WorldWideScience

Sample records for left superior parietal

  1. The Left Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus within the Primary Sensory Area of Inferior Parietal Lobe Plays a Role in Dysgraphia of Kana Omission within Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobusada Shinoura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurological changes after surgery combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI tractography can directly provide evidence of anatomical localization of brain function. Using these techniques, a patient with dysgraphia before surgery was analyzed at our hospital in 2011. The patient showed omission of kana within sentences before surgery, which improved after surgery. The brain tumor was relatively small and was located within the primary sensory area (S1 of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL. DTI tractography before surgery revealed compression of the branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF by the brain tumor. These results suggest that the left SLF within the S1 of IPL plays a role in the development of dysgraphia of kana omission within sentences.

  2. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  3. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok [Myongji St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood.

  4. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood

  5. Electrocorticography of Spatial Shifting and Attentional Selection in Human Superior Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Schrooten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial-attentional reorienting and selection between competing stimuli are two distinct attentional processes of clinical and fundamental relevance. In the past, reorienting has been mainly associated with inferior parietal cortex. In a patient with a subdural grid covering the upper and lower bank of the left anterior and middle intraparietal sulcus (IPS and the superior parietal lobule (SPL, we examined the involvement of superior parietal cortex using a hybrid spatial cueing paradigm identical to that previously applied in stroke and in healthy controls. In SPL, as early as 164 ms following target onset, an invalidly compared to a validly cued target elicited a positive event-related potential (ERP and an increase in intertrial coherence (ITC in the theta band, regardless of the direction of attention. From around 400–650 ms, functional connectivity [weighted phase lag index (wPLI analysis] between SPL and IPS briefly inverted such that SPL activity was driving IPS activity. In contrast, the presence of a competing distracter elicited a robust change mainly in IPS from 300 to 600 ms. Within superior parietal cortex reorienting of attention is associated with a distinct and early electrophysiological response in SPL while attentional selection is indexed by a relatively late electrophysiological response in the IPS. The long latency suggests a role of IPS in working memory or cognitive control rather than early selection.

  6. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Dingchen; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wu, Huawang; Wang, Yinyan; Zhou, Ke; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network.

  7. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  8. Both left and right posterior parietal activations contribute to compensatory processes in normal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Mao; Polk, Thad A.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults often exhibit greater brain activation in prefrontal cortex compared to younger adults, and there is some evidence that this increased activation compensates for age-related neural degradation that would otherwise adversely affect cognitive performance. Less is known about aging and compensatory recruitment in the parietal cortex. In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we presented healthy young and old participants with two Stroop-like tasks (number magnitude and physical size). In young, the number magnitude task activated right parietal cortex and the physical size task activated left parietal cortex. In older adults, we observed contralateral parietal recruitment that depended on the task: in the number magnitude task older participants recruited left posterior parietal cortex (in addition to the right parietal activity observed in young) while in the physical size task they recruited right (in addition to left) posterior parietal cortex. In both cases, the additional parietal activity was associated with better performance suggesting that it played a compensatory role. Older adults also recruited left prefrontal cortex during both tasks and this common activation was also associated with better performance. The results provide evidence for task-specific compensatory recruitment in parietal cortex as well as task-independent compensatory recruitment in prefrontal cortex in normal aging. PMID:22063904

  9. Visualisation of the left superior intercostal vein in MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrea, M.; Meydam, K.; Schmitt, W.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 56 MRT chest examinations showed the left intercostal vein in its horizontal trajectory in 3 patients with left mediastinal masses compressing the superior vena cava. In 2 patients the posterior trajectory of the horizontal segment was clearly visualised. In the third case the anterior part, namely the insertion of the left superior intercostal vein into the left brachiocephalic trunk, was demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  10. Improving ideomotor limb apraxia by electrical stimulation of the left posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Convento, Silvia; Banco, Elisabetta; Mattioli, Flavia; Tesio, Luigi; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Limb apraxia, a deficit of planning voluntary gestures, is most frequently caused by damage to the left hemisphere, where, according to an influential neurofunctional model, gestures are planned, before being executed through the motor cortex of the hemisphere contralateral to the acting hand. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation delivered to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC), the right motor cortex (M1), and a sham stimulation condition, to modulate the ability of six left-brain-damaged patients with ideomotor apraxia, and six healthy control subjects, to imitate hand gestures, and to perform skilled hand movements using the left hand. Transcranial direct current stimulation delivered to the left PPC reduced the time required to perform skilled movements, and planning, but not execution, times in imitating gestures, in both patients and controls. In patients, the amount of decrease of planning times brought about by left PPC transcranial direct current stimulation was influenced by the size of the parietal lobe damage, with a larger parietal damage being associated with a smaller improvement. Of interest from a clinical perspective, left PPC stimulation also ameliorated accuracy in imitating hand gestures in patients. Instead, transcranial direct current stimulation to the right M1 diminished execution, but not planning, times in both patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, by using a transcranial stimulation approach, we temporarily improved ideomotor apraxia in the left hand of left-brain-damaged patients, showing a role of the left PPC in planning gestures. This evidence opens up novel perspectives for the use of transcranial direct current stimulation in the rehabilitation of limb apraxia. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation increases alpha absolute power in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lial, Lysnara; Moreira, Rayele; Correia, Luan; Andrade, Alzira; Pereira, Ane Caroline; Lira, Ricardo; Figueiredo, Rogério; Silva-Júnior, Fernando; Orsini, Marco; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Cagy, Maurício; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2017-09-01

    The physiotherapist's clinical practice includes proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), which is a treatment concept that accelerates the response of neuromuscular mechanisms through spiral and diagonal movements. The adaptations that occur in the nervous system following PNF are still poorly described in the literature. Thus, this study had a goal to investigate the electrophysiological changes in the fronto-parietal circuit during PNF and movement in sagittal and diagonal patterns. This study included 30 female participants, who were divided into three groups (control, PNF, and flexion groups). Electroencephalogram measurements were determined before and after tasks were performed by each group. For the statistical analysis, a two-way ANOVA was performed for the factors group and time. Interactions between the two factors were investigated using a one-way ANOVA. A value of p < 0.004 was considered significant. The results showed an increase in alpha absolute power in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and upper left parietal cortex of the PNF group, suggesting these areas work together to execute a motor action. The PNF group showed a greater alpha absolute power compared with the other groups, indicating a specific cortical demand for planning and attention, reinforcing its use for the rehabilitation of individuals.

  12. Overlapping representations for reach depth and direction in caudal superior parietal lobule of macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bo', Giulia; Breveglieri, Rossella; Galletti, Claudio; Fattori, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Reaching movements in the real world have typically a direction and a depth component. Despite numerous behavioral studies, there is no consensus on whether reach coordinates are processed in separate or common visuomotor channels. Furthermore, the neural substrates of reach depth in parietal cortex have been ignored in most neurophysiological studies. In the medial posterior parietal area V6A, we recently demonstrated the strong presence of depth signals and the extensive convergence of depth and direction information on single neurons during all phases of a fixate-to-reach task in 3-dimensional (3D) space. Using the same task, in the present work we examined the processing of direction and depth information in area PEc of the caudal superior parietal lobule (SPL) in three Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Across the task, depth and direction had a similar, high incidence of modulatory effect. The effect of direction was stronger than depth during the initial fixation period. As the task progressed toward arm movement execution, depth tuning became more prominent than directional tuning and the number of cells modulated by both depth and direction increased significantly. Neurons tuned by depth showed a small bias for far peripersonal space. Cells with directional modulations were more frequently tuned toward contralateral spatial locations, but ipsilateral space was also represented. These findings, combined with results from neighboring areas V6A and PE, support a rostral-to-caudal gradient of overlapping representations for reach depth and direction in SPL. These findings also support a progressive change from visuospatial (vergence angle) to somatomotor representations of 3D space in SPL. PMID:26269557

  13. Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Ximenes, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the coronary sinus. We report the case of a patient with a persistent left superior vena cava and absence of right superior vena cava identified by chance during a chest radiograph and computed tomography examination for investigation of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. The patient had no congenital heart disease and the blood from the right side was drained by the persistent left superior vena cava into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. (author)

  14. Dysregulated left inferior parietal activity in schizophrenia and depression: functional connectivity and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika I. Müller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal cortex (IPC is a heterogeneous region that is known to be involved in a multitude of diverse different tasks and processes, though its contribution to these often-complex functions is yet poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that patients with depression failed to deactivate the left IPC during processing of congruent audiovisual information. We now found the same dysregulation (same region and condition in schizophrenia. By using task-independent (resting state and task-dependent (MACM analyses we aimed at characterizing this particular region with regard to its connectivity and function. Across both approaches, results revealed functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal seed region with bilateral IPC, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PrC/PCC, medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, left middle frontal (MFG as well as inferior frontal (IFG gyrus. Network-level functional characterization further revealed that on the one hand, all interconnected regions are part of a network involved in memory processes. On the other hand, sub-networks are formed when emotion, language, social cognition and reasoning processes are required. Thus, the IPC-region that is dysregulated in both depression and schizophrenia is functionally connected to a network of regions which, depending on task demands may form sub-networks. These results therefore indicate that dysregulation of left IPC in depression and schizophrenia might not only be connected to deficits in audiovisual integration, but is possibly also associated to impaired memory and deficits in emotion processing in these patient groups.

  15. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  16. Functional specialization of the left ventral parietal cortex in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the ventral parietal cortex (VPC is subject to much debate. Many studies suggest a lateralization of function in the VPC, with the left hemisphere facilitating verbal working memory and the right subserving stimulus-driven attention. However, many attentional tasks elicit activity in the VPC bilaterally. To elucidate the potential divides across the VPC in function, we assessed the pattern of activity in the VPC bilaterally across two tasks that require different demands, an oddball attentional task with low working memory demands and a working memory task. An anterior region of the VPC was bilaterally active during novel targets in the oddball task and during retrieval in WM, while more posterior regions of the VPC displayed dissociable functions in the left and right hemisphere, with the left being active during the encoding and retrieval of WM, but not during the oddball task and the right showing the reverse pattern. These results suggest that bilateral regions of the anterior VPC subserve non-mnemonic processes, such as stimulus-driven attention during WM retrieval and oddball detection. The left posterior VPC may be important for speech-related processing important for both working memory and perception, while the right hemisphere is more lateralized for attention.

  17. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) is one of the common anomalies of the systemic veins. Its prevalence is 0.10.3% in the general population and is more common with congenital heart disease (CHD). The importance of detecting persistent LSVC prior to cardiac surgery is paramount for systemic veins ...

  18. Sustained attention is associated with right superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior parietal white matter microstructure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarborg, Brith; Skak Madsen, Kathrine; Vestergaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention develops during childhood and has been linked to the right fronto-parietal cortices in functional imaging studies; however, less is known about its relation to white matter (WM) characteristics. Here we investigated whether the microstructure of the WM underlying and connectin...

  19. Concomitant Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava and Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Jaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC and horseshoe kidney (HSK are common congenital abnormalities; however presence of both in the same person is extremely rare. A patient with hepatitis C cirrhosis awaiting transplant presented with worsening liver dysfunction, diagnosed with acute renal failure secondary to hepatorenal syndrome, and required X-ray fluoroscopy guided tunneled venous catheter placement for hemodialysis. Review of imaging studies demonstrated coexistence of PLSVC and HSK. PLSVC in adulthood is usually incidental with the most common drainage pattern being without physiologic dysfunction. Isolated horseshoe kidney is still the most common of renal fusion anomalies; however etiology of coexistent PLSVC remains unknown.

  20. Visuokinesthetic perception of hand movement is mediated by cerebro-cerebellar interaction between the left cerebellum and right parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagura, Nobuhiro; Oouchida, Yutaka; Aramaki, Yu; Okada, Tomohisa; Matsumura, Michikazu; Sadato, Norihiro; Naito, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    Combination of visual and kinesthetic information is essential to perceive bodily movements. We conducted behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to investigate the neuronal correlates of visuokinesthetic combination in perception of hand movement. Participants experienced illusory flexion movement of their hand elicited by tendon vibration while they viewed video-recorded flexion (congruent: CONG) or extension (incongruent: INCONG) motions of their hand. The amount of illusory experience was graded by the visual velocities only when visual information regarding hand motion was concordant with kinesthetic information (CONG). The left posterolateral cerebellum was specifically recruited under the CONG, and this left cerebellar activation was consistent for both left and right hands. The left cerebellar activity reflected the participants' intensity of illusory hand movement under the CONG, and we further showed that coupling of activity between the left cerebellum and the "right" parietal cortex emerges during this visuokinesthetic combination/perception. The "left" cerebellum, working with the anatomically connected high-order bodily region of the "right" parietal cortex, participates in online combination of exteroceptive (vision) and interoceptive (kinesthesia) information to perceive hand movement. The cerebro-cerebellar interaction may underlie updating of one's "body image," when perceiving bodily movement from visual and kinesthetic information.

  1. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava in Fetuses: An Autopsy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Deepa; Chidambarathanu, Shanthi; Murli, Lata; Micheal, John; Jagadeesh, Sujatha; Suresh, Indrani; Seshadri, Suresh

    2017-08-01

    To review fetal autopsy reports with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) and identify its associations. Autopsy reports of all fetuses diagnosed with PLSVC in our center from January 2011 to December 2015 were reviewed. Fetuses less than 15 weeks gestational age along with autolyzed and damaged hearts were excluded from the study. The study group was compared with controls during this period. Prenatal ultrasound detection rate of PLSVC was 13.06%. All the cases had associated anomalies of which 96% had extra cardiac anomalies and 67% had intrinsic cardiac defects among which septal defects were most common (39.6%). Anomalies of cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary and musculoskeletal, hypoplastic thymus and single umbilical artery were significantly higher in the study group. This study emphasizes on the importance of improving the technical skill for imaging the three-vessel view as PLSVC seems to have significant associations.

  2. Visuokinesthetic Perception of Hand Movement is Mediated by Cerebro–Cerebellar Interaction between the Left Cerebellum and Right Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagura, Nobuhiro; Oouchida, Yutaka; Aramaki, Yu; Okada, Tomohisa; Matsumura, Michikazu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2009-01-01

    Combination of visual and kinesthetic information is essential to perceive bodily movements. We conducted behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to investigate the neuronal correlates of visuokinesthetic combination in perception of hand movement. Participants experienced illusory flexion movement of their hand elicited by tendon vibration while they viewed video-recorded flexion (congruent: CONG) or extension (incongruent: INCONG) motions of their hand. The amount of illusory experience was graded by the visual velocities only when visual information regarding hand motion was concordant with kinesthetic information (CONG). The left posterolateral cerebellum was specifically recruited under the CONG, and this left cerebellar activation was consistent for both left and right hands. The left cerebellar activity reflected the participants' intensity of illusory hand movement under the CONG, and we further showed that coupling of activity between the left cerebellum and the “right” parietal cortex emerges during this visuokinesthetic combination/perception. The “left” cerebellum, working with the anatomically connected high-order bodily region of the “right” parietal cortex, participates in online combination of exteroceptive (vision) and interoceptive (kinesthesia) information to perceive hand movement. The cerebro–cerebellar interaction may underlie updating of one's “body image,” when perceiving bodily movement from visual and kinesthetic information. PMID:18453537

  3. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, René S; Aleman, André

    2008-05-21

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms). Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction), revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become more apparent half

  4. Surgery for gliomas involving the left inferior parietal lobule: new insights into the functional anatomy provided by stimulation mapping in awake patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Igor Lima; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Bertram, Luc; Moulinié, Gérard; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-10-01

    Surgery in the left dominant inferior parietal lobule (IPL) is challenging because of a high density of somatosensory and language structures, both in the cortex and white matter. In the present study, on the basis of the results provided by direct cerebral stimulation in awake patients, the authors revisit the anatomofunctional aspects of surgery within the left IPL. Fourteen consecutive patients underwent awake craniotomy for a glioma involving the left IPL. Intraoperative motor, sensory, and language mapping was performed before and during the tumor removal, at both the cortical and subcortical levels, to optimize the extent of resection, which was determined based on functional boundaries. Anatomofunctional correlations were performed by combining the results of intraoperative mapping and those provided by pre- and postoperative MR imaging. At the cortical level, the primary somatosensory area (retrocentral gyrus) limited the resection anteriorly in all cases, at least partially. Less frequently, speech arrest or articulatory problems were observed within the parietal operculum (4 cases). The lateral limit was determined by language sites that were variably distributed. Anomia was the most frequent response (9 cases) at the posterior third of the superior (and/or middle) temporal gyrus. Posteriorly, less reproducible reorganized language sites were seldom observed in the posterior portion of the angular gyrus (2 cases). At the subcortical level, in addition to somatosensory responses due to stimulation of the thalamocortical pathways, articulatory disturbances were induced by stimulation of white matter in the anterior and lateral part of the surgical cavity (11 cases). This tract anatomically corresponds to the horizontal portion of the lateral segment of the superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF III). Deeper and superiorly, phonemic paraphasia was the main language disturbance (12 cases), elicited by stimulation of the posterosuperior portion of the arcuate

  5. Sleep paralysis and "the bedroom intruder": the role of the right superior parietal, phantom pain and body image projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2014-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common condition occurring either at sleep onset or sleep offset. During SP the sleeper experiences gross motor paralysis while the sensory system is clear. Hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common during SP and may involve seeing, hearing, and sensing the presence of menacing intruders in one's bedroom. This "intruder" is often perceived as a shadowy humanoid figure. Supernatural accounts of this hallucinated intruder are common across cultures. In this paper, we postulate that a functional disturbance of the right parietal cortex explains the shadowy nocturnal bedroom intruder hallucination during SP. This hallucination may arise due to a disturbance in the multisensory processing of body and self at the temporoparietal junction. We specifically propose that this perceived intruder is the result of a hallucinated projection of the genetically "hard-wired" body image (homunculus), in the right parietal region; namely, the same circuits that dictate aesthetic and sexual preference of body morphology. One way to test this hypothesis would be to study clinical populations who may have genetically acquired "irregularities" in their internal hard-wired body image in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL); for example, individuals with apotemnophilia or anorexia nervosa. If such individuals experience SP (e.g., induced in a sleep lab), and they hallucinate this shadowy figure, one would predict that they would see humanoid shadows and shapes with body irregularities, mirroring their own internal body image morphology. If correct, our hypothesis will offer a neurological explanation for this nocturnal bedroom intruder that has been a source of controversy, and striking and implausible cultural interpretations throughout history. Indeed, if our proposed hypothesis is tested and corroborated, dissemination of such findings would provide great relief to SP experiencers worldwide and could potentially be used in a therapeutic context

  6. A brain-computer interface based on self-regulation of gamma-oscillations in the superior parietal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are often based on motor- and/or sensory processes that are known to be impaired in late stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We propose a novel BCI designed for patients in late stages of ALS that only requires high-level cognitive processes to transmit information from the user to the BCI. Approach. We trained subjects via EEG-based neurofeedback to self-regulate the amplitude of gamma-oscillations in the superior parietal cortex (SPC). We argue that parietal gamma-oscillations are likely to be associated with high-level attentional processes, thereby providing a communication channel that does not rely on the integrity of sensory- and/or motor-pathways impaired in late stages of ALS. Main results. Healthy subjects quickly learned to self-regulate gamma-power in the SPC by alternating between states of focused attention and relaxed wakefulness, resulting in an average decoding accuracy of 70.2%. One locked-in ALS patient (ALS-FRS-R score of zero) achieved an average decoding accuracy significantly above chance-level though insufficient for communication (55.8%). Significance. Self-regulation of gamma-power in the SPC is a feasible paradigm for brain-computer interfacing and may be preserved in late stages of ALS. This provides a novel approach to testing whether completely locked-in ALS patients retain the capacity for goal-directed thinking.

  7. Maintaining the feelings of others in working memory is associated with activation of the left anterior insula and left frontal-parietal control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan; Lane, Richard D; Alkozei, Anna; Bao, Jennifer; Smith, Courtney; Sanova, Anna; Nettles, Matthew; Killgore, William D S

    2017-05-01

    The maintenance of social/emotional information in working memory (SWM/EWM) has recently been the topic of multiple neuroimaging studies. However, some studies find that SWM/EWM involves a medial frontal-parietal network while others instead find lateral frontal-parietal activations similar to studies of verbal and visuospatial WM. In this study, we asked 26 healthy volunteers to complete an EWM task designed to examine whether different cognitive strategies- maintaining emotional images, words, or feelings- might account for these discrepant results. We also examined whether differences in EWM performance were related to general intelligence (IQ), emotional intelligence (EI), and emotional awareness (EA). We found that maintaining emotional feelings, even when accounting for neural activation attributable to maintaining emotional images/words, still activated a left lateral frontal-parietal network (including the anterior insula and posterior dorsomedial frontal cortex). We also found that individual differences in the ability to maintain feelings were positively associated with IQ and EA, but not with EI. These results suggest that maintaining the feelings of others (at least when perceived exteroceptively) involves similar frontal-parietal control networks to exteroceptive WM, and that it is similarly linked to IQ, but that it also may be an important component of EA. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Implantation of a Resynchronization Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in a Patient with Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Antonelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of resynchronization implantable cardioverter defibrillator was performed in a patient with persistent left superior vena cava. A dual coil defibrillation lead was inserted in the right ventricle apex via a small innominate vein. Left ventricular and atrial leads were implanted through persistent left superior vena cava. Left ventricular lead was easily implanted into the postero lateral vein. Pacing thresholds and sensing values were excellent and remained stable at 18 months follow-up. Presence of persistent left superior vena cava generally makes transvenous lead implantation difficult. However when a favorable coronary sinus anatomy is also present, it may facilitate left ventricular lead positioning in the coronary sinus branches.

  9. Non-perceptual Regions in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobe Support Phonological Short-term Memory: Evidence for a Buffer Account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qiuhai; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Rose, Nathan S

    2018-03-07

    Buffer versus embedded processes accounts of short-term memory (STM) for phonological information were addressed by testing subjects' perception and memory for speech and non-speech auditory stimuli. Univariate and multivariate (MVPA) approaches were used to assess whether brain regions recruited in recognizing speech were involved in maintaining speech representations over a delay. As expected, a left superior temporal region was found to support speech perception. However, contrary to the embedded processes approach, this region failed to show a load effect, or any sustained activation, during a maintenance delay. Moreover, MVPA decoding during the maintenance stage was unsuccessful in this region by a perception classifier or an encoding classifier. In contrast, the left supramarginal gyrus showed both sustained activation and a load effect. Using MVPA, stimulus decoding was successful during the delay period. In addition, a functional connectivity analysis showed that, as memory load increased, the left temporal lobe involved in perception became more strongly connected with the parietal region involved in maintenance. Taken together, the findings provide greater support for a buffer than embedded processes account of phonological STM.

  10. Investigating the Functional Utility of the Left Parietal ERP Old/New Effect: Brain Activity Predicts within But Not between Participant Variance in Episodic Recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. MacLeod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A success story within neuroimaging has been the discovery of distinct neural correlates of episodic retrieval, providing insight into the processes that support memory for past life events. Here we focus on one commonly reported neural correlate, the left parietal old/new effect, a positive going modulation seen in event-related potential (ERP data that is widely considered to index episodic recollection. Substantial evidence links changes in the size of the left parietal effect to changes in remembering, but the precise functional utility of the effect remains unclear. Here, using forced choice recognition of verbal stimuli, we present a novel population level test of the hypothesis that the magnitude of the left parietal effect correlates with memory performance. We recorded ERPs during old/new recognition, source accuracy and Remember/Know/Guess tasks in two large samples of healthy young adults, and successfully replicated existing within participant modulations of the magnitude of the left parietal effect with recollection. Critically, however, both datasets also show that across participants the magnitude of the left parietal effect does not correlate with behavioral measures of memory – including both subjective and objective estimates of recollection. We conclude that in these tasks, and across this healthy young adult population, the generators of the left parietal ERP effect do not index performance as expected. Taken together, these novel findings provide important constraints on the functional interpretation of the left parietal effect, suggesting that between group differences in the magnitude of old/new effects cannot always safely be used to infer differences in recollection.

  11. Motor learning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: activation in superior parietal lobule related to learning and repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G; Kana, Rajesh K; Klinger, Laura G; Klein, Christopher L; Klinger, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Motor-linked implicit learning is the learning of a sequence of movements without conscious awareness. Although motor symptoms are frequently reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), recent behavioral studies have suggested that motor-linked implicit learning may be intact in ASD. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is one of the most common measures of motor-linked implicit learning. The present study used a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner to examine the behavioral and neural correlates of real-time motor sequence learning in adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 15) compared with age- and intelligence quotient-matched individuals with typical development (n = 15) during an SRT task. Behavioral results suggested less robust motor sequence learning in individuals with ASD. Group differences in brain activation suggested that individuals with ASD, relative to individuals with typical development, showed decreased activation in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and right precuneus (Brodmann areas 5 and 7, and extending into the intraparietal sulcus) during learning. Activation in these areas (and in areas such as the right putamen and right supramarginal gyrus) was found to be significantly related to behavioral learning in this task. Additionally, individuals with ASD who had more severe repetitive behavior/restricted interest symptoms demonstrated greater decreased activation in these regions during motor learning. In conjunction, these results suggest that the SPL may play an important role in motor learning and repetitive behavior in individuals with ASD. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Widening of mediastinum with persistent left superior Vena cava - CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuwirth, J.; Kolar, J.

    1992-01-01

    Described in this paper are radiographic findings recorded from a case of persistent left superior vena cava which grew manifest by widening of the left contour of the upper mediastinal region. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was undertaken to clear up suspicion of mediastinal tumour and revealed double superior vena cava. The diagnosis was then confirmed by digital subtraction venography. (orig.) [de

  13. Controversies over the mechanisms underlying the crucial role of the left fronto-parietal areas in the representation of tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGainotti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomo-clinical and neuroimaging data show that the left fronto-parietal areas play an important role in representing tools. As manipulation is an important source of knowledge about tools, it has been assumed that motor activity explains the link between tool knowledge and the left fronto-parietal areas. However, controversies exist over the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. According to a strong version of the ‘embodied cognition theory’, activation of a tool concept necessarily involves re-enactment of the corresponding kind of action. Impairment of the ability to use tools should, therefore, lead to impairment of tool knowledge. Both the ‘domains of knowledge hypothesis’ and the ‘sensory-motor model of conceptual knowledge’ refute the strong version of the ‘embodied cognition hypothesis’ but acknowledge that manipulation and other action schemata play an important role in our knowledge of tools. The basic difference between these two models is that the former is based on an innatist model and the latter holds that the brain’s organization of categories is experience dependent. Data supporting and arguing against each of these models are briefly reviewed. In particular, the following lines of research, which argue against the innate nature of the brain’s categorical organization, are discussed: (1 the observation that in patients with category-specific disorders the semantic impairment does not respect the boundaries between biological entities and artefact items; (2 data showing that experience-driven neuroplasticity in musicians is not confined to alterations of perceptual and motor maps but also leads to the establishment of higher-level semantic representations for musical instruments; (3 results of experiments using previously unfamiliar materials showing that the history of our sensory-motor experience with an object significantly affects its neural representation.

  14. Persistent left superior vena cava leads to catheter malposition during PICC Port placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Mariolis Sapsakos, Theodoros D; Katsoulas, Theodoros A; Velecheris, Dimitrios; Tsitsimelis, Dimitrios; Bonatsos, Gerasimos

    2016-03-09

    We present a case of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) port placement where the catheter had been malpositioned to the persistent left superior vena cava. Despite the obvious elevation of the P-wave signaling proximity of the catheter tip to the sinus node, the catheter was not in the desired location within the superior vena cava or the right atrium, because of the presence of a persistent left superior vena cava. Computed tomography was used in order to locate the catheter. The catheter was located in the persistent left superior vena cava. Malpositioning of the catheter in the persistent left superior vena cava occurs in 0.3%-0.5% of patients. The catheter was subsequently removed.

  15. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, N; Preti, M G; Wassermann, D; Rathi, Y; Papadimitriou, G M; Yergatian, C; Dickerson, B C; Shenton, M E; Kubicki, M

    2013-09-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia.

  16. a case of persistent left superior vena cava detected by post-contrast CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko; Takeuchi, Akira; Hattori, Yoshinobu; Ino, Akio

    1983-01-01

    A case of persistent left superior vena cava and large anastomosis between double superior vena cava was incidentally detected by post-contrast CT scans. This abnormal vein did not connect to the right atrium via coronary sinus. The usefulness for the diagnosis of post-contrast CT scans and RI venography should be emphasized. (author)

  17. Superior Temporal Gyrus Volume Abnormalities and Thought Disorder in Left-Handed Schizophrenic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinger, Dorothy P.; Shenton, Martha E.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Donnino, Robert; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Studies of schizophrenia have not clearly defined handedness as a differentiating variable. Moreover, the relationship between thought disorder and anatomical anomalies has not been studied extensively in left-handed schizophrenic men. The twofold purpose of this study was to investigate gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe (left and right hemispheres) in left-handed schizophrenic men and left-handed comparison men, in order to determine whether thought disorder in the left-handed schizophrenic men correlated with tissue volume abnormalities. Method Left-handed male patients (N=8) with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia were compared with left-handed comparison men (N=10) matched for age, socioeconomic status, and IQ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 1.5-T magnet was used to obtain scans, which consisted of contiguous 1.5-mm slices of the whole brain. MRI analyses (as previously defined by the authors) included the anterior, posterior, and total superior temporal gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres. Results There were three significant findings regarding the left-handed schizophrenic men: 1) bilaterally smaller gray matter volumes in the posterior superior temporal gyrus (16% smaller on the right, 15% smaller on the left); 2) a smaller volume on the right side of the total superior temporal gyrus; and 3) a positive correlation between thought disorder and tissue volume in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions These results suggest that expression of brain pathology differs between left-handed and right-handed schizophrenic men and that the pathology is related to cognitive disturbance. PMID:10553736

  18. The role of the left inferior parietal lobule in second language learning: An intensive language training fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elise B; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Soles, Jennika; Berken, Jonathan; Baum, Shari; Watkins, Kate E; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    Research to date suggests that second language acquisition results in functional and structural changes in the bilingual brain, however, in what way and how quickly these changes occur remains unclear. To address these questions, we studied fourteen English-speaking monolingual adults enrolled in a 12-week intensive French language-training program in Montreal. Using functional MRI, we investigated the neural changes associated with new language acquisition. The participants were scanned before the start of the immersion program and at the end of the 12 weeks. The fMRI scan aimed to investigate the brain regions recruited in a sentence reading task both in English, their first language (L1), and in French, their second language (L2). For the L1, fMRI patterns did not change from Time 1 to Time 2, while for the L2, the brain response changed between Time 1 and Time 2 in language-related areas. Of note, for the L2, there was higher activation at Time 2 compared to Time 1 in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) including the supramarginal gyrus. At Time 2 this higher activation in the IPL correlated with faster L2 reading speed. Moreover, higher activation in the left IPL at Time 1 predicted improvement in L2 reading speed from Time 1 to Time 2. Our results suggest that learning-induced plasticity occurred as early as 12 weeks into immersive second-language training, and that the IPL appears to play a special role in language learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The left visual-field advantage in rapid visual presentation is amplified rather than reduced by posterior-parietal rTMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Möller, Friderike; Kuniecki, Michal

    2010-01-01

    In the present task, series of visual stimuli are rapidly presented left and right, containing two target stimuli, T1 and T2. In previous studies, T2 was better identified in the left than in the right visual field. This advantage of the left visual field might reflect dominance exerted...... by the right over the left hemisphere. If so, then repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the right parietal cortex might release the left hemisphere from right-hemispheric control, thereby improving T2 identification in the right visual field. Alternatively or additionally, the asymmetry in T2......) either as effective or as sham stimulation. In two experiments, either one of these two factors, hemisphere and effectiveness of rTMS, was varied within or between participants. Again, T2 was much better identified in the left than in the right visual field. This advantage of the left visual field...

  20. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-site multi-polar left ventricular pacing through persistent left superior vena cava in tricuspid valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest W. Lau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-site multi-polar left ventricular pacing through the coronary sinus (CS may be preferred over endocardial right ventricular or surgical epicardial pacing in the presence of tricuspid valve disease. However, the required lead placement can be difficult through a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC, as the CS tends to be hugely dilated and side branches tend to have sharp angulations (>90° when approached from the PLSVC. Pre-shaped angiography catheters and techniques used for finding venous grafts from the ascending aorta post coronary bypass surgery may help with lead placement in such a situation.

  2. Maintaining the feelings of others in working memory is associated with activation of the left anterior insula and left frontal-parietal control network

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ryan; Lane, Richard D.; Alkozei, Anna; Bao, Jennifer; Smith, Courtney; Sanova, Anna; Nettles, Matthew; Killgore, William D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The maintenance of social/emotional information in working memory (SWM/EWM) has recently been the topic of multiple neuroimaging studies. However, some studies find that SWM/EWM involves a medial frontal-parietal network while others instead find lateral frontal-parietal activations similar to studies of verbal and visuospatial WM. In this study, we asked 26 healthy volunteers to complete an EWM task designed to examine whether different cognitive strategies? maintaining emotional im...

  3. Isolated persistent left superior vena cava: A case report and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bisoyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The venous anomaly of a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC affects 0.3%-0.5% of the general population. PLSVC with absent right superior vena cava, also termed as "isolated PLSVC," is an extremely rare venous anomaly. Almost half of the patients with isolated PLSVC have cardiac anomalies in the form of atrial septal defect, endocardial cushion defects, or tetralogy of Fallot. Isolated PLSVC is usually innocuous. Its discovery, however, has important clinical implications. It can pose clinical difficulties with central venous access, cardiothoracic surgeries, and pacemaker implantation. When it drains to the left atrium, it may create a right to left shunt. In this case report, we present the incidental finding of isolated PLSVC in a patient who underwent aortic valve replacement. Awareness about this condition and its variations is important to avoid complications.

  4. Stenting of the Superior Vena Cava and Left Brachiocephalic Vein with Preserving the Central Venous Catheter in Situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Goerg, Fabian; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2011-01-01

    Stenting of the central veins is well established for treating localized venous stenosis. The techniques regarding catheter preservation for central venous catheters in the superior vena cava have been described. We describe here a method for stent implantation in the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein, and principally via a single jugular venous puncture, while saving a left sided jugular central venous catheter in a patient suffering from central venous stenosis of the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein.

  5. [Persistence of left superior vena cava associated to esophageal atresia: presentation of 5 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblich, Maria; Silva, Aline Vaz; Ladeira, Catarina; Carmo, Sara; Murinello, Rafaela; Casella, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal atresia is known to be associated with a variety of additional congenital anomalies in multiple organ systems. Persistent left superior vena cava is one of the most common venous thoracic anomaly, occurring in about 0,3% of the population. The aim of this study was to characterize persistent left superior vena cava in infants treated in Hospital Dona Estefânia with esophageal atresia. A retrospective review of all children treated for esophageal atresia from January 2002 to December 2013 was undertaken. Charts were reviewed for gestational age, weight, type of atresia, preoperative echocardiogram, associated anomalies, surgical approach, eventual postoperative echocardiogram and angioresonance for the study of congenital venous anomaly. Of 107 children, five had persistent left superior vena cava. Of the five cases, one had prenatal diagnosis. Further investigation showed duodenal atresia in one, urologic malformation, coloboma and bilateral ear deformities in other. All five patients were operated on through right thoracotomy and primary anastomosis was performed after ligation of the trachea-esophageal fistula and underwent angioresonance to characterize the vascular anomaly. No operative or post-operative complications were registered. Inspite of the preoperative workup, the anomaly was only identified in one of the patients. Generally, diagnosis of PLSVC is incidentally found during routine left-sided central venous catheterizations. It is essential to characterize the pattern of cardiac venous return that places those patients at a risk for paradoxical embolic complications to the arterial system.

  6. Comparison of superior septal approach with left atriotomy in mitral valve surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Ebuzer; Arslan, Akin; Ozkokeli, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare clinical outcomes of superior transseptal approach with the conventional left atriotomy in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Methods: Between January 2010 and November 2012, a total of 91 consecutive adult patients (39 males, 52 females; mean age: 54.0±15.4 years; range, 16 to 82 years) who underwent mitral valve surgery in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery at Koşuyolu Training Hospital were included. The patients were randomized ...

  7. Functional mapping of left parietal areas involved in simple addition and multiplication. A single-case study of qualitative analysis of errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; Salillas, Elena; Grego, Alberto; Lazzarini, Anna; Vallesi, Antonino; Saladini, Marina; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    All electrostimulation studies on arithmetic have so far solely reported general errors. Nonetheless, a classification of the errors during stimulation can inform us about underlying arithmetic processes. The present electrostimulation study was performed in a case of left parietal glioma. The patient's erroneous responses suggested that calculation was mainly applied for addition and a combination of retrieval and calculation was mainly applied for multiplication. The findings of the present single-case study encourage follow up with further data collection with the same paradigm. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Veia cava superior esquerda anômala com ausência de veia cava superior direita: achados de imagem Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrillo Rodrigues de Araújo Júnior

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da veia cava superior direita é uma anomalia rara, com menos de 150 casos descritos na literatura. A não-obliteração e regressão da veia cardinal anterior esquerda durante o desenvolvimento embriológico promove uma variação sistêmica de retorno venoso ao coração, com persistência da veia cava superior esquerda. Sua incidência varia de 0,3% em pacientes sem alterações cardíacas congênitas concomitantes a 4,3% naqueles com cardiopatias. Na maioria das vezes coexiste a veia cava superior direita, porém se houver regressão e degeneração da veia cardinal anterior direita, implicará a sua ausência e a drenagem venosa para o coração será feita pela veia cava superior esquerda ao átrio direito, através do seio coronariano. Mostramos um caso de um paciente submetido a radiografia de tórax e tomografia computadorizada para avaliação de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tendo como achado a persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da direita, sem qualquer cardiopatia associada e com a drenagem cardíaca sendo feita, através do seio coronariano, para o átrio direito.Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the

  9. Combined Double Sleeve Lobectomy and Superior Vena Cava Resection for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxing ZHU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man with right central type of lung squamous carcinoma was admitted to our department. Bronchoscopy displayed complete obstruction of right upper lobe bronchus and infiltration of the bronchus intermedius with tumor. Chest contrast computed tomography revealed the tumor invaded right pulmonary artery, superior vena cava, and the persistant left superior vena cava flowed into the coronary sinus. The tumor was successfully removed by means of bronchial and pulmonary artery sleeve resection of the right upper and middle lobes combined with resection and reconstruction of superior vena cava (SVC utilizing ringed polytetrafluoroethylene graft. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report of complete resection of locally advanced lung cancer involving superior vena cava, right pulmonary artery trunk and main bronchus with persistant left superior vena cava.

  10. Activation of the left superior temporal gyrus of musicians by music-derived sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshie; Tanaka, Satomi; Kazai, Koji; Tsuzaki, Minoru; Katayose, Haruhiro

    2013-01-09

    Previous studies have suggested that professional musicians comprehend features of music-derived sound even if the sound sequence lacks the traditional temporal structure of music. We tested this hypothesis through behavioral and functional brain imaging experiments. Musicians were better than nonmusicians at identifying scrambled pieces of piano music in which the original temporal structure had been destroyed. Bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG) activity was observed while musicians listened to the scrambled stimuli, whereas this activity was present only in the right STG of nonmusicians under the same experimental conditions. We suggest that left STG activation is related to the processing of deviants, which appears to be enhanced in musicians. This may be because of the superior knowledge of musical temporal structure held by this population.

  11. The anodal tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex enhances attention toward a focus word in a sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Azuma, Miyuki; Yaoi, Ken; Ashizuka, Aoi; Mima, Tastuya; Osaka, Mariko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has two attentional functions: top-down attentional control and stimulus-driven attentional processing. Using the focused version of the reading span test (RST), in which the target word to be remembered is the critical word for comprehending a sentence (focused word) or a non-focused word, we examined the effect of tDCS on resolution of distractor interference by the focused word in the non-focus condition (top-down attentional control) and on augmented/shrunk attentional capture by the focused word in both the focus and non-focus conditions (stimulus-driven attentional processing). Participants were divided into two groups: anodal tDCS (atDCS) and cathodal tDCS (ctDCS). Online stimulation was given while participants performed the RST. A post-hoc recognition task was also administered in which three kinds of words were presented: target words in the RST, distractor words in the RST, and novel words. atDCS augmented the effect of the focused word by increasing differences in performance between the focus and non-focus conditions. Such an effect was not observed in the ctDCS group. As for the recognition task, atDCS again produced the augmented effect of the focused words in the distractor recognition. On the other hand, ctDCS brought less recognition of non-focused target words in comparison to sham. The results indicate that atDCS promotes stimulus-driven attentional processing, possibly by affecting neural firing in the inferior parietal regions. In contrast, ctDCS appears to prevent retrieval of less important information from episodic memory, which may require top-down attentional processing.

  12. Superior vena caval syndrome caused by the tumor of the left hilum in a patient with unilateral persistent left superior vena cava diagnosed with multislice spiral computed tomography-a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czekajska-Chehab, E.; Uhlig, S.; Staskiewicz, G.; Drop, A.

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is an infrequent finding with incidence of 18-20% among the individuals with PLSVC. The persistence of the left-sided superior vena cava is an effect of disturbances in development of the connection between the precardinal veins (anterior cardinal veins) and formation of the sinus venosus in early stages of embryogenesis. The paper presents a case of a 62-year-old patient with a mass lesion of the left hilum, which caused left-sided superior vena caval syndrome in the presence of unilateral SVC. Developmental mechanisms of superior vena caval syndrome are discussed. The evolution of changes related to infiltration and occlusion of PLSVC is shown on the basis of three selected MSCT examinations. (author)

  13. The cristal (right superior septal) coronary artery and its relationship to anomalous left coronary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, J B; Ridley, L J

    2011-10-01

    The cristal artery is an occasional finding, being visible in around 3% of coronary angiograms, arising from the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and passing downwards and forwards through the muscle of the crista superventricularis. It supplies a variable volume of the superior interventricular septum, and can contribute to collateralization of the other septal vessels. When part or all of the left coronary artery (LCA) arises anomalously from the right coronary sinus, its passage to the left may be in the same pathway as a cristal artery, bearing a tell-tale septal vessel arising from its proximal segment. This helps to differentiate it from one that has a higher pathway, running between the great vessels, and which may have a greater correlation with sudden cardiac death. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The cristal (right superior septal) coronary artery and its relationship to anomalous left coronary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.B.; Ridley, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The cristal artery is an occasional finding, being visible in around 3% of coronary angiograms, arising from the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and passing downwards and forwards through the muscle of the crista superventricularis. It supplies a variable volume of the superior interventricular septum, and can contribute to collateralization of the other septal vessels. When part or all of the left coronary artery (LCA) arises anomalously from the right coronary sinus, its passage to the left may be in the same pathway as a cristal artery, bearing a tell-tale septal vessel arising from its proximal segment. This helps to differentiate it from one that has a higher pathway, running between the great vessels, and which may have a greater correlation with sudden cardiac death.

  15. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A.; Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H.; Roger, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  16. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  17. [Meaning, phonological, orthography and kinestic route of reading and writing: a case with alexia and agraphia due to the left parietal lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Keiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Hirayama, Kazumi; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Mori, Etsuro

    2010-09-01

    Abstract A 69-year-old right-handed man developed alexia with agraphia after resection of a brain tumor in the left parietal lobe. After the operation, neurological examination revealed right lower quadrantanopia, mild paresis and sensory disturbance on the right side. He showed marked alexia with agraphia, very mild aphasia, acalculia, and constructional disability. In reading tasks, he was able to read kanji word and kana words but not a single kana character or nonword. After he traced a single kana character or kana nonword, he was able to read it. In writing tasks, he could write kana but not kanji characters, except simple kanji characters that involved less than 4 strokes. These findings indicated that kinesthetic traces may enable such patients to read and write. We propose that processes of reading and writing may include kinesthetic route in addition to the meaning, phonological, and orthographical routes.

  18. Genetic underpinnings of left superior temporal gyrus thickness in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthusen, Rick P F; Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Turner, Jessica A; Rössner, Veit; Sponheim, Scott R; Ho, Beng-Choon; Holt, Daphne J; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-08-07

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous phenotypic appearance. We aimed to further the understanding of some of the underlying genetics of schizophrenia, using left superior temporal gyrus (STG) grey matter thickness reduction as an endophenoptype in a genome-wide association (GWA) study. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic data of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium (MCIC) study of schizophrenia were used to analyse the interaction effects between 1,067,955 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease status on left STG thickness in 126 healthy controls and 113 patients with schizophrenia. We next used a pathway approach to detect underlying pathophysiological pathways that may be related to schizophrenia. No SNP by diagnosis interaction effect reached genome-wide significance (5 × 10 -8 ) in our GWA study, but 10 SNPs reached P-values less than 10 -6 . The most prominent pathways included those involved in insulin, calcium, PI3K-Akt and MAPK signalling. Our strongest findings in the GWA study and pathway analysis point towards an involvement of glucose metabolism in left STG thickness reduction in patients with schizophrenia only. These results are in line with recently published studies, which showed an increased prevalence of psychosis among patients with metabolic syndrome-related illnesses including diabetes.

  19. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, Ilknur; Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-01-01

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported

  20. Interrupted inferior vena cava with hemiazygos continuation in an adult with a persistent left superior vena cava and left single coronary artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Jin; Kwon, Se Hwan; Ahn, Sung Eun; Kim, Soo Joong; Oh, Joo Hyeong [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our institution for medical screening due to an incidental finding on abdominal ultrasonography. She underwent chest, abdomen and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Her MDCT revealed absence of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC), with hemiazygos continuation and a left single coronary artery. The dilated hemiazygos vein drained directly into the persistent left superior vena cava (SVC). Herein, we reported a very rare case combining an incidentally found interrupted IVC with hemiazygos vein continuation, persistent left SVC and a left single coronary artery diagnosed by MDCT.

  1. Left Superior Temporal Gyrus Is Coupled to Attended Speech in a Cocktail-Party Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ghinst, Marc; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Op de Beeck, Marc; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Hassid, Sergio; Choufani, Georges; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-02-03

    Using a continuous listening task, we evaluated the coupling between the listener's cortical activity and the temporal envelopes of different sounds in a multitalker auditory scene using magnetoencephalography and corticovocal coherence analysis. Neuromagnetic signals were recorded from 20 right-handed healthy adult humans who listened to five different recorded stories (attended speech streams), one without any multitalker background (No noise) and four mixed with a "cocktail party" multitalker background noise at four signal-to-noise ratios (5, 0, -5, and -10 dB) to produce speech-in-noise mixtures, here referred to as Global scene. Coherence analysis revealed that the modulations of the attended speech stream, presented without multitalker background, were coupled at ∼0.5 Hz to the activity of both superior temporal gyri, whereas the modulations at 4-8 Hz were coupled to the activity of the right supratemporal auditory cortex. In cocktail party conditions, with the multitalker background noise, the coupling was at both frequencies stronger for the attended speech stream than for the unattended Multitalker background. The coupling strengths decreased as the Multitalker background increased. During the cocktail party conditions, the ∼0.5 Hz coupling became left-hemisphere dominant, compared with bilateral coupling without the multitalker background, whereas the 4-8 Hz coupling remained right-hemisphere lateralized in both conditions. The brain activity was not coupled to the multitalker background or to its individual talkers. The results highlight the key role of listener's left superior temporal gyri in extracting the slow ∼0.5 Hz modulations, likely reflecting the attended speech stream within a multitalker auditory scene. When people listen to one person in a "cocktail party," their auditory cortex mainly follows the attended speech stream rather than the entire auditory scene. However, how the brain extracts the attended speech stream from the whole

  2. Persistent left superior vena cava: an overlooked feature of CHARGE syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Goldenberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CHARGE is a well-characterized syndrome (OMIM 2148400 associated with multiple congenital anomalies including cardiovascular malformations. Mutations in CHD7 are the most common cause of CHARGE syndrome. Persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC has been described in patients with CHARGE syndrome in one study of LSVC associations. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients with CHARGE syndrome, diagnosed by Blake criterion features and/or the presence of a pathogenic CHD7 mutation. Echocardio - grams were performed on a clinical basis for all patients and were systematically reviewed and classified. Persistent LSVC was present in 50% of patients with CHARGE syndrome (4/8 and was seen in 3 out of 33 patients seen by cardiovascular genetics with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Persistent LSVC is a common finding in patients with CHARGE syndrome and its presence may increase the index of suspicion in patients with other characteristic congenital anomalies.

  3. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  4. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava Associated with Hemiazygos Vein Draining in It and Absence of Left Brachiocephalic Vein, in a Patient with Congenital Heart Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opincariu Diana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava is an anomalous vein that derives from a malfunction of obliteration of the left common cardinal vein during intrauterine life. The diagnosis can be suggested by a dilated coronary sinus as seen in echocardiography, or other imagistic methods. Due to the lack of hemodynamic impairment, and consequently with few or no symptoms, this vascular anomaly is frequently discovered incidentally. In this brief report we present the case of a 35-year-old male known with a complex congenital cardiovascular malformation that included atrial septum defect, persistent left superior vena cava and anomalous right pulmonary vein drainage in the PLSVC, diagnosed with sinoatrial block that required pacemaker implantation. Due to the patient’s medical history, investigations to decide the best approach needed for pacemaker implantation were performed, including a thoracic CT that incidentally found additional anomalies — the hemiazygos vein draining in PLSVC and the lack of the left brachiocephalic vein.

  5. Apraxia and the Parietal Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The widely held belief in a central role of left parietal lesions for apraxia can be traced back to Liepmann's model of a posterior to anterior stream converting mental images of intended action into motor execution. Although this model has undergone significant changes, its modern descendants still attribute the parietal contribution to the…

  6. Persistencia de la vena cava superior izquierda: Diagnóstico e importancia prenatal Persistency of the left superior caval vein: Diagnosis and its prenatal importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Jaramillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante un ultrasonido obstétrico de rutina se deben realizar ciertos planos del corazón en los cuales no es complejo identificar un grupo de anomalías como la persistencia de la vena cava superior izquierda. Cuando se identifica una vena cava superior izquierda aislada, sin otras anomalías del corazón fetal, no existe ninguna repercusión perinatal. Su importancia radica en que un grupo considerable de estos casos se acompaña de cardiopatías congénitas y anomalías anatómicas y cromosómicas. En este artículo se describen nueve casos de vena cava superior izquierda persistente, al igual que las anomalías del corazón asociadas, como también las alteraciones extracardiacas encontradas.Certain heart fetal planes must be realized during a routine obstetric ultrasound in order to identify a group of anomalies such as the persistency of the left superior caval vein. When an isolated left superior venal vein is identified without any other anomaly of the fetal heart, it does not have any perinatal repercussion. Its importance lies in the fact that a considerable number of these cases are associated with a high incidence of congenital heart diseases and anatomic and chromosomal abnormalities. This article reports nine cases of persistency of the left superior caval vein as well as the associated heart abnormalities and the extra-cardiac alterations found.

  7. Left posterior-dorsal area 44 couples with parietal areas to promote speech fluency, while right area 44 activity promotes the stopping of motor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2016-11-15

    Area 44 is a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of Broca's region. Parallel and overlapping large-scale networks couple with this region thereby orchestrating heterogeneous language, cognitive, and motor functions. In the context of stuttering, area 44 frequently comes into focus because structural and physiological irregularities affect developmental trajectories, stuttering severity, persistency, and etiology. A remarkable phenomenon accompanying stuttering is the preserved ability to sing. Speaking and singing are connatural behaviours recruiting largely overlapping brain networks including left and right area 44. Analysing which potential subregions of area 44 are malfunctioning in adults who stutter, and what effectively suppresses stuttering during singing, may provide a better understanding of the coordination and reorganization of large-scale brain networks dedicated to speaking and singing in general. We used fMRI to investigate functionally distinct subregions of area 44 during imagery of speaking and imaginary of humming a melody in 15 dextral males who stutter and 17 matched control participants. Our results are fourfold. First, stuttering was specifically linked to a reduced activation of left posterior-dorsal area 44, a subregion that is involved in speech production, including phonological word processing, pitch processing, working memory processes, sequencing, motor planning, pseudoword learning, and action inhibition. Second, functional coupling between left posterior area 44 and left inferior parietal lobule was deficient in stuttering. Third, despite the preserved ability to sing, males who stutter showed bilaterally a reduced activation of area 44 when imagine humming a melody, suggesting that this fluency-enhancing condition seems to bypass posterior-dorsal area 44 to achieve fluency. Fourth, time courses of the posterior subregions in area 44 showed delayed peak activations in the right hemisphere in both groups, possibly signaling the

  8. Unilateral spatial neglect after posterior parietal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Calzolari, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs. Neglect is a multicomponent higher-level disorder of spatial awareness, cognition, and attention. Spatial neglect may occur independently of elementary sensory and motor neurologic deficits, but it can mimic and make them more severe. Diagnostic tests include: motor exploratory target cancellation; setting the midpoint of a horizontal line (bisection), that requires the estimation of lateral extent; drawing by copy and from memory; reading, assessing neglect dyslexia; and exploring the side of the body contralateral to the lesion. Activities of daily living scales are also used. Patients are typically not aware of neglect, although they may exhibit varying degrees of awareness toward different components of the deficit. The neural correlates include lesions to the inferior parietal lobule of the posterior parietal cortex, which was long considered the unique neuropathologic correlate of neglect, to the premotor and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, to the posterior superior temporal gyrus, at the temporoparietal junction, to subcortical gray nuclei (thalamus, basal ganglia), and to parietofrontal white-matter fiber tracts, such as the superior longitudinal fascicle. Damage to the inferior parietal lobule of the posterior parietal cortex is specifically associated with the mainly egocentric, perceptual, and exploratory extrapersonal, and with the personal, bodily components of neglect. Productive manifestations, such as

  9. Automatic segmentation of short association bundles using a new multi-subject atlas of the left hemisphere fronto-parietal brain connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M; Seguel, D; Roman, C; Duclap, D; Lebois, A; Le Bihan; Mangin, J-F; Poupon, C; Guevara, P

    2015-08-01

    Human brain connection map is far from being complete. In particular the study of the superficial white matter (SWM) is an unachieved task. Its description is essential for the understanding of human brain function and the study of the pathogenesis associated to it. In this work we developed a method for the automatic creation of a SWM bundle multi-subject atlas. The atlas generation method is based on a cortical parcellation for the extraction of fibers connecting two different gyri. Then, an intra-subject fiber clustering is applied, in order to divide each bundle into sub-bundles with similar shape. After that, a two-step inter-subject fiber clustering is used in order to find the correspondence between the sub-bundles across the subjects, fuse similar clusters and discard the outliers. The method was applied to 40 subjects of a high quality HARDI database, focused on the left hemisphere fronto-parietal and insula brain regions. We obtained an atlas composed of 44 bundles connecting 22 pair of ROIs. Then the atlas was used to automatically segment 39 new subjects from the database.

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava and its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytül Çorbacıoğlu Esmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC is a variant of systemic venous return which is observed in 0.3% of autopsies in the general population and in 4-8% of patients with congenital heart disease. Aims: To evaluate associated cardiac, extracardiac and chromosomal anomalies in prenatally diagnosed cases of PLSVC and to review their outcome. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: The data of patients with a prenatal diagnosis of PLSVC between May 2008 and January 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Data of 31 cases were reviewed. Fifteen (48.4% cases were associated with cardiac defects and 17 (54.8% cases had associated extracardiac sonographic or postpartum findings. Two fetuses had karyotype anomalies. Outcome was significantly more favorable in cases not associated with cardiac defects in comparison to those associated with cardiac anomalies (84.6% vs. 33.3%, p=0.009. All cases with isolated PLSVC survived, while among the cases associated with extracardiac anomalies, with cardiac anomalies and with both extracardiac and cardiac anomalies, the survival rate was 75%, 50% and 22.2%, respectively. The most frequent group of cardiac anomalies associated with PLSVC was septal defects and VSD was the most common heart defect individually, being observed in nine fetuses. Conclusion: Prenatally diagnosed PLSVC is associated with cardiac and extracardiac anomalies in the majority of cases. Outcome is significantly worse if PLSVC is associated with a cardiac defect, and the prognosis is excellent in isolated cases.

  11. Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, Paul D; Brang, David; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong; Ramachandran, V S

    2011-12-01

    Damage to the right parietal lobe has long been associated with various disorders of body image. The authors have recently suggested that an unusual behavioural condition in which otherwise rational individuals desire the amputation of a healthy limb might also arise from right parietal dysfunction. Four subjects who desired the amputation of healthy legs (two right, one left and one, at first, bilateral and then left only) were recruited and underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) scans during tactile stimulation of sites above and below the desired amputation line. Regions of interest (ROIs) in each hemisphere (superior parietal lobule (SPL), inferior parietal lobule, S1, M1, insula, premotor cortex and precuneus) were defined using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of average MEG activity across the 40-140 ms post-stimulation timeframe was carried out using an unpaired t test. This revealed significantly reduced activation only in the right SPL ROI for the subjects' affected legs when compared with both subjects' unaffected legs and that of controls. The right SPL is a cortical area that appears ideally placed to unify disparate sensory inputs to create a coherent sense of having a body. The authors propose that inadequate activation of the right SPL leads to the unnatural situation in which the sufferers can feel the limb in question being touched without it actually incorporating into their body image, with a resulting desire for amputation. The authors introduce the term 'xenomelia' as a more appropriate name than apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder, for what appears to be an unrecognised right parietal lobe syndrome.

  12. Superior transseptal approach to mitral valve is associated with a higher need for pacemaker implantation than the left atrial approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Peter; Hjortdal, Vibeke E; Pedersen, Anders K

    2006-01-01

    retrospectively evaluated. The surgeons used either the superior transseptal (group A) or left atrial approach (group B). The risk of pacemaker implantation associated with the superior transseptal approach as compared with the left atrial approach was estimated using the multivariate Cox regression analysis...... to adjust for possible confounders. RESULTS: We included 577 patients, 150 in group A and 427 in group B. Forty-four patients had a pacemaker implanted after the surgery; 17 in group A and 27 in group B (p = 0.010). The superior transseptal approach was an independent risk factor of pacemaker implantation...... in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 2.2 [1.2 to 4.1], p = 0.014). Nineteen patients had a pacemaker implanted because of sinus node dysfunction; 9 in group A and 10 in group B (p = 0.017). Group A was an independent predictor of pacemaker implantation because of sinus node dysfunction in bivariate analyses...

  13. Superior vena cava syndrome associated with right-to left shunt through systemic-to-pulmonary venous collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Yu Hsiang; Saboo, Sachin S.; Anand, Vishal; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S.; Steigner, Michael L.; Lin, Yu Ching

    2014-01-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction is associated with the gradual development of venous collaterals. We present a rare form of systemic-to-pulmonary subpleural collateral pathway that developed in the bridging subpleural pulmonary veins in a 54-year-old woman with complete SVC obstruction. This uncommon collateral pathway represents a rare form of acquired right-to-left shunt due to previous pleural adhesions with an increased risk of stroke due to right-to-left venous shunting, which requires lifelong anticoagulation.

  14. Isolated persistent left-sided superior vena cava, giant coronary sinus, atrial tachycardia and heart failure in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Moorthy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistence of a left-sided superior vena cava (PLSVC with absent right superior vena cava (isolated PLSVC is a very rare venous malformation and commonly associated with congenital heart disease or alterations of the cardiac situs. We describe an unusual case of a young boy presenting with persistent atrial tachycardia and congestive heart failure. He was detected to have unexplained grossly dilated right atrium, right ventricle with systolic dysfunction and a giant coronary sinus (CS. The dilated CS closely mimicked a pseudo cor-triatriatum on echocardiography. Contrast echocardiography from both arms revealed opacification of the CS before the right atrium. Bilateral upper limb venography confirmed the presence of absent right SVC and isolated persistent left SVC draining into the giant coronary sinus.

  15. RIGHT-SIDED AORTIC ARCH WITH ABERRANT LEFT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY AND DUPLICATION OF SUPERIOR VENA CAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikhita Hazarika

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Right-sided aortic arch is a rare anatomical variant present in about 0.1% of the adult population.1,2 Half of the cases are associated with an aberrant left subclavian artery (0.05%-0.1%. Right-sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery is less common than left-sided aortic arch with aberrant right subclavian artery (0.5-2.0%.3,4 A rightsided aortic arch is an anatomic variant resulting from persistence of the right fourth aortic arch and involution of the left. It can be associated with an aberrant left subclavian artery arises from Kommerell’s diverticulum. It is usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during adult age. A 40-year-old male presented with cough and a hump in the back. The patient was evaluated for scoliosis and plain CT thorax was done.

  16. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava, The View of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Volkan Kara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint in the human body. Anterior dislocatin is the most common type and posterior dislocations account for <1% of shoulder dislocations.  A 68-yearold woman was brought to the emergency department by ambulance  with shoulder pain following a fall from stairs. On local physical examination, there was severe pain on the left proximal humerus. The left arm was in internal rotation in the adducted position. Active and passive movements of the left shoulder were painful and limited. The neurovascular examination of the left upper extremity revealed no deficit. Radiographs of her left shoulder were performed and no significant pathology was identified in the left shoulder anteroposterior (AP X-ray (Figure 1. Axillary radiography could not be performed because of painful arm movements. Therefore, CT was performed to clarify any existing shoulder pathology (Figure 2. Closed reduction under conscious sedation was performed with longitudinal and lateral traction on the arm to protect the humeral head. Control CT was performed and this revealed that reduction had improved the shoulder (Figure 3. She was then treated with an arm sling and discharged with an outpatient orthopaedic control visit.

  17. You talkin' to me? Communicative talker gaze activates left-lateralized superior temporal cortex during perception of degraded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Jasmin, Kyle; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Josephs, Oliver J; Calder, Andrew J; Jessop, Rosemary; Lawson, Rebecca P; Spielmann, Mona; Scott, Sophie K

    2017-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies of speech perception have consistently indicated a left-hemisphere dominance in the temporal lobes' responses to intelligible auditory speech signals (McGettigan and Scott, 2012). However, there are important communicative cues that cannot be extracted from auditory signals alone, including the direction of the talker's gaze. Previous work has implicated the superior temporal cortices in processing gaze direction, with evidence for predominantly right-lateralized responses (Carlin & Calder, 2013). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the lateralization of responses to talker gaze differs in an auditory communicative context. Participants in a functional MRI experiment watched and listened to videos of spoken sentences in which the auditory intelligibility and talker gaze direction were manipulated factorially. We observed a left-dominant temporal lobe sensitivity to the talker's gaze direction, in which the left anterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus and temporal pole showed an enhanced response to direct gaze - further investigation revealed that this pattern of lateralization was modulated by auditory intelligibility. Our results suggest flexibility in the distribution of neural responses to social cues in the face within the context of a challenging speech perception task. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistent left superior vena cava with thrombus formed in the catheter lumen 4 h after dialysis catheter placed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Tomoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Oba, Miki; Takada, Megumi; Tanaka, Haruna; Suda, Shin

    2018-02-17

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is one of the most common thoracic venous anomaly and rarely noticed, because it is asymptomatic. However, for nephrologists, it is frequent enough to be encountered while placing hemodialysis catheters through the jugular vein. We report the case of 66-year-old patient with PLSVC presenting intrinsic thrombosis formation 4 h after dialysis catheter placed. Dialysis catheter was placed in the left internal jugular vein without resistance and any complication. PLSVC was detected after dialysis catheter insertion. We decided to remove the catheter, because the patient has other veins in which the catheter can be placed. When it was removed 4 h after catheter placing, thrombus was recognized in the catheter lumen. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed and no thrombus formation was observed in the heart chamber. For patients with PLSVC, if there were other veins in which the catheter can be placed, catheter replacement should be considered.

  19. Increased cortical thickness and altered functional connectivity of the right superior temporal gyrus in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Lu, Fengmei; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Altered structure in the temporal cortex has been implicated in the variable language laterality of left-handers (LH). The neuroanatomy of language lateralization and the corresponding synchronous functional connectivity (FC) in handedness cohorts are not, however, fully understood. We used structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the effect of altered cortical thickness on FC in LH and right-handers (RH). Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between the LH and RH. We observed increased cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the LH. A further FC analysis was conducted between the right STG and the remaining voxels in the brain. Compared with RH, the LH showed significantly higher FC in the left STG, right occipital cortex, and lower FC in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Our findings suggest that LH have atypical connectivity in the language network, with an enhanced role of the STG, findings which provide novel insights into the structural and functional substrates underlying the atypical language development of left-handed individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atrophy of the Parietal Lobe in Preclinical Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Heidi I. L.; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Gronenschild, Ed H. B. M.; Verhey, Frans R.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults…

  1. Hemodynamic effects of left pulmonary artery stenosis after superior cavopulmonary connection: a patient-specific multiscale modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavazzi, Daniele E; Kung, Ethan O; Marsden, Alison L; Baker, Catriona; Pennati, Giancarlo; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Hlavacek, Anthony; Dorfman, Adam L

    2015-03-01

    Currently, no quantitative guidelines have been established for treatment of left pulmonary artery (LPA) stenosis. This study aims to quantify the effects of LPA stenosis on postoperative hemodynamics for single-ventricle patients undergoing stage II superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery, using a multiscale computational approach. Image data from 6 patients were segmented to produce 3-dimensional models of the pulmonary arteries before stage II surgery. Pressure and flow measurements were used to tune a 0-dimensional model of the entire circulation. Postoperative geometries were generated through stage II virtual surgery; varying degrees of LPA stenosis were applied using mesh morphing and hemodynamics assessed through coupled 0-3-dimensional simulations. To relate metrics of stenosis to clinical classifications, pediatric cardiologists and surgeons ranked the degrees of stenosis in the models. The effects of LPA stenosis were assessed based on left-to-right pulmonary artery flow split ratios, mean pressure drop across the stenosis, cardiac pressure-volume loops, and other clinically relevant parameters. Stenosis of >65% of the vessel diameter was required to produce a right pulmonary artery:LPA flow split 3.0 mm Hg, defined as clinically significant changes. The effects of SCPC hemodynamics and physiology were minor and may not justify the increased complexity of adding LPA arterioplasty to the SCPC operation. However, in the longer term, pulmonary augmentation may affect outcomes of the Fontan completion surgery, as pulmonary artery distortion is a risk factor that may influence stage III physiology. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Incidental Finding of a Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava: Implications for Primary Care Providers—Case and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Garrison Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC is the most common thoracic venous anomaly and is a persistent congenital remnant of the vena caval system from early cardiac development. Patients with congenital anomalous venous return are at increased risk of developing various cardiac arrhythmias, due to derangement of embryologic conductive tissue during the early development of the heart. Previously this discovery was commonly made during the placement of pacemakers or defibrillators for the treatment of the arrhythmias, when the operator encountered difficulty with proper lead deployment. However, in today’s world of various easily obtainable imaging modalities, PLSVC is being discovered more and more by primary care providers during routine testing or screening for other ailments. Given the known association between anomalous venous return and the propensity for cardiac arrhythmias, we review the embryology of PLSVC and the mechanisms by which it leads to conduction abnormalities. We also provide the practitioner with recommendations for certain baseline cardiac observations and suggestions for proper surveillance in hopes that better understanding will reduce unnecessary and potentially harmful testing, premature subspecialty referral, and unneeded patient anxiety.

  3. Apraxia, pantomime and the parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Niessen

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to previous suggestions, current analyses show that both lesion and functional studies support the notion of a left-hemispheric fronto-(temporal-parietal network underlying pantomiming object use. Furthermore, our review demonstrates that the left parietal cortex plays a key role in pantomime-related processes. More specifically, stringently controlled fMRI-studies suggest that in addition to storing motor schemas, left parietal cortex is also involved in activating these motor schemas in the context of pantomiming object use. In addition to inherent differences between structural and functional imaging studies and consistent with the dedifferentiation hypothesis, the age difference between young healthy subjects (typically included in functional imaging studies and elderly neurological patients (typically included in structural lesion studies may well contribute to the finding of a more distributed representation of pantomiming within the motor-dominant left hemisphere in the elderly.

  4. Anomlus pulmonary venous return aaccompanied by normal superior pulmonary veins in the left upper lobe: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Eon; Kang, Min Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Bae, Kyung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kang, Tae Kyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a rare congenital pulmonary venous anomaly, in which some of the pulmonary veins drain into the systemic circulation rather than the left atrium. Many variants of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return have been reported. We present a rare type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in which the anomalous left upper lobe pulmonary vein drained into the left innominate vein via the vertical vein, accompanying the left upper lobe pulmonary vein in the normal location

  5. Anomlus pulmonary venous return aaccompanied by normal superior pulmonary veins in the left upper lobe: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Eon; Kang, Min Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Bae, Kyung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kang, Tae Kyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a rare congenital pulmonary venous anomaly, in which some of the pulmonary veins drain into the systemic circulation rather than the left atrium. Many variants of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return have been reported. We present a rare type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in which the anomalous left upper lobe pulmonary vein drained into the left innominate vein via the vertical vein, accompanying the left upper lobe pulmonary vein in the normal location.

  6. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  7. Apraxia, pantomime and the parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, E; Fink, G R; Weiss, P H

    2014-01-01

    Apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a frequent and outcome-relevant sequel of left hemispheric stroke. Deficient pantomiming of object use constitutes a key symptom of apraxia and is assessed when testing for apraxia. To date the neural basis of pantomime remains controversial. We here review the literature and perform a meta-analysis of the relevant structural and functional imaging (fMRI/PET) studies. Based on a systematic literature search, 10 structural and 12 functional imaging studies were selected. Structural lesion studies associated pantomiming deficits with left frontal, parietal and temporal lesions. In contrast, functional imaging studies associate pantomimes with left parietal activations, with or without concurrent frontal or temporal activations. Functional imaging studies that selectively activated parietal cortex adopted the most stringent controls. In contrast to previous suggestions, current analyses show that both lesion and functional studies support the notion of a left-hemispheric fronto-(temporal)-parietal network underlying pantomiming object use. Furthermore, our review demonstrates that the left parietal cortex plays a key role in pantomime-related processes. More specifically, stringently controlled fMRI-studies suggest that in addition to storing motor schemas, left parietal cortex is also involved in activating these motor schemas in the context of pantomiming object use. In addition to inherent differences between structural and functional imaging studies and consistent with the dedifferentiation hypothesis, the age difference between young healthy subjects (typically included in functional imaging studies) and elderly neurological patients (typically included in structural lesion studies) may well contribute to the finding of a more distributed representation of pantomiming within the motor-dominant left hemisphere in the elderly.

  8. Avaliação quantitativa da movimentação parietal regional do ventrículo esquerdo na endomiocardiofibrose Quantitative assessment of left ventricular regional wall motion in endomyocardial fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mady

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a movimentação parietal regional do ventrículo esquerdo (VE em pacientes com endomiocardiofibrose (EMF. MÉTODOS: Estudados 88 pacientes, 59 do sexo feminino, com idade média de 39±13 anos (variação de 9 a 65 com evidência ecocardiográfica e angiográfica de EMF do VE. A intensidade da deposição de tecido fibroso na cineventriculografia contrastada foi classificada como discreta, moderada ou importante. A fração de ejeção global do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE foi determinada pelo método área-comprimento por meio da ventriculografia. O movimento foi medido em 100 cordas eqüidistantes e perpendiculares à linha média desenhada no meio dos contornos diastólico e sistólico finais e normalizadas para o tamanho cardíaco. Analisaram-se cinco segmentos do VE: A - apical; AL - ântero-lateral; AB - ântero-basal; IA - ínfero-apical; IB - ínfero-basal. A anormalidade foi expressa em unidades de desvio padrão do movimento médio em uma população de referência normal, composta por 103 pacientes com VE normal, conforme dados de clínica, eletrocardiograma e padrões angiográficos. RESULTADOS: A FEVE média foi de 0,47±0,12. O envolvimento de tecido fibroso do VE foi discreto em 12 pacientes, moderado em 40 e importante em 36. As regiões com pior movimentação parietal foram A (-1,4±1,6 desvio-padrão/cordas e IA (-1,6±1,8 desvio-padrão/cordas comparadas com AB (-0,3±1,9 desvio-padrão /cordas, AL (-0,5±1,8 desvio-padrão/cordas e IB (-0,9±1,3 desvio-padrão/cordas. Não se observou relação entre a intensidade de envolvimento do tecido fibroso e a manutenção parietal regional. CONCLUSÃO : Existe alteração da movimentação parietal regional na EMF e é independente da intensidade de deposição de tecido fibroso avaliada qualitativamente. O envolvimento não uniforme do VE deve ser levado em conta no planejamento cirúrgico dessa doença.OBJECTIVE: To analyze left ventricular (LV regional wall

  9. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  10. Language development at 2 years is correlated to brain microstructure in the left superior temporal gyrus at term equivalent age: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Alec; De Tiège, Xavier; Creuzil, Marylise; David, Philippe; Balériaux, Danielle; Van Overmeire, Bart; Metens, Thierry; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This study aims at testing the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abilities at age 2 years are related with local brain microstructure of preterm infants at term equivalent age. Forty-one preterm infants underwent brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging sequences to measure mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), longitudinal and transverse diffusivity (λ// and λ[perpendicular]) at term equivalent age. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2 years corrected age using the Bayley III scale. A voxel-based analysis approach, statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), was used to correlate changes of the Bayley III scores with the regional distribution of MD, FA, λ// and λ[perpendicular]. We found that language abilities are negatively correlated to MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] in the left superior temporal gyrus in preterm infants. These findings suggest that higher MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] values at term-equivalent age in the left superior temporal gyrus are associated with poorer language scores in later childhood. Consequently, it highlights the key role of the left superior temporal gyrus for the development of language abilities in children. Further studies are needed to assess on an individual basis and on the long term the prognostic value of brain DTI at term equivalent age for the development of language. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Gao

    Full Text Available Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  12. Right to left shunt as a collateral circulation in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sun; Jeon, Seok Chol; Moon, Won Jin; Choi, Yo Won; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Choong Ki

    1999-01-01

    In patients with superior vena cava syndrome, the form of the collateral circulatory system which communicates with the inferior vena cava via various systemic veins usually varics. We found an instance of unusual collateral circulation : direct communication between the systemic and pulmonary vein in a woman with superior vena cava syndrome caused by metastatic lymph node enlargement. In this report, we describe the CT and radionuclide venographic findings

  13. The Sport Expert's Attention Superiority on Skill-related Scene Dynamic by The Activation of Left Medial Frontal Gyrus: An ERP and LORETA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mengyang; Qi, Changzhu; Lu, Yang; Song, Amanda; Hayat, Saba Z; Xu, Xia

    2018-03-07

    Extensive studies have shown that a sports expert is superior to a sports novice in visually perceptual-cognitive processes of sports scene information, however the attentional and neural basis of it has not been thoroughly explored. The present study examined whether a sport expert has the attentional superiority on scene information relevant to his/her sport skill, and explored what factor drives this superiority. To address this problem, EEGs were recorded as participants passively viewed sport scenes (tennis vs. non-tennis) and negative emotional faces in the context of a visual attention task, where the pictures of sport scenes or of negative emotional faces randomly followed the pictures with overlapping sport scenes and negative emotional faces. ERP results showed that for experts, the evoked potential of attentional competition elicited by the overlap of tennis scene was significantly larger than that evoked by the overlap of non-tennis scene, while this effect was absent for novices. The LORETA showed that the experts' left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) cortex was significantly more active as compared to the right MFG when processing the overlap of tennis scene, but the lateralization effect was not significant in novices. Those results indicate that experts have attentional superiority on skill-related scene information, despite intruding the scene through negative emotional faces that are prone to cause negativity bias towards their visual field as a strong distractor. This superiority is actuated by the activation of left MFG cortex and probably due to self-reference. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Bilateral Symmetrical Parietal Extradural Hematoma | Agrawal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is an uncommon consequence of craniocerebral trauma, and acute symmetrical bilateral epidural hematomas are extremely rare. We discuss the technique ... A 55-year-old patient presented with history of fall of branch of tree on her head. She had loss of ... Initially, left parietal trephine craniotomy was performed and ...

  15. Mental Number Line Disruption in a Right-Neglect Patient after a Left-Hemisphere Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia, Lorenzo; Corazzini, Luca Latini; Folegatti, Alessia; Gindri, Patrizia; Cauda, Franco

    2009-01-01

    A right-neglect patient with focal left-hemisphere damage to the posterior superior parietal lobe was assessed for numerical knowledge and tested on the bisection of numerical intervals and visual lines. The semantic and verbal knowledge of numbers was preserved, whereas the performance in numerical tasks that strongly emphasize the visuo-spatial…

  16. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic...... intralobar parietal tracts in twenty-one datasets acquired in vivo from healthy human subjects and eleven ex vivo datasets from five vervet and six macaque monkeys. Three regions of interest (postcentral gyrus, superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule) were used to identify the tracts. Surface...... is a vertical pathway between the superior and inferior parietal lobules. This tract can be divided into an anterior (supramarginal gyrus) and a posterior (angular gyrus) component in both humans and monkey brains. The second prominent intraparietal tract connects the postcentral gyrus to both supramarginal...

  17. The contribution of the parietal lobes to speaking and writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownsett, Sonia L E; Wise, Richard J S

    2010-03-01

    The left parietal lobe has been proposed as a major language area. However, parietal cortical function is more usually considered in terms of the control of actions, contributing both to attention and cross-modal integration of external and reafferent sensory cues. We used positron emission tomography to study normal subjects while they overtly generated narratives, both spoken and written. The purpose was to identify the parietal contribution to the modality-specific sensorimotor control of communication, separate from amodal linguistic and memory processes involved in generating a narrative. The majority of left and right parietal activity was associated with the execution of writing under visual and somatosensory control irrespective of whether the output was a narrative or repetitive reproduction of a single grapheme. In contrast, action-related parietal activity during speech production was confined to primary somatosensory cortex. The only parietal area with a pattern of activity compatible with an amodal central role in communication was the ventral part of the left angular gyrus (AG). The results of this study indicate that the cognitive processing of language within the parietal lobe is confined to the AG and that the major contribution of parietal cortex to communication is in the sensorimotor control of writing.

  18. The impact of top-down spatial attention on laterality and hemispheric asymmetry in the human parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su Keun; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-08-01

    The human parietal cortex exhibits a preference to contralaterally presented visual stimuli (i.e., laterality) as well as an asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the left parietal cortex showing greater laterality than the right. Using visual short-term memory and perceptual tasks and varying target location predictability, this study examined whether hemispheric laterality and asymmetry are fixed characteristics of the human parietal cortex or whether they are dynamic and modulated by the deployment of top-down attention to the target present hemifield. Two parietal regions were examined here that have previously been shown to be involved in visual object individuation and identification and are located in the inferior and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), respectively. Across three experiments, significant laterality was found in both parietal regions regardless of attentional modulation with laterality being greater in the inferior than superior IPS, consistent with their roles in object individuation and identification, respectively. Although the deployment of top-down attention had no effect on the superior IPS, it significantly increased laterality in the inferior IPS. The deployment of top-down spatial attention can thus amplify the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry, on the other hand, was absent in both brain regions and only emerged in the inferior but not the superior IPS with the deployment of top-down attention. Interestingly, the strength of hemispheric asymmetry significantly correlated with the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry thus seems to only emerge when there is a sufficient amount of laterality present in a brain region.

  19. Somatosensory-motor adaptation of orofacial actions in posterior parietal and ventral premotor cortices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Grabski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have provided evidence for sensory-motor adaptive changes and action goal coding of visually guided manual action in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. To extend these results to orofacial actions, devoid of auditory and visual feedback, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging during repeated intransitive and silent lip, jaw and tongue movements. In the motor domain, this paradigm refers to decreased activity in specific neural populations due to repeated motor acts and has been proposed to reflect sensory-motor adaptation. Orofacial movements activated a set of largely overlapping, common brain areas forming a core neural network classically involved in orofacial motor control. Crucially, suppressed neural responses during repeated orofacial actions were specifically observed in the left ventral premotor cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, the inferior parietal lobule and the superior parietal lobule. Since no visual and auditory feedback were provided during orofacial actions, these results suggest somatosensory-motor adaptive control of intransitive and silent orofacial actions in these premotor and parietal regions.

  20. Vulnerability of the frontal and parietal regions in hypertensive patients during working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Junying; Tao, Wuhai; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension is related with cognitive decline in the elderly. The frontal-parietal executive system plays an important role in cognitive aging and is also vulnerable to damage in elderly patients with hypertension. Examination of the brain's functional characteristics in frontal-parietal regions of hypertension is likely to be important for understanding the neural mechanisms of hypertension's effect on cognitive aging. We address this issue by comparing hypertension and control-performers in a functional MRI study. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients and 32 elderly controls were tested with n-back task with two load levels. The hypertensive patients exhibited worse executive and memory abilities than control subjects. The patterns of brain activation changed under different working memory loads in the hypertensive patients, who exhibited reduced activation only in the precentral gyrus under low loads and reduced activation in the middle frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus and right precuneus under high loads. Thus, more regions of diminished activation were observed in the frontal and parietal regions with increasing task difficulty. More importantly, we found that lower activation in changed frontal and parietal regions was associated with worse cognitive function in high loads. The results demonstrate the relationship between cognitive function and frontoparietal functional activation in hypertension and their relevance to cognitive aging risk. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cognitive decline in hypertension and highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension.

  1. Seeing is not feeling: posterior parietal but not somatosensory cortex engagement during touch observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie W-Y; Baker, Chris I

    2015-01-28

    Observing touch has been reported to elicit activation in human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and is suggested to underlie our ability to interpret other's behavior and potentially empathy. However, despite these reports, there are a large number of inconsistencies in terms of the precise topography of activation, the extent of hemispheric lateralization, and what aspects of the stimulus are necessary to drive responses. To address these issues, we investigated the localization and functional properties of regions responsive to observed touch in a large group of participants (n = 40). Surprisingly, even with a lenient contrast of hand brushing versus brushing alone, we did not find any selective activation for observed touch in the hand regions of somatosensory cortex but rather in superior and inferior portions of neighboring posterior parietal cortex, predominantly in the left hemisphere. These regions in the posterior parietal cortex required the presence of both brush and hand to elicit strong responses and showed some selectivity for the form of the object or agent of touch. Furthermore, the inferior parietal region showed nonspecific tactile and motor responses, suggesting some similarity to area PFG in the monkey. Collectively, our findings challenge the automatic engagement of somatosensory cortex when observing touch, suggest mislocalization in previous studies, and instead highlight the role of posterior parietal cortex. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351468-13$15.00/0.

  2. Role of the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention: An rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareham, Corinne A; Georgieva, Stanimira D; Kamke, Marc R; Lloyd, David; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Mattingley, Jason B

    2018-02-01

    Selective attention is the process of directing limited capacity resources to behaviourally relevant stimuli while ignoring competing stimuli that are currently irrelevant. Studies in healthy human participants and in individuals with focal brain lesions have suggested that the right parietal cortex is crucial for resolving competition for attention. Following right-hemisphere damage, for example, patients may have difficulty reporting a brief, left-sided stimulus if it occurs with a competitor on the right, even though the same left stimulus is reported normally when it occurs alone. Such "extinction" of contralesional stimuli has been documented for all the major sense modalities, but it remains unclear whether its occurrence reflects involvement of one or more specific subregions of the temporo-parietal cortex. Here we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right hemisphere to examine the effect of disruption of two candidate regions - the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) - on auditory selective attention. Eighteen neurologically normal, right-handed participants performed an auditory task, in which they had to detect target digits presented within simultaneous dichotic streams of spoken distractor letters in the left and right channels, both before and after 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the SMG, STG or a somatosensory control site (S1). Across blocks, participants were asked to report on auditory streams in the left, right, or both channels, which yielded focused and divided attention conditions. Performance was unchanged for the two focused attention conditions, regardless of stimulation site, but was selectively impaired for contralateral left-sided targets in the divided attention condition following stimulation of the right SMG, but not the STG or S1. Our findings suggest a causal role for the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  4. The role of human parietal area 7A as a link between sequencing in hand actions and in overt speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eHeim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focussed on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether sequencing of hand motor actions vs. speech motor actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable "po" once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables (po-pi-po. Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca's region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45. In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a yet little considered role of the superior parietal lobule in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the

  5. Full-root aortic valve replacement with stentless xenograft achieves superior regression of left ventricular hypertrophy compared to pericardial stented aortic valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Reza; Auf der Maur, Christoph; Mueller, Xavier; Schläpfer, Reinhard; Jamshidi, Peiman; Daubeuf, François; Frossard, Nelly

    2015-02-03

    Full-root aortic valve replacement with stentless xenografts has potentially superior hemodynamic performance compared to stented valves. However, a number of cardiac surgeons are reluctant to transform a classical stented aortic valve replacement into a technically more demanding full-root stentless aortic valve replacement. Here we describe our technique of full-root stentless aortic xenograft implantation and compare the early clinical and midterm hemodynamic outcomes to those after aortic valve replacement with stented valves. We retrospectively compared the pre-operative characteristics of 180 consecutive patients who underwent full-root replacement with stentless aortic xenografts with those of 80 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement with stented valves. In subgroups presenting with aortic stenosis, we further analyzed the intra-operative data, early postoperative outcomes and mid-term regression of left ventricular mass index. Patients in the stentless group were younger (62.6 ± 13 vs. 70.3 ± 11.8 years, p regression of the left ventricular mass index in the stentless (p replacement can be performed without adversely affecting the early morbidity or mortality in patients operated on for aortic valve stenosis provided that the coronary ostia are not heavily calcified. The additional time necessary for the full-root stentless compared to the classical stented aortic valve replacement is therefore not detrimental to the early clinical outcomes and is largely rewarded in patients with aortic stenosis by lower transvalvular gradients at mid-term and a better regression of their left ventricular mass index.

  6. Spontaneous neural activity in the right superior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus is associated with insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Zhong, Mingtian; Gan, Jun; Liu, Wanting; Niu, Chaoyang; Liao, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongchun; Tan, Changlian; Yi, Jinyao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-01-01

    Insight into illness is an important issue for psychiatry disorder. Although the existence of a poor insight subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was recognized in the DSM-IV, and the insight level in OCD was specified further in DSM-V, the neural underpinnings of insight in OCD have been rarely explored. The present study was designed to bridge this research gap by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Spontaneous neural activity were examined in 19 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI), 18 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI), and 25 healthy controls (HC) by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the resting state. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between regional ALFFs and insight levels among OCD patients. OCD-GI and OCD-PI demonstrated overlapping and distinct brain alterations. Notably, compared with OCD-GI, tOCD-PI had reduced ALFF in left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG), as well as increased ALFF in right middle occipital gyrus. Further analysis revealed that ALFF values for the left MTG and right STG were correlated negatively with insight level in patients with OCD. Relatively small sample size and not all patients were un-medicated are our major limitations. Spontaneous brain activity in left MTG and right STG may be neural underpinnings of insight in OCD. Our results suggest the great role of human temporal brain regions in understanding insight, and further underscore the importance of considering insight presentation in understanding the clinical heterogeneity of OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is right ventricular mid-septal pacing superior to apical pacing in patients with high degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately depressed left ventricular function?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Mao, Ye; Liu, Shao-hua; Wu, Qiong; Luo, Qing-zhi; Pan, Wen-qi; Jin, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Ling, Tian-you; Chen, Ying; Gu, Gang; Shen, Wei-feng; Wu, Li-qun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We are aimed to investigate whether right ventricular mid-septal pacing (RVMSP) is superior to conventional right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) in improving clinical functional capacity and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) for patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately depressed left ventricle (LV) function. Methods: Ninety-two patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately reduced LVEF (ranging from 35% to 50%) were randomly allocated to RVMSP (n=45) and RVAP (n=47). New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, echocardiographic LVEF, and distance during a 6-min walk test (6MWT) were determined at 18 months after pacemaker implantation. Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: Compared with baseline, NYHA functional class remained unchanged at 18 months, distance during 6MWT (485 m vs. 517 m) and LVEF (36.7% vs. 41.8%) were increased, but BNP levels were reduced (2352 pg/ml vs. 710 pg/ml) in the RVMSP group compared with those in the RVAP group, especially in patients with LVEF 35%–40% (for all comparisons, P<0.05). However, clinical function capacity and LV function measurements were not significantly changed in patients with RVAP, despite the pacing measurements being similar in both groups, such as R-wave amplitude and capture threshold. Conclusions: RVMSP provides a better clinical utility, compared with RVAP, in patients with high-degree atrioventricular block and moderately depressed LV function whose LVEF levels ranged from 35% to 40%. PMID:24903987

  8. Is right ventricular mid-septal pacing superior to apical pacing in patients with high degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately depressed left ventricular function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Mao, Ye; Liu, Shao-hua; Wu, Qiong; Luo, Qing-zhi; Pan, Wen-qi; Jin, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Ling, Tian-you; Chen, Ying; Gu, Gang; Shen, Wei-feng; Wu, Li-qun

    2014-06-01

    We are aimed to investigate whether right ventricular mid-septal pacing (RVMSP) is superior to conventional right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) in improving clinical functional capacity and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) for patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately depressed left ventricle (LV) function. Ninety-two patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately reduced LVEF (ranging from 35% to 50%) were randomly allocated to RVMSP (n=45) and RVAP (n=47). New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, echocardiographic LVEF, and distance during a 6-min walk test (6MWT) were determined at 18 months after pacemaker implantation. Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Compared with baseline, NYHA functional class remained unchanged at 18 months, distance during 6MWT (485 m vs. 517 m) and LVEF (36.7% vs. 41.8%) were increased, but BNP levels were reduced (2352 pg/ml vs. 710 pg/ml) in the RVMSP group compared with those in the RVAP group, especially in patients with LVEF 35%-40% (for all comparisons, P<0.05). However, clinical function capacity and LV function measurements were not significantly changed in patients with RVAP, despite the pacing measurements being similar in both groups, such as R-wave amplitude and capture threshold. RVMSP provides a better clinical utility, compared with RVAP, in patients with high-degree atrioventricular block and moderately depressed LV function whose LVEF levels ranged from 35% to 40%.

  9. Serum Cardiac Troponin-I is Superior to Troponin-T as a Marker for Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Clinically Stable Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurits S Buiten

    Full Text Available Serum troponin assays, widely used to detect acute cardiac ischemia, might be useful biomarkers to detect chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD. Cardiac-specific troponin-I (cTnI and troponin-T (cTnT generally detect myocardial necrosis equally well. In dialysis patients however, serum cTnT levels are often elevated, unlike cTnI levels. The present study aims to elucidate the associations of cTnI and cTnT with CVD in clinically stable dialysis patients.Troponin levels were measured using 5th generation hs-cTnT assays (Roche and STAT hs-cTnI assays (Abbott in a cohort of dialysis patients. Serum troponin levels were divided into tertiles with the lowest tertile as a reference value. Serum troponins were associated with indicators of CVD such as left ventricular mass index (LVMI, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD. Associations were explored using regression analysis.We included 154 consecutive patients, 68±7 years old, 77% male, 70% hemodialysis. Median serum cTnT was 51ng/L (exceeding the 99th percentile of the healthy population in 98% and median serum cTnI was 13ng/L (elevated in 20%. A high cTnI (T3 was significantly associated with a higher LVMI (Beta 31.60; p=0.001 and LVEF (Beta -4.78; p=0.005 after adjusting for confounders whereas a high serum cTnT was not. CAD was significantly associated with a high cTnT (OR 4.70 p=0.02 but not with a high cTnI. Unlike cTnI, cTnT was associated with residual renal function (Beta:-0.09; p=0.006.In the present cohort, serum cTnI levels showed a stronger association with LVMI and LVEF than cTnT. However, cTnT was significantly associated with CAD and residual renal function, unlike cTnI. Therefore, cTnI seems to be superior to cTnT as a marker of left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic dialysis patients, while cTnT might be better suited to detect CAD in these patients.

  10. Ecocardiografia transesofágica e diagnóstico intraoperatório de veia cava superior esquerda persistente Ecocardiografía transesofágica y diagnóstico intraoperatorio de vena cava superior izquierda persistente Transesophageal echocardiography and intraoperative diagnosis of persistent left superior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Alves da Silva

    2009-12-01

    persistent left superior vena cava has an incidence of 0.5% in the normal population, but in patients with congenital cardiopathy its incidence ranges from 3% to 10%. The objective of this report was to present a case of intraoperative diagnosis with transesophageal echocardiography and to emphasize the importance of its routine use in surgical procedures for correction of congenital cardiopathies. CASE REPORT: This is a 16-year old male patient, ASA II, with a diagnosis of superior sinus venosus interatrial communication (IAC with partial anomalous drainage of the pulmonary veins scheduled for the surgical correction of the cardiopathy. After induction of general anesthesia, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE showed initially a dilation of the right cardiac chambers, a 17-mm superior sinus venosus IAC, anomalous drainage of the right superior pulmonary vein draining into the right superior vena cava (SVC, and dilation of the coronary sinus raising the possibility of persistent left superior vena cava. To confirm this suspicion, 10 mL of NS (works as a contrast in echocardiography were injected in the venous access of the left arm, and microbubbles crossing the coronary sinus were observed immediately afterwards confirming the diagnosis of persistent left superior vena cava. CONCLUSIONS: Routine intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in patients with congenital cardiopathy is a fundamental auxiliary method, not only for the surgeon, often having direct influence on the surgical technique used, but also for the anesthesiologist, who can get useful information for the hemodynamic management of the patient.

  11. Development of parietal bone surrogates for parietal graft lift training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollensteiner Marianne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently the surgical training of parietal bone graft techniques is performed on patients or specimens. Commercially available bone models do not deliver realistic haptic feedback. Thus customized parietal skull surrogates were developed for surgical training purposes. Two human parietal bones were used as reference. Based on the measurement of insertion forces of drilling, milling and saw procedures suitable material compositions for molding cortical and cancellous calvarial layers were found. Artificial skull caps were manufactured and tested. Additionally microtomograpy images of human and artificial parietal bones were performed to analyze outer table and diploe thicknesses. Significant differences between human and artificial skulls were not detected with the mechanical procedures tested. Highly significant differences were found for the diploe thickness values. In conclusion, an artificial bone has been created, mimicking the properties of human parietal bone thus being suitable for tabula externa graft lift training.

  12. [Tourette syndrome and reading disorder in a boy with left parietofrontal tract disruption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, D; Fernández-Jaén, A; Gómez Herrera, J J; Jiménez de la Peña, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a nine-year-old boy with Tourette syndrome and reading disorder with a history of a severe infectious process in the late neonatal period. Brain MRI showed a left parietal malacotic cavity and diffusion tensor imaging and tractography showed a striking disruption of the white matter bundle that joins the left parietal region with the ipsilateral frontal region with involvement of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and of the left arcuate fasciculus. Although Tourette syndrome and reading disorder are fundamentally hereditary neuropsychiatric disorders, they can also occur secondary to cerebral alterations like those existing in this boy. The introduction of modern neuroimaging techniques in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders (or the risk of developing them) can be very useful in the diagnosis and prognosis in the future. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of persistent left superior vena cava on prenatal ultrasound: associated anomalies, diagnostic accuracy and postnatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustapane, S; Leombroni, M; Khalil, A; Giacci, F; Marrone, L; Bascietto, F; Rizzo, G; Acharya, G; Liberati, M; D'Antonio, F

    2016-12-01

    To quantify the prevalence of chromosomal anomalies in fetuses with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC), assess the strength of the association between PLSVC and coarctation of the aorta and ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of antenatal ultrasound in correctly identifying isolated cases of PLSVC. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and the Cochrane databases were searched from the year 2000 onwards using combinations of keywords 'left superior vena cava' and 'outcome'. Two authors reviewed all abstracts independently. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. The rates of the following outcomes were analyzed: chromosomal abnormalities; associated intracardiac anomalies (ICAs) and extracardiac anomalies (ECAs) diagnosed prenatally; additional ICAs and ECAs detected only at postnatal imaging or clinical evaluation but missed at prenatal imaging; and association of PLSVC and coarctation of the aorta. Meta-analyses of proportions were used to combine data. In total, 2708 articles were identified and 13 (n = 501) were included in the systematic review. Associated ICAs and ECAs were detected at the prenatal ultrasound examination or at a follow-up assessment in 60.7% (95% CI, 44.2-75.9%) and 37.8% (95% CI, 31.0-44.8%) of cases, respectively. Chromosomal anomalies occurred in 12.5% (95% CI, 9.0-16.4%) of cases in the overall population of fetuses with PLSVC and in 7.0% (95% CI, 2.7-13.0%) of isolated cases. Additional ICAs and ECAs were detected only after birth and missed at ultrasound in 2.4% (95% CI, 0.5-5.8%) and 6.7% (95% CI, 2.2-13.2%) of cases, respectively. Coarctation of the aorta was associated with isolated PLSVC in 21.3% (95% CI, 13.6-30.3%) of cases. PLSVC is commonly associated with ICAs, ECAs and chromosomal anomalies. Fetuses with isolated PLSVC should be followed up throughout pregnancy in order to rule out coarctation of the aorta. As most of the data in this review were derived from

  14. Waves of awareness for occipital and parietal phosphenes perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagattini, Chiara; Mazzi, Chiara; Savazzi, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the occipital cortex is known to induce visual sensations, i.e. phosphenes, which appear as flashes of light in the absence of an external stimulus. Recent studies have shown that TMS can produce phosphenes also when the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is stimulated. The main question addressed in this paper is whether parietal phosphenes are generated directly by local mechanisms or emerge through indirect activation of other visual areas. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded while stimulating left occipital or parietal cortices inducing phosphene perception in healthy participants and in a hemianopic patient who suffered from complete destruction of the early visual cortex of the left hemisphere. Results in healthy participants showed that the onset of phosphene perception induced by occipital TMS correlated with differential cortical activity in temporal sites while the onset of phosphene perception induced by parietal TMS correlated with differential cortical activity in the stimulated parietal site. Moreover, IPS-TMS of the lesioned hemisphere of the hemianopic patient with a complete lesion to V1 showed again that the onset of phosphene perception correlated with differential cortical activity in the stimulated parietal site. The present data seem thus to suggest that temporal and parietal cortices can serve as different local early gatekeepers of perceptual awareness and that activity in the occipital cortex, although being relevant for perception in general, is not part of the neural bases of the perceptual awareness of phosphenes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A fronto-parietal circuit for tactile object discrimination: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Weder, Bruno; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Shah, N Jon; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2003-07-01

    Previous studies of somatosensory object discrimination have been focused on the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortices. However, we expected the prefrontal cortex to also become involved in sequential tactile discrimination on the basis of its role in working memory and stimulus discrimination as established in other domains. To investigate the contributions of the different cerebral structures to tactile discrimination of sequentially presented objects, we obtained event-related functional magnetic resonance images from seven healthy volunteers. Our results show that right hand object exploration involved left sensorimotor cortices, bilateral premotor, parietal and temporal cortex, putamen, thalamus, and cerebellum. Tactile exploration of parallelepipeds for subsequent object discrimination activated further areas in the dorsal and ventral portions of the premotor cortex, as well as parietal, midtemporal, and occipital areas of both cerebral hemispheres. Discriminating a parallelepiped from the preceding one involved a bilateral prefrontal-anterior cingulate-superior temporal-posterior parietal circuit. While the prefrontal cortex was active with right hemisphere dominance during discrimination, there was left hemispheric prefrontal activation during the delay period between object presentations. Delay related activity was further seen in the anterior intraparietal area and the fusiform gyrus. The results reveal a prominent role of the human prefrontal cortex for somatosensory object discrimination in correspondence with recent models on stimulus discrimination and working memory.

  16. Dimensional analysis of the parietal bone in areas of surgical interest and relationship between parietal thickness and cephalic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Fernandes, Atson Carlos; Neto, Antonio Irineu Trindade; de Freitas, André Carlos; de Moraes, Márcio

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the thickness of the parietal bone in bone graft donor sites and to study the relationship between parietal bone thickness and gender or cephalic index. We studied 300 parietal bones from 150 human skulls (84 male and 66 female) from individuals aged 18 to 60 years at the time of death. On each parietal bone, 9 areas were drawn by use of reference anatomic landmarks (bregma, lambda, asterion, and pterion), and bone thickness was determined in the areas adjoining the sagittal suture--superior-anterior (Sa), superior-medial (Sm), and superior-posterior (Sp). Mean thickness measurements ranged from 2.30 to 11.25 mm in the Sa area, from 3.08 to 13.32 mm in the Sm area, and from 2.88 to 12.26 in the Sp area. Smaller mean measurements were observed in the Sa area, with the smallest mean thickness being found in brachycephalic female specimens. The largest mean thickness was also found in female specimens in the Sm area. Statistically significant differences between genders were found only in the Sa area in dolichocephalic and mesocephalic specimens. Although the best bone graft donor site surgically is different in individuals of different genders and with different cephalic indexes, our findings suggest that harvesting from the anterosuperior area of the parietal bone should not be performed. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence of Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava in the Normal Population and in Patients with Congenital Heart Diseases Detected Using Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Naoki; Goto, Hiroko; Omoya, Kentarou; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Terazawa, Atsushi; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kuwahara, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Reports on the incidence of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) in the normal population are limited to studies involving pacemaker implantation candidates and cadavers. The incidence in patients with congenital heart diseases (CHDs) is estimated to be higher than that in the normal population; however, the details are unclear. To investigate the incidence of PLSVC in the normal population and in patients with CHDs, subjects were examined prospectively using echocardiography. Normal subjects consisted of 2841 successive neonates without intra-cardiac or congenital anomalies born in Gifu Prefectural General Medical Center. Additionally, 1920 patients with CHDs were evaluated. The incidence of PLSVC in normal neonates was 0.21% (95% confidence interval 0.042-0.38%). A high incidence (more than 7.0 times the incidence in normal subjects) was observed in all CHD patients. The high incidence group included coarctation of the aorta (CoA) (23.7%) and double outlet right ventricle (DORV) patients (24.6%). The second group consisted of CHD patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD), with an incidence ranging from 5.1 to 6.1%. The low incidence group comprised patients with other CHDs, with an incidence between 1.5 and 3.1%. The incidence of PLSVC in trisomy 21 and atrial septal defect patients was significantly higher than that in normal neonates. The incidence of PLSVC in the normal population and in patients with CHDs was systematically evaluated for the first time. The incidence in CHD patients appeared to be positively influenced by the type of CHD, particularly by DORV, CoA, and VSD.

  18. Association of dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus fibers in the deep parietal lobe with both reading and writing processes: a brain mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kazuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing.

  19. Executive Semantic Processing Is Underpinned by a Large-scale Neural Network: Revealing the Contribution of Left Prefrontal, Posterior Temporal, and Parietal Cortex to Controlled Retrieval and Selection Using TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Carin; Kirk, Marie; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    To understand the meanings of words and objects, we need to have knowledge about these items themselves plus executive mechanisms that compute and manipulate semantic information in a task-appropriate way. The neural basis for semantic control remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies have focused on the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus…

  20. Linfedema Primário em Membro Superior Esquerdo em Paciente Idosa / Primary Lymphedema in Upper Left Member in Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andreia de Moraes Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Linfedema Primário (LP é caracterizado por disfunção do sistema linfático de etiologia idiopática. Este pode ser dividido em congênito, precoce e tardio, sendo o tipo congênito o mais raro. O diagnóstico desta patologia é predominantemente clínico, podendo ser solicitado linfocintilografia quando há dúvida diagnóstica. O diagnóstico precoce está diretamente relacionado com o melhor prognóstico do paciente, postergando limitações físicas e psico­sociais. O tratamento do LP é clínico e multiprofissional. Relato do Caso: Relatou­se caso raro de uma paciente de 78 anos de idade, sexo feminino, portadora de Linfedema Primário em membro superior esquerdo desde o nascimento, o qual foi investigado durante a infância, porém com resultados inconclusivos. Conclusão: Embora seja pequena a quantidade de trabalhos sobre o tema, este relato confirma que o diagnóstico precoce é fundamental e que o tratamento igualmente precoce e multiprofissional melhora a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Introduction: Primary lymphedema (PL is characterized by dysfunction of the lymphatic system of idiopathic etiology. It can be divided into congenital, early and late, with the congenital type being the rarest. The diagnosis of this pathology is predominantly clinical, and a lymphoscintilography may be requested when the diagnostic is uncertain. Early diagnosis is directly related to better patient prognosis, delaying physical and psychosocial limitations. Treatment of PL is clinical and multiprofessional. Case Report: The aim of this paper is to describe a rare case of a 78­ year­old female with primary lymphedema in the left arm since her birth, which was investigated during childhood, but with inconclusive results. Conclusion: Although there is small amount of work on the topic, this report confirms that early diagnosis is crucial and also that early and multidisciplinary treatment improves the quality of life of patients.

  1. Anomalía del retorno venoso sistémico Drenaje anómalo de la vena cava superior derecha a la aurícula izquierda: Revisión de la literatura y reporte de caso Anomalous systemic venous return. Anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava into the left atrium: Review of literature and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ríos Giovanny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La anomalía total del retorno venoso sistémico tiene gran variedad de presentaciones; sin embargo, la patología de más baja frecuencia es el drenaje de vena cava superior derecha a la aurícula izquierda, hecho de peso para que en el mundo se reporten pocos casos. En la Fundación Clínica Abood Shaio se trató el caso de una paciente de seis años de edad con drenaje venoso total de cava superior derecha a la aurícula izquierda, mediante la técnica de movilización de cava superior y anastomosis cavo-atrial, y se obtuvieron buenos resultados. El caso es mención corresponde al número 21 en la literatura mundial.Total anomalous systemic venous return has a variety of presentations, being the drainage of right superior vena cava into the left atrium a low frequency condition. There are few reported cases in the world. In Shaio Clinic Foundation we have handled a case of total venous drainage of the right superior vena cava into the left atrium in a 6-year old girl, using the superior vena cava mobilization technique and cavo-atrial anastomosis, with good results. This case is reported as case number 21 in the world.

  2. The parietal lobe and the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The vestibular cortex differs in various ways from other sensory cortices. It consists of a network of several distinct and separate temporoparietal areas. Its core region, the parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), is located in the posterior insula and retroinsular region and includes the parietal operculum. The entire network is multisensory (in particular, vestibular, visual, and somatosensory). The peripheral and central vestibular systems are bilaterally organized; there are various pontomesencephalic brainstem crossings and at least two transcallosal connections of both hemispheres, between the PIVC and the motion-sensitive visual cortex areas, which also mediate vestibular input. Structural and functional vestibular dominance characterizes the right hemisphere in right-handers and the left hemisphere in left-handers. This explains why right-hemispheric lesions in right-handers more often generally cause hemispatial neglect and the pusher syndrome, both of which involve vestibular function. Vestibular input also contributes to cognition and may determine individual lateralization of brain functions such as handedness. Bilateral organization is a major key to understanding cortical functions and disorders, for example, the visual-vestibular interaction that occurs in spatial orientation. Although the vestibular cortex is represented in both hemispheres, there is only one global percept of body position and motion. The chiefly vestibular aspects of the multiple functions and disorders of the parietal lobe dealt with in this chapter cannot be strictly separated from various multisensory vestibular functions within the entire brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Visual perception is dependent on visuospatial working memory and thus on the posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisella, Laure

    2017-06-01

    Visual perception involves complex and active processes. We will start by explaining why visual perception is dependent on visuospatial working memory, especially the spatiotemporal integration of the perceived elements through the ocular exploration of visual scenes. Then we will present neuropsychology, transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuroimaging data yielding information on the specific role of the posterior parietal cortex of the right hemisphere in visuospatial working memory. Within the posterior parietal cortex, neuropsychology data also suggest that there might be dissociated neural substrates for deployment of attention (superior parietal lobules) and spatiotemporal integration (right inferior parietal lobule). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri J. Woods

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined differences in brain activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five parietal regions involved in number processing during a non-symbolic number comparison task with varying degrees of difficulty. fMRI results are presented for 27 Cape Colored children (6 fetal alcohol syndome (FAS/partial FAS, 5 heavily exposed (HE non-sydromal, 16 controls; mean age ± SD = 11.7 ± 1.1 years. Fetal alcohol exposure was assessed by interviewing mothers using a timeline follow-back approach. Separate subject analyses were performed in each of five regions of interest, bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulci (IPS, bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL, and left angular gyrus (left AG, using the general linear model with predictors for number comparison and difficulty level. Mean percent signal change for each predictor was extracted for each subject for each region to examine group differences and associations with continuous measures of alcohol exposure. Although groups did not differ in performance, controls activated the right PSPL more during non-symbolic number comparison than exposed children, but this was not significant after controlling for maternal smoking, and the right IPS more than children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS or partial FAS. More heavily exposed children recruited the left AG to a greater extent as task difficulty increased, possibly to compensate, in part, for impairments in function in the PSPL and IPS. Notably, in non

  5. Working memory training using mental calculation impacts regional gray matter of the frontal and parietal regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Training working memory (WM improves performance on untrained cognitive tasks and alters functional activity. However, WM training's effects on gray matter morphology and a wide range of cognitive tasks are still unknown. We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM, various psychological measures, such as non-trained WM tasks and a creativity task, and intensive adaptive training of WM using mental calculations (IATWMMC, all of which are typical WM tasks. IATWMMC was associated with reduced regional gray matter volume in the bilateral fronto-parietal regions and the left superior temporal gyrus. It improved verbal letter span and complex arithmetic ability, but deteriorated creativity. These results confirm the training-induced plasticity in psychological mechanisms and the plasticity of gray matter structures in regions that have been assumed to be under strong genetic control.

  6. Intrinsic connections and architectonics of posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, D.N.; Seltzer, B.

    1982-01-01

    By means of autoradiographic and ablation-degeneration techniques, the intrinsic cortical connections of the posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey were traced and correlated with a reappraisal of cerebral architectonics. Two major rostral-to-caudal connectional sequences exist. One begins in the dorsal postcentral gyrus (area 2) and proceeds, through architectonic divisions of the superior parietal lobule (areas PE and PEc), to a cortical region on the medial surface of the parietal lobe (area PGm). This area has architectonic features similar to those of the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). The second sequence begins in the ventral post/central gyrus (area 2) and passes through the rostral inferior parietal lobule (areas PG and PFG) to reach the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). Both the superior parietal lobule and the rostral inferior parietal lobule also send projections to various other zones located in the parietal opercular region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the caudalmost portion of the cingulate sulcus. Areas PGm and PG, on the other hand, project to each other, to the cingulate region, to the caudalmost portion of the superior temporal gyrus, and to the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Finally, a reciprocal sequence of connections, directed from caudal to rostral, links together many of the above-mentioned parietal zones. With regard to the laminar pattern of termination, the rostral-to-caudal connections are primarily distributed in the form of cortical ''columns'' while the caudal-to-rostral connections are found mainly over the first cortical cell layer

  7. Acoustic cue selection and discrimination under degradation: differential contributions of the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-02-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill for perceiving the acoustic environment. Categorization depends on the discriminability of the sensory input as well as on the ability of the listener to adaptively make use of the relevant features of the sound. Previous studies on categorization have focused either on speech sounds when studying discriminability or on visual stimuli when assessing optimal cue utilization. Here, by contrast, we examined neural sensitivity to stimulus discriminability and optimal cue utilization when categorizing novel, non-speech auditory stimuli not affected by long-term familiarity. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, listeners categorized sounds from two category distributions, differing along two acoustic dimensions: spectral shape and duration. By introducing spectral degradation after the first half of the experiment, we manipulated both stimulus discriminability and the relative informativeness of acoustic cues. Degradation caused an overall decrease in discriminability based on spectral shape, and therefore enhanced the informativeness of duration. A relative increase in duration-cue utilization was accompanied by increased activity in left parietal cortex. Further, discriminability modulated right planum temporale activity to a higher degree when stimuli were spectrally degraded than when they were not. These findings provide support for separable contributions of parietal and posterior temporal areas to perceptual categorization. The parietal cortex seems to support the selective utilization of informative stimulus cues, while the posterior superior temporal cortex as a primarily auditory brain area supports discriminability particularly under acoustic degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of rostral inferior parietal lobule area functional connectivity from late childhood to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Haifeng; Du, Xiaoxia

    2017-06-01

    Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the PFt area with other brain areas and whether these networks change over time. Here, we investigated the FC development of the PFt area-based network in 59 healthy subjects aged 7-26 years at resting-state to study brain development from late childhood through adolescence to early adulthood. The bilateral PFt showed similar core FC networks, which included the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyri, the insula, the somatosensory cortex, the precuneus, the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the temporal lobe, and the cerebellum posterior lobes. Furthermore, the FC between the left PFt and the left IPL exhibited a significantly positive correlation with age, and the FC between the left PFt and the right postcentral gyrus exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. In addition, the FC between the right PFt and the right putamen exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. Our findings suggest that the PFt area-based network develops and is reorganized with age. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Creating Colored Letters: Familial Markers of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia in Parietal Lobe Activation and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Scholte, H Steven; Rouw, Romke

    2017-07-01

    Perception is inherently subjective, and individual differences in phenomenology are well illustrated by the phenomenon of synesthesia (highly specific, consistent, and automatic cross-modal experiences, in which the external stimulus corresponding to the additional sensation is absent). It is unknown why some people develop synesthesia and others do not. In the current study, we tested whether neural markers related to having synesthesia in the family were evident in brain function and structure. Relatives of synesthetes (who did not have any type of synesthesia themselves) and matched controls read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned before and after reading using magnetic resonance imaging. Effects of acquired letter-color associations were evident in brain activation. Training-related activation (while viewing black letters) in the right angular gyrus of the parietal lobe was directly related to the strength of the learned letter-color associations (behavioral Stroop effect). Within this obtained angular gyrus ROI, the familial trait of synesthesia related to brain activation differences while participants viewed both black and colored letters. Finally, we compared brain structure using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to test for group differences and training effects. One cluster in the left superior parietal lobe had significantly more coherent white matter in the relatives compared with controls. No evidence for experience-dependent plasticity was obtained. For the first time, we present evidence suggesting that the (nonsynesthete) relatives of grapheme-color synesthetes show atypical grapheme processing as well as increased brain connectivity.

  10. Common substrate for mental arithmetic and finger representation in the parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Michael; Michaux, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    The history of mathematics provides several examples of the use of fingers to count or calculate. These observations converge with developmental data showing that fingers play a critical role in the acquisition of arithmetic knowledge. Further studies evidenced specific interference of finger movements with arithmetic problem solving in adults, raising the question of whether or not finger and number manipulations rely on common brain areas. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the possible overlap between the brain areas involved in mental arithmetic and those involved in finger discrimination. Solving subtraction and multiplication problems was found to increase cerebral activation bilaterally in the horizontal part of the intraparietal sulcus (hIPS) and in the posterior part of the superior parietal lobule (PSPL). Finger discrimination was associated with increased activity in a bilateral occipito-parieto-precentral network extending from the extrastriate body area to the primary somatosensory and motor cortices. A conjunction analysis showed common areas for mental arithmetic and finger representation in the hIPS and PSPL bilaterally. Voxelwise correlations further showed that finger discrimination and mental arithmetic induced a similar pattern of activity within the parietal areas only. Pattern similarity was more important for the left than for the right hIPS and for subtraction than for multiplication. These findings provide the first evidence that the brain circuits involved in finger representation also underlie arithmetic operations in adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fronto-Parietal Contributions to Phonological Processes in Successful Artificial Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranskaya, Dariya; Kreitewolf, Jens; Mueller, Jutta L.; Friederici, Angela D.; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e., of syllables or letters). In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs. incorrect sequences or between different levels of sequence complexity, here the focus is on the neural foundation of the actual learning success. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants were exposed to a set of syllable sequences with an underlying phonological rule system, known to ensure performance differences between participants. We expected that successful learning and rule application would require phonological segmentation and phoneme comparison. As an outcome of four alternating learning and test fMRI sessions, participants split into successful learners and non-learners. Relative to non-learners, successful learners showed increased task-related activity in a fronto-parietal network of brain areas encompassing the left lateral premotor cortex as well as bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices during both learning and rule application. These areas were previously associated with phonological segmentation, phoneme comparison, and verbal working memory. Based on these activity patterns and the phonological strategies for rule acquisition and application, we argue that successful learning and processing of complex phonological rules in our paradigm is mediated via a fronto-parietal network for phonological processes. PMID:27877120

  12. Fronto-parietal contributions to phonological processes in successful artificial grammar learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariya Goranskaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar (AG learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e. of syllables or letters. In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs. incorrect sequences or between different levels of sequence complexity, here the focus is on the neural foundation of the actual learning success. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, participants were exposed to a set of syllable sequences with an underlying phonological rule system, known to ensure performance differences between participants. We expected that successful learning and rule application would require phonological segmentation and phoneme comparison. As an outcome of four alternating learning and test fMRI sessions, participants split into successful learners and non-learners. Relative to non-learners, successful learners showed increased task-related activity in a fronto-parietal network of brain areas encompassing the left lateral premotor cortex as well as bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices during both learning and rule application. These areas were previously associated with phonological segmentation, phoneme comparison and verbal working memory. Based on these activity patterns and the phonological strategies for rule acquisition and application, we argue that successful learning and processing of complex phonological rules in our paradigm is mediated via a fronto-parietal network for phonological processes.

  13. [Brodmann Areas 39 and 40: Human Parietal Association Area and Higher Cortical Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia). Damage to either gyrus causes Gerstmann's syndrome (finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, agraphia and acalculia) and verbal short-term memory impairment. "Angular alexia with agraphia" results from damage to the middle occipital gyrus posterior to the angular gyrus. Alexia and agraphia, with lesions in the angular or supramarginal gyrus, are characterized by kana transposition errors in reading words, which suggests the impairment of sequential phonological processing.

  14. Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in selected patients is superior to the conventional approach for patients with severely depressed left ventricular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Marco Caputti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction have high mortality when kept in clinical treatment. Coronary artery bypass grafting can improve survival and the quality of life. Recently, revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass has been presented as a viable alternative. The aim of this study is to compare patients with left ventricular ejection fractions of less than 20% who underwent coronary artery bypass graft with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: From January 2001 to December 2005, 217 nonrandomized, consecutive, and nonselected patients with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 20% underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery with (112 or without (off-pump (105 the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. We studied demographic, operative, and postoperative data. RESULTS: There were no demographic differences between groups. The outcome variables showed similar graft numbers in both groups. Mortality was 12.5% in the cardiopulmonary bypass group and 3.8% in the off-pump group. Postoperative complications were statistically different (cardiopulmonary bypass versus off-pump: total length of hospital stay (days-11.3 vs. 7.2, length of ICU stay (days-3.7 vs. 2.1, pulmonary complications-10.7% vs. 2.8%, intubation time (hours-22 vs. 10, postoperative bleeding (mL-654 vs. 440, acute renal failure-8.9% vs. 1.9% and left-ventricle ejection fraction before discharge-22% vs. 29%. CONCLUSION: Coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass in selected patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction is valid and safe and promotes less mortality and morbidity compared with conventional operations.

  15. Differential activation of frontal and parietal regions during visual word recognition: an optical topography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Markus J; Herrmann, Martin J; Dan, Ippeita; Obrig, Hellmuth; Conrad, Markus; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2008-04-15

    The present study examined cortical oxygenation changes during lexical decision on words and pseudowords using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Focal hyperoxygenation as an indicator of functional activation was compared over three target areas over the left hemisphere. A 52-channel Hitachi ETG-4000 was used covering the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the left inferior parietal gyrus (IPG) and the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). To allow for anatomical inference a recently developed probabilistic mapping method was used to determine the most likely anatomic locations of the changes in cortical activation [Tsuzuki, D., Jurcak, V., Singh, A.K., Okamoto, M., Watanabe, E., Dan, I., 2007. Virtual spatial registration of stand-alone fNIRS data to MNI space. NeuroImage 43 (4), 1506-1518. Subjects made lexical decisions on 50 low and 50 high frequency words and 100 pseudowords. With respect to the lexicality effect, words elicited a larger focal hyperoxygenation in comparison to pseudowords in two regions identified as the SFG and left IPG. The SFG activation difference was interpreted to reflect decision-related mechanisms according to the Multiple Read-Out Model [Grainger, J., Jacobs, A.M., 1996. Orthographic processing in visual word recognition: A multiple read-out model. Psychological Review 103, 518-565]. The greater oxygenation response to words in the left IPG suggests that this region connects orthographic, phonological and semantic representations. A decrease of deoxygenated hemoglobin was observed to low frequency in comparison to high frequency words in a region identified as IFG. This region's sensitivity to word frequency suggests its involvement in grapheme-phoneme conversion, or its role during the selection of pre-activated semantic candidates.

  16. The inferior parietal lobule and recognition memory : expectancy violation or successful retrieval?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Han, Sanghoon; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic recognition demonstrate an increased lateral parietal response for studied versus new materials, often termed a retrieval success effect. Using a novel memory analog of attentional cueing, we manipulated the correspondence between anticipated and actual recognition evidence by presenting valid or invalid anticipatory cues (e. g., "likely old") before recognition judgments. Although a superior parietal region demonstrated the retrieval success patter...

  17. Encefalomenigocele atrésico parietal Parietal atresic encephalomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rivera Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El encefalocele es una anomalía congénita rara, en la que una porción del encéfalo protruye a través de un orificio craneal (evaginación, generalmente situado en la línea media. Clínicamente se caracteriza por una masa epicraneal, de consistencia blanda, muchas veces acompañada de trastornos psicomotores, convulsiones y trastornos de la visión. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido con diagnóstico de encefalomeningocele atrésico parietal, intervenido quirúrgicamente y con evolución satisfactoria.The encephalocele is a uncommon congenital anomaly where a portion of encephalon protrudes through a cranial orifice (evagination, generally located in the middle line. Clinically, it is characterized by a soft epicranial mass often accompanied or psychomotor disorders, convulsions and vision disorders. This is the case of a newborn diagnosed with parietal atresic encephalomeningocele operated on with a satisfactory evolution.

  18. The left superior temporal gyrus is a shared substrate for auditory short-term memory and speech comprehension: evidence from 210 patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Alexander P; Schofield, Thomas M; Crinion, Jennifer T; Seghier, Mohamed L; Grogan, Alice; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    Competing theories of short-term memory function make specific predictions about the functional anatomy of auditory short-term memory and its role in language comprehension. We analysed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images from 210 stroke patients and employed a novel voxel based analysis to test the relationship between auditory short-term memory and speech comprehension. Using digit span as an index of auditory short-term memory capacity we found that the structural integrity of a posterior region of the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus predicted auditory short-term memory capacity, even when performance on a range of other measures was factored out. We show that the integrity of this region also predicts the ability to comprehend spoken sentences. Our results therefore support cognitive models that posit a shared substrate between auditory short-term memory capacity and speech comprehension ability. The method applied here will be particularly useful for modelling structure-function relationships within other complex cognitive domains.

  19. Visual Categorization and the Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie K Fitzgerald

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The primate brain is adept at rapidly grouping items and events into functional classes, or categories, in order to recognize the significance of stimuli and guide behavior. Higher cognitive functions have traditionally been considered the domain of frontal areas. However, increasing evidence suggests that parietal cortex is also involved in categorical and associative processes. Previous work showed that the parietal cortex is highly involved in spatial processing, attention and saccadic eye movement planning, and more recent studies have found decision-making signals in LIP. We recently found that a subdivision of parietal cortex, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, reflects learned categories for multiple types of visual stimuli. Additionally, a comparison of categorization signals in parietal and frontal areas found stronger and earlier categorization signals in parietal cortex, arguing that parietal abstract association or category signals are unlikely to arise via feedback from prefrontal cortex (PFC.

  20. The Predictive Nature of Pseudoneglect for Visual Neglect: Evidence from Parietal Theta Burst Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Varnava

    Full Text Available Following parietal damage most patients with visual neglect bisect horizontal lines significantly away from the true centre. Neurologically intact individuals also misbisect lines; a phenomenon referred to as 'pseudoneglect'. In this study we examined the relationship between neglect and pseudoneglect by testing how patterns of pre-existing visuospatial asymmetry predict asymmetry caused by parietal interference. Twenty-four participants completed line bisection and Landmark tasks before receiving continuous theta burst stimulation to the left or right angular gyrus. Results showed that a pre-existing pattern of left pseudoneglect (i.e. right bias, but not right pseudoneglect, predicts left neglect-like behaviour during line bisection following right parietal cTBS. This correlation is consistent with the view that neglect and pseudoneglect arise via a common or linked neural mechanism.

  1. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  2. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms. PMID:22039428

  3. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  5. The relative contributions of frontal and parietal cortex for generalized quantifier comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Olm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifiers, like some or few, are frequent in daily language. Linguists posit at least three distinct classes of quantifiers: cardinal quantifiers that rely on numerosity, majority quantifiers that additionally depend on executive resources, and logical quantifiers that rely on perceptual attention. We used BOLD fMRI to investigate the roles of frontal and parietal regions in quantifier comprehension. Participants performed a sentence-picture verification task to determine whether a sentence containing a quantifier accurately describes a picture. A whole-brain analysis identified a network involved in quantifier comprehension: This implicated bilateral inferior parietal, superior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and right inferior frontal cortex. We then performed region-of-interest analyses to assess the relative contribution of each region for each quantifier class. Inferior parietal cortex was equally activated across all quantifier classes, consistent with prior studies implicating the region for quantifier comprehension due in part to its role in the representation of number knowledge. Right superior parietal cortex was up-regulated in comparison to frontal regions for cardinal and logical quantifiers, but parietal and frontal regions were equally activated for majority quantifiers and each frontal region is most highly activated for majority quantifiers. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that majority quantifiers rely on numerosity mechanisms in parietal cortex and executive mechanisms in frontal cortex. Also, right inferior frontal cortex was up-regulated for logical compared to cardinal quantifiers, which may be related to selection demands associated with logical quantifier comprehension. We conclude that distinct components of a large-scale fronto-parietal network contribute to specific aspects of quantifier comprehension, and that this biologically-defined network is consistent with cognitive theories of

  6. Parietal podocytes in normal human glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariety, Jean; Mandet, Chantal; Hill, Gary S; Bruneval, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Although parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule have been described by electron microscopy in the normal human kidney, their molecular composition remains unknown. Ten human normal kidneys that were removed for cancer were assessed for the presence and the extent of parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule. The expression of podocyte-specific proteins (podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57, and intermediate filaments (cytokeratins and vimentin) was tested. In addition, six normal fetal kidneys were studied to track the ontogeny of parietal podocytes. The podocyte protein labeling detected parietal podocytes in all of the kidneys, was found in 76.6% on average of Bowman's capsule sections, and was prominent at the vascular pole. WT1 and p57 were expressed in some parietal cells, whereas PAX2 was present in all or most of them, so some parietal cells coexpressed WT1 and PAX2. Furthermore, parietal podocytes coexpressed WT1 and podocyte proteins. Cytokeratin-positive cells covered a variable part of the capsule and did not express podocyte proteins. Tuft-capsular podocyte bridges were present in 15.5 +/- 3.7% of the glomerular sections. Parietal podocytes often covered the juxtaglomerular arterioles and were present within the extraglomerular mesangium. Parietal podocytes were present in fetal kidneys. Parietal podocytes that express the same epitopes as visceral podocytes do exist along Bowman's capsule in the normal adult kidney. They are a constitutive cell type of the Bowman's capsule. Therefore, their role in physiology and pathology should be investigated.

  7. Functional connectivity between prefrontal and parietal cortex drives visuo-spatial attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Klaartje; Feredoes, Eva; Ruff, Christian C; Driver, Jon

    2017-05-01

    It is well established that the frontal eye-fields (FEF) in the dorsal attention network (DAN) guide top-down selective attention. In addition, converging evidence implies a causal role for the FEF in attention shifting, which is also known to recruit the ventral attention network (VAN) and fronto-striatal regions. To investigate the causal influence of the FEF as (part of) a central hub between these networks, we applied thetaburst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) off-line, combined with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) during a cued visuo-spatial attention shifting paradigm. We found that TBS over the right FEF impaired performance on a visual discrimination task in both hemifields following attention shifts, while only left hemifield performance was affected when participants were cued to maintain the focus of attention. These effects recovered ca. 20min post stimulation. Furthermore, particularly following attention shifts, TBS suppressed the neural signal in bilateral FEF, right inferior and superior parietal lobule (IPL/SPL) and bilateral supramarginal gyri (SMG). Immediately post stimulation, functional connectivity was impaired between right FEF and right SMG as well as right putamen. Importantly, the extent of decreased connectivity between right FEF and right SMG correlated with behavioural impairment following attention shifts. The main finding of this study demonstrates that influences from right FEF on SMG in the ventral attention network causally underly attention shifts, presumably by enabling disengagement from the current focus of attention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: enlarged parietal foramina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Home Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email ... parietal foramina: association with cerebral venous and cortical anomalies. Neurology. 2000 Mar 14;54(5):1175-8. ...

  9. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Short and long term effects of left and bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Leonie; Vercammen, Ans; Stewart, Roy; van Es, Frank; Visser, Bert; Aleman, André; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left temporo-parietal junction area has been studied as a treatment option for auditory verbal hallucinations. Although the right temporo-parietal junction area has also shown involvement in the genesis of auditory verbal hallucinations, no studies have used bilateral stimulation. Moreover, little is known about durability effects. We studied the short and long term effects of 1 Hz treatment of the left temporo-parietal junction area in schizophrenia patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations, compared to sham stimulation, and added an extra treatment arm of bilateral TPJ area stimulation. In this randomized controlled trial, 51 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and persistent auditory verbal hallucinations were randomly allocated to treatment of the left or bilateral temporo-parietal junction area or sham treatment. Patients were treated for six days, twice daily for 20 minutes. Short term efficacy was measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). We included follow-up measures with the AHRS and PANAS at four weeks and three months. The interaction between time and treatment for Hallucination item P3 of the PANSS showed a trend for significance, caused by a small reduction of scores in the left group. Although self-reported hallucination scores, as measured with the AHRS and PANAS, decreased significantly during the trial period, there were no differences between the three treatment groups. We did not find convincing evidence for the efficacy of left-sided rTMS, compared to sham rTMS. Moreover, bilateral rTMS was not superior over left rTMS or sham in improving AVH. Optimizing treatment parameters may result in stronger evidence for the efficacy of rTMS treatment of AVH. Moreover, future research should consider investigating factors predicting individual response. Dutch Trial

  11. Spatial imagery relies on a sensory independent, though sensory sensitive, functional organization within the parietal cortex: a fMRI study of angle discrimination in sighted and congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bernardi, Giulio; Sani, Lorenzo; Gentili, Claudio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Although vision offers distinctive information to space representation, individuals who lack vision since birth often show perceptual and representational skills comparable to those found in sighted individuals. However, congenitally blind individuals may result in impaired spatial analysis, when engaging in 'visual' spatial features (e.g., perspective or angle representation) or complex spatial mental abilities. In the present study, we measured behavioral and brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals during spatial imagery based on a modified version of the mental clock task (e.g., angle discrimination) and a simple recognition control condition, as conveyed across distinct sensory modalities: visual (sighted individuals only), tactile and auditory. Blind individuals were significantly less accurate during the auditory task, but comparable-to-sighted during the tactile task. As expected, both groups showed common neural activations in intraparietal and superior parietal regions across visual and non-visual spatial perception and imagery conditions, indicating the more abstract, sensory independent functional organization of these cortical areas, a property that we named supramodality. At the same time, however, comparisons in brain responses and functional connectivity patterns across experimental conditions demonstrated also a functional lateralization, in a way that correlated with the distinct behavioral performance in blind and sighted individuals. Specifically, blind individuals relied more on right parietal regions, mainly in the tactile and less in the auditory spatial processing. In sighted, spatial representation across modalities relied more on left parietal regions. In conclusions, intraparietal and superior parietal regions subserve supramodal spatial representations in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Differences in their recruitment across non-visual spatial processing in

  12. [Functional connectivity of temporal parietal junction in online game addicts:a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ji; Qian, Ruobing; Lin, Bin; Fu, Xianming; Wei, Xiangpin; Weng, Chuanbo; Niu, Chaoshi; Wang, Yehan

    2014-02-11

    To explore the functions of temporal parietal junction (TPJ) as parts of attention networks in the pathogenesis of online game addiction using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A total of 17 online game addicts (OGA) were recruited as OGA group and 17 healthy controls during the same period were recruited as CON group. The neuropsychological tests were performed for all of them to compare the inter-group differences in the results of Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and attention functions. All fMRI data were preprocessed after resting-state fMRI scanning. Then left and right TPJ were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) to calculate the linear correlation between TPJ and entire brain to compare the inter-group differences. Obvious differences existed between OGA group (71 ± 5 scores) and CON group (19 ± 7 scores) in the IAT results and attention function (P online game addicts showed decreased functional connectivity with bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), bilateral hippocampal gyrus and bilateral amygdaloid nucleus, but increased functional connectivity with right cuneus.However, left TPJ demonstrated decreased functional connectivity with bilateral superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, but increased functional connectivity with bilateral cuneus (P online game addicts.It suggests that TPJ is an important component of attention networks participating in the generation of online game addiction.

  13. The way to "left" Piazza del Popolo: damage to white matter tracts in representational neglect for places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Di Vita, Antonella; Palermo, Liana; Committeri, Giorgia; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2018-02-13

    The ability of seeing with the mind's eye, the visual mental imagery, is peculiarly compromised in patients with representational neglect. Representational neglect affects the processing of the left side of a mental image and may selectively concern the ability to imagine places and/or objects. Right-brain damaged patients with representational neglect for places (RN+) lose the ability to imagine themselves within a familiar place and fail in transforming an egocentric representation of the environment into an allocentric one and vice-versa. A peak region located at the posterior junction between the parietal and temporal lobes has emerged as pivotal in determining representational neglect for places. Here we aimed at verifying whether white matter disconnections affecting parietal lobe, by preventing the integration of egocentric information with the allocentric one, play a role in representational neglect for places. A track-wise statistical analysis on 58 right brain damaged patients, with and without extrapersonal perceptual neglect and/or representational neglect for places, suggests that the disconnection of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and that of the posterior arcuate segment, together with the disconnection of a fronto-parietal u-shaped tract, may be crucial in determining the representational neglect for places. These results suggest that representational neglect for places emerges from a complex pattern of lesion location and disconnection that involves parietal, temporal and frontal lobes.

  14. Induction of motor associative plasticity in the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, Chi-Chao; Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Paine, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    There is anatomical and functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that plays a role in sensorimotor integration. In this study, we applied corticocortical paired-associative stimuli to ipsilateral PPC and M1 (parietal ccPAS) in healthy right...... the excitability of conditioned left M1 assessed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the input–output curve. Motor behavior assessed by the Purdue pegboard task was unchanged compared with controls. At baseline, conditioning stimuli over the left PPC potentiated MEPs from left M1 when ISI was 8 ms...... excitability and PPC–M1 connectivity and is a new approach to modify motor excitability and sensorimotor interaction....

  15. Parietal cortex mediates conscious perception of illusory gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Anstis, Stuart; Bartels, Andreas

    2013-01-09

    Grouping local elements into a holistic percept, also known as spatial binding, is crucial for meaningful perception. Previous studies have shown that neurons in early visual areas V1 and V2 can signal complex grouping-related information, such as illusory contours or object-border ownerships. However, relatively little is known about higher-level processes contributing to these signals and mediating global Gestalt perception. We used a novel bistable motion illusion that induced alternating and mutually exclusive vivid conscious experiences of either dynamic illusory contours forming a global Gestalt or moving ungrouped local elements while the visual stimulation remained the same. fMRI in healthy human volunteers revealed that activity fluctuations in two sites of the parietal cortex, the superior parietal lobe and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), correlated specifically with the perception of the grouped illusory Gestalt as opposed to perception of ungrouped local elements. We then disturbed activity at these two sites in the same participants using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS over aIPS led to a selective shortening of the duration of the global Gestalt percept, with no effect on that of local elements. The results suggest that aIPS activity is directly involved in the process of spatial binding during effortless viewing in the healthy brain. Conscious perception of global Gestalt is therefore associated with aIPS function, similar to attention and perceptual selection.

  16. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  17. Right parietal cortex mediates recognition memory for melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea R; Pollok, Bettina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Percent wall thickness evaluated by Gd-DTPA enhanced cine MRI as an indicator of local parietal movement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Masaharu [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac disease, the basic pathology of which consists of a decrease in left ventricular dilation compliance due to uneven hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in monitoring uneven parietal hypertrophy and kinetics in HCM patients. The present study was undertaken in 47 HCM patients who showed asymmetrical septal hypertrophy to determine if percent thickness can be an indicator of left ventricular local movement using cine MRI. Longest and shortest axis images were acquired by the ECG synchronization method using a 1.5 T MR imager. Cardiac function was analyzed based on longest axis cine images, and telediastolic and telesystolic parietal thickness were measured based on shorter axis cine images at the papillary muscle level. Parietal movement index and percent thickness were used as indicators of local parietal movement. The correlation between these indicators and parietal thickness was evaluated. The percent thickness changed at an earlier stage of hypertrophy than the parietal movement index, thus it is thought to be useful in detecting left ventricular parietal movement disorders at an early stage of HCM. (author)

  19. Representation of Numerosity in Posterior Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie D Roitman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals appear to share a similar representation of number as an analog magnitude on an internal, subjective scale. Neurological and neurophysiological data suggest that posterior parietal cortex (PPC is a critical component of the circuits that form the basis of numerical abilities in humans. Patients with parietal lesions are impaired in their ability to access the deep meaning of numbers. Acalculiac patients with inferior parietal damage often have difficulty performing arithmetic (2+4? or number bisection (what is between 3 and 5? tasks, but are able to recite multiplication tables and read or write numerals. Functional imaging studies of neurologically intact humans performing subtraction, number comparison, and nonverbal magnitude comparison tasks show activity in areas within the intraparietal sulcus. Taken together, clinical cases and imaging studies support a critical role for parietal cortex in the mental manipulation of numerical quantities. Further, responses of single PPC neurons in non-human primates are sensitive to the numerosity of visual stimuli independent of low-level stimulus qualities. When monkeys are trained to make explicit judgments about the numerical value of such stimuli, PPC neurons encode their cardinal numerical value; without such training PPC neurons appear to encode numerical magnitude in an analog fashion. Here we suggest that the spatial and integrative properties of PPC neurons contribute to their critical role in numerical cognition.

  20. Benign Osteoblastoma Located in the Parietal Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yong Gun; Cho, Chang Won

    2010-01-01

    Benign osteoblastoma is an uncommon primary bone tumor, extremely rare in calvarium. We present a case of a 25-year-old female with an osteoblastoma of parietal bone which was totally resected. The authors discussed the clinical presentation, radiographic finding, differential diagnosis and management of the benign calvarial osteoblastoma with a review of the literature.

  1. Dynamic social adaptation of motion-related neurons in primate parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Fujii

    Full Text Available Social brain function, which allows us to adapt our behavior to social context, is poorly understood at the single-cell level due largely to technical limitations. But the questions involved are vital: How do neurons recognize and modulate their activity in response to social context? To probe the mechanisms involved, we developed a novel recording technique, called multi-dimensional recording, and applied it simultaneously in the left parietal cortices of two monkeys while they shared a common social space. When the monkeys sat near each other but did not interact, each monkey's parietal activity showed robust response preference to action by his own right arm and almost no response to action by the other's arm. But the preference was broken if social conflict emerged between the monkeys-specifically, if both were able to reach for the same food item placed on the table between them. Under these circumstances, parietal neurons started to show complex combinatorial responses to motion of self and other. Parietal cortex adapted its response properties in the social context by discarding and recruiting different neural populations. Our results suggest that parietal neurons can recognize social events in the environment linked with current social context and form part of a larger social brain network.

  2. Visual Short-Term Memory Activity in Parietal Lobe Reflects Cognitive Processes beyond Attentional Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremata, Summer L; Somers, David C; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-02-07

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention are distinct yet interrelated processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires the maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection; therefore, it is important to determine whether overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands. While attention and VSTM activated similar cortical areas, BOLD amplitude and functional connectivity in parietal cortex differentiated the two tasks. Relative to attention, VSTM increased BOLD amplitude in dorsal parietal cortex and decreased BOLD amplitude in the angular gyrus. Additionally, the tasks differentially modulated parietal functional connectivity. Contrasting VSTM and attention, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) 1-2 were more strongly connected with anterior frontoparietal areas and more weakly connected with posterior regions. This divergence between tasks demonstrates that parietal activation reflects memory-specific functions and consequently modulates functional connectivity across the cortex. In contrast, both tasks demonstrated hemispheric asymmetries for spatial processing, exhibiting a stronger contralateral visual field bias in the left versus the right hemisphere across tasks, suggesting that asymmetries are characteristic of a shared selection process in IPS. These results demonstrate that parietal activity and patterns of functional connectivity distinguish VSTM from more general attention processes, establishing a central role of the parietal cortex in maintaining visual information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and

  3. The mirror mechanism in the parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The mirror mechanism is a basic mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' actions into motor representations of the same actions in the brain of the observer. The mirror mechanism plays an important role in understanding actions of others. In the present chapter we discuss first the basic organization of the posterior parietal lobe in the monkey, stressing that it is best characterized as a motor scaffold, on the top of which sensory information is organized. We then describe the location of the mirror mechanism in the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey, and its functional role in areas PFG, and anterior, ventral, and lateral intraparietal areas. We will then present evidence that a similar functional organization is present in humans. We will conclude by discussing the role of the mirror mechanism in the recognition of action performed with tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. White-matter microstructure and language lateralization in left-handers: a whole-brain MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlaki, Gabor; Horvath, Reka; Orsi, Gergely; Aradi, Mihaly; Auer, Tibor; Varga, Eszter; Kantor, Gyongyi; Altbäcker, Anna; John, Flora; Doczi, Tamas; Komoly, Samuel; Kovacs, Norbert; Schwarcz, Attila; Janszky, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    Most people are left-hemisphere dominant for language. However the neuroanatomy of language lateralization is not fully understood. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we studied whether language lateralization is associated with cerebral white-matter (WM) microstructure. Sixteen healthy, left-handed women aged 20-25 were included in the study. Left-handers were targeted in order to increase the chances of involving subjects with atypical language lateralization. Language lateralization was determined by fMRI using a verbal fluency paradigm. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI data was applied to test for WM microstructural correlates of language lateralization across the whole brain. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were used as indicators of WM microstructural organization. Right-hemispheric language dominance was associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left-sided parietal lobe WM. In left-handed women, reduced integrity of the left-sided language related tracts may be closely linked to the development of right hemispheric language dominance. Our results may offer new insights into language lateralization and structure-function relationships in human language system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Right Fronto-Parietal Dysfunction in Children with ADHD and Developmental Dyslexia as Determined by Line Bisection Judgements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, Karen E.; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Visual line bisection is a reliable and valid laterality task that is typically used with patients with acquired brain damage to assess right hemisphere functioning. Neurologically normal individuals tend to bisect lines to the left of the objective midline whereas those with right parietal damage bisect lines to the right. In this study children…

  6. Fronto-parietal Mechanisms Supporting Attention to Location and Intensity of Painful Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Oleg V.; Quevedo, Alexandre S.; Hadsel, Morten S.; Kraft, Robert A.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Attention can profoundly shape the experience of pain. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms that support directed attention to nociceptive information. In the present study, subjects were cued to attend to either the spatial location or intensity of sequentially presented pairs of painful heat stimuli during a delayed match to sample discrimination task. We hypothesized that attention-related brain activation would be initiated following the presentation of the attentional cue and would be sustained through the discrimination task. Conjunction analysis confirmed that bilateral portions of the posterior parietal cortex (intraparietal sulcus, IPS and superior parietal lobule) exhibited this sustained activity during attention to spatial but not intensity features of pain. Analyses contrasting activation during spatial and intensity attention tasks revealed that the right IPS region of the posterior parietal cortex was consistently more activated across multiple phases of the spatial task. However, attention to either feature of the noxious stimulus was associated with activation of fronto-parietal areas (IPS and frontal eye fields) as well as priming of the primary somatosensory cortex. Taken together, these results delineate the neural substrates that support selective amplification of different features of noxious stimuli for utilization in discriminative processes. PMID:23711484

  7. Towards an understanding of parietal mnemonic processes: some conceptual guideposts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal lobes have been implicated in a range of episodic memory retrieval tasks, but the nature of parietal contributions to remembering remains unclear. In an attempt to identify fruitful avenues of further research, several heuristic questions about parietal mnemonic activations are considered in light of recent empirical findings: Do such parietal activations reflect memory processes, or their contents? Do they precede, follow, or co-occur with retrieval? What can we learn from their pattern of lateralization? Do they index access to episodic representations, or the feeling of remembering? Are parietal activations graded by memory strength, quantity of retrieved information, or the type of retrieval? How do memory-related activations map onto functional parcellation of parietal lobes suggested by other cognitive phenomena? Consideration of these questions can promote understanding of the relationship between parietal mnemonic effects and perceptual, attentional, and action-oriented cognitive processes. PMID:22783175

  8. Towards an understanding of parietal mnemonic processes: Some conceptual guideposts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Levy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The posterior parietal lobes have been implicated in a range of episodic memory retrieval tasks, but the nature of parietal contributions to remembering remains unclear. In an attempt to identify fruitful avenues of further research, several heuristic questions about parietal-mnemonic activations are considered in light of recent empirical findings: Do such parietal activations reflect memory processes or their contents? Do they precede, follow, or co-occur with retrieval? What can we learn from their pattern of lateralization? Do they index access to episodic representations or the feeling of remembering? Are parietal activations graded by memory strength, quantity of retrieved information, or the type of retrieval? How do memory-related activations map onto functional parcellation of parietal lobes suggested by other cognitive phenomena? Consideration of these questions can promote understanding of the relationship between parietal-mnemonic effects and perceptual, attentional, and action-oriented cognitive processes.

  9. Differential parietal and temporal contributions to music perception in improvising and score-dependent musicians, an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M

    2015-10-22

    Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar music, subjects either (covertly) appraised the presented music performance or imagined they were playing the music themselves. We hypothesized that improvising musicians would exhibit enhanced efficiency of audiomotor transformation reflected by stronger ventral premotor activation. Statistical Parametric Mapping revealed that, while virtually 'playing along׳ with the music, improvising musicians exhibited activation of a right-hemisphere distribution of cerebral areas including posterior-superior parietal and dorsal premotor cortex. Involvement of these right-hemisphere dorsal stream areas suggests that improvising musicians recruited an amodal spatial processing system subserving pitch-to-space transformations to facilitate their virtual motor performance. Score-dependent musicians recruited a primarily left-hemisphere pattern of motor areas together with the posterior part of the right superior temporal sulcus, suggesting a relationship between aural discrimination and symbolic representation. Activations in bilateral auditory cortex were significantly larger for improvising musicians than for score-dependent musicians, suggesting enhanced top-down effects on aural perception. Our results suggest that learning to play a music instrument primarily from notation predisposes musicians toward aural identification and discrimination, while learning by improvisation involves audio-spatial-motor transformations, not only during performance, but also perception. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear Glycogen Inclusions in Canine Parietal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, S; Lepri, E; Dall'Aglio, C; Marchesi, M C; Vitellozzi, G

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods. In 24 of 108 cases (22%), the authors observed various numbers of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions within scattered parietal cells. Nuclei were characterized by marked karyomegaly and chromatin margination around a central optically empty or slightly eosinophilic area. The intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and were diastase sensitive, consistent with glycogen. Several PAS-positive/diastase-sensitive sections were further examined by transmission electron microscopy, also using periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining to identify polysaccharides. Ultrastructurally, the nuclear inclusions were composed of electron-dense particles that were not membrane bound, without evidence of nuclear membrane invaginations or cytoplasmic organelles in the nuclei, and positive staining with PA-TCH-SP, confirming a glycogen composition. No cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were observed, suggesting that the intranuclear glycogen inclusions were probably synthesized in loco. Nuclear glycogen inclusions were not associated with gastritis or colonization by Helicobacter-like organisms ( P > .05). Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic

  11. Structural connectivity in spatial attention network: reconstruction from left hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takaaki; Ito, Kenji; Nakazawa, Chika; Numasawa, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Mayumi; Aoki, Shigeki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ishiai, Sumio; Yokota, Takanori

    2018-04-01

    Left hemispatial neglect (neglect) is an impaired state of spatial attention. We aimed to reconstruct structural connectivity in the spatial attention network and to identify disconnection patterns underlying neglect. We enrolled 59 right-handed patients who had their first-ever infarction in the right hemisphere and classified them into neglect group (34 patients with neglect) and control group (25 patients without neglect). The neglect group was further subcategorized into 6 subgroups based on infarcted vascular territories. Diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from all patients. Fractional anisotropy maps were compared between neglect group/subgroups and the control group by using non-parametric voxel-based analysis, generating a lesion path mask. Probabilistic tractography analysis using the lesion path mask reconstructed the following structural connectivity in the spatial attention network, which is specifically damaged in neglect patients: (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) I connecting the superior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus with the superior frontal gyrus/frontal eye field (SFG/FEF) (dorsal attention network); (2) SLF III/the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the extreme capsule/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) connecting the right inferior parietal lobule/temporoparietal junction/superior temporal gyrus (IPL/TPJ/STG) with the middle frontal gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus (ventral attention network); (3) the thalamic radiations to the spatial attention-related cortices; and (4) SLF II and IFOF interconnecting dorsal and ventral attention networks. Individual analysis indicated that isolated damage in SLF I, SLF II, SLF III/AF or the thalamic radiations to IPL/TPJ/STG due to posterior cerebral artery infarction, or simultaneous damage in four thalamic radiations due to anterior choroidal artery infarction, underlies different phenotypes of neglect.

  12. Schizophrenia affects speech-induced functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus under cocktail-party listening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanhua; Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yingjun; Li, Ruikeng; Li, Xuanzi; She, Shenglin; Wu, Haibo; Peng, Hongjun; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang

    2017-09-17

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in speech recognition against informational masking under cocktail-party-listening conditions. Compared to healthy listeners, people with schizophrenia perform worse in speech recognition under informational speech-on-speech masking conditions. It is not clear whether the schizophrenia-related vulnerability to informational masking is associated with certain changes in FC of the STG with some critical brain regions. Using sparse-sampling fMRI design, this study investigated the differences between people with schizophrenia and healthy controls in FC of the STG for target-speech listening against informational speech-on-speech masking, when a listening condition with either perceived spatial separation (PSS, with a spatial release of informational masking) or perceived spatial co-location (PSC, without the spatial release) between target speech and masking speech was introduced. The results showed that in healthy participants, but not participants with schizophrenia, the contrast of either the PSS or PSC condition against the masker-only condition induced an enhancement of functional connectivity (FC) of the STG with the left superior parietal lobule and the right precuneus. Compared to healthy participants, participants with schizophrenia showed declined FC of the STG with the bilateral precuneus, right SPL, and right supplementary motor area. Thus, FC of the STG with the parietal areas is normally involved in speech listening against informational masking under either the PSS or PSC conditions, and declined FC of the STG in people with schizophrenia with the parietal areas may be associated with the increased vulnerability to informational masking. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  14. Activation of right parietal cortex during memory retrieval of nonlinguistic auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, Ellen C; Loui, Psyche; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2009-09-01

    In neuroimaging studies, the left ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is particularly active during memory retrieval. However, most studies have used verbal or verbalizable stimuli. We investigated neural activations associated with the retrieval of short, agrammatical music stimuli (Blackwood, 2004), which have been largely associated with right hemisphere processing. At study, participants listened to music stimuli and rated them on pleasantness. At test, participants made old/new recognition judgments with high/low confidence ratings. Right, but not left, ventral PPC activity was observed during the retrieval of these music stimuli. Thus, rather than indicating a special status of left PPC in retrieval, both right and left ventral PPC participate in memory retrieval, depending on the type of information that is to be remembered.

  15. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents' brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion-attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior.

  16. Fronto-Parietal Network Reconfiguration Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Bunge, Silvia A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this fMRI study was to examine how well developmental improvements in reasoning ability can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between specific nodes in prefrontal and parietal cortices. To this end, we examined connectivity within the lateral fronto-parietal network (LFPN) and its relation to reasoning ability in 132 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, 56 of whom were scanned twice over the course of 1.5 years. Developmental changes in strength of connections within the LFPN were most prominent in late childhood and early adolescence. Reasoning ability was related to functional connectivity between left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), but only among 12-18-year olds. For 9-11-year olds, reasoning ability was most strongly related to connectivity between left and right RLPFC; this relationship was mediated by working memory. For 6-8-year olds, significant relationships between connectivity and performance were not observed; in this group, processing speed was the primary mediator of improvement in reasoning ability. We conclude that different connections best support reasoning at different points in development and that RLPFC-IPL connectivity becomes an important predictor of reasoning during adolescence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Apathy in corticobasal degeneration: possible parietal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Caberlotto, R; Signori, R

    Corticobasal degeneration is a rare disorder, which usually consists of a combination of complex movement disorders, apraxia and cortical changes. Its definition is still evolving and in 2013 an international consortium tried to develop new criteria, based on a systematic literature review. Over a long period of time, we carefully selected 23 patients who fulfilled the criteria for a diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration; all had the so-called corticobasal syndrome phenotype, in accordance with Armstrong et al. (2013). Through a dedicated study, we set out to study behavioral alterations, specifically apathy, and to compare the results obtained with those deriving from a well-defined Parkinson's disease population. On the basis of our limited but specific results, we argue for a possible role of the parietal neural networks as a determinant of apathy, and provide an overview of emerging data in the imaging and pathology literature.

  18. Neural evidence for the use of digit-image mnemonic in a superior memorist: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li-Jun; Lou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Ming-Xia; Wang, Zhao-Xin; Hu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Some superior memorists demonstrated exceptional memory for reciting a large body of information. The underlying neural correlates, however, are seldom addressed. C.L., the current holder of Guinness World Record for reciting 67,890 digits in π, participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Thirteen participants without any mnemonics training were included as controls. Our previous studies suggested that C.L. used a digit-image mnemonic in studying and recalling lists of digits, namely associating 2-digit groups of "00" to "99" with images and generating vivid stories out of them (Hu et al., 2009). Thus, 2-digit condition was included, with 1-digit numbers and letters as control conditions. We hypothesized that 2-digit condition in C.L. should elicit the strongest activity in the brain regions which are associated with his mnemonic. Functional MRI results revealed that bilateral frontal poles (FPs, BA10), left superior parietal lobule (SPL), left premotor cortex (PMC), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), were more engaged in both the study and recall phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. relative to controls. Moreover, the left middle/inferior frontal gyri (M/IFG) and intraparietal sulci (IPS) were less engaged in the study phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. (vs. controls). These results suggested that C.L. relied more on brain regions that are associated with episodic memory other than verbal rehearsal while he used his mnemonic strategies. This study supported theoretical accounts of restructured cognitive mechanisms for the acquisition of superior memory performance.

  19. Neural evidence for the use of digit-image mnemonic in a superior memorist: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun eYin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some superior memorists demonstrated exceptional memory for reciting a large body of information. The underlying neural correlates, however, are seldom addressed. C.L., the current holder of Guinness World Record for reciting 67,890 digits in π, participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study. Thirteen participants without any mnemonics training were included as controls. Our previous studies suggested that C.L. used a digit-image mnemonic in studying and recalling lists of digits, namely associating 2-digit groups of ‘00’ to ‘99’ with images and generating vivid stories out of them (Hu, Ericsson, Yang & Lu, 2009. Thus, 2-digit condition was included, with 1-digit numbers and letters as control conditions. We hypothesized that 2-digit condition in C.L. should elicit the strongest activity in the brain regions which are associated with his mnemonic. Functional MRI results revealed that bilateral frontal poles (FPs, BA10, left superior parietal lobule (SPL, left premotor cortex (PMC, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, were more engaged in both the study and recall phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. relative to controls. Moreover, the left middle/inferior frontal gyri (M/IFG and intraparietal sulci (IPS were less engaged in the study phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. (vs. controls. These results suggested that C.L. relied more on brain regions that are associated with episodic memory other than verbal rehearsal while he used his mnemonic strategies. This study supported theoretical accounts of restructured cognitive mechanisms for the acquisition of superior memory performance.

  20. Neural evidence for the use of digit-image mnemonic in a superior memorist: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li-Jun; Lou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Ming-Xia; Wang, Zhao-Xin; Hu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Some superior memorists demonstrated exceptional memory for reciting a large body of information. The underlying neural correlates, however, are seldom addressed. C.L., the current holder of Guinness World Record for reciting 67,890 digits in π, participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Thirteen participants without any mnemonics training were included as controls. Our previous studies suggested that C.L. used a digit-image mnemonic in studying and recalling lists of digits, namely associating 2-digit groups of “00” to “99” with images and generating vivid stories out of them (Hu et al., 2009). Thus, 2-digit condition was included, with 1-digit numbers and letters as control conditions. We hypothesized that 2-digit condition in C.L. should elicit the strongest activity in the brain regions which are associated with his mnemonic. Functional MRI results revealed that bilateral frontal poles (FPs, BA10), left superior parietal lobule (SPL), left premotor cortex (PMC), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), were more engaged in both the study and recall phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. relative to controls. Moreover, the left middle/inferior frontal gyri (M/IFG) and intraparietal sulci (IPS) were less engaged in the study phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. (vs. controls). These results suggested that C.L. relied more on brain regions that are associated with episodic memory other than verbal rehearsal while he used his mnemonic strategies. This study supported theoretical accounts of restructured cognitive mechanisms for the acquisition of superior memory performance. PMID:25798098

  1. Verbal and visuospatial working memory during pregnancy: EEG correlation between the prefrontal and parietal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza-Sepúlveda, Mayra Linné; Hernández-González, Marisela; Hevia-Orozco, Jorge Carlos; Amezcua-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Guevara, Miguel Angel

    2018-02-01

    Pregnancy is a dynamic process during which significant cognitive changes take place. It has been suggested that working memory (WM) is affected during gestation as a result of functional changes among cortical areas, such as the prefrontal and parietal cortices. This study examined cortical electroencephalographic correlations (rEEG) during performance of WM tasks in each trimester of pregnancy. Forty women were divided into 4 groups: first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) trimester of pregnancy, and a control group of non-pregnant women. Electroencephalographic activity (EEG) was recorded from the frontopolar, dorsolateral and parietal cortices during performance of one verbal and one visuospatial working memory task. Only groups T2 and T3 showed increased onset latency in the visuospatial WM. During the verbal WM task, the T1 group showed a higher correlation between dorsolateral areas in the theta and alpha bands, as well as a lower left prefrontal-parietal correlation in the gamma band. During the visuospatial WM task, the T1 and T3 groups showed a higher left EEG correlation in the delta and alpha1 bands, whereas T2 presented a higher right prefrontal-parietal correlation in the gamma band. Although pregnancy had only a subtle effect on the visuospatial WM task, these different patterns of cortical synchronization in each trimester of pregnancy could represent adaptive mechanisms that enabled the pregnant women to focus their attention and use more cognitive resources and so adequately solve the WM tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exogenous vs. endogenous attention: Shifting the balance of fronto-parietal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kristin N; Du, Feng; Parks, Emily; Hopfinger, Joseph B

    2018-03-01

    Despite behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for dissociations between endogenous (voluntary) and exogenous (reflexive) attention, fMRI results have yet to consistently and clearly differentiate neural activation patterns between these two types of attention. This study specifically aimed to determine whether activity in the dorsal fronto-parietal network differed between endogenous and exogenous conditions. Participants performed a visual discrimination task in endogenous and exogenous attention conditions while undergoing fMRI scanning. Analyses revealed robust and bilateral activation throughout the dorsal fronto-parietal network for each condition, in line with many previous results. In order to investigate possible differences in the balance of neural activity within this network with greater sensitivity, a priori regions of interest (ROIs) were selected for analysis, centered on the frontal eye fields (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) regions identified in previous studies. The results revealed a significant interaction between region, condition, and hemisphere. Specifically, in the left hemisphere, frontal areas were more active than parietal areas, but only during endogenous attention. Activity in the right hemisphere, in contrast, remained relatively consistent for these regions across conditions. Analysis of this activity over time indicates that this left-hemispheric regional imbalance is present within the FEF early, at 3-6.5 s post-stimulus presentation, whereas a regional imbalance in the exogenous condition is not evident until 6.5-8 s post-stimulus presentation. Overall, our results provide new evidence that although the dorsal fronto-parietal network is indeed associated with both types of attentional orienting, regions of the network are differentially engaged over time and across hemispheres depending on the type of attention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fronto-parietal osteoblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yoshitaka; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Arikawa, Risa; Akita, Shinsuke; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2013-02-01

    Osteoblastomas and aneurysmal bone cysts each comprise 1% of primary bone tumours. As both osteoblastomas and aneurysmal bone cysts are not common, osteoblastomas with secondary aneurysmal bone cysts of calvaria are extremely rare. Only three cases describing a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst in the setting of a calvarial osteoblastoma can be found in the literature. We report the case of the surgical resection of the fronto-parietal osteoblastoma accompanying a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. The case is a 24-year-old male with a 2-year history of a painless lump in the hair-bearing region of the left fronto-parietal area without neurologic symptoms. Computed tomography showed an intradiploic tumour with maintained inner and outer cortex of the left front-parietal bones. 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-circumscribed, intradiploic, multilocular cystic tumour. A gadolinium-enhanced sequence showed strong peripheral and septal enhancement. These findings were consistent with an osteoblastoma associated with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. An en bloc tumour resection with a 10-mm horizontal margin was completed without complications. The calvarial defect was covered by calvarial bone graft harvested from the contralateral fronto-parietal bone. The postoperative course was uneventful. Pathological diagnosis was consistent with the osteoblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. After a follow-up period of 2 years, there was no evidence of recurrence. The combination of osteoblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst of the calvaria is a rare clinical entity. Careful preoperative examination and complete resection of the tumour are essential. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The fMRI study on the front-parietal activation in abacus mental calculation trained children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kunyuan; Wang Bin; Long Jinfeng; Li Lixin; Shen Xiaojun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference in front-parietal activation between the trained and untrained children engaged in addition and multiplication with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and to explore the role of abacus mental calculation in brain development. Methods: Twenty-four children trained with abacus mental calculation and twelve untrained children performed mental calculation tasks including addition, multiplication and number-object control judging tasks. Blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) fMRI was performed when they were calculating. All data were analyzed by SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping 2) to generate the brain activation map. Results: The performance of the trained group had better correctness and shorter reaction time than that of the untrained group. The front-parietal activation between two groups had obvious difference. The activation involved less prefrontal cortex in the trained group than in the untrained group (P<0.05). The parietal activation in the trained group was mainly in the posterior superior parietal lobe/ precuneus, whereas the activation areas focused on the inferior parietal lobule in the untrained group. Conclusion: Abacus mental calculation involves multiple functional areas. and these areas may work together as a whole in processing arithmetic problems. Abacus mental calculation not only enhances the information processing in some brain areas and improves the utilization efficiency of neural resources, but also plays an important role in developing brain. (authors)

  5. Parietal contributions to visual working memory depend on task difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T. Jones

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nature of parietal contributions to working memory (WM remain poorly understood but of considerable interest. We previously reported that posterior parietal damage selectively impaired WM probed by recognition (Berryhill & Olson, 2008a. Recent studies provided support using a neuromodulatory technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applied to the right parietal cortex (P4. These studies confirmed parietal involvement in WM because parietal tDCS altered WM performance: anodal current tDCS improved performance in a change detection task, and cathodal current tDCS impaired performance on a sequential presentation task. In Experiment 1, we applied cathodal and anodal tDCS to the right parietal cortex and tested participants on both previously used WM tasks. When the WM task was difficult, parietal stimulation (anodal or cathodal improved WM performance selectively in participants with high WM capacity. In the low WM capacity group, parietal stimulation (anodal or cathodal impaired WM performance. These nearly equal and opposite effects were only observed when the WM task was challenging, as in the change detection task. Experiment 2 probed the interplay of WM task difficulty and WM capacity in a parametric manner by varying set size in the WM change detection task. Here, the effect of parietal stimulation (anodal or cathodal on the high WM capacity group followed a linear function as WM task difficulty increased with set size. These findings provide evidence that parietal involvement in WM performance depends on both WM capacity and WM task demands. We discuss these findings in terms of alternative WM strategies employed by low and high WM capacity individuals. We speculate that low WM capacity individuals do not recruit the posterior parietal lobe for WM tasks as efficiently as high WM capacity individuals. Consequently, tDCS provides greater benefit to individuals with high WM capacity.

  6. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  7. Inferior parietal lobule encodes visual temporal resolution processes contributing to the critical flicker frequency threshold in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nardella

    Full Text Available The measurement of the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold is used to study the visual temporal resolution in healthy subjects and in pathological conditions. To better understand the role played by different cortical areas in the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold perception we used continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS, an inhibitory plasticity-inducing protocol based on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The Critical Flicker Frequency threshold was measured in twelve healthy subjects before and after cTBS applied over different cortical areas in separate sessions. cTBS over the left inferior parietal lobule altered the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold, whereas cTBS over the left mediotemporal cortex, primary visual cortex and right inferior parietal lobule left the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold unchanged. No statistical difference was found when the red or blue lights were used. Our findings show that left inferior parietal lobule is causally involved in the conscious perception of Critical Flicker Frequency and that Critical Flicker Frequency threshold can be modulated by plasticity-inducing protocols.

  8. Inferior parietal lobule encodes visual temporal resolution processes contributing to the critical flicker frequency threshold in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardella, Andrea; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Conte, Antonella; Bologna, Matteo; Suppa, Antonio; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold is used to study the visual temporal resolution in healthy subjects and in pathological conditions. To better understand the role played by different cortical areas in the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold perception we used continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS), an inhibitory plasticity-inducing protocol based on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The Critical Flicker Frequency threshold was measured in twelve healthy subjects before and after cTBS applied over different cortical areas in separate sessions. cTBS over the left inferior parietal lobule altered the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold, whereas cTBS over the left mediotemporal cortex, primary visual cortex and right inferior parietal lobule left the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold unchanged. No statistical difference was found when the red or blue lights were used. Our findings show that left inferior parietal lobule is causally involved in the conscious perception of Critical Flicker Frequency and that Critical Flicker Frequency threshold can be modulated by plasticity-inducing protocols.

  9. Tool-use practice induces changes in intrinsic functional connectivity of parietal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsun eYoo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic functional connectivity from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI has increasingly received attention as a possible predictor of cognitive function and performance. In this study, we investigated the influence of practicing skillful tool manipulation on intrinsic functional connectivity in the resting brain. Acquisition of tool-use skill has two aspects such as formation of motor representation for skillful manipulation and acquisition of the tool concept. To dissociate these two processes, we chose chopsticks-handling with the non-dominant hand. Because participants were already adept at chopsticks-handling with their dominant hand, practice with the non-dominant hand involved only acquiring the skill for tool manipulation with existing knowledge. Eight young participants practiced chopsticks-handling with their non-dominant hand for 8 weeks. They underwent fMRI sessions before and after the practice. As a result, functional connectivity among tool-use-related regions of the brain decreased after practice. We found decreased functional connectivity centered on parietal areas, mainly the supramarginal gyrus and superior parietal lobule and additionally between the primary sensorimotor area and cerebellum. These results suggest that the parietal lobe and cerebellum purely mediate motor learning for skillful tool-use. This decreased functional connectivity may represent increased efficiency of functional network.

  10. Bilateral fronto-parietal integrity in young chronic cigarette smokers: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in China and other countries. Previous studies have demonstrated gray matter loss in chronic smokers. However, only a few studies assessed the changes of white matter integrity in this group. Based on those previous reports of alterations in white matter integrity in smokers, the aim of this study was to examine the alteration of white matter integrity in a large, well-matched sample of chronic smokers and non-smokers.Using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to measure the differences of whole-brain white matter integrity between 44 chronic smoking subjects (mean age, 28.0±5.6 years and 44 healthy age- and sex-matched comparison non-smoking volunteers (mean age, 26.3±5.8 years. DTI was performed on a 3-Tesla Siemens scanner (Allegra; Siemens Medical System. The data revealed that smokers had higher fractional anisotropy (FA than healthy non-smokers in almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal tracts consisting of a major white matter pathway, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF.We found the almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal whiter matter changes in a relatively large sample of chronic smokers. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking involves alterations of bilateral fronto-parietal connectivity.

  11. Is the Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique Superior to the Free Breathing Technique in Cardiac and Lung Sparing while Treating both Left-Sided Post-Mastectomy Chest Wall and Supraclavicular Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Darapu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of the deep inspirational breath-hold (DIBH technique and its dosimetric advantages over the free breathing (FB technique in cardiac (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD] and ipsilateral lung sparing in left-sided post-mastectomy field-in-field conformal radiotherapy. DIBH is highly reproducible, and this study aims to find out its dosimetric benefits over FB. Materials and Methods: Nineteen left-sided mastectomy patients were immobilized using breast boards with both arms positioned above the head. All patients had 2 sets of planning CT images (one in FB and another in DIBH with a Biograph TruePoint HD CT scanner in the same setup. DIBH was performed by tracking the respiratory cycles using a Varian Real-Time Position Management system. The target (chest wall and supraclavicular region, organs at risk (OARs; ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung, heart, LAD, and contralateral breast, and other organs of interests were delineated as per the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring guidelines. The single-isocenter conformal fields in the field treatment plans were generated with the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (Varian Medical Systems for both FB and DIBH images, and the doses to the target and OARs were compared. The standard fractionation regimen of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over a period of 5 weeks was used for all patients in this study. Results and Discussion: The target coverage parameters (V95, V105, V107, and Dmean were found to be 97.8 ± 0.9, 6.1 ± 3.4, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.5% in the FB plans and 98.1 ± 0.8, 6.1 ± 3.2, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.4% in the DIBH plans, respectively. The plan quality indices (conformity index and homogeneity index also showed 1.3 ± 0.2 and 0.1 for the FB plans and 1.2 ± 0.3 and 0.1 for the DIBH plans, respectively. There was a significant reduction in dose to the heart in the DIBH plans compared to the FB plans, with p values of nearly 0 for the

  12. Asymmetric oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia with right hemispatial neglect from a predominantly left-sided lesion of the parieto-occipital area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Fujimoto, Masanori; Hamada, Kensuke; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Bálint's syndrome involves bilateral damage to the parieto-occipital area. The extent of the effect of unilateral damage on the Bálint's triad (oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia) remains unknown. We examined a 63-year-old, right-handed woman who developed right hemianopia, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and hemispatial neglect (HSN) for the right after a cerebral infarction, with detailed neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Neuropsychological examination showed that oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia were more pronounced in the right hemi-space, probably due to the limited eye movement in the right visual field, whereas HSN was restricted to the right hemi-space. Diffusion-weighted MR images revealed hyperintensity in the left parieto-temporo-occipital region, and several spotty areas of the bilateral frontal and parietal subcortical regions. SPECT revealed hypoperfusion in the left parieto-occipital region and frontal operculum and small areas of the right superior parietal lobule. The case suggests that asymmetric (more pronounced in the right hemi-space) oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia occur in an extensive lesion of the left parieto-occipital cortices. Although HSN is not a prerequisite for simultanagnosia, the coexistence of HSN aggravates simultanagnosia in the hemi-space opposite the lesion.

  13. Body-centred map in parietal eye fields - functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotchie, P.; Chen, D.Y.; Bradley, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In order for us to interact with our environment we need to know where objects are around us, relative to our body. In monkeys, a body-centred map of visual space is known to exist within the parietal eye fields. This map is formed by the modulation of neuronal activity by eye and head position (Brotchie et al, Nature 1995; Synder et al, Nature 1998). In humans no map of body centred space has been demonstrated. By using functional MRI we have localised a region along the intraparietal sulcus which has properties similar to the parietal eye fields of monkeys (Brotchie et al, ISMRM, 2000). The aim of this study was to determine if activity in this region is modulated by head position, consistent with a body centered representation of visual space. Functional MRI was performed on 6 subjects performing simple visually guided saccades using a 1.5 Tesla GE Echospeed scanner. 10 scans were performed on the 6 subjects at left and right body orientations. Regions of interest were selected around the intraparietal sulcus proper (IPSP) of both hemispheres and voxels with BOLD signal which correlated with the paradigm (r>0.35) were selected for further analysis. Comparisons of percentage signal change were made between the left and right IPSP using Student t test. Of the 10 MRI examinations, 6 demonstrated statistically significant differences in the amount of signal change between left and right IPSP. In each of these 6 cases, the signal change was greater within the IPSP contralateral to the direction of head position relative to the body. This indicates a modulation of activity within the IPSP related to head position, most likely reflecting modulation of the underlying neuronal activity and suggests the existence of a body-centred encoding of space within the parietal eye fields of humans. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base in morphological abnormalities. Structurally, AVHs have been frequently linked to abnormal morphology of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), but only a few studies investigated the relation of hallucination presence with both whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) morphometry. Using a unified voxel-based morphometry-DARTEL approach, we investigated correlates of AVH presence in 51 schizophrenia patients (20 non-hallucinating [SZ -], 31 hallucinating [SZ +]), and included 51 age and sex matched healthy participants. Effects are reported at p gyrus, and higher WM volume of the left postcentral and superior parietal lobule than controls. Finally, volume of the putamen was lower in SZ + compared to SZ -. No effects on corpus callosum morphometry were observed. Delusion severity, general positive and negative symptomatology illness duration, and medication status could not explain the results. Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  15. The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.

    1982-01-01

    The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins is described. The veins are more frequently seen on the right side. The right superior intercostal vein should not be misinterpreted as a paraspinal mass when it is large or bulges into the contour of the right lung. A case of stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein is shown, where the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral. (orig.)

  16. Navigating actions through the rodent parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Whitlock

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The posterior parietal cortex (PPC participates in a manifold of cognitive functions, including visual attention, working memory, spatial processing and movement planning. Given the vast interconnectivity of PPC with sensory and motor areas, it is not surprising that neuronal recordings show that PPC often encodes mixtures of spatial information as well as the movements required to reach a goal. Recent work sought to discern the relative strength of spatial versus motor signaling in PPC by recording single unit activity in PPC of freely behaving rats during selective changes in either the spatial layout of the local environment or in the pattern of locomotor behaviors executed during navigational tasks. The results revealed unequivocally a predominant sensitivity of PPC neurons to locomotor action structure, with subsets of cells even encoding upcoming movements more than 1 second in advance. In light of these and other recent findings in the field, I propose that one of the key contributions of PPC to navigation is the synthesis of goal-directed behavioral sequences, and that the rodent PPC may serve as an apt system to investigate cellular mechanisms for spatial motor planning as traditionally studied in humans and monkeys.

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of right inferior parietal cortex causally influences prefrontal activation for visual detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Lee, Hweeling

    2017-01-01

    -parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS...... on the neural systems involved in perceptual decision-making. Participants had to detect visual signals at threshold intensity that were presented in their left lower visual field on 50% of the trials. Critically, we adjusted the signal strength such that participants failed to detect the visual stimulus...

  18. Reduced functional connectivity of fronto-parietal sustained attention networks in severe childhood abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd Hart

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is associated with attention deficits. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene (5-HTTLPR, MAOA, FKBP5 interaction on functional brain connectivity during sustained attention in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalised psychophysiological interaction (gPPI analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, between 21 age-and gender-matched adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed a parametrically modulated vigilance task requiring target detection with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. Behaviourally, participants exposed to childhood abuse had increased omission errors compared to healthy controls. During the most challenging attention condition abused participants relative to controls exhibited reduced connectivity, with a left-hemispheric bias, in typical fronto-parietal attention networks, including dorsolateral, rostromedial and inferior prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Abuse-related connectivity abnormalities were exacerbated in individuals homozygous for the risky C-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs3800373 of the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5 gene. Findings suggest that childhood abuse is associated with decreased functional connectivity in fronto-parietal attention networks and that the FKBP5 genotype moderates neurobiological vulnerability to abuse. These findings represent a first step towards the delineation of abuse-related neurofunctional connectivity abnormalities, which hopefully will facilitate the development of specific treatment strategies for victims of childhood maltreatment.

  19. A frontal but not parietal neural correlate of auditory consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancucci, Alfredo; Lugli, Victor; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Tommasi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic correlates of consciousness were investigated in humans during the presentation of a dichotic sequence inducing illusory auditory percepts with features analogous to visual multistability. The sequence consisted of a variation of the original stimulation eliciting the Deutsch's octave illusion, created to maintain a stable illusory percept long enough to allow the detection of the underlying hemodynamic activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two specular 500 ms dichotic stimuli (400 and 800 Hz) presented in alternation by means of earphones cause an illusory segregation of pitch and ear of origin which can yield up to four different auditory percepts per dichotic stimulus. Such percepts are maintained stable when one of the two dichotic stimuli is presented repeatedly for 6 s, immediately after the alternation. We observed hemodynamic activity specifically accompanying conscious experience of pitch in a bilateral network including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG, BA9 and BA10), medial frontal gyrus (BA6 and BA9), insula (BA13), and posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus. Conscious experience of side (ear of origin) was instead specifically accompanied by bilateral activity in the MFG (BA6), STG (BA41), parahippocampal gyrus (BA28), and insula (BA13). These results suggest that the neural substrate of auditory consciousness, differently from that of visual consciousness, may rest upon a fronto-temporal rather than upon a fronto-parietal network. Moreover, they indicate that the neural correlates of consciousness depend on the specific features of the stimulus and suggest the SFG-MFG and the insula as important cortical nodes for auditory conscious experience.

  20. Plasticity of left perisylvian white-matter tracts is associated with individual differences in math learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Dietsje; Wassermann, Demian; Chokhani, Ritika; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Bammer, Roland; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Plasticity of white matter tracts is thought to be essential for cognitive development and academic skill acquisition in children. However, a dearth of high-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data measuring longitudinal changes with learning, as well as methodological difficulties in multi-time point tract identification have limited our ability to investigate plasticity of specific white matter tracts. Here, we examine learning-related changes of white matter tracts innervating inferior parietal, prefrontal and temporal regions following an intense 2-month math tutoring program. DTI data were acquired from 18 third grade children, both before and after tutoring. A novel fiber tracking algorithm based on a White Matter Query Language (WMQL) was used to identify three sections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) linking frontal and parietal (SLF-FP), parietal and temporal (SLF-PT) and frontal and temporal (SLF-FT) cortices, from which we created child-specific probabilistic maps. The SLF-FP, SLF-FT, and SLF-PT tracts identified with the WMQL method were highly reliable across the two time points and showed close correspondence to tracts previously described in adults. Notably, individual differences in behavioral gains after 2 months of tutoring were specifically correlated with plasticity in the left SLF-FT tract. Our results extend previous findings of individual differences in white matter integrity, and provide important new insights into white matter plasticity related to math learning in childhood. More generally, our quantitative approach will be useful for future studies examining longitudinal changes in white matter integrity associated with cognitive skill development.

  1. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  2. Induced gamma-band brain responses to direct eye contact in the frontal and parietal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Sunao

    2013-01-01

    We used simultaneous recordings of the neuromagnetic (MEG) and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings on a pair of directly facing subjects, i.e., the sender and the observer of the eye gaze, to measure changes in the spontaneous brain activities while the observer perceives changes in eye gaze direction of the sender. The MEG signals were analyzed in the time-frequency domain to evaluate event-related changes in the spontaneous brain activities induced by the onset of eye movements. Significant increase in the gamma-band power was observed in the eye-contact condition compared to the averting condition in the right superior parietal, bilateral posterior superior-temporal, and the frontal areas of the observer. Together with the preliminary results from the frequency-domain Granger-Geweke causality analysis, the current results indicate that the connectivity between (a) the bilateral frontal areas, and (b) the right frontal and parietal areas might be crucial for the perception of eye gaze of the directly facing person. The increase in gamma-band activities in these regions might reflect the integration of information processed individually in these regions for eye gaze perception.

  3. Bilateral parietal extradural metastatic ewing's sarcoma simulating acute epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, E.; Imran, M.; Faridi, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sarcomas usually metastasize to lugs. The following case report describes an unusual metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to extradural parietal region bilaterally. The primary was found at lower end of ulna. (author)

  4. Observational learning of new movement sequences is reflected in fronto-parietal coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen van der Helden

    Full Text Available Mankind is unique in her ability for observational learning, i.e. the transmission of acquired knowledge and behavioral repertoire through observation of others' actions. In the present study we used electrophysiological measures to investigate brain mechanisms of observational learning. Analysis investigated the possible functional coupling between occipital (alpha and motor (mu rhythms operating in the 10 Hz frequency range for translating "seeing" into "doing". Subjects observed movement sequences consisting of six consecutive left or right hand button presses directed at one of two target-buttons for subsequent imitation. Each movement sequence was presented four times, intervened by short pause intervals for sequence rehearsal. During a control task subjects observed the same movement sequences without a requirement for subsequent reproduction. Although both alpha and mu rhythms desynchronized during the imitation task relative to the control task, modulations in alpha and mu power were found to be largely independent from each other over time, arguing against a functional coupling of alpha and mu generators during observational learning. This independence was furthermore reflected in the absence of coherence between occipital and motor electrodes overlaying alpha and mu generators. Instead, coherence analysis revealed a pair of symmetric fronto-parietal networks, one over the left and one over the right hemisphere, reflecting stronger coherence during observation of movements than during pauses. Individual differences in fronto-parietal coherence were furthermore found to predict imitation accuracy. The properties of these networks, i.e. their fronto-parietal distribution, their ipsilateral organization and their sensitivity to the observation of movements, match closely with the known properties of the mirror neuron system (MNS as studied in the macaque brain. These results indicate a functional dissociation between higher order areas for

  5. Temporo-Parietal and Fronto-Parietal Lobe Contributions to Theory of Mind and Executive Control: An fMRI Study of Verbal Jokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eChan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Getting a joke’ always requires resolving an apparent incongruity but the particular cognitive operations called upon vary depending on the nature of the joke itself. Previous research has identified the primary neural correlates of the cognitive and affective processes called upon to respond to humor generally, but little work has been done on the substrates underlying the distinct cognitive operations required to comprehend particular joke types. This study explored the neural correlates of the cognitive processes required to successfully comprehend three joke types: bridging-inference jokes, exaggeration jokes and ambiguity jokes. For all joke types, the left dlPFC appeared to support common cognitive mechanisms, such as script-shifting, while the vACC was associated with affective appreciation. The temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ and MTG was associated with bridging-inference jokes, suggesting involvement of these regions with ‘theory of mind’ processing. The ventral fronto-parietal lobe (IPL and IFG was associated with both exaggeration and ambiguity jokes, suggesting that it supports executive control processes such as retrieval from episodic memory, self-awareness, and language-based decoding. The social-affective appreciation of verbal jokes was associated with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC, and parahippocampal gyrus. These results allow a more precise account of the neural

  6. Contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure across lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Fiona M; Thomas, Michael S C; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J

    2010-05-01

    Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in teenagers but not adults. This region was not activated during auditory or visual sentence processing, and activation was unrelated to vocabulary skills. Its gray matter density may reflect the use of an explicit learning strategy that links new words to lexical or conceptual equivalents, as used in formal education and second language acquisition. By contrast, in left posterior temporal regions, gray matter as well as auditory and visual sentence activation correlated with vocabulary knowledge throughout lifespan. We propose that these effects reflect the acquisition of vocabulary through context, when new words are learnt within the context of semantically and syntactically related words.

  7. Predicting oculomotor behaviour from correlated populations of posterior parietal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arnulf B A; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-01-23

    Oculomotor function critically depends on how signals representing saccade direction and eye position are combined across neurons in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area of the posterior parietal cortex. Here we show that populations of parietal neurons exhibit correlated variability, and that using these interneuronal correlations yields oculomotor predictions that are more accurate and also less uncertain. The structure of LIP population responses is therefore essential for reliable read-out of oculomotor behaviour.

  8. Distinct contribution of the parietal and temporal cortex to hand configuration and contextual judgements about tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Michael; Pelgrims, Barbara; Olivier, Etienne

    2013-09-01

    Neuropsychological studies showed that manipulatory and semantic knowledge can be independently impaired in patients with upper-limb apraxia, leading to different tool use disorders. The present study aimed to dissociate the brain regions involved in judging the hand configuration or the context associated to tool use. We focussed on the left supramarginalis gyrus (SMG) and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), whose activation, as evidenced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, suggests that they may play a critical role in tool use. The distinctive location of SMG in the dorsal visual stream led us to postulate that this parietal region could play a role in processing incoming information about tools to shape hand posture. In contrast, we hypothesized that MTG, because of its interconnections with several cortical areas involved in semantic memory, could contribute to retrieving semantic information necessary to create a contextual representation of tool use. To test these hypotheses, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere transiently with the function of either left SMG or left MTG in healthy participants performing judgement tasks about either hand configuration or context of tool use. We found that SMG virtual lesions impaired hand configuration but not contextual judgements, whereas MTG lesions selectively interfered with judgements about the context of tool use while leaving hand configuration judgements unaffected. This double dissociation demonstrates that the ability to infer a context of use or a hand posture from tool perception relies on distinct processes, performed in the temporal and parietal regions. The present findings suggest that tool use disorders caused by SMG lesions will be characterized by difficulties in selecting the appropriate hand posture for tool use, whereas MTG lesions will yield difficulties in using tools in the appropriate context. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Neural correlates of conflict between gestures and words: A domain-specific role for a temporal-parietal complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Adam Noah

    Full Text Available The interpretation of social cues is a fundamental function of human social behavior, and resolution of inconsistencies between spoken and gestural cues plays an important role in successful interactions. To gain insight into these underlying neural processes, we compared neural responses in a traditional color/word conflict task and to a gesture/word conflict task to test hypotheses of domain-general and domain-specific conflict resolution. In the gesture task, recorded spoken words ("yes" and "no" were presented simultaneously with video recordings of actors performing one of the following affirmative or negative gestures: thumbs up, thumbs down, head nodding (up and down, or head shaking (side-to-side, thereby generating congruent and incongruent communication stimuli between gesture and words. Participants identified the communicative intent of the gestures as either positive or negative. In the color task, participants were presented the words "red" and "green" in either red or green font and were asked to identify the color of the letters. We observed a classic "Stroop" behavioral interference effect, with participants showing increased response time for incongruent trials relative to congruent ones for both the gesture and color tasks. Hemodynamic signals acquired using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS were increased in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for incongruent trials relative to congruent trials for both tasks consistent with a common, domain-general mechanism for detecting conflict. However, activity in the left DLPFC and frontal eye fields and the right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ, superior temporal gyrus (STG, supramarginal gyrus (SMG, and primary and auditory association cortices was greater for the gesture task than the color task. Thus, in addition to domain-general conflict processing mechanisms, as suggested by common engagement of right DLPFC, socially specialized neural modules localized to

  10. Neural correlates of conflict between gestures and words: A domain-specific role for a temporal-parietal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, J Adam; Dravida, Swethasri; Zhang, Xian; Yahil, Shaul; Hirsch, Joy

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of social cues is a fundamental function of human social behavior, and resolution of inconsistencies between spoken and gestural cues plays an important role in successful interactions. To gain insight into these underlying neural processes, we compared neural responses in a traditional color/word conflict task and to a gesture/word conflict task to test hypotheses of domain-general and domain-specific conflict resolution. In the gesture task, recorded spoken words ("yes" and "no") were presented simultaneously with video recordings of actors performing one of the following affirmative or negative gestures: thumbs up, thumbs down, head nodding (up and down), or head shaking (side-to-side), thereby generating congruent and incongruent communication stimuli between gesture and words. Participants identified the communicative intent of the gestures as either positive or negative. In the color task, participants were presented the words "red" and "green" in either red or green font and were asked to identify the color of the letters. We observed a classic "Stroop" behavioral interference effect, with participants showing increased response time for incongruent trials relative to congruent ones for both the gesture and color tasks. Hemodynamic signals acquired using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) were increased in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for incongruent trials relative to congruent trials for both tasks consistent with a common, domain-general mechanism for detecting conflict. However, activity in the left DLPFC and frontal eye fields and the right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal gyrus (STG), supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and primary and auditory association cortices was greater for the gesture task than the color task. Thus, in addition to domain-general conflict processing mechanisms, as suggested by common engagement of right DLPFC, socially specialized neural modules localized to the left

  11. VARIATION IN THE OPENINGS (OSTIA OF LEFT PULMONARY VEINS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  12. Selective involvement of superior frontal cortex during working memory for shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lydia T S; Roe, Katherine; Courtney, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    A spatial/nonspatial functional dissociation between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways is well established and has formed the basis of domain-specific theories of prefrontal cortex (PFC). Inconsistencies in the literature regarding prefrontal organization, however, have led to questions regarding whether the nature of the dissociations observed in PFC during working memory are equivalent to those observed in the visual pathways for perception. In particular, the dissociation between dorsal and ventral PFC during working memory for locations versus object identities has been clearly present in some studies but not in others, seemingly in part due to the type of objects used. The current study compared functional MRI activation during delayed-recognition tasks for shape or color, two object features considered to be processed by the ventral pathway for perceptual recognition. Activation for the shape-delayed recognition task was greater than that for the color task in the lateral occipital cortex, in agreement with studies of visual perception. Greater memory-delay activity was also observed, however, in the parietal and superior frontal cortices for the shape than for the color task. Activity in superior frontal cortex was associated with better performance on the shape task. Conversely, greater delay activity for color than for shape was observed in the left anterior insula and this activity was associated with better performance on the color task. These results suggest that superior frontal cortex contributes to performance on tasks requiring working memory for object identities, but it represents different information about those objects than does the ventral frontal cortex.

  13. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.

  14. Persistent left superior vena cava in cardiac congenital surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani-Poncini, C.

    2013-01-01

    La persistance d'une veine cave supérieure gauche (VCSG) est une entité relativement fréquente dans le cadre des malformations cardiaques congénitales. Le but de cette étude est d'analyser à quel moment le diagnostic de la persistance de la VCSG est effectué, à quel moment le diagnostic des éventuelles anomalies du sinus coronarien associées est effectué, et de l'impact global de la persistance d'une VCSG sur la mortalité et la morbidité des patients après chirurgie cardiaque pour une malform...

  15. Functional network-based statistics in depression: Theory of mind subnetwork and importance of parietal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Hou, Yuh-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The functional network analysis of whole brain is an emerging field for research in depression. We initiated this study to investigate which subnetwork is significantly altered within the functional connectome in major depressive disorder (MDD). The study enrolled 52 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD and 40 controls for functional network analysis. All participants received the resting-state functional imaging using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. After preprocessing, we calculated the connectivity matrix of functional connectivity in whole brain for each subject. The network-based statistics of connectome was used to perform group comparisons between patients and controls. The correlations between functional connectivity and clinical parameters were also performed. MDD patients had significant alterations in the network involving "theory of mind" regions, such as the left precentral gyrus, left angular gyrus, bilateral rolandic operculums and left inferior frontal gyrus. The center node of significant network was the left angular gyrus. No significant correlations of functional connectivity within the subnetwork and clinical parameters were noted. Functional connectivity of "theory of mind" subnetwork may be the core issue for pathophysiology in MDD. In addition, the center role of parietal region should be emphasized in future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback to down-regulate superior temporal gyrus activity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; Giampietro, Vincent; O'Daly, Owen; Lam, Sheut-Ling; Barker, Gareth J; Rubia, Katya; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Allen, Paul

    2018-02-12

    Neurocognitive models and previous neuroimaging work posit that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) arise due to increased activity in speech-sensitive regions of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG). Here, we examined if patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and AVH could be trained to down-regulate STG activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF). We also examined the effects of rtfMRI-NF training on functional connectivity between the STG and other speech and language regions. Twelve patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH were recruited to participate in the study and were trained to down-regulate STG activity using rtfMRI-NF, over four MRI scanner visits during a 2-week training period. STG activity and functional connectivity were compared pre- and post-training. Patients successfully learnt to down-regulate activity in their left STG over the rtfMRI-NF training. Post- training, patients showed increased functional connectivity between the left STG, the left inferior prefrontal gyrus (IFG) and the inferior parietal gyrus. The post-training increase in functional connectivity between the left STG and IFG was associated with a reduction in AVH symptoms over the training period. The speech-sensitive region of the left STG is a suitable target region for rtfMRI-NF in patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH. Successful down-regulation of left STG activity can increase functional connectivity between speech motor and perception regions. These findings suggest that patients with AVH have the ability to alter activity and connectivity in speech and language regions, and raise the possibility that rtfMRI-NF training could present a novel therapeutic intervention in SCZ.

  17. Anterior cingulate volume predicts response to psychotherapy and functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Fabio; Doerig, Nadja; Hänggi, Jürgen; Wolf, Robert Christian; Brakowski, Janis; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Seifritz, Erich; Spinelli, Simona

    2018-01-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been associated with clinical outcome as well as with antidepressant treatment response. Nonetheless, the association between individual differences in ACC structure and function and the response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is still unexplored. For this aim, twenty-five unmedicated patients with MDD were scanned with structural and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before the beginning of CBT treatment. ACC morphometry was correlated with clinical changes following psychotherapy. Furthermore, whole-brain resting state functional connectivity with the ACC was correlated with clinical measures. Greater volume in the left subgenual (subACC), the right pregenual (preACC), and the bilateral supragenual (supACC) predicted depressive symptoms improvement after CBT. Greater subACC volume was related to stronger functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stronger subACC-inferior parietal cortex connectivity correlated with greater adaptive rumination. Greater preACC volume was associated with stronger functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, greater right supACC volume was related to lower functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex. These results suggest that ACC volume and its functional connectivity with the fronto-parietal cortex are associated with CBT response in MDD, and this may be mediated by adaptive forms of rumination. Our findings support the role of the subACC as a potential predictor for CBT response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional Heterogeneity in Posterior Parietal Cortex Across Attention and Episodic Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Uncapher, Melina R.; Weiner, Kevin S.; Bressler, David W.; Silver, Michael A.; Preston, Alison R.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    While attention is critical for event memory, debate has arisen regarding the extent to which posterior parietal cortex (PPC) activation during episodic retrieval reflects engagement of PPC-mediated mechanisms of attention. Here, we directly examined the relationship between attention and memory, within and across subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging attention-mapping and episodic retrieval paradigms. During retrieval, 4 functionally dissociable PPC regions were identified. Specifically, 2 PPC regions positively tracked retrieval outcomes: lateral intraparietal sulcus (latIPS) indexed graded item memory strength, whereas angular gyrus (AnG) tracked recollection. By contrast, 2 other PPC regions demonstrated nonmonotonic relationships with retrieval: superior parietal lobule (SPL) tracked retrieval reaction time, consistent with a graded engagement of top-down attention, whereas temporoparietal junction displayed a complex pattern of below-baseline retrieval activity, perhaps reflecting disengagement of bottom-up attention. Analyses of retrieval effects in PPC topographic spatial attention maps (IPS0-IPS5; SPL1) revealed that IPS5 and SPL1 exhibited a nonmonotonic relationship with retrieval outcomes resembling that in the SPL region, further suggesting that SPL activation during retrieval reflects top-down attention. While demands on PPC attention mechanisms vary during retrieval attempts, the present functional parcellation of PPC indicates that 2 additional mechanisms (mediated by latIPS and AnG) positively track retrieval outcomes. PMID:23019246

  19. The role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in esthetic appreciation of representational and abstract art: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Gardelli, Chiara; Merabet, Lotfi B; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Nadal, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To explain the biological foundations of art appreciation is to explain one of our species' distinctive traits. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have pointed to the prefrontal and the parietal cortex as two critical regions mediating esthetic appreciation of visual art. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left prefrontal cortex and the right posterior parietal cortex while participants were evaluating whether they liked, and by how much, a particular painting. By depolarizing cell membranes in the targeted regions, TMS transiently interferes with the activity of specific cortical areas, which allows clarifying their role in a given task. Our results show that both regions play a fundamental role in mediating esthetic appreciation. Critically though, the effects of TMS varied depending on the type of art considered (i.e. representational vs. abstract) and on participants' a-priori inclination toward one or the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... at the national referral hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark, from 2009 to 2012. RESULTS: In total, five cases of absent right superior caval vein were reviewed. No significant associated cardiac, extra-cardiac, or genetic anomalies were found. Postnatal echocardiographies confirmed the diagnosis and there were...

  1. Pericardial Parietal Mesothelial Cells: Source of the Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme of the Bovine Pericardial Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsione Ribeiro de Sousa Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II, the primary effector hormone of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, acts systemically or locally, being produced by the action of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE on angiotensin I. Although several tissue RASs, such as cardiac RAS, have been described, little is known about the presence of an RAS in the pericardial fluid and its possible sources. Locally produced Ang II has paracrine and autocrine effects, inducing left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, heart failure and cardiac dysfunction. Because of the difficulties inherent in human pericardial fluid collection, appropriate experimental models are useful to obtain data regarding the characteristics of the pericardial fluid and surrounding tissues. Objectives: To evidence the presence of constituents of the Ang II production paths in bovine pericardial fluid and parietal pericardium. Methods: Albumin-free crude extracts of bovine pericardial fluid, immunoprecipitated with anti-ACE antibody, were submitted to electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gels stained with coomassie blue. Duplicates of gels were probed with anti-ACE antibody. In the pericardial membranes, ACE was detected by use of immunofluorescence. Results: Immunodetection on nitrocellulose membranes showed a 146-KDa ACE isoform in the bovine pericardial fluid. On the pericardial membrane sections, ACE was immunolocalized in the mesothelial layer. Conclusions: The ACE isoform in the bovine pericardial fluid and parietal pericardium should account at least partially for the production of Ang II in the pericardial space, and should be considered when assessing the cardiac RAS.

  2. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  3. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  4. Creative cognition and the brain: dissociations between frontal, parietal-temporal and basal ganglia groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; Beudt, Susan; Ott, Derek V M; Yves von Cramon, D

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the study was to investigate creativity in relation to brain function by assessing creative thinking in various neurological populations. Several measures were employed to assess different facets of creative thinking in clinical groups with frontal lobe, basal ganglia or parietal-temporal lesions relative to matched healthy control participants. The frontal group was subdivided into frontolateral, frontopolar and frontal-extensive groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to assess the significance levels associated with the effects after accounting for IQ differences between the groups. Findings were only considered noteworthy if they at least suggested the presence of a strong trend and were accompanied by medium to large effect sizes. The parietal-temporal and frontolateral groups revealed poorer overall performance with the former demonstrating problems with fluency related measures, whereas the latter were also less proficient at producing original responses. In contrast, the basal ganglia and frontopolar groups demonstrated superior performance in the ability to overcome the constraints imposed by salient semantic distractors when generating creative responses. In summary, the dissociations in the findings reveal the selective involvement of different brain regions in diverse aspects of creativity. Lesion location posed selective limitations on the ability to generate original responses in different contexts, but not on the ability to generate relevant responses, which was compromised in most patient groups. The noteworthy findings from this exploratory study of enhanced performance in specific aspects of creative cognition following brain damage are discussed with reference to the generic idea that superior creative ability can result from altered brain function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anhedonia correlates with abnormal functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus and the caudate nucleus in patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Tian, Kai; Wang, Dong-Fang; Wang, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-Rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-08-15

    Recent empirical findings have suggested that imbalanced neural networks may underlie the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the contribution of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the caudate nucleus to its pathophysiology remains unclear. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date were acquired from 40 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 36 matched healthy controls during wakeful rest. We used whole-brain voxel-wise statistical maps to quantify within-group resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and between-group differences of bilateral caudate and STG seeds. Compared with healthy controls, first-episode MDD patients were found to have reduced connectivity between the ventral caudate and several brain regions including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as increased connectivity with the cuneus. We also found increased connectivity between the left STG and the precuneus, the angular gyrus and the cuneus. Moreover, we found that increased anhedonia severity was correlated with the magnitude of ventral caudate functional connectivity with the cuneus and the MTG in MDD patients. Due to our small sample size, we did not correct the statistical threshold in the correlation analyses between clinical variables and connectivity abnormalities. The present study suggests that anhedonia is mainly associated with altered ventral caudate-cortical connectivity and highlights the importance of the ventral caudate in the neurobiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parietal cortex mediates perceptual Gestalt grouping independent of stimulus size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Pablo R; Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The integration of local moving elements into a unified gestalt percept has previously been linked to the posterior parietal cortex. There are two possible interpretations for the lack of involvement of other occipital regions. The first is that parietal cortex is indeed uniquely functionally specialized to perform grouping. Another possibility is that other visual regions can perform grouping as well, but that the large spatial separation of the local elements used previously exceeded their neurons' receptive field (RF) sizes, preventing their involvement. In this study we distinguished between these two alternatives. We measured whole-brain activity using fMRI in response to a bistable motion illusion that induced mutually exclusive percepts of either an illusory global Gestalt or of local elements. The stimulus was presented in two sizes, a large version known to activate IPS only, and a version sufficiently small to fit into the RFs of mid-level dorsal regions such as V5/MT. We found that none of the separately localized motion regions apart from parietal cortex showed a preference for global Gestalt perception, even for the smaller version of the stimulus. This outcome suggests that grouping-by-motion is mediated by a specialized size-invariant mechanism with parietal cortex as its anatomical substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of Parietal Polysaccharides from Retama raetam Roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicate the presence of the homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonans in pectin. This study constitutes the preliminary data obtained in the biochemical analysis of the parietal compounds of the roots of a species which grows in an arid area in comparison with those of its aerial parts. Keywords: Retama ...

  8. Significance of parietal projection in radiosotope scintigraphy of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomchenkov, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the isotope scintigraphy of the brain in the parieal projection with the change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector to the plane of the physiological horizontal was revealed. The observation was made on 100 patients with suspected presence of the volumetric process of the brain. Three variants of placing were studied: the parietal projection - standard (collimator plane parallel to the plane of physiological horizontal and strictly perpendicular to the sagittal plane); the placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal, opened at the front (posterio-parietal); placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal opened at the back (anterio-parietal). A comparative analysis of scintigrams with focal processes of the brain showed the largest informativeness of the proposed modification of the parietal projection in the form of a change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector plane to the plane of the physiological horizontal opened at the back; this makes it possible to reveal more thoroughly the focus of the increased, pathological accumulation of the isotope in different parts of the skull, where the use of as standard placing is of small informativeness

  9. Bilateral, posterior parietal polymicrogyria as part of speech therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parietal polymicrogyria in a child with speech pathology. Introduction. Polymicrogyria is an abnormality in the ... Academic Hospital Speech Therapy and Audiology Department. The parents' main concern was the child's ... A clinical diagnosis of oral apraxia was made. During the video fluoroscopy it was very difficult to ...

  10. Parietal epithelial cells: their role in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsules were first described by Sir William Bowman in 1842 in his paper On the Structure and Use of the Malpighian Bodies of the Kidney [London, Taylor, 1842], but since then their functions have remained poorly understood. A large body of evidence has recently suggested that parietal epithelial cells represent a reservoir of renal progenitors in adult human kidney which generate novel podocytes during childhood and adolescence, and can regenerate injured podocytes. The discovery that parietal epithelial cells represent a potential source for podocyte regeneration suggests that podocyte injury can be repaired. However, recent results also suggest that an abnormal proliferative response of renal progenitors to podocyte injury can generate hyperplastic glomerular lesions that are observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and other types of glomerular disorders. Taken together, these results establish an entirely novel view that changes the way of thinking about renal physiology and pathophysiology, and suggest that understanding how self-renewal and fate decision of parietal epithelial cells in response to podocyte injury may be perturbed or modulated will be crucial for obtaining novel tools for prevention and treatment of glomerulosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Subtotal ablation of parietal epithelial cells induces crescent formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, E.M.; Fuss, A.; Uhlig, S.; Jirak, P.; Dijkman, H.; Wetzels, J.; Engel, D.R.; Urzynicok, T.; Heidenreich, S.; Kriz, W.; Kurts, C.; Ostendorf, T.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established

  12. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, K.; Schulte, K.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically

  13. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miesen, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Smeets, B.

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and

  14. Bilaterally symmetrical foramina on the parietal bone of the bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different bovine skull developmental defects have been reported with variable frequency of occurrence. We hereby report a bilaterally symmetrical parietal foramina in a processed skull meant for osteological practical at the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Jos, Nigeria. The depths of each of the foramina ...

  15. Spatial transformations in the parietal cortex using basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, A; Sejnowski, T J

    1997-03-01

    Sensorimotor transformations are nonlinear mappings of sensory inputs to motor responses. We explore here the possibility that the responses of single neurons in the parietal cortex serve as basis functions for these transformations. Basis function decomposition is a general method for approximating nonlinear functions that is computationally efficient and well suited for adaptive modification. In particular, the responses of single parietal neurons can be approximated by the product of a Gaussian function of retinal location and a sigmoid function of eye position, called a gain field. A large set of such functions forms a basis set that can be used to perform an arbitrary motor response through a direct projection. We compare this hypothesis with other approaches that are commonly used to model population codes, such as computational maps and vectorial representations. Neither of these alternatives can fully account for the responses of parietal neurons, and they are computationally less efficient for nonlinear transformations. Basis functions also have the advantage of not depending on any coordinate system or reference frame. As a consequence, the position of an object can be represented in multiple reference frames simultaneously, a property consistent with the behavior of hemineglect patients with lesions in the parietal cortex.

  16. Superior repair: A useful approach for some anatomic variants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    retrospectively reviewed.Three patients had long narrow venous stalk connecting the coronary sinus to venous confl uence; two had the right pulmonary veins draining to superior vena cava (SVC) and left pulmonary veins to left lateral wall of SVC and one had an obstruction at entrance of Pulmonary Vein into venous confl ...

  17. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  18. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  19. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  20. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C

    2011-01-01

    memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout the childhood years, and several lines of evidence implicate the left fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts in SWM processing. Here we report results from a study of 76 typically developing children, 7 to 13 years of age. We...

  1. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  2. Surgical management of lung cancer invading the aorta or the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misthos, P; Papagiannakis, G; Kokotsakis, J; Lazopoulos, G; Skouteli, E; Lioulias, A

    2007-05-01

    Invasion of mediastinal structures (T4) is considered as an absolute contraindication to surgical management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The authors studied the role of surgical treatment in case of direct aortic and superior venous caval involvement. From 1995 to 2000, 13 patients with left lung NSCLC invading descending aorta and 9 patients with right upper lobe NSCLC and superior vena cava (SVC) invasion were subjected to thoracotomy for lung resection. Surgery was indicated in case of absence of intraluminal extension. All patients were cN2 negative. The pathology results and 5-year survival were recorded and analyzed. In three cases (23%) the tumor was adhered to the parietal pleura overlying descending aorta, which was resected en block with tumor-associated lung parenchyma. Aortic adventitia invasion by tumor led to local resection of adventitia (<1cm(2)) in nine patients (69%). Invasion deeper than adventitia was encountered in one case (8%), which was managed with aortic partial occlusion, resection of aortic wall and repair of the defect with Gore graft patch. In three patients (33%) the SVC wall was involved by the tumor 1-3cm in length and 2-4mm of the circumference. The defect was repaired with direct suturing. In five patients (56%) the area of SVC wall that was invaded was 3cmx2cm. The defect was repaired with Dacron patch. In 1 patient (11%) an arterial 14 graft was end-to-end interposed. All resections were radical (R0). Neither associated postoperative complications nor operative mortality was recorded. Five-year survival was 30.7% for the cases with aortic invasion and 11% for the ones with SVC involvement. Radical surgical resection of lung tumors with localized aortic invasion can be considered after exclusion of N2 involvement.

  3. Compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justich, E.

    1982-04-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed.

  4. Parietal and temporal activity during a multimodal dance video game: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Atsumichi; Noah, J Adam; Bronner, Shaw; Ono, Yumie; Onozuka, Minoru

    2011-10-03

    Using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we studied how playing a dance video game employs coordinated activation of sensory-motor integration centers of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Subjects played a dance video game, in a block design with 30s of activity alternating with 30s of rest, while changes in oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels were continuously measured. The game was modified to compare difficult (4-arrow), simple (2-arrow), and stepping conditions. Oxy-Hb levels were greatest with increased task difficulty. The quick-onset, trapezoidal time-course increase in SPL oxy-Hb levels reflected the on-off neuronal response of spatial orienting and rhythmic motor timing that were required during the activity. Slow-onset, bell-shaped increases in oxy-Hb levels observed in STG suggested the gradually increasing load of directing multisensory information to downstream processing centers associated with motor behavior and control. Differences in temporal relationships of SPL and STG oxy-Hb concentration levels may reflect the functional roles of these brain structures during the task period. NIRS permits insights into temporal relationships of cortical hemodynamics during real motor tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multimodal FMRI resting-state functional connectivity in granulin mutations: the case of fronto-parietal dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Premi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monogenic dementias represent a great opportunity to trace disease progression from preclinical to symptomatic stages. Frontotemporal Dementia related to Granulin (GRN mutations presents a specific framework of brain damage, involving fronto-temporal regions and long inter-hemispheric white matter bundles. Multimodal resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI is a promising tool to carefully describe disease signature from the earliest disease phase. OBJECTIVE: To define local connectivity alterations in GRN related pathology moving from the presymptomatic (asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers to the clinical phase of the disease (GRN- related Frontotemporal Dementia. METHODS: Thirty-one GRN Thr272fs mutation carriers (14 patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and 17 asymptomatic carriers and 38 healthy controls were recruited. Local connectivity measures (Regional Homogeneity (ReHo, Fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (fALFF and Degree Centrality (DC were computed, considering age and gender as nuisance variables as well as the influence of voxel-level gray matter atrophy. RESULTS: Asymptomatic GRN carriers had selective reduced ReHo in the left parietal region and increased ReHo in frontal regions compared to healthy controls. Considering Frontotemporal Dementia patients, all measures (ReHo, fALFF and DC were reduced in inferior parietal, frontal lobes and posterior cingulate cortex. Considering GRN mutation carriers, an inverse correlation with age in the posterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule and orbitofrontal cortex was found. CONCLUSIONS: GRN pathology is characterized by functional brain network alterations even decades before the clinical onset; they involve the parietal region primarily and then spread to the anterior regions of the brain, supporting the concept of molecular nexopathies.

  6. The Regenerative Potential of Parietal Epithelial Cells in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman’s capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glo...

  7. Superior digit memory of abacus experts: an event-related functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Michimata, Chikashi; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Honda, Manabu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2002-12-03

    Abacus experts exhibit superior short-term memory for digits, but the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains unknown. Using event-related fMRI, we examined the brain activity of abacus experts and non-experts during the memory retention period of a delayed match-to-sample task using digits as stimuli. In controls, activity was greater in cortical areas related to verbal working memory, including Broca's area. In contrast, in experts, activity was greater in cortical areas related to visuo-spatial working memory, including the bilateral superior frontal sulcus and superior parietal lobule. This provides neurophysiological evidence that abacus experts utilize a visuo-spatial representation for digit memory.

  8. Evaluation of skull strength following parietal bone graft harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, Boris; Tranquart, François; Geais, Laurent; Goga, Dominique

    2010-11-01

    Parietal bone grafts are commonly used in craniomaxillofacial surgery. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the loss of strength following monocortical parietal bone graft harvest. The secondary aim was to establish a correlation between strength and thickness of calvaria. Thirty fresh human cadaver heads (nonfrozen, unembalmed heads) were used for this study. Loss of strength was determined by comparing the maximum impact resistance of bone on the donor side versus the intact side, using a precalibrated pendulum Charpy impact testing machine. Thickness was measured using a surgical navigation system with optoelectronic tracking. Loss of strength at the donor site was 36 percent (p=0.0000000001) for a 40 percent loss of thickness. Although correlation between these two parameters is rather moderate (r=0.46), it is highly significant (p<0.0001). Although loss of strength is quite significant, serious complications at the donor site are rare. As shown in this study, these risks are nonnegligible. However, because of strong legal pressure, surgeons must carefully weigh the risks incurred by the patient against the expected benefits, whether immediate or deferred. Therefore, the patient should receive well-documented information before such monocortical parietal bone graft harvest is performed.

  9. Gestalt perception is associated with reduced parietal beta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2015-05-15

    The ability to perceive composite objects as a whole is fundamental for visual perception in a complex and cluttered natural environment. This ability may be mediated by increased communication between neural representations of distinct object elements, and has been linked to increased synchronization of oscillatory brain activity in the gamma band. Previous studies of perceptual grouping either guided attention between local and global aspects of a given stimulus or manipulated its physical properties to achieve grouped and ungrouped perceptual conditions. In contrast to those studies, we fully matched the physical properties underlying global and local percepts using a bistable stimulus that causes the viewer to perceive either local motion of multiple elements or global motion of two illusory shapes without any external change. To test the synchronization hypothesis we recorded brain activity with EEG, while human participants viewed the stimulus and reported changes in their perception. In contrast to previous findings we show that power of the beta-band was lower during perception of global Gestalt than during that of local elements. Source localization places these differences in the posterior parietal cortex, overlapping with a site previously associated with both attention and Gestalt perception. These findings reveal a role of parietal beta-band activity in internally, rather than externally or attention-driven processes of Gestalt perception. They also add to the growing evidence for shared neural substrates of attention and Gestalt perception, both being linked to parietal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of parietal cortex enhances action naming in Corticobasal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa eManenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS is a neurodegenerative disorder that overlaps both clinically and neuropathologically with Frontotemporal dementia and is characterized by apraxia, alien limb phenomena, cortical sensory loss, cognitive impairment, behavioural changes and aphasia. It has been recently demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves naming in healthy subjects and in subjects with language deficits.Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (anodal tDCS over the parietal cortex (PARC could facilitate naming performance in CBS subjects. Methods: Anodal tDCS was applied to the left and right PARC during object and action naming in seventeen patients with a diagnosis of possible CBS. Participants underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right and one session of placebo tDCS. Vocal responses were recorded and analyzed for accuracy and vocal Reaction Times (vRTs. Results: A shortening of naming latency for actions was observed only after active anodal stimulation over the left PARC, as compared to placebo and right stimulations. No effects have been reported for accuracy.Conclusions: Our preliminary finding demonstrated that tDCS decreased vocal reaction time during action naming in a sample of patients with CBS. A possible explanation of our results is that anodal tDCS over the left PARC effects the brain network implicated in action observation and representation. Further studies, based on larger patient samples, should be conducted to investigate the usefulness of tDCS as an additional treatment of linguistic deficits in CBS patients.

  11. El arte parietal, espejo de las sociedades paleolíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges SAUVET

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo aboga por un estudio del arte parietal como instrumento del conocimiento de la geografía humana de las sociedades de cazadores y de la evolución de sus redes de alianza, durante el Paleolítico superior. Tomando como ejemplo el componente figurativo de este arte y un amplio corpus de 3981 figuras procedentes de 154 yacimientos franceses y españoles, se demuestra que las asociaciones entre especies animales diferentes obedecen a reglas simples y coherentes, que se dejan fácilmente exprimir por un modelo formal. El análisis de doce sub-conjuntos sincrónicos y diacrónicos evidencia la movilidad de las connexiones interregionales (por ejemplo el desarrollo del Solutrense cantábrico en relación con los centros peninsulares y con escaso contacto con el sudoeste francés, al contrario de la situación que prevalece durante el Magdaleniense medio-superior. Sin embargo conforta la idea que las variaciones regionales operan dentro de un sistema de pensamiento religioso relativamente estable. Una segunda fase del trabajo se propone describir la estructuración del arte parietal a un nivel mucho más fino, teniendo en cuenta la diversidad formal de cada figura y sus relaciones topológicas con las demás. Una larga base de datos está en curso de elaboración para su tratamiento con las técnicas de "extracción de conocimiento" (Knowledge Discovery in Databases. Unos resultados preliminares dejan esperar que una base de datos de este tipo servirá el objetivo y proporcionará une visión más precisa y segura de la historia de los pueblos paleolíticos, dado que la fuente del estilo propio de cada grupo debe buscarse en la construcción gráfica de paneles complejos.ABSTRACT: This paper pleads in favour of the study of parietal art as a means to investigate the human geography of palaeolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe and the evolution of their alliance networks. Taking the example of the figurative component of Rock

  12. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retention and relearning of spatial delayed alternation in rats after combined or sequential lesions of the prefrontal and parietal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörtwein, Gitta; Mogensen, Jesper; Divac, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, delayed alternation, rotte, parietal cortex, funktionel genopretning......Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, delayed alternation, rotte, parietal cortex, funktionel genopretning...

  14. Online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal operculum disrupts haptic memory for grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Maule, Francesca; Tabarelli, Davide; Brochier, Thomas; Barchiesi, Guido

    2015-11-01

    The parietal operculum (OP) contains haptic memory on the geometry of objects that is readily transferrable to the motor cortex but a causal role of OP in memory-guided grasping is only speculative. We explored this issue by using online high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The experimental task was performed by blindfolded participants acting on objects of variable size. Trials consisted in three phases: haptic exploration of an object, delay, and reach-grasp movement onto the explored object. Motor performance was evaluated by the kinematics of finger aperture. Online rTMS was applied to the left OP region separately in each of the three phases of the task. The results showed that rTMS altered grip aperture only when applied in the delay phase to the OP. In a second experiment a haptic discriminative (match-to-sample) task was carried out on objects similar to those used in the first experiment. Online rTMS was applied to the left OP. No psychophysical effects were induced by rTMS on the detection of explicit haptic object size. We conclude that neural activity in the OP region is necessary for proficient memory-guided haptic grasping. The function of OP seems to be critical while maintaining the haptic memory trace and less so while encoding it or retrieving it. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conflicting Demands of Abstract and Specific Visual Object Processing Resolved by Fronto-Parietal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Brenton W.; Marsolek, Chad J.; Morseth, Brianna K.; Speer, MacKenzie F.; Burton, Philip C.; Burgund, E. Darcy

    2016-01-01

    Object categorization and exemplar identification place conflicting demands on the visual system, yet humans easily perform these fundamentally contradictory tasks. Previous studies suggest the existence of dissociable visual processing subsystems to accomplish the two abilities – an abstract category (AC) subsystem that operates effectively in the left hemisphere, and a specific exemplar (SE) subsystem that operates effectively in the right hemisphere. This multiple subsystems theory explains a range of visual abilities, but previous studies have not explored what mechanisms exist for coordinating the function of multiple subsystems and/or resolving the conflicts that would arise between them. We collected functional MRI data while participants performed two variants of a cue-probe working memory task that required AC or SE processing. During the maintenance phase of the task, the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) exhibited hemispheric asymmetries in functional connectivity consistent with exerting proactive control over the two visual subsystems: greater connectivity to the left hemisphere during the AC task, and greater connectivity to the right hemisphere during the SE task. Moreover, probe-evoked activation revealed activity in a broad fronto-parietal network (containing IPS) associated with reactive control when the two visual subsystems were in conflict, and variations in this conflict signal across trials was related to the visual similarity of the cue/probe stimulus pairs. Although many studies have confirmed the existence of multiple visual processing subsystems, this study is the first to identify the mechanisms responsible for coordinating their operations. PMID:26883940

  16. Fronto-Parietal Brain Responses to Visuotactile Congruence in an Anatomical Reference Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Limanowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatially and temporally congruent visuotactile stimulation of a fake hand together with one’s real hand may result in an illusory self-attribution of the fake hand. Although this illusion relies on a representation of the two touched body parts in external space, there is tentative evidence that, for the illusion to occur, the seen and felt touches also need to be congruent in an anatomical reference frame. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a somatotopical, virtual reality-based setup to isolate the neuronal basis of such a comparison. Participants’ index or little finger was synchronously touched with the index or little finger of a virtual hand, under congruent or incongruent orientations of the real and virtual hands. The left ventral premotor cortex responded significantly more strongly to visuotactile co-stimulation of the same versus different fingers of the virtual and real hand. Conversely, the left anterior intraparietal sulcus responded significantly more strongly to co-stimulation of different versus same fingers. Both responses were independent of hand orientation congruence and of spatial congruence of the visuotactile stimuli. Our results suggest that fronto-parietal areas previously associated with multisensory processing within peripersonal space and with tactile remapping evaluate the congruence of visuotactile stimulation on the body according to an anatomical reference frame.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation to the parietal cortex in hemispatial neglect: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Miranda; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Kappelle, L Jaap; Kant, Neeltje; Penninx, Janne; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2015-07-01

    Prior research suggests that dampening neural activity of the intact, presumably overactive hemisphere, combined with increasing neural activity in the damaged hemisphere, might restore cortical interhemispheric balance and reduce neglect. In the present study we repeatedly applied a relatively new technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), to the posterior parietal cortex to modulate spontaneous neural activity levels in a polarity dependent fashion to find evidence for improvements in severe hemispatial neglect in chronic patients. Eighty-nine patients were initially identified from our databases as having neglect, after thoroughly screening databases, consulting medical practitioners and baseline testing, only five met our inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. Sixty-five patients were excluded as they did not meet safety criteria for tDCS (epilepsy, metal implants), suffered from other medical conditions (i.e., heart disease, epilepsy, current psychiatric disorder) or displayed only mild neglect at baseline testing. Five patients with severe chronic hemispatial neglect were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment program. TDCS or placebo was applied for 20 minutes over the left (cathodal) and right (anodal) posterior parietal cortex at an intensity of 2 mA on five consecutive days. Treatment conditions were separated by a four week wash-out period. Baseline corrected change in performance on the conventional subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) was our primary endpoint. No treatment-related effects were observed for the BIT change scores and performance on individual subtests. Moreover, patients' performance somewhat improved only during the stimulation period (day one vs day five, irrespective of whether it was placebo or tDCS), but not thirty days later, indicating a practice effect. The present study does not provide evidence that tDCS to the posterior parietal cortex improves chronic hemispatial neglect

  18. Meta-analysis: How does posterior parietal cortex contribute to reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter eWendelken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning depends on the contribution of posterior parietal cortex (PPC. But PPC is involved in many basic operations -- including spatial attention, mathematical cognition, working memory, long-term memory, and language -- and the nature of its contribution to reasoning is unclear. Psychological theories of the processes underlying reasoning make divergent claims about the neural systems that are likely to be involved, and better understanding the specific contribution of PPC can help to inform these theories. We set out to address several competing hypotheses, concerning the role of PPC in reasoning: 1 reasoning involves application of formal logic and is dependent on language, with PPC activation for reasoning mainly reflective of linguistic processing, 2 reasoning involves probabilistic computation and is thus dependent on numerical processing mechanisms in PPC, and 3 reasoning is built upon the representation and processing of spatial relations, and PPC activation associated with reasoning reflects spatial processing. We conducted two separate meta-analyses. First, we pooled data from our own studies of reasoning in adults, and examined activation in PPC regions of interest. Second, we conducted an automated meta-analysis using Neurosynth, in which we examined overlap between activation maps associated with reasoning and maps associated with other key functions of PPC. In both analyses, we observed reasoning-related activation concentrated in the left Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL. Reasoning maps demonstrated the greatest overlap with mathematical cognition. Maintenance, visuospatial, and phonological processing also demonstrated some overlap with reasoning, but a large portion of the reasoning map did not overlap with the map for any other function. This evidence suggests that the PPC’s contribution to reasoning may be most closely related to its role in mathematical cognition, but that a core component of this contribution may be specific

  19. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy.

  20. Syndecan-1 in the mouse parietal peritoneum microcirculation in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina M Kowalewska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138 was shown to regulate inflammatory responses by binding chemokines and cytokines and interacting with adhesion molecules, thereby modulating leukocyte trafficking to tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of syndecan-1 and its role in leukocyte recruitment and chemokine presentation in the microcirculation underlying the parietal peritoneum. METHODS: Wild-type BALB/c and syndecan-1 null mice were stimulated with an intraperitoneal injection of Staphylococcus aureus LTA, Escherichia coli LPS or TNFα and the microcirculation of the parietal peritoneum was examined by intravital microscopy after 4 hours. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine syndecan-1 expression in the peritoneal microcirculation using fluorescent antibodies. Blocking antibodies to adhesion molecules were used to examine the role of these molecules in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in response to LTA. To determine whether syndecan-1 co-localizes with chemokines in vivo, fluorescent antibodies to syndecan-1 were co-injected intravenously with anti-MIP-2 (CXCL2, anti-KC (CXCL1 or anti-MCP-1 (CCL2. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Syndecan-1 was localized to the subendothelial region of peritoneal venules and the mesothelial layer. Leukocyte rolling was significantly decreased with LPS treatment while LTA and TNFα significantly increased leukocyte adhesion compared with saline control. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were not different in syndecan-1 null mice. Antibody blockade of β2 integrin (CD18, ICAM-1 (CD54 and VCAM-1 (CD106 did not decrease leukocyte adhesion in response to LTA challenge while blockade of P-selectin (CD62P abrogated leukocyte rolling. Lastly, MIP-2 expression in the peritoneal venules was not dependent on syndecan-1 in vivo. Our data suggest that syndecan-1 is expressed in the parietal peritoneum microvasculature but does not regulate leukocyte

  1. Temporal Evolution of Target Representation, Movement Direction Planning, and Reach Execution in Occipital-Parietal-Frontal Cortex: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, David C; Monaco, Simona; Chen, Ying; Blohm, Gunnar; Crawford, J Douglas

    2017-11-01

    The cortical mechanisms for reach have been studied extensively, but directionally selective mechanisms for visuospatial target memory, movement planning, and movement execution have not been clearly differentiated in the human. We used an event-related fMRI design with a visuospatial memory delay, followed by a pro-/anti-reach instruction, a planning delay, and finally a "go" instruction for movement. This sequence yielded temporally separable preparatory responses that expanded from modest parieto-frontal activation for visual target memory to broad occipital-parietal-frontal activation during planning and execution. Using the pro/anti instruction to differentiate visual and motor directional selectivity during planning, we found that one occipital area showed contralateral "visual" selectivity, whereas a broad constellation of left hemisphere occipital, parietal, and frontal areas showed contralateral "movement" selectivity. Temporal analysis of these areas through the entire memory-planning sequence revealed early visual selectivity in most areas, followed by movement selectivity in most areas, with all areas showing a stereotypical visuo-movement transition. Cross-correlation of these spatial parameters through time revealed separate spatiotemporally correlated modules for visual input, motor output, and visuo-movement transformations that spanned occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex. These results demonstrate a highly distributed occipital-parietal-frontal reach network involved in the transformation of retrospective sensory information into prospective movement plans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eIuculano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD, which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small – yet constant – current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES. Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC. The first subject (DD1 received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance’s improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2 received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i automaticity of number processing; and (ii mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation

  3. Estudos sobre thrombose cardiaca e endocardite parietal de origem não valvular On thrombosis of heart and on mural endocarditis of non-valvular origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magarinos Torres

    1928-01-01

    is foamy and blood-streaked than by the classic signs. Cerebral embolism was a terminal accident on various cases. Yet, in some of them, along with the signs of septicemia and of cardiac insufficiency, occurred vascular, arterial (abdominal aorta, common illiac and femurals arteries and venous (extern jugular veins thromboses. 5. The autopsy revealed an inflammatory process located on the parietal endocardium, accompanied by abundant formation of ancient and recent thrombi, being the apex of the left ventricle, the junction of the anterior wall of the same ventricle, with the interventricular septum, and the right auricular appendage, the usual seats of the inflammatory changes. The region of the left branch of HIS’ bundle is spared. The other changes found consist of fibrosis of the myocardium (healed infarcts and circumscribed interstitial myocarditis, of recent visceral infarcts chiefly in lungs, spleen and brain, of recent or old infarcts in the kidneys (embolic nephrocirrhosis and in the spleen, and of vascular thromboses (abdominal aorta, common illiacs and femurals arteries and external jugular veins, aside from hydrothorax, hydroperitoneum, cutaneous oedema, chronic passive congestion of the liver, lungs, spleen and kidneys and slight ictericia. 6. In the subacute parietal endocarditis the primary lesions sometimes locate themselves at the myocardium, depending on the ischemic necrosis associated to the arteriosclerosis of the coronariae arteries, or on an specific myocarditis. Other times, the absence of these conditions is suggestive of a primary attack to the parietal endocardium which is then the primary seat of the lesions. It matters little whatever may be the initial pathogenic mechanism; once injured the parietal endocardium and there being settled the infectious injury, the endocarditis develops with peculiar clinical and anatomical characters of remarkable uniformity, constituting an anatomo-clinical syndrome. 7.-The histologic sections show that

  4. Superior Parietal Lobule Dysfunction in a Homogeneous Group of Dyslexic Children with a Visual Attention Span Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin, C.; Demonet, J. F.; N'Guyen-Morel, M. A.; Le Bas, J. F.; Valdois, S.

    2011-01-01

    A visual attention (VA) span disorder has been reported in dyslexic children as potentially responsible for their poor reading outcome. The purpose of the current paper was to identify the cerebral correlates of this VA span disorder. For this purpose, 12 French dyslexic children with severe reading and VA span disorders and 12 age-matched control…

  5. Traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome: a rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Eskitascioglu, Teoman; Yontar, Yalcin; Aydin, Ahmet; Tucer, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    Superior orbital fissure syndrome is a severe clinical entity characterized by injuries of neurovascular structures passing through the superior orbital fissure. A 38-year-old male patient admitted to outpatient clinic with left upper eyelid ptosis, ecchymosis, mydriasis, hypoesthesia in upper eyelid and frontal region, blepharoptosis, restriction of ocular movements in all directions, loss of accommodation reflex and absence of direct pupillary reflex. Three-dimensional computed tomography s...

  6. Sylvian Fissure and Parietal Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey A. Knaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7–14 years, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions.

  7. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  8. Potential spaces of superior mediastinum on CT for space-occupying lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Shusuke; Higashihara, Tokuo; Morimoto, Shizuo; Ikezoe, Junpei; Arisawa, Jun

    1982-01-01

    The available potential space for the expansion of the space-occupying lesion in the superior mediastinum and the available routes for its extension to the neighbouring areas are illustrated based on CT images obtained following pneumomediastinography: The superior mediastinum can be conveniently subdivided into three compartmentalized areas; 1) the prevascular region, 2) the right (superior) paratracheal region, and 3) the left (superior) paratracheoesophageal region. And some anatomic points of each subdivided compartment are described in several selected cases with mediastinal pathology. (author)

  9. Individual Differences in Reasoning and Visuospatial Attention are Associated with Prefrontal and Parietal White Matter Tracts in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Zachary A.; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Parasuraman, Raja; Strenziok, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although reasoning and attention are two cognitive processes necessary for ensuring the efficiency of many everyday activities in older adults, the role of white matter integrity in these processes has been little studied. This is an important question due to the role of white matter integrity as a neural substrate of cognitive aging. Here, we sought to examine the white matter tracts subserving reasoning and visuospatial attention in healthy older adults. Method Sixty-one adults aged 60 and older completed a battery of cognitive tests to assess reasoning and visuospatial attention. In addition, diffusion tensor images were collected to assess Fractional Anisotropy (FA) – a measure of white matter integrity. A principle component analysis of the test scores yielded two components: reasoning and visuospatial attention. Whole-brain correlations between FA and the cognitive components were submitted to probabilistic tractography analyses for visualization of cortical targets of tracts. Results For reasoning, bilateral thalamo-anterior prefrontal, anterior corpus callosum, and corpus callosum body tracts interconnecting the superior frontal cortices and right cingulum bundle were found. For visuospatial attention, a right inferior fronto-parietal tract, and bilateral parietal and temporal connections were found. Conclusions We conclude that in older adults, prefrontal cortex white matter tracts and interhemispheric communication are important in higher order cognitive functioning. On the other hand, right-sided fronto-parietal tracts appear to be critical for supporting control of cognitive processes, such as redirecting attention. Researchers may use our results to develop neuroscience-based interventions for older adults targeting brain mechanisms involved in cognitive plasticity. PMID:26986750

  10. Mental reversal of imagined melodies: a role for the posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, Robert J; Halpern, Andrea R; Bouffard, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Two fMRI experiments explored the neural substrates of a musical imagery task that required manipulation of the imagined sounds: temporal reversal of a melody. Musicians were presented with the first few notes of a familiar tune (Experiment 1) or its title (Experiment 2), followed by a string of notes that was either an exact or an inexact reversal. The task was to judge whether the second string was correct or not by mentally reversing all its notes, thus requiring both maintenance and manipulation of the represented string. Both experiments showed considerable activation of the superior parietal lobe (intraparietal sulcus) during the reversal process. Ventrolateral and dorsolateral frontal cortices were also activated, consistent with the memory load required during the task. We also found weaker evidence for some activation of right auditory cortex in both studies, congruent with results from previous simpler music imagery tasks. We interpret these results in the context of other mental transformation tasks, such as mental rotation in the visual domain, which are known to recruit the intraparietal sulcus region, and we propose that this region subserves general computations that require transformations of a sensory input. Mental imagery tasks may thus have both task or modality-specific components as well as components that supersede any specific codes and instead represent amodal mental manipulation.

  11. Interleukin-17A Promotes Parietal Cell Atrophy by Inducing ApoptosisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Atrophic gastritis caused by chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa leads to the loss of gastric glandular cells, including acid-secreting parietal cells. Parietal cell atrophy in a setting of chronic inflammation induces spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia, a critical step in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which inflammation causes parietal cell atrophy and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia are not well defined. We investigated the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A in causing parietal cell atrophy. Methods: A mouse model of autoimmune atrophic gastritis was used to examine IL-17A production during early and late stages of disease. Organoids derived from corpus glands were used to determine the direct effects of IL-17A on gastric epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to examine IL-17A receptors and the direct effect of signaling on parietal cells. Mice were infected with an IL-17A-producing adenovirus to determine the effects of IL-17A on parietal cells in vivo. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibodies were administered to mice with active atrophic gastritis to evaluate the effects on parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia. Results: Increased IL-17A correlated with disease severity in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. IL-17A caused caspase-dependent gastric organoid degeneration, which could not be rescued with a necroptosis inhibitor. Parietal cells expressed IL-17A receptors and IL-17A treatment induced apoptosis in parietal cells. Overexpressing IL-17A in vivo induced caspase-3 activation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining in parietal cells. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibody decreased parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. Conclusions: These data identify IL-17A as a cytokine that promotes parietal cell apoptosis during atrophic gastritis, a

  12. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas A Ioannides

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor (M1 cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45 to 70 Hz activity at latencies of 20 to 50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occured in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  13. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe; Saridis, George A; Gjedde, Albert; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  14. Inconsistent Effects of Parietal α-tACS on Pseudoneglect across Two Experiments: A Failed Internal Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Veniero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES is being investigated as an experimental and clinical interventional technique in human participants. While promising, important limitations have been identified, including weak effect sizes and high inter- and intra-individual variability of outcomes. Here, we compared two “inhibitory” tES-techniques with supposedly different mechanisms of action as to their effects on performance in a visuospatial attention task, and report on a direct replication attempt. In two experiments, 2 × 20 healthy participants underwent tES in three separate sessions testing different protocols (10 min stimulation each with a montage targeting right parietal cortex (right parietal–left frontal, electrode-sizes: 3cm × 3cm–7 cm × 5 cm, while performing a perceptual line bisection (landmark task. The tES-protocols were compared as to their ability to modulate pseudoneglect (thought to be under right hemispheric control. In experiment 1, sham-tES was compared to transcranial alternating current stimulation at alpha frequency (10 Hz; α-tACS (expected to entrain “inhibitory” alpha oscillations and to cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS (shown to suppress neuronal spiking activity. In experiment 2, we attempted to replicate the findings of experiment 1, and establish frequency-specificity by adding a 45 Hz-tACS condition to α-tACS and sham. In experiment 1, right parietal α-tACS led to the expected changes in spatial attention bias, namely a rightward shift in subjective midpoint estimation (relative to sham. However, this was not confirmed in experiment 2 and in the complete sample. Right parietal c-tDCS and 45 Hz-tACS had no effect. These results highlight the importance of replication studies, adequate statistical power and optimizing tES-interventions for establishing the robustness and reliability of electrical stimulation effects, and best practice.

  15. Language learning and brain reorganization in a 3.5-year-old child with left perinatal stroke revealed using structural and functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a

  16. Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Luber, Bruce; Crupain, Michael

    2004-01-01

    For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show differ......, confirming the hypothesis. This network is strikingly similar to the network of the resting conscious state, suggesting that self-monitoring is a core function in resting consciousness.......For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show...... differential activity in medial prefrontal and medial parietal cortices. With positron-emission tomography, we here show that these medial regions are functionally connected and interact with lateral regions that are activated according to the degree of self-reference. During retrieval of previous judgments...

  17. Parietal lobe: from action organization to intention understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Gesierich, Benno; Rozzi, Stefano; Chersi, Fabian; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2005-04-29

    Inferior parietal lobule (IPL) neurons were studied when monkeys performed motor acts embedded in different actions and when they observed similar acts done by an experimenter. Most motor IPL neurons coding a specific act (e.g., grasping) showed markedly different activations when this act was part of different actions (e.g., for eating or for placing). Many motor IPL neurons also discharged during the observation of acts done by others. Most responded differentially when the same observed act was embedded in a specific action. These neurons fired during the observation of an act, before the beginning of the subsequent acts specifying the action. Thus, these neurons not only code the observed motor act but also allow the observer to understand the agent's intentions.

  18. Development of Right-hemispheric Dominance of Inferior Parietal Lobule in Proprioceptive Illusion Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru

    2017-11-01

    Functional lateralization can be an indicator of brain maturation. We have consistently shown that, in the adult brain, proprioceptive processing of muscle spindle afferents generating illusory movement of the right hand activates inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in a right-side dominant manner in addition to the cerebrocerebellar motor network. Here we provide novel evidence regarding the development of the right-dominant use of the inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in humans using this task. We studied brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while 60 right-handed blindfolded healthy children (8-11 years), adolescents (12-15 years), and young adults (18-23 years) (20 per group) experienced the illusion. Adult-like right-dominant use of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was observed in adolescents, while children used the IPL bilaterally. In contrast, adult-like lateralized cerebrocerebellar motor activation patterns were already observable in children. The right-side dominance progresses during adolescence along with the suppression of the left-sided IPL activity that emerges during childhood. Therefore, the neuronal processing implemented in the adult's right IPL during the proprioceptive illusion task is likely mediated bilaterally during childhood, and then becomes right-lateralized during adolescence at a substantially later time than the lateralized use of the cerebrocerebellar motor system for kinesthetic processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Cooperative processing in primary somatosensory cortex and posterior parietal cortex during tactile working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yixuan; Zhao, Di; Bodner, Mark; Zhou, Yong-Di

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, causal roles of both the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) were investigated in a tactile unimodal working memory (WM) task. Individual magnetic resonance imaging-based single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) was applied, respectively, to the left SI (ipsilateral to tactile stimuli), right SI (contralateral to tactile stimuli) and right PPC (contralateral to tactile stimuli), while human participants were performing a tactile-tactile unimodal delayed matching-to-sample task. The time points of spTMS were 300, 600 and 900 ms after the onset of the tactile sample stimulus (duration: 200 ms). Compared with ipsilateral SI, application of spTMS over either contralateral SI or contralateral PPC at those time points significantly impaired the accuracy of task performance. Meanwhile, the deterioration in accuracy did not vary with the stimulating time points. Together, these results indicate that the tactile information is processed cooperatively by SI and PPC in the same hemisphere, starting from the early delay of the tactile unimodal WM task. This pattern of processing of tactile information is different from the pattern in tactile-visual cross-modal WM. In a tactile-visual cross-modal WM task, SI and PPC contribute to the processing sequentially, suggesting a process of sensory information transfer during the early delay between modalities. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The role of the right temporo-parietal junction in social decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Florian; Berger, Philipp; Nagels, Arne; Falkenberg, Irina; Straube, Benjamin

    2018-03-26

    Identifying someone else's noncooperative intentions can prevent exploitation in social interactions. Hence, the inference of another person's mental state might be most pronounced in order to improve social decision-making. Here, we tested the hypothesis that brain regions associated with Theory of Mind (ToM), particularly the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), show higher neural responses when interacting with a selfish person and that the rTPJ-activity as well as cooperative tendencies will change over time. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a modified prisoner's dilemma game in which 20 participants interacted with three fictive playing partners who behaved according to stable strategies either competitively, cooperatively or randomly during seven interaction blocks. The rTPJ and the posterior-medial prefrontal cortex showed higher activity during the interaction with a competitive compared with a cooperative playing partner. Only the rTPJ showed a high response during an early interaction phase, which preceded participants increase in defective decisions. Enhanced functional connectivity between the rTPJ and the left hippocampus suggests that social cognition and learning processes co-occur when behavioral adaptation seems beneficial. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Modulating Mimetic Preference with Theta Burst Stimulation of the Inferior Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca F. Ticini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We like an object more when we see someone else reaching for it. To what extent is action observation causally linked to object valuation? In this study, we set out to answer to this question by applying continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS over the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL. Previous studies pointed to this region as critical in the representation of others' actions and in tool manipulation. However, it is unclear to what extent IPL's involvement simply reflects action observation, rather than a casual role in objects' valuation. To clarify this issue, we measured cTBS-dependent modulations of participants' “mimetic preference ratings”, i.e., the difference between the ratings of pairs of familiar objects that were (vs. were not reached out for by other individuals. Our result shows that cTBS increased mimetic preference ratings for tools, when compared to a control condition without stimulation. This effect was selective for items that were reached for or manipulated by another individual, whilst it was not detected in non-tool objects. Although preliminary, this finding suggests that the automatic and covert simulation of an observed action, even when there is no intention to act on an object, influences explicit affective judgments for objects. This work supports embodied cognition theories by substantiating that our subjective preference is grounded in action.

  2. Lateralization of the posterior parietal cortex for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenji; Inui, Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Internal monitoring or state estimation of movements is essential for human motor control to compensate for inherent delays and noise in sensorimotor loops. Two types of internal estimation of movements exist: self-generated movements, and externally generated movements. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate differences in brain activity for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements during visual occlusion. Participants tracked a sinusoidally moving target with a mouse cursor. On some trials, vision of either target (externally generated) or cursor (self-generated) movement was transiently occluded, during which subjects continued tracking by estimating current position of either the invisible target or cursor on screen. Analysis revealed that both occlusion conditions were associated with increased activity in the presupplementary motor area and decreased activity in the right lateral occipital cortex compared to a control condition with no occlusion. Moreover, the right and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) showed greater activation during occlusion of target and cursor movements, respectively. This study suggests lateralization of the PPC for internal monitoring of internally versus externally generated movements, fully consistent with previously reported clinical findings.

  3. Mnemonic Encoding and Cortical Organization in Parietal and Prefrontal Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Nicolas Y; Hodnefield, Jonathan M; Freedman, David J

    2017-06-21

    Persistent activity within the frontoparietal network is consistently observed during tasks that require working memory. However, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying persistent neuronal encoding within this network remain unresolved. Here, we ask how neural circuits support persistent activity by examining population recordings from posterior parietal (PPC) and prefrontal (PFC) cortices in two male monkeys that performed spatial and motion direction-based tasks that required working memory. While spatially selective persistent activity was observed in both areas, robust selective persistent activity for motion direction was only observed in PFC. Crucially, we find that this difference between mnemonic encoding in PPC and PFC is associated with the presence of functional clustering: PPC and PFC neurons up to ∼700 μm apart preferred similar spatial locations, and PFC neurons up to ∼700 μm apart preferred similar motion directions. In contrast, motion-direction tuning similarity between nearby PPC neurons was much weaker and decayed rapidly beyond ∼200 μm. We also observed a similar association between persistent activity and functional clustering in trained recurrent neural network models embedded with a columnar topology. These results suggest that functional clustering facilitates mnemonic encoding of sensory information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Working memory refers to our ability to temporarily store and manipulate information. Numerous studies have observed that, during working memory, neurons in higher cortical areas, such as the parietal and prefrontal cortices, mnemonically encode the remembered stimulus. However, several recent studies have failed to observe mnemonic encoding during working memory, raising the question as to why mnemonic encoding is observed during some, but not all, conditions. In this study, we show that mnemonic encoding occurs when a cortical area is organized such that nearby neurons preferentially respond to the same

  4. Functional development of fronto-striato-parietal networks associated with time perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eSmith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of executive functions, little is known about the neurofunctional development of perceptive functions. Time perception develops during late adolescence, underpinning many functions including motor and verbal processing, as well as late maturing higher order cognitive skills such as forward planning and future-related decision-making. Nothing, however, is known about the neurofunctional changes associated with time perception from childhood to adulthood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we explored the effects of age on the brain activation and functional connectivity of 32 male participants from 10 to 53 years of age during a time discrimination task that required the discrimination of temporal intervals of seconds differing by several hundred milliseconds. Increasing development was associated with progressive activation increases within left lateralised dorsolateral and inferior fronto-parieto-striato-thalamic brain regions. Furthermore, despite comparable task performance, adults showed increased functional connectivity between inferior/dorsolateral interhemispheric fronto-frontal activation as well as between inferior fronto-parietal regions compared with adolescents. Activation in caudate, specifically, was associated with both increasing age and better temporal discrimination. Progressive decreases in activation with age were observed in ventromedial prefrontal cortex, limbic regions and cerebellum. The findings demonstrate age-dependent developmentally dissociated neural networks for time discrimination. With increasing age there is progressive recruitment of later maturing left hemispheric and lateralised fronto-parieto-striato-thalamic networks, known to mediate time discrimination in adults, while earlier developing brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex, limbic and paralimbic areas and cerebellum subserve fine-temporal processing functions in children

  5. Transcranial magnetic stimulation over posterior parietal cortex disrupts transsaccadic memory of multiple objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Steven L; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J Douglas

    2008-07-02

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a role in spatial updating of goals for eye and arm movements across saccades, but less is known about its role in updating perceptual memory. We reported previously that transsaccadic memory has a capacity for storing the orientations of three to four Gabor patches either within a single fixation (fixation task) or between separate fixations (saccade task). Here, we tested the role of the PPC in transsaccadic memory in eight subjects by simultaneously applying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the right and left PPC, over several control sites, and comparing these to behavioral controls with no TMS. In TMS trials, we randomly delivered pulses at one of three different time intervals around the time of the saccade, or at an equivalent time in the fixation task. Controls confirmed that subjects could normally retain at least three visual features. TMS over the left PPC and a control site had no significant effect on this performance. However, TMS over the right PPC disrupted memory performance in both tasks. This TMS-induced effect was most disruptive in the saccade task, in particular when stimulation coincided more closely with saccade timing. Here, the capacity to compare presaccadic and postsaccadic features was reduced to one object, as expected if the spatial aspect of memory was disrupted. This finding suggests that right PPC plays a role in the spatial processing involved in transsaccadic memory of visual features. We propose that this process uses saccade-related feedback signals similar to those observed in spatial updating.

  6. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  7. The effect of dual-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation over the parietal operculum on tactile orientation discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Laakso, Ilkka

    2017-01-01

    The parietal operculum (PO) often shows ipsilateral activation during tactile object perception in neuroimaging experiments. However, the relative contribution of the PO to tactile judgment remains unclear. Here, we examined the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over...... bilateral PO to test the relative contributions of the ipsilateral PO to tactile object processing. Ten healthy adults participated in this study, which had a double-blind, sham-controlled, cross-over design. Participants discriminated grating orientation during three tDCS and sham conditions. In the dual...... electrode. Importantly, dual-hemisphere tDCS with the anodal electrode over the left PO yielded a decreased threshold in the right finger compared with the uni-hemisphere tDCS condition. These results suggest that the ipsilateral PO inhibits tactile processing of grating orientation, indicating...

  8. Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation Marker in Early Recurrence of FSGS in the Transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatima, H.; Moeller, M.J.; Smeets, B.; Yang, H.C.; D'Agati, V.D.; Alpers, C.E.; Fogo, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Podocyte loss is key in glomerulosclerosis. Activated parietal epithelial cells are proposed to contribute to pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis and may serve as stem cells that can transition to podocytes. CD44 is a marker for activated parietal epithelial cells. This

  9. Anterior superior iliac spine avulsion in a young soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendeddouche, I; Jean-Luc, B B; Poiraudeau, S; Nys, A

    2010-11-01

    Avulsion fractures of the anterior superior iliac spine are rare. They usually occur in teenagers during sport activities. Cases concerning adults are very uncommon. We report here the case of a 23-year-old man who was admitted for recent pain of the left hip that worsened while kicking a ball in a soccer match eight days earlier. The examination found pain when moving the left hip in extension. Radiographs showed an avulsion fracture of the left anterior superior iliac spine, which was confirmed by computer tomography. The treatment was conservative consisting in rest and non-weight bearing with releasing of pain a few weeks later. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Aspirin induces morphological transformation to the secretory state in isolated rabbit parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, U K; Levine, R A

    1991-08-01

    The morphological response of rabbit parietal cells to aspirin was evaluated by grading several ultra-structural features including the extent of the tubulovesicular system, intracellular secretory canaliculi, and microvilli. After exposure of isolated parietal cells and gastric glands to aspirin or histamine, there was an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of secretory to nonsecretory parietal cells, and depletion of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the aspirin-induced morphological changes. Morphometry in parietal cells showed that aspirin induced a sixfold increase in secretory canalicular membrane elaboration. Aspirin potentiated histamine-induced parietal cell respiration and aminopyrine uptake ratio but did not increase basal respiration or aminopyrine uptake, suggesting an apparent dissociation from aspirin-induced morphological changes.

  11. Attention as the 'glue' for object integration in parietal extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Groß, Julia; Keller, Ingo; Müller, Hermann J; Finke, Kathrin

    2018-04-01

    Patients with unilateral, parietal brain damage frequently show visual extinction, which manifests in a failure to identify contralesional stimuli when presented simultaneously with other, ipsilesional stimuli (but full awareness for single stimulus presentations). Extinction reflects an impairment of spatial selective attention, leaving basic preattentive processing unaffected. For instance, access to bilaterally grouped objects is usually spared in extinction, suggesting that grouping occurs at a stage preceding (in the patients: abnormally biased) spatial-attentional selection. Here, we reinvestigated this notion by comparing (largely between participants, but also within a single-case participant) conditions with objects that varied in their dominant direction of grouping: from the attended to the non-attended hemifield (data from Conci et al., 2009) versus from the non-attended to the attended hemifield (new data). We observe complete absence of extinction when shape completion extended from the attended hemifield. By contrast, extinction was not diminished when object groupings propagate from the unattended hemifield. Moreover, we found the individual severity of the attentional impairment (assessed by a standard "inattention" test) to be directly related to the degree of completion in the unattended hemifield. This pattern indicates that grouping can overcome visual extinction only when object integration departs from the attended visual field, implying, contrary to many previous accounts, that attention is crucial for grouping to be initiated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-07-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertaining to the maintenance of the filtration barrier and transport, respectively. For PECs, no specific function other than a structural one has been known until recently. Possible important functions for PECs in the fate of the glomerulus in glomerular disease have now become apparent: (1) PECs may be involved in the replacement of lost podocytes; (2) PECs form the basis of extracapillary proliferative lesions and subsequent sclerosis in glomerular disease. In addition to the acknowledgement that PECs are crucial in glomerular disease, knowledge has been gained regarding the molecular processes driving the phenotypic changes and behavior of PECs. Understanding these molecular processes is important for the development of specific therapeutic approaches aimed at either stimulation of the regenerative function of PECs or inhibition of the pro-sclerotic action of PECs. In this review, we discuss recent advances pertaining to the role of PECs in glomerular regeneration and disease and address the major molecular processes involved.

  13. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman's capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman's capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman's capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman's capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman's capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans.

  14. THE IMPACT OF LEFT HEMISPHERE STROKE ON FORCE CONTROL WITH FAMILIAR AND NOVEL OBJECTS: NEUROANATOMIC SUBSTRATES AND RELATIONSHIP TO APRAXIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Amanda M.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.; Duff, Susan V.

    2010-01-01

    Fingertip force scaling for lifting objects frequently occurs in anticipation of finger contact. An ongoing question concerns the types of memories that are used to inform predictive control. Object-specific information such as weight may be stored and retrieved when previously encountered objects are lifted again. Alternatively, visual size and shape cues may provide estimates of object density each time objects are encountered. We reasoned that differences in performance with familiar versus novel objects would provide support for the former possibility. Anticipatory force production with both familiar and novel objects was assessed in 6 left hemisphere stroke patients, 2 of whom exhibited deficient actions with familiar objects (ideomotor apraxia; IMA), along with 5 control subjects. In contrast to healthy controls and stroke participants without IMA, participants with IMA displayed poor anticipatory scaling with familiar objects. However, like the other groups, IMA participants learned to differentiate fingertip forces with repeated lifts of both familiar and novel objects. Finally, there was a significant correlation between damage to the inferior parietal and superior and middle temporal lobes, and impaired anticipatory control for familiar objects. These data support the hypotheses that anticipatory control during lifts of familiar objects in IMA patients are based on object-specific memories, and that the ventro-dorsal stream is involved in the long-term storage of internal models used for anticipatory scaling during object manipulation. PMID:19945445

  15. Parietal Wall Hydatid Cyst Presenting as a Primary Lesion | Gharde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydatid cyst is the disease of liver and lungs and is common in some regions especially sheep rearing countries of the world, but this disease may occur in any part of world and anywhere in the body. This report presents primary hydatid cysts located in intramuscular region of left side of the abdomen. A 54.year.old female ...

  16. Dysconnection of right parietal and frontal cortex in neglect syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Martin; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    network, rather than a disruption of computation in any particular brain region. To test this hypothesis, we used Bayesian analysis of effective connectivity based on electroencephalographic recordings in patients with left-sided neglect after a right-hemisphere lesion. While age-matched healthy controls...

  17. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson NS; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. Approach. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like ‘Face in a Crowd’ task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the ‘Crowd’) using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a ‘Crowd Off’ condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Main results. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Significance. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet

  18. The Impact of Auditory Working Memory Training on the Fronto-Parietal Working Memory Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSchneiders

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal working memory task or whether it generalizes to an (across-modal visual working memory task. We used an adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal auditory but not for the (across-modal visual 2-back task. Training-induced activation changes in the auditory 2-back task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extends intra-modal effects to the auditory modality. These results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes as in the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information. By this, these effects are analogical to the activation decreases in the right middle frontal gyrus for the visual modality in our previous study. Furthermore, task-unspecific (across-modal activation decreases in the visual and auditory 2-back task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demands on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with across-modal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual 2-back task reported previously.

  19. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously.

  20. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A.; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously. PMID:22701418

  1. Origin of parietal podocytes in atubular glomeruli mapped by lineage tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Kevin; Berger, Katja; Boor, Peter; Jirak, Peggy; Gelman, Irwin H; Arkill, Kenton P; Neal, Christopher R; Kriz, Wilhelm; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-01-01

    Parietal podocytes are fully differentiated podocytes lining Bowman's capsule where normally only parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are found. Parietal podocytes form throughout life and are regularly observed in human biopsies, particularly in atubular glomeruli of diseased kidneys; however, the origin of parietal podocytes is unresolved. To assess the capacity of PECs to transdifferentiate into parietal podocytes, we developed and characterized a novel method for creating atubular glomeruli by electrocoagulation of the renal cortex in mice. Electrocoagulation produced multiple atubular glomeruli containing PECs as well as parietal podocytes that projected from the vascular pole and lined Bowman's capsule. Notably, induction of cell death was evident in some PECs. In contrast, Bowman's capsules of control animals and normal glomeruli of electrocoagulated kidneys rarely contained podocytes. PECs and podocytes were traced by inducible and irreversible genetic tagging using triple transgenic mice (PEC- or Pod-rtTA/LC1/R26R). Examination of serial cryosections indicated that visceral podocytes migrated onto Bowman's capsule via the vascular stalk; direct transdifferentiation from PECs to podocytes was not observed. Similar results were obtained in a unilateral ureter obstruction model and in human diseased kidney biopsies, in which overlap of PEC- or podocyte-specific antibody staining indicative of gradual differentiation did not occur. These results suggest that induction of atubular glomeruli leads to ablation of PECs and subsequent migration of visceral podocytes onto Bowman's capsule, rather than transdifferentiation from PECs to parietal podocytes.

  2. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  3. Isolation, culture and adenoviral transduction of parietal cells from mouse gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliddon, Briony L; Nguyen, Nhung V; Gunn, Priscilla A; Gleeson, Paul A; Driel, Ian R van [The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: i.vandriel@unimelb.edu.au

    2008-09-01

    Here we describe a method for the isolation of intact gastric glands from mice and primary culture and transfection of mouse gastric epithelial cells. Collagenase digestion of PBS-perfused mouse stomachs released large intact gastric glands that were plated on a basement membrane matrix. The heterogeneous gland cell cultures typically contain {approx}60% parietal cells. Isolated mouse parietal cells remain viable in culture for up to 5 days and react strongly with an antibody specific to the gastric H{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase. Isolated intact mouse gastric glands and primary cultures of mouse parietal cells respond to the secretagogue, histamine. Typical morphological changes from a resting to an acid-secreting active parietal cell were observed. In resting cultures of mouse parietal cells, the H{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase displayed a cytoplasmic punctate staining pattern consistent with tubulovesicle element structures. Following histamine stimulation, an expansion of internal apical vacuole structures was observed together with a pronounced redistribution of the H{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase from the cytoplasm to the apical vacuoles. A reproducible procedure to express genes of interest exogenously in these cultures of mouse parietal cells was also established. This method combines recombinant adenoviral transduction with magnetic field-assisted transfection resulting in {approx}30% transduced parietal cells. Adenoviral-transduced parietal cells maintain their ability to undergo agonist-induced activation. This protocol will be useful for the isolation, culture and expression of genes in parietal cells from genetically modified mice and as such will be an invaluable tool for studying the complex exocytic and endocytic trafficking events of the H{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase which underpin the regulation of acid secretion.

  4. Isolation, culture and adenoviral transduction of parietal cells from mouse gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliddon, Briony L; Nguyen, Nhung V; Gunn, Priscilla A; Gleeson, Paul A; Driel, Ian R van

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe a method for the isolation of intact gastric glands from mice and primary culture and transfection of mouse gastric epithelial cells. Collagenase digestion of PBS-perfused mouse stomachs released large intact gastric glands that were plated on a basement membrane matrix. The heterogeneous gland cell cultures typically contain ∼60% parietal cells. Isolated mouse parietal cells remain viable in culture for up to 5 days and react strongly with an antibody specific to the gastric H + /K + ATPase. Isolated intact mouse gastric glands and primary cultures of mouse parietal cells respond to the secretagogue, histamine. Typical morphological changes from a resting to an acid-secreting active parietal cell were observed. In resting cultures of mouse parietal cells, the H + /K + ATPase displayed a cytoplasmic punctate staining pattern consistent with tubulovesicle element structures. Following histamine stimulation, an expansion of internal apical vacuole structures was observed together with a pronounced redistribution of the H + /K + ATPase from the cytoplasm to the apical vacuoles. A reproducible procedure to express genes of interest exogenously in these cultures of mouse parietal cells was also established. This method combines recombinant adenoviral transduction with magnetic field-assisted transfection resulting in ∼30% transduced parietal cells. Adenoviral-transduced parietal cells maintain their ability to undergo agonist-induced activation. This protocol will be useful for the isolation, culture and expression of genes in parietal cells from genetically modified mice and as such will be an invaluable tool for studying the complex exocytic and endocytic trafficking events of the H + /K + ATPase which underpin the regulation of acid secretion

  5. An MRI Study of Superior Temporal Gyrus Volume in Women With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, Chandlee C.; McCarley, Robert William; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Seidman, Larry Joel; Demeo, Susan; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Objective: An abnormal superior temporal gyrus has figured prominently in schizophrenia research, and left superior temporal gyrus volume has been shown to be smaller in male subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. This is the first structural magnetic resonance imaging study to examine a group of female subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. Method: The superior temporal gyrus was drawn on coronal images acquired from female subjects recruited from the community (schizotypal...

  6. Hand Shape Representations in the Human Posterior Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaes, Christian; Kellis, Spencer; Aflalo, Tyson; Lee, Brian; Pejsa, Kelsie; Shanfield, Kathleen; Hayes-Jackson, Stephanie; Aisen, Mindy; Heck, Christi; Liu, Charles; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-11-18

    Humans shape their hands to grasp, manipulate objects, and to communicate. From nonhuman primate studies, we know that visual and motor properties for grasps can be derived from cells in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Are non-grasp-related hand shapes in humans represented similarly? Here we show for the first time how single neurons in the PPC of humans are selective for particular imagined hand shapes independent of graspable objects. We find that motor imagery to shape the hand can be successfully decoded from the PPC by implementing a version of the popular Rock-Paper-Scissors game and its extension Rock-Paper-Scissors-Lizard-Spock. By simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory cues, we can discriminate motor imagery from visual information and show differences in auditory and visual information processing in the PPC. These results also demonstrate that neural signals from human PPC can be used to drive a dexterous cortical neuroprosthesis. This study shows for the first time hand-shape decoding from human PPC. Unlike nonhuman primate studies in which the visual stimuli are the objects to be grasped, the visually cued hand shapes that we use are independent of the stimuli. Furthermore, we can show that distinct neuronal populations are activated for the visual cue and the imagined hand shape. Additionally we found that auditory and visual stimuli that cue the same hand shape are processed differently in PPC. Early on in a trial, only the visual stimuli and not the auditory stimuli can be decoded. During the later stages of a trial, the motor imagery for a particular hand shape can be decoded for both modalities. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515466-11$15.00/0.

  7. Podocyte and Parietal Epithelial Cell Interactions in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hussain, Turki; Al Mana, Hadeel; Hussein, Maged H; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy. In crescentic glomerulonephritis necrotizing injury of the glomerular tuft results in activation and leakage of fibrinogen which provides the trigger for excessive proliferation of PrECs giving rise to glomerular crescents. In cases of collapsing glomerulopathy, podocyte injury causes collapse of the glomerular capillaries and activation and proliferation of PrECs, which accumulate within the urinary space in the form of pseudocrescents. Many of the noninflammatory glomerular lesions such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and global glomerulosclerosis also result from podocyte injury which causes variable loss of podocytes. In these cases podocyte injury leads to activation of PrECs that extend on to the glomerular tuft where they cause segmental and/or global sclerosis by producing excess matrix, resulting in obliteration of the capillary lumina. In diabetic nephropathy, in addition to increased matrix production in the mesangium and glomerular basement membranes, increased loss of podocytes is an important determinant of long-term prognosis. Contrary to prior belief there is no convincing evidence for an active podocyte proliferation in any of the above mentioned glomerulopathies.

  8. NEURAL CORRELATES FOR APATHY: FRONTAL - PREFRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICAL - SUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional invovlement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in every day life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC and basal ganglia; emotional affective apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; cognitive apathy may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of autoactivation may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to grey matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies and a reduced speedness in action decsion, major resposnible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control.We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  9. Neural Correlates for Apathy: Frontal-Prefrontal and Parietal Cortical- Subcortical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Signori, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basal ganglia; “emotional affective” apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; “cognitive apathy” may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of “autoactivation” may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to gray matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies, and a reduced speedness in action decision, major responsible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control. We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  10. Enfermedad hidatídica diseminada con localización mediastinal como causa de síndrome de vena cava superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pinto Valdivia

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidic illness is a frequent parasitic zoonosis in our country whose more frequent localization is the liver and the lungs. However other many sites have been described, depending their symptoms on the cyst’s size, localization and effect on next structures, being sometimes its evolution fatal. This is a 52 year-old female patient admitted at emergency room for dysfunction of sensory and neurological focalization. She had a previous history of surgery many years ago by abdominal tumor. We found a collateral circulation on right hemithorax and facial and arms edema at exam. The cerebral CT howed extensive left parietal parenchymal hemorrhage. Thoracoabdominal CT revealed multiple cystic masses of diverse sizes in the mediastinum, lungs, liver and other places. The patient’s evolution was torpid, the neurological compromise didn’t improve in spite of the treatment against the intracranial hypertension (EH, being also added a nosocomial pneumonia. The patient died after several days. Necropsy revealed presence of cystic lesions in mediastinum, heart’s great vessels, pericardium, lungs, liver, spleen and mentum, as well as intra and extraparenchymal hemorrhages of hypertensive cause in brain, not being cystic lesions in central nervous system. We concluded that it was disseminated hydatidic illness, cysts in the mediastinum caused compression of the heart’s great vessels, causing a superior cave vein syndrome. ( Rev Med Hered 2001; 12: 142-149

  11. Tratamento da síndrome da veia cava superior Treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Inaco Cirino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A veia cava superior é formada pela união das duas veias inominadas, direita e esquerda, e localiza-se no mediastino médio, à direita da artéria aorta e anteriormente à traquéia. A síndrome da veia cava superior representa um conjunto de sinais (dilatação das veias do pescoço, pletora facial, edema de membros superiores, cianose e sintomas (cefaléia, dispnéia, tosse, edema de membro superior, ortopnéia e disfagia decorrentes da obstrução do fluxo sanguíneo através da veia cava superior em direção ao átrio direito. A obstrução pode ser causada por compressão extrínseca, invasão tumoral, trombose ou por dificuldade do retorno venoso ao coração secundária a doenças intra-atriais ou intraluminais. Aproximadamente 73% a 97% dos casos de síndrome da veia cava superior ocorrem durante a evolução de processos malignos intratorácicos. A maioria dos pacientes com a síndrome secundária a neoplasias malignas é tratada sem necessidade de cirurgia, através de radioterapia ou quimioterapia, ou através da colocação de stents endoluminais. Quando a síndrome é de etiologia benigna, o tratamento é feito através de medidas clínicas (anticoagulação, elevação da cabeça, etc. ou, em casos refratários, através de angioplastia, colocação de stents endoluminais e cirurgia.The superior vena cava is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins. It is located in the middle mediastinum, to the right of the aorta and anterior to the trachea. Superior vena cava syndrome consists of a group of signs (dilation of the veins in the neck, facial swelling, edema of the upper limbs, and cyanosis and symptoms (headache, dyspnea, cough, orthopnea and dysphagia caused by the obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava to the right atrium. This obstruction can be caused by extrinsic compression, tumor invasion or thrombosis. Such obstruction may also occur as a result of insufficient venous return

  12. Distinctive laterality of neural networks supporting action understanding in left- and right-handed individuals: An EEG coherence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rachel; Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that perspective and handedness of observed actions can affect action understanding differently in right and left-handed persons, suggesting potential differences in the neural networks underlying action understanding between right and left-handed individuals. We sought to evaluate potential differences in these neural networks using electroencephalography (EEG). Right- and left-handed participants observed images of tool-use actions from egocentric and allocentric perspectives, with right- and left-handed actors performing the actions. Participants judged the outcome of the observed actions, and response accuracy and latency were recorded. Behaviorally, the highest accuracy and shortest latency was found in the egocentric perspective for right- and left-handed observers. Handedness of subject showed an effect on accuracy and latency also, where right-handed observers were faster to respond than left-handed observers, but on average were less accurate. Mu band (8-10 Hz) cortico-cortical coherence analysis indicated that right-handed observers have coherence in the motor dominant left parietal-premotor networks when looking at an egocentric right or allocentric left hands. When looking in an egocentric perspective at a left hand or allocentric right hand, coherence was lateralized to right parietal-premotor areas. In left-handed observers, bilateral parietal-premotor coherence patterns were observed regardless of actor handedness. These findings suggest that the cortical networks involved in understanding action outcomes are dependent on hand dominance, and notably right handed participants seem to utilize motor systems based on the limb seen performing the action. The decreased accuracy for right-handed participants on allocentric images could be due to asymmetrical lateralization of encoding action and motoric dominance, which may interfere with translating allocentric limb action outcomes. Further neurophysiological studies will

  13. The oft-neglected role of parietal EEG asymmetry and risk for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer L; Towers, David N; Coan, James A; Allen, John J B

    2011-01-01

    Relatively less right parietal activity may reflect reduced arousal and signify risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). Inconsistent findings with parietal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, however, suggest issues such as anxiety comorbidity and sex differences have yet to be resolved. Resting parietal EEG asymmetry was assessed in 306 individuals (31% male) with (n=143) and without (n=163) a DSM-IV diagnosis of lifetime MDD and no comorbid anxiety disorders. Past MDD+ women displayed relatively less right parietal activity than current MDD+ and MDD- women, replicating prior work. Recent caffeine intake, an index of arousal, moderated the relationship between depression and EEG asymmetry for women and men. Findings suggest that sex differences and arousal should be examined in studies of depression and regional brain activity. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Global increase in task-related fronto-parietal activity after focal frontal lobe lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Bor, Daniel; Duncan, John

    2013-09-01

    A critical question for neuropsychology is how complex brain networks react to damage. Here, we address this question for the well-known executive control or multiple-demand (MD) system, a fronto-parietal network showing increased activity with many different kinds of cognitive demand, including standard tests of fluid intelligence. Using fMRI, we ask how focal frontal lobe damage affects MD activity during a standard fluid intelligence task. Despite poor behavioral performance, frontal patients showed increased fronto-parietal activity relative to controls. The activation difference was not accounted for by difference in IQ. Moreover, rather than specific focus on perilesional or contralesional cortex, additional recruitment was distributed throughout the MD regions and surrounding cortex and included parietal MD regions distant from the injury. The data suggest that, following local frontal lobe damage, there is a global compensatory recruitment of an adaptive and integrated fronto-parietal network.

  15. Simultaneous Idiopathic Dissections of the Coronary and Superior Mesenteric Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Masato; Sueta, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Hokimoto, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    A 49-year-old man complained of sudden upper abdominal pain but was not given a definitive diagnosis. The day after he was discharged, he noticed left chest pain. An in-depth electrocardiogram indicated acute myocardial infarction, and emergent coronary angiography revealed 99% stenosis of his left coronary artery. An intravascular ultrasound revealed spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), and the lesion was successfully stented. In an atherosclerosis screening, superior mesenteric artery dissection (SMAD) was confirmed, after which the lesion was successfully stented. This case suggests that SCAD and SMAD might have similar pathological backgrounds. PMID:28566599

  16. Detailed anatomy of a left accessory aberrant colic artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Vlad, M; Voinea, L M; Curcă, G C; Sişu, A M

    2008-10-01

    In an aged human female cadaver a left accessory aberrant colic artery (LAACA) was observed and studied. It originated from the superior mesenteric artery at 3 cm proximal to the middle colic artery, at the inferior border of pancreas, passing over Treitz's muscle and continued covered by the superior duodenal fold where it crossed the inferior mesenteric vein. Further, it continued with a satellite vein anterior to the left renal vein and the anterior branch of the renal artery. The LAACA divided into an ascending branch and a descending one, anastomosed with the middle colic and proper left colic arteries; between its two primary branches and the splenic flexure of colon, a hypovascular area was observed. The surgical relevance of the LAACA detailed anatomy mainly relates to specific procedures performed in left colectomies and nephrectomies.

  17. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  18. The rehabilitative effects on written language of a combined language and parietal dual-tDCS treatment in a stroke case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommaso, Barbara; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Caglio, Marcella M; D'Agata, Federico; Campagnoli, Marcello; Orsi, Laura; Raimondo, Simona; Vighetti, Sergio; Mortara, Paolo; Massazza, Giuseppe; Pinessi, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we report the effect of a combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and speech language therapy on linguistic deficits following left brain damage in a stroke case. We show that simultaneous electrical excitatory stimulation to the left and inhibitory stimulation to the right parietal regions (dual-tDCS) affected writing and reading rehabilitation, enhancing speech therapy outcomes. The results of a comparison with healthy controls showed that application of dual-tDCS could improve, in particular, sub-lexical transcoding and, specifically, the reading of non-words with increasing length and complexity. Positive repercussions on patient's quality of functional communication were also ascertained. Significant changes were also found in other language and cognitive tasks not directly treated (comprehension and constructive apraxia).

  19. The compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Bilateral front-parietal polymicrogyria accompanied by cobblestone lissencephaly: 3T MR imaging findings of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Y.; Battal, B.; Ozcan, E.; Kocaoglu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Background: The cerebral cortex develops in three overlapping stages: cell proliferation, neuronal migration, and cortical organization. Lissencephaly (smooth brain) is a severe malformation of the cerebral cortex that results from impaired neuronal migration. Polymicrogyria is a disorder of late migration or cortical organization, and supposed to reflect a disruption of normal neuronal migration with subsequent disordered cortical organization. A combination of cobblestone lissencephaly and polymicrogyria is very rare in the same patient's brain. Objective: To present clinical and 3T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a 17-year-old male with bilateral fronto-parietal polimicrogyria accompanied by cobblestone lissencaphaly. Materials and methods: A 17-year-old male who had seizures and involuntary muscular spasm from birth, was referred to our Hospital. The patient was evaluated by a complete history, physical examination, a laboratory work-up, and cranial MR examination for evaluate the central nervous system. Results: A sharp wave paroxysm in the left temporal area was observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The neurological examination of our patient was normal. A slight increase have seen in the aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) levels. The other biochemical tests were found to be normal. Cranial MR imaging showed an irregular nodular cortex with hypomyelination of the white matter at the lateral and posterior part of the right occipital lobe. We also observed the changes compatible with polymicrogyria in a large area of the medial parts of the bilateral temporal and parietal lobes. Conclusion: The role of radiological modalities for diagnosis of cortical formation disorders are very important. MR imaging are fairly useful for evaluation of these anomalies

  1. Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery following polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dennis [Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Legiehn, Gerald M. [Vancouver General Hospital, Interventional Radiology, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Munk, Peter L. [Vancouver General Hospital, MSK Section, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and often secondary to pelvic fractures, blunt or penetrating trauma. We describe a case of a superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm that presented as back pain with numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. Diagnosis was confirmed by color Doppler sonography and angiography. A proximal and distal control was obtained over the aneurysm neck via coil embolization with excellent hemostasis within the pseudoaneurysm and maintenance of perfusion to the left pelvis. (orig.)

  2. Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery following polytrauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dennis; Legiehn, Gerald M.; Munk, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and often secondary to pelvic fractures, blunt or penetrating trauma. We describe a case of a superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm that presented as back pain with numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. Diagnosis was confirmed by color Doppler sonography and angiography. A proximal and distal control was obtained over the aneurysm neck via coil embolization with excellent hemostasis within the pseudoaneurysm and maintenance of perfusion to the left pelvis. (orig.)

  3. Interventional embolectomy for acute superior mesenteric artery embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuan; Ouyang Qiang; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of percutaneous embolectomy for treatment of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism. Methods: 34 cases (atrial fibrillation 14 cases; left atrium myxoma 2 cases; SMA thrombosis 15 cases and chronic mesenteric ischemia 3 cases) of acute mesenteric artery embolism were treated with percutaneous embolectomy using long sheath aspiration method and/or thrombolysis via catheterization of the SMA. Results: Successful recanalizations were achieved in all of the 34 superior mesenteric arterial embolism including recovery in 31 cases, laparotomy for 2 cases, and 1 died within 24 hours. Conclusions: Percutaneous embolectomy using long sheath aspiration is a simple and effective method for treatment of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism. A correct pathogenetic diagnosis is the key to improve the curative effect and avoid the severe complication. (authors)

  4. Vena cava superior izquierda persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Restrepo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La vena cava superior izquierda persistente es la anomalía más común del drenaje venoso del tórax y con frecuencia acompaña a otras anomalías congénitas. Generalmente, su hallazgo es incidental durante la inserción de catéteres venosos centrales. Su diagnóstico puede hacerse por medio de múltiples técnicas de imagen. El principal hallazgo ecocardiográfico es un seno coronario dilatado que sugiere la presencia de vena cava superior izquierda persistente. Cuando ésta drena en la aurícula izquierda, urge la corrección del defecto. Aunque habitualmente tiene un curso benigno, siempre que se documente vena cava superior izquierda conviene buscar otras anomalías congénitas.

  5. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  6. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  7. Early math achievement and functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert W; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2012-02-15

    In this study we test the hypothesis that the functional connectivity of the frontal and parietal regions that children recruit during a basic numerical task (matching Arabic numerals to arrays of dots) is predictive of their math test scores (TEMA-3; Ginsburg, 2003). Specifically, we tested 4-11-year-old children on a matching task during fMRI to localize a fronto-parietal network that responds more strongly during numerical matching than matching faces, words, or shapes. We then tested the functional connectivity between those regions during an independent task: natural viewing of an educational video that included math topics. Using this novel natural viewing method, we found that the connectivity between frontal and parietal regions during task-independent free-viewing of educational material is correlated with children's basic number matching ability, as well as their scores on the standardized test of mathematical ability (the TEMA). The correlation between children's mathematics scores and fronto-parietal connectivity is math-specific in the sense that it is independent of children's verbal IQ scores. Moreover, a control network, selective for faces, showed no correlation with mathematics performance. Finally, brain regions that correlate with subjects' overall response times in the matching task do not account for our number- and math-related effects. We suggest that the functional intersection of number-related frontal and parietal regions is math-specific. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  9. Laminar Thickness Alterations in the Fronto-Parietal Cortical Mantle of Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Fernández, Vanesa Richarte; Picado, Marisol; Bosch, Rosa; Soliva, Juan Carlos; Rovira, Mariana; Vives, Yolanda; Bulbena, Antonio; Tobeña, Adolf; Casas, Miguel; Vilarroya, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was initially regarded as a disorder exclusive to childhood, nowadays its prevalence in adulthood is well established. The development of novel techniques for quantifying the thickness of the cerebral mantle allows the further exploration of the neuroanatomical profiles underlying the child and adult form of the disorder. To examine the cortical mantle in children and adults with ADHD, we applied a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness to anatomical brain MRI scans acquired from children with (n = 43) and without ADHD (n = 41), as well as a group of adult neurotypical individuals (n = 31), adult patients with a history of stimulant treatment (n = 31) and medication-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 24). We observed several clusters of reduced laminar cortical thickness in ADHD patients in comparison to neurotypical individuals. These differences were primarily located in the dorsal attention network, including the bilateral inferior and superior parietal cortex and a section of the frontal cortex (centered on the superior frontal and precentral gyrus bilaterally). Further laminar thickness deficits were observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial occipital cortex. The deficits in the cortical surface were especially pronounced in the child sample, while adult patients showed a more typical laminar thickness across the cerebral mantle. These findings show that the neuroanatomical profile of ADHD, especially the childhood form of the disorder, involves robust alterations in the cortical mantle, which are most prominent in brain regions subserving attentional processing. PMID:23239964

  10. Laminar thickness alterations in the fronto-parietal cortical mantle of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elseline Hoekzema

    Full Text Available Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD was initially regarded as a disorder exclusive to childhood, nowadays its prevalence in adulthood is well established. The development of novel techniques for quantifying the thickness of the cerebral mantle allows the further exploration of the neuroanatomical profiles underlying the child and adult form of the disorder. To examine the cortical mantle in children and adults with ADHD, we applied a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness to anatomical brain MRI scans acquired from children with (n = 43 and without ADHD (n = 41, as well as a group of adult neurotypical individuals (n = 31, adult patients with a history of stimulant treatment (n = 31 and medication-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 24. We observed several clusters of reduced laminar cortical thickness in ADHD patients in comparison to neurotypical individuals. These differences were primarily located in the dorsal attention network, including the bilateral inferior and superior parietal cortex and a section of the frontal cortex (centered on the superior frontal and precentral gyrus bilaterally. Further laminar thickness deficits were observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial occipital cortex. The deficits in the cortical surface were especially pronounced in the child sample, while adult patients showed a more typical laminar thickness across the cerebral mantle. These findings show that the neuroanatomical profile of ADHD, especially the childhood form of the disorder, involves robust alterations in the cortical mantle, which are most prominent in brain regions subserving attentional processing.

  11. Cognitive signals for brain-machine interfaces in posterior parietal cortex include continuous 3D trajectory commands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Markus; Mulliken, Grant H; Fineman, Igor; Loeb, Gerald E; Andersen, Richard A

    2012-10-16

    Cortical neural prosthetics extract command signals from the brain with the goal to restore function in paralyzed or amputated patients. Continuous control signals can be extracted from the motor cortical areas, whereas neural activity from posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can be used to decode cognitive variables related to the goals of movement. Because typical activities of daily living comprise both continuous control tasks such as reaching, and tasks benefiting from discrete control such as typing on a keyboard, availability of both signals simultaneously would promise significant increases in performance and versatility. Here, we show that PPC can provide 3D hand trajectory information under natural conditions that would be encountered for prosthetic applications, thus allowing simultaneous extraction of continuous and discrete signals without requiring multisite surgical implants. We found that limb movements can be decoded robustly and with high accuracy from a small population of neural units under free gaze in a complex 3D point-to-point reaching task. Both animals' brain-control performance improved rapidly with practice, resulting in faster target acquisition and increasing accuracy. These findings disprove the notion that the motor cortical areas are the only candidate areas for continuous prosthetic command signals and, rather, suggests that PPC can provide equally useful trajectory signals in addition to discrete, cognitive variables. Hybrid use of continuous and discrete signals from PPC may enable a new generation of neural prostheses providing superior performance and additional flexibility in addressing individual patient needs.

  12. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-08-16

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception.

  13. Parietal theta burst TMS: Functional fractionation observed during bistable perception not evident in attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Kanai, Ryota; Brascamp, Jan W

    2016-02-01

    When visual input is ambiguous, perception spontaneously alternates between interpretations: bistable perception. Studies have identified two distinct sites near the right intraparietal sulcus where inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the frequency of occurrence of these alternations, but strikingly with opposite directions of effect for the two sites. Lesion and TMS studies on spatial and sustained attention have also indicated a parcellation of right parietal cortex, into areas serving distinct attentional functions. We used the exact TMS procedure previously employed to affect bistable perception, yet measured its effect on spatial and sustained attention tasks. Although there was a trend for TMS to affect performance, trends were consistently similar for both parietal sites, with no indication of opposite effects. We interpret this as signifying that the previously observed parietal fractionation of function regarding the perception of ambiguous stimuli is not due to TMS-induced modification of spatial or sustained attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of human intention understanding in temporo-parietal cortex: a combined EEG/fMRI repetition suppression paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ortigue

    Full Text Available Inferring the intentions of other people from their actions recruits an inferior fronto-parietal action observation network as well as a putative social network that includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS. However, the functional dynamics within and among these networks remains unclear. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and high-density electroencephalogram (EEG, with a repetition suppression design, to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of decoding intentions. Suppression of fMRI activity to the repetition of the same intention was observed in inferior frontal lobe, anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, and right STS. EEG global field power was reduced with repeated intentions at an early (starting at 60 ms and a later (approximately 330 ms period after the onset of a hand-on-object encounter. Source localization during these two intervals involved right STS and aIPS regions highly consistent with RS effects observed with fMRI. These results reveal the dynamic involvement of temporal and parietal networks at multiple stages during the intention decoding and without a strict segregation of intention decoding between these networks.

  15. Primary culture of secretagogue-responsive parietal cells from rabbit gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, C.S.; Ljungstroem, M.S.; Smolka, A.; Brown, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    A new procedure for isolation and primary culture of gastric parietal cells is described. Parietal cells from rabbit gastric mucosa are enriched to greater than 95% purity by combining a Nycodenz gradient separation with centrifugal elutriation. Cells are plated on the basement membrane matrix, Matrigel, and maintained in culture for at least 1 wk. Parietal cells cultured in this manner remain differentiated, cross-react with monoclonal H+-K+-ATPase antibodies, and respond to histamine, gastrin, and cholinergic stimulation with increased acid production as measured by accumulation of the weak base, [ 14 C]aminopyrine. When stimulated, cultured cells undergo ultrastructural changes in which intracellular canaliculi expand and numerous microvilli are observed. These ultrastructural changes are similar to those previously found to occur in vivo and in acutely isolated parietal cells. Morphological transformations in living cells can also be observed with differential interference contrast optics in the light microscope. After histamine stimulation, intracellular canaliculi gradually expand to form large vacuolar spaces. When the H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, is added to histamine-stimulated cells, these vacuoles gradually disappear. The ability to maintain hormonally responsive parietal cells in primary culture should make it possible to study direct, long-term effects of a variety of agonists and antagonists on parietal cell secretory-related activity. These cultured cells should also prove to be useful for the study of calcium transients, ion fluxes, and intracellular pH as related to acid secretion in single cells, particularly since morphological transformations can be used to monitor physiological responses at the same time within the same cell

  16. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hanken

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. Methods: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1,5mA was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20min of a 40min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5mA over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. TDCS was delivered for 20min before patients performed a 20min lasting visual vigilance task.Results: Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in reaction time associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation.Conclusions: Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in reaction times during vigilance performance but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  17. Analysis of cell hyperplasia and parietal cell dysfunction induced by Ostertagia ostertagi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihi, Belgacem; Van Meulder, Frederik; Rinaldi, Manuela; Van Coppernolle, Stefanie; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Goddeeris, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-12-11

    Infections in cattle with the gastric nematode Ostertagia ostertagi are associated with decreased acid secretion and profound physio-morphological changes of the gastric mucosa. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the mechanisms triggering these pathophysiological changes. O. ostertagi infection resulted in a marked cellular hyperplasia, which can be explained by increased transcriptional levels of signaling molecules related to the homeostasis of gastric epithelial cells such as HES1, WNT5A, FGF10, HB-EGF, AREG, ADAM10 and ADAM17. Intriguingly, histological analysis indicated that the rapid rise in the gastric pH, observed following the emergence of adult worms, cannot be explained by a loss of parietal cells, as a decrease in the number of parietal cells was only observed following a long term infection of several weeks, but is likely to be caused by an inhibition of parietal cell activity. To investigate whether this inhibition is caused by a direct effect of the parasites, parietal cells were co-cultured with parasite Excretory/Secretory products (ESP) and subsequently analyzed for acid production. The results indicate that adult ESP inhibited acid secretion, whereas ESP from the L4 larval stages did not alter parietal cell function. In addition, our data show that the inhibition of parietal cell activity could be mediated by a marked upregulation of inflammatory factors, which are partly induced by adult ESP in abomasal epithelial cells. In conclusion, this study shows that the emergence of adult O. ostertagi worms is associated with marked cellular changes that can be partly triggered by the worm's Excretory/secretory antigens.

  18. Optimized gamma synchronization enhances functional binding of fronto-parietal cortices in mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As enhanced fronto-parietal network has been suggested to support reasoning ability of math-gifted adolescents, the main goal of this EEG source analysis is to investigate the temporal binding of the gamma-band (30-60Hz synchronization between frontal and parietal cortices in adolescents with exceptional mathematical ability, including the functional connectivity of gamma neurocognitive network, the temporal dynamics of fronto-parietal network (phase-locking durations and network lability in time domain, and the self-organized criticality of synchronizing oscillation. Compared with the average-ability subjects, the math-gifted adolescents show a highly integrated fronto-parietal network due to distant gamma phase-locking oscillations, which is indicated by lower modularity of the global network topology, more connector bridges between the frontal and parietal cortices and less connector hubs in the sensorimotor cortex. The time-domain analysis finds that, while maintaining more stable phase dynamics of the fronto-parietal coupling, the math-gifted adolescents are characterized by more extensive fronto-parietal connection reconfiguration. The results from sample fitting in the power-law model further find that the phase-locking durations in the math-gifted brain abides by a wider interval of the power-law distribution. This phase-lock distribution mechanism could represent a relatively optimized pattern for the functional binding of frontal-parietal network, which underlies stable fronto-parietal connectivity and increases flexibility of timely network reconfiguration.

  19. Multimodal responses induced by cortical stimulation of the parietal lobe: a stereo-electroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Castana, Laura; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Marino, Daniela; Provinciali, Leandro; Cardinale, Francesco; Tassi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The functional complexity of the parietal lobe still represents a challenge for neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies. While the somatosensory functions of the anterior parietal cortex are well established, the posterior parietal cortex has a relevant role in processing the sensory information, including visuo-spatial perception, visual attention, visuo-motor transformations and other complex and not completely understood functions. We retrospectively analysed all the clinical manifestations induced by intracerebral bipolar electrical stimulation in 172 patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy (mean age 25.6, standard deviation 11.6; 44% females and 56% males) with at least one electrode stereotactically implanted in the parietal cortex. A total of 1186 electrical stimulations were included in the analysis, of which 88 were subsequently excluded because of eliciting pathological electric activity or inducing ictal symptomatology. In the dominant parietal lobe, clinical responses were observed for 56 (25%) of the low-frequency stimulations and for 76 (50%) of the high-frequency stimulations. In the non-dominant parietal lobe, 111 (27%) low-frequency and 176 (55%) high-frequency stimulations were associated with a clinical response. Body scheme alteration was the only clinical effect showing a lateralization, as they were evoked only in the non-dominant hemisphere. The occurrence of somatosensory sensations, motor symptoms, dysarthria and multimodal responses were significantly associated with stimulation of the postcentral gyrus (odds ratio: 5.83, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 8.77, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 5.44, P = 0.011; odds ratio: 8.33, P = 0.006; respectively). Stimulation of the intraparietal sulcus was associated with the occurrence of sensory illusions or hallucinations (odds ratio: 8.68, P < 0.001) and eyeball/eyelid movements or sensations (odds ratio: 4.35, P = 0.047). To our knowledge, this is the only currently available complete

  20. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  1. Mental space travel: damage to posterior parietal cortex prevents egocentric navigation and reexperiencing of remote spatial memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Solcz, Stephanie; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2010-05-01

    The ability to navigate in a familiar environment depends on both an intact mental representation of allocentric spatial information and the integrity of systems supporting complementary egocentric representations. Although the hippocampus has been implicated in learning new allocentric spatial information, converging evidence suggests that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might support egocentric representations. To date, however, few studies have examined long-standing egocentric representations of environments learned long ago. Here we tested 7 patients with focal lesions in PPC and 12 normal controls in remote spatial memory tasks, including 2 tasks reportedly reliant on allocentric representations (distance and proximity judgments) and 2 tasks reportedly reliant on egocentric representations (landmark sequencing and route navigation; see Rosenbaum, Ziegler, Winocur, Grady, & Moscovitch, 2004). Patients were unimpaired in distance and proximity judgments. In contrast, they all failed in route navigation, and left-lesioned patients also showed marginally impaired performance in landmark sequencing. Patients' subjective experience associated with navigation was impoverished and disembodied compared with that of the controls. These results suggest that PPC is crucial for accessing remote spatial memories within an egocentric reference frame that enables both navigation and reexperiencing. Additionally, PPC was found to be necessary to implement specific aspects of allocentric navigation with high demands on spontaneous retrieval. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The parietal opercular auditory-sensorimotor network in musicians: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2018-02-01

    Auditory-sensorimotor coupling is critical for musical performance, during which auditory and somatosensory feedback signals are used to ensure desired outputs. Previous studies reported opercular activation in subjects performing or listening to music. A functional connectivity analysis suggested the parietal operculum (PO) as a connector hub that links auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortical areas. We therefore examined whether this PO network differs between musicians and non-musicians. We analyzed resting-state PO functional connectivity with Heschl's gyrus (HG), the planum temporale (PT), the precentral gyrus (preCG), and the postcentral gyrus (postCG) in 35 musicians and 35 non-musicians. In musicians, the left PO exhibited increased functional connectivity with the ipsilateral HG, PT, preCG, and postCG, whereas the right PO exhibited enhanced functional connectivity with the contralateral HG, preCG, and postCG and the ipsilateral postCG. Direct functional connectivity between an auditory area (the HG or PT) and a sensorimotor area (the preCG or postCG) did not significantly differ between the groups. The PO's functional connectivity with auditory and sensorimotor areas is enhanced in musicians relative to non-musicians. We propose that the PO network facilitates musical performance by mediating multimodal integration for modulating auditory-sensorimotor control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of the Left Supramarginal Gyrus in Manipulation Judgment Tasks: Contributions to Theories of Tool Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Mathieu; Osiurak, François; Navarro, Jordan; Reynaud, Emanuelle

    2017-09-01

    Two theories of tool use, namely the gesture engram and the technical reasoning theories, make distinct predictions about the involvement of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in manipulation judgement tasks. The objective here is to test these alternative predictions based on previous studies on manipulation judgment tasks using transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) targeting the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). We review recent TMS studies on manipulation judgement tasks and confront these data with predictions made by both tool use theories. The left SMG is a highly intertwined region, organized following several functionally distinct areas and TMS may have disrupted a cortical network involved in the ability to use tools rather than only one functional area supporting manipulation knowledge. Moreover, manipulation judgement tasks may be impaired following virtual lesions outside the IPL. These data are more in line with the technical reasoning hypothesis, which assumes that the left IPL does not store manipulation knowledge per se. (JINS, 2017, 23, 685-691).

  4. Disruptions in the left frontoparietal network underlie resting state endophenotypic markers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, George; Richter, Anja; Wolter, Sarah; Goya-Maldonado, Roberto; Gruber, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Advances in functional brain imaging have improved the search for potential endophenotypic markers in schizophrenia. Here, we employed independent component analysis (ICA) and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) in resting state fMRI on a sample of 35 schizophrenia patients, 20 first-degree relatives and 35 control subjects. Analysis on ICA-derived networks revealed increased functional connectivity between the left frontoparietal network (FPN) and left temporal and parietal regions in schizophrenia patients (P schizophrenia patients from all other nodes of the left FPN (P schizophrenia has been previously associated with a range of abnormalities, including formal thought disorder, working memory dysfunction and sensory hallucinations. Our analysis uncovered new potential endophenotypic markers of schizophrenia and shed light on the organization of the left FPN in patients and their first-degree relatives. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1741-1750, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  6. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  7. Superior mediastinal syndrome: emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Richa; Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K; Singhi, Sunit

    2013-01-01

    Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (SVCS) refers to signs and symptoms caused by obstruction of the superior vena cava. Superior mediastinal syndrome (SMS) is the term used when SVCS coexists with obstruction of trachea. In children, a mediastinal pathology causing SVCS generally results in SMS as well, due to the limited chest volume. Hence, the two terms are often used interchangeably in children. SMS is a medical emergency that can be challenging, albeit often rewarding to manage. The common causes in a patient presenting to pediatric emergency room include non-Hodgkin lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Patients with SMS are at a very high risk for adverse cardio-respiratory events in case they are administered any kind of anesthetic agents, anxiolytics or sedatives. Investigations, including tissue diagnosis are desirable, though not mandatory, before initiating emergency management. The patient's clinical condition should dictate the speed, requirement and sequence of investigations and the specific treatment. The least invasive procedure should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. As the most common cause of SMS in children is lymphoma/leukemia, the administration of systemic steroids is often the front line therapy. Diagnosis, monitoring and management of SMS in relevance to the pediatric emergency room are outlined.

  8. The effects of left and right monocular viewing on hemispheric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Burtis, D Brandon; Ding, Mingzhou; Mo, Jue; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-03-01

    Prior research has revealed that whereas activation of the left hemisphere primarily increases the activity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, right-hemisphere activation increases the activity of the sympathetic division. In addition, each hemisphere primarily receives retinocollicular projections from the contralateral eye. A prior study reported that pupillary dilation was greater with left- than with right-eye monocular viewing. The goal of this study was to test the alternative hypotheses that this asymmetric pupil dilation with left-eye viewing was induced by activation of the right-hemispheric-mediated sympathetic activity, versus a reduction of left-hemisphere-mediated parasympathetic activity. Thus, this study was designed to learn whether there are changes in hemispheric activation, as measured by alteration of spontaneous alpha activity, during right versus left monocular viewing. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from healthy participants viewing a crosshair with their right, left, or both eyes. There was a significantly less alpha power over the right hemisphere's parietal-occipital area with left and binocular viewing than with right-eye monocular viewing. The greater relative reduction of right-hemisphere alpha activity during left than during right monocular viewing provides further evidence that left-eye viewing induces greater increase in right-hemisphere activation than does right-eye viewing.

  9. Impairment of language is related to left parieto-temporal glucose metabolism in aphasic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbe, H; Szelies, B; Herholz, K; Heiss, W D

    1990-02-01

    Twenty-six aphasic patients who had an ischaemic infarct in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) were investigated. Cranial computed tomography (CT) showed various lesion sites: infarcts restricted to cortical structures in 12 patients, combined cortical and subcortical infarcts in 7 and isolated subcortical infarcts sparing the left cortex in another 7 cases. 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed remote hypometabolism of the left convexity cortex and of the left basal ganglia, which was extended further than the morphological infarct zone in all cases. Types and degrees of aphasia were classified using the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT): 10 patients had global aphasia, 2 Broca's, 5 Wernicke's, and 5 amnesic aphasia. Four patients suffered from minimal or residual aphasic symptoms. The AAT results were compared with the regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose of the left hemisphere. Irrespective of the infarct location all five AAT subtests (Token test, repetition, written language, confrontation naming, auditory and reading comprehension) were closely correlated among each other and with left parieto-temporal metabolic rates, whereas left frontal and left basal ganglia metabolism showed no significant correlation. The close relation between left temporo-parietal functional activity and all five AAT subtests suggests that the different aspects of aphasia tested by AAT can be related to a common disorder of language processing in those areas.

  10. Functional interplay between posterior parietal and ipsilateral motor cortex revealed by twin-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation during reach planning toward contralateral space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Giacomo; Fernandez Del Olmo, Miguel; Cheeran, Binith; Schippling, Sven; Caltagirone, Carlo; Driver, Jon; Rothwell, John C

    2008-06-04

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has connections with motor and premotor cortex, thought to transfer information relevant for planning movements in space. We used twin-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (tcTMS) methods to show that the functional interplay between human right PPC and ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) varies with current motor plans. tcTMS during the reaction time of a reach task revealed facilitatory influences of right PPC on right M1 only when planning a (contralateral) leftward rather than rightward reach, at two specific time intervals (50 and 125 ms) after an auditory cue. The earlier reach-direction-specific facilitatory influence from PPC on M1 occurred when subjects were blindfolded or when the targets were presented briefly, so that visual feedback corrections could not occur. PPC-M1 interplay was similar within the left hemisphere but was specific to (contralateral) rightward planned reaches, with peaks at 50 and 100 ms. Functional interplay between human parietal and motor cortex is enhanced during early stages of planning a reach in the contralateral direction.

  11. Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

  12. The Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aderval Aragão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL links the margins of the suprascapular notch and converts it into a foramen, through which, the suprascapular nerve and, on some rare occasions, the suprascapular vessels pass. This conversion often results from partial or complete ossification of the STSL and may produce compressive symptoms in the suprascapular nerve. Material and Method. Twenty shoulders from human fetuses were dissected without the aid of optical instruments and, using a digital pachymeter of precision 0.01 millimeters, length measurements and thickness measurements were made. The fetal age was from 21 to 33 weeks of gestation, with a mean of 27.6±4.14 weeks. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in STSL length or any difference in the thicknesses at the medial and lateral extremities between the halves of the body (P≥0.05. However, in the left half of the body, the medial extremity of the STSL was significantly thinner than the lateral extremity (P≤0.05. Conclusion. Anatomical and morphometric details about the STSL were described in human fetuses. These findings, in fetuses, may encourage the pursuit of further studies to understand the morphofunctional role and meaning of this small ligament.

  13. The modern mythology of the left-handedness of Alexander the Great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C

    2006-11-01

    The prevalent modern suggestion that Alexander the Great was left-handed probably derives from Michael Barsley's (1966) book, Left-handed man is a right-handed word, perhaps by mutation from as earlier story cited by Wile in 1934 from a 17th century Rabbirical exegesis, which said that Alexander discovered a country where all the inhabitants were left-handed. That itself may derive in part from the medieval Hebrew Book of Jossippon, which mentions Alexander talking of the superiority of the left hand and of how "kings stemming from the tribe of kings are left-handed".

  14. Attentional Demands Predict Short-Term Memory Load Response in Posterior Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit; Emmanouil, Tatiana-Aloi; McMains, Stephanie A.; Kastner, Sabine; Treisman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Limits to the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) indicate a maximum storage of only 3 or 4 items. Recently, it has been suggested that activity in a specific part of the brain, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), is correlated with behavioral estimates of VSTM capacity and might reflect a capacity-limited store. In three experiments that…

  15. Primary cultures of glomerular parietal epithelial cells or podocytes with proven origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabgani, N.; Grigoleit, T.; Schulte, K.; Sechi, A.; Sauer-Lehnen, S.; Tag, C.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Warsow, G.; Schordan, S.; Mostertz, J.; Chilukoti, R.K.; Homuth, G.; Endlich, N.; Tacke, F.; Weiskirchen, R.; Fuellen, G.; Endlich, K.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) as well as in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In this study, transgenic mouse lines were used to isolate pure, genetically tagged primary cultures of PECs or

  16. Transfer of Cognitive Training across Magnitude Dimensions Achieved with Concurrent Brain Stimulation of the Parietal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaroli, Erica; Hithersay, Rosalyn; Mitolo, Micaela; Didino, Daniele; Kanai, Ryota; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in performance following cognitive training is known to be further enhanced when coupled with brain stimulation. Here we ask whether training-induced changes can be maintained long term and, crucially, whether they can extend to other related but untrained skills. We trained overall 40 human participants on a simple and well established paradigm assessing the ability to discriminate numerosity–or the number of items in a set–which is thought to rely on an “approximate number sense” (ANS) associated with parietal lobes. We coupled training with parietal stimulation in the form of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a noninvasive technique that modulates neural activity. This yielded significantly better and longer lasting improvement (up to 16 weeks post-training) of the precision of the ANS compared with cognitive training in absence of stimulation, stimulation in absence of cognitive training, and cognitive training coupled to stimulation to a control site (motor areas). Critically, only ANS improvement induced by parietal tRNS + Training transferred to proficiency in other parietal lobe-based quantity judgment, i.e., time and space discrimination, but not to quantity-unrelated tasks measuring attention, executive functions, and visual pattern recognition. These results indicate that coupling intensive cognitive training with tRNS to critical brain regions resulted not only in the greatest and longer lasting improvement of numerosity discrimination, but importantly in this enhancement being transferable when trained and untrained abilities are carefully chosen to share common cognitive and neuronal components. PMID:24027289

  17. Simultaneous maxillary sinus lifting and implant placement with autogenous parietal bone graft: outcome of 17 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Salah; Krenkel, Christian

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the surgical technique of sinus floor elevation with autogenous parietal bone grafting in conjunction with immediate dental implants for the reconstruction of the maxilla in deficient maxillary alveolar ridges. Seventeen patients who underwent sinus floor elevation with bone graft from the parietal bone between 2005 and 2007 were included in the study. Cases of extremely deficient bone level in the alveolar ridgeAnkylos®) with different length and diameter were placed immediately after the graft was placed. Strict oral hygiene was required for the patients. Presurgical and postsurgical panoramic radiographs were taken. A high-quality reconstruction with an increase in lifted sinus bone height was achieved with parietal bone particulates. Seventy-three implants were clinically osseointegrated and four implants were lost giving a success rate 94.8%. No correlation was found between failure and the surgery. The encouraging results of this study suggest that the technique of reconstruction of the sinus floor and the resorbed alveolar ridge using an autogenous parietal bone graft is reliable, giving the surgeon the opportunity to successfully perform immediate implant placement in more difficult and deficient maxillary alveolar bone height. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Interconnected Cortical Networks Between Primary Somatosensory Cortex Septal Columns and Posterior Parietal Cortex in Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Taehee; Alloway, Kevin D.; Kim, Uhnoh

    2011-01-01

    Visual and somesthetic cues are used for spatial processing in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of the mammalian brain. In rats, somatic information collected by the mystacial whiskers is critically involved in constructing a neural representation of the external space. Here, we delineated the

  19. Characterization of a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by murine parietal yolk sac (PYS-2) cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Woods, A; Höök, M

    1985-01-01

    A dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been isolated from a murine parietal yolk sac cell line, which in culture synthesizes basement membrane components. The proteoglycan has a molecular weight of 200,000-300,000 with 10-15 dermatan sulfate chains of Mr = 14,000-16,000. The glycosaminoglycan chains...

  20. The role of frontal and parietal brain areas in bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, T.; Brascamp, J.; Pearson, J.; van Ee, R.; Blake, R.

    2011-01-01

    When sensory input allows for multiple, competing perceptual interpretations, observers' perception can fluctuate over time, which is called bistable perception. Imaging studies in humans have revealed transient responses in a right-lateralized network in the frontal-parietal cortex (rFPC) around

  1. Analysis of dynamics and propagation of parietal cingulate seizures with secondary mesial temporal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubeissi, Mohamad Z; Jouny, Christophe C; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Bergey, Gregory K

    2009-01-01

    Cingulate-onset seizures, particularly those originating from parietal cingulate regions, are inadequately described and confounded by patterns of propagation. We analyzed scalp and depth electrode recordings in a patient whose seizures originated from a lesion in the right posterior cingulate region and produced secondary seizure activity in ipsilateral mesial temporal structures. Analyses included the matching pursuit (MP) method of time-frequency decomposition and the Gabor atom density (GAD) measure of signal complexity. Although scalp recordings suggested a right temporal onset, seizures recorded with depth electrodes clearly began in the parietal cingulate region before producing a secondary discharge in ipsilateral mesial structures. GAD revealed a significant increase in complexity during ictal cingulate activity and a consistent pattern of subsequent complexity changes in the hippocampus 30 seconds later. MP and GAD measures were valuable supplements to confirm the stereotyped pattern of both time-frequency changes and complexity. This provides additional evidence for pathways between the parietal cingulate region and mesial temporal structures and raises questions as to whether parietal cingulate seizures can produce clinical symptoms independent of regional or remote propagation.

  2. Integration of Target and Effector Information in Human Posterior Parietal Cortex for the Planning of Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medendorp, W.P.; Goltz, H.C.; Crawford, J.D.; Vilis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), we located a bilateral region in the human posterior parietal cortex (retIPS) that topographically represents and updates targets for saccades and pointing movements in eye-centered coordinates. To generate movements, this spatial information must

  3. Transfer of cognitive training across magnitude dimensions achieved with concurrent brain stimulation of the parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Gessaroli, Erica; Hithersay, Rosalyn; Mitolo, Micaela; Didino, Daniele; Kanai, Ryota; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-09-11

    Improvement in performance following cognitive training is known to be further enhanced when coupled with brain stimulation. Here we ask whether training-induced changes can be maintained long term and, crucially, whether they can extend to other related but untrained skills. We trained overall 40 human participants on a simple and well established paradigm assessing the ability to discriminate numerosity--or the number of items in a set--which is thought to rely on an "approximate number sense" (ANS) associated with parietal lobes. We coupled training with parietal stimulation in the form of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a noninvasive technique that modulates neural activity. This yielded significantly better and longer lasting improvement (up to 16 weeks post-training) of the precision of the ANS compared with cognitive training in absence of stimulation, stimulation in absence of cognitive training, and cognitive training coupled to stimulation to a control site (motor areas). Critically, only ANS improvement induced by parietal tRNS + Training transferred to proficiency in other parietal lobe-based quantity judgment, i.e., time and space discrimination, but not to quantity-unrelated tasks measuring attention, executive functions, and visual pattern recognition. These results indicate that coupling intensive cognitive training with tRNS to critical brain regions resulted not only in the greatest and longer lasting improvement of numerosity discrimination, but importantly in this enhancement being transferable when trained and untrained abilities are carefully chosen to share common cognitive and neuronal components.

  4. [Mother and son with enlarged parietal foramina, persistent fetal vein, and ALX4 mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Motoaki; Nanba, Eiji; Adachi, Kaori; Ohno, Kousaku

    2016-05-01

    Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) are rare congenital skull defects. These round or oval defects are situated on each parietal bone approximately 1 cm from the midline. Most patients with EPF have a positive family history. The condition is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with relatively high, but not full, penetrance. Mutation in either MSX2 or ALX4 genes is associated with enlarged parietal foramina. Case 1 is a boy who was noticed to have a large anterior fontanelle, large posterior fontanelle, and widely opened sagittal suture at 2 months. During development, the anterior fontanelle and sagittal suture closed at 3 years and the posterior fontanelle subsequently divided into two foramina with ossification of the midline bridge by 4 years. The foramina were about 2.5 x 2.5 cm in diameter at 8 years. Case 2 is the 34-year-old mother of Case 1. She showed similar bone defects in her cranium, again about 2.5 x 2.5 cm in diameter. Neither patient showed any neurological symptoms. Genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the ALX4 gene in both patients, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a persistent falcine sinus and a hypoplastic straight sinus. Further evaluation revealed that the mother of Case 2 also had a mutation in the ALX4 gene, but no enlarged parietal foramina. Although high penetrance of this condition has been reported, this family suggests incomplete penetrance of this disorder.

  5. Autoimmune gastritis and parietal cell reactivity in two children with abnormal intestinal permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, Deanne L. V.; Crock, Patricia; Braye, Stephen; Davidson, Patricia; Sentry, John W.

    Autoimmune gastritis is characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the gastric submucosa, with loss of parietal and chief cells and achlorhydria. Often, gastritis is expressed clinically as cobalamin deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia, which is generally described as a disease of the elderly.

  6. Tracing the origin of glomerular extracapillary lesions from parietal epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Uhlig, S.; Fuss, A.; Mooren, F.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Floege, J.; Moeller, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular lesions form in Bowman's space in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. The pathomechanism and origin of the proliferating cells in these lesions are unknown. In this study, we examined proliferating cells by lineage tracing of either podocytes or parietal

  7. Proliferating cells in HIV and pamidronate-associated collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are parietal epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Weening, J.J.; Smeets, B.; Verrijp, K.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Assmann, K.K.; Steenbergen, E.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. In a mouse model of FSGS and in a patient with recurrent idiopathic FSGS, we identified the proliferating cells as parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In the present study, we have

  8. Proliferating cells in HIV and pamidronate-associated collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are parietal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, H. B. P. M.; Weening, J. J.; Smeets, B.; Verrijp, K. C. N.; van Kuppevelt, T. H.; Assmann, K. K. J. M.; Steenbergen, E. J.; Wetzels, J. F. M.

    2006-01-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. In a mouse model of FSGS and in a patient with recurrent idiopathic FSGS, we identified the proliferating cells as parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In the present study, we have

  9. The role of parietal cortex in the formation of colour and motion based concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel William Cheadle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaging evidence shows that separate subdivisions of parietal cortex, in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, are engaged when stimuli are grouped according to colour and to motion (Zeki and Stutters 2013. Since grouping is an essential step in the formation of concepts, we wanted to learn whether parietal cortex is also engaged in the formation of concepts according to these two attributes. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and choosing the recognition of concept-based colour or motion stimuli as our paradigm, we found that there was strong concept-related activity in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region whose homologue in the macaque monkey is known to receive direct but segregated anatomical inputs from V4 and V5. Parietal activity related to colour concepts was juxtaposed but did not overlap with activity related to motion concepts, thus emphasizing the continuation of the segregation of colour and motion into the conceptual system. Concurrent retinotopic mapping experiments showed that within the parietal cortex, concept-related activity increases within later stage IPS areas.

  10. Parietal Lobe Volume Deficits in Adolescents with Schizophrenia and Adolescents with Cannabis Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Robinson, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Jensen, Daniel; Schimunek, Caroline; Houri, Alaa; Reis, Tiffany; Lim, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), the earliest structural brain volumetric abnormalities appear in the parietal cortices. Early exposure to cannabis may represent an environmental risk factor for developing schizophrenia. This study characterized cerebral cortical gray matter structure in adolescents in regions of interest (ROIs) that…

  11. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Morphology: Relationship to Mental Rotation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Tim; O'Leary, Dan; Moser, David J.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no…

  12. Actions of parathyroid hormone related peptide in mouse parietal endoderm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmaat, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Summary Since about a decade, several reports have strongly suggested a role for parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) in the formation of parietal endoderm (PE) in the mouse embryo. This thesis is aimed first at elucidating the biological significance of parathyroid hormone related peptide

  13. Altered network properties of the fronto-parietal network and the thalamus in impaired consciousness☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Julia Sophia; Soddu, Andrea; Höller, Yvonne; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Schurz, Matthias; Bergmann, Jürgen; Schmid, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Laureys, Steven; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of consciousness has been associated with connectivity in the frontal cortex and parietal regions modulated by the thalamus. To examine this model and to relate alterations to deficits in cognitive functioning and conscious processing, we investigated topological network properties in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness recovered from coma. Resting state fMRI data of 34 patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and 25 in minimally conscious state were compared to 28 healthy controls. We investigated global and local network characteristics. Additionally, behavioral measures were correlated with the local metrics of 28 regions within the fronto-parietal network and the thalamus. In chronic disorders of consciousness, modularity at the global level was reduced suggesting a disturbance in the optimal balance between segregation and integration. Moreover, network properties were altered in several regions which are associated with conscious processing (particularly, in medial parietal, and frontal regions, as well as in the thalamus). Between minimally conscious and unconscious patients the local efficiency of medial parietal regions differed. Alterations in the thalamus were particularly evident in non-conscious patients. Most of the regions affected in patients with impaired consciousness belong to the so-called ‘rich club’ of highly interconnected central nodes. Disturbances in their topological characteristics have severe impact on information integration and are reflected in deficits in cognitive functioning probably leading to a total breakdown of consciousness. PMID:24455474

  14. Carbamoylcholine and gastrin induce inositol lipid turnover in canine gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, T.; Fisher, S.K.; Park, J.; Seguin, E.B.; Agranoff, B.W.; Yamada, Tadataka

    1988-01-01

    The potential role of inositol phospholipid turnover in mediating acid secretion was examined in a preparation enriched for isolated canine gastric parietal cells. The stimulatory effects of carbamoylcholine (carbachol) and gastrin on parietal cell uptake of [ 14 C]aminopyrine were linked to dose- and time-dependent selective reduction in cellular phosphatidylinositol content, although the specific fatty acid composition of the phosphoinositides was not altered. Analysis of [ 3 H]inositol phosphates accumulated in cells prelabeled with [ 3 H]inositol revealed an increase in labeled inositol trisphosphate by 5 min of incubation with either carbachol or gastrin. Furthermore, after preincubation of parietal cells in medium containing [ 32 P]orthophosphate, the two secretagogues elicited a time-dependent decrease in 32 P labeling of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and concomitant increase in labeling of phosphatidic acid. These data demonstrate that the acid secretagogue actions of carbachol and gastrin are correlated with turnover of cellular inositol phospholipids in a preparation consisting predominantly of parietal cells

  15. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  16. Posterior Parietal Cortex Encoding of Dynamic Hand Force Underlying Hand-Object Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari-Toniolo, Simone; Visco-Comandini, Federica; Papazachariadis, Odysseas; Caminiti, Roberto; Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra

    2015-08-05

    Major achievements of primate evolution are skilled hand-object interaction and tool use, both in part dependent on parietal cortex expansion. We recorded spiking activity from macaque inferior parietal cortex during directional manipulation of an isometric tool, which required the application of hand forces to control a cursor's motion on a screen. In areas PFG/PF, the activity of ∼ 70% neurons was modulated by the hand force necessary to implement the desired target motion, reflecting an inverse model, rather than by the intended motion of the visual cursor (forward model). The population vector matched the direction and amplitude of the instantaneous force increments over time. When exposed to a new force condition, that obliged the monkey to change the force output to successfully bring the cursor to the final target, the activity of a consistent subpopulation of neurons changed in an orderly fashion and, at the end of a "Wash-out" session, retained memory of the new learned association, at the service of predictive control of force. Our findings suggest that areas PFG/PF represent a crucial node of the distributed control of hand force, by encoding instantaneous force variations and serving as a memory reservoir of hand dynamics required for object manipulation and tool use. This is coherent with previous studies in humans showing the following: (1) impaired adaptation to a new force field under TMS parietal perturbation; (2) defective control of direction of hand force after parietal lesion; and (3) fMRI activation of parietal cortex during object manipulation requiring control of fine hand forces. Skilled object manipulation and tool use are major achievements of primate evolution, both largely dependent on posterior parietal cortex (PPC) expansion. Neurophysiological and fMRI studies in macaque and humans had documented a crucial role of PPC in encoding the hand kinematics underlying these functions, leaving to premotor and motor areas the role of

  17. Structural alterations in lateral prefrontal, parietal and posterior midline regions of men with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Cindy; Stoppel, Christian; Kaufmann, Jörn; Tempelmann, Claus; Hinrichs, Hermann; Elbert, Thomas; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2011-05-01

    So far, the neural network associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been suggested to mainly involve the amygdala, hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. However, increasing evidence indicates that cortical regions extending beyond this network might also be implicated in the pathophysiology of PTSD. We aimed to investigate PTSD-related structural alterations in some of these regions. We enrolled highly traumatized refugees with and without (traumatized controls) PTSD and nontraumatized controls in the study. To increase the validity of our results, we combined an automatic cortical parcellation technique and voxel-based morphometry. In all, 39 refugees (20 with and 19 without PTSD) and 13 controls participated in the study. Participants were middle-aged men who were free of psychoactive substances and consumed little to no alcohol. Patients with PTSD (and to a lesser extent traumatized controls) showed reduced volumes in the right inferior parietal cortex, the left rostral middle frontal cortex, the bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the bilateral isthmus of the cingulate. An influence of cumulative traumatic stress on the isthmus of the cingulate and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex indicated that, at least in these regions, structural alterations might be associated with repeated stress experiences. Voxel-based morphometry analyses produced largely consistent results, but because of a poorer signal-to-noise ratio, conventional statistics did not reach significance. Although we controlled for several important confounding variables (e.g., sex, alcohol abuse) with our particular sample, this might limit the generalizibility of our data. Moreover, high comorbidity of PTSD and major depression hinders a definite separation of these conditions in our findings. Finally, the results concerning the lateral orbito frontal cortex should be interpreted with caution, as magnetic resonance imaging acquisition in this region is affected by a general

  18. Investigating the effects of nitrous oxide sedation on frontal-parietal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji-Ho; Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Hong-Gee; Koo, Yong-Seo; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-06-09

    Although functional connectivity has received considerable attention in the study of consciousness, few studies have investigated functional connectivity limited to the sedated state where consciousness is maintained but impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network resulting from nitrous oxide-induced sedation, and to determine the neural correlates of cognitive impairment during consciousness transition states. Electroencephalography was acquired from healthy adult patients who underwent nitrous oxide inhalation to induce cognitive impairment, and was analyzed using Granger causality (GC). Periods of awake, sedation and recovery for GC between frontal and parietal areas in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma and total frequency bands were obtained. The Friedman test with post-hoc analysis was conducted for GC values of each period for comparison. As a sedated state was induced by nitrous oxide inhalation, power in the low frequency band showed increased activity in frontal regions that was reversed with discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Feedback and feedforward connections analyzed in spectral GC were changed differently in accordance with EEG frequency bands in the sedated state by nitrous oxide administration. Calculated spectral GC of the theta, alpha, and beta frequency regions in the parietal-to-frontal direction was significantly decreased in the sedated state while spectral GC in the reverse direction did not show significant change. Frontal-parietal functional connectivity is significantly affected by nitrous oxide inhalation. Significantly decreased parietal-to-frontal interaction may induce a sedated state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural sources of visual working memory maintenance in human parietal and ventral extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Andreas; Müller, Notger; Vellage, Anne; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2015-04-15

    Maintaining information in visual working memory is reliably indexed by the contralateral delay activity (CDA) - a sustained modulation of the event-related potential (ERP) with a topographical maximum over posterior scalp regions contralateral to the memorized input. Based on scalp topography, it is hypothesized that the CDA reflects neural activity in the parietal cortex, but the precise cortical origin of underlying electric activity was never determined. Here we combine ERP recordings with magnetoencephalography based source localization to characterize the cortical current sources generating the CDA. Observers performed a cued delayed match to sample task where either the color or the relative position of colored dots had to be maintained in memory. A detailed source-localization analysis of the magnetic activity in the retention interval revealed that the magnetic analog of the CDA (mCDA) is generated by current sources in the parietal cortex. Importantly, we find that the mCDA also receives contribution from current sources in the ventral extrastriate cortex that display a time-course similar to the parietal sources. On the basis of the magnetic responses, forward modeling of ERP data reveals that the ventral sources have non-optimal projections and that these sources are therefore concealed in the ERP by overlapping fields with parietal projections. The present observations indicate that visual working memory maintenance, as indexed by the CDA, involves the parietal cortical regions as well as the ventral extrastriate regions, which code the sensory representation of the memorized content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hemispatial PCA dissociates temporal from parietal ERP generator patterns: CSD components in healthy adults and depressed patients during a dichotic oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenke, Craig E; Kayser, Jürgen; Shankman, Stewart A; Griggs, Carlye B; Leite, Paul; Stewart, Jonathan W; Bruder, Gerard E

    2008-01-01

    Event-related potentials (31-channel ERPs) were recorded from 38 depressed, unmedicated outpatients and 26 healthy adults (all right-handed) in tonal and phonetic oddball tasks developed to exploit the perceptual challenge of a dichotic stimulation. Tonal nontargets were pairs of complex tones (corresponding to musical notes G and B above middle C) presented simultaneously to each ear (L/R) in an alternating series (G/B or B/G; 2-s fixed SOA). A target tone (note A) replaced one of the pair on 20% of the trials (A/B, G/A, B/A, A/G). Phonetic nontargets were L/R pairs of syllables (/ba/, /da/) with a short voice onset time (VOT), and targets contained a syllable (/ta/) with a long VOT. Subjects responded with a left or right button press to targets (counterbalanced across blocks). Target detection was poorer in patients than controls and for tones than syllables. Reference-free current source densities (CSDs; spherical spline Laplacian) derived from ERP waveforms were simplified and measured using temporal, covariance-based PCA followed by unrestricted Varimax rotation. Target-related N2 sinks and mid-parietal P3 sources were represented by CSD factors peaking at 245 and 440 ms. The P3 source topography included a secondary, left-lateralized temporal lobe maximum for both targets and nontargets. However, a subsequent hemispheric spatiotemporal PCA disentangled temporal lobe N1 and P3 sources as distinct factors. P3 sources were reduced in patients compared with controls, even after using performance as a covariate. Results are consistent with prior reports of P3 reduction in depression and implicate distinct parietal and temporal generators of P3 when using a dichotic oddball paradigm.

  1. Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy Treatment of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    Full Text Available : Objective/Background: This report presents a superior mesenteric artery (SMA embolism managed by percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT. Methods: A 61 year old woman diagnosed with SMA embolism was admitted. Emboli were found in the middle and distal segments of the SMA on abdominal computed tomography angiography. Under local anaesthesia, a 6 F Rotarex system was used to remove the emboli via left brachial artery access. Emboli were successfully removed and patency was restored to the SMA and its branches. Results: Post-operatively, the patient's symptoms were significantly relieved. No post-operative complications were observed and no discomfort was documented during follow-up. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of SMA embolism using PMT is a feasible and alternative option. Keywords: Acute mesenteric ischaemia, Embolism, Endovascular treatment, Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy, Superior mesenteric artery

  2. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Young, Nicole A; Matrov, Denis; Kaas, Jon H

    2018-02-16

    The superior colliculus is an important midbrain structure involved with integrating information from varying sensory modalities and sending motor signals to produce orienting movements towards environmental stimuli. Because of this role, the superior colliculus receives a multitude of sensory inputs from a wide variety of subcortical and cortical structures. Proportionately, the superior colliculus of grey squirrels is among the largest in size of all studied mammals, suggesting the importance of this structure in the behavioural characteristics of grey squirrels. Yet, our understanding of the connections of the superior colliculus in grey squirrels is lacking, especially with respect to possible cortical influences. In this study, we placed anatomical tracer injections within the medial aspect of the superior colliculus of five grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and analysed the areal distribution of corticotectal projecting cells in flattened cortex. V1 projections to the superior colliculus were studied in two additional animals. Our results indicate that the superior colliculus receives cortical projections from visual, higher order somatosensory, and higher order auditory regions, as well as limbic, retrosplenial and anterior cingulate cortex. Few, if any, corticotectal projections originate from primary motor, primary somatosensory or parietal cortical regions. This distribution of inputs is similar to the distribution of inputs described in other rodents such as rats and mice, yet the lack of inputs from primary somatosensory and motor cortex is features of corticotectal inputs more similar to those observed in tree shrews and primates, possibly reflecting a behavioural shift from somatosensory (vibrissae) to visual navigation. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  5. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Oka

    Full Text Available In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves, but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task. Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections.Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05, but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p < 0.05 in the right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p < 0.05 only in the right frontal eye field.Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  6. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  7. EEG Correlates of Preparatory Orienting, Contextual Updating, and Inhibition of Sensory Processing in Left Spatial Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Marianna; Pinto, Mario; Dragone, Alessio; Menicagli, Dario; Bueti, Domenica; De Lucia, Marzia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2018-04-11

    Studies with event-related potentials have highlighted deficits in the early phases of orienting to left visual targets in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect (N+). However, brain responses associated with preparatory orienting of attention, with target novelty and with the detection of a match/mismatch between expected and actual targets (contextual updating), have not been explored in N+. Here in a study in healthy humans and brain-damaged patients of both sexes we demonstrate that frontal activity that reflects supramodal mechanisms of attentional orienting (Anterior Directing Attention Negativity, ADAN) is entirely spared in N+. In contrast, posterior responses that mark the early phases of cued orienting (Early Directing Attention Negativity, EDAN) and the setting up of sensory facilitation over the visual cortex (Late Directing Attention Positivity, LDAP) are suppressed in N+. This uncoupling is associated with damage of parietal-frontal white matter. N+ also exhibit exaggerated novelty reaction to targets in the right side of space and reduced novelty reaction for those in the left side (P3a) together with impaired contextual updating (P3b) in the left space. Finally, we highlight a drop in the amplitude and latency of the P1 that over the left hemisphere signals the early blocking of sensory processing in the right space when targets occur in the left one: this identifies a new electrophysiological marker of the rightward attentional bias in N+. The heterogeneous effects and spatial biases produced by localized brain damage on the different phases of attentional processing indicate relevant functional independence among their underlying neural mechanisms and improve the understanding of the spatial neglect syndrome. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our investigation answers important questions: are the different components of preparatory orienting (EDAN, ADAN, LDAP) functionally independent in the healthy brain? Is preparatory orienting of

  8. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception—evidence from studies in chess experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Bilalić, Merim; Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Himmelbach, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact vs. disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012). This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to a holistic percept. Thus, increased BOLD signals should be found in this region whenever a task calls for the integration of multiple visual items. Behavioral experiments in chess experts suggested that their superior skills in comparison to chess novices are partly based on fast holistic processing of chess positions with multiple pieces. We thus analyzed BOLD data from four fMRI studies that compared chess experts with chess novices during the presentation of complex chess-related visual stimuli (Bilalić et al., 2010, 2011a,b, 2012). Three regions of interests were defined by significant TPJ clusters in the abovementioned study of global gestalt perception (Huberle and Karnath, 2012) and BOLD signal amplitudes in these regions were compared between chess experts and novices. These cross-paradigm ROI analyses revealed higher signals at the TPJ in chess experts in comparison to novices during presentations of complex chess positions. This difference was consistent across the different tasks in five independent experiments. Our results confirm the assumption that the TPJ region identified in previous work on global gestalt perception plays an important role in the processing of complex visual stimulus configurations. PMID:24009574

  9. Hippocampal Temporal-Parietal Junction Interaction in the Production of Psychotic Symptoms: A Framework for Understanding the Schizophrenic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gayle Wible

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ, posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs and cognitive deficits. Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly related to activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production of dynamic social, emotional and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech, prosody. The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile, matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others. The neurons are also tuned or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech, person or a touch. Over-activation could interfere with attentional/emotional gesture perception and production (negative symptoms. It could produce the unconscious feeling of being watched, followed or of a social situation unfolding along with accompanying perception of intent and agency inherent in those representations (delusions. Cognitive disturbances in attention, predictive social processing, agency, working memory, and a bias toward the perception of threat would also be predicted.

  10. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception – evidence from studies in chess experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eRennig

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact versus disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012. This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to a holistic percept. Thus, increased BOLD signals should be found in this region whenever a task calls for the integration of multiple visual items. Behavioral experiments in chess experts suggested that their superior skills in comparison to chess novices are partly based on fast holistic processing of chess positions with multiple pieces. We thus analyzed BOLD data from four fMRI studies that compared chess experts with chess novices during the presentation of complex chess-related visual stimuli (Bilalić et al., 2011a, 2010, 2011b, 2012. Three regions of interests were defined by significant TPJ clusters in the abovementioned study of global gestalt perception (Huberle and Karnath, 2012 and BOLD signal amplitudes in these regions were compared between chess experts and novices. These cross-paradigm ROI analyses revealed higher signals at the TPJ in chess experts in comparison to novices during presentations of complex chess positions. This difference was consistent across the different tasks in five independent experiments. Our results confirm the assumption that the TPJ region identified in previous work on global gestalt perception plays an important role in the processing of complex visual stimulus configurations.

  11. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception-evidence from studies in chess experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Bilalić, Merim; Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Himmelbach, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact vs. disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012). This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to a holistic percept. Thus, increased BOLD signals should be found in this region whenever a task calls for the integration of multiple visual items. Behavioral experiments in chess experts suggested that their superior skills in comparison to chess novices are partly based on fast holistic processing of chess positions with multiple pieces. We thus analyzed BOLD data from four fMRI studies that compared chess experts with chess novices during the presentation of complex chess-related visual stimuli (Bilalić et al., 2010, 2011a,b, 2012). Three regions of interests were defined by significant TPJ clusters in the abovementioned study of global gestalt perception (Huberle and Karnath, 2012) and BOLD signal amplitudes in these regions were compared between chess experts and novices. These cross-paradigm ROI analyses revealed higher signals at the TPJ in chess experts in comparison to novices during presentations of complex chess positions. This difference was consistent across the different tasks in five independent experiments. Our results confirm the assumption that the TPJ region identified in previous work on global gestalt perception plays an important role in the processing of complex visual stimulus configurations.

  12. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  13. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  14. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  15. Metabolic Hyperactivity of the Medial Posterior Parietal Lobes in Psychogenic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hedera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorders, including psychogenic tremor (PT, is only emerging. Case Report: This is a single case report of a patient who met diagnostic criteria for PT. He underwent positron emission tomography (PET of brain with 18F-deoxyglucose at resting state. His PET study showed symmetrically increased 18F-deoxyglucose uptake in both posterior medial parietal lobes. There was no corresponding abnormality on structural imaging. Discussion: Hypermetabolism of the medial aspects of posterior parietal lobes bilaterally may reflect abnormal activity of sensory integration that is important in the pathogenesis of PT. This further supports the idea that non-organic movement disorders may be associated with detectable functional brain abnormalities.

  16. Use of permacol in parietal and general surgery: a bibliographic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayssac, David; Poinas, Anne Claire; Pereira, Bruno; Pezet, Denis

    2013-04-01

    The use of synthetic meshes on infected incisional hernias often fails and is therefore contraindicated. Biological meshes offer a novel solution. Among them, Permacol requires a bibliographic analysis of its efficacy and tolerance. A bibliographic analysis was carried out on the efficacy and tolerance of Permacol in parietal and general surgery. A total of 22 publications described the use of Permacol in digestive surgery. The advantages of Permacol would be usability in contaminated surgical fields, biocompatibility, no erosion of intestinal wall, and less risk of adhesions. The main drawback of Permacol is its high cost. Even so, Permacol can play an important part in the short-term management of complex or contaminated abdominal wall defects. The lack of long-term studies and the high cost of the implant call for a medical cost-effectiveness assessment to determine the indications for Permacol in parietal and general surgery.

  17. Parietal intradiploic encephalocele: Report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Millán-Juncos, José M

    2015-06-01

    Encephaloceles consist of brain tissue and meninges that has herniated through a skull defect, usually located in the midline. They are seen more commonly in children and very rarely in adults. We present a case of an 84-year-old patient who was incidentally diagnosed with a lytic bone lesion in the right parietal intradiploic space, after computed tomography of the head was performed. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain showed herniation of brain tissue through the defect. Magnetic resonance imaging was crucial in demonstrating the presence of parenchyma and its continuity with the rest of the brain, consequently distinguishing it from other entities. We report the imaging findings of a parietal indradiploic encephalocele with its differential diagnosis and a review of the relevant literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Parietal and occipital encephalocele in same child: A rarest variety of double encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Somnath; Ojha, Bal Krishan; Chandra, Anil; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Chhitij

    2016-05-01

    An encephalocele is a protrusion of the brain and/or meninges through a defect in the skull. Based on the location of the skull defect they are classified into sincipital, basal, occipital or parietal varieties. Occurrence of more than one Encephalocele in a patient is very rare and very few cases of double encephalocele are reported. We report an interesting case where a parietal and an occipital encephalocele were present together. The patient was a 2 months boy who was brought to us with complaints of two swelling on the scalp since birth. Neuroimaging studies confirmed it to be a case of double encephalocele. The rarity of the findings prompted us to report this case. The presentation and management of the case along with and review of the relevant literature is presented. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optic ataxia: from Balint’s syndrome to the parietal reach region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Richard A.; Andersen, Kristen N.; Hwang, EunJung; Hauschild, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Optic ataxia is a high order deficit in reaching to visual goals that occurs with posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lesions. It is a component of Balint’s syndrome that also includes attentional and gaze disorders. Aspects of optic ataxia are misreaching in the contralesional visual field, difficulty preshaping the hand for grasping, and an inability to correct reaches online. Recent research in non-human primates (NHPs) suggests that many aspects of Balint’s syndrome and optic ataxia are a result of damage to specific functional modules for reaching, saccades, grasp, attention, and state estimation. The deficits from large lesions in humans are likely composite effects from damage to combinations of these functional modules. Interactions between these modules, either within posterior parietal cortex or downstream within frontal cortex, may account for more complex behaviors such as hand-eye coordination and reach-to-grasp. PMID:24607223

  20. Parietal dysfunction during number processing in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Woods

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although the parietal lobe, which is known to mediate several key aspects of number processing, has been shown to be structurally impaired in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD, effects on functional activity in this region during number processing have not previously been investigated. This fMRI study of 49 children examined differences in activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five key parietal regions involved in number processing, using tasks involving simple addition and magnitude comparison. Despite generally similar behavioral performance, in both tasks greater prenatal alcohol exposure was related to less activation in an anterior section of the right horizontal intraparietal sulcus known to mediate mental representation and manipulation of quantity. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome appeared to compensate for this deficit by increased activation of the angular gyrus during the magnitude comparison task.

  1. Representation of remembered stimuli and task information in the monkey dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xue-Lian; Elworthy, Anthony C; Lambert, Bryce C; Constantinidis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Both dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex have been implicated in spatial working memory and representation of task information. Prior experiments training animals to recall the first of a sequence of stimuli and examining the effect of subsequent distractors have identified increased ability of the prefrontal cortex to represent remembered stimuli and filter distractors. It is unclear, however, if this prefrontal functional specialization extends to stimuli appearing earlier in a sequence, when subjects are cued to remember subsequent ones. It is also not known how task information interacts with persistent activity representing remembered stimuli and distractors in the two areas. To address these questions, we trained monkeys to remember either the first or second of two stimuli presented in sequence and recorded neuronal activity from the posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex was better able to represent the actively remembered stimulus, whereas the posterior parietal cortex was more modulated by distractors; however, task effects interfered with this representation. As a result, large proportions of neurons with persistent activity and task effects exhibited a preference for a stimulus when it appeared as a distractor in both areas. Additionally, prefrontal neurons were modulated to a greater extent by task factors during the delay period of the task. The results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is better able than the posterior parietal cortex to differentiate between distractors and actively remembered stimuli and is more modulated by the task; however, this relative preference is highly context dependent and depends on the specific requirements of the task. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Distinguishing Intentions from Desires: Contributions of the Frontal and Parietal Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Apperly, Ian A.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to represent desires and intentions as two distinct mental states was investigated in patients with parietal (N = 8) and frontal (N = 6) lesions and in age-matched controls (N = 7). A task was used where the satisfaction of the desire and the fulfilment of the intention did not co-vary and were manipulated in a 2 x 2 set. In two…

  3. Neuronal oscillations during contour integration of dynamic visual stimuli form parietal/frontal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eCastellano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e. the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites.

  4. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over posterior parietal cortex enhances distinct aspects of visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Klaartje; Sagliano, Laura; Candini, Michela; Husain, Masud; Cappelletti, Marinella; Zokaei, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of tDCS over the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) during a visual working memory (WM) task, which probes different sources of response error underlying the precision of WM recall. In two separate experiments, we demonstrated that tDCS enhanced WM precision when applied bilaterally over the PPC, independent of electrode configuration. In a third experiment, we demonstrated with unilateral electrode configuration over the right PPC, that only cathodal t...

  5. Frontal and Parietal Cortical Interactions with Distributed Visual Representations during Selective Attention and Action Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity. PMID:24133250

  6. Metaplasia of the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule. A histopathological survey of the human kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Haensly, William E.; Lee, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Human kidney sections taken at autopsy were examined to determine the incidence of metaplasia of the Bowman's parietal epithelium. Autopsy records were consulted to determine if there was any correlation between clinical disease, histopathological changes in organ systems and metaplasia of Bowman's capsule. The sections represented both sexes in 9 age groups from 2 to 87 years. The sections were fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 6 pm...

  7. Posterior parietal cortex and long-term memory: some data from laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Myskiw, Jociane C.; Izquierdo, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was long viewed as just involved in the perception of spatial relationships between the body and its surroundings and of movements related to them. In recent years the PPC has been shown to participate in many other cognitive processes, among which working memory and the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memory. The neurotransmitter and other molecular processes involved have been determined to a degree in rodents. More research will no doubt determin...

  8. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  9. Time Course of the Involvement of the Right Anterior Superior Temporal Gyrus and the Right Fronto-Parietal Operculum in Emotional Prosody Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, Rene S.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional

  10. Noninvasive brain stimulation of the parietal lobe for improving neurologic, neuropsychologic, and neuropsychiatric deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Miniussi, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) are noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) tools that are now widely used in neuroscientific research in humans. The fact that both TMS and tES are able to modulate brain plasticity and, in turn, affect behavior is opening up new horizons in the treatment of brain circuit and plasticity disorders. In the present chapter, we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of NIBS, describing the electromagnetic and physical foundations of TMS and tES, as well as the current knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of their effects on brain activity and plasticity. In the main part, we will outline studies aimed at improving persistent symptoms and deficits in patients suffering from neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders featured by dysfunction of the parietal lobe. The emerging view is that NIBS of parietal areas holds the promise to overcome various sensory, motor, and cognitive disorders that are often refractory to standard medical or behavioral therapies. The chapter closes with an outlook on further developments in this realm, discussing novel therapeutic approaches that could lead to more effective rehabilitation procedures, better suited for the specific parietal lobe dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory-parietal cortical stimulation improves motor recovery in severe capsular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ra Gyung; Cho, Jongwook; Ree, Jinkyue; Kim, Hyung-Sun; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Kim, Jin-Myung; Lee, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of subcortical white matter strokes in elderly patients is on the rise, but these patients show mixed responses to conventional rehabilitative interventions. To examine whether cortical electrical stimulation can promote motor recovery after white matter stroke, we delivered stimulation to a small or wide region of sensory-parietal cortex for two weeks in a rodent model of circumscribed subcortical capsular infarct. The sham-operated group (SOG) showed persistent and severe motor impairments together with decreased activation in bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striatum. In contrast, sensory-parietal cortex stimulation significantly improved motor recovery: final recovery levels were 72.9% of prelesion levels in the wide stimulation group (WSG) and 37% of prelesion levels in the small stimulation group (SSG). The microPET imaging showed reversal of cortical diaschisis in both groups: in both hemispheres for the WSG, and in the hemisphere ipsilateral to stimulation in the SSG. In addition, we observed activation of the corpus callosum and subcortical corticostriatal structures after stimulation. The results from the c-Fos mapping study were grossly consistent with the microPET imaging. Sensory-parietal cortex stimulation may therefore be a useful strategy for overcoming the limits of rehabilitative training in patients with severe forms of subcortical capsular infarct. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Static Magnetic Field Stimulation over Parietal Cortex Enhances Somatosensory Detection in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-López, Carmen; Soto-León, Vanesa; Céspedes, Virginia; Profice, Paolo; Strange, Bryan A; Foffani, Guglielmo; Oliviero, Antonio

    2017-04-05

    The role of neuronal oscillations in human somatosensory perception is currently unclear. To address this, here we use noninvasive brain stimulation to artificially modulate cortical network dynamics in the context of neurophysiological and behavioral recordings. We demonstrate that transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) over the somatosensory parietal cortex increases oscillatory power specifically in the alpha range, without significantly affecting bottom-up thalamocortical inputs indexed by the early cortical component of somatosensory evoked potentials. Critically, we next show that parietal tSMS enhances the detection of near-threshold somatosensory stimuli. Interestingly, this behavioral improvement reflects a decrease of habituation to somatosensation. Our data therefore provide causal evidence that somatosensory perception depends on parietal alpha activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Artificially increasing alpha power by placing a powerful magnetic field over the somatosensory cortex overcomes the natural decline in detection probability of a repeated near-threshold sensory stimulus. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373840-08$15.00/0.

  13. Asymmetric Multisensory Interactions of Visual and Somatosensory Responses in a Region of the Rat Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Michael T.; Takagaki, Kentaroh

    2013-01-01

    Perception greatly benefits from integrating multiple sensory cues into a unified percept. To study the neural mechanisms of sensory integration, model systems are required that allow the simultaneous assessment of activity and the use of techniques to affect individual neural processes in behaving animals. While rodents qualify for these requirements, little is known about multisensory integration and areas involved for this purpose in the rodent. Using optical imaging combined with laminar electrophysiological recordings, the rat parietal cortex was identified as an area where visual and somatosensory inputs converge and interact. Our results reveal similar response patterns to visual and somatosensory stimuli at the level of current source density (CSD) responses and multi-unit responses within a strip in parietal cortex. Surprisingly, a selective asymmetry was observed in multisensory interactions: when the somatosensory response preceded the visual response, supra-linear summation of CSD was observed, but the reverse stimulus order resulted in sub-linear effects in the CSD. This asymmetry was not present in multi-unit activity however, which showed consistently sub-linear interactions. These interactions were restricted to a specific temporal window, and pharmacological tests revealed significant local intra-cortical contributions to this phenomenon. Our results highlight the rodent parietal cortex as a system to model the neural underpinnings of multisensory processing in behaving animals and at the cellular level. PMID:23667650

  14. Distributed patterns of occipito-parietal functional connectivity predict the precision of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano Weber, Elena M; Hahn, Tim; Hilger, Kirsten; Fiebach, Christian J

    2017-02-01

    Limitations in visual working memory (WM) quality (i.e., WM precision) may depend on perceptual and attentional limitations during stimulus encoding, thereby affecting WM capacity. WM encoding relies on the interaction between sensory processing systems and fronto-parietal 'control' regions, and differences in the quality of this interaction are a plausible source of individual differences in WM capacity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the coupling between perceptual and attentional systems affects the quality of WM encoding. We combined fMRI connectivity analysis with behavioral modeling by fitting a variable precision and fixed capacity model to the performance data obtained while participants performed a visual delayed continuous response WM task. We quantified functional connectivity during WM encoding between occipital and parietal brain regions activated during both perception and WM encoding, as determined using a conjunction of two independent experiments. The multivariate pattern of voxel-wise inter-areal functional connectivity significantly predicted WM performance, most specifically the mean of WM precision but not the individual number of items that could be stored in memory. In particular, higher occipito-parietal connectivity was associated with higher behavioral mean precision. These results are consistent with a network perspective of WM capacity, suggesting that the efficiency of information flow between perceptual and attentional neural systems is a critical determinant of limitations in WM quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Similar coding of freely chosen and externally cued intentions in a fronto-parietal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, David; Goschke, Thomas; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2016-07-01

    Intentional action is essential to human behavior, yet its neural basis remains poorly understood. In order to identify neural networks specifically involved in intentional action, freely chosen and externally cued intentions have previously been contrasted. This has led to the identification of a fronto-parietal network, which is involved in freely choosing one's intentions. However, it remains unclear whether this network encodes specific intentions, or whether it merely reflects general preparatory or control processes correlated with intentional action. Here, we used MVPA on fMRI data to identify brain regions encoding non-motor intentions that were either freely chosen or externally cued. We found that a fronto-parietal network, including the lateral prefrontal cortex, premotor, and parietal cortex, contained information about both freely chosen and externally cued intentions. Importantly, MVPA cross-classification indicated that this network represents the content of our intentions similarly, regardless of whether these intentions are freely chosen or externally cued. This finding suggests that the intention network has a general role in processing and representing intentions independent of their origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of histamine on regional cerebral blood flow of the parietal lobe in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Bo; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Tian, Yu-Mei; Liu, Yong

    2010-09-01

    Histamine is a powerful modulator that regulates blood vessels and blood flow. The effect of histamine on the extracortical vessels has been well described, while much less is known about the effect of histamine on intracortical vessels. In this study, we investigated the effect of histamine on regional cerebral blood flow in rat parietal lobe with laser Doppler flowmetry. The pharmacological characteristics of distinct ways (intracerebroventricular injection, intraperitoneal injection, and cranial window infusion) in applying histamine to the brain were also obtained and compared. Histamine applied in three ways all produced a decrease of rCBF in parietal lobe in a concentration-dependent manner. Cranial window infusion was the most effective way and intraperitoneal injection of L-histidine was the most ineffective, although it is a simple and applied way. To determine which type of receptor takes part in the vessel contraction induced by histamine, H1 receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, and H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, were applied, respectively, before histamine administration. When the injection of cimetidine was conducted in advance, histamine still resulted in a decrease of infusion amount; while the injection of diphenhydramine was conducted in advance, the infusion of blood amount wasn't changed. These findings indicated that histamine could result in a reduction of rCBF in the rat parietal lobe and this effect of histamine may attribute partly to its combination with H1 receptor.

  17. Gas1 expression in parietal cells of Bowman's capsule in experimental diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Antonio, Brenda I; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Rafael; Namorado-Tonix, Carmen; Vergara, Paula; Segovia, Jose; Reyes, Jose L

    2017-07-01

    Gas1 (Growth Arrest-Specific 1) is a pleiotropic protein with novel functions including anti-proliferative and proapoptotic activities. In the kidney, the expression of Gas1 has been described in mesangial cells. In this study, we described that renal parietal cells of Bowman's capsule (BC) and the distal nephron cells also express Gas1. The role of Gas1 in the kidney is not yet known. There is a subpopulation of progenitor cells in Bowman's capsule with self-renewal properties which can eventually differentiate into podocytes as a possible mechanism of regeneration in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy. We analyzed the expression of Gas1 in the parietal cells of Bowman's capsule in murine experimental diabetes. We found that diabetes reduced the expression of Gas1 and increased the expression of progenitor markers like NCAM, CD24, and SIX1/2, and mesenchymal markers like PAX2 in the Bowman's capsule. We also analyzed the expression of WT1 (a podocyte-specific marker) on BC and observed an increase in the number of WT1 positive cells in diabetes. In contrast, nephrin, another podocyte-specific protein, decreases its expression in the first week of diabetes in the glomerular tuft, which is gradually restored during the second and third weeks of diabetes. These results suggest that in diabetes the decrease of Gas1 promotes the activation of parietal progenitor cells of Bowman's capsule that might differentiate into podocytes and compensate their loss observed in this pathology.

  18. Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Increases Leukocyte Recruitment in the Mouse Parietal Peritoneum Microcirculation and Causes Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Paulina M; Margetts, Peter J; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E

    2016-01-01

    ♦ The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a conventional dialysis solution and peritoneal catheter on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the microcirculation of the parietal peritoneum in a subacute peritoneal dialysis (PD) mouse model. ♦ An intraperitoneal (IP) catheter with a subcutaneous injection port was implanted into mice and, after a 2-week healing period, the animals were injected daily for 6 weeks with a 2.5% dextrose solution. Intravital microscopy (IVM) of the parietal peritoneum microcirculation was performed 4 hours after the last injection of the dialysis solution. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were quantified and compared with catheterized controls without dialysis treatment and naïve mice. ♦ The number of rolling and extravascular leukocytes along with peritoneal fibrosis and neovascularization were significantly increased in the catheterized animals compared with naïve mice but did not significantly differ between the 2 groups of catheterized animals with sham injections or dialysis solution treatment. ♦ The peritoneal catheter implant increased leukocyte rolling and extravasation, peritoneal fibrosis and vascularization in the parietal peritoneum independently from the dialysis solution treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  19. Drug-resistant parietal epilepsy: polymorphic ictal semiology does not preclude good post-surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francione, Stefano; Liava, Alexandra; Mai, Roberto; Nobili, Lino; Sartori, Ivana; Tassi, Laura; Scarpa, Pina; Cardinale, Francesco; Castana, Laura; Cossu, Massimo; Lo Russo, Giorgio

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the anatomo-electro-clinical features and clinical outcome of surgical resections strictly confined to the parietal lobe in 40 consecutive patients who received surgery for pharmacoresistant seizures. The population was subcategorized into a paediatric (11 subjects; mean age at surgery: 7.2+/-3.7 years) and an adult group (29 patients; mean age at surgery: 30+/-10.8 years). The paediatric group more frequently exhibited personal antecedents, neurological impairment, high seizure frequency, and dysplastic lesions. Nonetheless, compared with adults, children had better outcome and more frequently reached definitive drug discontinuation after surgery. After a mean follow-up of 9.4 years (range: 3.1-16.7), 30 subjects (75%) were classified as Engel Class I. The presence of multiple types of aura in the same patient, as well as a high incidence of secondary generalization, represented a characteristic feature of parietal seizures and did not correlate negatively with surgical outcome. A total resection of the epileptogenic zone and a localizing/regional interictal EEG were statistically significant predictive factors of outcome. Intracerebral investigation, performed in 55% of cases, contributed to complete tailored resections of the epileptogenic area and determination of prognosis. Frequent subjective manifestations of parietal lobe seizures, such as vertiginous, cephalic and visual-moving sensations, underscore their potential misdiagnosis as non-epileptic events.

  20. Asymmetric multisensory interactions of visual and somatosensory responses in a region of the rat parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Lippert

    Full Text Available Perception greatly benefits from integrating multiple sensory cues into a unified percept. To study the neural mechanisms of sensory integration, model systems are required that allow the simultaneous assessment of activity and the use of techniques to affect individual neural processes in behaving animals. While rodents qualify for these requirements, little is known about multisensory integration and areas involved for this purpose in the rodent. Using optical imaging combined with laminar electrophysiological recordings, the rat parietal cortex was identified as an area where visual and somatosensory inputs converge and interact. Our results reveal similar response patterns to visual and somatosensory stimuli at the level of current source density (CSD responses and multi-unit responses within a strip in parietal cortex. Surprisingly, a selective asymmetry was observed in multisensory interactions: when the somatosensory response preceded the visual response, supra-linear summation of CSD was observed, but the reverse stimulus order resulted in sub-linear effects in the CSD. This asymmetry was not present in multi-unit activity however, which showed consistently sub-linear interactions. These interactions were restricted to a specific temporal window, and pharmacological tests revealed significant local intra-cortical contributions to this phenomenon. Our results highlight the rodent parietal cortex as a system to model the neural underpinnings of multisensory processing in behaving animals and at the cellular level.

  1. Spontaneous pre-stimulus fluctuations in the activity of right fronto-parietal areas influence inhibitory control performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille F. Chavan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control refers to the ability to suppress planned or ongoing cognitive or motor processes. Electrophysiological indices of inhibitory control failure have been found to manifest even before the presentation of the stimuli triggering the inhibition, suggesting that pre-stimulus brain-states modulate inhibition performance. However, previous electrophysiological investigations on the state-dependency of inhibitory control were based on averaged event-related potentials, a method eliminating the variability in the ongoing brain activity not time-locked to the event of interest. These studies thus left unresolved whether spontaneous variations in the brain-state immediately preceding unpredictable inhibition-triggering stimuli also influence inhibitory control performance.To address this question, we applied single-trial EEG topographic analyses on the time interval immediately preceding NoGo stimuli in conditions where the responses to NoGo trials were correctly inhibited (correct rejection vs. committed (false alarms during an auditory spatial Go/NoGo task.We found a specific configuration of the EEG voltage field manifesting more frequently before correctly inhibited responses to NoGo stimuli than before false alarms. There was no evidence for an EEG topography occurring more frequently before false alarms than before correct rejections. The visualization of distributed electrical source estimations of the EEG topography preceding successful response inhibition suggested that it resulted from the activity of a right fronto-parietal brain network.Our results suggest that the fluctuations in the ongoing brain activity immediately preceding stimulus presentation contribute to the behavioral outcomes during an inhibitory control task. Our results further suggest that the state-dependency of sensory-cognitive processing might not only concern perceptual processes, but also high-order, top-down inhibitory control mechanisms.

  2. The left IPL represents stored hand-postures for object use and action prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel evan Elk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Action semantics enables us to plan actions with objects and to predict others’ object-directed actions as well. Previous studies have suggested that action semantics are represented in a fronto-parietal action network that has also been implicated to play a role in action observation. In the present fMRI study it was investigated how activity within this network changes as a function of the predictability of an action involving multiple objects and requiring the use of action semantics. Participants performed an action prediction task in which they were required to anticipate the use of a centrally presented object that could be moved to an associated target object (e.g. hammer - nail. The availability of actor information (i.e. presenting a hand grasping the central object and the number of possible target objects (i.e. 0, 1 or 2 target objects were independently manipulated, resulting in different levels of predictability. It was found that making an action prediction based on actor information resulted in an increased activation in the extrastriate body area (EBA and the fronto-parietal action observation network (AON. Predicting actions involving a target object resulted in increased activation in the bilateral IPL and frontal motor areas. Within the AON, activity in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL and the left premotor cortex (PMC increased as a function of the level of action predictability. Together these findings suggest that the left IPL represents stored hand-postures that can be used for planning object-directed actions and for predicting other’s actions as well.

  3. Dissociations of action means and outcome processing in left-hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Shapiro, Allison D; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2013-06-01

    Previous evidence suggests that distinct fronto-parietal regions may be involved in representing action kinematics (means) and action results (outcome) during action observation. However, the evidence is contradictory with respect to the precise regions that are critical for each type of representation. Additionally unknown is the degree to which ability to detect action means and outcome during observation is related to action production performance. We used a behavioral task to evaluate the ability of healthy and left-hemisphere stroke participants to detect differences between pairs of videos that dissociated object-related action means (e.g., wiping with circular or straight movement) and/or outcome (e.g., applying or removing detergent). We expected that deficits in detecting action means would be associated with spatiomotor gesture production deficits, whereas deficits in detecting action outcome would predict impairments in complex naturalistic action. We also hypothesized a posterior to anterior gradient in the regions critical for each type of representation, disproportionately affecting means and outcome encoding, respectively. Results indicated that outcome--but not means--detection predicted naturalistic action performance in stroke participants. Regression and voxel lesion-symptom mapping analyses of lesion data revealed that means--but not outcome--coding relies on the integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe, whereas no selective critical brain region could be identified for outcome detection. Thus, means and outcome representations are dissociable at both the behavioral and neuroanatomical levels. Furthermore, the data are consistent with a degree of parallelism between action perception and production tasks. Finally, they reinforce the evidence for a critical role of the left inferior parietal lobule in the representation of action means, whereas action outcome may rely on a more distributed neural circuit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Underconnectivity of the superior temporal sulcus predicts emotion recognition deficits in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Daniel G.; Steyaert, Jean; Di Martino, Adriana; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disconnections have been assumed to cause behavioral alterations in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we combined measurements of intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with task-based fMRI to explore whether altered activity and/or iFC of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) mediates deficits in emotion recognition in ASD. Fifteen adults with ASD and 15 matched-controls underwent resting-state and task-based fMRI, during which participants discriminated emotional states from point light displays (PLDs). Intrinsic FC of the right pSTS was further examined using 584 (278 ASD/306 controls) resting-state data of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Participants with ASD were less accurate than controls in recognizing emotional states from PLDs. Analyses revealed pronounced ASD-related reductions both in task-based activity and resting-state iFC of the right pSTS with fronto-parietal areas typically encompassing the action observation network (AON). Notably, pSTS-hypo-activity was related to pSTS-hypo-connectivity, and both measures were predictive of emotion recognition performance with each measure explaining a unique part of the variance. Analyses with the large independent ABIDE dataset replicated reductions in pSTS-iFC to fronto-parietal regions. These findings provide novel evidence that pSTS hypo-activity and hypo-connectivity with the fronto-parietal AON are linked to the social deficits characteristic of ASD. PMID:24078018

  5. Tratamento da falha óssea parcial pelo transporte ósseo parietal Partial bone defect treatment using parietal bone transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lucas Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a técnica de transporte ósseo parietal para tratamento de falha óssea parcial, e descrever o resultado clínico e radiográfico de uma série de pacientes tratados por esta técnica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: tratamos nove pacientes portadores de lesão óssea parcial, sendo seis localizada na tíbia e três no fêmur. Todos apresentavam lesão infectada, acompanhada de pseudo-artrose. O procedimento iniciou-se com estabilização do segmento ósseo com fixador externo, seguido de corticotomia parietal, em osso sadio adjacente à falha, para criar o fragmento que foi transportado. Este fragmento foi transfixado por fios olivados, que conectados às hastes sulcadas permitiam o transporte ósseo. Em dois pacientes os fragmentos utilizados eram de osso adjacente (fíbula, transportados para a tíbia em direção da tíbia. A latência, velocidade e ritmo de distração foram os preconizados por Ilizarov. RESULTADOS: a infecção e a pseudo-artrose foram curadas em todos os casos, com preenchimento da falha óssea. As complicações encontradas foram infecção nos orifícios dos fios na pele e regenerado hipotrófico. CONCLUSÃO: o tratamento da falha óssea parcial pelo transporte ósseo parietal determinou solução do processo infeccioso, com consolidação da pseudo-artrose e preenchimento da falha óssea.OBJECTIVE: This study describes the bone transportation technique for partial bone defect, and shows clinical and radiological results of a series of patients treated by using this method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine patients with partial bone defect were treated (six tibia and three femur. Every patient had infection and nonunion. The initial procedure was to stabilize the bone, followed by a partial corticotomy on the healthy bone adjacent to the defect, in order to create a fragment to be distracted. This fragment was fixed by olive wires, which were conected to the thread rod. We used fibula transport for tibial lateral

  6. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  7. Detection of activated parietal epithelial cells on the glomerular tuft distinguishes early focal segmental glomerulosclerosis from minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Stucker, F.; Wetzels, J.; Brocheriou, I.; Ronco, P.; Grone, H.J.; D'Agati, V.; Fogo, A.B.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Fischer, H.P.; Boor, P.; Floege, J.; Ostendorf, T.; Moeller, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) migrating onto the glomerular tuft participate in the formation of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions. We investigated whether immunohistologic detection of PEC markers in the initial biopsies of human patients with first manifestation of

  8. Migration of central lines from the superior vena cava to the azygous vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haygood, T.M., E-mail: tamara.haygood@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Malhotra, K., E-mail: kmalhotra@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Ng, C., E-mail: cng@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chasen, B., E-mail: beth.chasen@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); McEnery, K.W., E-mail: kmcenery@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chasen, M., E-mail: mchasen@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To report 11 cases of central venous access catheters migrating from the superior vena cava to the azygos vein in order to raise radiologists' awareness of this possibility. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective review of the clinical history and imaging of 11 patients whose central line migrated from the superior vena cava to the azygos vein. The time course of migration, access route of the catheters, outcome, and depth of placement in the superior vena cava were evaluated. Results: All of these catheters were placed from the left; six through the subclavian vein, four as PICC lines, and one from the left internal jugular vein. Seven of the catheters were originally positioned in the superior vena cava. Four of the catheters were originally positioned in the azygos vein and were repositioned into the superior vena cava at the time of placement. The time to migration ranged from 2 to 126 days, average 43 days. In three cases, the migration was not reported at the first opportunity, resulting in a delay in diagnosis ranging from 10 to 27 days. All but one of the catheters extended at least 3.5 cm (range 1.8-7 cm) below the top of the right mainstem bronchus when in the superior vena cava. Conclusion: Risk factors for migration into the azygos vein include placement from a left-sided approach and original positioning in the azygos vein with correction at placement. The depth of placement in the superior vena cava was not a protective factor. It is important to recognize migration because of the elevated risk of complications when central lines are placed in the azygos vein.

  9. Migration of central lines from the superior vena cava to the azygous vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haygood, T.M.; Malhotra, K.; Ng, C.; Chasen, B.; McEnery, K.W.; Chasen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To report 11 cases of central venous access catheters migrating from the superior vena cava to the azygos vein in order to raise radiologists’ awareness of this possibility. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective review of the clinical history and imaging of 11 patients whose central line migrated from the superior vena cava to the azygos vein. The time course of migration, access route of the catheters, outcome, and depth of placement in the superior vena cava were evaluated. Results: All of these catheters were placed from the left; six through the subclavian vein, four as PICC lines, and one from the left internal jugular vein. Seven of the catheters were originally positioned in the superior vena cava. Four of the catheters were originally positioned in the azygos vein and were repositioned into the superior vena cava at the time of placement. The time to migration ranged from 2 to 126 days, average 43 days. In three cases, the migration was not reported at the first opportunity, resulting in a delay in diagnosis ranging from 10 to 27 days. All but one of the catheters extended at least 3.5 cm (range 1.8–7 cm) below the top of the right mainstem bronchus when in the superior vena cava. Conclusion: Risk factors for migration into the azygos vein include placement from a left-sided approach and original positioning in the azygos vein with correction at placement. The depth of placement in the superior vena cava was not a protective factor. It is important to recognize migration because of the elevated risk of complications when central lines are placed in the azygos vein.

  10. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  11. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H

    1997-11-15

    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  12. The Left-Handed Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  13. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  14. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  15. The Left Atrio-Vertebral Ratio: a new simple means for assessing left atrial enlargement on Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillet, Marie; Baqué-Juston, Marie; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Sandra; Berthier, Frédéric; Zarqane, Naïma; Brunner, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new method to quickly estimate left atrial enlargement (LAE) on Computed Tomography. Left atrial (LA) volume was assessed with a 3D-threshold Hounsfield unit detection technique, including left atrial appendage and excluding pulmonary venous confluence, in 201 patients with ECG-gated 128-slice dual-source CT and indexed to body surface area. LA and vertebral axial diameter and area were measured at the bottom level of the right inferior pulmonary vein ostium. Ratio of LA diameter and surface on vertebra (LAVD and LAVA) were compared to LA volume. In accordance with the literature, a cutoff value of 78 ml/m 2 was chosen for maximal normal LA volume. 18% of LA was enlarged. The best cutoff values for LAE assessment were 2.5 for LAVD (AUC: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.58-0.73; sensitivity: 57%; specificity: 71%), and 3 for LAVA (AUC: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.72-0.84; sensitivity: 67%; specificity: 79%), with higher accuracy for LAVA (P=0.015). Inter-observer and intra-observer variability were either good or excellent for LAVD and LAVA (respective intraclass coefficients: 0.792 and 0.910; 0.912 and 0.937). A left atrium area superior to three times the vertebral area indicates LAE with high specificity. • Left atrial enlargement is a frequent condition associated with poor cardiac outcome. • Left atrial enlargement is highly time-consuming to diagnose on CT. • The left atrio-vertebral ratio quickly assesses left atrial enlargement. • A left atrial area > three times vertebral area is highly specific.

  16. Superior Electrical Contractors Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superior Electrical Contractors Inc. (the Company) is located in Boise, Idaho. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Boise, Idaho.

  17. Validation of semi-automatic segmentation of the left atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R., III; Camp, J. J.; Packer, D. L.; Robb, R. A.

    2008-03-01

    Catheter ablation therapy has become increasingly popular for the treatment of left atrial fibrillation. The effect of this treatment on left atrial morphology, however, has not yet been completely quantified. Initial studies have indicated a decrease in left atrial size with a concomitant decrease in pulmonary vein diameter. In order to effectively study if catheter based therapies affect left atrial geometry, robust segmentations with minimal user interaction are required. In this work, we validate a method to semi-automatically segment the left atrium from computed-tomography scans. The first step of the technique utilizes seeded region growing to extract the entire blood pool including the four chambers of the heart, the pulmonary veins, aorta, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and other surrounding structures. Next, the left atrium and pulmonary veins are separated from the rest of the blood pool using an algorithm that searches for thin connections between user defined points in the volumetric data or on a surface rendering. Finally, pulmonary veins are separated from the left atrium using a three dimensional tracing tool. A single user segmented three datasets three times using both the semi-automatic technique as well as manual tracing. The user interaction time for the semi-automatic technique was approximately forty-five minutes per dataset and the manual tracing required between four and eight hours per dataset depending on the number of slices. A truth model was generated using a simple voting scheme on the repeated manual segmentations. A second user segmented each of the nine datasets using the semi-automatic technique only. Several metrics were computed to assess the agreement between the semi-automatic technique and the truth model including percent differences in left atrial volume, DICE overlap, and mean distance between the boundaries of the segmented left atria. Overall, the semi-automatic approach was demonstrated to be repeatable within

  18. An enlarged parietal foramen in the late archaic Xujiayao 11 neurocranium from Northern China, and rare anomalies among Pleistocene Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Jie Wu

    Full Text Available We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bones, arachnoid granulations, a deviated posterior sagittal suture, and a unilateral (right parietal lacuna with a posteriorly-directed and enlarged endocranial vascular sulcus. Differential diagnosis indicates that the perforation is a congenital defect, an enlarged parietal foramen, commonly associated with cerebral venous and cranial vault anomalies. It was not lethal given the individual's age-at-death, but it may have been associated with secondary neurological deficiencies. The fossil constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of this very rare condition (a single enlarged parietal foramen. In combination with developmental and degenerative abnormalities in other Pleistocene human remains, it suggests demographic and survival patterns among Pleistocene Homo that led to an elevated frequency of conditions unknown or rare among recent humans.

  19. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  20. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  1. Brain morphology and neuropsychological profiles in a family displaying dyslexia and superior nonverbal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, Jason G; Sanchez, Juliana; Kibby, Michelle Y; Gilger, Jeffrey W; Hynd, George W

    2006-11-01

    Behavioral research suggests that individuals with dyslexia may have exceptional skills in nonverbal cognitive processes, while genetic studies have noted that giftedness, high IQ and/or special talents tend to run in families. Taken together, these results suggest that persons within families (particularly offspring) may share similar cortical systems supporting those functions. Postmortem and in vivo imaging studies have linked dyslexia to abnormalities in the structures associated with the parietal operculum (PO) (e.g., planum temporale, supramarginal gyrus, and angular gyrus). In this paper we present data on a single family showing a link between dyslexia, superior nonverbal IQ and atypical PO presentation. We consider the psychometric and neurological patterns of this family as a tentative etiological test of the putative dyslexia-talent association.

  2. Right Site, Wrong Route - Cannulating the Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Peter; Arukala, Sanjay K; Sule, Anupam A

    2018-01-09

    Central venous catheters are placed in approximately five million patients annually in the US. The preferred site of insertion is one with fewer risks and easier access. Although the right internal jugular vein is preferred, on occasion, the left internal jugular may have to be accessed. A patient was admitted for septic shock, cerebrovascular accident, and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A central venous line was needed for antibiotic and vasopressor administration. Due to trauma from a fall to the right side and previously failed catheterization attempts at the left subclavian and femoral veins, the left internal jugular vein was accessed. On chest radiography for confirmation, the left internal jugular central venous catheter was seen projecting down the left paraspinal region. It did not take the expected course across the midline toward the right and into the superior vena cava (SVC). A review of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest with contrast done on a prior admission revealed a duplicated SVC on the left side that had not been reported in the original CT scan interpretation. A left-sided SVC is present in approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of the population, with 90% of these draining into the coronary sinus. During placements of central venous lines and pacemakers, irritation of the coronary sinus may result in hypotension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, or cardiac arrest. A widened mediastinum can be an indication of a duplicated SVC. When attempting a left internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement, it is important to be aware of venous anomalies in order to prevent complications.

  3. It's how you get there: Walking down a virtual alley activates premotor and parietal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eWagner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary drive is crucial for motor learning, therefore we are interested in the role that motor planning plays in gait movements. In this study we examined the impact of an interactive Virtual Environment (VE feedback task on the EEG patterns during robot assisted walking. We compared walking in the VE modality to two control conditions: walking with a visual attention paradigm, in which visual stimuli were unrelated to the motor task; and walking with mirror feedback, in which participants observed their own movements. Eleven healthy participants were considered. Application of independent component analysis to the EEG revealed three independent component clusters in premotor and parietal areas showing increased activity during walking with the adaptive VE training paradigm compared to the control conditions. During the interactive VE walking task spectral power in frequency ranges 8-12Hz, 15-20Hz and 23-40Hz was significantly (p ≤ 0.05 decreased. This power decrease is interpreted as a correlate of an active cortical area. Furthermore activity in the premotor cortex revealed gait cycle related modulations significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 from baseline in the frequency range 23-40Hz during walking. These modulations were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced depending on gait cycle phases in the interactive VE walking task compared to the control conditions.We demonstrate that premotor and parietal areas show increased activity during walking with the adaptive VE training paradigm, when compared to walking with mirror- and movement unrelated feedback. Previous research has related a premotor-parietal network to motor planning and motor intention. We argue that movement related interactive feedback enhances motor planning and motor intention. We hypothesize that this might improve gait recovery during rehabilitation.

  4. Neuronal chains for actions in the parietal lobe: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, Fabian; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The inferior part of the parietal lobe (IPL) is known to play a very important role in sensorimotor integration. Neurons in this region code goal-related motor acts performed with the mouth, with the hand and with the arm. It has been demonstrated that most IPL motor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show markedly different activation patterns according to the final goal of the action sequence in which the act is embedded (grasping for eating or grasping for placing). Some of these neurons (parietal mirror neurons) show a similar selectivity also during the observation of the same action sequences when executed by others. Thus, it appears that the neuronal response occurring during the execution and the observation of a specific grasping act codes not only the executed motor act, but also the agent's final goal (intention).In this work we present a biologically inspired neural network architecture that models mechanisms of motor sequences execution and recognition. In this network, pools composed of motor and mirror neurons that encode motor acts of a sequence are arranged in form of action goal-specific neuronal chains. The execution and the recognition of actions is achieved through the propagation of activity bursts along specific chains modulated by visual and somatosensory inputs.The implemented spiking neuron network is able to reproduce the results found in neurophysiological recordings of parietal neurons during task performance and provides a biologically plausible implementation of the action selection and recognition process.Finally, the present paper proposes a mechanism for the formation of new neural chains by linking together in a sequential manner neurons that represent subsequent motor acts, thus producing goal-directed sequences.

  5. Neuronal chains for actions in the parietal lobe: a computational model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Chersi

    Full Text Available The inferior part of the parietal lobe (IPL is known to play a very important role in sensorimotor integration. Neurons in this region code goal-related motor acts performed with the mouth, with the hand and with the arm. It has been demonstrated that most IPL motor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping show markedly different activation patterns according to the final goal of the action sequence in which the act is embedded (grasping for eating or grasping for placing. Some of these neurons (parietal mirror neurons show a similar selectivity also during the observation of the same action sequences when executed by others. Thus, it appears that the neuronal response occurring during the execution and the observation of a specific grasping act codes not only the executed motor act, but also the agent's final goal (intention.In this work we present a biologically inspired neural network architecture that models mechanisms of motor sequences execution and recognition. In this network, pools composed of motor and mirror neurons that encode motor acts of a sequence are arranged in form of action goal-specific neuronal chains. The execution and the recognition of actions is achieved through the propagation of activity bursts along specific chains modulated by visual and somatosensory inputs.The implemented spiking neuron network is able to reproduce the results found in neurophysiological recordings of parietal neurons during task performance and provides a biologically plausible implementation of the action selection and recognition process.Finally, the present paper proposes a mechanism for the formation of new neural chains by linking together in a sequential manner neurons that represent subsequent motor acts, thus producing goal-directed sequences.

  6. Neuronal Chains for Actions in the Parietal Lobe: A Computational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, Fabian; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The inferior part of the parietal lobe (IPL) is known to play a very important role in sensorimotor integration. Neurons in this region code goal-related motor acts performed with the mouth, with the hand and with the arm. It has been demonstrated that most IPL motor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show markedly different activation patterns according to the final goal of the action sequence in which the act is embedded (grasping for eating or grasping for placing). Some of these neurons (parietal mirror neurons) show a similar selectivity also during the observation of the same action sequences when executed by others. Thus, it appears that the neuronal response occurring during the execution and the observation of a specific grasping act codes not only the executed motor act, but also the agent's final goal (intention). In this work we present a biologically inspired neural network architecture that models mechanisms of motor sequences execution and recognition. In this network, pools composed of motor and mirror neurons that encode motor acts of a sequence are arranged in form of action goal-specific neuronal chains. The execution and the recognition of actions is achieved through the propagation of activity bursts along specific chains modulated by visual and somatosensory inputs. The implemented spiking neuron network is able to reproduce the results found in neurophysiological recordings of parietal neurons during task performance and provides a biologically plausible implementation of the action selection and recognition process. Finally, the present paper proposes a mechanism for the formation of new neural chains by linking together in a sequential manner neurons that represent subsequent motor acts, thus producing goal-directed sequences. PMID:22140455

  7. The Acid-Secreting Parietal Cell as an Endocrine Source of Sonic Hedgehog During Gastric Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engevik, Amy C.; Feng, Rui; Yang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) has been shown to regulate wound healing in various tissues. Despite its known function in tissue regeneration, the role of Shh secreted from the gastric epithelium during tissue repair in the stomach remains unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that Shh secreted from the acid-secreting parietal cell is a fundamental circulating factor that drives gastric repair. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-ShhKO) was generated using animals bearing loxP sites flanking exon 2 of the Shh gene (Shhflx/flx) and mice expressing a Cre transgene under the control of the H+,K+-ATPase β-subunit promoter. Shhflx/flx, the H+,K+-ATPase β-subunit promoter, and C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Ulcers were induced via acetic acid injury. At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days after the ulcer induction, gastric tissue and blood samples were collected. Parabiosis experiments were used to establish the effect of circulating Shh on ulcer repair. Control mice exhibited an increased expression of Shh in the gastric tissue and plasma that correlated with the repair of injury within 7 days after surgery. PC-ShhKO mice showed a loss of ulcer repair and reduced Shh tissue and plasma concentrations. In a parabiosis experiment whereby a control mouse was paired with a PC-ShhKO littermate and both animals subjected to gastric injury, a significant increase in the circulating Shh was measured in both parabionts. Elevated circulating Shh concentrations correlated with the repair of gastric ulcers in the PC-ShhKO parabionts. Therefore, the acid-secreting parietal cell within the stomach acts as an endocrine source of Shh during repair. PMID:24092639

  8. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  9. Forward Prediction in the Posterior Parietal Cortex and Dynamic Brain-Machine Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, He

    2016-01-01

    While remarkable progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) over the past two decades, it is still difficult to utilize neural signals to drive artificial actuators to produce predictive movements in response to dynamic stimuli. In contrast to naturalistic limb movements largely based on forward planning, brain-controlled neuroprosthetics mainly rely on feedback without prior trajectory formation. As an important sensorimotor interface integrating multisensory inputs and efference copy, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might play a proactive role in predictive motor control. Here it is proposed that predictive neural activity in PPC could be decoded to provide prosthetic control signals for guiding BMI systems in dynamic environments.

  10. Signs of trauma in an adult parietal bone exhumed from a Portuguese prehistoric collective burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2008-06-01

    A fragment of parietal bone from an adult individual of unknown sex exhumed from the collective burial of Praia da Samarra (Sintra, Portugal), dated to the end of the Neolithic, presents signs of different types of trauma. These include thinning of the skull vault and incisions marks. Differential diagnoses for these alterations are discussed: for the first one, depressed skull factures is the most likely cause. For the incisions, trepanation (more probable) and trauma due to a sharp force are proposed. These hypotheses are also discussed in terms of other similar findings from coeval Portuguese collective burials.

  11. Neuronal Chains for Actions in the Parietal Lobe: A Computational Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chersi, Fabian; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The inferior part of the parietal lobe (IPL) is known to play a very important role in sensorimotor integration. Neurons in this region code goal-related motor acts performed with the mouth, with the hand and with the arm. It has been demonstrated that most IPL motor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show markedly different activation patterns according to the final goal of the action sequence in which the act is embedded (grasping for eating or grasping for placing). Some ...

  12. Attention to Multiple Objects Facilitates Their Integration in Prefrontal and Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yee-Joon; Tsai, Jeffrey J; Ojemann, Jeffrey; Verghese, Preeti

    2017-05-10

    Selective attention is known to interact with perceptual organization. In visual scenes, individual objects that are distinct and discriminable may occur on their own, or in groups such as a stack of books. The main objective of this study is to probe the neural interaction that occurs between individual objects when attention is directed toward one or more objects. Here we record steady-state visual evoked potentials via electrocorticography to directly assess the responses to individual stimuli and to their interaction. When human participants attend to two adjacent stimuli, prefrontal and parietal cortex shows a selective enhancement of only the neural interaction between stimuli, but not the responses to individual stimuli. When only one stimulus is attended, the neural response to that stimulus is selectively enhanced in prefrontal and parietal cortex. In contrast, early visual areas generally manifest responses to individual stimuli and to their interaction regardless of attentional task, although a subset of the responses is modulated similarly to prefrontal and parietal cortex. Thus, the neural representation of the visual scene as one progresses up the cortical hierarchy becomes more highly task-specific and represents either individual stimuli or their interaction, depending on the behavioral goal. Attention to multiple objects facilitates an integration of objects akin to perceptual grouping. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Individual objects in a visual scene are seen as distinct entities or as parts of a whole. Here we examine how attention to multiple objects affects their neural representation. Previous studies measured single-cell or fMRI responses and obtained only aggregate measures that combined the activity to individual stimuli as well as their potential interaction. Here, we directly measure electrocorticographic steady-state responses corresponding to individual objects and to their interaction using a frequency-tagging technique. Attention to two

  13. Symptomatic Parietal Intradiploic Encephalocele—A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen; Flores, Bruno; Fisher, Stephen; Barnett, Samuel L

    2017-01-01

    Encephalocele is a rare condition that consists of herniation of cerebral matter through openings of dura and skull. A majority of encephaloceles are congenital and manifest in childhood. We present a case of a 45-year-old man presenting with contralateral hemiparesis and found to have an extremely rare phenomenon of a symptomatic posttraumatic parietal intradiploic encephalocele (IE) manifesting 36 years following pediatric traumatic head injury. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed herniation of brain tissue into the intradiploic space. Surgical treatment with reduction of the encephalocele achieved near resolution of preoperative hemiparesis on follow-up. The pathogenesis and a literature review of IE are discussed. PMID:28316901

  14. Intracranially protruded bilateral posterior and superior SCCs with multiple dehiscences in a patient with positional vertigo: CT and MR imaging findings and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal G Kundaragi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of intracranially protruded posterior and superior semicircular canals beyond the margins of temporal bone with bony roof dehiscence in bilateral posterior and left superior semicircular canals in a patient with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV.

  15. Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishizawa, Y; Olsen, T S; Larsen, B

    1982-01-01

    1. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during rest and during listening to simple words. The xenon-133 intracarotid technique was used and results were obtained from 254 regions of seven right hemispheres and seven left hemispheres. The measurements were performed just after carotid...... of the entire hemisphere. The focal rCBF increases were localized to the superior part of the temporal regions, the prefrontal regions, the frontal eye fields, and the orbitofrontal regions. Significant asymmetries were found in particular in the superior temporal region with the left side showing a more...

  16. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  18. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar

    2015-09-01

    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  19. Burlington Northern Taconite Transshipment Facility, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Superior Wisconsin. Environmental Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    unsuitable for potable and even some industrial uses. 2.250 Water Use. The city of Superior presently obtains its entire municipal water supply from a...53, which will link Duluth-Superior to Eau Claire and Madison, Wisconsin, and to Chicago, Illinois. Duluth and Superior combined have more than 6,000

  20. Right parietal cortex and calculation processing: intraoperative functional mapping of multiplication and addition in patients affected by a brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; d'Avella, Elena; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Munari, Marina; Saladini, Marina; Salillas, Elena; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    The role of parietal areas in number processing is well known. The significance of intraoperative functional mapping of these areas has been only partially explored, however, and only a few discordant data are available in the surgical literature with regard to the right parietal lobe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of simple calculation in cortical electrostimulation of right-handed patients affected by a right parietal brain tumor. Calculation mapping in awake surgery was performed in 3 right-handed patients affected by high-grade gliomas located in the right parietal lobe. Preoperatively, none of the patients presented with calculation deficits. In all 3 cases, after sensorimotor and language mapping, cortical and intraparietal sulcus areas involved in single-digit multiplication and addition calculations were mapped using bipolar electrostimulation. In all patients, different sites of the right parietal cortex, mainly in the inferior lobule, were detected as being specifically related to calculation (multiplication or addition). In 2 patients the intraparietal sulcus was functionally specific for multiplication. No functional sites for language were detected. All sites functional for calculation were spared during tumor resection, which was complete in all cases without postoperative neurological deficits. These findings provide intraoperative data in support of an anatomofunctional organization for multiplication and addition within the right parietal area. Furthermore, the study shows the potential clinical relevance of intraoperative mapping of calculation in patients undergoing surgery in the right parietal area. Further and larger studies are needed to confirm these data and assess whether mapped areas are effectively essential for function.

  1. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  2. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  3. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  4. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sense of agency is related to gamma band coupling in an inferior parietal-preSMA circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina eRitterband-Rosenbaum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA and inferior parietal cortex (IPC. Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing task (Nielsen, 1963;Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998, in which they moved a cursor on a digital tablet with their right hand without seeing the hand. Visual feedback displayed on a computer monitor was either in correspondence with or deviated from the actual movement. This made participants uncertain as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modelling (DCM for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008;Herz et al., 2012. Nine different DCMs were constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009 favoured a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward connection to SMA in the late task phase, and a model with input to preSMA and modulation of the backward connection was favoured for the early task phase. The analysis shows that IPC source activity in the 50-60Hz range modulated preSMA source activity in the 40-70 Hz range in the presence of SoA compared with no SoA in the late task phase, but the test of the early task phase did not reveal any differences between presence and absence of SoA. We show that SoA is associated with a directionally specific between frequencies coupling from IPC to preSMA in the higher gamma (ɣ band in the late task phase. This suggests that SoA is a retrospective perception, which is highly dependent on interpretation of the outcome of the performed action.

  6. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal-frontal function in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Daphne J; Boeke, Emily A; Coombs, Garth; DeCross, Stephanie N; Cassidy, Brittany S; Stufflebeam, Steven; Rauch, Scott L; Tootell, Roger B H

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to "keep their distance" from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal-frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body ("personal space"). Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS), was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group) and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area) was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal-frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  7. Hippocampal and posterior parietal contributions to developmental increases in visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Allmen, David Yoh; Wurmitzer, Karoline; Klaver, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Developmental increases in visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity have been associated with changes in attention processing limitations and changes in neural activity within neural networks including the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). A growing body of evidence suggests that the hippocampus plays a role in VSTM, but it is unknown whether the hippocampus contributes to the capacity increase across development. We investigated the functional development of the hippocampus and PPC in 57 children, adolescents and adults (age 8-27 years) who performed a visuo-spatial change detection task. A negative relationship between age and VSTM related activity was found in the right posterior hippocampus that was paralleled by a positive age-activity relationship in the right PPC. In the posterior hippocampus, VSTM related activity predicted individual capacity in children, whereas neural activity in the right anterior hippocampus predicted individual capacity in adults. The findings provide first evidence that VSTM development is supported by an integrated neural network that involves hippocampal and posterior parietal regions.

  8. Offline stimulation of human parietal cortex differently affects resting EEG microstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Pierpaolo; Zappasodi, Filippo; Capotosto, Paolo

    2018-01-19

    The interference effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on several electroencephalographic (EEG) measures in both temporal and frequency domains have been reported. We tested the hypothesis whether the offline external inhibitory interference, although focal, could result in a global reorganization of the functional brain state, as assessed by EEG microstates. In 16 healthy subjects, we inhibited five parietal areas and used a pseudo stimulation (Sham) at rest. The EEG microstates were extracted before and after each stimulation. The canonical A, B, C and D templates were found before and after all stimulation conditions. The Sham, as well as the stimulation of a ventral site did not modify any resting EEG microstates' topography. On the contrary, interfering with parietal key-nodes of both dorsal attention (DAN) and default mode networks (DMN), we observed that the microstate C clearly changes, whereas the other three topographies are not affected. These results provide the first causal evidence of a microstates modification following magnetic interference. Since the microstate C has been associated to the activity in regions belonging to the cingulo-opercular network (CON), the regional specificity of such inhibition seems to support the theory of a link between CON and both DAN and DMN at rest.

  9. Longitudinal investigation of the parietal lobe anatomy in bipolar disorder and its association with general functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Adele; Bonivento, Carolina; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Bellani, Marcella; Perlini, Cinzia; Dusi, Nicola; Marinelli, Veronica; Ruggeri, Mirella; Altamura, A Carlo; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-09-30

    The parietal lobe (PL) supports cognitive domains, including attention and memory, which are impaired in bipolar disorder (BD). Although cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry studies found reduced PL grey matter (GM) in BD, none has longitudinally focused on PL anatomy in BD, relating it to patients' functioning. Thirty-eight right-handed BD patients and 42 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan at baseline. Seventeen BD patients and 16 matched HS underwent a follow-up MRI. PL white matter (WM) and GM volumes were measured. The trajectory of parietal volumes over time and the possible relation with the global functioning were investigated in both BD patients and HS. At baseline, BD patients showed significant reduced PL WM and GM and different WM laterality compared with HS. Furthermore, smaller PL WM volumes predicted lower global functioning in BD, but not in HS. At follow-up, although BD patients reported reduced PL WM compared with HS, no different pattern of volume changes over time was detected between groups. This study suggests the involvement of the PL in the pathophysiology of BD. In particular, PL WM reductions seem to predict an impairment in general functioning in BD and might represent a marker of functional outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Frontal and parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) disturbs programming of saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangemeister, W H; Canavan, A G; Hoemberg, V

    1995-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human motor cortex typically evoked motor responses. TMS has failed to elicit eye movements in humans, whereas prolongations of saccadic latency have been reported with TMS. In previous studied we demonstrated that saccades can be abolished or saccadic trajectories can be changed through TMS in the 100 msec before saccade onset. This effect was especially marked when TMS was applied parietally. TMS never influenced a saccade in flight. Simulations of predictive experimental saccades that were impaired through TMS of the frontal or parietal cortex demonstrated especially that the dynamics of small saccades were markedly influenced, resulting in a significant decrease in acceleration and amplitude, or an almost complete inhibition. The impact of inhibition through TMS was critically dependent on timing: early TMS (-70 msec) had a much larger inhibitory effect than late TMS (-20 msec) on experimental saccades. Differential timing of TMS in influencing the cortical control signal is demonstrated through simulations of a reciprocally innervated eye movement model that paralleled empirically determined changes in eye movement dynamics after real TMS. There is a reasonable match between the model and the experimental data. We conclude that the inhibitory action of a presaccadic disturbance, such as a TMS pulse, on saccadic programming is inversely related to timing and amplitude of the predicted saccade.

  11. EEG Source Reconstruction Reveals Frontal-Parietal Dynamics of Spatial Conflict Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30–50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8–12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4–8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions. PMID:23451201

  12. Dance and emotion in posterior parietal cortex: a low-frequency rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Tan, Haodan; Pollick, Frank

    2012-04-01

    The neural bases of emotion are most often studied using short non-natural stimuli and assessed using correlational methods. Here we use a brain perturbation approach to make causal inferences between brain activity and emotional reaction to a long segment of dance. We aimed to apply offline rTMS over the brain regions involved in subjective emotional ratings to explore whether this could change the appreciation of a dance performance. We first used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify regions correlated with fluctuating emotional rating during a 4-min dance performance, looking at both positive and negative correlation. Identified regions were further characterized using meta-data interrogation. Low-frequency repetitive TMS was applied over the most important node in a different group of participants prior to them rating the same dance performance as in the fMRI session. FMRI revealed a negative correlation between subjective emotional judgement and activity in the right posterior parietal cortex. This region is commonly involved in cognitive tasks and not in emotional task. Parietal rTMS had no effect on the general affective response, but it significantly (Pdance. They can be interpreted in the framework of competition between resources allocated to emotion and resources allocated to cognitive functions. They highlight potential use of brain stimulation in neuro-æsthetic investigations. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms within the Parietal Cortex Correlate with the Benefits of Random Practice in Motor Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thürer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The motor learning literature shows an increased retest or transfer performance after practicing under unstable (random conditions. This random practice effect (also known as contextual interference effect is frequently investigated on the behavioral level and discussed in the context of mechanisms of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and increased cognitive efforts during movement planning. However, there is a lack of studies examining the random practice effect in motor adaptation tasks and, in general, the underlying neural processes of the random practice effect are not fully understood. We tested 24 right-handed human subjects performing a reaching task using a robotic manipulandum. Subjects learned to adapt either to a blocked or a random schedule of different force field perturbations while subjects’ electroencephalography (EEG was recorded. The behavioral results showed a distinct random practice effect in terms of a more stabilized retest performance of the random compared to the blocked practicing group. Further analyses showed that this effect correlates with changes in the alpha band power in electrodes over parietal areas. We conclude that the random practice effect in this study is facilitated by mechanisms within the parietal cortex during movement execution which might reflect online feedback mechanisms.

  14. Visual feature integration indicated by pHase-locked frontal-parietal EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Takeda, Yuji; Singh, Archana

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to integrate multiple sources of information is a prerequisite for complex cognitive ability, such as finding a target uniquely identifiable by the conjunction of two or more features. Recent studies identified greater frontal-parietal synchrony during conjunctive than non-conjunctive (feature) search. Whether this difference also reflects greater information integration, rather than just differences in cognitive strategy (e.g., top-down versus bottom-up control of attention), or task difficulty is uncertain. Here, we examine the first possibility by parametrically varying the number of integrated sources from one to three and measuring phase-locking values (PLV) of frontal-parietal EEG electrode signals, as indicators of synchrony. Linear regressions, under hierarchical false-discovery rate control, indicated significant positive slopes for number of sources on PLV in the 30-38 Hz, 175-250 ms post-stimulus frequency-time band for pairs in the sagittal plane (i.e., F3-P3, Fz-Pz, F4-P4), after equating conditions for behavioural performance (to exclude effects due to task difficulty). No such effects were observed for pairs in the transverse plane (i.e., F3-F4, C3-C4, P3-P4). These results provide support for the idea that anterior-posterior phase-locking in the lower gamma-band mediates integration of visual information. They also provide a potential window into cognitive development, seen as developing the capacity to integrate more sources of information.

  15. Receptor binding characteristics of tritiated misoprostol free acid in enriched canine parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, B.S.; Kessler, L.K.; Conway, R.G.; Schoenhard, G.; Stolzenbach, J.; Collins, P.; Kramer, S.; Butchko, G.M.; Bauer, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Misoprostol (MISO) is a synthetic prostaglandin (PG) E 1 methyl ester with gastric antisecretory and mucosal protective properties. MISO is rapidly de-esterified to misoprostol free acid (MISO-FA) in enriched (65-80%) canine parietal cell preparations. Both forms appear to possess equivalent antisecretory potency and [ 3 H] MISO-FA is stable in these preparations. [ 3 H] MISO-FA binding was reversible and saturable with a maximal number of binding sites estimated at 8138 +/- 1893 per cell. The scatchard plot was linear, indicating a single, high affinity receptor population with a dissociation constant of 11 +/- 2.6 x 10 -9 M. Unlabeled MISO-FA and MISO were equally potent inhibitors [IC 50 , approx. 10 -8 M] of [ 3 H] MISO-FA binding. At 10 -5 M, the dinor and tetranor β-oxidation metabolites of MISO were weak binding inhibitors. Strict stereospecific binding was shown by MISO stereoisomers, and the 11R, 16S isomer was most active. Both PGE 1 and 16,16 dimethyl PGE 2 were potent binding inhibitors, but PGF 1 α (10 -6 M) and Hoe 892 (10 -5 M), a stable PGI 2 analog, were weak inhibitors. Neither histamine or cimetidine competed for binding sites. These data indicate the presence of stereospecific E-type prostaglandin receptors in enriched canine parietal cell preparations

  16. Receptor binding characteristics of tritiated misoprostol free acid in enriched canine parietal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, B.S.; Kessler, L.K.; Conway, R.G.; Schoenhard, G.; Stolzenbach, J.; Collins, P.; Kramer, S.; Butchko, G.M.; Bauer, R.F.

    1986-03-01

    Misoprostol (MISO) is a synthetic prostaglandin (PG) E/sub 1/ methyl ester with gastric antisecretory and mucosal protective properties. MISO is rapidly de-esterified to misoprostol free acid (MISO-FA) in enriched (65-80%) canine parietal cell preparations. Both forms appear to possess equivalent antisecretory potency and (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA is stable in these preparations. (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA binding was reversible and saturable with a maximal number of binding sites estimated at 8138 +/- 1893 per cell. The scatchard plot was linear, indicating a single, high affinity receptor population with a dissociation constant of 11 +/- 2.6 x 10/sup -9/ M. Unlabeled MISO-FA and MISO were equally potent inhibitors (IC/sub 50/, approx. 10/sup -8/M) of (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA binding. At 10/sup -5/ M, the dinor and tetranor ..beta..-oxidation metabolites of MISO were weak binding inhibitors. Strict stereospecific binding was shown by MISO stereoisomers, and the 11R, 16S isomer was most active. Both PGE/sub 1/ and 16,16 dimethyl PGE/sub 2/ were potent binding inhibitors, but PGF/sub 1/..cap alpha.. (10/sup -6/ M) and Hoe 892 (10/sup -5/ M), a stable PGI/sub 2/ analog, were weak inhibitors. Neither histamine or cimetidine competed for binding sites. These data indicate the presence of stereospecific E-type prostaglandin receptors in enriched canine parietal cell preparations.

  17. Recency Effects in the Inferior Parietal Lobe during Verbal Recognition Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Russell Buchsbaum

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recently encountered information is often most easily remembered in psychological tests of memory. Recent investigations of the neural basis of such recency effects have shown that activation in the lateral inferior parietal cortex (LIPC tracks the recency of a probe item when subjects make recognition memory judgments. A key question regarding recency effects in the LIPC is whether they fundamentally reflect the storage (and strength of information in memory, or whether such effects are a consequence of task difficulty or an upswing in resting state network activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we show that recency effects in the LIPC are independent of the difficulty of recognition memory decisions, that they are not a by-product of an increase in resting state network activity, and that they appear to dissociate from regions known to be involved in verbal working memory maintenance. We conclude with a discussion of two alternative explanations – the memory strength and expectancy hypotheses, respectively -- of the parietal lobe recency effect.

  18. Noradrenaline transporter blockade increases fronto-parietal functional connectivity relevant for working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaus, Dennis; Casales Santa, Marta Ma; Offermann, Jan Stefan; Van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2017-04-01

    Experimental animal work has demonstrated that dopamine and noradrenaline play an essential role in modulating prefrontal cortex-mediated networks underlying working memory performance. Studies of functional connectivity have been instrumental in extending such notions to humans but, so far, have almost exclusively focussed on pharmacological agents with a predominant dopaminergic mechanism of action. Here, we investigate the effect of a single dose of atomoxetine 60mg, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor, on working memory performance and associated functional connectivity during an n-back task in 19 healthy male volunteers. Atomoxetine increased functional connectivity between right anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and precuneus during the high-working memory load condition of the n-back task. Increased atomoxetine-induced insula-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functional connectivity during this condition correlated with decreased reaction time variability and was furthermore predicted by working memory capacity. These results show for the first time that noradrenaline transporter blockade-induced increases in cortical catecholamines accentuate fronto-parietal working memory-related network integrity. The observation of significant inter-subject variability in response to atomoxetine has implications for inverted-U frameworks of dopamine and noradrenaline function, which could be useful to predict drug effects in clinical disorders with variable treatment response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Posterior Parietal Cortex Drives Inferotemporal Activations During Three-Dimensional Object Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C Van Dromme

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primate visual system consists of a ventral stream, specialized for object recognition, and a dorsal visual stream, which is crucial for spatial vision and actions. However, little is known about the interactions and information flow between these two streams. We investigated these interactions within the network processing three-dimensional (3D object information, comprising both the dorsal and ventral stream. Reversible inactivation of the macaque caudal intraparietal area (CIP during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI reduced fMRI activations in posterior parietal cortex in the dorsal stream and, surprisingly, also in the inferotemporal cortex (ITC in the ventral visual stream. Moreover, CIP inactivation caused a perceptual deficit in a depth-structure categorization task. CIP-microstimulation during fMRI further suggests that CIP projects via posterior parietal areas to the ITC in the ventral stream. To our knowledge, these results provide the first causal evidence for the flow of visual 3D information from the dorsal stream to the ventral stream, and identify CIP as a key area for depth-structure processing. Thus, combining reversible inactivation and electrical microstimulation during fMRI provides a detailed view of the functional interactions between the two visual processing streams.

  20. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X Cohen

    Full Text Available Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz, followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz, alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  1. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-ba