiac shunting patterns, which will affect arterial PO2 values. Consequently, little is known about arterial O2 regulation and use in undisturbed turtles. We conducted the first study to continuously measure arterial PO2 using implanted microelectrodes and a backpack logger in undisturbed red-eared sliders during routine activities. Arterial PO2 profiles during submergences varied dramatically, with no consistent patterns. Arterial PO2 was also lower than previously reported during all activities, with values rarely above 50 mmHg (85% Hb saturation). There was no difference in mean PO2 between five different activities: submerged resting, swimming, basking, resting at the surface and when a person was present. These results suggest significant cardiac shunting occurs during routine activities as well as submergences. However, the lack of relationship between PO2 and any activity suggests that cardiac shunts are not regulated to maintain high arterial PO2 values. These data support the idea that cardiac shunting is the passive by-product of regulation of vascular resistances by the autonomic nervous system. PMID:27618860

  6. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  7. Effects of chronic exposure to 950 MHz ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on reactive oxygen species metabolism in the right and left cerebral cortex of young rats of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado-Filho, Orlando V; Borba, Juliana B; Maraschin, Tatiana; Souza, Larissa M; Henriques, João A P; Moreira, José C F; Saffi, Jenifer

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of 950 MHz ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (UHF-EMR) on biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids in the left cerebral cortex (LCC) and right cerebral cortex (RCC) of neonate and 6-day-old rats. Twelve rats were equally divided into two groups as controls (CR) and exposed (ER), for each age (0 and 6 days). The LCC and RCC were examined in ER and CR after exposure. Radiation exposure lasted 30 min per day for up to 27 days (throughout pregnancy and 6 days postnatal). The specific absorption rate ranged from 1.32-1.14 W/kg. The damage to lipids, proteins and DNA was verified by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, carbonylated proteins (CP) and comets, respectively. The concentration of glucose in the peripheral blood of the rats was measured by the Accu-Chek Active Kit due to increased CP in RCC. In neonates, no modification of the biomarkers tested was detected. On the other hand, there was an increase in the levels of CP in the RCC of the 6-day-old ER. Interestingly, the concentration of blood glucose was decreased in this group. Our results indicate that there is no genotoxicity and oxidative stress in neonates and 6 days rats. However, the RCC had the highest concentration of CP that do not seem to be a consequence of oxidative stress. This study is the first to demonstrate the use of UHF-EMR causes different damage responses to proteins in the LCC and RCC.

  8. Distribution of tree species in an undisturbed northern hardwood-spruce-fir forest, the Bowl, N. H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wayne Martin

    1977-01-01

    Knowledge acquired from forests that have never been logged can provide clues to the long-term effects of resource utilization. In 1974, a survey was made of the vegetation of the Bowl Research Natural Area in central New Hampshire, known to be undisturbed by humans; and an adjacent watershed known to have been logged in the late 1880's. There were no significant...

  9. Nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions from a riparian wetland soil: An undisturbed soil column study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Leoz, Borja [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Antigueedad, Inaki [Department of Geodynamic, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48940 Leioa (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [Department of Ecosystems, NEIKER-Tecnalia, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Ruiz-Romera, Estilita, E-mail: estilita.ruiz@ehu.es [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Riparian wetlands bordering intensively managed agricultural fields can act as biological filters that retain and transform agrochemicals such as nitrate and pesticides. Nitrate removal in wetlands has usually been attributed to denitrification processes which in turn imply the production of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O). Denitrification processes were studied in the Salburua wetland (northern Spain) by using undisturbed soil columns which were subsequently divided into three sections corresponding to A-, Bg- and B2g-soil horizons. Soil horizons were subjected to leaching with a 200 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -} L{sup -1} solution (rate: 90 mL day{sup -1}) for 125 days at two different temperatures (10 and 20 {sup o}C), using a new experimental design for leaching assays which enabled not only to evaluate leachate composition but also to measure gas emissions during the leaching process. Column leachate samples were analyzed for NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration, and dissolved organic carbon. Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) were determined in the undisturbed soil columns. The A horizon at 20 {sup o}C showed the highest rates of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal (1.56 mg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O production (5.89 mg CO{sub 2} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1} and 55.71 {mu}g N-N{sub 2}O kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}). For the Salburua wetland riparian soil, we estimated a potential nitrate removal capacity of 1012 kg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, and potential greenhouse gas emissions of 5620 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} and 240 kg N-N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. - Research Highlights: {yields}A new experimental design is proposed for leaching assays to simulate nitrogen transformations in riparian wetland soil. {yields}Denitrification is the main process responsible for nitrate removal in the riparian zone of Salburua wetland. {yields

  10. Colloid mobilization in an undisturbed sediment core under semiarid recharge rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziru; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Mathison, Jon B.; Vogs, Carolina

    2013-08-01

    The semiarid US Department of Energy Hanford site has a deep vadose zone with low recharge rates. Contaminants originating from nuclear waste processing are expected to move slowly through the vadose zone. The movement of certain contaminants can be facilitated by colloids. We hypothesized that the low recharge rates and low water contents in semiarid regions, however, tend to inhibit movement of colloidal particles, thereby reducing the risk for colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. The goal of this study was to investigate whether in situ natural colloids can be mobilized and transported in undisturbed, deep vadose zone sediments at the Hanford site under typical, semiarid recharge rates. We sampled an undisturbed sediment core (i.d. 50 cm, 59.5 cm height) from a depth of 17 m below ground at the Hanford 200 Area. The core was set up as a laboratory lysimeter and exposed to an infiltration rate of 18 mm/yr by applying simulated pore water onto the surface. Particle concentrations were quantified in the column outflow, and selected samples were examined microscopically and for elemental composition (transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray). Measured water contents and potentials were used to calibrate a numerical model (HYDRUS-1D), which was then applied to simulate colloid mobilization from the sediment core. During 5.3 years of monitoring, natural colloids like silicates, aluminosilicates, and Fe-oxides were observed in the core outflow, indicating the continuous mobilization of in situ colloids. The total amount of particles mobilized during 5.3 years corresponded to 1.1% of the total dispersible colloids inside the core. Comparison of the amounts of colloids released with weathering rates suggests that mineral weathering can be a major source of the mobilized colloids. The fitted colloid release rate coefficient was 6 to 7 orders of magnitude smaller than coefficients reported from previous studies, where disturbed Hanford sediments

  11. Comparative study of methods to estimate hydraulic parameters in the hydraulically undisturbed Opalinus Clay (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Matray, J.-M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses, (France); Yu, C.; Gonçalvès, J. [Aix Marseille Université UMR 6635 CEREGE Technopôle Environnement Arbois-Méditerranée Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); and others

    2017-04-15

    The deep borehole (DB) experiment gave the opportunity to acquire hydraulic parameters in a hydraulically undisturbed zone of the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland). Three methods were used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values of the Opalinus Clay formation and its bounding formations through the 248 m deep borehole BDB-1: application of a Poiseuille-type law involving petrophysical measurements, spectral analysis of pressure time series and in situ hydraulic tests. The hydraulic conductivity range in the Opalinus Clay given by the first method is 2 × 10{sup -14}-6 × 10{sup -13} m s{sup -1} for a cementation factor ranging between 2 and 3. These results show low vertical variability whereas in situ hydraulic tests suggest higher values up to 7 × 10{sup -12} m s{sup -1}. Core analysis provides economical estimates of the homogeneous matrix hydraulic properties but do not account for heterogeneities at larger scale such as potential tectonic conductive features. Specific storage values obtained by spectral analysis are consistent and in the order of 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}, while formulations using phase shift and gain between pore pressure signals were found to be inappropriate to evaluate hydraulic conductivity in the Opalinus Clay. The values obtained are globally in good agreement with the ones obtained previously at the rock laboratory. (authors)

  12. Production of alkaline cellulase by fungi isolated from an undisturbed rain forest of peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Karin; Villena, Gretty K; Sarmiento, Victor H; Ludeña, Yvette; Vera, Nadia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline cellulase producing fungi were isolated from soils of an undisturbed rain forest of Peru. The soil dilution plate method was used for the enumeration and isolation of fast growing cellulolytic fungi on an enriched selective medium. Eleven out of 50 different morphological colonies were finally selected by using the plate clearing assay with CMC as substrate at different pH values. All 11 strains produced cellulases in liquid culture with activities at alkaline pH values without an apparent decrease of them indicating that they are true alkaline cellulase producers. Aspergillus sp. LM-HP32, Penicillium sp. LM-HP33, and Penicillium sp. LM-HP37 were the best producers of FP cellulase (>3 U mL(-1)) with higher specific productivities (>30 U g(-1) h(-1)). Three strains have been found suitable for developing processes for alkaline cellulase production. Soils from Amazonian rain forests are good sources of industrial fungi with particular characteristics. The results of the present study are of commercial and biological interest. Alkaline cellulases may be used in the polishing and washing of denim processing of the textile industry.

  13. Production of Alkaline Cellulase by Fungi Isolated from an Undisturbed Rain Forest of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline cellulase producing fungi were isolated from soils of an undisturbed rain forest of Peru. The soil dilution plate method was used for the enumeration and isolation of fast growing cellulolytic fungi on an enriched selective medium. Eleven out of 50 different morphological colonies were finally selected by using the plate clearing assay with CMC as substrate at different pH values. All 11 strains produced cellulases in liquid culture with activities at alkaline pH values without an apparent decrease of them indicating that they are true alkaline cellulase producers. Aspergillus sp. LM-HP32, Penicillium sp. LM-HP33, and Penicillium sp. LM-HP37 were the best producers of FP cellulase (>3 U mL−1 with higher specific productivities (>30 U g−1 h−1. Three strains have been found suitable for developing processes for alkaline cellulase production. Soils from Amazonian rain forests are good sources of industrial fungi with particular characteristics. The results of the present study are of commercial and biological interest. Alkaline cellulases may be used in the polishing and washing of denim processing of the textile industry.

  14. The ecological half-life of 137Cs in undisturbed silt soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The time necessary to safely cultivate agricultural areas after they have been contaminated by radioactivity (e.g. after the Chernobyl accident) is not determined by the physical half-life of the radioactive isotopes in question but by their (usually much shorter) ecological half-life (). This half-life not only depends on the type of soil but also on whether the soil was fertilized or not. Therefore it is not possible to determine an ecological half-life that is universally valid. However, the value for undisturbed, unfertilized soil should provide a general indication for the duration of ecological half-life. In a silt soil in Vienna, Austria, the ecological half-life of 137 Cs was determined to be 0.8 years, which is much shorter than the physical half-life of 30 years. - Highlights: ► Absolute measurements of 137 Cs radioactivity in leaves of perennial plants. ► The natural 40 K radioactivity served as reference. ► The ecological half-life of 137 Cs in loamy soil was determined.

  15. Resistance of undisturbed soil microbiomes to ceftriaxone indicates extended spectrum β-lactamase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao eGatica

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, and specifically resistance to third generation cephalosporins associated with extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL activity, is one of the greatest epidemiological challenges of our time. In this study we addressed the impact of the third generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone on microbial activity and bacterial community composition of two physically and chemically distinct undisturbed soils in highly regulated microcosm experiments. Surprisingly, periodical irrigation of the soils with clinical doses of ceftriaxone did not affect their microbial activity; and only moderately impacted the microbial diversity (α and β of the two soils. Corresponding slurry experiments demonstrated that the antibiotic capacity of ceftriaxone rapidly diminished in the presence of soil, and approximately 70% of this inactivation could be explained by biological activity. The biological nature of ceftriaxone degradation in soil was supported by microcosm experiments that amended model Escherichia coli strains to sterile and non-sterile soils in the presence and absence of ceftriaxone and by the ubiquitous presence of ESBL genes (blaTEM, blaCTX-M and blaOXA in soil DNA extracts. Collectively, these results suggest that the resistance of soil microbiomes to ceftriaxone stems from biological activity and even more, from broad-spectrum β-lactamase activity; raising questions regarding the scope and clinical implications of ESBLs in soil microbiomes.

  16. Pore Space Statistics From the X-ray CT of Large Undisturbed Soil Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. A.; Tuller, M.; Guber, A. K.; García-Gutiérrez, C.; San Jose Martinez, F.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Caniego, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Large soil columns need to be studied to infer geometric properties of macropores and their role in flow and transport phenomena, especially when colloid or colloid-facilitated transport is of interest. We have sampled and studied undisturbed columns (7.5 cm ID, 20 cm length) of the Taylor soil from a grassed floodplain. A FlashCTTM - 420 kV system (HYTEC Inc.) was used for X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanning. The FlashCT-DAQ, the FlashCT-DPS, and the FlashCT-VIZ software was used for reconstruction. A MatLab® software with GUI for processing, analyzing and visualizing of 3D X-ray CT scans was developed. It was used in the binarization process on each of 1480 cross-section images obtained for each column. The resolution of about 100 mkm was sufficient to distinguish macropores. The high-connectivity macropore space was reconstructed from the imagery, as well. The "porosity-depth" data series have been investigated. The R/S (rescale range) analysis indicated that these series did not have a simple structure that might be understood as a persistent or antipersistent fractional Brownian motion using the Hurst exponent. More complex behavior had been detected that could be characterized by means of multifractal analysis. The water retention data were obtained for column sections and were related to the CT characterization of these sections. Large columns present feasible objects for CT if macroporosity is of interest.

  17. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2002-01-01

    Vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements in lysimetric laboratory conditions applying irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year (except radioiodine). A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, allowing us to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The data from the time dependence of the depth activity distribution (radionuclide concentration along the vertical soil profile) were used to test the model. The migration rate constants and migration rates were found to be affected by the contaminating radionuclides as well as by the site, type and depth of the soil. The relaxation times of the radionuclides in the soil horizons were calculated. The effects on the rate parameters of the permanent grass cover and the zeolite applied onto the arable soil surfaces were also investigated

  18. Effects of bromopride on the healing of left colonic anastomoses in rats with induced abdominal sepsis Efeitos da bromoprida na cicatrização de anastomoses no cólon esquerdo de ratos sob sepse abdominal induzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Marques e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of bromopride on the healing of left colonic anastomoses in rats with induced abdominal sepsis. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into two groups to receive either bromopride (experimental group- E or saline (control group- C. Each group was divided into subgroups of ten animals each to be euthanized on third (E3 and C3 or seventh day (E7 and C7 after surgery. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The rats underwent segmental left colon resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Adhesion formation, tensile strength and hydroxyproline concentration were assessed. Histomorphometry of collagen and histopathological analysis were also performed. RESULTS: On postoperative third day, anastomoses in bromopride-treated animals showed lower tensile strength (p=0.02 and greater reduction in hydroxyproline concentration (p=0.04 than in control animals. There was no statistical difference in these parameters on seventh day, and the remaining parameters were similar across subgroups. Collagen content was also similar across subgroups. CONCLUSION: In the presence of abdominal sepsis, the administration of bromopride was associated with decreased tensile strength and hydroxyproline concentration in left colonic anastomoses in rats three days after surgery.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da bromoprida sobre a cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon esquerdo de ratos na presença de sepse abdominal. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos distribuídos em grupos contendo 20 animais para administração de bromoprida ou salina. Cada grupo foi dividido em subgrupos contendo dez animais, para eutanásia no terceiro ou no sétimo dia de pós-operatório. A indução da sepse foi realizada pelo método de ligadura e punção do ceco. Foi realizada ressecção de um segmento do cólon esquerdo e anastomose término-terminal. À re-laparotomia, foi avaliada a quantidade total de aderências e removido um segmento colônico contendo a anastomose

  19. Effects of Systemic Administration of Oxytocin on Contextual Fear Extinction in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Eskandarian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is the impaired extinction of traumatic memory. Single prolonged stress (SPS has been suggested as an animal model of PTSD, since SPS rats exhibited the impaired fear extinction. Oxytocin (OXT has been recently suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for treatment of PTSD. In this study, using SPS rats we investigated the effects of multiple systemic administration of OXT on contextual fear extinction. Methods: SPS was conducted in three stages: restraint for 2 h, forced swim for 20 min, and diethyl ether anesthesia, and then left undisturbed in their home cage for 7 days. In the SPS group, 7 days after SPS treatment, contextual fear conditioning was performed (on day 0, and then extinction training was performed on each of four consecutive days following fear conditioning. In the sham group, the procedures were similar except that SPS treatment was not performed. Results: During extinction trial (10 min freezing behavior was recorded. OXT (1, 10, 100 and 1000μg/kg was administrated (I.P immediately after each extinction trial. SPS rats exhibited significant impairment of contextual fear extinction as compared with sham rats. While there was no significant difference in the freezing levels between SPS and Sham rats 24 h after the fear conditioning, the freezing levels in SPS rats were significantly higher than those in sham rats after the second extinction training. Systemic OXT delayed fear extinction in sham rats as compared with sham-saline treated animals. No effect of OXT was found in SPS rats. Discussion: These findings indicate that increasing OXT transmission during fear memory reactivation delays fear extinction, and thus, the recommendation of OXT for PTSD treatment should be considered with caution.

  20. Carbon transfer from plant roots to soil - NanoSIMS analyses of undisturbed rhizosphere samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Hirte, Juliane; Bender, S. Franz; Mayer, Jochen; Gattinger, Andreas; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    Soils are composed of a wide diversity of organic and mineral compounds, interacting to form complex mosaics of microenvironments. Roots and microorganisms are both key sources of organic carbon (OC). The volume of soil around living roots, i.e. the rhizosphere, is a privileged area for soil microbial activity and diversity. The microscopic observation of embedded soil sections has been applied since the 1950´s and has enabled observation of the rhizosphere at the smallest scale of organism interaction, i.e. at the level of root cells and bacteria (Alexander and Jackson, 1954). However, the observation of microorganisms in their intact environment, especially in soil, remains challenging. Existing microscopic images do not provide clear evidence of the chemical composition of compounds observed in the rhizosphere. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a high spatial resolution method providing elemental and isotopic maps of organic and mineral materials. This technic has been increasingly used in soil science during the last decade (Hermann et al., 2007; Vogel et al., 2014) and more specifically for undisturbed soil sample observations (Vidal et al., 2016). In the present study, NanoSIMS was used to illustrate the biological, physical and chemical processes occurring in the rhizosphere at the microscale. To meet this objective, undisturbed rhizosphere samples were collected from a field experiment in Switzerland where wheat plants were pulse-labelled with 99% 13C-CO2 in weekly intervals throughout the growing season and sampled at flowering. Samples were embedded, sectioned, polished and analyzed with NanoSIMS, obtaining secondary ion images of 12C, 13C, 12C14N, 16O, 31P16O2, and 32S. The δ13C maps were obtained thanks to 12C and 13C images. 13C labelled root cells were clearly distinguished on images and presented highly variable δ13C values. Labelled spots (soil particles, forming microaggregates tightly bound to root cells. Finally, some

  1. Small scale temporal distribution of radiocesium in undisturbed coniferous forest soil: Radiocesium depth distribution profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramage, Mengistu T; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    The depth distribution of pre-Fukushima and Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in undisturbed coniferous forest soil was investigated at four sampling dates from nine months to 18 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The migration rate and short-term temporal variability among the sampling profiles were evaluated. Taking the time elapsed since the peak deposition of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs and the median depth of the peaks, its downward displacement rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.67 mm yr(-1) with a mean of 0.46 ± 0.25 mm yr(-1). On the other hand, in each examined profile considerable amount of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found in the organic layer (51%-92%). At this moment, the effect of time-distance on the downward distribution of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs seems invisible as its large portion is still found in layers where organic matter is maximal. This indicates that organic matter seems the primary and preferential sorbent of radiocesium that could be associated with the physical blockage of the exchanging sites by organic-rich dusts that act as a buffer against downward propagation of radiocesium, implying radiocesium to be remained in the root zone for considerable time period. As a result, this soil section can be a potential source of radiation dose largely due to high radiocesium concentration coupled with its low density. Generally, such kind of information will be useful to establish a dynamic safety-focused decision support system to ease and assist management actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitrate Leaching from Winter Cereal Cover Crops Using Undisturbed Soil-Column Lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, John J; Ricigliano, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L.), along with a no-cover control, using eight tension-drained undisturbed soil column lysimeters in a completely randomized design with two replicates. The lysimeters were configured to exclude runoff and to estimate NO-N leaching and flow-weighted NO-N concentration (FWNC). The temporal pattern of NO-N leaching showed a consistent highly significant ( < 0.001) effect of lower NO-N leaching with cover crops compared with no cover but showed only small and periodically significant ( < 0.05) effects among the cultivars of barley, rye, and wheat covers. Nitrate-N leaching was more affected by the quantity of establishment-season (mid-October to mid-December) precipitation than by cover crop species. For example, compared with no cover, winter cereal covers reduced NO-N leaching 95% in a dry year and 50% in wet years, with corresponding reductions in FWNC of 92 and 43%, respectively. These results are important for scientists, nutrient managers, and policymakers because they directly compare NO-N leaching from winter cereal covers and expand knowledge for developing management practices for winter cereals that can improve water quality and increase N efficiency in cropping systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Long-term changes in liana abundance and forest dynamics in undisturbed Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F; Andrade, Ana S; Magrach, Ainhoa; Camargo, José L C; Valsko, Jefferson J; Campbell, Mason; Fearnside, Philip M; Edwards, Will; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Laurance, Susan G

    2014-06-01

    Lianas (climbing woody vines) are important structural parasites of tropical trees and may be increasing in abundance in response to global-change drivers. We assessed long-term (-14-year) changes in liana abundance and forest dynamics within 36 1-ha permanent plots spanning -600 km2 of undisturbed rainforest in central Amazonia. Within each plot, we counted each liana stem (> or = 2 cm diameter) and measured its diameter at 1.3 m height, and then used these data to estimate liana aboveground biomass. An initial liana survey was completed in 1997-1999 and then repeated in 2012, using identical methods. Liana abundance in the plots increased by an average of 1.00% +/- 0.88% per year, leading to a highly significant (t = 6.58, df = 35, P rainfall and forest dynamics from our study site to test hypotheses about potential drivers of change in liana communities. Lianas generally increase with rainfall seasonality, but we found no significant trends over time (1997-2012) in five rainfall parameters (total annual rainfall, dry-season rainfall, wet-season rainfall, number of very dry months, CV of monthly rainfall). However, rates of tree mortality and recruitment have increased significantly over time in our plots, and general linear mixed-effect models suggested that lianas were more abundant at sites with higher tree mortality and flatter topography. Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2, which may stimulate liana growth, might also have promoted liana increases. Our findings clearly support the view that lianas are increasing in abundance in old-growth tropical forests, possibly in response to accelerating forest dynamics and rising CO2 concentrations. The aboveground biomass of trees was lowest in plots with abundant lianas, suggesting that lianas could reduce forest carbon storage and potentially alter forest dynamics if they continue to proliferate.

  4. Retention and remobilization of stabilized silver nanoparticles in an undisturbed loamy sand soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Bradford, Scott A; Simunek, Jiri; Heggen, Marc; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Column experiments were conducted with undisturbed loamy sand soil under unsaturated conditions (around 90% saturation degree) to investigate the retention of surfactant stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with various input concentration (Co), flow velocity, and ionic strength (IS), and the remobilization of AgNPs by changing the cation type and IS. The mobility of AgNPs in soil was enhanced with decreasing solution IS, increasing flow rate and input concentration. Significant retardation of AgNP breakthrough and hyperexponential retention profiles (RPs) were observed in almost all the transport experiments. The retention of AgNPs was successfully analyzed using a numerical model that accounted for time- and depth-dependent retention. The simulated retention rate coefficient (k1) and maximum retained concentration on the solid phase (Smax) increased with increasing IS and decreasing Co. The high k1 resulted in retarded breakthrough curves (BTCs) until Smax was filled and then high effluent concentrations were obtained. Hyperexponential RPs were likely caused by the hydrodynamics at the column inlet which produced a concentrated AgNP flux to the solid surface. Higher IS and lower Co produced more hyperexponential RPs because of larger values of Smax. Retention of AgNPs was much more pronounced in the presence of Ca(2+) than K(+) at the same IS, and the amount of AgNP released with a reduction in IS was larger for K(+) than Ca(2+) systems. These stronger AgNP interactions in the presence of Ca(2+) were attributed to cation bridging. Further release of AgNPs and clay from the soil was induced by cation exchange (K(+) for Ca(2+)) that reduced the bridging interaction and IS reduction that expanded the electrical double layer. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and correlations between released soil colloids and AgNPs indicated that some of the released AgNPs were associated with the released clay fraction.

  5. Neural regulation and dynamics of prolactin secretion in the rat = Neurale regulatie en dynamiek van de prolactine secretie in de rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis was an investigation of the neural regulation and dynamics of prolactin (Prl) secretion. Experimentation was performed with freely behaving undisturbed male and female rats, chronically fitted with an atrial blood sampling catheter. In some studies rats

  6. Carbon Exchange Processes In A Old-Growth Undisturbed Boreal Forest In Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Heliasz, M.; Mölder, M.; Holst, J.

    2015-12-01

    It has been a common and long lasting view that old-growth forests are carbon neutral, i.e., the uptake of CO2 by gross photosynthesis is equal to the release of the same amount through ecosystem respiration. This hypothesis was originally developed by Odum based on theoretical reasoning on the balance between stability and diversity in ecosystems and how this relationship shifted with succession over time. At that time, the theory was underpinned by a relatively scarce empirical material but later supported by the observed decline in net primary productivity (NPP) with increasing stand age. More recently, based on direct measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) Luyssaert et al. showed that old-growth forests still were significant sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide thus challenging the hypothesis that old forests are in balance with respect to uptake and emission of CO2. Most of the forests in Luyssaert et al. analyses were temperate and semi-arid boreal forests and only few were located in the humid boreal zone. In order to shed light on this issue we initiated in 2011 carbon exchange studies in an old (>200 years) undisturbed humid boreal forest in Northern Sweden using EC measurements of NEE and chamber measurements of soil effluxes. The results indicate that the forest is a small sink of CO2 in the order of 20 g C m-2 y-1. The forest floor vegetation contributes significantly to GPP, in the order of 25-40%, depending on time of season. The nighttime ecosystem respiration showed a weak increase with air temperature up to about 15 ºC and then it started to decrease. The reason for this decrease that occurred at a relatively low temperature is still unclear. The small annual sink of -20 g C m-2 observed here is similar in magnitude to changes in soil carbon content on nearby much older forests located on small islands which has not been disturbed for several hundreds of years. Our study thus confirms that old forests can continue to take up carbon although

  7. Quantitative imaging of the 3-D distribution of cation adsorption sites in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Petter Gustafsson, Jon; Koestel, John

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have shown that the distribution of cation adsorption sites (CASs) is patchy at a millimetre to centimetre scale. Often, larger concentrations of CASs in biopores or aggregate coatings have been reported in the literature. This heterogeneity has implications on the accessibility of CASs and may influence the performance of soil system models that assume a spatially homogeneous distribution of CASs. In this study, we present a new method to quantify the abundance and 3-D distribution of CASs in undisturbed soil that allows for investigating CAS densities with distance to the soil macropores. We used X-ray imaging with Ba2+ as a contrast agent. Ba2+ has a high adsorption affinity to CASs and is widely used as an index cation to measure the cation exchange capacity (CEC). Eight soil cores (approx. 10 cm3) were sampled from three locations with contrasting texture and organic matter contents. The CASs of our samples were saturated with Ba2+ in the laboratory using BaCl2 (0.3 mol L-1). Afterwards, KCl (0.1 mol L-1) was used to rinse out Ba2+ ions that were not bound to CASs. Before and after this process the samples were scanned using an industrial X-ray scanner. Ba2+ bound to CASs was then visualized in 3-D by the difference image technique. The resulting difference images were interpreted as depicting the Ba2+ bound to CASs only. The X-ray image-derived CEC correlated significantly with results of the commonly used ammonium acetate method to determine CEC in well-mixed samples. The CEC of organic-matter-rich samples seemed to be systematically overestimated and in the case of the clay-rich samples with less organic matter the CEC seemed to be systematically underestimated. The results showed that the distribution of the CASs varied spatially within most of our samples down to a millimetre scale. There was no systematic relation between the location of CASs and the soil macropore structure. We are convinced that the approach proposed here will strongly

  8. Calculation of cardiac pressures using left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) derived from radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommer, E.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop formulas to determine cardiac pressures in an undisturbed flow in patients without valvular or shunt diseases. These are based entirely on the results of left ventricular ejection fraction rates, permitting pressure analysis of several compartments at the same tine. According to BORER et al. they also enable determination of left ventricular 'Functional Reserve' after bycycle exercise as well as left ventricular 'Relaxation Reserve'. They support the views of NYHA in determining the grades of cardiac insufficiency proving the system- and low-pressure participation. A single formula for pulmonary flow can determine the pulmonary arterial pressure. The left ventricular enddiastolic pressure can also be exclusively calculated by values of left ventricular functions, thus both formulas may be used in disorders of the mitral valves. The possibility to calculate pressures of all the compartments of the heart from left ventricular ejection rate shows, that in undisturbed flow global heart function depends on left ventricular function. Therefore the mutual dependence of these formulas presents an intercompartimental pressure regulation of the heart through pulmonary flow and pulmonary vascular pressure, which leaves an aspect of autonomous cardiac regulation open to discussion. (orig.) [de

  9. Estudo histomorfométrico dos cardiomiócitos do ventrículo esquerdo das ratas albinas durante a prenhez Histomorphometrical study of cardiomyocytes of the left ventricular of albino rats during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Liberatori Filho

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. No presente estudo propusemo-nos a avaliar, por meio da microscopia de luz, os aspectos morfológicos e morfométricos dos cardiomiócitos do ventrículo esquerdo de ratas albinas durante a prenhez. MÉTODOS. Acasalamos doze ratas virgens que foram dividas ao acaso em quatro grupos, de acordo com a idade gestacional. Os animais correspondentes a cada grupo foram sacrificados ao 1o(G-A, 7o(G-B, 14o(G-C e 21o(G-D dias de prenhez, sendo coletados fragmentos do terço médio do ventrículo esquerdo, os quais após processamento apropriado, permitiram observação adequada à microscopia de luz. A cariometria foi realizada mensurando-se os diâmetros maiores e menores dos cardiomiócitos com o auxílio de um tambor rotativo modelo K 8 X adaptado a um microscópio de luz. RESULTADOS. O estudo em nível da microscopia de luz praticamente não mostrou alterações com o decorrer da prenhez. No entanto, a morfometria revelou que os volumes dos cardiomiócitos estão aumentados no 14o dia da prenhez, mostrando-se estatisticamente significante quando comparado aos demais grupos estudados. Assim, nossos resultados demonstraram haver hipertrofia ventricular esquerda durante a gestação. CONCLUSÃO. Durante a gestação há um processo dinâmico reversível de remodelação ventricular em conseqüência das alterações adaptativas gravídicas.PURPOSE. In the present study we evaluated, by light microscopy, and throughout morphometry, whether hypertrophy of cardiac striated muscular fibers of left ventricular occur in albino rat, during pregnancy. METHODS. After maiting, 12 nuliparous rats were divided into four groups with three animals for each group. The female rats corresponding to each group were killed at 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days of pregnancy. RESULTS. Observation, on light microscopy (H.E had at one view, did not display any alterations during pregnancy. However, the morphometry revealed that nuclei of cardiomyocytes are augmented in

  10. Total sleep deprivation impairs the encoding of trace-conditioned memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ananya; Chandra, Ruchi; Jha, Sushil K

    2011-03-01

    Sleep may help consolidate the information of certain memories, though its benefits in the consolidation of trace-conditioned memory still remain elusive. We investigated the effect of sleep deprivation on trace learning in male wistar rats. Rats were trained for trace conditioning and the number of head entries into liquid dispenser was accounted as an outcome measure of trace-learning. For training and testing, 75 presentations of conditioned stimulus (CS) (light) and unconditioned stimulus (US) (juice) were offered in five sessions (15 presentations/session; with 5 min inter-session gap). The duration of CS and US stimuli were 15 and 20s respectively, with 5s trace delay between stimuli and 20s condition delay between each presentation. The animals were divided randomly into three groups soon after training, sleep deprived (SD) (n=8), non-SD (NSD) (n=8) and stress control (n=5) groups. The animals of NSD and control groups were left undisturbed, while SD animals were sleep deprived for 6h after training. The learning of trace-conditioned task was examined on following days. We observed that SD rats poked approximately 63% less than NSD and control groups (psleep deprivation soon after training impairs the encoding of trace memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation does not affect fear memory reconsolidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaowen; Huang, Fulian; Li, Peng; Ouyang, Xinping; Li, Zengbang; Deng, Haifeng; Yang, Yufeng

    2009-09-29

    There is increasing evidence that sleep may be involved in memory consolidation. However, there remain comparatively few studies that have explored the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. At present study, we tested the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the reconsolidation of cued (experiment 1) and contextual (experiment 2) fear memory in rats. Behaviour procedure involved four training phases: habituation, fear conditioning, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation or 6h later. The control rats were returned to their home cages immediately after reactivation and left undisturbed. Contrary to those hypotheses speculating a potential role of sleep in reconsolidation, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on the reconsolidation of both cued and contextual fear memory. However, our present results did not exclude the potential roles of non-rapid eye movement sleep in the reconsolidation of fear memory or sleep in the reconsolidation of other memory paradigms.

  12. Análisis ecocardiográfico de la geometría ventricular izquierda en ratas espontáneamente hipertensas Echocardiographic study of left ventricular geometry the in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M. Escudero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo fue diseñado para analizar ecocardiográficamente la geometría del ventrículo izquierdo en ratas espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR. Se estudiaron 114 ratas macho de 4 meses de edad, 73 SHR y 41 Wistar (W a las que se les registró la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardíaca y se les realizó un ecocardiograma. Con las mediciones de diámetros y espesores de la pared ventricular izquierda se calcularon el espesor parietal relativo (h/r, el índice de masa del ventrículo izquierdo (IMVI, el volumen minuto, y el acortamiento medio ventricular. La geometría ventricular izquierda normal fue definida analizando el grupo de ratas normotensas y fijando los límites de IMVI y h/r a partir de la media más 2 desvíos estándar. Los patrones de geometría anormal se definieron como: remodelado concéntrico (RC: IMVI 0.71; hipertrofia excéntrica (HE: IMVI>2.06 mg/g - h/r 2.06 mg/g - h/r > 0.71. La presión arterial sistólica y el volumen minuto se utilizaron para estimar la resistencia periférica total (RPT. Doce por ciento de SHR presentaron geometría ventricular izquierda normal; 18% RC; 33% HC y 37% HE. El RC mostró el volumen latido más pequeño y la RPT más alta de cualquier grupo. HE presentó presión arterial sistólica similar a la de los otros grupos de SHR, volumen latido más alto y la RPT más baja. Estos hallazgos en SHR exhibiendo diferentes patrones de geometría ventricular izquierda, similares a los referidos en humanos, intensifican las similitudes entre la hipertensión esencial humana y las SHR.The purpose of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram left ventricular (LV geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Echocardiographic study, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in 114 male, 4-month old rats, 73 SHR and 41 Wistar (W. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI, relative wall thickness (RWT, stroke volume, and mid ventricular shortening were calculated with echocardiographic

  13. Atorvastatin induced increase in homologous angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE2) mRNA is associated to decreased fibrosis and decreased left ventricular hypertrophy in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Cristian; Departamento de Anatomía Patológica, Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Lima, Perú. Médico, Residente de Anatomía Patológica, HNERM.; Ventura, Freddy; Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Químico farmacéutico, Magíster en fisiología y Biofísica.; Rodríguez-Delfín, Luis; Departamento de Anatomía Patológica, Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Lima, Perú. Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo. Chiclayo, Perú. Investigación y Diagnóstico en Genética y Biología Molecular “GEN MOL”. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo, Doctor en Ciencias, área de Genética.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This study has investigated the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of cardiac remodelling and ACE- 2 expression in diabetic myocardium in rats. Materials and Methods. Diabetes was induced in Holtzman rats with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The animals were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal control rats, (2) diabetic rats and (3) diabetic rats treated orally with atorvastatin (50 mg/kg/day). After eight weeks of treatment, the hearts were removed for morpho...

  14. The dorsal noradrenergic bundle modulates DNA remodeling in the rat brain upon exposure to a spatial novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadile, A G; Cerbone, A; Lamberti-D'Mello, C; Amoroso, S; Annunziato, L; Menna, T; Buono, C; Rafti, F; Giuditta, A

    1995-01-01

    A series of experiments were designed to study the role of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNB) in the modulation of genomic remodeling in the mammalian brain. A series of experiments were designed to study the role of the dorsal noradrenergic system in relation to nonassociative tasks. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were either bilaterally lesioned in the DNB by intrabundle microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine or were sham lesioned. All rats were given 50 microCi [3H-methyl]-thymidine and were sacrificed 0.5 h later. After the injection of the tracer, rats were either left undisturbed in the home cage or were exposed to a Làt-maze for 15 min after 15 min had passed from the time of injection. During the exposure to the maze, corner crossings and rearings were monitored. The rate of DNA synthesis was determined in several brain regions by measuring the amount of tracer incorporated into the DNA over a 0.5-h duration pulse. Under baseline conditions DNB-lesioned rats showed an increase in DNA synthesis in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and rest of the brain. On the other hand, following exposure to the Làt-maze, sham-lesioned rats only showed an increase in DNA synthesis in the hippocampus, as compared to baseline conditions. Conversely, DNB-lesioned rats did not show an increase in hippocampal DNA synthesis as in the sham-lesioned rats. In contrast, DNA synthesis was increased in the neocortex and rest of the brain. In conclusion, the data support a role for noradrenergic systems in modulating brain DNA synthesis, probably of the unscheduled type, during information processing and storage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The 7Be profiles in the undisturbed soil used for reference site to estimate the soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raksawong, S.; Krmar, M.; Bhongsuwan, T.

    2017-06-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be is increasingly used to obtain information on event-related soil erosion rates within agricultural landscapes. In this study, we select two undisturbed and flat areas to calculate the reference inventory and relaxation mass depth by using 7Be technique to document short-term erosion. Our results showed that the depth distribution of 7Be in undisturbed soil profiles was 1.0 cm in sites S02 and S03; the initial activities were 31.6 and 38.8 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The relaxation mass depths were 5.4 and 7.2 kg.m-2 and the measured reference 7Be inventories were 71 and 110 Bq.m-2 for sites S02 and S03, respectively. The difference values of the relaxation mass depth and the reference inventory of both sites implied that for determining a short term soil erosion using 7Be, the reference site was suggested to be selected as close as possible to the study site.

  16. Hypothalamic influence on insulin and glucagon release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A. de; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    Blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucagon levels were measured in undisturbed and free-moving rats. The insulin and glucagon levels rise in the 1st min after the beginning of food ingestion, whereas the glucose level begins to increase only in the 3rd min if carbohydrate-rich food is eaten. This

  17. The Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist Almorexant Promotes Sleep Without Impairment of Performance in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypocretin receptor (HcrtR antagonist almorexant (ALM has potent hypnotic actions but little is known about neurocognitive performance in the presence of ALM. HcrtR antagonists are hypothesized to induce sleep by disfacilitation of wake-promoting systems whereas GABAA receptor modulators such as zolpidem (ZOL induce sleep through general inhibition of neural activity. To test the hypothesis that less functional impairment results from HcrtR antagonist-induced sleep, we evaluated the performance of rats in the Morris Water Maze in the presence of ALM vs. ZOL. Performance in spatial reference memory (SRM and spatial working memory (SWM tasks were assessed during the dark period after equipotent sleep-promoting doses (100 mg/kg, po following undisturbed and sleep deprivation (SD conditions. ALM-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle (VEH-treated rats for all SRM performance measures (distance travelled, latency to enter, time within, and number of entries into, the target quadrant after both the undisturbed and 6 h SD conditions. In contrast, rats administered ZOL showed impairments in all parameters measured compared to VEH or ALM in the undisturbed conditions. Following SD, ZOL-treated rats also showed impairments in all measures. ALM-treated rats were similar to VEH-treated rats for all SWM measures (velocity, time to locate the platform and success rate at finding the platform within 60 s after both the undisturbed and SD conditions. In contrast, ZOL-treated rats showed impairments in velocity and in the time to locate the platform. Importantly, ZOL rats only completed the task 23-50% of the time while ALM and VEH rats completed the task 79-100% of the time. Thus, following equipotent sleep-promoting doses, ZOL impaired rats in both memory tasks while ALM rats performed at levels comparable to VEH rats. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that less impairment results from HcrtR antagonism than from GABAA

  18. Determination Of Reference-Site Based On The Cs-137 Distribution At Soil Layer From A Few Undisturbed Location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhartini, Nita; Darman; Haryono; Djarot, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiogenic 137 Cs content of a soil used to estimate the amount of erosion in area, with respect to a reference site. The investigation aimed to determined the reference-site from several of undisturbed locations based on the 137 Cs distribution of the soil layer. The location are a forest at West Java, namely Gn Pangrango - Cibodas, Gn. Masigit Kareumbi and Gn. Kamojang Garut. The points sampling were chosen at an open and very flat area where the possibility of erosion is very low. The samples were taken using Scrapper (20x50) cm, and the layer thickness is 2 cm with sampling depth is 20 cm. The result showed that the best location which could be used as a reference-site is the forest ata Gn. Pangranggo - Cibodas, having the men value of 137 Cs activity is 520 Bq/m 2

  19. Effect of pore water velocities and solute input methods on chloride transport in the undisturbed soil columns of Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, BeiBei; Wang, QuanJiu

    2017-09-01

    Studies on solute transport under different pore water velocity and solute input methods in undisturbed soil could play instructive roles for crop production. Based on the experiments in the laboratory, the effect of solute input methods with small pulse input and large pulse input, as well as four pore water velocities, on chloride transport in the undisturbed soil columns obtained from the Loess Plateau under controlled condition was studied. Chloride breakthrough curves (BTCs) were generated using the miscible displacement method under water-saturated, steady flow conditions. Using the 0.15 mol L-1 CaCl2 solution as a tracer, a small pulse (0.1 pore volumes) was first induced, and then, after all the solution was wash off, a large pulse (0.5 pore volumes) was conducted. The convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the two-region model (T-R) were used to describe the BTCs, and their prediction accuracies and fitted parameters were compared as well. All the BTCs obtained for the different input methods and the four pore water velocities were all smooth. However, the shapes of the BTCs varied greatly; small pulse inputs resulted in more rapid attainment of peak values that appeared earlier with increases in pore water velocity, whereas large pulse inputs resulted in an opposite trend. Both models could fit the experimental data well, but the prediction accuracy of the T-R was better. The values of the dispersivity, λ, calculated from the dispersion coefficient obtained from the CDE were about one order of magnitude larger than those calculated from the dispersion coefficient given by the T-R, but the calculated Peclet number, Pe, was lower. The mobile-immobile partition coefficient, β, decreased, while the mass exchange coefficient increased with increases in pore water velocity.

  20. Inventories and concentration profiles of 137Cs in undisturbed soils in the northeast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, M.L.; Silva, L.M.S.; Sá, C.S.A.; Runco, J.; Taylor, M.A.; Desimoni, J.

    2013-01-01

    Inventories and vertical distribution of 137 Cs were determined in La Plata region undisturbed soils, Argentina. A mean inventory value of 891 ± 220 Bq/m 2 was established, which is compatible with the values expected from atmospheric weapon tests fallout. The study was complemented with pH, organic carbon fraction, texture and mineralogical soil analyses. Putting together Southern Hemisphere 137 Cs inventory data, it is possible to correlate these data with the mean annual precipitations. The large differences in 137 Cs concentration profiles were attributed to soil properties, especially the clay content and the pH values. A convection–dispersion model with irreversible retention was used to fit the activity concentration profiles. The obtained effective diffusion coefficient and effective convection velocity parameters values were in the range from 0.2 cm 2 /y to 0.4 cm 2 /y and from 0.23 cm/y to 0.43 cm/y, respectively. These data are in agreement with values reported in literature. In general, with the growth of clay content in the soil, there was an increase in the transfer rate from free to bound state. Finally, the highest transfer rate from free to bound state was obtained for soil pH value equal to 8. - Highlights: ► Inventories and vertical distribution of 137 Cs were determined in undisturbed soils of La Plata city region, Argentina. ► The study was complemented with soil analyses of pH, organic carbon, texture and mineralogy. ► Inventory data were correlated with the mean annual precipitations. ► Concentration profile differences were attributed to soil properties, especially the clay content and the pH value. ► A convection–dispersion model with irreversible retention was used to fit the measured 137 Cs concentration profiles.

  1. Dissolved rainfall inputs and streamwater outputs in an undisturbed watershed on highly weathered soils in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewitz, Daniel; Resende, Julio C. F.; Parron, Lucilia; Bustamante, Mercedes; Klink, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Ricardo De O.; Davidson, Eric A.

    2006-08-01

    The cerrados of Brazil cover 2 million km2. Despite the extent of these seasonally dry ecosystems, little watershed research has been focused in this region, particularly relative to the watersheds of the Amazon Basin. The cerrado shares pedogenic characteristics with the Amazon Basin in draining portions of the Brazilian shield and in possessing Oxisols over much of the landscape. The objective of this research was to quantify the stream water geochemical relationships of an undisturbed 1200 ha cerrado watershed for comparison to river geochemistry in the Amazon. Furthermore, this undisturbed watershed was used to evaluate stream discharge versus dissolved ion concentration relationships. This research was conducted in the Córrego Roncador watershed of the Reserva Ecológica do Roncador (RECOR) of the Instituto Brasileiro Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) near Brasilia, Brazil. Bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry were analysed between May 1998 and May 2000. The upland soils of this watershed are nutrient poor possessing total stocks of exchangeable elements in the upper 1 m of 81 +/- 13, 77 +/- 4, 25 +/- 3, and 1 +/- 1 kg ha-1 of K, Ca, Mg, and P, respectively. Bulk precipitation inputs of dissolved nutrients for this watershed are low and consistent with previous estimates. The nutrient-poor soils of this watershed, however, increase the relative importance of precipitation for nutrient replenishment to vegetation during episodes of ecosystem disturbance. Stream water dissolved loads were extremely dilute with conductivities ranging from 4 to 10 μS cm-1 during periods of high- and low-flow, respectively. Despite the low concentrations in this stream, geochemical relationships were similar to other Amazonian streams draining shield geologies. Discharge-concentration relationships for Ca and Mg in these highly weathered soils developed from igneous rocks of the Brazilian shield demonstrated a significant negative relationship indicating a continued

  2. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  3. Evidence of discontinuous and continuous gas migration through undisturbed and self-sealed Cox clay-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, C. A.; M'Jahad, S.; Skoczylas, F.; Talandier, J.; Ghayaza, M.

    2012-01-01

    it is a long-lasting procedure, it allows to assess both gas migration modes at the sample outlet (i.e. discontinuous or continuous). In our laboratory, by using the step-by-step method under in situ confining stresses (5 to 12 MPa), and argon as gas, former studies have mainly investigated discontinuous gas passage for vertical, horizontal or inclined cores from the Bure site. A number of samples was self-sealed, mainly those from horizontal or inclined cores. Variations by one order of magnitude have been recorded between results on horizontal and inclined cores or vertical cores. While GBP values range from 1.26 MPa and up to 3 MPa for the first test series on vertical cores, it is almost an order of magnitude lower for the second test series (horizontal or inclined cores), with values ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MPa. This difference is mainly associated to gas passage through self-sealed fractures, in relation with clay transverse anisotropy. Indeed, COx clay-stone is a sedimentary indurated clay, composed of sub-horizontal diagenetic bedding planes: whenever GBP tests are performed along the bedding planes, lower values may be expected (due to a greater number of sealed cracks, created during sample preparation) rather than when performing GBP experiments perpendicularly to the bedding planes. Despite this extensive research, which was backed by numerical simulations of homogeneous media with LML and EDF-ASTER codes, several scientific questions remain. In particular, argillite self-sealing or undisturbed states may display different gas migration properties: it is expected that undisturbed matter will let gas pass at higher pressure than if self-sealed. Also, the discontinuous gas migration mode may be related to diffusion or capillary snap off, or to both phenomena. And discontinuous breakthrough does not suffice to describe fully the gas migration phenomena through undisturbed or self-sealed argillite, for it occurs distinctly from continuous passage and gas

  4. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  5. Recommendations for computer code selection of a flow and transport code to be used in undisturbed vadose zone calculations for TWRS immobilized wastes environmental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VOOGD, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of three software proposals is performed to recommend a computer code for immobilized low activity waste flow and transport modeling. The document uses criteria restablished in HNF-1839, ''Computer Code Selection Criteria for Flow and Transport Codes to be Used in Undisturbed Vadose Zone Calculation for TWRS Environmental Analyses'' as the basis for this analysis

  6. Highly Palatable Food during Adolescence Improves Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Rats that Experienced Neonatal Maternal Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Jin Young; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum consumption of highly palatable food (HPF) during adolescence on the adverse behavioral outcome of neonatal maternal separation. Male Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 hours daily during the first 2 weeks of birth (maternal separation, MS) or left undisturbed (nonhandled, NH). Half of MS pups received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28 (MS+HPF). Pups were subjected to behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to stress challenge was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Daily caloric intake and body weight gain did not differ among the experimental groups. Ambulatory activities were decreased defecation activity and rostral grooming were increased in MS controls (fed with chow only) compared with NH rats. MS controls spent less time in open arms, and more time in closed arms during the elevated plus maze test, than NH rats. Immobility duration during the forced swim test was increased in MS controls compared with NH rats. Cookie access normalized the behavioral scores of ambulatory and defecation activities and grooming, but not the scores during the elevated plus maze and swim tests in MS rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was blunted in MS rats fed with chow only, and cookie access normalized it. Prolonged access to HPF during adolescence and youth partly improves anxiety-related, but not depressive, symptoms in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, possibly in relation with improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.

  7. Highly Palatable Food during Adolescence Improves Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Rats that Experienced Neonatal Maternal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum consumption of highly palatable food (HPF during adolescence on the adverse behavioral outcome of neonatal maternal separation.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 hours daily during the first 2 weeks of birth (maternal separation, MS or left undisturbed (nonhandled, NH. Half of MS pups received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28 (MS+HPF. Pups were subjected to behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to stress challenge was analyzed by radioimmunoassay.ResultsDaily caloric intake and body weight gain did not differ among the experimental groups. Ambulatory activities were decreased defecation activity and rostral grooming were increased in MS controls (fed with chow only compared with NH rats. MS controls spent less time in open arms, and more time in closed arms during the elevated plus maze test, than NH rats. Immobility duration during the forced swim test was increased in MS controls compared with NH rats. Cookie access normalized the behavioral scores of ambulatory and defecation activities and grooming, but not the scores during the elevated plus maze and swim tests in MS rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was blunted in MS rats fed with chow only, and cookie access normalized it.ConclusionProlonged access to HPF during adolescence and youth partly improves anxiety-related, but not depressive, symptoms in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, possibly in relation with improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis.

  8. Assessment of metolachlor and diuron leaching in a tropical soil using undisturbed soil columns under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Eliana F G C; De Souza, Luana; Villa, Ricardo D; Pinto, Alicio Alves

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-metoxi-1-methylethyl)acetamide] leaching was studied in undisturbed soil columns collected in a cotton crop area in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The pesticides were applied to the soil surface in dosages similar to those used in a cotton plantation. To assess the leaching process, soil columns were submitted to simulated rain under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 3°C, in the absence of wind and direct solar radiation. During the rain simulations, leachate solutions were collected and herbicide concentrations were determined. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were cut into 10 cm sections to determine the remaining herbicide concentrations through the soil profile. Metolachlor was detected in all soil sections, and approximately 4% of the applied mass was leached. Diuron was detected only in the upper two soil sections and was not detected in the leachate. A linear correlation (r > 0.94) between the metolachlor soil concentrations and the organic contents of the soil sections was observed. Mass balance suggests that around 56% of diuron and 40% of metolachlor were degraded during the experiments. Measurements of the water table depth in the area where the samples were collected showed that it varied from 2 to 6 m and is therefore vulnerable to contamination by the studied herbicides, particularly metolachlor, which demonstrated a higher leaching potential.

  9. Influence of organic amendments on diuron leaching through an acidic and a calcareous vineyard soil using undisturbed lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenot, M.; Dousset, S.; Rousseaux, S.; Andreux, F.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different organic amendments on diuron leaching was studied through undisturbed vineyard soil columns. Two composts (A and D), the second at two stages of maturity, and two soils (VR and Bj) were sampled. After 1 year, the amount of residues (diuron + metabolites) in the leachates of the VR soil (0.19-0.71%) was lower than in the Bj soil (4.27-8.23%), which could be explained by stronger diuron adsorption on VR. An increase in the amount of diuron leached through the amended soil columns, compared to the blank, was observed for the Bj soil only. This result may be explained by the formation of mobile complexes between diuron and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) through the Bj soil, or by competition between diuron and WEOM for the adsorption sites in the soil. For both soils, the nature of the composts and their degree of maturity did not significantly influence diuron leaching. - The application of organic amendments increased diuron leaching through a sandy-loam soil, in contrast to a clay-loam soil

  10. Influence of organic amendments on diuron leaching through an acidic and a calcareous vineyard soil using undisturbed lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenot, M. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)], E-mail: mathieu.thevenot@u-bourgogne.fr; Dousset, S. [UMR 5561 Biogeosciences, CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Rousseaux, S. [EA 4149 Laboratoire de Recherche en Vigne et Vin, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, rue Claude Ladrey, 21000 Dijon (France); Andreux, F. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)

    2008-05-15

    The influence of different organic amendments on diuron leaching was studied through undisturbed vineyard soil columns. Two composts (A and D), the second at two stages of maturity, and two soils (VR and Bj) were sampled. After 1 year, the amount of residues (diuron + metabolites) in the leachates of the VR soil (0.19-0.71%) was lower than in the Bj soil (4.27-8.23%), which could be explained by stronger diuron adsorption on VR. An increase in the amount of diuron leached through the amended soil columns, compared to the blank, was observed for the Bj soil only. This result may be explained by the formation of mobile complexes between diuron and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) through the Bj soil, or by competition between diuron and WEOM for the adsorption sites in the soil. For both soils, the nature of the composts and their degree of maturity did not significantly influence diuron leaching. - The application of organic amendments increased diuron leaching through a sandy-loam soil, in contrast to a clay-loam soil.

  11. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Schrack, D.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  12. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dousset, S., E-mail: sylvie.dousset@limos.uhp-nancy.f [Nancy-Universite, CNRS, LIMOS, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Thevenot, M. [Universite de Lille 1, CNRS, Geosystemes, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Schrack, D. [INRA-SAD ASTER, 88500 Mirecourt (France); AFSSA, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches en Hydrologie, 54000 Nancy (France); Gouy, V.; Carluer, N. [UR Milieux Aquatiques, Ecologie et Pollution, Cemagref, 69336 Lyon Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  13. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S; Thévenot, M; Schrack, D; Gouy, V; Carluer, N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SOM and Biomass C Stocks in Degraded and Undisturbed Andean and Coastal Nothofagus Forests of Southwestern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Dube

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and over-exploitation can severely degrade soil in native forests. Considering that productivity in ecosystems is related to soil organic matter (SOM content and quality, the objectives of this study were to: (1 determine the influence of degraded (DEF, partly-degraded (PDF, and undisturbed (UNF Nothofagus forests on the stocks of carbon (C in tree biomass and SOM; (2 evaluate fractions of SOM as indicators of sustainable management; and (3 use the Century model to determine the potential gains of soil organic C (SOC. The forests are located in the Andes and Coastal mountains of southern Chile. The SOM was fractionated to separate the light fraction (LF, macroaggregates (>212 µm, mesoaggregates (212–53 µm, and microaggregates (<53 µm. In two measurement periods, the SOC stocks at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths in macroaggregates were on average 100% higher in the Andean UNF, and SOC was over twice as much at 20–40 cm depth in Andean DEF. Century simulations showed that improved silvopastoral management would gradually increase total SOC in degraded soils of both sites, especially the Ultisol with a 15% increase between 2016 and 2216 (vs. 7% in the Andisol. Greater SOC in macroaggregates (p < 0.05 of UNF indicate a condition of higher sustainability and better management over the years.

  15. Dynamics of Leishmania chagasi infection in small mammals of the undisturbed and degraded tropical dry forests of northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travi, B L; Osorio, Y; Becerra, M T; Adler, G H

    1998-01-01

    The infection rate with Leishmania chagasi and the population dynamics of small mammals were studied in an undisturbed forest reserve (Colosó) and an area of highly degraded forest (San Andrés de Sotavento [SAS]) in northern Colombia, both endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Live trapping of mammals was done every month, and species, age, sex and reproductive status determined. L. chagasi was detected in samples of skin or spleen by the polymerase chain reaction, after extraction of deoxyribonucleic acid using specific primers (DB8/AJS3), and dot blood hybridization. Didelphis marsupialis was found to be infected in Colosó (3/21, 14.3%) and SAS (13/137, 9.5%); its relative abundance was higher in SAS (93/113, 82% of the captures). Although Proechimys canicollis was also found to be infected in Colosó (3/34, 8.8%) and SAS (2/4), its relative abundance was much lower (4%) in SAS than in Colosó (56% of 77 animals captured). Sciurus granatensis, Marmosa robinsoni, Heteromys anomalus, Zygodontomys brevicauda and Metachirus nudicaudatus were less common, and no L. chagasi infection was detected in them.

  16. Neonatal handling and the expression of immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase in the hypothalamus of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E.S. Hermel

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling has long-lasting effects on behavior and stress reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of neonatal handling on the number of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei of adult male rats as part of a series of studies that could explain the long-lasting effects of neonatal stimulation. Two groups of Wistar rats were studied: nonhandled (pups were left undisturbed, control and handled (pups were handled for 1 min once a day during the first 10 days of life. At 75-80 days, the males were anesthetized and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. An anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR neurons were counted bilaterally in the arcuate, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in 30-µm sections at 120-µm intervals. Neonatal handling did not change the number of TH-IR neurons in the arcuate (1021 ± 206, N = 6; 1020 ± 150, N = 6; nonhandled and handled, respectively, paraventricular (584 ± 85, N = 8; 682 ± 62, N = 9 or periventricular (743 ± 118, N = 7; 990 ± 158, N = 7 nuclei of the hypothalamus. The absence of an effect on the number of dopaminergic cells in the hypothalamus indicates that the reduction in the amount of neurons induced by neonatal handling, as shown by other studies, is not a general phenomenon in the brain.

  17. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  18. Rapid insulin release after ingestion of a meal in the unanesthetized rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured in undisturbed and free-moving rats. The insulin level rises already in the 1st min after the start of food ingestion, whereas the glucose level begins to increase only in the 3rd min if carbohydrate-rich food is eaten. This early rise in insulin level

  19. Plasma Insulin and the Time Pattern of Feeding in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.; de Ruiter, L.

    1977-01-01

    Blood levels of glucose and insulin during meals and between-meal-intervals were measured in virtually undisturbed rats. After a peak due to glucose absorbed from the meal blood sugar soon reverts to the pre-meal level. Insulin shows a similar peak followed by a continuing decline so that just

  20. Calcium and osmotic stimulation in renin release from isolated rat glomeruli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O

    1986-01-01

    The effects of changes in osmolality and calcium concentration on renin release (RR) from isolated superfused rat glomeruli were studied. The undisturbed RR followed a first order fall with a half-time of about 100 min (n = 45). Changes in the osmolality between 270 and 350 mOsm/kg resulted in do...

  1. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  2. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  3. Acid-base buffering of soils in transitional and transitional-accumulative positions of undisturbed southern-taiga landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakova, E. S.; Ishkova, I. V.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    The method of continuous potentiometric titration (CPT) of soil water suspensions was used to evaluate the acid-base buffering of samples from the major genetic horizons of podzolic soils on a slope and soddy gley soils on the adjacent floodplain of a rivulet. In the soils of the slope, the buffering to acid upon titration from the pH of the initial titration point (ITP) to pH 3 in all the horizons was 1.5-2.0 times lower than that in the podzolic soils of the leveled interfluve, which could be due to the active leaching of exchangeable bases and oxalate-soluble aluminum and iron compounds with the later soil flows. In the soddy gley soils, the buffering to acid in the mineral horizons was 2-10 times higher than that in the podzolic soils. A direct dependence of the soil buffering to acid on the total content of exchangeable bases and on the content of oxalate-soluble aluminum compounds was found. A direct dependence of the buffering to basic upon titration from the ITP to pH 10 on the contents of the oxalate-soluble aluminum and organic matter was observed in the mineral horizons of all the studied soils. The soil treatment with Tamm's reagent resulted in the decrease of the buffering to acid in the soddy gley soils of the floodplain, as well as in the decrease of the buffering to basic in the soils on the slopes and in the soddy gley soils. It was also found that the redistribution of the mobile aluminum compounds between the eluvial, transitional, and transitional-accumulative positions in the undisturbed southern taiga landscapes leads to significant spatial differentiation of the acid-base buffering of the mineral soil horizons with a considerable increase in the buffer capacity of the soils within the transitional-accumulative terrain positions.

  4. The density of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in South East Australia is greater in undisturbed than in disturbed habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Hinson, Eloise M.; Duncan, Michael; Lim, Julianne; Arundel, Jonathan; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractApis mellifera is an important pollinator but is sometimes associated with adverse effects on natural ecosystems. We surveyed pairs of disturbed and undisturbed sites across three biomes in South East Australia. We used pheromone lures to trap drones, genotyped the drones to infer the number of colonies within flight range and then estimated colony densities using synthetic sampling distributions. Estimated colony densities ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 colonies km−2 ...

  5. Comparison of absolute biochemical parameters of undisturbed soils in Mediterranean environments (NE Spain) with corresponding parameters relative to soil organic carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez de Ridder, Patrícia; Marando, Graciela; Josa March, Ramon; Ginovart Gisbert, Marta; Ras Sabido, Antoni; Bonmati Pont, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The study of soil quality requires the establishment of quality standards. To this end, several authors have highlighted the need to create databases of quality indicators, such as biochemical properties, for different types of undisturbed soils under various climates and to establish standardised methodologies for their development. In Spain, studies of the quality of native soils were initiated > 15 years ago by several groups of authors from differing locations, but little is known regardi...

  6. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  7. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  8. Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor Stimulation Ameliorates Left Ventricular Fibrosis and Dysfunction via Regulation of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Axis and Transforming Growth Factor β1 in the Rat Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauer, Dilyara; Slavic, Svetlana; Sommerfeld, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is the main reason for the development of progressive cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated whether stimulation of the angiotensin type 2 receptor is able to ameliorate post-MI cardiac remodeling and what the underlying...... catheter. Effects on proteolysis were studied in heart tissue and primary cardiac fibroblasts. Compound 21 significantly improved systolic and diastolic functions, resulting in improved ejection fraction (71.2±4.7% versus 53.4±7.0%; P...

  9. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  10. Effects of maternal separation on behavior and brain damage in adult rats exposed to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Despina A; Markostamou, Ioanna; Ioannidis, Anestis; Gkioka, Mara; Simeonidou, Constantina; Anogianakis, Georgios; Spandou, Evangelia

    2015-03-01

    Animal studies suggest that maternal separation, a widely used paradigm to study the effects of early life adversity, exerts a profound and life-long impact on both brain and behavior. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adverse early life experiences interact with neonatal hypoxia-ischemia, affecting the outcome of this neurological insult at both functional and structural levels during adulthood. Rat pups were separated from their mothers during postnatal days 1-6, for either a short (15 min) or prolonged (180 min) period, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 7, a subgroup from each of the three postnatal manipulations was exposed to a hypoxic-ischemic episode. Behavioral examination took place approximately at three months of age and included tests of learning and memory (Morris water maze, novel object and novel place recognition), as well as motor coordination (rota-rod). We found that both prolonged maternal separation and neonatal hypoxia-ischemia impaired the animals' spatial learning and reference memory. Deficits in spatial but not visual recognition memory were detected only in hypoxic-ischemic rats. Interestingly, prolonged maternal separation prior to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia augmented the reference memory impairments. Histological analysis of infarct size, hippocampal area and thickness of corpus callosum did not reveal any exacerbation of damage in hypoxic-ischemic rats that were maternally separated for a prolonged period. These are the first data suggesting that an adverse postnatal environmental manipulation of just 6 days causes long-term effects on spatial learning and memory and may render the organism more vulnerable to a subsequent insult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  12. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  13. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  14. Effect of maternal probiotic intervention on HPA axis, immunity and gut microbiota in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Barouei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine whether maternal probiotic intervention influences the alterations in the brain-immune-gut axis induced by neonatal maternal separation (MS and/or restraint stress in adulthood (AS in Wistar rats. DESIGN: Dams had free access to drinking water supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12® (3 × 10(9 CFU/mL and Propionibacterium jensenii 702 (8.0 × 10(8 CFU/mL from 10 days before conception until postnatal day (PND 22 (weaning day, or to control ad lib water. Offspring were subjected to MS from PND 2 to 14 or left undisturbed. From PND 83 to 85, animals underwent 30 min/day AS, or were left undisturbed as controls. On PND 24 and 86, blood samples were collected for corticosterone, ACTH and IgA measurement. Colonic contents were analysed for the composition of microflora and luminal IgA levels. RESULTS: Exposure to MS significantly increased ACTH levels and neonatal fecal counts of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, E. coli, enterococci and clostridia, but reduced plasma IgA levels compared with non-MS animals. Animals exposed to AS exhibited significantly increased ACTH and corticosterone levels, decreased aerobic bacteria and bifidobacteria, and increased Bacteroides and E. coli counts compared to non-AS animals. MS coupled with AS induced significantly decreased anaerobes and clostridia compared with the non-stress adult controls. Maternal probiotic intervention significantly increased neonatal corticosterone levels which persisted until at least week 12 in females only, and also resulted in elevated adult ACTH levels and altered neonatal microflora comparable to that of MS. However, it improved plasma IgA responses, increased enterococci and clostridia in MS adults, increased luminal IgA levels, and restored anaerobes, bifidobacteria and E. coli to normal in adults. CONCLUSION: Maternal probiotic intervention induced activation of neonatal stress pathways and an imbalance in gut microflora. Importantly

  15. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  16. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  17. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H

    1997-11-15

    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  18. The Left-Handed Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  19. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  20. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  1. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  2. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  3. Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks of an Undisturbed Regenerating Sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. F. Forest Of Goalpara District, Assam, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajit Rabha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the above ground biomass and carbon stocks of an undisturbed Sal forest of Goalpara district, Assam, Northeast India. The average AGB and C were recorded 239.45 ± 12.8 Mg ha-1 and 119.73 ± 6.4 Mg ha-1. Density distribution curve indicates the high carbon sequestration potential of the stand in near future which further helps in climate change mitigation. Currently, conservation measures are well imposed in combine effort of local community and government. Legal involvement of local community in conservation exercises along with the forest department might be very effective in management of Sal forests.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11743   International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 147-155 

  4. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

  5. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzaty Horsali, Nurul Amira; Mat Zauki, Nurul Ashikin; Otero, Viviana; Nadzri, Muhammad Izuan; Ibrahim, Sulong; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS) and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM) observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%), followed by Sundar (27%) and Limbang (15%). The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%). The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index) was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present. PMID:29479500

  6. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behara Satyanarayana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%, followed by Sundar (27% and Limbang (15%. The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%. The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  7. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  9. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar

    2015-09-01

    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  10. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  11. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  12. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  13. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms.

  15. An Automated, Experimenter-Free Method for the Standardised, Operant Cognitive Testing of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rivalan, Marion; Munawar, Humaira; Fuchs, Anna; Winter, York

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of human pathology are essential for biomedical research. However, a recurring issue in the use of animal models is the poor reproducibility of behavioural and physiological findings within and between laboratories. The most critical factor influencing this issue remains the experimenter themselves. One solution is the use of procedures devoid of human intervention. We present a novel approach to experimenter-free testing cognitive abilities in rats, by combining undisturbed gro...

  16. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  17. Radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow soils and its relation to {sup 137}Cs soil-plant transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmer, Michael [Institute of Soil Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, 1180 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: michael.stemmer@boku.ac.at; Hromatka, Angelika [Department of Environmental Research, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Lettner, Herbert [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Strebl, Friederike [Department of Environmental Research, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    This study focuses on radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow sites and its relation to the soil-to-plant transfer. Soil and plant samples were taken in August 1999 from an altitude transect (800-1600 m.a.s.l.) at Gastein valley, Austria. Soil samples were subdivided into 3-cm layers for analyses of total, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-extractable and microbially stored {sup 137}Cs. Microbial biomass was measured by the fumigation extraction method, and fungal biomass was quantified using ergosterol as biomarker molecule. In general, the quantity of {sup 137}Cs stored in the living soil microbial biomass was relatively small. At the high-altitude meadows, showing high amounts of fungal biomass, microbially stored {sup 137}Cs amounted to 0.64 {+-} 0.14 kBq m{sup -2} which corresponds to about 1.2-2.7% of the total {sup 137}Cs soil inventory. At lower altitudes, microbial {sup 137}Cs content was distinctly smaller and in most cases not measurable at all using the fumigation extraction method. However, a positive correlation between the observed soil-to-plant aggregated transfer factor, microbially stored {sup 137}Cs and fungal biomass was found, which indicates a possible role of fungal biomass in the storage and turnover of {sup 137}Cs in soils and in the {sup 137}Cs uptake by plants.

  18. Generation of Novel Traj18-Deficient Mice Lacking Vα14 Natural Killer T Cells with an Undisturbed T Cell Receptor α-Chain Repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyambayar Dashtsoodol

    Full Text Available Invariant Vα14 natural killer T (NKT cells, characterized by the expression of a single invariant T cell receptor (TCR α chain encoded by rearranged Trav11 (Vα14-Traj18 (Jα18 gene segments in mice, and TRAV10 (Vα24-TRAJ18 (Jα18 in humans, mediate adjuvant effects to activate various effector cell types in both innate and adaptive immune systems that facilitates the potent antitumor effects. It was recently reported that the Jα18-deficient mouse described by our group in 1997 harbors perturbed TCRα repertoire, which raised concerns regarding the validity of some of the experimental conclusions that have been made using this mouse line. To resolve this concern, we generated a novel Traj18-deficient mouse line by specifically targeting the Traj18 gene segment using Cre-Lox approach. Here we showed the newly generated Traj18-deficient mouse has, apart from the absence of Traj18, an undisturbed TCRα chain repertoire by using next generation sequencing and by detecting normal generation of Vα19Jα33 expressing mucosal associated invariant T cells, whose development was abrogated in the originally described Jα18-KO mice. We also demonstrated here the definitive requirement for NKT cells in the protection against tumors and their potent adjuvant effects on antigen-specific CD8 T cells.

  19. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  20. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1987-02-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  1. Solute Diffusivity in Undisturbed Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægdsmand, Mette K.; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    diffusivities independent of the tracer set used. We analyzed the whole data set using Archie's law and found a linear relation between Archie's exponent and the logarithm of the soil water matric suction in centimeters of water (pF). An analysis of seven data sets from the literature showed......Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...... soil samples from two different tillage treatments (soil from below the depth of a harrow treatment and soil from within a moldboard plowed plow layer) was estimated based on concentration profiles using a newly developed method. The method makes use of multiple tracers (two sets of counterdiffusing...

  2. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    This thesis is the first comprehensive research work conducted on the Beirut based TV station, an important representative of the post-2011 generation of Arab satellite news media. The launch of al-Mayadeen in June 2012 was closely linked to the political developments across the Arab world...... members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...

  3. Noninferiority, randomized, controlled trial comparing embryo development using media developed for sequential or undisturbed culture in a time-lapse setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardarson, Thorir; Bungum, Mona; Conaghan, Joe; Meintjes, Marius; Chantilis, Samuel J; Molnar, Laszlo; Gunnarsson, Kristina; Wikland, Matts

    2015-12-01

    To study whether a culture medium that allows undisturbed culture supports human embryo development to the blastocyst stage equivalently to a well-established sequential media. Randomized, double-blinded sibling trial. Independent in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. One hundred twenty-eight patients, with 1,356 zygotes randomized into two study arms. Embryos randomly allocated into two study arms to compare embryo development on a time-lapse system using a single-step medium or sequential media. Percentage of good-quality blastocysts on day 5. Percentage of day 5 good-quality blastocysts was 21.1% (standard deviation [SD] ± 21.6%) and 22.2% (SD ± 22.1%) in the single-step time-lapse medium (G-TL) and the sequential media (G-1/G-2) groups, respectively. The mean difference (-1.2; 95% CI, -6.0; 3.6) between the two media systems for the primary end point was less than the noninferiority margin of -8%. There was a statistically significantly lower number of good-quality embryos on day 3 in the G-TL group [50.7% (SD ± 30.6%) vs. 60.8% (SD ± 30.7%)]. Four out of the 11 measured morphokinetic parameters were statistically significantly different for the two media used. The mean levels of ammonium concentration in the media at the end of the culture period was statistically significantly lower in the G-TL group as compared with the G-2 group. We have shown that a single-step culture medium supports blastocyst development equivalently to established sequential media. The ammonium concentrations were lower in the single-step media, and the measured morphokinetic parameters were modified somewhat. NCT01939626. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fasting and postprandial volumes of the undisturbed colon: normal values and changes in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome measured using serial MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, S E; Marciani, L; Garsed, K C; Hoad, C L; Thongborisute, W; Roberts, E; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous assessments of colon morphology have relied on tests which were either invasive or used ionizing radiation. We aimed to measure regional volumes of the undisturbed colon in healthy volunteers (HV) and patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Methods 3D regional (ascending, transverse, and descending) colon volumes were measured in fasting abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) images of 75 HVs and 25 IBS-D patients. Thirty-five of the HV and all 25 IBS-D subjects were fed a standard meal and postprandial MRI data obtained over 225 min. Key Results Colonic regions were identified and 3D maps from cecum to sigmoid flexure were defined. Fasted regional volumes showed wide variation in both HVs being (mean ± SD) ascending colon (AC) 203 ± 75 mL, transverse (TC) 198 ± 79 mL, and descending (DC) 160 ± 86 mL with no difference from IBS-D subjects (AC 205 ± 69 mL, TC 232 ± 100 mL, and DC 151 ± 71 mL, respectively). The AC volume expanded by 10% after feeding (p = 0.007) in the 35 HV possibly due to increased ileo-colonic inflow. A later rise in AC volume occurred from t = 90 to t = 240 min as the meal residue entered the cecum. In contrast, IBS-D subjects showed a much reduced postprandial response of the AC (p colon in fasted and fed states. The AC in IBS-D appeared less able to accommodate postprandial inflow which may account for faster colonic transit. PMID:24131490

  5. Far-field sorption data bases for performance assessment of a L/ILW repository in an undisturbed Palfris marl host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    A Palfris marl formation at Wellenberg (Gemeinde Wolfenschiessen, NW) has been chosen by NAGRA as a potential repository site for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, L/ILW. In the coming years a series of performance assessment studies will be performed for this site. One set of key data required for such safety analysis calculations is sorption data bases (SDB) for safety relevant radionuclides in the far-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to generate sorption data bases appropriate for the in situ conditions existing along the different potential flow paths in an undisturbed marl host rock formation. An important aim was to document the sources of sorption data used and, in particular, the processes by which data selections were mad.e. The main guiding principles here were `transparency` and `traceability`. Inherent within this whole process is also the justification for, and defensibility of, the selected values. Much of the sorption data used to generate the SDB for marl came from the open literature. A major part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these initial literature values are modified so that they apply to the actual marl mineralogies and groundwater chemistries. The resulting `reference R{sub d} values` are then further modified using so called Lab -> Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which are appropriate to the in situ bulk rock conditions. The Lab -> Field transfer factors attempt to correct for the differences in sorption site availability between the crushed rock state used in batch tests and the intact rock state existing in reality in the host rock. There are two main groundwater chemistries and five characteristic mineralogical compositions which cover the three broad types of flow paths which have been identified in the Palfris marl formation. In principle the methodology described here to construct sorption data bases for marl is applicable to any

  6. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...

  7. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  8. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P{sub CO{sub 2}}. In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab{yields}Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some

  9. Dynamics of cover, UV-protective pigments, and quantum yield in biological soil crust communities of an undisturbed Mojave Desert shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Phillips, Susan L.; Smith, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are an integral part of dryland ecosystems. We monitored the cover of lichens and mosses, cyanobacterial biomass, concentrations of UV-protective pigments in both free-living and lichenized cyanobacteria, and quantum yield in the soil lichen species Collema in an undisturbed Mojave Desert shrubland. During our sampling time, the site received historically high and low levels of precipitation, whereas temperatures were close to normal. Lichen cover, dominated by Collema tenax and C. coccophorum, and moss cover, dominated by Syntrichia caninervis, responded to both increases and decreases in precipitation. This finding for Collema spp. at a hot Mojave Desert site is in contrast to a similar study conducted at a cool desert site on the Colorado Plateau in SE Utah, USA, where Collema spp. cover dropped in response to elevated temperatures, but did not respond to changes in rainfall. The concentrations of UV-protective pigments in free-living cyanobacteria at the Mojave Desert site were also strongly and positively related to rainfall received between sampling times (R2 values ranged from 0.78 to 0.99). However, pigment levels in the lichenized cyanobacteria showed little correlation with rainfall. Quantum yield in Collema spp. was closely correlated with rainfall. Climate models in this region predict a 3.5–4.0 °C rise in temperature and a 15–20% decline in winter precipitation by 2099. Based on our data, this rise in temperature is unlikely to have a strong effect on the dominant species of the soil crusts. However, the predicted drop in precipitation will likely lead to a decrease in soil lichen and moss cover, and high stress or mortality in soil cyanobacteria as levels of UV-protective pigments decline. In addition, surface-disturbing activities (e.g., recreation, military activities, fire) are rapidly increasing in the Mojave Desert, and these disturbances quickly remove soil lichens and mosses. These stresses combined are likely to

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and their relationship with soil characteristics in undisturbed soils of the northeast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, M.L.; Mercader, R.C.; Taylor, M.A.; Runco, J.; Desimoni, J.

    2012-01-01

    Surface and depth profile concentrations (down to 50 cm) of 232 Th chain, 226 Ra, and 40 K radionuclides were determined in undisturbed coastal and inland soils of La Plata city region, Argentina, through their gamma-ray activity using a high-purity Ge detector spectrometer. These results were compared with superficial activities determined in soils from the surroundings of the Centro Atómico Ezeiza (Ezeiza Atomic Center) located in Ezeiza, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The hyperfine and magnetic Fe phase’s properties of soil profiles were characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis loops and AC magnetic susceptibility. No dependence of the activity of the 232 Th natural chain on depth was found, whereas variations for 226 Ra and 40 K activities were observed. Positive correlations, determined by the Pearson correlation coefficients, were established between 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations for the whole set of soil samples. The annual external equivalent dose for adults was similar for La Plata and Ezeiza regions, with average values of 0.08 ± 0.01 mSv and 0.06 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. The thermal dependence of the AC magnetic susceptibility revealed the existence of magnetite and hematite. The Mössbauer spectra of all soils were made up of signals associated with α-Fe 2 O 3 , a paramagnetic relaxation component, and Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ doublets. In addition, the spectra of inland soils revealed the presence of Fe 3 O 4 . A negative correlation was found between the activity concentrations and the α-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 relative fractions, whereas a positive correlation was found between the Fe 3+ relative fraction and the 40 K activity. - Highlights: ► 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th activity profiles of soil of northeast of Buenos Aires Province. ► The study has been complemented with magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. ► Correlations between natural activities and activities - Mössbauer relative areas.

  11. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B.

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P CO 2 . In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab→Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some appreciation of the uncertainties

  12. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  13. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  14. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  15. Social jet-lag potentiates obesity and metabolic syndrome when combined with cafeteria diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Bautista, Estefania; Velasco-Ramos, Mario; Osnaya-Ramírez, Iván; Ángeles-Castellanos, Manuel; Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina

    2017-07-01

    Modern lifestyle promotes shifted sleep onset and shifted wake up time between weekdays and weekends, producing a condition termed "social-jet lag." Disrupted sleep promotes increased appetite for carbohydrate and fat-rich food, which in long term leads to overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. In order to mimic the human situation we produced an experimental model of social-jet lag (Sj-l). With this model, we explored the link between shifted sleep time with consumption of a cafeteria diet (CafD) and the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The first experiment was designed to create and confirm the model of Sj-l. Rats (n=8-10/group) were exposed to a shifted sleep time protocol achieved by placing the rats in slow rotating wheels from Monday to Friday during the first 4h of the light period, while on weekends they were left undisturbed. The second experiment (n=8-12/group) explored the combined effect of Sj-l with the opportunity to ingest CafD. All protocols lasted 12weeks. We evaluated the development of overweight and indicators of metabolic syndrome. The statistical significance for all variables was set at P<0.05. Sj-l alone did not affect body weight gain but induced significant changes in cholesterol in metabolic variables representing a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Daily restricted access to CafD in the day or night induced glucose intolerance and only CafD during the day led to overweight. Sj-l combined with CafD induced overconsumption of the diet, potentiated body weight gain (16%) and promoted 5 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome including high insulin and dislipidemia. Present data provide an experimental model of social-jet lag that combined with overconsumption of CafD, and maximized the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Importantly, access to CafD during the night did not lead to overweight nor metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Brzezinska, Zofia; Klapcinska, Barbara; Galbo, Henrik; Gorski, Jan

    2010-09-03

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justich, E.

    1982-04-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed.

  18. Transmural changes in mast cell density in rat heart after infarct induction in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.; Reiters, P. H.; Daemen, M. J.; Smits, J. F.; van der Vusse, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The cardiac distribution of mast cells was investigated after the induction of acute myocardial infarction in the rat. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded by ligation in the infarct group, whereas in sham rats only a superficial ligature was placed beside the LAD. Rats of

  19. Multiplicativity of left centralizers forcing additivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed Tammam El-Sayiad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiplicative left centralizer for an associative ring R is a map satisfying T(xy = T\\(xy for all x,y in R. T is not assumed to be additive. In this paper we deal with the additivity of the multiplicative left centralizers in a ring which contains an idempotent element. Specially, we study additivity for multiplicative left centralizers in prime and semiprime rings which contain an idempotent element.

  20. Effect of Erythropoietin on Microvascular Anastomosis in Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the re-endothelialization potential of erythropoietin (EPO) following microvascular anastomosis in rat femoral artery. Methods: Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 g and 320 g were allocated randomly into two groups (control and EPO, n = 48). Left femoral artery ...

  1. Effect of Erythropoietin on Microvascular Anastomosis in Rat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the re-endothelialization potential of erythropoietin (EPO) following microvascular anastomosis in rat femoral artery. Methods: Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 g and 320 g were allocated randomly into two groups (control and EPO, n = 48). Left femoral artery ...

  2. Anarchy, socialism and a Darwinian left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen

    2006-03-01

    In A Darwinian left Peter Singer aims to reconcile Darwinian theory with left wing politics, using evolutionary game theory and in particular a model proposed by Robert Axelrod, which shows that cooperation can be an evolutionarily successful strategy. In this paper I will show that whilst Axelrod's model can give support to a kind of left wing politics, it is not the kind that Singer himself envisages. In fact, it is shown that there are insurmountable problems for the idea of increasing Axelrodian cooperation within a welfare state. My surprising conclusion will be that a Darwinian left worthy of the name would be anarchistic.

  3. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  4. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... with larger left ventricular diameter and higher left ventricular mass index (both P hypertrophy was greater (84 vs. 64%; P ..., transmitral peak E velocities and peak A velocities; and lower E/A ratio (all P hypertrophy, but normal left ventricular chamber systolic function with increased...

  5. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  6. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Bhambhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  7. Left ventricular hypertrophy, geometric patterns and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy can be due to various reasons including hypertension. It constitutes an increased cardiovascular risk. Various left ventricular geometric patterns occur in hypertension and may affect the cardiovascular risk profile of hypertensive subjects. Methods: One hundred and eighty eight ...

  8. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the scale of left-right symmetry breaking. Keywords. Leptogenesis; baryogenesis; domain walls; left-right symmetry. PACS Nos 12.10.Dm; 98.80.Cq; 98.80.Ft. Explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem.

  9. On establishing coreference in Left Dislocation constructions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenomenon of left dislocation (LD) has received relatively little attention in the generative literature. In Government & Binding theory and early versions of Minimalist Syntax, the left-dislocated expression is conventionally taken to be base-generated in its sentence-initial surface position and the resumptive pronoun in ...

  10. A new clinical sign probably associated to left hemiplegia with left hemineglect syndrome: the crossed legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Thiago; Braga, Gabriel; Luvizutto, Gustavo; Resende, Luiz

    2014-06-01

    To describe a new clinical sign associated with left unilateral neglect syndrome (UNS) in patients with ischemic stroke. Head computed tomography (CT) and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale were obtained in 150 patients with ischemic stroke. Those with right cerebral vascular lesions, left hemiplegia and right leg persistently crossed over the left were submitted to specific tests for UNS. The tests were also applied to 30 patients with right cerebral vascular lesions, left hemiplegia but without crossed legs. From 9 patients with persistent tendency to cross the right leg over the left, UNS was detected in 8. One patient died before the clinical tests were applied. Of the 30 patients without the crossed legs, 20 had normal clinical tests for UNS and 10 had minimal alterations, not sufficient for the diagnosis of UNS. The right leg crossed over the left may represent a new neurological semiotic sign associated with left hemiplegia and left UNS.

  11. Sleep deprivation increases A1 adenosine receptor density in the rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Elmenhorst, David; Basheer, Radhika; McCarley, Robert W.; Bauer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine, increasing after sleep deprivation and acting via the A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR), is likely a key factor in the homeostatic control of sleep. This study examines the impact of sleep deprivation on A1AR density in different parts of the rat brain with [3H]CPFPX autoradiography. Binding of [3H]CPFPX was significantly increased in parietal cortex (PAR) (7%), thalamus (11%) and caudate-putamen (9%) after 24 h of sleep deprivation compared to a control group with an undisturbed circad...

  12. VARIATION IN THE OPENINGS (OSTIA OF LEFT PULMONARY VEINS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  13. Histological study of the left colon of rats after extra-mucosal seromyotomy (continent valves: evaluation of colonic emptying Estudo histológico do cólon esquerdo de ratos após a confecção de seromiotomias extra-mucosas (válvulas continentes: avaliação do grau de esvaziamento do conteúdo colônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Deoti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an animal model with the objective of studying the continence of the biological valves surgically performed in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty four rats were operated on and divided into three groups (G. G1 (sham animals which underwent laparotomy only; G2 (perineal amputation without valves: animals which underwent amputation of the anal sphincter complex combined with a perineal colostomy; G3 (abdominoperineal amputation combined with valves: animals which underwent abdominoperineal amputation combined with three, equidistant and circumferential (360(0, extra-mucosal seromyotomies, of the descending colon, which were sutured to create biological valves combined with perineal colostomy. Animals were euthanized in the late postoperative period and surgical valves were saved for histopathological study. RESULTS: Surgical procedure provoked intestinal dilation, as well as segmented chambers along the descending colon. Retained fecalomas between the valves and proximal to them were also noted. Six rats died of intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction at the surgical site. The sequence of events was: stasis, obstruction, distention, perforation, peritonitis and death. Histopathology showed inflammation due to foreign body type reaction around the sutured colon causing partial concentric stenosis, capable of interfering normal mechanical activity of the distal colon. This process resulted in retardation of the intestinal transit. CONCLUSION: Extra-mucosal seromyotomies, with seromuscular suture, can be used as an operative procedure capable of causing retardation in the intestinal transit of rats.OBJETIVO: Modelo de experimentação, com confecção de válvulas biológicas no cólon esquerdo de ratos com o objetivo de estudar o grau de continência dessas válvulas. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro ratos foram operados e distribuidos em três grupos: G1 (grupo simulado submetido apenas à laparotomia, G2 (grupo amputado

  14. Social aspects of left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout human history left-handedness has been considered as sinful. It has been associated with the devil, weakness, female gender, unhealthiness, evil, something that has to be turned to a “good” - right side by force. Left-handedness is being more and more acceptable at rational level, but in everyday life it is still considered to be unusual if someone writes with the left hand. Lessening of the number of lefthanders is associated with ageing. There are about 13% lefthanders among people in twenties and less than 1% lefthanders among those in eighties. This finding may be explaned with more pronounced socio-cultural pressure on left-handed people in the past, compared to nowadays. On the other hand, this may also support the hypothesis about a reduced life span of lefthanded people. With cross-exercising of left-handedness, certain typical characteristics and behavioral patterns appear in these people. This was a sort of provoked behavior and an attack on the integrity of an emotional attitude toward oneself. Stuttering may also appear as a consequence of unsuccessful cross-exercising of left-handedness. The hypothesis about left-handedness as an advantage is supported with the reports about relatively more lefthanders in some specific groups such as: mathematicians, sculptors, architects, painters, musicians, actors, tennis players, as well as famous army commanders and rulers.

  15. Left ventricular performance during triggered left ventricular pacing in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy and left bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Christoffer Tobias; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the acute effect of triggered left ventricular pacing (tLVp) on left ventricular performance and contraction pattern in patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS: Twenty-three patients with pre-implant QRS...... complex >150 ms, QRS complex narrowing under CRT, and sinus rhythm were included ≥3 months after CRT implantation. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS), and contraction pattern by 2D strain was performed during intrinsic......V pacing. CONCLUSIONS: The acute effect of tLVp on LV systolic function and contraction pattern is significantly lower than the effect of BiV pacing and not different from intrinsic conduction in patients with LBBB and CRT....

  16. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of left intraventricular conduction disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1979-01-01

    Both, the vectorcardiographic changes produced by the various degrees of left bundle branch block and these observed with the different types of left distal block, are described. When a "wave jumping" phenomenon exists, the vectorcardiographic changes are more characteristic in the horizontal plane than in the frontal plane and can be interpreted satisfactorily in basis of the ventricular activation sequence. The normal counterclockwise rotation of the horizontal vectorcardiogram persists in the presence of left bundle branch block of slight and moderate degrees, since the electromotive forces of the free left ventricular wall are still predominant. In the majority of intermediate degree blocks, the middle portion of the RH loop develops with a clockwise rotation and general aspect with a clockwise rotation and the general aspect of the ventricular loop resembles an eight figure. This is due to the electromotive forces originated by the delayed depolarization of the left septal mass that starts to predominate. With advanced degrees of block, the largest portion of the RH loop shows a clockwise rotation, as well as marked notchings and slurrings. The initial anterior portion of the horizontal vectorcardiogram does not disappear, but is situated to the left of the anterior-posterior axis with a counterclockwise rotation (first right septal vector). Otherwise, the direct electrical sign of left distal block emphasized: evidence of delayed activation in a limited zone of the homolateral ventricle. This local delay gives rise to an asynchronism of the activation phenomenon between the upper and lower regions of the ventricle. The diagnosis of left bifascicular block is based essentially on the evidence of unequal delay of the activation sequence in the basal regions and in the inferior ones of the homolateral ventricle and also on the frequent persistence of the first left septal vector.

  17. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  18. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, A.; Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E.; Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C.; Planeta, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  19. Undisturbed stance control in healthy adults is achieved differently along anteroposterior and mediolateral axes: evidence from visual feedback of various signals from center of pressure trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Patrice R

    2009-05-01

    Provided through the screen of a monitor, the participant's resultant center of pressure (CPRes) movements from a force platform device, modified the postural performance of a healthy individual. However, these effects could largely vary with the axis that researchers consider (mediolateral [ML] or anteroposterior [AP]), because they know these controls are involved in 2 distinct ankle and hip mechanisms. To demonstrate this organization, the author tested a group of healthy adults in several conditions that gave the whole or some part of the information in the CPRes displacements. Compared with the CPRes feedback, left and right plantar CP or body weight distribution feedback deteriorated the control of the vertically projected center of gravity (CGv) along the ML and AP axes, whose amplitudes increased, respectively. These data highlight the primary role of loading or unloading and pressure variations in the achievement of postural control along each ML or AP axis, respectively. It is interesting that merging these 2 pieces of information (CPRes displacements) helped participants optimize their postural performance.

  20. The effect of erythropoietin on healing of obstructive vs nonobstructive left colonic anastomosis: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renda Nurten

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anastomotic leakage is an important problem following primary resection in the left colon and is even more prominent when obstruction is present. We aimed to evaluate the possible effects of erythropoietin on the healing of anastomosis under both obstructive and non-obstructive states. Methods Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. In group I, two cm left colonic resection and primary anastomosis were done. In group II, left colon were completely ligated and 24 hours later animals were re-operated for segmental resection. The same procedures were performed for rats in group III and IV in respect to group I and II and, 500 IU/kg a day erythropoietin were given in the latter two groups for seven days. For the quantative description of anastomotic healing mechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters were employed on the seventh day and the animals were sacrificied. Results Although erythropoietin had positive effects on bursting pressure in group IV when compared to group II, it has no effect in group III. Despite the increased tissue hydroxyproline levels in group IV, erythropoietin failed to show any effects in group III. Erythropoietin had positive effects on neovascularization, fibroblast proliferiation and storage of collagen in group IV. Conclusion We failed to find any direct and evident effects of erythropoietin on healing of left colonic anastomosis. On the other hand, erythropoietin might prevent negative effects of obstruction on healing.

  1. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  2. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, and is defined as a gallbladder located to the left of the ligamentum teres and the falciform ligament.1 LSGB was first described by Hochstetter in 1886, and its identification is important because of the numerous and potentially hazardous.

  3. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  4. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior myocardial infarction with resultant left ventricular aneurysm formation were found in a 22-year-old man who had sustained a ballistic missile injury to his chest.

  5. No Child Left Inside Week: Pilot Program

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Jamie C.

    2013-01-01

    This program evaluation assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of a free No Child Left Inside (NCLI) week-long outdoor program to coincide with the Utah state-designated No Child Left Inside Week. The pilot program was implemented at the community level in Cache Valley, Utah, in 2012. Families attended eleven activities throughout the week that included hands-on experience and participation. A community BioBlitz was also planned as a conclusion to the week. Survey results demonstrate incr...

  6. Drilling simulated temporal bones with left-handed tools: a left-hander's right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Cory S; Brydges, Ryan; Chen, Joseph M; Dubrowski, Adam

    2007-11-01

    Left-handed trainees can be at a disadvantage in the surgical environment because of a right-handed bias. The effectiveness of teaching left-handed trainees to use an otologic drill designed for their dominant hand versus the conventional right-handed drill was examined. Novice medical students were recruited from the university community. Twenty-four subjects were left-handed, and 12 were right-handed. Eight left-handed surgeons also participated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the performance of left-handed trainees using novel left-handed drills to that of left-handed trainees using right-handed tools and to that of right-handed trainees using right-handed tools. The evaluation consisted of 3 phases: pretest, skill acquisition, and 2 post-tests. The measurement tools included expert assessment of performance, and subjective and objective final product analyses. An initial construct validity phase was conducted in which validity of the assessment tools was ensured. Both the left-handers using left-handed tools and the right-handers using right-handed tools significantly outperformed the left-handers using right-handed tools at pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest. All participants improved their performance as a function of practice. The left-handed trainees learned bone drilling better with tools designed for the left hand. These tools may be incorporated into residency training programs for the development of surgical technical skills. Future studies should assess skill transfer between the left-handed and right-handed drills.

  7. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain M. Dykes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease.

  8. Left behind radiological investigations: An inherent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar A Govindswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the number of investigations left behind by patients in radiology department, their cost, and the possible methods of reducing the problem. Materials and Methods: A total of 1424 radiographs, 160 computed tomography (CT scans, 300 ultrasonography (USG reports, and 46 Doppler reports were left behind by patients in one financial year. The total cost of these left behind investigations was calculated and the reports were categorized into normal and abnormal for each modality. Results: Of the radiographs left behind 658 were abnormal, with 211 among these being radiographs of postoperative patients. Thirty-seven percent of CT scans had positive findings. Sixty-eight percent of USG reports had positive findings while 46% of Doppler reports were abnormal. Conclusion: We believe that the cost and number of these left behind investigations over a period of time would definitely be significant for the health care system in a developing country. It is time to think of the possible reasons and methods for containing this problem.

  9. Left atrial laceration with epicardial ligation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Vincent P; Kolibash, Christopher P; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Bajwa, Tanvir; Sra, Jasbir; Kress, David C

    2014-01-01

    Many new devices and techniques are being developed to attempt a reduction in embolic stroke risk for patients with atrial fibrillation who are either unable or unwilling to maintain long-term anticoagulation. One of these new devices (LARIAT®, SentreHEART Inc., Redwood City, California, USA) employs delivery of an epicardial suture to ligate the left atrial appendage after percutaneous pericardial and transseptal access. This series presents three clinical cases that demonstrate a serious and recurrent complication of left atrial laceration and cardiac tamponade shortly following delivery of an epicardial suture ligation to the left atrial appendage. Three clinical cases are described in detail with pre- and postprocedure angiography and echocardiography as well as illustrations reflecting the surgeon's findings on direct visualization of the left atrial lacerations postligation. Potential hypotheses of each injury are examined in light of the case timelines and findings at sternotomy. There was no suggestion that tamponade was related to pericardial or transseptal access, but rather a complication with device delivery. These three patients quickly progressed to clinical cardiac tamponade despite attempted drainage, stressing the importance of cardiovascular surgery backup, including a cardiopulmonary bypass pump, when delivering novel, percutaneous ligation devices for the left atrial appendage.

  10. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  11. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  12. Echocardiographic study of left atrial myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal J

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed pre-operatively by echocardiography. All cases showed characteristic echocardio-graphic features of variegated shadows behind the mitral valve in diastole and within the left atrium in systole. In two cases the my-xomas were surgically removed and confirmed on histology. In one case the post-operative echocardiogram showed complete dis-appearance of the abnormal shadows. Echocardiography is the most reliable method today for the diagnosis of a myxoma.

  13. “Getting the Left Right”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Marianne E.; Zahavi, Dan; Hjaltason, Haukur

    2015-01-01

    experience was captured in the overarching theme, “getting the left right,” which encompasses the two subthemes of (a) surreal awareness of the left and (b) emergence of a different world. Patients had unclear perceptions of their own body and surroundings, their attention was brittle, and they encountered...... bewildering reactions from other people. They simultaneously pursued the ineffable neglected space and searched for coherence. The vulnerability, loss, and conflicting perceptions that patients with neglect face should be acknowledged and alleviation sought. Facilitating methods should provide additional...

  14. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry....... Surprisingly, existing methods only deal with special cases. In this paper, we clarify different kinds of left-truncation and suggest estimators for semiparametric survival models under specific truncation schemes. The large-sample properties of the estimators are established. Small-sample properties...

  15. Left paraduodenal hernias; Hernias paraduodenales izquierdas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Tejeiro, A.; Sala, J. [Hospital Valle del Nalon. Riano-Sama. Asturias (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    We report two cases of left paraduodenal internal hernias located in the fossa of Landzert that were diagnosed by CT. Internal hernias are an infrequent cause of acute abdomen, due to the intestinal sub occlusion they produce. Left paraduodenal hernias are responsible for about 50% of internal hernias. CT makes it possible to demonstrate the group of herniated loops between the stomach, fourth segment of the duodenum, descending colon, and tail of the pancreas. The identification of the loops in an atypical position together with displaced blood vessels (mesenteric vessels) and colon gives concerns on them a typical radiological semiology that makes them easily identifiable. (Author) 9 refs.

  16. Left ventricular assist device implantation via left thoracotomy: alternative to repeat sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Howser, Renee; Donaldson, Terri; Merrill, Walter H; Dignan, Rebecca J; Drinkwater, Davis C; Christian, Karla G; Butler, Javed; Chomsky, Don; Wilson, John R; Clark, Rick; Davis, Stacy F

    2002-03-01

    Repeat sternotomy for left ventricular assist device insertion may result in injury to the right heart or patent coronary grafts, complicating intraoperative and postoperative management. In 4 critically ill patients, left thoracotomy was used as an alternative to repeat sternotomy. Anastomosis of the outflow conduit to the descending thoracic aorta provided satisfactory hemodynamic support.

  17. Myocardium-derived conditioned medium improves left ventricular function in rodent acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated whether myocardium-derived conditioned medium (MDCM) is effective in preserving left ventricular (LV) function in a rat acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 36) randomized to receive either left coronary artery ligation (AMI induction) or thoracotomy only (sham procedure) were grouped as follows (n = 6 per group): Group I, II, and III were sham-controls treated by fresh medium, normal rat MDCM, and infarct-related MDCM, respectively. Group IV, V, and VI were AMI rats treated by fresh medium, normal MDCM, and infarct-related MDCM, respectively. Either 75 μL MDCM or fresh medium was administered into infarct myocardium, followed by intravenous injection (3 mL) at postoperative 1, 12, and 24 h. Results In vitro studies showed higher phosphorylated MMP-2 and MMP-9, but lower α-smooth muscle actin and collagen expressions in neonatal cardiac fibroblasts treated with MDCM compared with those in the cardiac fibroblasts treated with fresh medium (all p < 0.05). Sirius-red staining showed larger collagen deposition area in LV myocardium in Group IV than in other groups (all p < 0.05). Stromal cell-derived factor-1α and CXCR4 protein expressions were higher in Group VI than in other groups (all p < 0.05). The number of von Willebrand factor- and BrdU-positive cells and small vessels in LV myocardium as well as 90-day LV ejection fraction were higher, whereas oxidative stress was lower in Group VI than in Group IV and Group V (all p < 0.05). Conclusion MDCM therapy reduced cardiac fibrosis and oxidative stress, enhanced angiogenesis, and preserved 90-day LV function in a rat AMI model. PMID:21244680

  18. Telomere dynamics during aging in polygenic left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Booth, Scott A; Prestes, Priscilla R; Curl, Claire L; Delbridge, Lea M D; Lewandowski, Paul; Harrap, Stephen B; Charchar, Fadi J

    2016-01-01

    Short telomeres are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we studied cardiomyocyte telomere length at key ages during the ontogeny of cardiac hypertrophy and failure in the hypertrophic heart rat (HHR) and compared these with the normal heart rat (NHR) control strain. Key ages corresponded with the pathophysiological sequence beginning with fewer cardiomyocytes (2 days), leading to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (13 wk) and subsequently progression to heart failure (38 wk). We measured telomere length, tissue activity of telomerase, mRNA levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) and telomerase RNA component (Terc), and expression of the telomeric regulator microRNA miR-34a. Cardiac telomere length was longer in the HHR compared with the control strain at 2 days and 38 wk, but shorter at 13 wk. Neonatal HHR had higher cardiac telomerase activity and expression of Tert and miR-34a. Telomerase activity was not different at 13 or 38 wk. Tert mRNA and Terc RNA were overexpressed at 38 wk, while miR-34a was overexpressed at 13 wk but downregulated at 38 wk. Circulating leukocytes were strongly correlated with cardiac telomere length in the HHR only. The longer neonatal telomeres in HHR are likely to reflect fewer fetal and early postnatal cardiomyocyte cell divisions and explain the reduced total cardiomyocyte complement that predisposes to later hypertrophy and failure. Although shorter telomeres were a feature of cardiac hypertrophy at 13 wk, they were not present at the progression to heart failure at 38 wk. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Magnetization of left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    We propose a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic fields in negative refraction index composite metamaterials. Considering the propagation of a high-frequency modulated amplitude electric field in a left-handed material (LHM), we show that the ponderomotive interaction between the field and low-frequency potential distributions leads to spontaneous generation of magnetic fields, whose form and properties are discussed

  20. Left ventricular mass: Myxoma or thrombus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S Raut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient with embolic episode should always be evaluated for cardiac mass. Mass in left ventricular can be a myxoma or thrombus even in a normal functioning heart . In either case, mobile mass with embolic potential should be surgically resected.

  1. Left atrial myxoma with biventricular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S. Raut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of left atrial myxoma with severe ventricular dysfunction without any obstructive coronary artery disease, as presented in our case, is very rare. It may be due to undiagnosed concomitant dilated cardiomyopathy or unknown cardiodepressant effect of myxoma which warrants further research.

  2. Left atrial myxoma with biventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Monish S; Shad, Sujay; Maheshwari, Arun

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of left atrial myxoma with severe ventricular dysfunction without any obstructive coronary artery disease, as presented in our case, is very rare. It may be due to undiagnosed concomitant dilated cardiomyopathy or unknown cardiodepressant effect of myxoma which warrants further research. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vergisson 4: a left-handed Neandertal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Silvana; Monge, Janet; Quertelet, Sylvain; Frayer, David W; Combier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Handedness is an important marker for lateralization of humans in the modern and fossil record. For the most part, Neandertals and their ancestors are strongly right-handed. We describe a single tooth from a Neandertal level at Vergisson 4 (Vg 4-83). This left upper central incisor shows all the features typical of Neandertal incisors. It also exhibits a predominance of left-handed striations. Striations on the incisor's labial surface were mapped at 20x magnification using Photoshop. Angulations of the striations were determined from their deviation from the maximum mesio-distal line and were analyzed using NIH's freeware, Image J. Of the 60 labial surface striations, Vg 4-83 shows a strong predominance of left-handed striations (46; 76.7%), which are statistically significantly different (p handed striations. The identification of another left-handed Neandertal adds to our understanding about handedness variation in this fossil hominin. Given the high frequency of right-handed Neandertals, the 90: 10 modern ratio is still preserved in this group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-01

    Jan 1, 1983 ... sniper with an Armourlite assault rifle in Ireland. He had received a single bullet injury to the left ... His history negated any cardiovascular impairment, angina or limitation in effort tolerance. He plays ... In view of the patient's age, history and the cardiovascular findings, we would like to postulate that the ...

  5. Radiative left-right Dirac neutrino mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ernest; Sarkar, Utpal

    2018-01-01

    We consider the conventional left-right gauge extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons without a scalar bidoublet. We study systematically how one-loop radiative Dirac neutrino masses may be obtained. In addition to two well-known cases from almost 30 years ago, we find two new scenarios with verifiable predictions.

  6. Giant melanoma of the left thumb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    A 74-year-old female patient is described with a giant melanoma of the left thenar and concomitant bilateral pulmonary metastases. Palliative treatment consisted of a two-staged procedure in order to save the limb from amputation. Firstly, perfusion with gamma-interferon, tumour necrosis

  7. Submitral Left Ventricular Aneurysm Associated with Thrombus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... She was given drugs for management of heart failure and ... treatment abroad. KEYWORDS: Ethiopia, heart failure, submitral aneurysm, thrombus. INTRODUCTION. Submitral left ventricle aneurysm is a rare cardiovascular disorder worldwide, but ... grade 2 pulmonary edema, and bilateral pleural effusion.

  8. Left-Right Symmetry at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the issue of the limit on the scale of Left-Right symmetry breaking. We focus on the minimal SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_B-L gauge theory with the seesaw mechanism and discuss the two possibilities of defining Left-Right symmetry as parity or charge conjugation. In the commonly adopted case of parity, we perform a complete numerical study of the quark mass matrices and the associated left and right mixing matrices without any assumptions usually made in the literature about the ratio of vacuum expectation values. We find that the usual lower limit on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson from the K mass difference, M_WR>2.5TeV, is subject to a possible small reduction due to the difference between right and left Cabibbo angles. In the case of charge conjugation the limit on M_WR is somewhat more robust. However, the more severe bounds from CP-violating observables are absent in this case. In fact, the free phases can also resolve the present mild discrepancy between the Standard Model and CP-violat...

  9. Left Dislocation: a typological overview | Westbury | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Left Dislocation construction is a typologically universal phenomenon that has received detailed analysis, from both formal and functional perspectives, in a number of genetically and areally diverse languages. The present paper aims to provide a general overview of this cross-linguistic research with a concentration ...

  10. Left-forbidding cooperating distributed grammar systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldefus, F.; Masopust, Tomáš; Meduna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 40-42 (2010), s. 3661-3667 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : cooperating distributed grammar system * cooperating derivation mode * left-forbidding grammar * generative power * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510003440

  11. Left Ventricular Thrombus among patients undergoing Transthoracic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Left Ventricular Thrombus (LVT) is a well recognized complication of various cardiac conditions, particularly following an acute anterior myocardial infarction and in those with systolic congestive heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) remains the most common imaging modality to make the diagnosis ...

  12. Modern Democratic Left and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Radošević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political left, notably social democracy, implies acceptance of market economy and parliamentary democracy, as a political framework within which the interests of large sections of the population could be preserved. Does the modern political left have a chance to revive, after the global economic crisis? We believe it does. The core idea of social democracy is the idea of equality. It is the growing inequality that could help the return of social democracy. In Croatia, during transition, there was predominantly the process of neoliberalization, and the democratic left accepted a neoliberal economic agenda. Currently Croatia has a structural economic problem and deep recession. Due to the global crisis, the democratic left in Croatia should abandon economic neoliberalism. Macroeconomic policy decision-makers in Croatia should reject orthodox policies, and it is necessary to implement heterodox economic policies. There is an urgent need to achieve a new (postKeynesian consensus, a new combination of post-Keynesian economics and social democracy

  13. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  14. Left ventricular function in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, B.; Amenta, A.; Kane, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was determined in 42 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation during upright exercise by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction and volume with radionuclide ventriculography. Classification of the patients according to exercise tolerance showed that patients with normal exercise tolerance (greater than or equal to 7.0 minutes) had a significantly higher ejection fraction at rest (probability [p] . 0.02) and during exercise (p . 0.0002), higher cardiac index at exercise (p . 0.0008) and lower exercise end-systolic volume (p . 0.01) than did patients with limited exercise tolerance. Similar significant differences were noted in younger patients compared with older patients in ejection fraction at rest and exercise (both p . 0.001) and cardiac index at rest (p . 0.03) and exercise (p . 0.0005). The end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise in 60% of the patients. The patients with a decrease in volume were significantly younger and had better exercise tolerance and a larger end-diastolic volume at rest than did patients who showed an increase in volume. The mean corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients with abnormal than in those with normal exercise reserve (mean +/- standard deviation 476 +/- 146 versus 377 +/- 92 mm Hg, p less than 0.05). Thus, in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: 1) left ventricular systolic function during exercise was related to age, exercise tolerance and corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio, and 2) the end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise, especially in younger patients and patients with normal exercise tolerance or a large volume at rest

  15. Assessment of stiffness of the hypertrophied left ventricle of bicyclists using left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R; Van den Broeke, C; Bielen, E; Vanhees, L; Amery, A

    1987-06-01

    Sixteen male bicyclists and 16 control subjects were studied to assess whether the left ventricular hypertrophy of athletes is associated with changes in diastolic left ventricular function. The cyclists had a larger left ventricular internal diameter on echocardiography (55.2 versus 47.9 mm; p less than 0.001) and a disproportionate increase in wall thickness relative to the internal diameter (0.48 versus 0.41; p less than 0.01), indicating a mixed eccentric-concentric type of hypertrophy. Left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry showed similar results in athletes and control subjects for peak flow velocities in the atrial contraction phase (30 versus 32 cm/s; p = NS) and in the early diastolic rapid filling phase (71 versus 67 cm/s; p = NS). The similar ratio of both velocities, that is, 0.43 in the cyclists and 0.49 in the control subjects, suggests that left ventricular distensibility is unaltered in cyclists. It is concluded that the left ventricular hypertrophy observed in cyclists is not associated with changes in ventricular stiffness, as estimated from left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry.

  16. Feasibility of cell transplantation with a left ventricular assist device to improve the success rate of left ventricular assist device removal: the first experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) greatly support heart recovery, but recurrent heart failure after LVAD removal limits their use as 'a bridge to recovery'. The combination of LVADs and cell transplantation (CTx) is expected to be effective to improve the success rate of LVAD removal. We investigated the feasibility of combined CTx therapy and LVAD support with a new heterotopic rat heart-lung transplantation model that could simulate LVAD support and LVAD removal. The heart and both lungs of a rat were heterotopically transplanted, and the heart was kept unloaded for two weeks. The heart was then reloaded for two weeks (LVAD group). Syngenic smooth muscle cells were transplanted into the hearts that had been unloaded for a week, and the hearts were kept unloaded for another week and then reloaded (CT-LVAD group). In the unloaded state, CTx could reduce the left ventricle (LV) volume more effectively than LVAD therapy alone (P<0.01) and maintain the LV volume even after the hearts were reloaded (P<0.01). The results suggest that CTx with LVAD support can prevent recurrent LV dilation after LVAD removal and improve the success rate of LVAD removal.

  17. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch ranges between 1% and 5.8%.1,2 This anomaly has important implications for thoracic surgery and interventional procedures. The left vertebral artery may originate from: • the left common carotid artery. • the root of the left subclavian artery ...

  18. Left bronchial artery arising from a replaced left hepatic artery in a patient with massive hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jae Myung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 70-year-old man with a 3-year history of bronchiectasis presented with massive hemoptysis that had lasted for 3 days. In our attempt to perform bronchial artery embolization, upper abdominal angiography was required to locate the left bronchial artery, which in this case was of anomalous origin, arising from a replaced left hepatic artery, which arose from the left gastric artery-a very unusual anatomical variant. We performed embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely, with no additional complications after conservative treatment.

  19. Proximal-tubule-like epithelium in Bowman's capsule in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Changes with age.

    OpenAIRE

    Haensly, W. E.; Granger, H. J.; Morris, A. C.; Cioffe, C.

    1982-01-01

    Kidneys were samples from male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive rats (WKY) in four groups. Renal tissues were examined in 64 rats: 6 SHR and 6 WKY rats 8 and 16 weeks of age and 10 SHR and 10 WKY rats 32 and 64 weeks of age. Tissue samples were fixed, processed, and stained by routine histologic procedures. The parietal layer of Bowman's capsule in 100-115 renal corpuscles from right to left kidney sections was classified as squamous or cuboidal epithelium. The cuboidal ...

  20. Antiarthritic activity of Abrus precatorius in Albino rats | Georgewill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiarthritic activity of water extract of leaves of Abrus precatorius (AP) on arthritis induced model in rats. Arthritis was induced in male albino Wister rats by injection of croton oil (0.1 ml) into the left foot pad of the animals. Treatment with AP at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose and standard ...

  1. Antiarthritic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina in Albino Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiarthritic activity. The water extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (V.A.) on arthritis induced model in rats. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar albino rats by injection of croton oil (0.1ml) into the left foot pad of the animals. Treatment with V.A. (200 and 400mg/kg b.w.).

  2. Thyroid status affects the rat cardiac beta-adrenoceptor system transiently and time-dependently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, J.; Batink, H. D.; Taguchi, K.; de Jong, J.; Michel, M. C.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, A.

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-dependency of the influence of dysthyroid states on the beta-adrenoceptor system in rat heart left ventricle. Therefore, the influence of acute and chronic hyper- and hypothyroidism on beta-adrenoceptor-induced left ventricular responses,

  3. Induction of interleukin-1β mRNA after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M.; Sauter, A.; Boddeke, H.W.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO).

  4. INDUCTION OF INTERLEUKIN-1-BETA MESSENGER-RNA AFTER FOCAL CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTTINI, M; SAUTER, A; BODDEKE, HWGM

    The expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery

  5. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  6. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  7. Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy and left ventricular assist device: a word of caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornberger, A; Stock, U A; Risteski, P; Beiras Fernandez, A

    2016-07-15

    In patients with left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) may be performed as a bridge to transplantation. In this respect, the particular characteristics of the left ventricular myocardium may represent a challenge. We report a patient with LVNC who required urgent heart transplantation for inflow cannula obstruction nine months after receiving a LVAD. LVAD parameters, echocardiography and examination of the explanted heart suggested changes of left ventricular configuration brought about by LVAD support as the most likely cause of inflow cannula obstruction. We conclude that changes experienced by non-compacted myocardium during LVAD support may give rise to inflow cannula obstruction and flow reduction. Presence of LVNC mandates tight surveillance for changes in LV configuration and LVAD flow characteristics and may justify urgent transplantation listing status.

  8. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  9. Left-right symmetric electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, F.I.

    1989-10-01

    We present a critical analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs sector of the conventional SU(2) L circle-times SU(2) R circle-times U(1) B-L left-right symmetric theory involving bi-doublet and triplet Higgs fields. We examine the phenomenological constraints imposed on the minimization of the Higgs potential arising from experimental observations, and explore the resulting consequences including the problem of ''fine- tuning'' arising from the hierarchy of mass scales involved. We show that it is non-trivial to satisfy all of these constraints. We contrast the benefits of this general class left-right models against the required ''fine-tuning'' necessary to force the phenomenology to conform to experimental fact. 17 refs., 1 fig

  10. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  11. Total agenesis of the left pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Fº

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the report of a 46-year-old patient with the preoperative diagnosis of an atrial septal defect (ASD of the ostium secudum type. After sternectomy, partial agenesis of the left pericardium was diagnosed. It is our opinion that, if the radiographic picture is suggestive of this entity, a clinical search for cardiopulmonary anomalies should be performed, because the majority of these associated anomalies can and should be surgically corrected.

  12. The New Arab Left and 1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In Arab political culture, the Naksa of 1967 had a number of watershed effects. Scholars have paid a lot of attention to the decline of secular Arab nationalism and the concurrent rise of Islamism. Much less research has been done on the way 1967 spurred radical left organizations, also known as ...... moment that followed. This moment has had a lasting impact on Arab political culture and is being re-interpreted in interesting ways today by Arab revolutionaries post-2011....

  13. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Varda, Rajsekhar; Chitimilla, Santosh Kumar; Lalani, Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair) usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 1 4 × 2 8  mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and ...

  14. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajsekhar Varda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 14×28 mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and symptoms.

  15. Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma involving the left pulmonary vein presenting as a left atrial tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman presented with 4 months history of progressively increasing intermittent dyspnea and hemoptysis. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a loculated mass in the left atrium (LA. A provisional diagnosis of LA myxoma was made. Intraoperatively the tumor was found extending into and closely adherent to the left pulmonary vein and could not be completely cleared off from the pulmonary venous wall. The histopathological examination of the tumor revealed it to be a myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

  16. Implantation of left ventricular assist device in a patient with left ventricular non-compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Keki R; Bierhals, Andrew; Vader, Justin; Pasque, Michael K; Itoh, Aki

    2017-02-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) may result in systolic left ventricular (LV) failure resulting in the need for heart transplantation. LV assist devices (LVAD) have been used to bridge these patients to transplantation; however, the extensive trabeculations found in these patients predispose them to thromboembolic events and pump thrombosis. We describe a patient with LVNC in whom an aggressive surgical approach was used to debride the LV cavity of trabeculations to successfully implant an LVAD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension secondary to Left Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbach, Ghazal; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2017-09-12

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) related to left heart disease (LHD) is the most common form of PH, accounting for more than two third of all PH cases. The hemodynamic abnormalities seen in PH-LHD are complex, and there are currently minimal evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. While it is accepted that PH in the context of left heart disease is a marker of worse prognosis, it remains unclear whether its primary treatment is beneficial or harmful. In this article, we discuss the prevalence and significance of PH in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) as well as HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and those with valvular heart disease and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interrelationship in individuals with PH due to left heart disease. Furthermore, we provide a framework for diagnostic testing and an approach to optimal management of these complex patients based on current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Anomalous Origin of Left Circumflex Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çitaku, Hajdin; Kamberi, Lulzim; Gorani, Daut; Koçinaj, Dardan; Krasniqi, Xhevdet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The coronary anatomic variation of the left circumflex artery (LCx) is considered as the most common anatomic variation with a separate ostium from the right sinus, and very unusual variation as a proximal branch of right coronary artery (RCA). Case report: We report two cases, the first case is a 64-year-old man with chest pain and with history of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and current smoker, and the second case is a 67-year-old who presented to the emergency department with chest pain and with a past medical history of arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the coronarography of the first case is detected an ectopic left circumflex coronary artery from the right coronary sinus with stenotic changes in RCA and LCx. The second case in the coronary angiography revealed an ectopic left circumflex coronary artery from the proximal part of the right coronary artery with stenotic changes in LAD, RCA and LCx. Based on guidelines for revascularization our patients successfully underwent treatment procedures. We present two cases that because of the atherosclerotic coronary artery disease leads to the need of coronarography find out the presence of coronary artery anomalies. Conclusion: During the coronarography we should think about coronary artery anomaly or missing artery knowing that type of these anomalies, considering that may be a contributing factor in the development of the atherosclerosis determines the method of the treatment. PMID:26843740

  19. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  1. Increased myocardial vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Søren; Faricelli, Barbara; Salomonsson, Max

    2016-01-01

    with or without exendin-4 (Exe-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. Infarct size relative to area-at-risk was determined. Separately, mitochondria were isolated after global ischemia. Activities of complexes III and IV and amounts of selected complex subunits and cytochromes a, b, c, and c1 were.......  Conclusion: Hearts from hypertensive (SHR-SP) rats with left ventricle hypertrophy appeared more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury, as supported by a more profound infarct development and an earlier loss of postconditioning by Exe-4. Mitochondrial complexes III and IV were identified among possible...... loci of this increased, hypertrophy-associated vulnerability....

  2. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...... and carbohydrate metabolism....

  3. Ipsilesional deficit of selective attention in left homonymous hemianopia and left unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, Sylvie; Peyrin, Carole; Perez, Céline

    2018-03-15

    Patients with homonymous hemianopia may present a subtle ipsilesional deficit, recently referred to as 'sightblindness' in addition to the contralesional visual field defect. We recently demonstrated that this deficit could be worse in right brain-damaged patients with left hemianopia than in left brain-damaged patients with right hemianopia, confirming right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial and attentional capacities. In the present study we investigate whether this ipsilesional deficit could be attentional in nature and to what extent it is comparable in right brain-damaged (RBD) patients with left hemianopia and in RBD patients with left neglect. The study was also conducted in RBD patients with neither left hemianopia nor left neglect signs in order to test if a right hemisphere lesion per se could be responsible for subtle ipsilesional attentional deficit. To reach this aim, we tested selective attentional capacities in both visual fields of 10 right brain-damaged patients with left neglect (LN), 8 right brain-damaged patients with left homonymous hemianopia (LHH), 8 right brain-damaged patients with no signs of left neglect or left hemianopia (RBD controls), and 17 healthy age-matched participants (Normal controls). A lateralized letter-detection task was used to test if right-brain damaged patients with LN or LH may present a deficit of selective attention in their right, ipsilesional visual field, in comparison to Normal and RBD controls. Participants were asked to detect a target letter in either a single large stimulus (low attentional load) or a small stimulus surrounded by flankers (high attentional load). Stimuli were displayed either in the left or in the right visual field. Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Results on accuracy showed that both LN and LH patients exhibited lower correct responses than Normal controls in their ipsilesional right visual field, suggesting an attentional deficit in their ipsilesional, supposed healthy

  4. Bone repair after osteotomy with diamond burs and CVD ultrasonic tips – histological study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matuda, Fábio S.; Pagani, Clovis; Miranda, Carolina B.; Crema, Aline A. S.; Brentel, Aline S.; Carvalho, Yasmin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study histologically evaluated the behavior of bone tissue of rats submitted to osteotomy with conventional diamond burs in high speed and a new ultrasonic diamond tips system (CVD – Chemical Vapor Deposition), at different study periods. The study was conducted on 24 Wistar rats. Osteotomy was performed on the posterior paws of each rat, with utilization of diamond burs in high speed under thorough water cooling at the right paw, and CVD tips at the left paw. Animals were killed a...

  5. Effects of bromopride on expression of metalloproteinases and interleukins in left colonic anastomoses: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.M.; Jerônimo, M.S.; Silva-Pereira, I.; Bocca, A.L.; Sousa, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Anastomotic dehiscence is the most severe complication of colorectal surgery. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukins (ILs) can be used to analyze the healing process of anastomosis. To evaluate the effects of bromopride on MMP and cytokine gene expression in left colonic anastomoses in rats with or without induced abdominal sepsis, 80 rats were divided into two groups for euthanasia on the third or seventh postoperative day (POD). They were then divided into subgroups of 20 rats for sepsis induction or not, and then into subgroups of 10 rats for administration of bromopride or saline. Left colonic anastomosis was performed and abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. A colonic segment containing the anastomosis was removed for analysis of gene expression of MMP-1α, MMP-8, MMP-13, IL-β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). On the third POD, bromopride was associated with increased MMP-1α, MMP-13, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 gene expression. On the seventh POD, all MMP transcripts became negatively modulated and all IL transcripts became positively modulated. In the presence of sepsis, bromopride administration increased MMP-8 and IFN-γ gene expression and decreased MMP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 gene expression on the third POD. On the seventh POD, we observed increased expression of MMP-13 and all cytokines, except for TNF-α. In conclusion, bromopride interferes with MMP and IL gene expression during anastomotic healing. Further studies are needed to correlate these changes with the healing process

  6. Diacerein Improves Left Ventricular Remodeling and Cardiac Function by Reducing the Inflammatory Response after Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, Anali Galluce; Reichert, Karla; Lima, Fany; de Souza Vilarinho, Karlos Alexandre; de Oliveira, Pedro Paulo Martins; do Carmo, Helison Rafael Pereira; de Carvalho, Daniela Diógenes; Saad, Mário José Abdalla; Sposito, Andrei Carvalho; Petrucci, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Background The inflammatory response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). An anthraquinone compound with anti-inflammatory properties, diacerein inhibits the synthesis and activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukins 1 and 6. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of diacerein on ventricular remodeling in vivo. Methods and Results Ligation of the left anterior descending artery was used to induce MI in an experimental rat model. Rats were divided into two groups: a control group that received saline solution (n = 16) and a group that received diacerein (80 mg/kg) daily (n = 10). After 4 weeks, the LV volume, cellular signaling, caspase 3 activity, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription were compared between the two groups. After 4 weeks, end-diastolic and end-systolic LV volumes were reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group (p < .01 and p < .01, respectively). Compared to control rats, diacerein-treated rats exhibited less fibrosis in the LV (14.65%± 7.27% vs. 22.57%± 8.94%; p < .01), lower levels of caspase-3 activity, and lower levels of NF-κB p65 transcription. Conclusions Treatment with diacerein once a day for 4 weeks after MI improved ventricular remodeling by promoting lower end-systolic and end-diastolic LV volumes. Diacerein also reduced fibrosis in the LV. These effects might be associated with partial blockage of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:25816098

  7. Effects of bromopride on expression of metalloproteinases and interleukins in left colonic anastomoses: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Jerônimo, M.S. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva-Pereira, I.; Bocca, A.L. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Sousa, J.B. [Departamento de Clínica Cirúrgica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Anastomotic dehiscence is the most severe complication of colorectal surgery. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukins (ILs) can be used to analyze the healing process of anastomosis. To evaluate the effects of bromopride on MMP and cytokine gene expression in left colonic anastomoses in rats with or without induced abdominal sepsis, 80 rats were divided into two groups for euthanasia on the third or seventh postoperative day (POD). They were then divided into subgroups of 20 rats for sepsis induction or not, and then into subgroups of 10 rats for administration of bromopride or saline. Left colonic anastomosis was performed and abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. A colonic segment containing the anastomosis was removed for analysis of gene expression of MMP-1α, MMP-8, MMP-13, IL-β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). On the third POD, bromopride was associated with increased MMP-1α, MMP-13, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 gene expression. On the seventh POD, all MMP transcripts became negatively modulated and all IL transcripts became positively modulated. In the presence of sepsis, bromopride administration increased MMP-8 and IFN-γ gene expression and decreased MMP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 gene expression on the third POD. On the seventh POD, we observed increased expression of MMP-13 and all cytokines, except for TNF-α. In conclusion, bromopride interferes with MMP and IL gene expression during anastomotic healing. Further studies are needed to correlate these changes with the healing process.

  8. Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. III: Estimating historical rates of left-handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Moore, James; Freegard, Matthew; Rawles, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The BBC television programme Right Hand, Left Hand, broadcast in August 1953, used a postal questionnaire to ask viewers about their handedness. Respondents were born between 1864 and 1948, and in principle therefore the study provides information on rates of left-handedness in those born in the nineteenth century, a group for which few data are otherwise available. A total of 6,549 responses were received, with an overall rate of left-handedness of 15.2%, which is substantially above that expected for a cohort born in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Left-handers are likely to respond preferentially to surveys about handedness, and the extent of over-response can be estimated in modern control data obtained from a handedness website, from the 1953 BBC data, and from Crichton-Browne's 1907 survey, in which there was also a response bias. Response bias appears to have been growing, being relatively greater in the most modern studies. In the 1953 data there is also evidence that left-handers were more common among later rather than early responders, suggesting that left-handers may have been specifically recruited into the study, perhaps by other left-handers who had responded earlier. In the present study the estimated rate of bias was used to correct the nineteenth-century BBC data, which was then combined with other available data as a mixture of two constrained Weibull functions, to obtain an overall estimate of handedness rates in the nineteenth century. The best estimates are that left-handedness was at its nadir of about 3% for those born between about 1880 and 1900. Extrapolating backwards, the rate of left-handedness in the eighteenth century was probably about 10%, with the decline beginning in about 1780, and reaching around 7% in about 1830, although inevitably there are many uncertainties in those estimates. What does seem indisputable is that rates of left-handedness fell during most of the nineteenth century, only subsequently to rise in

  9. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left

  10. The New Left in the European Democracies: The Case of the German Radical Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Damiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The new form of the social and political conflict cannot be explained by the traditional categories of right and left, but it articulates to them on two plans, that of the establishment, intended like plan of the structured political conflict from the traditional actors, and that of the anti-establishment, in which new representations of politics emerge. The New Left is characterized by type of intermittent participation and new perspectives on mobilization inside the parties and the social movements. This type of parties differs moreover from the traditional ones left of the socialist and social democratic left in not arranging of organizations collaterals placed under the direction of the leadership of the same party. The mobilization that spontaneously assumes not conventional forms of active participation of the citizens, or is primed by the action of an associative network of which the same parties take part, than however does not monopo-lize the collective action. In this regard, the attention will be dedicated to the study of Die Linke: an anti-establishment party of the non-socialist German left-wing, heir to the communist tradition. The choice was affected to the German model because: 1 Germany is a country with a strong social democratic tradition, but 25 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall the German political system identifies a new antagonist political party; 2 Die Linke represents an interesting case in the political landscape of the European radical left because is a one-party that gives up at the federation of parties to try to unify the political parties of German radical left-wing.

  11. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  12. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  13. The influence of sleep deprivation and obesity on DNA damage in female Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuli M. Tenorio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. METHOD: Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group. The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. RESULTS: Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.

  14. Left atrio-vertebral ratio: A new computed-tomography measurement to identify left atrial dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque-Juston, Marie; Volondat, Manuelle; Fontas, Eric; Roger, Coralie; Brunner, Philippe; Padovani, Bernard; Chevallier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Left cardiac chambers dilation, interstitial lung changes and pleural effusions are the characteristics of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema on computed tomography (CT) of the chest but mensuration of the left atrial size is not routinely performed. Cardiac chambers normal dimensions are known to be proportional to the patient's build and anthropomorphic data but adjustment of chambers dimensions to available elements seen on the axial CT images has never been evaluated before. Our objective was to use data easily available on axial images to directly scale the left atrium. We chose to divide the left atrial diameter by the thoracic vertebral diameter, using the latter as a body-mass indicator. As a preliminary study, we aimed to evaluate the range of values of this left atrio-vertebral ratio (LAVR) by comparing patients suffering from cardiogenic pulmonary oedema with patients free of cardiac disease. We hypothesized that if the difference of values in these two populations of patients was significant enough, this ratio would be relevant and could be used as a quick criterion in different clinical situations. Two radiologists reviewed CT scans of 32 of patients free of cardiac disease and 40 patients in acute cardiac failure. The maximum diameter of the left atrium at the level of the right inferior pulmonary vein was divided by the vertebral transverse diameter to generate a left atrio-vertebral ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves identified the threshold associated with pulmonary oedema. The mean LAVR was 1.85 ± 0.27 in asymptomatic patients and 2.48 ± 0.35 in patients with pulmonary oedema. A LAVR of 2.1 yielded 85% sensitivity and 88% specificity for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. LAVR is a simple new measure directly scaling the left atrial diameter to the anthropomorphic characteristics of the patient. In our series, a ratio above 2.1 is strongly associated with cardiogenic pulmonary oedema indirectly suggesting left atrial dilation

  15. Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169

  16. Left ventricular noncompaction in a patient presenting with a left ventricular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Anđelkov Anđelka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a congenital disorder characterised by prominent trabeculations in the left ventricular myocardium. This heart condition very often goes completely undetected, or is mistaken for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or coronary disease. Case report. A middle-aged female with a positive family history of coronary disease was admitted with chest pain, electrocardiography (ECG changes in the area of the inferolateral wall and elevation in cardiac specific enzymes. Initially, she was suspected of having acute coronary syndrome. However, in the left ventricular apex, especially alongside the lateral and inferior walls, cardiac ultrasound visualised hypertrabeculation with multiple trabeculae projecting inside the left ventricular cavity. A short-axis view of the heart above the papillary muscles revealed the presence of two layers of the myocardium: a compacted homogeneous layer adjacent to the epicardium and a spongy layer with trabeculae and sinusoids under the endocardium. The thickness ratio between the two layers was 2.2:1. The same abnormalities were corroborated by multislice computed tomography (MSCT of the heart. Conclusion. Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare, usually hereditary cardiomyopathy, which should be considered as a possibility in patients with myocardial hypertrophy. It is very often mistaken for coronary disease owing to ECG changes and elevated cardiac specific enzymes associated with myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure.

  17. Doubling left syntactic positions in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the doubling of left syntactic positions in Danish. Such doublings consist of a referential element: a NP or a clause, and an anaphoric element, an unstressed personal pronoun or an unstressed resumptive adverb. In main clauses, the CP-spec position may double in this way, w...... in the analysis of a broadcasted public speech (sect. 5). In earlier versions of Danish, as shown in sect. 4, the construction is both more frequent in writing and also seems almost obligatory....

  18. Mycobacterium chimaera left ventricular assist device infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Leora B; Louie, Eddie; Hill, Fred; Levine, Jamie; Phillips, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after cardiac surgery has recently been linked to bioaerosols from contaminated heater-cooler units. The majority of cases have occurred after valvular surgery or aortic graft surgery and nearly half have resulted in death. To date, infections in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been characterized in the literature. We report two cases of device-associated M. chimaera infection in patients with continuous-flow LVADs and describe challenges related to diagnosis and management in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anomalous Origin of Left Circumflex Artery

    OpenAIRE

    ?itaku, Hajdin; Kamberi, Lulzim; Gorani, Daut; Ko?inaj, Dardan; Krasniqi, Xhevdet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The coronary anatomic variation of the left circumflex artery (LCx) is considered as the most common anatomic variation with a separate ostium from the right sinus, and very unusual variation as a proximal branch of right coronary artery (RCA). Case report: We report two cases, the first case is a 64-year-old man with chest pain and with history of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and current smoker, and the second case is a 67-year-old who presented to the emergency departme...

  20. Multiple Coronary Artery Microfistulas Associated with Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Left and Right Coronary Artery to the Left Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Woo Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old woman underwent coronary angiography for chest pain. On the coronary angiogram, no significant coronary artery atherosclerotic stenosis was observed. Multiple coronary artery microfistulas, draining from the left anterior descending artery to the left ventricle and from the posterior descending artery of the right coronary artery to the left ventricle, were observed. Apical wall thickening and fistula flow from the left anterior descending artery were demonstrated by using transthoracic echocardiography. We describe a rare case of multiple coronary artery microfistulas from the left and right coronary artery to the left ventricle combined with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  1. Heart Failure with Transient Left Bundle Branch Block in the Setting of Left Coronary Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Juraschek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary arterial fistulas are rare communications between vessels or chambers of the heart. Although cardiac symptoms associated with fistulas are well described, fistulas are seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with left shoulder pain, signs of heart failure, and a new left bundle branch block (LBBB. Cardiac catheterization revealed a small left anterior descending (LAD-to-pulmonary artery (PA fistula. Diuresis led to subjective improvement of the patient's symptoms and within several days the LBBB resolved. We hypothesize that the coronary fistula in this patient contributed to transient ischemia of the LAD territory through a coronary steal mechanism. We elected to observe rather than repair the fistula, as his symptoms and ECG changes resolved with treatment of his heart failure.

  2. Morphological differences in skeletal muscle atrophy of rats with motor nerve and/or sensory nerve injury★

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lei; Lv, Guangming; Jiang, Shengyang; Yan, Zhiqiang; Sun, Junming; Wang, Ling; Jiang, Donglin

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs after denervation. The present study dissected the rat left ventral root and dorsal root at L4-6 or the sciatic nerve to establish a model of simple motor nerve injury, sensory nerve injury or mixed nerve injury. Results showed that with prolonged denervation time, rats with simple motor nerve injury, sensory nerve injury or mixed nerve injury exhibited abnormal behavior, reduced wet weight of the left gastrocnemius muscle, decreased diameter and cross-sectional...

  3. Nonlinear left-handed transmission line metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A B; Weide, D W van der

    2008-01-01

    Metamaterials, exhibiting simultaneously negative permittivity ε and permeability μ, more commonly referred to as left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) and also known as negative-index materials, have received substantial attention in the scientific and engineering communities [1]. Most studies of LHMs (and electromagnetic metamaterials in general) have been in the linear regime of wave propagation and have already inspired new types of microwave circuits and devices. The results of these studies have already been the subject of numerous reviews and books. This review covers a less explored but rapidly developing area of investigation involving media that combine nonlinearity (dependence of the permittivity and permeability on the magnitude of the propagating field) with the anomalous dispersion exhibited by LHM. The nonlinear phenomena in such media will be considered on the example of a model system: the nonlinear left-handed transmission line. These nonlinear phenomena include parametric generation and amplification, harmonic and subharmonic generation as well as modulational instabilities and envelope solitons. (topical review)

  4. Emission computer tomography of the left ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmler, W.; Felix, R.; Calder, D.; Golde, G.; Botsch, H.

    1983-10-01

    Tomographic studies and time-dependent tomograms on phantoms and patients were carried out using a 7-pinhole collimator in order to study the clinical value of ECG-triggered tomographic radionuclid ventriculography. A suitable computer programme has been developed. The results have shown that it is possible to evaluate local contraction abnormalities by this method. Using a left oblique position of the collimator (LAO (45/sup 0/) - cranial (15/sup 0/)), emission computer tomography is aligned with the longitudinal axis for the heart. In this way, a single projection is sufficient to show the montility of the anterior and posterior walls and of the septum. Hypokinesis, akinesis or dyskinesis can be recognised visually. The localisation and extent of the defect can be determined through the 7-pinhole collimator. Reconstructed images of the triggered radionuclide scintigrams show excellent marginal definition. In the RAO projection the left ventricle can be seen without superimposition and images obtained which equal those of a first-pass technique.

  5. Left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamoto, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Takuya; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2017-12-01

    Repeat hepatectomy is beneficial for selected patients with recurrence of liver malignancies. However, the operative procedure becomes technically demanding when the previous hepatectomy was complex, with hepatic veins and stump of portal pedicles exposed on the liver transection surface. We performed left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy (RPMS) for three patients. Here, we describe our surgical technique and the postoperative outcomes achieved. This procedure allowed for safe adhesiolysis between the middle and right hepatic veins by following a fibrous plane. The mean operative time was 8.7 h, including 4.9 h of adhesiolysis. The mean remnant liver volume (right lateral sector and the caudate lobe) was calculated as 704 ml, being 62% of total liver volume. There was no postoperative liver failure or mortality. In conclusion, left hepatectomy after RPMS is a feasible procedure for patients with sufficient remnant liver volume, even though the middle and right hepatic veins run side by side after liver regeneration.

  6. Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy by propranolol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension contributes significantly to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with increased incidence of sudden cardiac death. Recognition and management of hypertension is, therefore, imperative. Objective: To establish whether propranolol can reverse ...

  7. Incidental retroaortic left innominate vein in adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Semionov, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Retro-aortic left innominate vein is a rare vascular abnormality, usually associated with congenital heart disease. Here we report a case of isolated retro-aortic left innominate vein in an adult female.

  8. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  9. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  10. Visualisation of the left superior intercostal vein in MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrea, M.; Meydam, K.; Schmitt, W.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 56 MRT chest examinations showed the left intercostal vein in its horizontal trajectory in 3 patients with left mediastinal masses compressing the superior vena cava. In 2 patients the posterior trajectory of the horizontal segment was clearly visualised. In the third case the anterior part, namely the insertion of the left superior intercostal vein into the left brachiocephalic trunk, was demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  11. Striking volume intolerance is induced by mimicking arterial baroreflex failure in normal left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Kouta; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Kishi, Takuya; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are supersensitive to volume overload, and a striking increase in left atrial pressure (LAP) often occurs transiently and is rapidly resolved by intravascular volume reduction. The arterial baroreflex is a powerful regulator of intravascular stressed blood volume. We examined whether arterial baroreflex failure (FAIL) mimicked by constant carotid sinus pressure (CSP) causes a striking increase in LAP and systemic arterial pressure (AP) by volume loading in rats with normal left ventricular (LV) function. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, we isolated bilateral carotid sinuses and controlled CSP by a servo-controlled piston pump. We mimicked the normal arterial baroreflex by matching CSP to instantaneous AP and FAIL by maintaining CSP at a constant value regardless of AP. We infused dextran stepwise (infused volume [Vi]) until LAP reached 15 mm Hg and obtained the LAP-Vi relationship. We estimated the critical Vi as the Vi at which LAP reached 20 mm Hg. In FAIL, critical Vi decreased markedly from 19.4 ± 1.6 mL/kg to 15.6 ± 1.6 mL/kg (P baroreflex system we recently developed could fully restore the physiologic volume intolerance in the absence of native arterial baroreflex. Arterial baroreflex failure induces striking volume intolerance in the absence of LV dysfunction and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute heart failure, especially in states of HFpEF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  13. Morphological studies on the healing process of extraction wound in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the extraction wound in irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone formation and resorption. 282 Wistar rats of about 100g body weight were used. The region of the left upper molars of experimental rats was exposed to 1000 rad or 2000 rad of 60 Co. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of from 1 day to 28 days after extraction. Control rats were sacrificed at same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was examined histologically, histometrically, histochemically and ultrastructurally. In irradiated rats, the healing process of extraction wound was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue and periosteal new bone formation was interfered. Histochemical examination revealed that the osteoblasts of irradiated rats reduced enzymatic activity compared with control rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblasts of irradiated rats and osteoid formation was reduced. In irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were more numerous and increased more rapidly as compared with control rats, whereas, histometrically, there was no significant difference in the amount of bone loss between control and irradiated rats. Histochemically, there was no distinct difference in the enzymatic activity in osteoclasts between control and irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of irradiated rats. The findings suggest that irradiation induced cytological changes in not only oseoblasts but also osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author)

  14. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  15. Branching patterns of left coronary artery among North Indians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The left coronary artery displays variations in pattern, number and distribution of its branches. These variations influence the manifestation and extent of the coronary artery disease affecting the left main branch. A total of 100 North Indian cadaveric hearts were dissected to observe the main trunk of the left coronary artery.

  16. Learning Conflict Among Mixed-Dominance Left-Handed Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    This study investigates the hypothesis that it is mixed-dominance among left handers (i.e. left handedness and right eye and/or foot dominance), that is related to academic learning difficulties among such individuals, rather than the generally held notion that their difficulties stem from the fact that they are left handers in a "right handed…

  17. Spatial Deficit in Familial Left-Handed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Eme, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The study evaluated the hypothesis that familial left-handed children, who presumably have bilateral representation of language ability, should show an impairment in spatial abiblity on 44 children (22 right handed, 11 familial left handed, and 11 nonfamilial left handed) whose average age was 8 years old. (Author/PHR)

  18. Left-Handed Students: A Forgotten Minority. Fastback 399.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Evelyn B.

    This fastback, a booklet bound "left-handed," is designed to help educators become aware of the problems faced by left-handed students in school and to suggest ways that many of the problems might be solved. Following an introduction discussing a personal experience with left-handedness, the booklet continues with a brief history of the treatment…

  19. Left-Handed Children--Are They Losing Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Lauren

    1995-01-01

    Discusses difficulties faced by left-handed children in everyday schoolwork. Highlights include right-handed bias of toys, clothing, and tools; the need for guidance in handwriting; problem areas including domestic science, arts and crafts, and metal and woodwork; left-hand advantages in sports and creative arts; and the European Left-Handers Club…

  20. Prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were divided into hypertensives without left ventricular hypertrophy and those with left ventricular hypertrophy based on echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass index. Pulsed Doppler transmitral inflow and the pulmonary venous flow waves were used to categorise the patterns of diastolic dysfunction.

  1. Left Ventricular Geometry In Nigerians With Type II Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy is independently associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular and all cause mortality. In a relatively healthy hypertensive adult population, type II diabetes is associated with higher left ventricular mass, concentric left ventricular geometry and lower ...

  2. Isolated left carotid artery in CHARGE association: diagnosis and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalili, K; Issenberg, H J; Freeman, N J; Brodman, R F

    1990-07-01

    Isolation of the left carotid artery is extremely rare. We report a case of isolation of the left carotid artery with CHARGE association. Aortic arch abnormalities should be looked for in all children with CHARGE association. The technique of repair involved implantation of the isolated left carotid artery to the ascending aorta.

  3. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Withania somnifera as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent in Sleep-deprived Rats: a Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Shaffi; Mishra, Rachana; Singh, Rumani; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2017-05-01

    Modern lifestyle and sustained stress of professional commitments in the current societal set up often disrupts the normal sleep cycle and duration which is known to lead to cognitive impairments. In the present study, we report whether leaf extract of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has potential neuroprotective role in acute stress of sleep deprivation. Experiments were performed on three groups of adult Wistar rats: group 1 (vehicle treated-undisturbed sleep [VUD]), group 2 (vehicle treated-sleep deprived [VSD]), and group 3 (ASH-WEX treated-sleep deprived [WSD]). Groups 1 and 2 received single oral feeding of vehicle and group 3 received ASH-WEX orally (140 mg/kg or 1 ml/250 g of body weight) for 15 consecutive days. Immediately after this regimen, animals from group 1 were allowed undisturbed sleep (between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.), whereas rats of groups 2 and 3 were deprived of sleep during this period. We observed that WSD rats showed significant improvement in their performance in behavioral tests as compared to VSD group. At the molecular level, VSD rats showed acute change in the expression of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity, cell survival, and apoptosis in the hippocampus region of brain, which was suppressed by ASH-WEX treatment thus indicating decreased cellular stress and apoptosis in WSD group. This data suggest that Ashwagandha may be a potential agent to suppress the acute effects of sleep loss on learning and memory impairments and may emerge as a novel supplement to control SD-induced cognitive impairments.

  4. Left ventricular assist device implantation in patients after left ventricular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Meindert; Braun, Jerry; Beeres, Saskia L M A; Klautz, Robert J M

    2016-12-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation can be challenging in patients with a prior surgical ventricular restoration (SVR). In this case series of heart failure patients with a history of SVR, we describe the surgical technique and outcome of a customized approach for inflow cannula orientation. Seven patients with a history of SVR with end-stage chronic heart failure were accepted for long-term LVAD support. In all patients, the Dacron patch was removed through left ventriculotomy and a Hegar 22 dilator was inserted at the estimated optimal position of the LVAD inflow cannula. The left ventricle was reconstructed around the dilator from the left ventricular (LV) apex to the base. Finally, the LVAD sewing ring was sutured onto the remaining apical defect and a HeartWare® LVAD was implanted. LVAD implantation was successful in all 7 patients. Transoesophageal echocardiography ensured an adequate LVAD position and inflow and outflow cannula Doppler flow recordings. The mean intensive care unit stay was 5.8 ± 2.6 days, and the hospital stay after surgery was 32 ± 16 days. All patients follow regular visits (follow-up 20 ± 16 months) at the outpatient clinic without any remarkable event. Using the technique described, LVAD implantation in patients after SVR is feasible and safe. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Front Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The left front wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's front hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  6. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  7. Psychotic Symptoms Associated with Left Caudate Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotic symptoms following acquired brain lesion are relatively rare, and thus, the specific association linking such symptoms to the distinct brain structure remains unclear. The frontal–subcortical circuits are thought to modulate motor activity and human behavior, and have been reported to be associated with many neuropsychiatric symptoms. We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man without previous psychiatric disorder who developed a new onset of psychotic symptoms following left caudate infarction. The presented case supports the fact that psychosis might arise from alteration of the distinct brain structure. The functional impairment of the frontal–subcortical circuits may be a critical factor linking the pathogenesis of psychosis associated with acquired brain lesion.

  8. ODEs: is there anything left to do

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gear, C.W.

    1979-10-01

    Two decades ago many people thought that there was very little left to occupy the researcher in the numerical initial-value problem for ordinary differential equations, but there has since been an enormous increase in the effort devoted to this problem and related software. The question is whether everything is finally done so that more difficult areas can be studied. The development of numerical solution techniques is examined from the identification of a problem to the never-final preparation of automatic codes for the solution of classes of similar problems. A number of ODE problems that are only a part of the way along this path of development are discussed. These problems include ones with highly oscillatory solutions, ones with frequent discontinuities, and ones in which very little accuracy is needed (and which should be integrated at low cost). 4 figures.

  9. Pulmonary veins in the normal lung and pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James M.; Bethea, Brian; Liu, Xiang; Gandjeva, Aneta; Mammen, Pradeep P. A.; Stacher, Elvira; Gandjeva, Marina R.; Parish, Elisabeth; Perez, Mario; Smith, Lynelle; Graham, Brian B.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of pulmonary veins in normal lung physiology and the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease (PH-LHD), pulmonary veins remain largely understudied. Difficult to identify histologically, lung venous endothelium or smooth muscle cells display no unique characteristic functional and structural markers that distinguish them from pulmonary arteries. To address these challenges, we undertook a search for unique molecular markers in pulmonary veins. In addition, we addressed the expression pattern of a candidate molecular marker and analyzed the structural pattern of vascular remodeling of pulmonary veins in a rodent model of PH-LHD and in lung tissue of patients with PH-LHD obtained at time of placement on a left ventricular assist device. We detected urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression preferentially in normal pulmonary veins of mice, rats, and human lungs. Expression of uPAR remained elevated in pulmonary veins of rats with PH-LHD; however, we also detected induction of uPAR expression in remodeled pulmonary arteries. These findings were validated in lungs of patients with PH-LHD. In selected patients with sequential lung biopsy at the time of removal of the left ventricular assist device, we present early data suggesting improvement in pulmonary hemodynamics and venous remodeling, indicating potential regression of venous remodeling in response to assist device treatment. Our data indicate that remodeling of pulmonary veins is an integral part of PH-LHD and that pulmonary veins share some key features present in remodeled yet not normotensive pulmonary arteries. PMID:24039255

  10. Pulmonary veins in the normal lung and pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James M; Bethea, Brian; Liu, Xiang; Gandjeva, Aneta; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Stacher, Elvira; Gandjeva, Marina R; Parish, Elisabeth; Perez, Mario; Smith, Lynelle; Graham, Brian B; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Tuder, Rubin M

    2013-11-15

    Despite the importance of pulmonary veins in normal lung physiology and the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease (PH-LHD), pulmonary veins remain largely understudied. Difficult to identify histologically, lung venous endothelium or smooth muscle cells display no unique characteristic functional and structural markers that distinguish them from pulmonary arteries. To address these challenges, we undertook a search for unique molecular markers in pulmonary veins. In addition, we addressed the expression pattern of a candidate molecular marker and analyzed the structural pattern of vascular remodeling of pulmonary veins in a rodent model of PH-LHD and in lung tissue of patients with PH-LHD obtained at time of placement on a left ventricular assist device. We detected urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression preferentially in normal pulmonary veins of mice, rats, and human lungs. Expression of uPAR remained elevated in pulmonary veins of rats with PH-LHD; however, we also detected induction of uPAR expression in remodeled pulmonary arteries. These findings were validated in lungs of patients with PH-LHD. In selected patients with sequential lung biopsy at the time of removal of the left ventricular assist device, we present early data suggesting improvement in pulmonary hemodynamics and venous remodeling, indicating potential regression of venous remodeling in response to assist device treatment. Our data indicate that remodeling of pulmonary veins is an integral part of PH-LHD and that pulmonary veins share some key features present in remodeled yet not normotensive pulmonary arteries.

  11. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  12. Effects of Fixatives and Buffers upon the Morphology of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria from Exhausted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, James B.

    This study describes the effects of several fixatives and buffers on the morphology of mitochondria from resting and exhausted rats. Rats were run to exhaustion and adjacent portions from the left ventricle or from the soleus were treated with the following fixation procedures: (a) glutaraldehyde buffered with cacodylate, S-collidine, or phosphate…

  13. Comparison of in vivo cardiac function with ex vivo cardiac performance of the rat heart after thoracic irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; Camps, J. A.; van Ravels, F. J.; van der Laarse, A.; Pauwels, E. K.; Wondergem, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare in vivo cardiac function with ex vivo cardiac performance after local heart irradiation in the same rat. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured in vivo by radionuclide ventriculography in Sprague-Dawley rats up to 16 months after a single dose of

  14. What's Left of the Left-Right Dimension? Why the Economic Policy Positions of Europeans Do Not Fit the Left-Right Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjes, Simon

    2018-01-01

    In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension. There is also a role for the legacy of communist dictatorship: citizens who were socialised in democratic countries have views that fit the left-right dimension better than those socialised during communism.

  15. Cardiopulmonary Changes with Moderate Decompression in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R.; Little, T.; Doursout, M.-F.; Butler, B. D.; Chelly, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were compressed to 616 kPa for 120 min then decompressed at 38 kPa/min to assess the cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to moderate decompression stress. In one series of experiments the rats were chronically instrumented with Doppler ultrasonic probes for simultaneous measurement of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, left and right ventricular wall thickening fraction, and venous bubble detection. Data were collected at base-line, throughout the compression/decompression protocol, and for 120 min post decompression. In a second series of experiments the pulmonary responses to the decompression protocol were evaluated in non-instrumented rats. Analyses included blood gases, pleural and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and hemoglobin concentration, pulmonary edema, BAL and lung tissue phospholipids, lung compliance, and cell counts. Venous bubbles were directly observed in 90% of the rats where immediate post-decompression autopsy was performed and in 37% using implanted Doppler monitors. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and right ventricular wall thickening fractions were significantly decreased post decompression, whereas systemic vascular resistance was increased suggesting a decrease in venous return. BAL Hb and total protein levels were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression, pleural and plasma levels were unchanged. BAL white blood cells and neutrophil percentages were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression and pulmonary edema was detected. Venous bubbles produced with moderate decompression profiles give detectable cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in the rat.

  16. Cigarette smoke exposure during adolescence but not adulthood induces anxiety-like behavior and locomotor stimulation in rats during withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Woo, Taeseon; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for cigarette smoking. Studies have shown that adolescent smokers are more likely to become addicted, are less likely to quit, and are more prone to relapse. In the present study, we examined the affective symptoms experienced by adolescents during withdrawal from cigarette smoke exposure. Towards this goal, adolescent male rats were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke, through an automated smoking machine, for 14 days. Then, cigarette smoke exposure was discontinued to induce spontaneous withdrawal. During the withdrawal period, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test), locomotor activity (open-field test), and learning and memory (passive-avoidance test) were evaluated. These behavioral evaluations were conducted during the first, third, seventh, and fourteenth day of withdrawal. For comparison, parallel experiments were performed in adult rats. We found that adolescent rats exposed to cigarette smoke experiences increased anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity during withdrawal relative to control rats. Learning and memory processes were undisturbed. On the other hand, adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke did not show any statistically significant behavioral alteration during withdrawal. These results are consistent with the notion that adolescents are differentially sensitive to the withdrawal effects of cigarette smoking. This sensitivity might be a factor why adolescent smokers have difficulty quitting and are more prone to relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON LIPID PROFILE AND SOME HORMONES IN OBESE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABR, S.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; GHAREIB, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the long term effect of chromium picolinate (intake 30 and 60 days) on lipid profile, testosterone, thyroid hormones, corticosterone and insulin was studied in obese male rats. A total of 48 male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. The rats were distributed into four equal main groups: 1- Normal rats left without any treatment and served as a control group. 2- Normal rats treated with chromium picolinate at a dose of 40 μg/kg/day. 3-Obese rats (after the induction of obesity) using fed high fat diet. 4- Obese rats treated with chromium picolinate. The results obtained showed that normal rats treated with chromium picolinate for 30 or 60 days had no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) when compared with the control group. The testosterone and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats treated with chromium picolinate for 60 days. Insulin level was significantly increased in treated rats for 60 days when compared with the control ones. In obese rats, the lipid profile and corticosterone were significantly increased at 30 and 60 days, while the insulin levels were increased in obese rats fed on high fat diet for 30 days as compared with the control rats. The administration of chromium picolinate to obese rats succeeded to decrease the lipid profile, corticosterone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 days) when compared with the obese rats. It could be concluded from this study that chromium picolinate possess beneficial effects in decreasing lipid profile in obese rats. Therefore, additional of chromium picolinate may be useful in obese rats to burn excess body fat and in treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Since it cause decrease in testosterone level, its use was advised to restrict to relatively old age

  18. UFO in the Left Atrium: How to Capture Metal Debris Floating in the Left Atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassini, Gaetano; Moltrasio, Massimo; Conti, Sergio; Biagioli, Viviana; Tondo, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Electrophysiology procedures involving left atrium navigation are becoming more frequent, mostly due to the increase of atrial fibrillation ablation. Mapping catheters of different shapes and size as well as dedicated sheaths are mandatory tools for the accomplishment of procedural end point. Therefore, technical issues are expected, usually unrelated to significant risk. However, any accidental intra-atrial device loss of integrity implies a risk of cerebrovascular embolization. The lack of clear evidence on how to manage these events and the need for a quick solution complicate the scenario. We report an empirical solution in the case of debris floating in the left atrium. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Evaluation in Obese Hypertensive Patients: Effect of Left Ventricular Mass Index Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cantoni Rosa

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate left ventricular mass (LVM index in hypertensive and normotensive obese individuals. METHODS: Using M mode echocardiography, 544 essential hypertensive and 106 normotensive patients were evaluated, and LVM was indexed for body surface area (LVM/BSA and for height² (LVM/h². The 2 indexes were then compared in both populations, in subgroups stratified according to body mass index (BMI: or = 30kg/m². RESULTS: The BSA index does not allow identification of significant differences between BMI subgroups. Indexing by height² provides significantly increased values for high BMI subgroups in normotensive and hypertensive populations. CONCLUSION: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH has been underestimated in the obese with the use of LVM/BSA because this index considers obesity as a physiological variable. Indexing by height² allows differences between BMI subgroups to become apparent and seems to be more appropriate for detecting LVH in obese populations.

  20. Echocardiographic assessment of inappropriate left ventricular mass and left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with diastolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shemirani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: early diagnosis of left ventricular mass (LVM inappropriateness and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH can result in preventing diastolic left ventricular dysfunction and its related morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to determine if diastolic dysfunction is associated with LVH and inappropriate LVM. Materials and Methods: one hundred and twenty five uncomplicated hypertension from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program underwent two-dimensional echocardiography. Inappropriate LVM was defined as an LVM index greater than 88 g/m2 of body-surface area in women and greater than 102 g/m2 in men. LVH-defined septal and posterior wall thickness greater than 0/9 cm in women and greater than 1 cm in men, respectively. Echocardiographic parameters, including early diastolic peak velocity (E/late diastolic peak velocity (A, deceleration time (DT, and E/early mitral annulus velocity (E′ were measured. Results: the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the patients′ admission day were 142.87 ± 18.12 and 88.45 ± 9.18 mmHg, respectively. Totally, 21.7% of subjects had inappropriate LV mass that moderate and severe abnormal LV mass was revealed in 5.6% and 5.6%, respectively. The mean of age and BMI was significantly higher in patients with moderate left ventricular hypertrophy (P 0.05. Spearman′s Rank test was used to test the correlation between diastolic dysfunction and LV mass (P = 0.025. Conclusion: LVH is correlated with the severity of diastolic dysfunction manifested by the E/A value and deceleration time, but inappropriate LVM can slightly predict diastolic dysfunction severity in uncomplicated hypertension.

  1. Endocarditis in left ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Kumar, Monisha Priyadarshini; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in developed nations. End stage heart failure often requires cardiac transplantation for survival. The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been one of the biggest evolvements in heart failure management often serving as bridge to transplant or destination therapy in advanced heart failure. Like any other medical device, LVAD is associated with complications with infections being reported in many patients. Endocarditis developing secondary to the placement of LVAD is not a frequent, serious and difficult to treat condition with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few retrospective studies and case reports reporting the same. In our review, we found the most common cause of endocarditis in LVAD was due to bacteria. Both bacterial and fungal endocarditis were associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this review we will be discussing the risk factors, organisms involved, diagnostic tests, management strategies, complications, and outcomes in patients who developed endocarditis secondary to LVAD placement. PMID:27672540

  2. TOOL USE DISORDERS AFTER LEFT BRAIN DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josselin eBaumard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review studies that investigated tool use disorders in left-brain damaged (LBD patients over the last thirty years. Four tasks are classically used in the field of apraxia: Pantomime of tool use, single tool use, real tool use and mechanical problem solving. Our aim was to address two issues, namely, (1 the role of mechanical knowledge in real tool use and (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying pantomime of tool use, a task widely employed by clinicians and researchers. To do so, we extracted data from 36 papers and computed the difference between healthy subjects and LBD patients. On the whole, pantomime of tool use is the most difficult task and real tool use is the easiest one. Moreover, associations seem to appear between pantomime of tool use, real tool use and mechanical problem solving. These results suggest that the loss of mechanical knowledge is critical in LBD patients, even if all of those tasks (and particularly pantomime of tool use might put differential demands on semantic memory and working memory.

  3. Challenges training left-handed surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maia; Carballo, Erica; Hughes, David; Behrer, Christopher; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2017-09-01

    Being left-handed (LH) is considered a disadvantage in surgical training. We sought to understand the perspectives of LH trainees and surgical educators on the challenges and modifications in training LH surgeons. A survey was distributed to surgeons, surgical residents, and medical students about challenges teaching and learning surgical technique. 25 LH surgeons, 65 right-handed (RH) surgeons, and 39 LH trainees completed the survey. Compared to LH surgeons, RH surgeons reported more difficulty (46% vs 16%, p = 0.003) and less comfort teaching LH trainees (28% vs 4%, p = 0.002), and 10 (15%) reported that LH trainees have less technical ability. RH surgeons identified challenges translating technique to LH trainees and physical limitations of an environment optimized for right-handed mechanics. The disadvantage LH surgical trainees face is due to barriers in training rather than inherent lesser ability. Nonetheless, minimal modifications are made to overcome these barriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic Testing in Pediatric Left Ventricular Noncompaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Erin M; Hinton, Robert B; Czosek, Richard; Lorts, Angela; Parrott, Ashley; Shikany, Amy R; Ittenbach, Richard F; Ware, Stephanie M

    2017-12-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) can occur in isolation or can co-occur with a cardiomyopathy phenotype or cardiovascular malformation. The yield of cardiomyopathy gene panel testing in infants, children, and adolescents with a diagnosis of LVNC is unknown. By characterizing a pediatric population with LVNC, we sought to determine the yield of cardiomyopathy gene panel testing, distinguish the yield of testing for LVNC with or without co-occurring cardiac findings, and define additional factors influencing genetic testing yield. One hundred twenty-eight individuals diagnosed with LVNC at ≤21 years of age were identified, including 59% with idiopathic pathogenesis, 32% with familial disease, and 9% with a syndromic or metabolic diagnosis. Overall, 75 individuals had either cardiomyopathy gene panel (n=65) or known variant testing (n=10). The yield of cardiomyopathy gene panel testing was 9%. The severity of LVNC by imaging criteria was not associated with positive genetic testing, co-occurring cardiac features, pathogenesis, family history, or myocardial dysfunction. Individuals with isolated LVNC were significantly less likely to have a positive genetic testing result compared with those with LVNC and co-occurring cardiomyopathy (0% versus 12%, respectively; P testing should be considered in individuals with cardiomyopathy co-occurring with LVNC. These data do not suggest an indication for cardiomyopathy gene panel testing in individuals with isolated LVNC in the absence of a family history of cardiomyopathy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Left ventricular noncompaction: Clinical-echocardiographic study

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    Nikolić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a disorder in endomyocardial morphogenesis, seen either isolated (in the absence of other cardiac anomalies or in association with congenital heart disease and some neuromuscular diseases. Intrauterine arrest of the compaction of myocardial fibers is postulated to be the reason of LVNC. Recognition of this condition is extremely important due to its high mortality and morbidity that lead to progressive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of LVNC among consecutive outpatients according to clinical and echocardiographyic findings. Methode. A total of 3,854 consecutive patients examined at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases within a period January 2006 - January 2007 were included in the study. All the patients underwent echocardiographic examination using the same equipment (Vivid 7, GE Medical System. Echocardiographic parameters and clinical presentation in patients with echocardiographic criteria for LVNC were analyzed. Results. Analyzing 3,854 consecutive outpatients, using two-dimensional Color Doppler echocardiography from January 2006 to January 2007, 12 patients met the criteria for LVNC. Seven of them were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 45 ± 15 years. Analyzing clinical manifestation of LVNC it was found that seven patients had signs of heart failure, six had arrhythmias with no embolic events. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the real prevalence of LVNC may be higher than expected. New studies have to be done to solve this problem.

  6. Cilia in Left-Right Symmetry Breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Kyosuke; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2017-10-03

    Visceral organs of vertebrates show left-right (L-R) asymmetry with regard to their position and morphology. Cilia play essential role in generating L-R asymmetry. A number of genes required for L-R asymmetry have now been identified in vertebrates, including human, many of which contribute to the formation and motility of cilia. In the mouse embryo, breaking of L-R symmetry occurs in the ventral node, where two types of cilia (motile and immotile) are present. Motile cilia are located at the central region of the node, and generate a leftward fluid flow. These motile cilia at the node are unique in that they rotate in the clockwise direction, unlike other immotile cilia such as airway cilia that show planar beating. The second type of cilia essential for L-R asymmetry is immotile cilia that are peripherally located immotile cilia. They sense a flow-dependent signal, which is either chemical or mechanical in nature. Although Ca 2+ signaling is implicated in flow sensing, the precise mechanism remains unknown. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Thyroid hormone action on rat calvarial sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, S; Nakamura, T; Hirano, A; Fujii, T; Yamashita, S

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the effect of thyroid hormone on the calvarial sutures, the morphology, histology, and bone mineral density were analyzed in thyroid hormone-injected rats. A total of 80 female Wistar rats at the age of 10 days were divided into 2 groups; the triiodothyronine (T3)-treated rats (n = 40, T3 100 micrograms/kg body weight/day) were maintained under the same conditions as controls (n = 40, saline-vehicle only), and both were sacrificed at 50, 80, and 200 experimental days, respectively. T3-treated animals showed smaller values of lambda-asterion and pterion-bregma distances at the various periods of examination, resulting in smaller sizes in right-left direction of the skull. The sagittal suture distance in the skull specimens observed by Goldner's staining (fibrous tissue content) appeared smaller and the osseous margin widths greatly increased in the T3-treated rats. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that the tetracycline-calcein double labelings were not interrupted from the periosteal to the endosteal areas in any specimens indicating the scantiness of osteoclastic activity in the suture areas. Mineral apposition rates at the osseous edges of the suture were significantly increased in the T3-treated rats (p < 0.01 at the age of 90 days). The distance between the second labels and the distance between the first labels were significantly larger in the T3-treated rats. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement showed that the T3 administration decreased only the calvarial BMD at the age of 210 days (p < 0.01), but did not decrease lumbar or femur BMD. This experiment demonstrated clear evidence of excess thyroid hormone action on the early narrowing of the sagittal suture in infantile hyperthyroid rats, probably due to the enhanced osteogenic activity caused by the hormone.

  8. Evaluation of left cardiac function by exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Horayama, Norihisa; Hamada, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi; Takezawa, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    Left ventricular systolic and diastolic features at rest and exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were evaluated by Fourier analysis of blood pool scintigraphy (intracorporeal labelling with sup(99m)Tc-RBC). In the normal group (17 subjects), the left ventricular ejection fraction showed a linear increase, but no abnormality of regional ventricular wall motion, by multistage exercises. The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy group showed higher left ventricular ejection fractions at rest than those of the normal group, and in the HCM group (non-obstructive, from morphological features; 7 cases) the left ventricular ejection fraction did not increase any more when it reached a certain plateau in accordance with increased stress. In the HOCM (obstructive; 5 cases), the left ventricular ejection fraction showed a decreasing tendency as the stress was increased and also showed contractile abnormalities from the left ventricular center to the apex. Fourier analysis was effective for the evaluation of these changes. (Chiba, N.)

  9. Isolated Left Pulmonary Artery Agenesis: A Case Report

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    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis without any cardiovascular malformation is a rare anomaly. We present the imaging findings of a patient who was diagnosed as isolated left pulmonary artery agenesis. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital due to dyspnea during exercise for five years. Chest X-ray revealed minimally small left pulmonary hilum and left lung. She was admitted to our clinic with the suspicion of pulmonary artery pathology. Absent perfusion of the left lung with normal ventilation was visualized on scintigraphy. MDCT angiography of pulmonary arteries showed absent left main pulmonary artery with systemic collaterals around left hemithorax. Pulmonary artery agenesis can be asymptomatic and isolated until adulthood. Both scintigraphy and CT angiography images of pulmonary artery agenesis of a patient are rare in the literature. Pulmonary ventilation- perfusion scintigraphy can be used not only for pulmonary embolism but also pathologies involving pulmonary artery and its branches. (MIRT 2012;21:80-83

  10. The compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Papel relativo da remodelação geométrica do ventrículo esquerdo, morfológica e funcional do miocárdio na transição da hipertrofia compensada para a falência cardíaca em ratos com estenose aórtica supravalvar Relative role of left ventricular geometric remodeling and of morphological and functional myocardial remodeling in the transition from compensated hypertrophy to heart failure in rats with supravalvar aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Antonio Bregagnollo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a contribuição relativa da remodelação geométrica do ventrículo esquerdo (VE e das alterações morfológicas e funcionais do miocárdio, em ratos com estenose aórtica supravalvar (EAS, na fase de transição da hipertrofia compensada para a insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC. MÉTODOS: Vinte e uma semanas após a indução da EAS os ratos foram classificados como controles (GC,n=13, não portadores (GE,n=11 ou portadores de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (GE-IC,n=12.Todos os grupos foram avaliados com estudo ecocardiográfico, hemodinâmico e morfológico do miocárdio. RESULTADOS: Vinte e uma semanas após EAS: índice de massa (GE-IC>GE>GC,pGC, pGE>GC, pGE>GC,pGE>GC, pGE>GC, pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative contribution of left ventricular (LV geometric remodeling and of morphological and functional myocardial changes in rats with induced supravalvar aortic stenosis (SAS, in the transition from compensated hypertrophy to congestive heart failure (CHF. METHODS: Twenty one weeks after induction of SAS, the rats were classified as controls (CG, n=13, without congestive heart failure (SG, n=11, or with congestive heart failure (SG-HF, n=12. All groups were evaluated with echocardiographic, hemodynamic and morphological study of the myocardium. RESULTS: Twenty one weeks after SAS: mass index (SG-HF>SG>CG, pCG, pSG>CG, pSG>CG, pSG>CG, pSG>CG, p<0.05. In the SG-HF group, LV geometric remodeling was characterized by a significant increase in dimensions and relative thickness of the normal wall (excentric remodeling, whereas the SG group presented a concentric remodeling. Indexes of LV performance in the SG-HF group were significantly lower than those of the SG group. CONCLUSION: The SG-HF and SG groups differed primarily in the LV geometric remodeling and structural myocardial remodeling process, which established a chronically compensated state in the SG group and triggered CHF in the SG-HF group in the

  12. [Effect of implantation of cardiosphere-derived cells combined with rat heart tissue-derived extracellular matrix on acute myocardial infarction in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Da-Qing; Gu, Tian-Xiang; Xu, Zhao-Fa; Liu, Shuang; Li, Xue-Yuan

    2016-10-20

    To investigate whether heart tissue-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) promotes the differentiation of cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) implanted in rat infracted myocardium to improve the cardiac structure and function. Rat CDCs were cultured by cardiac explant methods, and ECM was prepared by decelluariztion method. In a Wistar rat model of acute myocardial infarction established by ligating the left anterior descending branch, IMDM solution, ECM suspension, 10 6 CDCs in IMDM solution, or 10 6 CDCs in ECM suspension were injected into the infracted rat myocardium (6 rats in each group). The cardiac function of the rats was evaluated by cardiac ultrasonography, and the percentage of positive heart fibrosis area after infarction was determined with Masson staining. The differentiation of implanted CDCs in the infarcted myocardium was detected using immunofluorescence assay for the markers of cardiac muscle cells (α-SA), vascular endothelial cells (vWF) and smooth muscle cells (α-SMA). Three weeks after acute myocardial infarction, the rats with injection of CDCs in ECM showed the highest left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and percentage of fraction shortening with the lowest percentage of positive heart fibrosis area; implantation of CDCs with ECM resulted in significantly higher rates of CDC differentiation into cardiac muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cell (P<0.05). Heart-tissue derived ECM significantly promotes the differentiation of CDCs implanted in the infracted myocardium into cardiac muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells to improve the cardiac structure and cardiac functions in rats.

  13. Effects of oral adsorbent in the rat model of chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y; Sakai, T; Ise, M

    1992-01-01

    The effects of oral adsorbent, AST-120 (Kureha Chemical Ind. Co., Tokyo), were studied in the rat model of subtotal nephrectomy. In 34 female Sprague-Dawley rats, three quarters of the renal mass were removed from the left kidney by ligation of 3 branches of the left renal artery. One week later, the right kidney was removed. Two days after right nephrectomy, control rats were fed standard rat chow ad libitum, while AST-120-treated rats were fed standard rat chow containing AST-120 ad libitum. The animals were observed for 9 weeks. Of the control rats, some became severely ill and appeared to be almost dying before 9 weeks, while paired AST-120-treated rats appeared well. Body weight was maintained better in AST-120-treated rats than in control rats. At completion of the study, levels of BUN and serum creatinine were lower and glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow rate were higher in AST-120-treated than in control rats (p < 0.05), although there was no statistically significant difference in proteinuria. Serum uremic peak 2a measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, which is considered to correspond to uremic toxins, was statistically lower in AST-120-treated rats (p < 0.05). Finally, a marked reduction in the degree of glomerular sclerosis was noted in AST-120-treated versus control rats (p < 0.05). The results indicate that AST-120 is effective in the treatment of chronic renal failure in terms of reducing uremic symptoms as well as preserving renal function and glomerular architecture. The data also indicate that a reduction in uremic toxins could delay the progressive damage of renal function and glomerular architecture in chronic renal failure.

  14. Left-handed surgical instruments - a guide for cardiac surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Clare; Theakston, Maureen; Dunning, Joel; Goodwin, Andrew; Kendall, Simon William Henry

    2016-08-19

    For ease of use and to aid precision, left-handed instruments are invaluable to the left-handed surgeon. Although they exist, they are not available in many surgical centres. As a result, most operating theatre staff (including many left-handers) have little knowledge of their value or even application. With specific reference to cardiac surgery, this article addresses the ways in which they differ, why they are needed and what is required - with tips on use.

  15. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Rupture of the left atrial roof due to blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Sam Youn; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac rupture after blunt trauma is rare and associated with high mortality. The anatomic pattern of blunt cardiac rupture has been demonstrated with the right cardiac chambers more frequently affected than the left. Furthermore, left atrial injury is usually restricted to the atrial appendage and the pulmonary vein-atrial junction. Herein, we report the first case of a 61-year old man with a rupture of the left atrial roof after blunt trauma with minimal thoracic injury.

  17. Rupture of the left atrial roof due to blunt trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Sam Youn; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac rupture after blunt trauma is rare and associated with high mortality. The anatomic pattern of blunt cardiac rupture has been demonstrated with the right cardiac chambers more frequently affected than the left. Furthermore, left atrial injury is usually restricted to the atrial appendage and the pulmonary vein–atrial junction. Herein, we report the first case of a 61-year old man with a rupture of the left atrial roof after blunt trauma with minimal thoracic injury.

  18. Symptomatic Type IV Dual Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

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    Kyriacos Papadopoulos MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual left anterior descending coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly with 4 subtypes. Double left anterior descending coronary artery originating from the left main stem and the right coronary artery (type IV dual left anterior descending artery has been reported to occur in 0.01% to 0.7% of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who was found to have this anomaly during coronary angiography. The patient had been complaining of chest pain that mimics angina pectoris and exercise tolerance test was positive for myocardial ischemia.

  19. Detection of left ventricular thrombi by computerised tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, C.K.; Sketch, M.H.; Mahoney, P.D.; Lynch, J.D.; Mooss, A.N.; Kenney, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen patients suspected of having left ventricular mural thrombi were studied. All had suffered transmural myocardial infarction. Fifteen patients had a ventricular aneurysm. One had had systemic emboli. The mean length of time between the myocardial infarction and the study was 14.8 months, with a range of one month to 79 months. All patients underwent computerised tomography of the heart, M-mode echocardiography (M-mode), and two-dimensional echocardiography (2-D). Eight patients underwent left ventricular cineangiography. Five patients had surgical confirmation. Computerised tomography, two-dimensional, and M-mode echocardiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in 10, eight, and one of the 16 patients, respectively. Left ventricular cineangiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in four out of eight patients. Computerised tomography and left ventricular cineangiography correctly predicted the presence or absence of left ventricular thrombi in all five patients who underwent operation. In the same group, however, two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography failed to predict the presence of thrombi in one and three patients, respectively. Among the 11 patients without surgical confirmation, one, in whom no left ventricular thrombi were shown by M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography, was found to have thrombi on computerised tomography. In another, two-dimensional echocardiography was positive but this finding was not confirmed either by computerised tomography or by left ventricular angiography. (author)

  20. El aumento de la expresión del ARNm de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina I homóloga (ECA-2 inducido por atorvastatina se asocia a menor fibrosis e hipertrofia ventricular izquierda en un modelo de cardiomiopatía diabética Atorvastatin induced increase in homologous angiotensin i converting enzyme (ACE2 mRNA is associated to decreased fibrosis and decreased left ventricular hypertrophy in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto de atorvastatina sobre la progresión del remodelado cardiaco y la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. Materiales y métodos. La diabetes fue inducida en ratas Holtzman con una inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina. Los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos: (1 ratas control, (2 ratas diabéticas y (3 ratas diabéticas tratadas con atorvastatina (50 mg/kg/día. Después de ocho semanas de tratamiento, los corazones fueron extraídos para el análisis morfométrico, la cuantificación de colágeno y la determinación de los niveles de ARNm de ECA y ECA-2. Resultados. El índice de hipertrofia ventricular y el depósito de colágeno se incrementaron significativamente en las ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina previno estos cambios sin modificar los niveles de colesterol. La hiperglicemia produjo un incremento significativo en los niveles del ARNm de ECA y una marcada disminución en la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina indujo la expresión del ARNm de ECA-2 e inhibió la sobreexpresión del ARNm de ECA en el miocardio de las ratas diabéticas. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados indican que la atorvastatina, independientemente de su capacidad para disminuir el colesterol, normaliza la relación de la expresión de ECA/ECA-2 y atenúa el desarrollo del remodelado adverso en el corazón diabético.Objectives. This study has investigated the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of cardiac remodelling and ACE- 2 expression in diabetic myocardium in rats. Materials and Methods. Diabetes was induced in Holtzman rats with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The animals were divided into 3 groups: (1 normal control rats, (2 diabetic rats and (3 diabetic rats treated orally with atorvastatin (50 mg/kg/day. After eight weeks of treatment, the hearts were removed for morphometric studies, collagen

  1. The Effects and Mechanism of Atorvastatin on Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease.

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    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD is one of the most common forms of PH, termed group 2 PH. Atorvastatin exerts beneficial effects on the structural remodeling of the lung in ischemic heart failure. However, few studies have investigated the effects of atorvastatin on PH due to left heart failure induced by overload.Group 2 PH was induced in animals by aortic banding. Rats (n = 20 were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (C, an aortic banding group (AOB63, an atorvastatin prevention group (AOB63/ATOR63 and an atorvastatin reversal group (AOB63/ATOR50-63. Atorvastatin was administered for 63 days after banding to the rats in the AOB63/ATOR63 group and from days 50 to 63 to the rats in the AOB63/ATOR50-63 group.Compared with the controls, significant increases in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary arteriolar medial thickening, biventricular cardiac hypertrophy, wet and dry weights of the right middle lung, percentage of PCNA-positive vascular smooth muscle cells, inflammatory infiltration and expression of RhoA and Rho-kinase II were observed in the AOB63 group, and these changes concomitant with significant decreases in the percentage of TUNEL-positive vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment of the rats in the AOB63/ATOR63 group with atorvastatin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day significantly decreased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary arteriolar medial thickness, inflammatory infiltration, percentage of PCNA-positive cells and pulmonary expression of RhoA and Rho-kinase II and significantly augmented the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells compared with the AOB63 group. However, only a trend of improvement in pulmonary vascular remodeling was detected in the AOB63/ATOR50-63 group.Atorvastatin prevents pulmonary vascular remodeling in the PH-LHD model by down-regulating the expression of RhoA/Rho kinase, by inhibiting the proliferation and increasing the

  2. Unruptured aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva compressing the left main coronary artery: successful percutaneous treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausinger, P; Sasi, V; Volford, G; Bitay, M; Bogáts, G; Thury, A; Palkó, A; Forster, T; Nemes, A

    2014-09-01

    Aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva is an extremely rare entity. It may be asymptomatic and incidentally discovered, or may be symptomatic and manifest acutely with compression of adjacent cardiac structures. Encasement of the left main coronary artery by such an aneurysm is a recognized but infrequent complication that can lead to severe coronary insufficiency. Surgical decompression of the left main coronary artery is the standard treatment for such conditions. We describe a patient presenting with extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by a large unruptured aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva occurring 4 months after unsuccessful surgical repair. Since reoperation was considered high-risk for the patient, successful fractional flow reserve- and intravascular ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment of the left main coronary artery was performed with implantation of one bare-metal stent.

  3. Left atrial strain: a new parameter for assessment of left ventricular filling pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Mandoli, Giulia Elena; Loiacono, Ferdinando; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Henein, Michael; Mondillo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate diagnosis, treatment and prognostication in many cardiac conditions, there is a need for assessment of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. While systole depends on ejection function of LV, diastole and its disturbances influence filling function and pressures. The commonest condition that represents the latter is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in which LV ejection is maintained, but diastole is disturbed and hence filling pressures are raised. Significant diastolic dysfunction results in raised LV end-diastolic pressure, mean left atrial (LA) pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, all referred to as LV filling pressures. Left and right heart catheterization has traditionally been used as the gold standard investigation for assessing these pressures. More recently, Doppler echocardiography has taken over such application because of its noninvasive nature and for being patient friendly. A number of indices are used to achieve accurate assessment of filling pressures including: LV pulsed-wave filling velocities (E/A ratio, E wave deceleration time), pulmonary venous flow (S wave and D wave), tissue Doppler imaging (E' wave and E/E' ratio) and LA volume index. LA longitudinal strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is also sensitive in estimating intracavitary pressures. It is angle-independent, thus overcomes Doppler limitations and provides highly reproducible measures of LA deformation. This review examines the application of various Doppler echocardiographic techniques in assessing LV filling pressures, in particular the emerging role of STE in assessing LA pressures in various conditions, e.g., HF, arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation.

  4. Limited left atrial surgical ablation effectively treats atrial fibrillation but decreases left atrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier, Marieke G; Tops, Laurens F; Braun, Jerry; Zeppenfeld, Katja; Klautz, Robert J; Schalij, Martin J; Trines, Serge A

    2017-04-01

    Limited left atrial (LA) surgical ablation with bipolar radiofrequency is considered to be an effective procedure for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). We studied whether limited LA surgical ablation concomitant to cardiac surgery is able to maintain LA function. Thirty-six consecutive patients (age 66 ± 12 years, 53% male, 78% persistent AF) scheduled for valve surgery and/or coronary revascularization and concomitant LA surgical ablation were included. Epicardial pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and additional endo-epicardial lines were performed using bipolar radiofrequency. An age- and gender-matched control group (n = 36, age 66 ± 9 years, 69% male, 81% paroxysmal AF) was selected from patients undergoing concomitant epicardial PVI only. Left atrial dimensions and function were assessed on two-dimensional echocardiography preoperatively and at 3- and 12-month follow-up. Sinus rhythm (SR) maintenance was 67% for limited LA ablation and 81% for PVI at 1-year follow-up (P = 0.18). Left atrial volume decreased from 72 ± 21 to 50 ± 14 mL (31%, P Atrial transport function was restored in 54% of patients in SR after limited LA ablation compared with 100% of patients in SR after PVI. Atrial strain and contraction parameters (LA ejection fraction, A-wave velocity, reservoir function, and strain rate) significantly decreased after limited LA ablation. After PVI, strain and contraction parameters remained unchanged. Even limited LA ablation decreased LA volume, contraction, transport function, and compliance, indicating both reverse remodelling combined with significant functional deterioration. In contrast, surgical PVI decreased LA volume while function remained unchanged. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Memorization of Sequences of Movements of the Right or the Left Hand by Right- and Left-Handers: Vector Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrova, E V; Bogacheva, I N; Lyakhovetskii, V A; Fabinskaja, A A; Fomina, E V

    2017-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of hemisphere specialization for different types of information coding (the right hemisphere, for positional coding; the left one, for vector coding), we analyzed the errors of right and left-handers during a task involving the memorization of sequences of movements by the left or the right hand, which activates vector coding by changing the order of movements in memorized sequences. The task was first performed by the right or the left hand, then by the opposite hand. It was found that both'right- and left-handers use the information about the previous movements of the dominant hand, but not of the non-dom" inant one. After changing the hand, right-handers use the information about previous movements of the second hand, while left-handers do not. We compared our results with the data of previous experiments, in which positional coding was activated, and concluded that both right- and left-handers use vector coding for memorizing the sequences of their dominant hands and positional coding for memorizing the sequences of non-dominant hand. No similar patterns of errors were found between right- and left-handers after changing the hand, which suggests that in right- and left-handersthe skills are transferred in different ways depending on the type of coding.

  6. The thermal effect on the left-handedness of the mesoscopic composite right-Left handed transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Shun-Cai; Guo, Hong-Wei

    2017-10-01

    Starting from the quantum fluctuation of current in the mesoscopic composite right-left handed transmission line (CRLH-TL) in the thermal Fock state, we investigate the left-handedness dependent of the frequencies, intensity and quantum fluctuations of the current field in the CRLH-TL under different thermal environment. The results show that the intensity and quantum fluctuations of current field in lower frequency bands affect the left-handedness distinctly under different thermal environment. The thermal effect on the left-handedness in the mesoscopic CRLH-TL deserves further experimental investigation in its miniaturization application.

  7. Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device fitting after left ventricular reconstruction with mitral valve plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Nishimura, Takashi; Itoh, Satoshi; Yuri, Koichi; Kyo, Shunei; Adachi, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    Both left ventricular assist device and left ventricular reconstruction are treatment choices for severe heart failure conditions. Our institution performed a left ventricular assist device installation following a left ventricular reconstruction procedure on a 42-year-old male patient who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy and low cardiac output syndrome. A mitral valve plasty was used to correct the acute mitral valve regurgitation and we performed a Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device installation on post-operative day 14. Due to the left ventricular reconstruction that the patient had in a previous operation, we needed to attach an apical cuff on posterior apex, insert the inflow cannula with a large curve, and shift the skin insertion site laterally to the left. We assessed the angle between the cardiac longitudinal axis and the inflow cannula using computed tomography. The patient did not complain of any subjective symptoms of heart failure. Although Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device installation after left ventricular reconstruction has several difficulties historically, we have experienced a successful case.

  8. Study on Application of Static Magnetic Field for Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of the application of static magnetic field (SMF on pain relief, we performed a study on rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA. Sixty female Sprague–Dawley (SD rats (age: 6 weeks, body weight: approximately 160 g were divided into three groups [SMF-treated AA rats (Group I, non-SMF-treated AA rats (Group II and control rats (Group III]. The SD rats were injected in the left hind leg with 0.6 mg/0.05 ml Mycobacterium butyrium to induce AA. The rats were bred for 6 months as chronic pain model. Thereafter, the AA rats were or were not exposed to SMF for 12 weeks. We assessed the changes in the tail surface temperature, locomotor activity, serum inflammatory marker and bone mineral density (BMD using thermography, a metabolism measuring system and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method, respectively. The tail surface temperature, locomotor activity and femoral BMD of the SMF-exposed AA rats were significantly higher than those of the non-SMF-exposed AA rats, and the serum inflammatory marker was significantly lower. These findings suggest that the pain relief effects are primarily due to the increased blood circulation caused by the rise in the tail surface temperature. Moreover, the pain relief effects increased with activity and BMD of the AA rats.

  9. Left ventricular function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Ryutaro; Ifuku, Masayasu

    1985-01-01

    The present study was to investigate of left ventricular (LV) function during exercise in 26 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM) usingTc-99m equilibrium angiocardiography, and to elucidate the mechanism of impaired functional reserve during exercise. In patients with HCM, LV ejection fraction decreased from 65 ± 8 (mean ± SD) % at rest to 59 ± 18 % at peak exercise, in contrast to an increase among controls (from 56 ± 9 % to 64 ± 9 %). As compared with resting values, cardiac output increased to 168 ± 24 % at peak exercise in HCM, but the increase was significantly less than that in controls (215 ± 47 %). Stroke volume decreased gradually to 83 ± 16 % during exercise in HCM, while it increased to 114 ± 10 % at an exercise level of half intensity, and it decreased slightly to 106 ± 16 % at peak exercise. LV end-systolic volume decreased among controls to 78 ± 27 % at peak exercise, but remained unchanged in HCM (118 ± 58 %). An increase in peak ejection rate at peak exercise was less in HCM than in controls (143 ± 26 % vs 170 ± 42 %). No significant differences were observed between the two groups concerning changes in indices of LV diastolic function including LV end-diastolic volume, peak filling rate or 1/3 filling rate during exercise. In the analysis of LV function curves, pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure increased to a greater extent in HCM than in controls (19 ± 6 mmHg vs 11 ± 6 mmHg); whereas, an increase in the stroke work index was less in HCM (80 ± 26 g.m/m 2 /beat vs 121 ± 21 g.m/m 2 /beat) at peak exercise. Thus, the LV function curve shifted downward and to the right in patients with HCM. The above findings indicate that LV functional reserve during exercise is impaired, especially as to systolic function in patients with HCM, while deterioration of diastolic function may be partly compromised by elevated filling pressure. (J.P.N.)

  10. Left ventricular biomechanics in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lueder, T G; Hodt, A; Gjerdalen, G F; Steine, K

    2018-01-01

    Chronic exercise induces adaptive changes of left ventricular (LV) ejection and filling capacities which may be detected by novel speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based techniques. A total of 103 consecutive male elite Norwegian soccer players and 46 age-matched healthy controls underwent echocardiography at rest. STE was used to assess LV torsional mechanics and LV systolic longitudinal strain (LS). Diastolic function was evaluated by trans-mitral blood flow, mitral annular velocities by TDI, and LV inflow propagation velocity by color M-mode. Despite similar global LS, players displayed lower basal wall and higher apical wall LS values vs controls, resulting in an incremental base-to-apex gradient of LS. Color M-mode and TDI-derived data were similar in both groups. Peak systolic twist rate (TWR) was significantly lower in players (86.4±2.8 vs controls 101.9±5.2 deg/s, P<.01). Diastolic untwisting rate (UTWR) was higher in players (-124.5±4.2 vs -106.9±6.7 deg/s) and peaked earlier during the cardiac cycle (112.7±0.8 vs 117.4±2.4% of systole duration, both P<.05). Untwisting/twisting ratio (-1.48±0.05 vs -1.11±0.08; P<.001) and untwisting performance (=UTR/TW; -9.25±0.34 vs -7.38±0.40 s -1 , P<.01) were increased in players. Augmented diastolic wall strain (DWS), a novel measure of LV compliance in players, was associated with improved myocardial mechanical efficiency. The described myocardial biomechanics may underlie augmented exertional cardiac function in athletes and may have a potential role to characterize athlete's heart by itself or to distinguish it from hypertensive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Serum expression of HA and LN in lewis rat models of autoimmune myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Li'na; Li Tieling; Zhang Yajing; Yang Tingshu; Ding Yu; Guo Shuli; Zhao Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of dynamic changes of serum expressions of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Methods: Fifty Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were established with injection of recombinant cardiac C protein with complete freund adjuvant into two foot-pads plus intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin. At 1w, 2w, 4w, 6w and 8w, 10 models were sacrificed each time;cardiac tissues were examined with HE stain for myocardial inflammatory score and examined with picrosirius red stain for myocardial fibrosis score, also, serum HA and LN expressions were determined with RIA. These examinations were performed in 10 undisturbed animals as controls. Results: The myocardial inflammatory scores of the models at 1w were about the same as those in the controls, but the scores rapidly increased from 2w on to 4w then fell gradually. The myocardial fibrosis scores of the models at 1wk were also not much different from those in controls. The fibrosis scores increased rapidly at 4w and maintained at high level up to 8w. The changes of serum expressions of HA and LN roughly paralleled those of myocardial fibrosis scores i. e. rapidly increased at 4w up to 8w. Conclusion: Serum expressions of HA and LN could faithfully reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis in rat models of EAM. HA and LN were useful markers of myocardial fibrois and were of prognostic importance. (authors)

  12. Rat hypoplastic kidney (hpk/hpk) induces renal anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and osteodystrophy at the end stage of renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K

    1998-10-01

    In rats with genetically hypoplastic kidneys (hpk/hpk) and associated hypogonadism (hgn/hgn), their kidneys contain only one-quarter the number of nephrons that are found in those of normal rats [26]. Not surprisingly, therefore, renal excretive function has been shown to be depressed in hpk/hpk rats [26]. In the study presented here, we have examined the process of the progression of renal failure and the development of renal secondary disease in hpk/hpk rats. The plasma concentrations of urea-nitrogen and creatinine were significantly higher in adult hpk/hpk rats than in normal rats. These values elevated gradually and the degree of renal histological damage also progressed with advancing age in the hpk/hpk rats. In addition, renal anemia appeared at 140 days of age or later in these rats, and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands was visible macroscopically at 280 days of age. In the hpk/hpk rats plasma levels of calcium and phosphorus were significantly lower and higher than in normal rats, respectively, at 280 days of age. Pathologically, the left femora of hpk/hpk rats exhibited fibrous osteodystrophy at 280 days of age and the calcium content of the right femora (as a percentage of the dry weight of bone) was significantly lower than in normal rats at both 210 and 280 days of age. These results indicate that the reduced nephrogenesis of the hpk/hpk rats causes progressive renal failure, secondarily inducing anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and osteodystrophy.

  13. Evaluation of left ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Thomsen, C; Mehlsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were determined in 17 patients with different levels of left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 1.5 Tesla Magnet was used obtaining ECG triggered single and multiple slices. Calculated cardiac outputs were compared...

  14. Left Ventricular Function in Nigerians With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events and has been found to be independently associated with abnormal left ventricular function. We therefore decided to embark on this study to assess the left ventricular function in our diabetic patients. Method. The study design was ...

  15. Linear regression models for quantitative assessment of left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in left ventricular structures and function have been reported in cardiomyopathies. No prediction models have been established in this environment. This study established regression models for prediction of left ventricular structures in normal subjects. A sample of normal subjects was drawn from a large urban ...

  16. Left subclavian artery revascularization as part of thoracic stent grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saouti, N.; Hindori, V.; Morshuis, W.J.; Heijmen, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intentional covering of the left subclavian artery (LSA) as part of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can cause (posterior) strokes or left arm malperfusion. LSA revascularization can be done as prophylaxis against, or as treatment of, these complications. We report our

  17. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between sonographers. The spleen and left kidney lengths were not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05).

  18. Enantioselective targeting left-handed Z-G-quadruplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Andong; Zhao, Chuanqi; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-01-25

    Herein, we report the first example where an M-enantiomer of a chiral metal complex can selectively stabilize a left-handed G-quadruplex, but its P-enantiomer cannot. The interactions between the chiral metal complexes and the left-handed G-quadruplex were evaluated by UV melting, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry, gel electrophoresis and NMR titrations.

  19. Left-Handed Preschool Children with Orthopedic Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Katharine M.

    1983-01-01

    The mental development of 332 preschool-age children with orthopedic disabilities was assessed at a children's hospital over a 10-year period, and comparisons were made for right-handed and left-handed. The left-handed children were slower than right-handed children in learning speech and language skills (Author/SEW)

  20. Why are some people left-handed? An evolutionary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaurens, V.; Raymond, M.; Faurie, C.

    2008-01-01

    Since prehistoric times, left-handed individuals have been ubiquitous in human populations, exhibiting geographical frequency variations. Evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the persistence of the handedness polymorphism. Left-handedness could be favoured by negative frequency-dependent selection. Data have suggested that left-handedness, as the rare hand preference, could represent an important strategic advantage in fighting interactions. However, the fact that left-handedness occurs at a low frequency indicates that some evolutionary costs could be associated with left-handedness. Overall, the evolutionary dynamics of this polymorphism are not fully understood. Here, we review the abundant literature available regarding the possible mechanisms and consequences of left-handedness. We point out that hand preference is heritable, and report how hand preference is influenced by genetic, hormonal, developmental and cultural factors. We review the available information on potential fitness costs and benefits acting as selective forces on the proportion of left-handers. Thus, evolutionary perspectives on the persistence of this polymorphism in humans are gathered for the first time, highlighting the necessity for an assessment of fitness differences between right- and left-handers. PMID:19064347

  1. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring on left ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Systemic hypertension (HTN) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are individually associated with left ventricular structural and functional adaptations. However, little is known about the impact of OSA on the left ventricle in Africans with HTN. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the association between ...

  2. Patterns of left ventricular geometry in hypertensive patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systemic hypertension is associated with different left ventricular geometric adaptations, which are matched to systemic hemodynamics and ventricular load. Four geometric patterns have been described. The prevalence of these left ventricular geometric patterns in hypertension has been reported in other places but, the ...

  3. Linear regression models for quantitative assessment of left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... computed. Linear regression models for the prediction of left ventricular structures were established. Prediction models for ... study aimed at establishing linear regression models that could be used in the prediction ..... Is white cat hypertension associated with artenal disease or left ventricular hypertrophy?

  4. Challenges left-handed students face in Kenyan girls' secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conclusion of this study provide evidence that there is need for Kenya government to rethink her initial and in-service special education needs' teacher training to include a module in left-handedness in order to equip all teachers to be able to identify and assist left-handed students to learn with least difficult.

  5. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sheon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  6. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ick-Soon Chang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  7. MRI rare finding: Absence of the left liver lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Ceravolo

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of left liver lobe absence in an 80-year-old male patient discovered during an MRI scan. The main imaging features of this condition are briefly reviewed, together with its pathogenesis and the most common associations and differential diagnoses. Keywords: Left liver lobe, Liver abnormalities, Liver magnetic resonance imaging

  8. Orthodontic intervention of an impacted upper left central incisor due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fixed orthodontic appliance was used to facilitate traction and correction of malalignement of the impacted upper left central incisor.Treatment outcome: Successful removal of the odontoma, full exposure of the crown of upper left central incisor and good alignment on the arch were achieved. Crowding on the upper and ...

  9. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity may be related to many factors such as race, gender and haemodynamic status. Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described among Caucasians. Objectives: To describe the sex specific pattern of left ...

  10. The intramyocardial left anterior descending artery: Prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intramyocardial left anterior descending artery: Prevalence and surgical considerations in coronary artery bypass grafting. ... The left anterior descending (LAD) artery is the most commonly bridged vessel. Its prevalence ... Techniques are described to address this anatomical variation when it is encountered at surgery.

  11. Validation Study of Normogram For the Clinical Determination of Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study of 70 newly diagnosed hypertensive at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital over a six month period, echocardiography detected increased left ventricular weight (= 225g) in 31 patients representing 44.3%. When compared with the rapid assessment of the estimation of Left Ventricular Mass (LVM) with a ...

  12. Left-handedness in twins: genes or environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J. F.; Knol, D. L.; Koopmans, J. R.; Boomsma, D. I.; Bleker, O. P.

    1996-01-01

    Twin family data can cast light on the longstanding problem about the influences of genes and environment on the etiology of left-handedness. Therefore, hand preference was assessed in 1700 adolescent twin pairs and their parents. Left-handedness (LH) appeared not significantly enhanced among twins

  13. Transient left atrial dysfunction is a feature of Takotsubo syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiermaier, Thomas; Graf, Tobias; Möller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by a transient left and/or right ventricular dysfunction as a consequence of a distinctive pattern of regional wall motion abnormalities. However, a systematic evaluation of the left atrial (LA) function in patients with TTS is lacking. The ai...

  14. Postinfarction left ventricular free wall rupture repaired successfully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tireli, Emin; Kalko, Yusuf; Kafali, Eylül; Basaran, Murat

    2002-09-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture is a well-recognized complication of myocardial infarction and a frequent cause of death. A 49-year-old man was successfully treated for a left ventricular free wall rupture that occurred on the third day after an anterior myocardial infarction. Concomitant myocardial revascularization was performed.

  15. Anaesthesia for left thoracoscopic sympathectomy for refractory long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Left thoracoscopic sympathectomy is an ... degenerate to ventricular fibrillation causing sudden death. There is evidence that the left stellate .... Table 1: Summary of cases of LQTS treated with video assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy. *Micrognathia, clinodactyly ...

  16. Reversible left ventricular dysfunction - important clinical problem of contemporary cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, A.

    1994-01-01

    An important clinical issue there is determination whether left ventricular damages are reversible or not single photon emission computed tomography and positron computed tomography techniques are shown to provide valuable data in this problem. Article describes basic syndromes connected with left ventricular dysfunction, namely: hibernating myocardium, stunned myocardium and ischemic myocardium preconditioning. (author). 18 refs

  17. Benign Multicystic Mesothelioma in the Left Round Ligament: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, So Young; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Park, Seong Jin; Cho, Gyu Seok; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2010-01-01

    Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare mesothelial lesion that forms multicystic masses in the upper abdomen, pelvis, and retroperitoneum. Most cases have a benign course. We present the ultrasound and MR findings of benign multicystic mesothelioma in the left round ligament, which caused a left inguinal hernia in a 46-year-old woman

  18. Benign Multicystic Mesothelioma in the Left Round Ligament: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, So Young; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Park, Seong Jin; Cho, Gyu Seok; Kwak, Jeong Ja [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare mesothelial lesion that forms multicystic masses in the upper abdomen, pelvis, and retroperitoneum. Most cases have a benign course. We present the ultrasound and MR findings of benign multicystic mesothelioma in the left round ligament, which caused a left inguinal hernia in a 46-year-old woman.

  19. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 reduces hypothalamic excitation in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus plays an important role in the progression of heart failure (HF. We investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition in the PVN attenuates the activities of sympathetic nervous system (SNS and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin over a period of 2 weeks (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg. On day 19, rats received intragastric administration daily with either COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (CLB or normal saline. Treatment with CLB reduced mortality and attenuated both myocardial atrophy and pulmonary congestion in HF rats. Compared with the HF rats, ventricle to body weight (VW/BW and lung to body weight (LW/BW ratios, heart rate (HR, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP and maximum rate of change in left ventricular pressure (LV±dp/dtmax were improved in HF+CLB rats. Angiotensin II (ANG II, norepinephrine (NE, COX-2 and glutamate (Glu in the PVN were increased in HF rats. HF rats had higher levels of ANG II and NE in plasma, higher level of ANG II in myocardium, and lower levels of ANP in plasma and myocardium. Treatment with CLB attenuated these HF-induced changes. HF rats had more COX-2-positive neurons and more corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH positive neurons in the PVN than did control rats. Treatment with CLB decreased COX-2-positive neurons and CRH positive neurons in the PVN of HF rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PVN COX-2 may be an intermediary step for PVN neuronal activation and excitatory neurotransmitter release, which further contributes to sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure. Treatment with COX-2 inhibitor attenuates sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure.

  20. Merits of Non-Invasive Rat Models of Left Ventricular Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure (HF) is defined primarily by the impairment of cardiac function and consequent inability of the heart to supply tissues with ample oxygen. To study HF etiology, investigators have applied many different techniques to elicit this condition in animals, with varying de...

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of rat left ventricle in a subtotal nephrectomy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ping Lin

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our studies provide a repertoire of potential biomarkers related to cardiac hypertrophy in CKD. There are still residual disturbed molecules/pathways despite ACEi intervention. Further studies are warranted to investigate these potential novel targets to alleviate CKD-related cardiomyopathy.

  2. Inactivation of the left auditory cortex impairs temporal discrimination in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Šuta, Daniel; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 209, č. 1 (2010), s. 123-130 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/07/1336; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : auditory cortex * temporal discrimination * hemispheric lateralization Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2010

  3. Respiratory Muscle Training Improves Diaphragm Citrate Synthase Activity and Hemodynamic Function in Rats with Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rodrigo Boemo; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Arena, Ross; Lago, Pedro Dal

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced respiratory muscle strength in patients with heart failure positively alters the clinical trajectory of heart failure. In an experimental model, respiratory muscle training in rats with heart failure has been shown to improve cardiopulmonary function through mechanisms yet to be entirely elucidated. The present report aimed to evaluate the respiratory muscle training effects in diaphragm citrate synthase activity and hemodynamic function in rats with heart failure. Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: sedentary sham (Sed-Sham, n=8), trained sham (RMT-Sham, n=8), sedentary heart failure (Sed-HF, n=7) and trained heart failure (RMT-HF, n=7). The animals were submitted to a RMT protocol performed 30 minutes a day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. In rats with heart failure, respiratory muscle training decreased pulmonary congestion and right ventricular hypertrophy. Deleterious alterations in left ventricular pressures, as well as left ventricular contractility and relaxation, were assuaged by respiratory muscle training in heart failure rats. Citrate synthase activity, which was significantly reduced in heart failure rats, was preserved by respiratory muscle training. Additionally, a negative correlation was found between citrate synthase and left ventricular end diastolic pressure and positive correlation was found between citrate synthase and left ventricular systolic pressure. Respiratory muscle training produces beneficial adaptations in the diaphragmatic musculature, which is linked to improvements in left ventricular hemodynamics and blood pressure in heart failure rats. The RMT-induced improvements in cardiac architecture and the oxidative capacity of the diaphragm may improve the clinical trajectory of patients with heart failure.

  4. Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handal Anabella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG, and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary.

  5. Effect of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction on Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne K. Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA volumes are known to be increased in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and are a predictor of adverse outcome. In addition, LA function is impaired and is presumed to be due to left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction as a result of hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. In the current study, we assess the incremental effect of outflow tract obstruction (and concomitant mitral regurgitation on LA function as assessed by LA strain. Patients with HCM (50 obstructive, 50 nonobstructive were compared to 50 normal controls. A subset of obstructive patients who had undergone septal myectomy was also studied. Utilising feature-tracking software applied to cardiovascular magnetic resonance images, LA volumes and functional parameters were calculated. LA volumes were significantly elevated and LA ejection fraction and strain were significantly reduced in patients with HCM compared with controls and were significantly more affected in patients with obstruction. LA volumes and function were significantly improved after septal myectomy. LVOT obstruction and mitral regurgitation appear to further impair LA mechanics. Septal myectomy results in a significant reduction in LA volumes, paralleled by an improvement in function.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of computer-assisted electrocardiography in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Rodríguez-Picón, Blanca; Jerez-Valero, Miguel; Casares-Medrano, Julio; Akerström, Finn O; Calderon, Alberto; Barrios, Vivencio; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio; González-Juanatey, José R; Coca, Antonio; Andrés, Josep; Ruiz-Baena, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy has important prognostic implications. Although electrocardiography is the technique most often recommended in the diagnosis of hypertrophy, its diagnostic accuracy is hampered in the presence of a left bundle branch block. In 1875 consecutive patients (56±16 years) undergoing studies to rule out heart disease and/or hypertension, 2-dimensional echocardiography and electrocardiography were performed simultaneously in an outpatient clinic. Digitized electrocardiograms were interpreted using an online computer-assisted platform (ELECTROPRES). Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values of standard electrocardiographic criteria and of some diagnostic algorithms for left ventricular hypertrophy were determined and compared with the findings in patients with neither left bundle branch block nor myocardial infarction. Left bundle branch block was present in 233 (12%) patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected more frequently in patients with left bundle branch block (60% vs 31%). In patients with left bundle branch block, sensitivities were low but similar to those observed in patients without it, and ranged from 6.4% to 70.9%, whereas specificities were high, ranging from 57.6% to 100%. Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 1.33 to 4.94, and negative likelihood ratios from 0.50 to 0.98. Diagnostic algorithms, voltage-duration products, and certain compound criteria had the best sensitivities. Left ventricular hypertrophy can be diagnosed in the presence of left bundle branch block with an accuracy at least similar to that observed in patients without this conduction defect. Computer-assisted interpretation of the electrocardiogram may be useful in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy as it enables the implementation of more accurate algorithms. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Percutaneous Salivary Gland Ablation using Ethanol in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Burch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sialorrhea is a common health and psychosocial problem for children with neuromuscular dysfunction secondary to a variety of disorders such as cerebral palsy. Current accepted treatments include the injection of botulinum toxin into the submandibular glands for temporary symptom relief. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of percutaneous ethanol injection for longer lasting salivary gland ablation in an animal model. Material and Methods: Twenty rats were used in this study. In each rat, 98% ethanol was injected into the right submandibular gland under ultrasound guidance. No intervention was performed on the left gland, which served as the control. Ten rats were sacrificed and glands evaluated at three weeks, with the remaining 10 rats sacrificed and evaluated at three months. Unpaired, 1-tailed T-tests were used to analyse the data. Results: Ethanol injections induced a significant and sustained reduction in salivary gland size. Treated glands were 41% smaller by mass than untreated controls in the 10 rats sacrificed at three weeks (P < 0.001. Treated glands were 43% smaller by mass than untreated controls in the 10 rats sacrificed at three months (P < 0.001. Qualitative histologic analysis demonstrated extensive parenchymal damage, inflammation, and fibrosis at both three week and three month time points. Conclusions: Using a rat model, we demonstrated dramatic and sustained submandibular gland damage after percutaneous injection of ethanol.

  8. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  9. Atorvastatin therapy during the peri-infarct period attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Liang Tang

    Full Text Available Although statins impart a number of cardiovascular benefits, whether statin therapy during the peri-infarct period improves subsequent myocardial structure and function remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated the effects of atorvastatin on cardiac function, remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI. Two groups of rats were subjected to permanent coronary occlusion. Group II (n = 14 received oral atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d daily for 3 wk before and 4 wk after MI, while group I (n = 12 received equivalent doses of vehicle. Infarct size (Masson's trichrome-stained sections was similar in both groups. Compared with group I, echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and fractional area change (FAC were higher while LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV and LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters (LVESD and LVEDD were lower in treated rats. Hemodynamically, atorvastatin-treated rats exhibited significantly higher dP/dt(max, end-systolic elastance (Ees, and preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW and lower LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP. Morphometrically, infarct wall thickness was greater in treated rats. The improvement of LV function by atorvastatin was associated with a decrease in hydroxyproline content and in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocyte nuclei. We conclude that atorvastatin therapy during the peri-infarct period significantly improves LV function and limits adverse LV remodeling following MI independent of a reduction in infarct size. These salubrious effects may be due in part to a decrease in myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis.

  10. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Left-handedness in professional and amateur tennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Loffing

    Full Text Available Negative frequency-dependent effects rather than innate predispositions may provide left-handers with an advantage in one-on-one fighting situations. Support mainly comes from cross-sectional studies which found significantly enhanced left-hander frequencies among elite athletes exclusively in interactive sports such as baseball, cricket, fencing and tennis. Since professional athletes' training regimes continuously improve, however, an important unsolved question is whether the left-handers' advantage in individual sports like tennis persists over time. To this end, we longitudinally tracked left-hander frequencies in year-end world rankings (men: 1973-2011, ladies: 1975-2011 and at Grand Slam tournaments (1968-2011 in male and female tennis professionals. Here we show that the positive impact of left-handed performance on high achievement in elite tennis was moderate and decreased in male professionals over time and was almost absent in female professionals. For both sexes, left-hander frequencies among year-end top 10 players linearly decreased over the period considered. Moreover, left-handedness was, however, no longer seems associated with higher probability of attaining high year-end world ranking position in male professionals. In contrast, cross-sectional data on left-hander frequencies in male and female amateur players suggest that a left-handers' advantage may still occur on lower performance levels. Collectively, our data is in accordance with the frequency-dependent hypothesis since reduced experience with left-handers in tennis is likely to be compensated by players' professionalism.

  12. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  13. Histological evaluation of biocompatibility of Cynoscion acoupa otoliths in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Talita Santos; UNIT-Universidade Tiradentes/ ITP- Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Oliveira, Clauberto Rodrigues de; UNIT-Universidade Tiradentes/ ITP- Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Melo, Genecy Calado de; Santos, José Cleveilton dos; Rodrigues, Sheyla Alves; Xavier-Filho, Lauro; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Cynoscion acoupa´s otoliths by in vivo assays performed in Wistar rats. The material was prepared using 2g of powded Cynoscion acoupa’s otoliths and 0.5g of hydrolyzed collagen diluted in distilled water. The biological tests consisted of the use of 24 Wistar rats, which were implanted in polyethylene tubes containing otoliths (HI) on the right side of the back, empty tubes (IC) on the left. The animals were euthanized 3, 7 and...

  14. Influence of dilated cardiomyopathy and a left ventricular assist device on vortex dynamics in the left ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerakker, S.; Cox, L. G. E.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; de Mol, B. A. J. M.; van de Vosse, F. N.

    2008-01-01

    Together with new developments in mechanical cardiac support, the analysis of vortex dynamics in the left ventricle has become an increasingly important topic in literature. The aim of this study was to develop a method to investigate the influence of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) on

  15. Failure to show decrease in small pulmonary blood vessels in rats with experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, J M; Suyama, K L; Keane, P M

    1982-01-01

    We induced chronic pulmonary hypertension in one group of rats by exposing them to chronic hypobaric hypoxia (380 mm Hg for three weeks) and in another group by administering a single subcutaneous dose of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg body weight). Both groups of rats showed increase of the right ventricular mean systolic blood pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. We measured the surface area of histological sections of the left or right lungs and counted all small blood vessels with an exte...

  16. Hemodynamic, morphometric and autonomic patterns in hypertensive rats - renin-angiotensin system modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Zamo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop left ventricular hypertrophy, increased blood pressure and blood pressure variability, which are important determinants of heart damage, like the activation of renin-angiotensin system. AIMS: To investigate the effects of the time-course of hypertension over 1 hemodynamic and autonomic patterns (blood pressure; blood pressure variability; heart rate; 2 left ventricular hypertrophy; and 3 local and systemic Renin-angiotensin system of the spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomized into two groups: young (n=13 and adult (n=12. Hemodynamic signals (blood pressure, heart rate, blood pressure variability (BPV and spectral analysis of the autonomic components of blood pressure were analyzed. LEFT ventricular hypertrophy was measured by the ratio of LV mass to body weight (mg/g, by myocyte diameter (μm and by relative fibrosis area (RFA, %. ACE and ACE2 activities were measured by fluorometry (UF/min, and plasma renin activity (PRA was assessed by a radioimmunoassay (ng/mL/h. Cardiac gene expressions of Agt, Ace and Ace2 were quantified by RT-PCR (AU. RESULTS: The time-course of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats increased BPV and reduced the alpha index in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Adult rats showed increases in left ventricular hypertrophy and in RFA. Compared to young spontaneously hypertensive rats, adult spontaneously hypertensive rats had lower cardiac ACE and ACE2 activities, and high levels of PRA. No change was observed in gene expression of Renin-angiotensin system components. CONCLUSIONS: The observed autonomic dysfunction and modulation of Renin-angiotensin system activity are contributing factors to end-organ damage in hypertension and could be interacting. Our findings suggest that the management of hypertensive disease must start before blood pressure reaches the highest stable levels and the consequent

  17. Prior exercise training does not prevent acute cardiac alterations after myocardial infarction in female rats

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    Eduardo C. A. Veiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether previous exercise training could prevent or attenuate acute cardiac alterations after myocardial infarction. METHODS: Female rats were submitted to swim training (1 h/day; 5 days/week or allowed to remain sedentary for 8 weeks. Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to left coronary artery occlusion or sham surgery. After this procedure, the rats remained sedentary for one week until euthanasia. Cardiac structural and functional analyses were performed using Doppler echocardiography. The rats that had a moderate or large infarct size were included in the evaluations. The data (mean + SEM were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA model followed byTukey's post-hoc test. RESULTS: After the surgery, no significant difference between the exercise and sedentary groups was observed in the left ventricular infarct sizes (34.58 + 3.04 vs. 37.59 + 3.07. In another group of rats evaluated with Evans blue 1 h after myocardial infarction, no siginificant difference in the area at risk was observed between the exercised and sedentary rats (49.73 + 1.52 vs. 45.48 + 3.49. The changes in the left ventricular fractional areas for the exercised and sedentary myocardial infarction groups (36 + 2% and 39 + 3%, respectively were smaller than those for the exercise sham surgery (ES, 67+1% and sedentary sham surgery (SS, 69 + 2% groups. The E/A was higher in the sedentary myocardial infarction (4.4 + 0.3 and exercised myocardial infarction (5.5 + 0.3 rats than in the SS (2.4 + 0.1 and ES (2.2 + 0.1 rats. CONCLUSION: Previous swim training of female rats does not attenuate systolic and diastolic function alterations after myocardial infarction induced by left coronary artery occlusion, suggesting that cardioprotection cannot be provided by exercise training in this experimental model.

  18. Validation of semi-automatic segmentation of the left atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R., III; Camp, J. J.; Packer, D. L.; Robb, R. A.

    2008-03-01

    Catheter ablation therapy has become increasingly popular for the treatment of left atrial fibrillation. The effect of this treatment on left atrial morphology, however, has not yet been completely quantified. Initial studies have indicated a decrease in left atrial size with a concomitant decrease in pulmonary vein diameter. In order to effectively study if catheter based therapies affect left atrial geometry, robust segmentations with minimal user interaction are required. In this work, we validate a method to semi-automatically segment the left atrium from computed-tomography scans. The first step of the technique utilizes seeded region growing to extract the entire blood pool including the four chambers of the heart, the pulmonary veins, aorta, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and other surrounding structures. Next, the left atrium and pulmonary veins are separated from the rest of the blood pool using an algorithm that searches for thin connections between user defined points in the volumetric data or on a surface rendering. Finally, pulmonary veins are separated from the left atrium using a three dimensional tracing tool. A single user segmented three datasets three times using both the semi-automatic technique as well as manual tracing. The user interaction time for the semi-automatic technique was approximately forty-five minutes per dataset and the manual tracing required between four and eight hours per dataset depending on the number of slices. A truth model was generated using a simple voting scheme on the repeated manual segmentations. A second user segmented each of the nine datasets using the semi-automatic technique only. Several metrics were computed to assess the agreement between the semi-automatic technique and the truth model including percent differences in left atrial volume, DICE overlap, and mean distance between the boundaries of the segmented left atria. Overall, the semi-automatic approach was demonstrated to be repeatable within

  19. Adrenomedulline improves ischemic left colonic anastomotic healing in an experimental rodent model

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    Oguzhan Karatepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leakage from colonic anastomosis is a major complication causing increased mortality and morbidity. Ischemia is a well-known cause of this event. This study was designed to investigate the effects of adrenomedullin on the healing of ischemic colon anastomosis in a rat model. METHODS: Standardized left colon resection 3 cm above the peritoneal reflection and colonic anastomosis were performed in 40 Wistar rats that were divided into four groups. To mimic ischemia, the mesocolon was ligated 2 cm from either side of the anastomosis in all of the groups. The control groups (1 and 2 received no further treatment. The experimental groups (3 and 4 received adrenomedullin treatment. Adrenomedullin therapy was started in the perioperative period in group 3 and 4 rats (the therapeutic groups. Group 1 and group 3 rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 3. Group 2 and group 4 rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. After careful relaparotomy, bursting pressure, hydroxyproline, malondialdehyde, interleukin 6, nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were measured. Histopathological characteristics of the anastomosis were analyzed. RESULTS: The group 3 animals had a significantly higher bursting pressure than group 1 (p<0.05. Hydroxyproline levels in group 1 were significantly lower than in group 3 (p<0.05. The mean bursting pressure was significantly different between group 2 and group 4 (p<0.05. Hydroxyproline levels in groups 3 and 4 were significantly increased by adrenomedullin therapy relative to the control groups (p<0.05. When all groups were compared, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly lower in the control groups (p<0.05. When vascular endothelial growth factor levels were compared, no statistically significant difference between groups was observed. Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly decreased by adrenomedullin therapy (p<0.05. The

  20. Horseshoe lung associated with left-lung hypoplasia, left pulmonary artery sling and bilateral agenesis of upper lobe bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguz, Berna; Haliloglu, Mithat; Alan, Serdar; Ozcelik, Ugur

    2009-01-01

    Horseshoe lung, a rare congenital anomaly, is almost always associated with unilateral (usually right-sided) lung hypoplasia, and, in most cases, in conjunction with the scimitar syndrome. We present an 8-month-old boy with horseshoe lung associated with left-lung hypoplasia, left pulmonary artery sling and bilateral agenesis of the upper lobe bronchi, diagnosed by multidetector CT (MDCT) imaging. The study also revealed an anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery as the last branch of the aortic arch, distal to the left subclavian artery, and an anomalous origin of the left common carotid artery from the brachiocephalic trunk. A hemivertebral anomaly of the seventh cervical vertebra was incidentally detected. MDCT with high-quality multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions is a noninvasive and rapid technique for detecting the complex combination of vascular, tracheobronchial and parenchymal anomalies, and any potential bone anomalies, in one imaging study. (orig.)

  1. Horseshoe lung associated with left-lung hypoplasia, left pulmonary artery sling and bilateral agenesis of upper lobe bronchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguz, Berna; Haliloglu, Mithat [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Alan, Serdar; Ozcelik, Ugur [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Horseshoe lung, a rare congenital anomaly, is almost always associated with unilateral (usually right-sided) lung hypoplasia, and, in most cases, in conjunction with the scimitar syndrome. We present an 8-month-old boy with horseshoe lung associated with left-lung hypoplasia, left pulmonary artery sling and bilateral agenesis of the upper lobe bronchi, diagnosed by multidetector CT (MDCT) imaging. The study also revealed an anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery as the last branch of the aortic arch, distal to the left subclavian artery, and an anomalous origin of the left common carotid artery from the brachiocephalic trunk. A hemivertebral anomaly of the seventh cervical vertebra was incidentally detected. MDCT with high-quality multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions is a noninvasive and rapid technique for detecting the complex combination of vascular, tracheobronchial and parenchymal anomalies, and any potential bone anomalies, in one imaging study. (orig.)

  2. Asynchronous ripple oscillations between left and right hippocampi during slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Claudio; Maldonado, Pedro E; Valdés, José L

    2017-01-01

    Spatial memory, among many other brain processes, shows hemispheric lateralization. Most of the published evidence suggests that the right hippocampus plays a leading role in the manipulation of spatial information. Concurrently in the hippocampus, memory consolidation during sleep periods is one of the key steps in the formation of newly acquired spatial memory traces. One of the most characteristic oscillatory patterns in the hippocampus are sharp-wave ripple (SWR) complexes. Within this complex, fast-field oscillations or ripples have been demonstrated to be instrumental in the memory consolidation process. Since these ripples are relevant for the consolidation of memory traces associated with spatial navigation, and this process appears to be lateralized, we hypothesize that ripple events between both hippocampi would exhibit different temporal dynamics. We tested this idea by using a modified "split-hyperdrive" that allows us to record simultaneous LFPs from both right and left hippocampi of Sprague-Dawley rats during sleep. We detected individual events and found that during sleep periods these ripples exhibited a different occurrence patterns between hemispheres. Most ripple events were synchronous between intra- rather than inter-hemispherical recordings, suggesting that ripples in the hippocampus are independently generated and locally propagated within a specific hemisphere. In this study, we propose the ripples' lack of synchrony between left and right hippocampi as the putative physiological mechanism underlying lateralization of spatial memory.

  3. Asynchronous ripple oscillations between left and right hippocampi during slow-wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Villalobos

    Full Text Available Spatial memory, among many other brain processes, shows hemispheric lateralization. Most of the published evidence suggests that the right hippocampus plays a leading role in the manipulation of spatial information. Concurrently in the hippocampus, memory consolidation during sleep periods is one of the key steps in the formation of newly acquired spatial memory traces. One of the most characteristic oscillatory patterns in the hippocampus are sharp-wave ripple (SWR complexes. Within this complex, fast-field oscillations or ripples have been demonstrated to be instrumental in the memory consolidation process. Since these ripples are relevant for the consolidation of memory traces associated with spatial navigation, and this process appears to be lateralized, we hypothesize that ripple events between both hippocampi would exhibit different temporal dynamics. We tested this idea by using a modified "split-hyperdrive" that allows us to record simultaneous LFPs from both right and left hippocampi of Sprague-Dawley rats during sleep. We detected individual events and found that during sleep periods these ripples exhibited a different occurrence patterns between hemispheres. Most ripple events were synchronous between intra- rather than inter-hemispherical recordings, suggesting that ripples in the hippocampus are independently generated and locally propagated within a specific hemisphere. In this study, we propose the ripples' lack of synchrony between left and right hippocampi as the putative physiological mechanism underlying lateralization of spatial memory.

  4. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomito, Matthew J; Ferreira, Joel V; Nissen, Carl W

    2017-06-01

    Left-handed baseball pitchers are thought to have a number of theoretical advantages compared to right-handed pitchers; however, there is limited scientific research detailing differences in the pitching mechanics of right- and left-handed pitchers. Therefore, this study sought to understand whether any kinematic and kinetic differences existed between right- and left-handed baseball pitchers. A total of 52 collegiate pitchers were included in this study; 26 left-handed pitchers were compared to 26 age-, height-, weight- and ball velocity-matched right-handed pitchers. Demographic information, passive shoulder range of motion and kinematic and kinetic data were obtained for each pitcher participating in the study. Results indicated that left-handed pitchers did not have a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit as compared to right-handed pitchers. Kinematic analysis indicated that elbow flexion, horizontal glenohumeral abduction and wrist coronal plane motion were significantly different between the two study cohorts. It was also noted that left-handed pitchers had increased elbow varus moments. The findings of this study suggest that pitching coaches should be aware that there are biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed pitchers.

  5. Robotic-assisted excision of a left ventricular thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Charles J; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M; Ford, Brant; Swartz, Mike; Hauser, Michael; Kyobe, Moses; Dilip, Karikehalli

    2007-09-01

    : Left ventricular thrombus is a rare entity usually associated with myocardial infarction. The daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif) offers excellent visualization of the mitral subvalvular apparatus and should provide an effective means to excise a left ventricular mass. : A 34-year-old man presented to an outside institution with fever of unknown origin and ulcerative colitis. As part of this workup, he underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram and subsequently a transesophageal echocardiogram that showed a 2-cm left ventricular apical pedunculated mass. He was referred to our institution for excision of this ventricular mass. Because of the pedunculated nature of the mass, he was deemed a candidate for a robotic-assisted minimally invasive approach. : The patient underwent successful robotic-assisted excision of a left ventricular mass. Total robotic time was 15 minutes. Pathology revealed that the mass was a left ventricular thrombus. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery and was discharged home in 4 days. : Left ventricular mass excision can be safely performed with the daVinci Surgical System. The daVinci Surgical System offers excellent visualization of the entire left ventricular cavity.

  6. Isolated left-sided pulmonary artery agenesis with left lung hypoplasia: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Govindaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral absence of pulmonary artery or pulmonary artery agenesis (UAPA is a rare congenital malformation that can present as an isolated lesion or in association with other cardiac anomalies. Though congenital, presentation in adults are also reported. Most common presentation in adults is of exercise intolerance. The developing lung on the affected side is hypoplastic. Diagnosis of UAPA is established by imaging methods like CT and MRI . There is no specific treatment for this condition. Treatment depends on patients symptomatology, presence of pulmonary hypertension and collateral circulation. Presence of pulmonary hypertension carries a bad prognosis. We present two adult patients with isolated left sided unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with ipsilateral lung hypoplasia. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT chest and perfusion scan.

  7. Fatal stroke after completion pneumonectomy for torsion of left upper lobe following left lower lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolakis Efstratios

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lobar torsion after lung surgery is a rare complication with an incidence of 0.09 to 0.4 %. It may occur after twisting of the bronchovascular pedicle of the remaining lobe after lobectomy, usually on the right side. The 180-degree rotation of the pedicle produces an acute obstruction of the lobar bronchus (atelectasis and of the lobar vessels as well. Without prompt treatment it progresses to lobar ischemia, pulmonary infarction and finally fatal gangrene. Case Presentation A 62 years old female patient was admitted for surgical treatment of lung cancer. She underwent elective left lower lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma (pT2 N0. The operation was unremarkable, and the patient was extubated in the operating room. After eight hours the patient established decrease of pO2 and chest x-ray showed atelectasis of the lower lobe. To establish diagnosis, bronchoscopy was performed, demonstrating obstructed left lobar bronchus. The patient was re-intubated, and admitted to the operating room where reopening of the thoracotomy was performed. Lobar torsion was diagnosed, with the diaphragmatic surface of the upper lobe facing in an anterosuperior orientation. A completion pneumonectomy was performed. At the end of the procedure the patient developed a right pupil dilatation, presumably due to a cerebral embolism. A subsequent brain angio-CT scan established the diagnosis. She died at the intensive care unit 26 days later. Conclusion The thoracic surgeon should suspect this rare early postoperative complication after any thoracic operation in every patient with atelectasis of the neighboring lobe. High index of suspicion and prompt diagnosis may prevent catastrophic consequences, such as, infarction or gangrene of the pulmonary lobe. During thoracic operations, especially whenever the lung or lobe hilum is full mobilized, fixation of the remaining lobe may prevent this life threatening complication.

  8. Heart monitoring using left ventricle impedance and ventricular electrocardiography in left ventricular assist device patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Keun; Ahn, Chi Bum; Park, Sung Min; Choi, Seong Wook

    2015-03-21

    Patients who develop critical arrhythmia during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) perfusion have a low survival rate. For diagnosis of unexpected heart abnormalities, new heart-monitoring methods are required for patients supported by LVAD perfusion. Ventricular electrocardiography using electrodes implanted in the ventricle to detect heart contractions is unsuitable if the heart is abnormal. Left ventricular impedance (LVI) is useful for monitoring heart movement but does not show abnormal action potential in the heart muscle. To detect detailed abnormal heart conditions, we obtained ventricular electrocardiograms (v-ECGs) and LVI simultaneously in porcine models connected to LVADs. In the porcine models, electrodes were set on the heart apex and ascending aorta for real-time measurements of v-ECGs and LVI. As the carrier current frequency of the LVI was adjusted to 30 kHz, it was easily derived from the original v-ECG signal by using a high-pass filter (cutoff: 10 kHz). In addition, v-ECGs with a frequency band of 0.1 - 120 Hz were easily derived using a low-pass filter. Simultaneous v-ECG and LVI data were compared to detect heart volume changes during the Q-T period when the heart contracted. A new real-time algorithm for comparison of v-ECGs and LVI determined whether the porcine heartbeats were normal or abnormal. Several abnormal heartbeats were detected using the LVADs operating in asynchronous mode, most of which were premature ventricle contractions (PVCs). To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the results obtained were compared to normal ECG data and cardiac output measured simultaneously using commercial devices. The new method provided more accurate detection of abnormal heart movements. This method can be used for various heart diseases, even those in which the cardiac output is heavily affected by LVAD operation.

  9. Left Ventricle Pseudoaneurysm: Contribution of Multimodality Imaging to the Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenga Mbolla Bertrand Fikahem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The left ventricle pseudoaneurysm is an anomaly of the left ventricle and is severed and joined with a pocket look. There may be secondary to a myocardial infarction, trauma, or surgical procedure. Sometimes the cause is not found. Complications are heart failure, arrhythmias, vascular embolism, and sudden death. The treatment is surgical only. The authors report the case of a black patient of 64 years old, without medical history, had seen to a deformation of the cardiac shadow in radiography. The left ventricle pseudoaneurysm and in situ thrombus are visualized in echocardiography and CT scan. The patient is waiting for heart surgery.

  10. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkvatan, A. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yelgec, N.S. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Calikoglu, U.; Olcer, T. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  11. Left-handedness in blind and sighted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erkan; Dane, Senol

    2009-03-01

    Rates of left-handedness were compared in 1387 blind and 831 sighted children. The rate in male blind children was higher than in female blind children. The incidence of left-handedness was significantly higher in blind than in sighted children in both boys and girls. The percentages of left-handedness were 18.23% and 17.02% in male and female blind children, and 11.02% and 7.52% in male and female sighted children, respectively. It can be stated that sighting is important in the development of normal typical cerebral lateralisation or hand preference.

  12. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  13. Does Right or Left Matter? Cabinets, Credibility and Fiscal Adjustments

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Tavares

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses the widely held assumption that left-wing cabinets prefer a larger size of government than right-wing cabinets to answer the question: does the pair cabinet ideology - fiscal action affect the persistence of fiscal adjustments? For a panel of OECD countries from 1960 to 1995, we find that left and right-wing cabinets are partisan in the expected way, namely, when cutting the deficit, the left relies on tax increases and the right on spending cuts. Our testable hypothesis is th...

  14. Determinação da permeabilidade ao ar em amostras indeformadas de solo pelo método da pressão decrescente Determination of air permeability in undisturbed soil samples by the decreasing pressure method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Pires da Silva

    2009-12-01

    convective gas flux in the soil matrix and at the soil-atmosphere interface, directly affecting the soil physical quality for plant growth and the rate of processes that depend on the soil gas concentration. Ka can be estimated by a simplified method based on a modification of Darcy's law for gas flow in soil under decreasing pressure. The objective of this research was to modify and improve a permeameter for laboratory quantification of Ka by the falling pressure method. Two data acquisition systems were used for this purpose: an electronic-automatic system composed of a pressure transducer connected to a datalogger (E1 and alternatively, a system composed of a digital manometer for measuring the pressure decrease and a chronometer (E2. In E1, samples of the surface layer of a "Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico" (Alfisol collected on the experimental farm of the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - USP, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, were evaluated, while in E2 samples of a "Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico" profile from different depths, collected from the experimental farm of the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, were evaluated. The Ka tests were performed in undisturbed samples with variability in soil bulk density and water content. Overall Ka increased with decreasing soil water content and bulk density. This can be related to the increase in air-filled porosity volume with the decrease in these two variables. The results show that the apparatus is inexpensive, versatile, fast, and simple for Ka determination, independently of the data acquisition system.

  15. The Left Atrio-Vertebral Ratio: a new simple means for assessing left atrial enlargement on Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillet, Marie; Baqué-Juston, Marie; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Sandra; Berthier, Frédéric; Zarqane, Naïma; Brunner, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new method to quickly estimate left atrial enlargement (LAE) on Computed Tomography. Left atrial (LA) volume was assessed with a 3D-threshold Hounsfield unit detection technique, including left atrial appendage and excluding pulmonary venous confluence, in 201 patients with ECG-gated 128-slice dual-source CT and indexed to body surface area. LA and vertebral axial diameter and area were measured at the bottom level of the right inferior pulmonary vein ostium. Ratio of LA diameter and surface on vertebra (LAVD and LAVA) were compared to LA volume. In accordance with the literature, a cutoff value of 78 ml/m 2 was chosen for maximal normal LA volume. 18% of LA was enlarged. The best cutoff values for LAE assessment were 2.5 for LAVD (AUC: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.58-0.73; sensitivity: 57%; specificity: 71%), and 3 for LAVA (AUC: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.72-0.84; sensitivity: 67%; specificity: 79%), with higher accuracy for LAVA (P=0.015). Inter-observer and intra-observer variability were either good or excellent for LAVD and LAVA (respective intraclass coefficients: 0.792 and 0.910; 0.912 and 0.937). A left atrium area superior to three times the vertebral area indicates LAE with high specificity. • Left atrial enlargement is a frequent condition associated with poor cardiac outcome. • Left atrial enlargement is highly time-consuming to diagnose on CT. • The left atrio-vertebral ratio quickly assesses left atrial enlargement. • A left atrial area > three times vertebral area is highly specific.

  16. Times of Crisis : Success or Decline of the Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Tarditi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that especially since the 2008 has shown the deep weakness of the capitalistic economic model induces to reflect on the role of the radical left parties and on their capacity to propose alternative policies, interpreting the citizens’ demands. Starting from these premises this article analyses three parties of the radical left party family- United Left, Left Freedom and Ecology and Syriza- that act respectively in Spain, Italy and Greece, three of the European democracies most affected by the social consequences of the crisis. The article proposes a diachronic comparison of the three parties’ policy pro-posals, organizational model and strategies in order to explain their greater or lesser ability to attract con-sensus in the last years.

  17. Detailed anatomy of a left accessory aberrant colic artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Vlad, M; Voinea, L M; Curcă, G C; Sişu, A M

    2008-10-01

    In an aged human female cadaver a left accessory aberrant colic artery (LAACA) was observed and studied. It originated from the superior mesenteric artery at 3 cm proximal to the middle colic artery, at the inferior border of pancreas, passing over Treitz's muscle and continued covered by the superior duodenal fold where it crossed the inferior mesenteric vein. Further, it continued with a satellite vein anterior to the left renal vein and the anterior branch of the renal artery. The LAACA divided into an ascending branch and a descending one, anastomosed with the middle colic and proper left colic arteries; between its two primary branches and the splenic flexure of colon, a hypovascular area was observed. The surgical relevance of the LAACA detailed anatomy mainly relates to specific procedures performed in left colectomies and nephrectomies.

  18. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in a Predialysis Patient Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CKD) accounting for 40%–66% of cardiovascular complications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in adult Nigerians with CKD at presentation and to compare ...

  19. Body mass index, type 2 diabetes, and left ventricular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Katrine Dina; Pareek, Manan

    2018-01-01

    previous observations of body mass index as a significant predictor of incident diastolic dysfunction and increased left ventricular mass index among subjects without prevalent diabetes. We discuss potential explanations for the observed discrepancies and general difficulties associated with cardiovascular...

  20. How migration to Europe affects those left behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Passey

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Families are frequently separated as a result of migration and displacement from the Middle East to Europe, yet humanitarian aid is often difficult to access and insufficient to meet the needs of those left behind.

  1. Left-handed sperm removal by male Calopteryx damselflies (Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia in several insect species are asymmetry in right and left shape. However, the function of such asymmetric male genitalia is still unclear. We found that the male genitalia of the damselfly Calopteryx cornelia (Odonata: Calopterygidae) are morphologically symmetric just after emergence but asymmetric after reproductive maturation. Males remove rival sperm stored in the female bursa copulatrix (single spherical sac) and the following spermatheca (Y-shaped tubular sac) prior to their own ejaculation to prevent sperm competition. Males possess the aedeagus with a recurved head to remove bursal sperm and a pair of spiny lateral processes to remove spermathecal sperm. The right lateral process is less developed than the left, and sperm stored in the right spermathecal tube are rarely removed. Experiments involving surgical cutting of each lateral process demonstrated that only the left process functions in spermathecal sperm removal. Thus, males of C. cornelia are left-handed in their sperm removal behaviour at copulation.

  2. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J

    2010-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right...... during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic...... and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over...

  3. Bicornuate unicollis uterus with left renal agenesis | Adeyinka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... demonstrated a Left Renal agenesis inclusive. Radiological features, clinical presentation and literature on this rare congenital abnormality have also been reviewed in this paper. Keywords: infertility, bicornuate unicolis, ultrasound, hysterosalpingography, renal agenesis. Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ...

  4. Why Are the Right and Left Hemisphere Conceptual Representations Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gainotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present survey develops a previous position paper, in which I suggested that the multimodal semantic impairment observed in advanced stages of semantic dementia is due to the joint disruption of pictorial and verbal representations, subtended by the right and left anterior temporal lobes, rather than to the loss of a unitary, amodal semantic system. The main goals of the present review are (a to survey a larger set of data, in order to confirm the differences in conceptual representations at the level of the right and left hemispheres, (b to examine if language-mediated information plays a greater role in left hemisphere semantic knowledge than sensory-motor information in right hemisphere conceptual knowledge, and (c to discuss the models that could explain both the differences in conceptual representations at the hemispheric level and the prevalence of the left hemisphere language-mediated semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually based conceptual representations.

  5. Right-left and the scrotum in Greek sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C

    2004-04-01

    The scrotum in humans is asymmetric, the right testicle being visibly higher than the left in most men. Paradoxically, it is also the case that the right testicle is somewhat larger, rather than smaller, as might be expected. Greek classical and pre-classical art, which took great care in its attention to anatomical detail, correctly portrayed the right testicle as the higher, but then incorrectly portrayed the left testicle as visibly larger. The implication is that the Greeks used a simple mechanical theory, the left testicle being thought to be lower because it was larger and hence more subject to the pull of gravity. The present study examines data on scrotal asymmetry in more detail, and puts them in the context of Greek theories of functional differences between the right side and the left side.

  6. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Overlay Technique for Transcatheter Left Atrial Appendage Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Zhu, Mengyun; Lu, Yunlan; Tang, Kai; Zhao, Dongdong; Chen, Wei; Xu, Yawei

    2015-08-01

    The Overlay technique is popular in peripheral artery interventions, but not in coronary or cardiac structural procedures. We present an initial experience using three-episode overlays during a transcatheter left atrial appendage closure. The first overlay was applied to facilitate advancement of the delivery sheath into left atrium. The second overlay was used to navigate the advancement of prepped delivery system containing the compressed occluder into its optimal position in the left atrium. The third overlay facilitated the real-time deployment of the closure device. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of the overlay technique in facilitating each step of the transcatheter left atrial appendage closure. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitation of global and regional left ventricular function by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, RJ; Reiber, JHC; Reiber, JHC; VanDerWall, EE

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several imaging strategies for assessing left ventricular function. As a three-dimensional imaging technique, all measurements can be performed without relying on geometrical assumptions. Global and regional function parameters can be derived from

  9. Ostial left main coronary stenosis in a frequent flyer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, John F

    2009-05-15

    A 52 year old gentleman presented with chest pain, after a long distance flight from India; he had made long haul flights every 2 weeks over the last 5 years as part of his job. His ECG revealed T wave inversion in leads V1-3. Cardiac biomarkers including troponin were negative; we proceeded to exercise stress testing (EST). This revealed 2 mm ST depression at 2 min of the standard Bruce protocol, associated with chest pain. He was taken immediately to the coronary catheterization laboratory; engagement of the left main caused pressure damping with 6 French, then 5 French diagnostic Judkins left 4 catheters. An ostial left main stenosis was seen; the right and left coronary trees otherwise had no significant stenoses. He had normal LV function. He underwent inpatient CABG 7 days later.

  10. The Colombian Left: A Paradoxical Past; A Promising Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bergquist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the paradoxical history of the left in Colombia: how and why one of the weakest lefts in Latin America brought about the strongest and most lasting Marxist insurrection in the hemisphere in the decades following the Cuban Revolution. The article argues that the terms of this paradox are related, that the historic weakness of the left partly explains the force and longevity of revolutionary guerrillas, and that said paradox helps clarify not only the failure of several attempts to achieve a negotiated settlement of the armed conflict, but also the negative vote in the October 2016 plebiscite. Finally, it envisions a more promising future for the country’s left, provided that a lasting peace is consolidated.

  11. Left coronary arterial blood flow: Noninvasive detection by Doppler US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramiak, R.; Holen, J.; Moss, A.J.; Gutierrez, O.H.; Picone, A.L.; Roe, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) and pulsed Doppler ultrasound studies with spectral analysis were used to detect the left coronary arterial blood flow in patients who were undergoing routine echocardiography. The pulmonary artery is a stable ultrasonic landmark from which detection of the blood flow can be effected. The left coronary artery can be distinguished by its blood flow toward the cardiac apex and by specific, functional flow features. Flow patterns vary among the left main, circumflex, and anterior descending arteries; patterns also vary with respiration cycles. In the present study, coronary arterial blood flow was detected in 58 of 70 patients (83%). Findings were validated by selectively injecting an agitated saline contrast medium into the left coronary artery and, in another study, by comparing human Doppler phasic flow waveforms with electromagnetic flowmeter recordings obtained in dogs

  12. Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation After Intracardiac Parachute Device Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Saleh, Walid K; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Bruckner, Brian A; Suarez, Erik E; Estep, Jerry D; Loebe, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Left ventricular assist device implantation is a proven and efficient modality for the treatment of end-stage heart failure. Left ventricular assist device versatility as a bridge to heart transplantation or destination therapy has led to improved patient outcomes with a concomitant rise in its overall use. Other less invasive treatment modalities are being developed to improve heart function and morbidity and mortality for the heart failure population. Percutaneous ventricular restoration is a new investigational therapy that deploys an intracardiac parachute to wall off damaged myocardium in patients with dilated left ventricles and ischemic heart failure. Clinical trials are under way to test the efficacy of percutaneous ventricular restoration using the parachute device. This review describes our encounter with the parachute device, its explantation due to refractory heart failure, and surgical replacement with a left ventricular assist device. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Left-handed materials in metallic magnetic granular composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, S.T.; Lin, Z.F.; Hu, L.-B.

    2003-01-01

    There is recently interests in the 'left-handed' materials. In these materials the direction of the wave vector of electromagnetic radiation is opposite to the direction of the energy flow. We present simple arguments that suggests that magnetic composites can also be left-handed materials. However, the physics involved seems to be different from the original argument. In our argument, the imaginary part of the dielectric constant is much larger than the real part, opposite to the original argument

  14. Giant left atrium encountered during right-sided thoracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Advani

    Full Text Available Giant left atrium is an uncommon pathology to encounter during bedside chest ultrasound, but is an important structure to be aware of when considering thoracentesis. This cardiac structure could easily be mistaken for loculated pleural fluid. This case also supports growing evidence that expert users can safely perform thoracentesis without completely reversing therapeutic anticoagulation. Keywords: Giant left atrium, Thoracentesis, Rheumatic heart disease, Ultrasound

  15. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  16. Isotropic three-dimensional left-handed meta-materials

    OpenAIRE

    Koschny, Th.; Zhang, L.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate three-dimensional left-handed and related meta-materials based on a fully symmetric multi-gap single-ring SRR design and crossing continuous wires. We demonstrate isotropic transmission properties of a SRR-only meta-material and the corresponding left-handed material which possesses a negative effective index of refraction due to simultaneously negative effective permeability and permittivity. Minor deviations from complete isotropy are due to the finite thickness of the meta-m...

  17. Scattering Forces within a Left-Handed Photonic Crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Angeleene S; Sukhov, Sergey V; Dogariu, Aristide; Shalin, Alexander S

    2017-01-23

    Electromagnetic waves are known to exert optical forces on particles through radiation pressure. It was hypothesized previously that electromagnetic waves inside left-handed metamaterials produce negative radiation pressure. Here we numerically examine optical forces inside left-handed photonic crystals demonstrating negative refraction and reversed phase propagation. We demonstrate that even though the direction of force might not follow the flow of energy, the positive radiation pressure is maintained inside photonic crystals.

  18. Right Site, Wrong Route - Cannulating the Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Peter; Arukala, Sanjay K; Sule, Anupam A

    2018-01-09

    Central venous catheters are placed in approximately five million patients annually in the US. The preferred site of insertion is one with fewer risks and easier access. Although the right internal jugular vein is preferred, on occasion, the left internal jugular may have to be accessed. A patient was admitted for septic shock, cerebrovascular accident, and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A central venous line was needed for antibiotic and vasopressor administration. Due to trauma from a fall to the right side and previously failed catheterization attempts at the left subclavian and femoral veins, the left internal jugular vein was accessed. On chest radiography for confirmation, the left internal jugular central venous catheter was seen projecting down the left paraspinal region. It did not take the expected course across the midline toward the right and into the superior vena cava (SVC). A review of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest with contrast done on a prior admission revealed a duplicated SVC on the left side that had not been reported in the original CT scan interpretation. A left-sided SVC is present in approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of the population, with 90% of these draining into the coronary sinus. During placements of central venous lines and pacemakers, irritation of the coronary sinus may result in hypotension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, or cardiac arrest. A widened mediastinum can be an indication of a duplicated SVC. When attempting a left internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement, it is important to be aware of venous anomalies in order to prevent complications.

  19. Left Atrium Papillary Fibroelastomas: A Cause of Cerebral Emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ciss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary fibroelastomas are cardiac benign tumours. Among the benign cardiac tumor, papillary fibroelastomas are reported second after myxomas. Most often diagnosed incidentally, papillary fibroelastomas may embolize to cerebral circulation. Valvular locations are predominant; location in left atrium is rare. In this paper, we present a case of papillary fibroelastoma located in left atrium with symptoms of cerebral embolization. Transoesophageal echocardiography diagnosed a mobile mass. The patient was treated with surgical resection without further embolic complication.

  20. Automatic extraction of left ventricle in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Zhao Shujun; Yao Zhiming; Wang Daoyu

    1999-01-01

    An automatic method of extracting left ventricle from SPECT myocardial perfusion data was introduced. This method was based on the least square analysis of the positions of all short-axis slices pixels from the half sphere-cylinder myocardial model, and used a iterative reconstruction technique to automatically cut off the non-left ventricular tissue from the perfusion images. Thereby, this technique provided the bases for further quantitative analysis

  1. The role of left posterior inferior temporal cortex in spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapcsak, Steven Z; Beeson, Pélagie M

    2004-06-22

    To determine whether damage to left posterior inferior temporal cortex (PITC) is associated with agraphia and to characterize the nature of the spelling impairment. Left angular gyrus may play a critical role in spelling. However, this traditional view is challenged by reports of agraphia after left temporo-occipital lesions and by functional imaging studies demonstrating activation of left PITC during writing in normal individuals. Patients with focal damage to the left temporo-occipital cortex and normal control subjects were administered a comprehensive spelling battery that included regular words, irregular words, and nonwords as stimuli. Although patients performed worse than control subjects in all experimental conditions, the spelling deficit was particularly severe for irregular words, whereas regular word and nonword spelling were less impaired. Additional analyses indicated that orthographic regularity and word frequency had a much more pronounced effect on spelling accuracy in patients compared with control subjects. Most errors on irregular words were phonologically plausible, consistent with reliance on a sublexical phonologic spelling strategy (i.e., phoneme-grapheme conversion). Overall, the spelling impairment of the patients showed the characteristic profile of lexical agraphia. Lesion analyses indicated that the damage in the majority of patients encompassed an area within the left PITC (BA 37/20) where the authors previously obtained evidence of activation in a functional imaging study of writing in normal participants. The behavioral and neuroanatomic observations in the patients are consistent with functional imaging studies of writing in neurologically intact individuals and provide converging evidence for the role of left PITC in spelling. Together, these findings implicate left PITC as a possible neural substrate of the putative orthographic lexicon that contains stored memory representations for the written forms of familiar words.

  2. Jordan and left derivations on locally C*-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, Naseer

    2002-07-01

    We show that left derivations as well as Jordan derivations on locally G*-algebras are always continuous. We also obtain some noncommutative extensions of the classical Singer-Wermer theorem for locally C*-algebras: (1) Every left derivation D on a locally (7*-algebra A is identically zero. (2) Every Jordan derivation D on a locally C*-algebra A which satisfies [D(x), x]D(x]=0 for all x in A, is identically zero. (author)

  3. Tensor product of left n-invertible operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duggal, B.P.; Müller, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 215, č. 2 (2013), s. 113-125 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Banach space * essentially left n- invertible operator * left n-invertible operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.630, year: 2013 http://journals.impan.pl/cgi-bin/doi?sm215-2-2

  4. Foucault's Flirt? Neoliberalism, the Left and the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    2015-01-01

    An essay on the review of works interpreting the lectures of Michel Foucault on neoliberalism is presented. It offers a history of neoliberalism as a way to reinvent the left and examines the way Foucault betrayed the left while resisting to be connected with a normative political programme...... or principle for a neoliberal stance. The author relates the risks in neoliberal thought for losing what is specific in definitive statements and the loss of neoliberal thought coherence within a reality....

  5. Association of plasma angiotensin-(1-7 level and left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Hao

    Full Text Available We recently found that overexpression of angiotensin (Ang-converting enzyme 2, which metabolizes Ang-II to Ang-(1-7 and Ang-I to Ang-(1-9, may prevent diabetes-induced left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in rats. Our objective was to evaluate the association of plasma Ang-(1-7 level and left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.We measured the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF, ratio of early to late left ventricular filling velocity (E/A and ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow to annular velocity (E/Ea by ultrasonography in 110 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for more than 5 years. Anthropometric and fasting blood values were obtained from medical records. The plasma Ang-(1-7 level in patients with a poor EF (15 was significantly lower than that in patients with E/Ea ≤15. Ang-(1-7 level was negatively correlated with E/Ea and Log-N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and positively with EF and E/A. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that Ang-(1-7, hemoglobin A1c and Ang-II levels as well as duration of diabetes predicted EF; Ang-(1-7 level, fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and duration of diabetes predicted E/A; and Ang-(1-7 and hemoglobin A1c levels predicted E/Ea.Plasma Ang-(1-7 level is independently associated with left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and may be a biomarker for assessing cardiac function in such patients.

  6. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Simone Nascimento dos, E-mail: simonens@cardiol.br [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil); Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento dos; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m{sup 2} ± 10.6 mL/m{sup 2} to 22.6 mL/m{sup 2} ± 1.1 mL/m{sup 2}, p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.3 mL/m{sup 2} to 37.5 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.5 mL/m{sup 2}, p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  7. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF, and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. Objective: To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. Methods: A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind, and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e' were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. Results: One hundred seventeen patients (82.9% were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months. LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m2 ± 10.6 mL/m2 to 22.6 mL/m2 ± 1.1 mL/m2, p < 0.001 compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m2 ± 14.3 mL/m2 to 37.5 mL/m2 ± 14.5 mL/m2, p = ns. Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001 but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns. The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001. Conclusion: Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  8. Left versus right deceased donor renal allograft outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    It has been suggested that the left kidney is easier to transplant than the right kidney because of the longer length of the left renal vein, facilitating the formation of the venous anastomosis. There are conflicting reports of differing renal allograft outcomes based on the side of donor kidney transplanted (left or right).We sought to determine the effect of side of donor kidney on early and late allograft outcome in our renal transplant population. We performed a retrospective analysis of transplanted left-right deceased donor kidney pairs in Ireland between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. We used a time to death-censored graft failure approach for long-term allograft survival and also examined serum creatinine at different time points post-transplantation. All outcomes were included from day of transplant onwards. A total of 646 transplants were performed from 323 donors. The incidence of delayed graft function was 16.1% in both groups and there was no significant difference in acute rejection episodes or serum creatinine from 1 month to 8 years post-transplantation.There were 47 death-censored allograft failures in the left-sided group compared to 57 in the right-sided group (P = 0.24). These observations show no difference in renal transplant outcome between the recipients of left- and right-sided deceased donor kidneys.

  9. Left Hand Dominance Affects Supra-Second Time Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Bonní, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies exploring specific brain functions of left- and right-handed subjects have shown variances in spatial and motor abilities that might be explained according to consistent structural and functional differences. Given the role of both spatial and motor information in the processing of temporal intervals, we designed a study aimed at investigating timing abilities in left-handed subjects. To this purpose both left- and right-handed subjects were asked to perform a time reproduction of sub-second vs. supra-second time intervals with their left and right hand. Our results show that during processing of the supra-second intervals left-handed participants sub-estimated the duration of the intervals, independently of the hand used to perform the task, while no differences were reported for the sub-second intervals. These results are discussed on the basis of recent findings on supra-second motor timing, as well as emerging evidence that suggests a linear representation of time with a left-to-right displacement. PMID:22028685

  10. The new left and democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Panizza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Without embarking on a theoretical debate over the meaning of the term, it is obvious that the left is on the rise in Latin America. However, we should not ignore the fact that the coming to power of left-wing and centre-left parties and movements presents a certain amount of paradoxes and questions. One of the most important of the many paradoxes is the fact that, in spite of the leftwards electoral shift in the region, there is no evidence that the electorate of Latin America has moved to the left in a significant manner. As for the questions, these concern the connection between left-wing governments and democracy, and especially the future challenges that these governments must face to preserve and develop democracy. In an attempt to unravel the paradox and answer these questions, this article examines the roots, contexts and political challenges of left-wing governments in Latin America. To this end, the author analyses a number of issues, such as the tensions between different logics of political representation and their implications for democracy, in addition to discussing the conditions under which the tensions between the different logics of political representation can contribute (or not to the developing of democracy in the region.

  11. Roentgenologic appearance of left-sided inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko; Takeuchi, Akira; Saitoh, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    2 Cases of left-sided inferior vena cava, and 2 cases of left-sided inferior vena cava with azygos and hemiazygos continuation were evaluated with computed tomography and other roentgenologic procedures and discussed thier clinical and radiological significance. Left-sided inferior vena cava with azygos (hemiazygos) continuation is often associated with cyanotic or acyanotic congenital heart disease and abnormalities of cardiovascular position, abdominal situs and polysplenia. But, single left-sided inferior vena cavas have little tendency having associated anomalies. Both venous anomalies also shuld be embryologically differentiated, namely, failure of development of the lower portion of the supracardinal veins results in infrahepatic interruption of inferior vena cava with azygos continuation, persistence of the left cardinal system and atrophy of the right system lead to the left-side inferior vena cava. Knowledge of inferior vena cava anomalies is important to the radiologist in order to differentiate between venous anomalies and an enlarged lymph nodes in a patient with malignant tumor. (author)

  12. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  13. Radical Left in Albania and Kosovo: Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Këlliçi Klejd

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research question for this paper is: Are there radical left wing movements in Albania and Kosovo and what are their main traits? Through answering this question, we will explore the development (or lack thereof of radical left wing movements. With radical left we intend movements that reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism and its values and practices without opposing democracy. Through a thorough desk research and several interviews with experts and activists both in Albania and Kosovo, we look at the two case Political Opportunity Structures to study the emergence, the strategies, success or failures of the radical left. In Albania the radical left has been in decline since 1992, with only a recent revival from 2009 on. In Kosovo, the Lëvizja Vetëvendojse! (Self-Determination Movement, a civil movement transformed in a party, has succeeded in imposing its left agenda. Both cases employ a new rhetoric unrelated to the past communist regimes thus changing the perspective of political debate in both countries.

  14. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Hanson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate definitive calculi. After a temporary improvement in flank pain with medication, the patient experienced acute worsening of her left flank pain. Urology was consulted and further imaging was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was consistent with bilateral hydronephrosis and rupture of the left renal calyx. Given the patient’s worsening pain in the setting of left calyceal rupture, the urology team planned for placement of a left ureteral stent. However, before the patient could receive her stent, she progressed to active labor and delivered a viable female infant vaginally. Following delivery, the patient’s flank pain resolved rapidly and spontaneously, so no surgical intervention was performed. A summary of the literature and the details of this specific clinical situation are provided.

  15. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of left ventricular and biventricular enlargement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1979-01-01

    The basic criteria for the vectorcardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular and biventricular enlargements are discussed on the basis of the myocardial activation sequence. Left ventricular dilatation, secondary to isolated diastolic overloading, increases the manifestation of all the vectors resulting of the activation of this ventricle. These changes reflect the proximity of the left ventricular walls to the exploring electrodes. The vectors above mentioned project themselves as wide ventricular curves with counterclockwise rotation on the three planes. The T loop, of secondary type, is concordant in its orientation with the R loop. Cases with left ventricular hypertrophy, produced by a sustained systolic overloading, are also described. In the presence of global left ventricular hypertrophy without LBBB, the manifestation of all the vectors resulting from the depolarization of this ventricle (I, IIl, IIIl), is increased. This is due to a prolonged duration of the corresponding activation fronts. These vectors are projected on the different segments of the ventricular curves and they show a counterclockwise rotation on the three planes. When LBBB is also present, the first septal vector is not evident. The T loop, of secondary type, opposes the R loop on the frontal and horizontal planes. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy of the segmentary type, generally increases the manifestation of the vector I, and sometimes, also that of the vector IIIl. When both ventricles are hypertrophied, the electromotive forces of the chamber more severely affected predominate in the vectorcardiographic records.

  16. The prognostic value of left atrial peak reservoir strain in acute myocardial infarction is dependent on left ventricular longitudinal function and left atrial size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersboll, M; Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Valeur, N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) during the reservoir phase has been proposed as a measure of left atrium function in a range of cardiac conditions, with the potential for added pathophysiological insight and prognostic value. However, no studies have assessed the interrelation ...

  17. The Prognostic Value of Left Atrial Peak Reservoir Strain in Acute Myocardial Infarction Is Dependent on Left Ventricular Longitudinal Function and Left Atrial Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Andersen, Mads J; Valeur, Nana

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) during the reservoir phase has been proposed as a measure of left atrium function in a range of cardiac conditions, with the potential for added pathophysiological insight and prognostic value. However, no studies have assessed the interrelation ...

  18. Hypercholesterolemia downregulates autophagy in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricz, Zoltán; Koncsos, Gábor; Rajtík, Tomáš; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Csonka, Csaba; Szobi, Adrián; Adameová, Adriana; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-03-23

    We have previously shown that efficiency of ischemic conditioning is diminished in hypercholesterolemia and that autophagy is necessary for cardioprotection. However, it is unknown whether isolated hypercholesterolemia disturbs autophagy or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether isolated hypercholesterolemia modulates cardiac autophagy-related pathways or programmed cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necroptosis in rat heart. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal chow (NORM; n = 9) or with 2% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid-enriched diet (CHOL; n = 9) for 12 weeks. CHOL rats exhibited a 41% increase in plasma total cholesterol level over that of NORM rats (4.09 mmol/L vs. 2.89 mmol/L) at the end of diet period. Animals were sacrificed, hearts were excised and briefly washed out. Left ventricles were snap-frozen for determination of markers of autophagy, mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and necroptosis by Western blot. Isolated hypercholesterolemia was associated with a significant reduction in expression of cardiac autophagy markers such as LC3-II, Beclin-1, Rubicon and RAB7 as compared to controls. Phosphorylation of ribosomal S6, a surrogate marker for mTOR activity, was increased in CHOL samples. Cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, increased in CHOL hearts, while no difference in the expression of necroptotic marker RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL was detected between treatments. This is the first comprehensive analysis of autophagy and programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and necroptosis in hearts of hypercholesterolemic rats. Our data show that isolated hypercholesterolemia suppresses basal cardiac autophagy and that the decrease in autophagy may be a result of an activated mTOR pathway. Reduced autophagy was accompanied by increased apoptosis, while cardiac necroptosis was not modulated by isolated hypercholesterolemia. Decreased basal autophagy and elevated apoptosis may be responsible for the

  19. Aged rat hearts are not more susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo: role of glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtweis, S; Leeuwenburgh, C; Bejma, J; Ji, L L

    2001-05-15

    The current study tested the hypothesis that ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) can cause more severe myocardial dysfunction and oxidative damage in senescent rats than young adult rats. Male Fischer 344 rats at the age of 6 (adult) and 24 (old) months were subjected to an open-chest heart surgery and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: ischemia only (I), with the occlusion of the main descending branch of the left coronary artery (LCA) for 30 min; I-R, with the release of LCA occlusion for 20 min; or sham (S) operation. Heart mechanical performance was monitored using a fluid-filled catheter inserted in the right carotid artery and advanced to the left ventricle. Ischemia caused similar reductions of left ventricle systolic pressure (LVSP) and contractility (+/-dP/dt) in adult and aged hearts. After I-R, adult hearts regained 82% (P0.05) of LVSP. There was no significant difference in the reduction of +/-dP/dt with I-R between adult and aged hearts. Old rats had lower pre-ischemic heart rate than adult rats, however, I-R caused no reduction of heart rate, and a smaller reduction of pressure-rate double product in the aged rats (10%, P>0.05) than the adult rats (23%, Pinjury than adult hearts during myocardial I-R, partly because they have a greater GSH antioxidant protection.

  20. Transoral intratracheal inoculation method for use with neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Burnes, J; López, A; Lemke, K; Dobbin, G

    2001-04-01

    Studying the effects of toxic and infective compounds on the respiratory system requires a reliable method for delivering inoculum into the distal region of the lung. Although transoral intratracheal inoculation methods have been well documented for adult rats, to the authors' knowledge, a reliable method has not been validated for neonatal rats. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a simple method for transoral inoculation in rat neonates. Seven-day-old Fischer 344 rats were anesthetized with halothane, and a spinal needle was inserted in the tracheal lumen, by use of illumination and a modified otoscope. Meconium was injected into the lungs as a marker, and the neonates were kept under close observation. After euthanasia at 24 h, lungs were removed and fixed in formalin, and the microscopic distribution of the inoculum was assessed in the left, right cranial, middle, median, and caudal lung lobes. Microscopic examination of lungs indicated that intratracheal inoculation was achieved in 100% of neonatal lungs and the inoculum was consistently distributed in the alveoli of all pulmonary lobes. Important complications or mortality were not observed in the neonates. Intratracheal inoculation of neonatal rats is possible by use of a modified otoscope for transoral illumination. This technique is simple and reproducible and ensures, without complications, widespread distribution of inoculum in the lungs of neonatal rats.