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Sample records for left stellate-ganglion nervous

  1. Cardiovascular Disease and its Association with Histological Changes of the Left stellate Ganglion

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    Adam Wood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence has demonstrated that the autonomic system plays a role in the morbidity and mortality of certain cardiovascular disease states. Ventricular arrhythmias have been associated with the level of sympathetic activation. We attempted to determine if the presence of fibrosis, a marker for previous ischemic events, correlates with an increase in the number of left stellate ganglion nerve cell bodies which is indicative of hypersympathetic stimulation to the myocardial tissue. Left stellate ganglia were removed, sectioned and prepared using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stain. The interventricular septum of the heart corresponding to the stellate ganglion samples were removed, serially sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stain. The samples were described using a grading scale to quantify the percentage of fibrosis. Ganglion nerve cell bodies were then individually counted in three separate high-powered fields. A student's T-test was used to statistically evaluate the data. Stellate ganglions were sampled from 32 cadavers. Fibrosis was present within 72% (23/32 of the interventricular septums that were sampled. Nine interventricular septums were found to be free of fibrosis. For those interventricular septums that were positive for the presence of fibrosis, the mean left stellate ganglion nerve cell bodies was 39.8 (Range: 26-51. For those interventricular septums that were negative for the presence of fibrosis, the mean left stellate ganglion nerve cell bodies was 34.3 (Range: 27-46. The difference between the mean nerve cell bodies for interventricular septums with fibrosis and without fibrosis was found to be statistically significant ( P = 0.048. Histological changes in terms of the number of left stellate ganglion nerve cell bodies seem to be dependent upon the presence of fibrosis within the interventricular septum. Considering fibrosis of the interventricular septum is a marker

  2. Seborrheic dermatitis treatment with stellate ganglion block: a case report.

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    Kim, Gun Woo; Mun, Ki Ho; Song, Jeong Yun; Kim, Byung Gun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Lee, Choon Soo; Cha, Young Deog; Song, Jang Ho

    2016-04-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder presumed to be caused by increased sebaceous gland secretion, metabolic changes in the cutaneous microflora, and changes in the host immune function. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is known to increase the blood flow rate without altering the blood pressure, heart rate, or cardiac output, to stabilize hypertonic conditions of the sympathetic nerves, and to affect the endocrine and immune systems. It is used in the differential diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders of the head, neck, and upper limbs. The authors report the first case of successful treatment of a patient with seborrheic dermatitis through repeated SGB trials.

  3. Stellate ganglion blockade for analgesia following upper limb surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, J G

    2012-01-31

    We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.

  4. Evaluation of new approach to ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block

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    Anju Ghai

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a significant variation in the anatomy of stellate ganglion at the level of C 6 and C 7 . Ultrasound guided lateral approach increases the efficacy of SGB by deposition of drug subfascially with real-time imaging.

  5. Palmar hyperhidrosis treated by noninvasive ultrasound stellate ganglion block.

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    Heinig, Birgit; Koch, Andrè; Wollina, Uwe

    2016-07-05

    Focal palmar hyperhidrosis is a common and often debilitating eccrine sweat gland disorder with negative impact on quality of life and self-esteem. For treatment of recalcitrant cases, a stellate ganglion block is a nonsurgical alternative. Although this method has only a temporary effect, surgical risks can be avoided. The usual way to perform the block is by ultrasound-guided injection of local anesthetics. Here we describe the use of therapeutic ultrasound at 0.8 MHz for stellate ganglion block. Ultrasound was applied for 1 min unilaterally every other day for 6 days. The efficacy was monitored by video capillaroscopy and Minor's iodine starch test. Treatment was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted. Sweating was stopped and capillary blood flow increased. The effect lasted for several weeks.

  6. Stellate ganglion block attenuates chronic stress induced depression in rats.

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    Weiwei Wang

    Full Text Available Stress is a significant factor in the etiology of depression. Stellate ganglion block (SGB has been shown to maintain the stability of the autonomic system and to affect the neuroendocrine system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. The objective of this study was to determine the antidepressant-like effects of SGB on the autonomic system and the HPA axis, apoptosis-related proteins, related spatial learning and memory impairment, and sensorimotor dysfunction.Forty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: control + saline (sham group, control + SGB (SGB group, unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS + saline (UCMS group, and UCMS + SGB (UCSG group. Stress-induced effects and the function of SGB were assessed using measures of body weight, coat state, sucrose consumption, and behavior in open-field and Y-maze tests. Neuronal damage was assessed histologically using the hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining method, while western blotting was used to investigate changes in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Plasma corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone (CORT, noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured to evaluate changes in the autonomic system and HPA axis.SGB treatment significantly improved sensorimotor dysfunction and spatial learning and memory impairment following UCMS. Moreover, UCMS significantly decreased body weight, sucrose preference and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and increased scores on measures of coat state, adrenal gland weight, levels of CORT, CRF, ACTH, noradrenaline and adrenaline, as well as increased neuronal loss, cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. These symptoms were attenuated by treatment with SGB.These findings suggest that SGB can attenuate depression-like behaviors induced by chronic stress. These protective effects appear to be due to an anti-apoptotic mechanism of two stress

  7. [Alternative approach to autonomic instability of very severe tetanus: stellate ganglion block].

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    Altıparmak, Başak; Uysal, Ali İhsan; Yaşar, Eylem; Demirbilek, Semra

    Tetanus is an acute and deadly disease caused by Clostridium tetani. A 60-year-old male came to hospital after he injured his thumb with a knife. Ten days later, he returned to hospital with abdominal spasms. He was vaccinated against tetanus and referred to intensive care unit. As he had sudden difficulty in respiration, he was entubated. Midazolam, magnesium and esmolol infusion were started. Next day, muscle spasms progressed all over his body. Midazolam infusion was replaced with propofol and vecuronium. At the third day, morphine infusion was added. At the 16th day, dexmedetomidine infusion was started. At the 20 th day, ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block was performed to denervate sympathetic activity. The block was performed three times in a 10 days period. At the 30 th the patient recovered from very severe tetanus. The mainstay of tetanus treatment is adequate sedation. Neuroaxial blocks were proved to be effective for the control of sympathetic overactivity in recent years. Circulatory collapse remains to be the major cause of death. The mechanism is unclear but altered myocardial function is thought to be related to changeable catecholamine levels. The effect of stellate ganglion block on sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart has been studied since the beginning of 1980s. Recently Scanlon et al. reported they treated a patient with medically refractory ventricular arrhythmias by ultrasound guided bilateral stellate ganglion block. In conclusion, stellate ganglion block can be an alternative method when the autonomic storm cannot be controlled with medical agents. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of patients with painful blind eye using stellate ganglion block

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    Tatiana Vaz Horta Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: management of pain in painful blind eyes is still a challenge. Corticosteroids and hypotensive agents, as well as evisceration and enucleation, are some of the strategies employed so far that are not always effective and, depending on the strategy, cause a deep emotional shock to the patient. Given these issues, the aim of this case report is to demonstrate a new and viable option for the management of such pain by treating the painful blind eye with the stellate ganglion block technique, a procedure that has never been described in the literature for this purpose. CASE REPORT: six patients with painful blind eye, all caused by glaucoma, were treated; in these patients, VAS (visual analogue scale for pain assessment, in which 0 is the absence of pain and 10 is the worst pain ever experienced ranged from 7 to 10. We opted for weekly sessions of stellate ganglion block with 4 mL of bupivacaine (0.5% without vasoconstrictor and clonidine 1 mcg/kg. Four patients had excellent results at VAS, ranging between 0 and 3, and two remained asymptomatic (VAS = 0, without the need for additional medication. The other two used gabapentin 300 mg every 12 h. CONCLUSION: currently, there are several therapeutic options for the treatment of painful blind eye, among which stand out the retrobulbar blocks with chlorpromazine, alcohol and phenol. However, an effective strategy with low rate of serious complications, which is non-mutilating and improves the quality of life of the patient, is essential. Then, stellate ganglion block arises as a demonstrably viable and promising option to meet this demand.

  9. Bilateral stellate ganglion blockade for recalcitrant oral pain from Burning Mouth Syndrome: a case report.

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    Walega, David R; Smith, Clark; Epstein, Joel B

    2014-01-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic painful disorder characterized by unremitting bilateral burning oral pain often associated with taste abnormalities and complaints of dry mouth. The diagnosis is made by history and symptom presentation in the absence of an identifiable cause or oral lesion. It is commonly seen in perimenopausal women but is also seen in men, and is considered a small-fiber neuropathy. Management can be challenging and few effective treatments are available. This article presents a case report of stellate ganglion blockade as a treatment for recalcitrant pain from BMS.

  10. Revalidation of a modified and safe approach of stellate ganglion block

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    Ashok Jadon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellate ganglion block (SGB is very effective in management of chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS-1. However, serious complication may occur due to accidental intravascular (intra-arterial injection of local anaesthetic agents. Abdi and others, has suggested a modified technique in which fluoroscopy-guided block is given at the junction of uncinate process and body of vertebra at C7 level. In this approach vascular structures remain away from the trajectory of needle and thus avoid accidental vascular injection. We have used this technique of SGB in nine patients who were treated for CRPS-I. The blocks were effective in all the patients all the time without any vascular or other serious complication.

  11. Evaluation of effectiveness of stellate ganglion block (SGB) treatment of sudden hearing loss.

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    Takinami, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    A stellate ganglion block (SGB) based on the goal of improving internal ear circulatory disturbance appears to be beneficial for the treatment of sudden hearing loss. To evaluate the effectiveness of SGB for sudden hearing loss. This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of 49 patients who received SGBs and 496 patients who received only conservative therapy, primarily with systemic steroids, for treatment of sudden hearing loss. Propensity scores were used in pairwise matching of these patients to avoid selection biases between the two treatment modalities. Propensity score matching yielded 48 pairs. The mean therapeutic effect of the SGB was calculated to be 0.40 ± 0.20 (mean ± standard error, p = 0.051).

  12. [Stellate ganglion catheter retention with discontinuous block on efficacy and safety in the treatment of sudden deafness].

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    Gao, Hui; Zhang, Zhizhuo; Guo, Wenping; Zhang, Gaifang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate effect and safty evaluation of stellate ganglion catheter retention with discontinuous block on sudden deafness. One hundred and twenty-six patiens with sudden monaural deafness were randomly divided into Catheterp and block and control groups with 42 cases in each group. All patients' throats were given conventional blood activating drugs, hormone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. stellate ganglion puncture retained catheter were administrated to the patients in catheter group followed by ropivacaine block 1 times/day, block group stellate ganglion puncture and ropivacaine block 1 times/day. The patients in control group were only received routine comprehensive treatment. Patients in both catheter group and block groups were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy after the block treatment. Curative effects of three groups were observed. The patients' satisfaction, heart rate, the chages of blood pressure before and after the block, detachment of tubes, and adverse drug reaction were recorded. The effect of the treatment in both catheter group, block group was better than in control group (85.7%, 37 cases); 83.3%, 35 cases) vs 64.3%, 27 cases, P < 0.05). The satisfactory rate in the patients in catheter group was significantly higher than block group (83.3%, 35 cases vs 61.9%, 26 cases, P < 0.05). The heart rate and the blood pressure before and 5 minutes after catheterization in catheter group and block groupwere changed obviously. Moreover, no adverse drug reaction and detachment of tubes were observed. It is a safe and effective administration of stellate ganglion catheter retention with interrupted ropivacaine block.

  13. The influence of stellate ganglion transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on signal quality of pulse oximetry in prehospital trauma care.

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    Barker, Renate; Lang, Thomas; Hager, Helmut; Steinlechner, Barbara; Hoerauf, Klaus; Zimpfer, Michael; Kober, Alexander

    2007-05-01

    Accurate monitoring of the peripheral arterial oxygen saturation has become an important tool in the prehospital emergency medicine. This monitoring requires an adequate plethysmographic pulsation. Signal quality is diminished by cold ambient temperature due to vasoconstriction. Blockade of the stellate ganglion can improve peripheral vascular perfusion and can be achieved by direct injection or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) stimulation. We evaluated whether TENS on the stellate ganglion would reduce vasoconstriction and thereby improve signal detection quality of peripheral pulse oximetry. In our study, 53 patients with minor trauma who required transport to the hospital were enrolled. We recorded vital signs, including core and skin temperature before and after transport to the hospital. Pulse oximetry sensors were attached to the patient's second finger on both hands. TENS of the stellate ganglion was started on one side after the beginning of the transport. Pulse oximeter alerts, due to poor signal detection, were recorded for each side separately. On the hand treated with TENS we detected a significant reduction of alerts compared to the other side (mean alerts TENS 3.1 [1-15] versus control side 8.8 [1-28] P signal quality of pulse oximeters in the prehospital setting.

  14. Effects of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block on acute pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

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    Choi, Eun Mi; Kim, Eun Mi; Chung, Mi Hwa; Park, Jong Hee; Lee, Hyo Keun; Choi, Young Rong; Lee, Mihyeon

    2015-01-01

    Apart from a few case reports, the effectiveness of stellate ganglion block (SGB) as a monotherapy in acute nociceptive pain has not been determined. We aimed to assess the effects of SGB on postoperative pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Randomized, blind, controlled, clinical trial University Hospital outpatient Forty-six patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery were assigned randomly to 2 groups: group S included patients who underwent SGB prior to surgery and group C did not. In group S, subfascial ultrasound-guided SGB was conducted with 4 mL of 0.375% levobupivacaine. For the first postoperative 48 hours, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) and analgesic requirements were compared. The results of 40 patients were included in the study. There was no difference between groups with regards to analgesics requirement for the first postoperative 48 hours and no difference in VAS score (P > 0.05). Small number of patients in study. Preoperative ultrasound-guided SGB did not reduce postoperative acute pain in arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  15. [Clinical research of acupuncture at stellate ganglion in the treatment of posterior circulation ischemia and its impacts on blood pressure].

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    Huang, Fan; Yuan, Zheng; Yang, Hai-Tao; Tang, Ming; Lu, Zi-Ji; Xiao, Ting

    2014-08-01

    To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on posterior circulation ischemia between acupuncture at stellate ganglion and conventional acupuncture as well as the impacts on blood pressure. Eighty cases of posterior circulation ischemia were randomized into an observation group (40 cases) and a control group (40 cases). In the observation group, acupuncture was applied to the bilateral stellate ganglions on the neck, stimulated with reinforcing technique by rotating the needles. In the control group, the acupuncture of reducing technique was applied to Fengchi (GB 20), Baihui (GV 20), Neiguan (PC 6) and Taichong (LR 3) in the excess syndrome. The even needling or reinforcing technique was applied to Fengchi (GB 20), Baihui (GV 20), Ganshu (BL 18), Shenshu (BL 23) and Zusanli (ST 36) for the deficiency syndrome. The treatment was given once every 3 days and 4 treatments were required totally in the two groups. The changes in total syndrome score, peak Systolic blood flow velocity (Vp) of vertebral artery and basilar artery, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were compared before and after treatment in the two groups. The clinical efficacy was compared between the two groups. The total syndrome score was reduced apparently after treatment compared with that before treatment in the two groups (P vascular spasm, stenosis or reduced velocity) of vertebral artery and basilar artery was all improved as compared with that before treatment in the two groups (P Acupuncture at stellate ganglion achieves the satisfactory efficacy in the treatment of posterior circulation ischemia and the significant efficacy of reducing blood pressure, more advanced than the conventional acupuncture.

  16. The importance of perfusion index monitoring in evaluating the efficacy of stellate ganglion blockage treatment in Raynaud’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ömer Fatih; Tarıkçı Kılıç, Ebru; Aksoy, Yakup; Kaydu, Ayhan; Gökçek, Erhan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stellate ganglion blockage (SGB) is a method used for treating Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP). This study primarily aimed to determine whether the perfusion index (PI) can be used an alternative to Horner’s signs in evaluating the efficacy of SGB in patients diagnosed with RP. In a total of 40 patients, aged 18–65 years and diagnosed with primary RP, SGB was applied for 5 days on the same side with the 2-finger method, using 6 mL of 5% levobupivacaine at the 7th cervical vertebra level. T...

  17. Efficacy of Noninvasive Stellate Ganglion Blockade Performed Using Physical Agent Modalities in Patients with Sympathetic Hyperactivity-Associated Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Hung-Chou; Rau, Chi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Background Stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) is mainly used to relieve symptoms of neuropathic pain in conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome and has several potential complications. Noninvasive SGB performed using physical agent modalities (PAMs), such as light irradiation and electrical stimulation, can be clinically used as an alternative to conventional invasive SGB. However, its application protocols vary and its clinical efficacy remains controversial. This study investigated ...

  18. Efficacy of stellate ganglion block with an adjuvant ketamine for peripheral vascular disease of the upper limbs

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    Kalpana R Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellate ganglion block (STGB is commonly indicated in painful conditions like reflex sympathetic dystrophy, malignancies of head and neck, Reynaud′s disease and vascular insufficiency of the upper limbs. The sympathetic blockade helps to relieve pain and ischaemia. Diagnostic STGB is usually performed with local anaesthetics followed by therapeutic blockade with steroids, neurolytic agents or radiofrequency ablation of ganglion. There is increasing popularity and evidence for the use of adjuvants like opioid, clonidine and N Methyl d Aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist - ketamine - for the regional and neuroaxial blocks. The action of ketamine with sympatholytic block is through blockade of peripherally located NMDA receptors that are the target in the management of neuropathic pain, with the added benefit of counteracting the "wind-up" phenomena of chronic pain. We studied ketamine as an adjuvant to the local anaesthetic for STGB in 20 cases of peripheral vascular disease of upper limbs during the last 5 years at our institution. STGB was given for 2 days with 2 ml of 2% lignocaine + 8 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine, followed by block with the addition of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine for three consecutive days. There was significant pain relief of longer duration with significant rise in hand temperature. We also observed complete healing of the gangrenous fingers in 17/19 patients.

  19. The importance of perfusion index monitoring in evaluating the efficacy of stellate ganglion blockage treatment in Raynaud's disease.

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    Şahin, Ömer Fatih; Tarıkçı Kılıç, Ebru; Aksoy, Yakup; Kaydu, Ayhan; Gökçek, Erhan

    2018-12-01

    Stellate ganglion blockage (SGB) is a method used for treating Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). This study primarily aimed to determine whether the perfusion index (PI) can be used an alternative to Horner's signs in evaluating the efficacy of SGB in patients diagnosed with RP. In a total of 40 patients, aged 18-65 years and diagnosed with primary RP, SGB was applied for 5 days on the same side with the 2-finger method, using 6 mL of 5% levobupivacaine at the 7th cervical vertebra level. The PI values were recorded from the distal end of the 2nd finger of the upper extremity on the side applied with the block at baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. The onset time of Horner findings was recorded. The PI values and visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores were recorded pre-treatment and after 2 weeks.When the PI values of the 40 patients were examined, a 62.7% increase was observed from baseline to the first session at 5 min (p < 0.05). When all sessions were evaluated, a statistically significant increase was determined in the PI values measured at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min compared with the baseline PI values. There was a statistically significant decrease in the post-treatment VAS pain scores and a statistically significant increase in the post-treatment PI values (p < 0.05). By eliminating peripheral vasospasm with the application of SGB in patients with RP, the distal artery blood flow and PI are increased. PI measurement is a more objective method and therefore could be used as an alternative to Horner findings in evaluating the success of SGB. PI is a non-invasive and simple measurement and also an earlier indicator in evaluating the success of SGB than Horner's signs.

  20. Effects of stellate ganglion block on cardiovascular reaction and heart rate variability in elderly patients during anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation.

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    Chen, Yong-Quan; Jin, Xiao-Ju; Liu, Zhao-Fang; Zhu, Mei-Fang

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on cardiovascular response and heart rate (HR) variability in elderly patients during anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation. A randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Eighty elderly patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II) receiving elective surgery during general anesthesia. Right stellate ganglion injection (SGB) was performed in all patients using 10 mL of 1% lidocaine or normal saline. Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, HR, and calculated rate pressure product. HR variability at the following time points: conscious status before induction (T0); immediately before intubation (T1); immediately after intubation (T2); and 1, 3, and 5 minutes postintubation (T3, T4, and T5). No significant differences in BP and HR were observed between the 2 groups. Rate pressure product values significantly increased in the control group compared with baseline and SGB group values. Low-frequency power (LF) and LF/high-frequency power (HF) significantly increased, and HF and normalized units of HF significantly decreased in the control group compared with baseline values. LF, normalized units of LF, and LF/HF in the SGB group significantly decreased compared with those of the control group. SGB protects the myocardium and effectively suppresses stress responses during anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation in elderly patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of Noninvasive Stellate Ganglion Blockade Performed Using Physical Agent Modalities in Patients with Sympathetic Hyperactivity-Associated Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-De Liao

    Full Text Available Stellate ganglion blockade (SGB is mainly used to relieve symptoms of neuropathic pain in conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome and has several potential complications. Noninvasive SGB performed using physical agent modalities (PAMs, such as light irradiation and electrical stimulation, can be clinically used as an alternative to conventional invasive SGB. However, its application protocols vary and its clinical efficacy remains controversial. This study investigated the use of noninvasive SGB for managing neuropathic pain or other disorders associated with sympathetic hyperactivity.We performed a comprehensive search of the following online databases: Medline, PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Cochrane Library Database, Ovid MEDLINE, Europe PubMed Central, EBSCOhost Research Databases, CINAHL, ProQuest Research Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, WorldWideScience, BIOSIS, and Google Scholar. We identified and included quasi-randomized or randomized controlled trials reporting the efficacy of SGB performed using therapeutic ultrasound, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, light irradiation using low-level laser therapy, or xenon light or linearly polarized near-infrared light irradiation near or over the stellate ganglion region in treating complex regional pain syndrome or disorders requiring sympatholytic management. The included articles were subjected to a meta-analysis and risk of bias assessment.Nine randomized and four quasi-randomized controlled trials were included. Eleven trials had good methodological quality with a Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro score of ≥6, whereas the remaining two trials had a PEDro score of <6. The meta-analysis results revealed that the efficacy of noninvasive SGB on 100-mm visual analog pain score is higher than that of a placebo or active control (weighted mean difference, -21.59 mm; 95% CI, -34.25, -8.94; p = 0.0008.Noninvasive SGB performed using PAMs effectively relieves

  2. Efficacy of Noninvasive Stellate Ganglion Blockade Performed Using Physical Agent Modalities in Patients with Sympathetic Hyperactivity-Associated Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Hung-Chou; Rau, Chi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) is mainly used to relieve symptoms of neuropathic pain in conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome and has several potential complications. Noninvasive SGB performed using physical agent modalities (PAMs), such as light irradiation and electrical stimulation, can be clinically used as an alternative to conventional invasive SGB. However, its application protocols vary and its clinical efficacy remains controversial. This study investigated the use of noninvasive SGB for managing neuropathic pain or other disorders associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. We performed a comprehensive search of the following online databases: Medline, PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Cochrane Library Database, Ovid MEDLINE, Europe PubMed Central, EBSCOhost Research Databases, CINAHL, ProQuest Research Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, WorldWideScience, BIOSIS, and Google Scholar. We identified and included quasi-randomized or randomized controlled trials reporting the efficacy of SGB performed using therapeutic ultrasound, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, light irradiation using low-level laser therapy, or xenon light or linearly polarized near-infrared light irradiation near or over the stellate ganglion region in treating complex regional pain syndrome or disorders requiring sympatholytic management. The included articles were subjected to a meta-analysis and risk of bias assessment. Nine randomized and four quasi-randomized controlled trials were included. Eleven trials had good methodological quality with a Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score of ≥6, whereas the remaining two trials had a PEDro score of <6. The meta-analysis results revealed that the efficacy of noninvasive SGB on 100-mm visual analog pain score is higher than that of a placebo or active control (weighted mean difference, -21.59 mm; 95% CI, -34.25, -8.94; p = 0.0008). Noninvasive SGB performed using PAMs effectively relieves pain of

  3. Sympathetic stimulation alters left ventricular relaxation and chamber size.

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    Burwash, I G; Morgan, D E; Koilpillai, C J; Blackmore, G L; Johnstone, D E; Armour, J A

    1993-01-01

    Alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility, relaxation, and chamber dimensions induced by efferent sympathetic nerve stimulation were investigated in nine anesthetized open-chest dogs in sinus rhythm. Supramaximal stimulation of acutely decentralized left stellate ganglia augmented heart rate, LV systolic pressure, and rate of LV pressure rise (maximum +dP/dt, 1,809 +/- 191 to 6,304 +/- 725 mmHg/s) and fall (maximum -dP/dt, -2,392 +/- 230 to -4,458 +/- 482 mmHg/s). It also reduced the time constant of isovolumic relaxation, tau (36.5 +/- 4.8 to 14.9 +/- 1.1 ms). Simultaneous two-dimensional echocardiography recorded reductions in end-diastolic and end-systolic LV cross-sectional chamber areas (23 and 31%, respectively), an increase in area ejection fraction (32%), and increases in end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses (14 and 13%, respectively). End-systolic and end-diastolic wall stresses were unchanged by stellate ganglion stimulation (98 +/- 12 to 95 +/- 9 dyn x 10(3)/cm2; 6.4 +/- 2.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 dyn x 10(3)/cm2, respectively). Atrial pacing to similar heart rates did not alter monitored indexes of contractility. Dobutamine and isoproterenol induced changes similar to those resulting from sympathetic neuronal stimulation. These data indicate that when the efferent sympathetic nervous system increases left ventricular contractility and relaxation, concomitant reductions in systolic and diastolic dimensions of that chamber occur that are associated with increasing wall thickness such that LV wall stress changes are minimized.

  4. Left-right asymmetries of behaviour and nervous system in invertebrates.

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    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. A variety of studies have revealed sensory and motor asymmetries in behaviour, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system, in invertebrates. Asymmetries in behaviour are apparent in olfaction (antennal asymmetries) and in vision (preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as foraging or escape from predators) in animals as different as bees, fruitflies, cockroaches, octopuses, locusts, ants, spiders, crabs, snails, water bugs and cuttlefish. Asymmetries of the nervous system include lateralized position of specific brain structures (e.g., in fruitflies and snails) and of specific neurons (e.g., in nematodes). As in vertebrates, lateralization can occur both at the individual and at the population-level in invertebrates. Theoretical models have been developed supporting the hypothesis that the alignment of the direction of behavioural and brain asymmetries at the population-level could have arisen as a result of social selective pressures, when individually asymmetrical organisms had to coordinate with each other. The evidence reviewed suggests that lateralization at the population-level may be more likely to occur in social species among invertebrates, as well as vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Left Recumbent Position Decreases Heart Rate without Alterations in Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Healthy Young Adults.

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    Sasaki, Konosuke; Haga, Mayu; Endo, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Junko; Maruyama, Ryoko

    2017-04-01

    Some studies have reported that recumbent position may have advantages in patients with heart disease and in pregnancy. However, it remains controversial whether recumbent position affects autonomic nervous system activity and hemodynamics in healthy adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and hemodynamics in the supine, left recumbent and right recumbent positions in healthy young adults. A total of 80 participants aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years were enrolled in this observational study. Fifty-eight volunteers (29 men and 29 women) maintained the supine position followed by the left and right recumbent positions, while electrocardiographic data were recorded for spectral analysis of HRV to assess cardiac vagal nerve and sympathetic nerve activities. The heart rate (HR) was significantly lower in the left recumbent position than in the other positions. There were no statistically significant differences in HRV among the three positions. Considering the possibility that the echographic procedure affects autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, the other 22 participants (11 men and 11 women) underwent an echographic evaluation of hemodynamics in the heart and inferior vena cava (IVC) across the three positions. Although a low HR was also observed, there were no statistically significant differences in the IVC or the heart blood volume between the supine and the left recumbent positions. A postural change to the left recumbent position does not affect the cardiac blood circulation or ANS activity, though it does decrease HR in healthy young adults. This finding indicates that the lower HR in the left recumbent position is not attributable to the ANS activity.

  6. A systematic review concerning the relation between the sympathetic nervous system and heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, Willemien L.; Beeftink, Martine M A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413589242; Santema, Bernadet T.; Bots, Michiel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110610032; Blankestijn, Peter J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086704850; Cramer, Maarten J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/155240706; Doevendans, Pieter A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164248366; Voskuil, Michiel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/254745954

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF) affects about half of all patients diagnosed with heart failure. The pathophysiological aspect of this complex disease state has been extensively explored, yet it is still not fully understood. Since the sympathetic

  7. Clinical Guidelines for Stellate Ganglion Block to Treat Anxiety Associated With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    certified pain medicine physicians, and is widely available at many hospitals and interventional pain clinics. All cur- rent indications for SGB...the level of the provider’s chest usually facilitates proper ergonomics . The depth of the ultra- sound unit is set to visualize the ventral border of

  8. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... your Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  9. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  10. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  11. Untersuchungen über die Wirkungen zervikothorakaler Sympathikusblockaden auf die Funktion des linken Ventrikels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlack, W.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cervicothoracic sympathetic blocks (stellate ganglion blocks) not only influence pain, but also lead to regional sympathetic denervation of part of the left ventricular wall, while other ventricular regions stay under the control of the unblocked side. What is the influence of these

  12. Central nervous system tuberculomata presenting as internuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma can have variable presentation depending upon the site and number of tuberculomata. We are reporting a rare case of a 15 years old girl who presented to our hospital with binocular diplopia on right gaze. Clinical examination revealed left sided internuclear ophthalmoplegia ...

  13. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  14. Effects of oestrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the cardiac noradrenaline pathway of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Shuya; Wang, Wenjuan; Chen, Xing; Jiang, Hai; Li, Junlei; Wang, Ke; Bai, Wenpei; Zhang, Haicheng; Qin, Lihua

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated the effects of oestrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the stellate ganglion, cardiac noradrenaline pathway and Ca 2+ -calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in ovariectomized rats. What is the main finding and its importance? The right stellate ganglion, but not the left, may be associated with decreased left ventricular noradrenaline content in ovariectomized rats. Oestrogen can reverse all changes caused by ovariectomy. Cimicifuga racemosa did not affect left ventricular noradrenaline, but decreased protein expression of β 1 -adrenergic receptor and Ca 2+ -calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. The results might explain potential effects of C. racemosa on the cardiovascular system and provide new insights into cardiovascular protection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oestrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the stellate ganglion, cardiac noradrenaline (NA) pathway and Ca 2+ -calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: sham operated (SHAM); ovariectomized (OVX); ovariectomized with oestrogen treatment (E2); and ovariectomized with C. racemosa treatment (iCR). After 4 weeks of treatment, the NA content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and noradrenaline transporter (NET) expression were detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was used to determine NET, β 1 -adrenergic receptor (β 1 -AR) and CaMK II expression. Compared with the SHAM group, body weights, DBH and NET expression in the right stellate ganglia, and NET, β 1 -AR and CaMK II expression in the left ventricles of the OVX group were increased, whereas left ventricular NA content was decreased; DBH and NET expression in the left stellate ganglion was not significantly different. The indexes of the E2 group were similar to those of the SHAM group. Moreover, in

  15. The central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The first section presents a comprehensive evaluation of radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system and provides a comparison of the detection accuracies of radionuclide imaging (RNI) and XCT in certain lesions, realizing that the XCT results may vary when radiocontrast or newer generation XCT scanners are used. Although conventional radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system has experienced no significant changes over the last 7 years except for mild refinements, a new section has been added on positron emission tomography (PET). Most positron radiopharmaceuticals passively cross the intact blood-brain barrier, and their localization has catalyzed renewed interest in our ability to metabolically study and obtain images of the central nervous system. The section on radionuclide cisternography has been rewritten to reflect present day practice and the wider application of XCT in describing conditions affecting the ventricular system

  16. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  17. Larval nervous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords......, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence...

  18. The Nervous System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

    2006-01-01

    For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts. With this in mind, the authors developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to…

  19. Effectiveness and Patient Acceptability of Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB) for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms Among Active Duty Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Yes 8. Has a medical or mental health provider ever said that you were psychotic, or that you have schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder...19. Having difficulty concentrating? 20. Trouble falling or staying asleep? 2. Do you currently have a diagnosis of...Question 3] 2A. If yes, when did you receive this diagnosis ?* Month:______ Year:_______ 2B. If no, approximately when did you first begin to

  20. Effectiveness and Patient Acceptability of Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB) for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms among Active Duty Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    visits were conducted at WAMC due to its proximity to RTI. These visits focused on  meeting with IRB staff,  consulting  with research coordinators from...source of referrals followed closely  by self‐referrals.   We have experienced  difficulties  in visibly marketing the study in high‐traffic areas...to WAMC were denied.  A recent third request, with the assistance of the WAMC Public Affairs Office (PAO) was  approved. Similar  difficulties  persist

  1. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  2. ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Cansu; Göy, Defne Flora; Özden, Gülşah; Barutçu, Öykü; Bozer, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    Enteric nervous system directs and regulates the breakdown, absorption and elimination of food in our digestive system. However, alongside its digestive functions, enteric nervous system has also gained importance because of the discovery of its bidirectional link with intestinal flora, which has recently started to be considered as a separate organ in addiction to its digestive functions. Enteric nervous system contains approximately 100 million nerve cells, operates both independently and i...

  3. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  4. Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Central Nervous System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  5. The nervous systems of cnidarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Westfall, J A

    1995-01-01

    Cnidarians have simple nervous systems and it was probably within this group or a closely-related ancestor that nervous systems first evolved. The basic plan of the cnidarian nervous system is that of a nerve net which, at some locations, has condensed to form nerve plexuses, or circular...... specialized neurons that we find in higher animals today. The primitive nervous system of cnidarians is strongly peptidergic: from a single sea anemone species Anthopleura elegantissima, we have now isolated 16 different novel neuropeptides. These peptides are biologically active and cause inhibitions...... that the peptides are located in neuronal dense-cored vesicles associated with both synaptic and non-synaptic release sites. All these data indicate that evolutionarily "old" nervous systems use peptides as transmitters. We have also investigated the biosynthesis of the cnidarian neuropeptides. These neuropeptides...

  6. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  7. Brain and nervous system (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nervous system controls the many complicated and interconnected functions of the body and mind. Motor, sensory cognitive and autonomic function are all coordinated and driven by the brain and nerves. As people age, nerve ...

  8. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion......Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion...

  9. Anatomic Variation of Rami Communicantes in the Upper Thoracic Sympathetic Chain: A Human Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Elliot; Ashrafi, Mohammed; Greaves, Nicholas; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Baguneid, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Hyperhidrosis is secondary to over activation of the sympathetic nervous system and surgical sympathectomy is the treatment of choice when other modalities have failed. This study investigated anatomic variation in the upper thoracic sympathetic chain and associated rami communicantes among cadaveric specimens. It considers the implications of these findings on surgical techniques to treat hyperhidrosis. The upper 4 thoracic sympathetic ganglia, intercostal nerves, and connecting rami were dissected, measured and mapped in 40 sides of 20 adult human cadavers. Ganglia location was recorded. The incidence, orientation, and distance travelled by rami communicantes was compared across different ganglionic levels and between sides. The percentage of ganglia located below their associated intercostal space was 6.25% with stellate ganglions present in 70% of specimens and Kuntz fibers noted in 40%. There was a stepwise reduction in incidence of rami from superior to inferior placed ganglia. The number of rami identified across all levels was significantly greater on the right (P = 0.03). The horizontal distance between the sympathetic chain and union of the rami on the intercostal nerves was significantly greater on the right across all levels (P = 0.04). There was substantial variation in the rami communicantes across the upper 4 ganglia and between right and left sides. Consideration of this variation should be given when planning surgical sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis particularly to avoid symptom recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What Are the Parts of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print What are the parts of the nervous system? The nervous system consists of two main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system: The central nervous system is made up of the brain and ...

  11. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous ... with acetylcholine and placed on the legs and forearm. Then, the volume of sweat is measured to ...

  12. Aging changes in the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/004023.htm Aging changes in the nervous system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The brain and nervous system are your body's central control center. They control ...

  13. The Cetacean Central Nervous System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridgway, Sam

    1999-01-01

    Whales, dolphins, and porpoises, 78 species of entirely aquatic mammals, comprise the order Cetacea whose distant ancestors, according to paleontologists, left land in the early Eocene about 55 to 60 million years ago. The odontoceti...

  14. Nanomedicine and the nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Colin R; Hunter, Ross J

    2012-01-01

    The nanosciences encompass a variety of technologies ranging from particles to networks and nanostructures. Nanoparticles can be suitable carriers of therapeutic agents, and nanostructures provide suitable platforms and scaffolds for sub-micro bioengineering. This book focuses on nanomedicine and nanotechnology as applied to the nervous system and the brain. It covers nanoparticle-based immunoassays, nanofiber microbrush arrays, nanoelectrodes, protein nanoassemblies, nanoparticles-assisted imaging, nanomaterials, and ion channels. Additional topics include stem cell imaging, neuronal performa

  15. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F.; Caroli, E.

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  16. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  17. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB. We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as well as in the inferior parietal lobe on the left. The patient was placed on an empiric antibiotic regimen. Preliminary testing for infectious causes was negative. Chest radiography and CT of chest showed no positive findings. He was not on any immunosuppressive medications and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA test was negative. A subsequent MRI one month later showed profound worsening of the lesions with increasing vasogenic edema and newly found mass effect impinging on the fourth ventricle. Brain biopsy showed focal exudative cerebellitis and inflamed granulation tissue consistent with formation of abscesses. The diagnosis of CNS TB was finally confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB cultures. The patient was started on standard tuberculosis therapy but expired due to renal failure and cardiac arrest.

  18. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  19. Central Nervous System Infections in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-04

    Central Nervous System Infections; Bacterial Meningitis; Viral Meningitis; Aseptic Meningitis; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Neuroborreliosis; Neurosyphilis; Lyme Disease; Tertiary Syphilis; Cerebral Abscess; Meningitis

  20. Electrocardiographic changes in central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, J; Elson, J

    1993-05-01

    This article gives a basic description of neurophysiologic control of cardiac function. Specific electrocardiographic abnormalities related to various central nervous system insults are discussed also.

  1. Cystic Fibrosis and the Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Leah R

    2017-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR is an anion channel that conducts bicarbonate and chloride across cell membranes. Although defective anion transport across epithelial cells is accepted as the basic defect in CF, many of the features observed in people with CF and organs affected by CF are modulated by the nervous system. This is of interest because CFTR expression has been reported in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and it is well known that the transport of anions, such as chloride, greatly modulates neuronal excitability. Thus it is predicted that in CF, lack of CFTR in the nervous system affects neuronal function. Consistent with this prediction, several nervous system abnormalities and nervous system disorders have been described in people with CF and in animal models of CF. The goal of this special feature article is to highlight the expression and function of CFTR in the nervous system. Special emphasis is placed on nervous system abnormalities described in people with CF and in animal models of CF. Finally, features of CF that may be modulated by or attributed to faulty nervous system function are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  3. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  4. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  5. Theoretical foundations for nervous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasslacher, B.; Tilden, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Following three years of study into experimental Nervous Net (Nv) control devices, various successes and several amusing failures have implied some general principles on the nature of capable control systems for autonomous machines and perhaps, we conjecture, even biological organisms. These systems are minimal, elegant, and, depending upon their implementation in a open-quotes creatureclose quotes structure, astonishingly robust. Their only problem seems to be that as they are collections of non-linear asynchronous elements, only complex analysis can adequately extract and explain the emergent competency of their operation. The implications are that so long as Nv non-linear topologies can retain some measure of sub-critically coupled planar stability, the Piexito theorem will guarantee a form of plastic mode-locking necessary for broad-behavior competency. Further experimental evidence also suggests that if Nv topologies are kept in sub-chaotically stable regimes, they can be implemented at any scale and still automatically fall into effective survival strategies in unstructured environments. An explanation for how this is be possible in such minimal structures is presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Extending the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Osculati, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    The work reviews the evidence suggesting that lingual components of the autonomic system may be considered the most rostral portion of the enteric nervous system (ENS) defining the concept of lingual ENS (LENS). The LENS is not dissimilar from the more distally located portions of the ENS, however, it is characterized by a massive sensory input generated by collaterals of gustatory and trigeminal fibers. The different neuronal subpopulations that compose the LENS operate reflexes involved in regulation of secretion and vasomotility. Systemic reflexes on the digestive and respiratory apparatus are operated by means of neural connections through the pharynx or larynx. The LENS can modulate the activity of distally located organs by means of the annexed glands.The LENS seems therefore to be a "chemical eye" located at the beginning of the digestive apparatus which analyses the foods before their ingestion and diffuses this information distally. The definition of the LENS supports the concept of an elevated degree of autonomy in the ENS and puts in a new light the role of the gustatory system in modulation of the digestive functions. For its characteristics, the LENS appears to be an ideal model to study the elementary connectivity of the ENS.

  7. Sympathetic nervous system and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, William H.; Convertino, Victor A.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Orthostatic stability on Earth is maintained through sympathetic nerve activation sufficient to increase peripheral vascular resistance and defend against reductions of blood pressure. Orthostatic instability in astronauts upon return from space missions has been linked to blunted vascular resistance responses to standing, introducing the possibility that spaceflight alters normal function between sympathetic efferent traffic and vascular reactivity. Methods: We evaluated published results of spaceflight and relevant ground-based microgravity simulations in an effort to determine responses of the sympathetic nervous system and consequences for orthostatic stability. Results: Direct microneurographic recordings from humans in space revealed that sympathetic nerve activity is increased and preserved in the upright posture after return to Earth (STS-90). However, none of the astronauts studied during STS-90 presented with presyncope postflight, leaving unanswered the question of whether postflight orthostatic intolerance is associated with blunted sympathetic nerve responses or inadequate translation into vascular resistance. Conclusions: There is little evidence to support the concept that spaceflight induces fundamental sympathetic neuroplasticity. The available data seem to support the hypothesis that regardless of whether or not sympathetic traffic is altered during flight, astronauts return with reduced blood volumes and consequent heightened baseline sympathetic activity. Because of this, the ability to withstand an orthostatic challenge postflight is directly proportional to an astronaut's maximal sympathetic activation capacity and remaining sympathetic reserve.

  8. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  9. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  10. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  11. Haemangiopericytoma of central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, M.F.; Benjamin, C.S. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Clinical Oncology

    1995-02-01

    The records of four patients presenting with a histological diagnosis of haemangiopericytoma of the central nervous system, in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed retrospectively, with the aim of determining the natural history of the disease and response to various treatment modalities. Three out of the four patients reviewed presented with primary cerebral disease and the fourth with a primary spinal cord tumour. All three cerebral primary patients were initially treated with local surgical excision. All three patients received radical radiotherapy following local recurrence. The first two patients remained disease-free locally although one patient developed a solitary liver metastasis 5 years after radiotherapy. The third patient was referred with multiple cerebral metastases and failed to respond to radiotherapy. The patient with the primary lesion in the spinal cord was treated with local excision followed by postoperative radiotherapy and remains disease-free 17 years after treatment. One patient failed to respond to chemotherapy, prescribed to treat a local recurrence adjacent to the previous radiotherapy field. This was successfully excised subsequently. The patient presenting with multiple cerebral metastases was the only patient to die of this disease. Results suggest that local recurrence is avoidable with adequate wide excision of the primary tumour followed by local radical radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains controversial and no conclusion could be drawn regarding the role of palliative radiotherapy from this study. Active treatment and long-term follow-up are necessary because of the relative aggressiveness of this disease and the propensity for late relapses. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  13. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  14. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  15. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  16. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  17. Central nervous system involvement in a case of segmental nevus depigmentosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system involvement in segmental nevus depigmentosus (SND is rare. A 7-month-old boy having convulsion and segmental hypopigmented patch in the right inguinal region. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed bilateral periventricular white matter hypoplasia with prominent subarachnoid spaces and mild dilation of ventricles with mild left cerebral hemispheric atrophy. Association of SND with seizure and white matter lesion has been rarely reported.

  18. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  19. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  20. Laser puncture therapy of nervous system disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anishchenko, G.; Kochetkov, V.

    1984-08-29

    The authors discuss experience with treatment of nervous system disorders by means of laser-puncture therapy. Commenting on the background of the selection of this type of treatment, they explain that once researchers determined the biological action of laser light on specific nerve receptors of the skin, development of laser apparatus capable of concentrating the beam in the millimeter band was undertaken. The devices that are being used for laser-puncture are said to operate in the red helium-neon band of light. The authors identify beam parameters that have been selected for different groups of acupuncture points of the skin, and the courses of treatment (in seconds of radiation) and their time intervals. They go on to discuss the results of treatment of over 800 patients categorized in a group with disorders of the peripheral nervous system and a second group with disorders of the central nervous system.

  1. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. © IMechE 2015.

  2. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  3. Differences in cerebral cortical anatomy of left- and right-handers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, T.M.; Willems, R.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Hoogman, M.; Hagoort, P.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.

    2014-01-01

    The left and right sides of the human brain are specialized for different kinds of information processing, and much of our cognition is lateralized to an extent toward one side or the other. Handedness is a reflection of nervous system lateralization. Roughly ten percent of people are mixed- or

  4. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  5. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  6. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  7. The Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    part of our training and practice is spent acquiring skills in averting or utilizing the autonomic nervous system effects of anaesthetic drugs or surgical procedures under a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Moreover, many of these pathophysiological condi- tions may be associated with impaired preoperative autonomic ...

  8. Phenylketonuria: central nervous system and microbiome interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased phenylalanine (Phe levels causing an inadequate neurodevelopment; the treatment of PKU is a Phe-restricting diet, and as such it can modulate the intestinal microbiome of the individual, generating central nervous system secondary disturbances that, added to the baseline disturbance, can influence the outcome of the disease.

  9. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, one of the most devastating clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) is noted in 5 to 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, and accounts for approximately 1% of all TB cases. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) depends upon the detection of the tubercle bacilli in ...

  10. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Jan W. M.; Jansen, Rogier R.; Bresters, Dorine; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  11. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  12. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The central nervous system depressant activity of the crude methanol extract (REC) and fractions (RE1, RE2, and RE3) of Russelia equisetiformis were evaluated in mice using the following models: amphetamine – induced stereotypy, picrotoxin – induced convulsion and phenobarbitone sleeping time.

  13. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47%) of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2) and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%), cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%), upper limbs (6 videos, 10%), lower limbs (3 videos, 5%), balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%). The other 68 (53%) videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0). The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers). The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD). Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource for learning

  14. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azer Samy A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47% of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2 and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%, cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%, upper limbs (6 videos, 10%, lower limbs (3 videos, 5%, balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%. The other 68 (53% videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0. The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers. The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD. Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource

  15. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  17. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H

    1997-11-15

    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  18. The Left-Handed Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  19. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  20. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  1. The BIRN Project: Imaging the Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellisman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The grand goal in neuroscience research is to understand how the interplay of structural, chemical and electrical signals in nervous tissue gives rise to behavior. Experimental advances of the past decades have given the individual neuroscientist an increasingly powerful arsenal for obtaining data, from the level of molecules to nervous systems. Scientists have begun the arduous and challenging process of adapting and assembling neuroscience data at all scales of resolution and across disciplines into computerized databases and other easily accessed sources. These databases will complement the vast structural and sequence databases created to catalogue, organize and analyze gene sequences and protein products. The general premise of the neuroscience goal is simple; namely that with 'complete' knowledge of the genome and protein structures accruing rapidly we next need to assemble an infrastructure that will facilitate acquisition of an understanding for how functional complexes operate in their cell and tissue contexts.

  2. Coma blisters after poisoning caused by central nervous system depressants: case report including histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Maira Migliari; Capitani, Eduardo Mello De; Cintra, Maria Letícia; Hyslop, Stephen; Carvalho, Adriana Camargo; Bucaretchi, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Blister formation and eccrine sweat gland necrosis is a cutaneous manifestation associated with states of impaired consciousness, most frequently reported after overdoses of central nervous system depressants, particularly phenobarbital. The case of a 45-year-old woman who developed "coma blisters" at six distinct anatomic sites after confirmed (laboratory) phenobarbital poisoning, associated with other central nervous system depressants (clonazepam, promethazine, oxcarbazepine and quetiapine), is presented. A biopsy from the left thumb blister taken on day 4 revealed focal necrosis of the epidermis and necrosis of sweat gland epithelial cells; direct immunofluorescence was strongly positive for IgG in superficial blood vessel walls but negative for IgM, IgA, C3 and C1q. The patient was discharged on day 21 with no sequelae.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase distribution in the central nervous system of the Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancan, D M; Nóblega, H G; Severino, A G; Achaval, M

    The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central nervous system (CNS) of the Megalobulimus oblongus was demonstrated by using Koelle and Friedenwald's procedure. The AChE positive reaction was revealed in the nervous cell bodies and processes in the different ganglia of the CNS. The largest number of strong positive neuronal subsets reside in pedal and buccal ganglia. Other positive cell bodies are also located in clusters in the left portion of the visceral ganglion, meso and postcerebrum, and pleural ganglia. In some neurons the enzymatic reaction only appeared at trophospongium level. The neuropilian synaptic areas also exhibited AChE reactivity. These data provide further evidence that AChE is present in neuronal bodies of the CNS of this pulmonate snail, and in some areas is probably involved in cholinergic circuits.

  4. LGI Proteins in the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Kegel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein–protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe epilepsy also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  5. LGI proteins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Linde; Aunin, Eerik; Meijer, Dies; Bermingham, John R

    2013-06-25

    The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin) domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein-protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe) epilepsy) also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features). LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  6. How viruses infiltrate the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicová, A; Bhide, K; Bhide, M; Kováč, A

    Central nervous system is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which represents a physical, metabolic and transport barrier and is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic system termed neurovascular unit. Several pathogens, among them viruses, are able to invade the brain. Traversal of viruses across the blood-brain barrier is an essential step for the invasion of the central nervous system and can occur by different mechanisms - by paracellular, transcellular and/or by "Trojan horse" pathway. Penetration of viruses to brain can lead to the blood-brain barrier dysfunction, including increased permeability, pleocytosis and encephalopathy. Viruses causing the central nervous system infections include human immunodeficiency virus type 1, rhabdovirus, different flaviviruses, mouse adenovirus type 1, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, reovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, arbovirus, cytomegalovirus, mumps virus, parvovirus B19, measles virus, human T-cell leukemia virus, enterovirus, morbillivirus, bunyaviruses, togaviruses and others. In this review we summarized what is known about the routes of how some viruses enter the brain and how neurons and glial cells react to infection.

  7. Radiation risks to the developing nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegel, H.; Schmahl, W.; Stieve, F.E.; Gerber, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    A symposium dealing with 'Radiation Risks to the Developing Nervous System' held at Neuherberg, June 18-20, 1985 was organised by the Radiation Protection Programme of the Commission of the European Communities and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH. The proceedings of this symposium present up-to-date information on the development of the nervous system and the modifications caused by prenatal radiation there upon. A large part of the proceedings is devoted to the consequences of prenatal irradiation in experimental animals with respect to alterations in morphology, biochemistry and behaviour, to the influence of dose, dose rate and radiation quality and to the question whether damage of the brain can arise from a synergistic action of radiation together with other agents. Since animal models for damage to the human central nervous system have inherent short-comings due to the differences in structure, complexity and development it is discussed how experimental studies could be applied to the human situation. The most recent data on persons exposed in utero at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are reviewed. A round table discussion, published in full, analyses all this information with a view to radiation protection, and defines the areas where future studies are needed. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers in these proceedings. (orig./MG)

  8. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  9. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  10. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  11. Survival of a suspected case of central nervous system cuterebrosis in a dog: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieber, Lisa M; Axlund, Todd W; Simpson, Stephen T; Hathcock, John T

    2006-01-01

    A 3-year-old, spayed female rat terrier was evaluated for acute onset of stupor, disorientation, and tetraparesis. Clinical signs progressed over 3 weeks to eventual right-sided hemiparesis and circling to the left. A Cuterebra spp. larva was discovered in the vomitus of the dog 2 weeks after the onset of clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed chronic inflammation, and magnetic resonance imaging supported a diagnosis of a parasitic tract through the left cerebral hemisphere. Medical management included a tapering anti-inflammatory dose of prednisone. Clinical signs improved slowly over time. This is the first description of a presumptive antemortem diagnosis of canine cuterebrosis in the central nervous system.

  12. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  14. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar

    2015-09-01

    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  15. The effects of left and right monocular viewing on hemispheric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Burtis, D Brandon; Ding, Mingzhou; Mo, Jue; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-03-01

    Prior research has revealed that whereas activation of the left hemisphere primarily increases the activity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, right-hemisphere activation increases the activity of the sympathetic division. In addition, each hemisphere primarily receives retinocollicular projections from the contralateral eye. A prior study reported that pupillary dilation was greater with left- than with right-eye monocular viewing. The goal of this study was to test the alternative hypotheses that this asymmetric pupil dilation with left-eye viewing was induced by activation of the right-hemispheric-mediated sympathetic activity, versus a reduction of left-hemisphere-mediated parasympathetic activity. Thus, this study was designed to learn whether there are changes in hemispheric activation, as measured by alteration of spontaneous alpha activity, during right versus left monocular viewing. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from healthy participants viewing a crosshair with their right, left, or both eyes. There was a significantly less alpha power over the right hemisphere's parietal-occipital area with left and binocular viewing than with right-eye monocular viewing. The greater relative reduction of right-hemisphere alpha activity during left than during right monocular viewing provides further evidence that left-eye viewing induces greater increase in right-hemisphere activation than does right-eye viewing.

  16. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  17. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  18. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  19. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Did the ctenophore nervous system evolve independently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph F

    2014-08-01

    Recent evidence supports the placement of ctenophores as the most distant relative to all other animals. This revised animal tree means that either the ancestor of all animals possessed neurons (and that sponges and placozoans apparently lost them) or that ctenophores developed them independently. Differentiating between these possibilities is important not only from a historical perspective, but also for the interpretation of a wide range of neurobiological results. In this short perspective paper, I review the evidence in support of each scenario and show that the relationship between the nervous system of ctenophores and other animals is an unsolved, yet tractable problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions......, and the capacity of CNS glial cells to produce and respond to Type I IFN. Differential signaling outcomes of IFN-α and IFN-β, which have been ascribed to differential affinity for IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, determine whether Type I IFN exert pathogenic or protective roles in the CNS. These points will be discussed...

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing. These mechanisms are intimately involved in executing fundamental genomic programs, including gene transcription, posttranscriptional RNA processing and transport, translation, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, retrotransposon regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. For the nervous system, epigenetics offers a novel and robust framework for explaining how brain development and aging occur, neural cellular diversity is generated, synaptic and neural network connectivity and plasticity are mediated, and complex cognitive and behavioral phenotypes are inherited transgenerationally. Epigenetic factors and processes are, not surprisingly, implicated in nervous system disease pathophysiology through several emerging paradigms - mutations and genetic variation in genes encoding epigenetic factors; impairments in epigenetic factor expression, localization, and function; epigenetic mechanisms modulating disease-associated factors and pathways; and the presence of deregulated epigenetic profiles in central and peripheral tissues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  4. Effects of neuregulin-1 on autonomic nervous system remodeling post-myocardial infarction in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic nerve and vagus nerve remodeling play an important part in cardiac function post-myocardial infarction (MI. Increasing evidence indicates that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1 improves cardiac function following heart failure. Since its impact on cardiac function and neural remodeling post-MI is poorly understood, we aimed to investigate the role of NRG-1 in autonomic nervous system remodeling post-MI. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were equally randomized into three groups: sham (with the left anterior descending coronary artery exposed but without ligation, MI (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, and MI plus NRG-1 (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation followed by intraperitoneal injection of NRG-1 (10 μg/kg, once daily for 7 days. At 4 weeks after MI, echocardiography was used to detect the rat cardiac function by measuring the left ventricular end-systolic inner diameter, left ventricular diastolic diameter, left ventricular end-systolic volume, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular ejection fraction, and left ventricular fractional shortening. mRNA and protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, growth associated protein-43 (neuronal specific protein, nerve growth factor, choline acetyltransferase (vagus nerve marker, and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (cardiac vagal nerve fiber marker in ischemic myocardia were detected by real-time PCR and western blot assay to assess autonomous nervous remodeling. After MI, the rat cardiac function deteriorated significantly, and it was significantly improved after NRG-1 injection. Compared with the MI group, mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and growth associated protein-43, as well as choline acetyltransferase mRNA level significantly decreased in the MI plus NRG-1 group, while mRNA and protein levels of nerve growth factor and vesicular acetylcholine transporters, as well as choline acetyltransferase protein level slightly

  5. A Case Of Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Who Presented With Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sırma Geyik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNV is limited with central nervous system and rare vasculitis that mostly seen in middle-aged men. PCNV vasculitis is usually presented that headache, dementia, stroke and multifocal common neurological symptoms. PCNV especially involves small medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. 43 years old male patient who have been progressive forgetfulness and headache for 3 years. He applied with recurrent that before starting right focal and than sprawling whole body which generalized tonic-clonic seizures to us. During management that he was transfered to the intensive care unit due to status epilepticus (SE. Later than we found right hemiparesis, motor aphasia and right babinski positivity in neurologic examination. Diffusion restriction was revealed in left MCA territory in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging(MRI. EEG showed two types abnormality that a slow background ritm and epileptiform activity. Biochemistry of blood, complete blood count, blood sedimentation rate, CRP and markers of vasculitis were found in the normal range. Cerebral anjiography revealed that irregularities in the distal vascular areas and fusiform aneurysm at the top of basilar artery. He was consulted with rheumatology and diagnosed central nervous system vasculitis with the existing findings. Biopsy couldn't be taken from the brain to verify the diagnosis. Finally, we applied treatment that pulse steroid and cyclophosphamide to patient. This case has been presented due to emphasize that PCNV rarely may play a role in the etiology of recurrent stroke and status epilepticus.

  6. Circulatory and central nervous system responses to different types of mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Iwanaga, Koichi; Koda, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the physiological responses to different types of mental stress encountered in the workplace. Circulatory and central nervous system responses were examined in 8 healthy males by exposing them to 20-min of white noise (80 dB(A)) and 20-min of computer-based mental arithmetic tasks as models of vascular and cardiac stress, respectively. The results indicated that both cardiac and vascular stresses increased blood pressure and showed a cumulative effect as exposure period was extended. Heart rate and prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin levels (measured by NIRS) increased in the face of cardiac stress but were not clearly altered by vascular stress and indicated that cardiac stress higher cardiac response and requires more oxygen supply to the brain. As the central nervous system responded, an event-related potential P300 component was elicited by an auditory oddball task presented before and after each stress. The P300 amplitude increased for both stresses. However, P300 latency increased in response to cardiac stress but decreased with vascular stress in the left prefrontal. Thus, the circulatory and central nervous system responses to cardiac stress and to vascular stress may have different underlying mechanisms, and measuring physiological indices appears to be an effective method by which to evaluate the influence of mental stress.

  7. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: an ante-mortem diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS is reported with its clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features. A 20-year-old girl presented with headache, projectile vomiting, unsteadiness of gait and urgency of micturition. She had left seventh nerve upper motor neuron type paresis, increased tone in all four limbs, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, cerebellar signs, and papilloedema. Cerebrospinal fluid showed lymphocytosis with elevated protein and normal glucose level. Cerebral computerised tomographic scan and MRI showed bilateral diffuse asymmetric supra- and infra-tentorial lesions (predominantly in the supratentorial and left cerebrum. On MRI, the lesions were hyperintense on T2, and proton density-weighted images and hypointense on T1-weighted images. Based on the clinical findings of raised intracranial tension and MRI features, initial diagnoses of gliomatosis cerebrii, tuberculous meningitis, primary central nervous system lymphoma and chronic viral encephalitis were considered. PACNS was not included in the initial differentials and, an open brain biopsy was advised which established the definitive diagnosis.

  8. William Osler's "The Nervousness of American Women".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Richard L

    2008-02-01

    Almost a century ago, William Osler, the foremost physician of his time, was approached by a leading periodical to write a series of articles on the health of the American woman. Osler, then the Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, wrote an essay dealing with the psychological stresses affecting the "new woman" of the early 20th century at varying stages of her development and the "nervousness" that ensued. The article was never published as a result of his belated reservations on the propriety of a professional writing for a lay journal. Osler's thinking frequently reflected the spirit of his Victorian-Edwardian era, although at times he demonstrated advanced and prescient ideas about sexuality, not often the subject of discussion, even in circumspect form, in contemporary nonprofessional literature.

  9. Sympathetic Nervous System Synchrony in Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anu; Kykyri, Virpi-Liisa; Kaartinen, Jukka; Penttonen, Markku; Seikkula, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is statistically significant sympathetic nervous system (SNS) synchrony between participants in couple therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure psychophysiological synchrony during therapy in a multiactor setting. The study focuses on electrodermal activity (EDA) in the second couple therapy session from 10 different cases (20 clients, 10 therapists working in pairs). The EDA concordance index was used as a measure of SNS synchrony between dyads, and synchrony was found in 85% of all the dyads. Surprisingly, co-therapists exhibited the highest levels of synchrony, whereas couples exhibited the lowest synchrony. The client-therapist synchrony was lower than that of the co-therapists, but higher than that of the couples. A Video Abstract is available next to the online version of this article on the JMFT web site. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  10. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J P; Kyriacou, P A; Chang, S H; Maney, K; George, K J; Langford, R M

    2007-01-01

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system

  11. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Chang, S H [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Maney, K [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); George, K J [Neuroscience Centre, Queen Mary, University of London, E1 0NS (United Kingdom); Langford, R M [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system.

  12. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  13. [Tumors of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Loyola, Marco Antonio; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a considerable morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of these tumors have led to new classification systems, which, in turn, allow for a better diagnostic approach and therapeutic planning. Most of these neoplasms occur sporadically and several risk factors have been found to be associated with their development, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields and the concomitant presence of conditions like diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson's disease. A relatively minor proportion of primary CNS tumors occur in the context of hereditary syndromes. The purpose of this review is to analyze the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapy of CNS tumors with particular emphasis in the putative risk factors mentioned above.

  14. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop....... Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36...... history of chemotherapy and unfavorable cytogenetic profile, survival of individuals free from these negative prognostic factors can be prolonged due to administration of systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Prospective multi-institutional studies are warranted to improve the outcome of patients...

  15. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  16. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  18. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko

    1989-01-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author)

  19. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals......Immune-mediated tissue damage or hypersensitivity can be mediated by autospecific IgG antibodies. Pathology results from activation of complement, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, mediated by inflammatory effector leukocytes include macrophages, natural killer cells, and granulocytes...... injection of antibody and complement to the CNS, or experimental manipulations to induce BBB breakdown. We here review studies in MS and NMO that elucidate roles for IgG and complement in the induction of BBB breakdown, astrocytopathy, and demyelinating pathology. These studies point to significance of T...

  20. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  1. Histamine, antihistamines, and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Histamine is a central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter. It acts in the brain via three receptors, H(1), H(2), and H(3). It is a mediator of "wakefulness" and its activity is necessary to maintain wakefulness, alertness, and reaction time. These activities can be impaired by H(1)-antagonists (reverse agonists) capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. By blocking the homeostatic effects of histamine in the CNS, drowsiness and functional impairment with or without drowsiness can occur. Several tests have been designed to assess the effects of antihistamines on the CNS. These include subjective measurements of drowsiness and more objective measurements of impairment. Second-generation antihistamines have been designed to minimize blood-brain barrier penetration by reducing lipophilicity and increasing the affinity for P-aminnoglycoprotein.

  2. Autoimmune Neurology of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, W Oliver; Pittock, Sean J

    2017-06-01

    This article reviews the rapidly evolving spectrum of autoimmune neurologic disorders with a focus on those that involve the central nervous system, providing an understanding of how to approach the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with central nervous system symptoms or signs that could be immune mediated, either paraneoplastic or idiopathic, to guide therapeutic decision making. The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of novel neural antibodies and their targets. Many commercial laboratories can now test for these antibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers of diverse neurologic disorders that occur on an autoimmune basis. Some are highly specific for certain cancer types, and the neural antibody profiles may help direct the physician's cancer search. The diagnosis of an autoimmune neurologic disorder is aided by the detection of an objective neurologic deficit (usually subacute in onset with a fluctuating course), the presence of a neural autoantibody, and improvement in the neurologic status after a course of immunotherapy. Neural autoantibodies should raise concern for a paraneoplastic etiology and may inform a targeted oncologic evaluation (eg, N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA] receptor antibodies are associated with teratoma, antineuronal nuclear antibody type 1 [ANNA-1, or anti-Hu] are associated with small cell lung cancer). MRI, EEG, functional imaging, videotaped evaluations, and neuropsychological evaluations provide objective evidence of neurologic dysfunction by which the success of immunotherapy may be measured. Most treatment information emanates from retrospective case series and expert opinion. Nonetheless, early intervention may allow reversal of deficits in many patients and prevention of future disability.

  3. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  5. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1987-02-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  6. Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Lien, René; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Geus, Eco J.

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis, like heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration and renal function. The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action

  7. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The extent or spread ... are different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Different types of treatment ...

  8. 50-57 Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Centra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  9. Extraversion, Neuroticism and Strength of the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Jean-Yves

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesized identity of the dimensions of extraversion-introversion and strength of the nervous system was tested on four groups of nine subjects (neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts). Strength of the subjects' nervous system was estimated using the electroencephalographic (EEG) variant of extinction…

  10. Effect of hyperthermia on the central nervous system: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P.; van der Zee, J.; Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental data show that nervous tissue is sensitive to heat. Animal data indicate that the maximum tolerated heat dose after local hyperthermia of the central nervous system (CNS) lies in the range of 40-60 min at 42-42 x 5 degrees C or 10-30 min at 43 degrees C. No conclusions concerning the

  11. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to

  12. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - Oligodendrocytes – Ensheathers of the CNS. Yasmin Khan Medha S Rajadhyaksha. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 6 June 2002 pp 6-13 ... Keywords. Glia; myelin; central nervous system.

  13. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    This thesis is the first comprehensive research work conducted on the Beirut based TV station, an important representative of the post-2011 generation of Arab satellite news media. The launch of al-Mayadeen in June 2012 was closely linked to the political developments across the Arab world...... members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...

  14. Ultrasound and the developing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, M C; Barnett, S B

    2001-07-01

    The potential risk of ultrasonography resulting in adverse biologic effects is particularly important in neurosonographic applications of diagnostic ultrasound in medicine. Key issues relate to the likelihood of producing bioeffects from the level of acoustic output emitted from modern diagnostically powerful ultrasound equipment. Important elements in the assessment of risk include the sensitivity of the tissue structures under examination, the standards of practice in clinical use and the presence of biologic effects identified from laboratory experimentation or from human studies. The World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology continues to support activities related to evaluating bioeffects and safety of ultrasound. This paper includes extracts of some of the presentations given during the latest safety meeting, a mini-symposium on "ultrasound and the developing fetal central nervous system" held in conjunction with the WFUMB Congress in May 2000. The speakers covered topics ranging from physics of estimating heating from ultrasound equipment in clinical use to actual measurement of ultrasound-induced intracranial temperature increases in animal fetuses. Finally, some practical scanning strategies were proposed to minimise risk of adverse outcome in various clinical neurosonographic practices.

  15. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S.; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks. PMID:27127597

  16. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  17. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  18. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, A.; Dons, K.; Eskesen, V.; Kruse-Larsen, C.; Blatt Lyon, B.; Arlien Soeborg, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Praestholm, J. (Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Neurosurgery, Neurology, and Clinical Neurophysiology)

    1991-09-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.).

  19. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, A.; Dons, K.; Eskesen, V.; Kruse-Larsen, C.; Blatt Lyon, B.; Arlien Soeborg, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Praestholm, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.)

  20. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  1. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-04-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  2. Identification models of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipser, D

    1992-01-01

    It has been widely observed that when artificial neural networks are trained by supervised learning to do computations that also occur in the nervous system, the behavior of the model neurons often closely resembles that of the real neurons involved in the task. It is not immediately clear why this should be the case or what use can be made of models generated by supervised learning. Here, recent developments are reviewed and analysed in an attempt to clarify these issues. This analysis is facilitated by treating supervised learning models of the brain as a special case of system identification, a general and well-studied modeling paradigm. The neural systems identification paradigm provides a systematic way to generate realistic models starting with a high-level description of a hypothesized computation and some architectural and physiological constraints about the area being modeled. There is no inherent limitation to the realism that can be incorporated into identification models. This approach eliminates the need to find neural implementation algorithms by ad hoc means and provides neuroscientists with a convenient way to build models that account for observed data.

  3. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...

  4. Mechanosensitivity in the enteric nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS autonomously controls gut muscle activity. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN initiate reflex activity by responding to mechanical deformation of the gastrointestinal wall. MEN throughout the gut primarily respond to compression or stretch rather than to shear force. Some MEN are multimodal as they respond to compression and stretch. Depending on the region up to 60% of the entire ENS population responds to mechanical stress. MEN fire action potentials after mechanical stimulation of processes or soma although they are more sensitive to process deformation. There are at least two populations of MEN based on their sensitivity to different modalities of mechanical stress and on their firing pattern. 1 Rapidly, slowly and ultra-slowly adapting neurons which encode compressive forces. 2 Ultra-slowly adapting stretch-sensitive neurons encoding tensile forces. Rapid adaptation of firing is typically observed after compressive force while slow adaptation or ongoing spike discharge occurs often during tensile stress (stretch. All MEN have some common properties: they receive synaptic input, are low fidelity mechanoreceptors and are multifunctional in that some serve interneuronal others even motor functions. Consequently, MEN possess processes with mechanosensitive as well as efferent functions. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that MEN sense and control muscle activity at the same time as servo-feedback loop. The mechanosensitive channel(s or receptor(s expressed by the different MEN populations are unknown. Future concepts have to incorporate compressive and tensile-sensitive MEN into neural circuits that controls muscle activity. They may interact to control various forms of a particular motor pattern or regulate different motor patterns independently from each other.

  5. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Ang, K.K.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathognomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gy in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales

  6. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathoGyomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gn in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales. 140 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S.; Thurnher, Majda M.; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  8. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  9. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2017-11-14

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympatho-excitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel

  10. Autonomic nervous system function in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, J; Schmitz, T; Saft, C; Postert, T; Kraus, P; Epplen, J T; Przuntek, H; Agelink, M W

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether Huntington's disease (HD) affects autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning. Twenty patients with HD who had positive genetic test results underwent standardised ANS function tests including sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) of the hands and feet, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), both during five minutes of resting and deep respiration, and an orthostatic blood pressure test. Patients were classified according to the motor subscale of the unified Huntington's disease rating scale (UHDRS; mean (SD) score 26.4 (13.6)) and divided into two subgroups: UHDRS or =25 points (mid stages, M-HD). Autonomic indices were compared with those obtained for a group of well matched healthy controls (n=60). Overall, patients showed lower HRV indices than controls. Multivariate analysis with the independent factor of "group" (controls, E-HD, M-HD) showed a significant group effect on both the high frequency power (F=4.32, p=0.017) and the coefficient of variation (F=4.23, p=0.018), indicating a significant reduction in vagal modulation in the M-HD group. There was a shift in autonomic neurocardiac balance towards sympathetic predominance in the M-HD group compared with controls (F=2.89, p=0.062). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between the severity of clinical HD symptoms (assessed by the UHDRS) and the modulation of cardiovagal activity (p=0.028). Vagal dysregulation was present in two patients; one of them also showed a pathological blood pressure test and a latency prolongation in the SSRs of the hands. Two other patients had pathologically reduced SSR amplitudes. Only patients of the M-HD group were affected. Autonomic dysfunction is present even in the middle stages of HD and affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branch of the ANS.

  11. Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

  12. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  13. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  14. CT diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koreaki

    1980-01-01

    In the diagnosis of central nervous system congenital anomalies, understanding of embryology of the central nervous system and pathophysiology of each anomaly are essential. It is important for clinical approach to central nervous system congenital anomalies to evaluate the size of the head and tention of the anterior fontanelle. Accurate diagnosis of congenital anomalies depends on a correlation of CT findings to clinical pictures. Clinical diagnosis of congenital anomalies should include prediction of treatability and prognosis, in addition to recognition of a disease. (author)

  15. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  16. Immunologists getting nervous: neuropeptides, dendritic cells and T cell activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIt is increasingly recognised that the immune and nervous systems are closely integrated to optimise defence systems within the lung. In this commentary, the contribution of various neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive

  17. Progress of radionuclide diagnostic methods in central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Zen'kovich, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    A summarry on modern radionuclide diagnosis achivements of central nervous system diseases is presented. Most optimal tumorotropic preparations and compounds in the view of decreasing irradiation does and optimazing image are given

  18. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  19. Central nervous system infections in heart transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Patel, Robin; Daly, Richard C.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study central nervous system infections after heart transplantations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Cardiac Transplant Program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Patients Three hundred fifteen consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from January 1988

  20. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  1. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  2. Primary central nervous system angiosarcoma: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Emanuele; Acerbi, Francesco; Schiariti, Marco; Broggi, Morgan; Maderna, Emanuela; Pollo, Bianca; Nunziata, Raffaele; Maccagnano, Elio; Ferroli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare vascular malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in skin and soft tissues. Intracranial localization is very rare and only a few cases have been reported. This report intends to present the clinical, radiological and pathological pictures of a primary central nervous system angiosarcoma along with a review of the literature. A 35-year-old woman presented at our institution with weakness and sensory disturbances of her right hand. Neuroimaging revealed a roughly round, hemorrhagic and moderately enhancing lesion in the left frontal posterior region. The tumor was totally removed under awake anesthesia and continuous monitoring of motor and language functions. Histopathology revealed an epithelioid angiosarcoma. Radical removal, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is able to completely control the disease for a relatively long period. © 2014 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  3. An autopsied case of primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system presenting an unusual clinical course and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    1987-01-01

    A case of primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system was reported. A 58-year-old man was admitted because of diplopia in March, 1986. Last year in June he lost consciousness, accompanied by headache, vertigo, a floating sensation, and tinnitus, though his symptoms disappeared the next day. Last year in October and November, he complained of weakness of the left hand, but it soon disappeared. A neurological examination on admission revealed left trochlear nerve palsy, a decreased sensitivity to pain on the left side of the face and the opposite side of the body, and a mild left-side lack of coordination. A head CT scan and angiography showed no abnormalities. An examination of the CSF revealed increased protein with mild pleocytosis and IgG, but cytology was negative. After admission, he complained of left trigeminal neuralgia, but it disappeared upon steroid pulse therapy. When the steroids were tapered off, however, peripheral facialnerve palsy developed. Therefore, a second course of steroid pulse therapy was done, with some effect. In June, however, the patient became unconscious while the orally administered steroid was being tapered off. A head CT scan showed isodensity masses in the basal ganglia, the thalamus, and the periventricular white matter on a plain scan, and homogeneous masses with ring enhancement and edema on the use of a contrast medium. A histopathological examination showed primary cerebral malignant lymphoma (large-cell type). (author)

  4. Autopsied case of primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system presenting an unusual clinical course and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei and others

    1987-08-01

    A case of primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system was reported. A 58-year-old man was admitted because of diplopia in March, 1986. Last year in June he lost consciousness, accompanied by headache, vertigo, a floating sensation, and tinnitus, though his symptoms disappeared the next day. Last year in October and November, he complained of weakness of the left hand, but it soon disappeared. A neurological examination on admission revealed left trochlear nerve palsy, a decreased sensitivity to pain on the left side of the face and the opposite side of the body, and a mild left-side lack of coordination. A head CT scan and angiography showed no abnormalities. An examination of the CSF revealed increased protein with mild pleocytosis and IgG, but cytology was negative. After admission, he complained of left trigeminal neuralgia, but it disappeared upon steroid pulse therapy. When the steroids were tapered off, however, peripheral facialnerve palsy developed. Therefore, a second course of steroid pulse therapy was done, with some effect. In June, however, the patient became unconscious while the orally administered steroid was being tapered off. A head CT scan showed isodensity masses in the basal ganglia, the thalamus, and the periventricular white matter on a plain scan, and homogeneous masses with ring enhancement and edema on the use of a contrast medium. A histopathological examination showed primary cerebral malignant lymphoma (large-cell type).

  5. A simple analogy for nervous system plasticity after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Karim; Forero, Juan; Hurd, Caitlin

    2015-04-01

    When considering plasticity, the central nervous system can be viewed as a building block house. After damage, building components might be lost or loosened and may be rearranged by renovation, analogous to neuroplasticity that occurs after central nervous system injury. In both scenarios, the location and severity of damage will determine the efficacy of renovation/rehabilitation and thus the quality of the adapted structure.

  6. Space for the Nervous Tissue: Instead of introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Lidin

    2015-01-01

    A university campus is not only a complex of living, education and auxiliary facilities. It is a certain style of life. It is developed to fulfill a certain task: knowledge preservation and generation.The system of preservation and processing of the society’s knowledge has functions similar to the nervous system. The stronger the society’s scientific and academic network is, the more intellectual, advanced, diverse and flexible is the society’s response to extrinsic stimuli. The nervous syste...

  7. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  8. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  9. The glia of the adult Drosophila nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Malte C.; Jung, Christophe; Batelli, Sara; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2017-01-01

    Glia play crucial roles in the development and homeostasis of the nervous system. While the GLIA in the Drosophila embryo have been well characterized, their study in the adult nervous system has been limited. Here, we present a detailed description of the glia in the adult nervous system, based on the analysis of some 500 glial drivers we identified within a collection of synthetic GAL4 lines. We find that glia make up ∼10% of the cells in the nervous system and envelop all compartments of neurons (soma, dendrites, axons) as well as the nervous system as a whole. Our morphological analysis suggests a set of simple rules governing the morphogenesis of glia and their interactions with other cells. All glial subtypes minimize contact with their glial neighbors but maximize their contact with neurons and adapt their macromorphology and micromorphology to the neuronal entities they envelop. Finally, glial cells show no obvious spatial organization or registration with neuronal entities. Our detailed description of all glial subtypes and their regional specializations, together with the powerful genetic toolkit we provide, will facilitate the functional analysis of glia in the mature nervous system. GLIA 2017 GLIA 2017;65:606–638 PMID:28133822

  10. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D.; Díaz-Balzac, Roberto J.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2016-01-01

    The Echinodermata comprise an interesting branch in the phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Their radial symmetry which is reflected in their nervous system anatomy makes them a target of interest in the study of nervous system evolution. Until recently, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has been hindered by a shortage of neuronal markers. However, in recent years several markers of neuronal and fiber subpopulations have been described. These have been used to identify subpopulations of neurons and fibers, but an integrative study of the anatomical relationship of these subpopulations is wanting. We have now used eight commercial antibodies, together with three antibodies produced by our group to provide a comprehensive and integrated description and new details of the echinoderm neuroanatomy using the holothurian Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) as our model system. Immunoreactivity of the markers used showed: (1) specific labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles. (3) Similar to other deuterostomes (mainly vertebrates), their enteric nervous system is composed of a large and diverse repertoire of neurons and fiber phenotypes. Our results provide a first blueprint of the anatomical organization of cells and fibers that form the holothurian neural circuitry, and highlight the fact that the echinoderm nervous system shows unexpected diversity in cell and fiber types and their distribution in both central and peripheral nervous components. PMID:26987052

  11. Ear pain following temporomandibular surgery originating from the temporomandibular joint or the cranial nervous tissue? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerse, Wouter K; von Piekartz, Harry J M

    2015-02-01

    A patient presenting with local pain and limitation of movement in the temporomandibular region following surgery of the left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is described. Manual techniques like distraction of the TMJ combined with motor control exercises to restore TMJ function were not sufficient to relieve the patient's symptoms and her orofacial functions. However, during manual assessment and treatment of cranial nervous tissue, in this case the auriculotemporal nerve and its interface, pain was relieved and orofacial functions improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  13. Diffuse damage to central nervous system in progressive rheumatoid arthritis complicated by cerebral hermorrhage after radioisotope cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnowska-Dziduszko, E.; Lazarowicz, J.

    1980-01-01

    Presented case reveals unusual reaction of central nervous system in the course of progressive rheumatoid arthritis and cerebral hemorrhage as a rare complication after radioisotope investigation of cerebro-spinal fluid spaces. Female, 58 years old which was treated for 22 years for progressive rheumatoid arthritis developed during last 3 years of life a psychoorganic syndrome with temporal epilepsy and slight left sided hemiparesis. After radioisotope cisternography appeared decerebration followed by death. On autopsy the hemorrhagic foci were found in left cerebral hemisphere and in the brain stem. Histological finding was generalized severe damage to interstitial vessels diagnosed as fibrinotic, necrotizing degeneration of capillary and arteriolar wall, significant proliferation of microglia in the white matter and brain stem. Chronic inflammatory infiltrates were present in leptomeninges. Pathogenesis of findings in connection with progressive rheumatoid arthritis and complications due to cisternography is discussed. (author)

  14. Cerebral vasculitis and lateral rectus palsy - two rare central nervous system complications of dengue fever: two case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M M; Hewavithana, J S; De Silva, C M; Kularathna, O A R; Weerasinghe, N P

    2018-04-19

    Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy. The first patient was a 53-year-old previously healthy Singhalese woman who developed acute-onset slurring of speech and ataxia with altered sensorium 1 day after recovery from a critical period of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Subsequent investigations revealed evidence of encephalopathy with brainstem ischemic infarctions. Her clinical picture was compatible with central nervous system vasculitis. She was treated successfully with intravenous steroids and had a full functional recovery. The second patient was a middle-aged Singhalese woman who had otherwise uncomplicated dengue infection. She developed binocular diplopia on day 4 of fever. An ocular examination revealed a convergent squint in the left eye with lateral rectus palsy but no other neurological manifestation. Central nervous system vasculitis due to dengue infection is a very rare phenomenon, and to the best of our knowledge, only one case of central nervous system vasculitis has been reported to date, in a patient of pediatric age. Cranial nerve palsy related to dengue infection is also rare, and only a few cases of isolated abducens nerve palsy have been reported to date. The two cases described in this report illustrate the rare but important central nervous system manifestations of dengue fever and support the fact that the central nervous system is one of the

  15. The complex simplicity of the brittle star nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueva, Olga; Khoury, Maleana; Heinzeller, Thomas; Mashanova, Daria; Mashanov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) have been increasingly used in studies of animal behavior, locomotion, regeneration, physiology, and bioluminescence. The success of these studies directly depends on good working knowledge of the ophiuroid nervous system. Here, we describe the arm nervous system at different levels of organization, including the microanatomy of the radial nerve cord and peripheral nerves, ultrastructure of the neural tissue, and localization of different cell types using specific antibody markers. We standardize the nomenclature of nerves and ganglia, and provide an anatomically accurate digital 3D model of the arm nervous system as a reference for future studies. Our results helped identify several general features characteristic to the adult echinoderm nervous system, including the extensive anatomical interconnections between the ectoneural and hyponeural components, neuroepithelial organization of the central nervous system, and the supporting scaffold of the neuroepithelium formed by radial glial cells. In addition, we provide further support to the notion that the echinoderm radial glia is a complex and diverse cell population. We also tested the suitability of a range of specific cell-type markers for studies of the brittle star nervous system and established that the radial glial cells are reliably labeled with the ERG1 antibodies, whereas the best neuronal markers are acetylated tubulin, ELAV, and synaptotagmin B. The transcription factor Brn1/2/4 - a marker of neuronal progenitors - is expressed not only in neurons, but also in a subpopulation of radial glia. For the first time, we describe putative ophiuroid proprioceptors associated with the hyponeural part of the central nervous system. Together, our data help establish both the general principles of neural architecture common to the phylum Echinodermata and the specific ophiuroid features.

  16. Metastatic neuroblastoma presenting as refusal to use the left upper extremity in a six-year-old girl

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Grover; Elizabeth Crawford

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial neoplasm in children, commonly presenting at an advanced stage. Despite the high prevalence of metastatic disease with neuroblastoma, metastases to the central nervous system are rare and predominantly involve the spinal cord. We present a case of neuroblastoma with metastases to the brain presenting as refusal to move the left arm. The lesion initially appeared to be both a subdural and epidural hematoma on computed tomography of the head, but up...

  17. Stimulation of ganglionated plexus attenuates cardiac neural remodeling and heart failure progression in a canine model of acute heart failure post-myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Da; Hu, Huihui; Qin, Zhiliang; Liu, Shan; Yu, Xiaomei; Ma, Ruisong; He, Wenbo; Xie, Jing; Lu, Zhibing; He, Bo; Jiang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Vagus nerve stimulation has been shown to improve cardiac function both in HF patients and animal models of HF. The purpose of this present study is to investigate the effects of ganglionated plexus stimulation (GPS) on HF progression and autonomic remodeling in a canine model of acute HF post-myocardial infarction. Eighteen adult mongrel male dogs were randomized into the control (n=8) and GPS (n=10) groups. All dogs underwent left anterior descending artery ligation followed by 6-hour high-rate (180-220bpm) ventricular pacing to induce acute HF. Transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography was performed at different time points. The plasma levels of norepinephrine, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and Ang-II were measured using ELISA kits. C-fos and nerve growth factor (NGF) proteins expressed in the left stellate ganglion as well as GAP43 and TH proteins expressed in the peri-infarct zone were measured using western blot. After 6h of GPS, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and ejection fraction showed no significant differences between the 2 groups, but the interventricular septal thickness at end-systole in the GPS group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The plasma levels of norepinephrine, BNP, Ang-II were increased 1h after myocardial infarction while the increase was attenuated by GPS. The expression of c-fos and NGF proteins in the left stellate ganglion as well as GAP43 and TH proteins in cardiac peri-infarct zone in GPS group were significantly lower than that in control group. GPS inhibits cardiac sympathetic remodeling and attenuates HF progression in canines with acute HF induced by myocardial infarction and ventricular pacing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  19. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  20. Designing and implementing nervous system simulations on LEGO robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, Daniel; Rosenthal, Nikolai; Ayers, Joseph

    2013-05-25

    We present a method to use the commercially available LEGO Mindstorms NXT robotics platform to test systems level neuroscience hypotheses. The first step of the method is to develop a nervous system simulation of specific reflexive behaviors of an appropriate model organism; here we use the American Lobster. Exteroceptive reflexes mediated by decussating (crossing) neural connections can explain an animal's taxis towards or away from a stimulus as described by Braitenberg and are particularly well suited for investigation using the NXT platform.(1) The nervous system simulation is programmed using LabVIEW software on the LEGO Mindstorms platform. Once the nervous system is tuned properly, behavioral experiments are run on the robot and on the animal under identical environmental conditions. By controlling the sensory milieu experienced by the specimens, differences in behavioral outputs can be observed. These differences may point to specific deficiencies in the nervous system model and serve to inform the iteration of the model for the particular behavior under study. This method allows for the experimental manipulation of electronic nervous systems and serves as a way to explore neuroscience hypotheses specifically regarding the neurophysiological basis of simple innate reflexive behaviors. The LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit provides an affordable and efficient platform on which to test preliminary biomimetic robot control schemes. The approach is also well suited for the high school classroom to serve as the foundation for a hands-on inquiry-based biorobotics curriculum.

  1. Monophyletic Origin of the Metazoan Nervous System: Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Russell; Beckenbach, Andrew

    In the absence of additional cases to be studied, our understanding of the likelihood of intelligent life evolving elsewhere in the universe must be framed within the context of the evolution of intelligence on this planet. Towards this end a valid model of the evolution of animal life, and in particular of the nervous system, is key. Models which describe the development of complexity within the nervous system can be positively misleading if they are not grounded in an accurate model of the true relationships of the animal phyla. If fact the evolution of animal life at its earliest stages, from protists to the sponges, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora and onward to the bilateral animal phyla is poorly characterized. Recently numerous phylogenies of the early animal radiation have been published based upon DNA sequence data, with conflicting and poorly supported results. A polyphyletic origin for the animal nervous system has been implied by the results of several studies, which would lead to the conclusion that some characteristics of the nervous systems of higher and lower animals could be convergent. We show that an equally parsimonious interpretation of the molecular sequence data published thus far is that it reflects rapid speciation events early in animal evolution among the classical ``diploblast'' phyla, as well as accelerated DNA sequence divergence among the higher animals. This could be interpreted as support for a classical phylogeny of the animal kingdom, and thus of a strictly monophyletic origin for the nervous system.

  2. Acute irradiation injury and autonomic nervous system. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Sekine, Ichiro; Shichijo, Kazuko; Ito, Masahiro; Ikeda, Yuzi; Matsuzaki, Sumihiro; Zea-Iriate, W.-L.; Kondo, Takahito

    1996-01-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of occurrence of radiation sickness, whole body irradiation of various doses of X-ray was done on male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) whose sympathetic nervous system is functionally activated and on their original male Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and the change of their body weights was examined. Further, changes of blood pressure in rats irradiated at 7.5 Gy, of norepinephrine contents in their gut as a parameter of sympathetic nervous function and of acetylcholine contents as that of parasympathetic nervous function were measured. Histopathological examinations were also performed. SHR died at smaller dose than WKY. The blood pressure as a parameter of systemic sympathetic nervous system varied greatly in SHR. Norepinephrine contents elevated rapidly and greatly in SHR after irradiation and acetylcholine contents rapidly elevated in WKY. Apoptosis was more frequently observed in the intestinal crypt of SHR. Participation of autonomic nervous system was thus shown in the appearance of acute radiation injury and sickness in SHR, which was thought to be a useful model for the investigation. (K.H.)

  3. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of relieving...

  4. Compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justich, E.

    1982-04-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed.

  5. Multiplicativity of left centralizers forcing additivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed Tammam El-Sayiad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiplicative left centralizer for an associative ring R is a map satisfying T(xy = T\\(xy for all x,y in R. T is not assumed to be additive. In this paper we deal with the additivity of the multiplicative left centralizers in a ring which contains an idempotent element. Specially, we study additivity for multiplicative left centralizers in prime and semiprime rings which contain an idempotent element.

  6. Anarchy, socialism and a Darwinian left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen

    2006-03-01

    In A Darwinian left Peter Singer aims to reconcile Darwinian theory with left wing politics, using evolutionary game theory and in particular a model proposed by Robert Axelrod, which shows that cooperation can be an evolutionarily successful strategy. In this paper I will show that whilst Axelrod's model can give support to a kind of left wing politics, it is not the kind that Singer himself envisages. In fact, it is shown that there are insurmountable problems for the idea of increasing Axelrodian cooperation within a welfare state. My surprising conclusion will be that a Darwinian left worthy of the name would be anarchistic.

  7. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  8. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  9. Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Nederend

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect. During childhood, survival is generally good but, in adulthood, late complications are not uncommon. Abnormal autonomic control in children with congenital heart disease may contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of these long term sequelae. This narrative review of 34 studies aims to summarize current knowledge on function of the autonomic nervous system in children with a congenital heart defect. Large scale studies that measure both branches of the nervous system for prolonged periods of time in well-defined patient cohorts in various phases of childhood and adolescence are currently lacking. Pending such studies, there is not yet a good grasp on the extent and direction of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic function in pediatric congenital heart disease. Longitudinal studies in homogenous patient groups linking autonomic nervous system function and clinical outcome are warranted.

  10. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  11. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... with larger left ventricular diameter and higher left ventricular mass index (both P hypertrophy was greater (84 vs. 64%; P ..., transmitral peak E velocities and peak A velocities; and lower E/A ratio (all P hypertrophy, but normal left ventricular chamber systolic function with increased...

  12. Autonomic Nervous System in Paralympic Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Matthias; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2018-05-01

    Individuals sustaining a spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer from sensorimotor and autonomic impairment. Damage to the autonomic nervous system results in cardiovascular, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunctions, as well as temperature dysregulation. These complications not only impede quality of life, but also affect athletic performance of individuals with SCI. This article summarizes existing evidence on how damage to the spinal cord affects the autonomic nervous system and impacts the performance in athletes with SCI. Also discussed are frequently used performance-enhancing strategies, with a special focus on their legal aspect and implication on the athletes' health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  14. Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: Relevance to nervous system homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodinsky, Laura N.; Belgacem, Yesser Hadj; Swapna, Immani; Sequerra, Eduardo Bouth

    2013-01-01

    During nervous system development the neurotransmitter identity changes and coexpression of several neurotransmitters is a rather generalized feature of developing neurons. In the mature nervous system, different physiological and pathological circumstances recreate this phenomenon. The rules of neurotransmitter respecification are multiple. Among them, the goal of assuring balanced excitability appears as an important driving force for the modifications in neurotransmitter phenotype expression. The functional consequences of these dynamic revisions in neurotransmitter identity span a varied range, from fine-tuning the developing neural circuit to modifications in addictive and locomotor behaviors. Current challenges include determining the mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter phenotype respecification and how they intersect with genetic programs of neuronal specialization. PMID:23270605

  15. Role of neuroactive steroids in the peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cosimo eMelcangi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they may also represent interesting therapeutic tools for different types of peripheral neuropathy.

  16. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  17. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Bhambhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  18. Left ventricular hypertrophy, geometric patterns and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy can be due to various reasons including hypertension. It constitutes an increased cardiovascular risk. Various left ventricular geometric patterns occur in hypertension and may affect the cardiovascular risk profile of hypertensive subjects. Methods: One hundred and eighty eight ...

  19. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the scale of left-right symmetry breaking. Keywords. Leptogenesis; baryogenesis; domain walls; left-right symmetry. PACS Nos 12.10.Dm; 98.80.Cq; 98.80.Ft. Explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem.

  20. On establishing coreference in Left Dislocation constructions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenomenon of left dislocation (LD) has received relatively little attention in the generative literature. In Government & Binding theory and early versions of Minimalist Syntax, the left-dislocated expression is conventionally taken to be base-generated in its sentence-initial surface position and the resumptive pronoun in ...

  1. A new clinical sign probably associated to left hemiplegia with left hemineglect syndrome: the crossed legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Thiago; Braga, Gabriel; Luvizutto, Gustavo; Resende, Luiz

    2014-06-01

    To describe a new clinical sign associated with left unilateral neglect syndrome (UNS) in patients with ischemic stroke. Head computed tomography (CT) and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale were obtained in 150 patients with ischemic stroke. Those with right cerebral vascular lesions, left hemiplegia and right leg persistently crossed over the left were submitted to specific tests for UNS. The tests were also applied to 30 patients with right cerebral vascular lesions, left hemiplegia but without crossed legs. From 9 patients with persistent tendency to cross the right leg over the left, UNS was detected in 8. One patient died before the clinical tests were applied. Of the 30 patients without the crossed legs, 20 had normal clinical tests for UNS and 10 had minimal alterations, not sufficient for the diagnosis of UNS. The right leg crossed over the left may represent a new neurological semiotic sign associated with left hemiplegia and left UNS.

  2. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumilov, V. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Syryamkin, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  3. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumilov, V. N., E-mail: vnshumilov@rambler.ru; Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com; Syryamkin, M. V., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 36 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  4. VARIATION IN THE OPENINGS (OSTIA OF LEFT PULMONARY VEINS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  5. Stress fracture of the medial clavicle secondary to nervous tic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Sugiura, H.; Suzuki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical and radiological characteristics of swelling in the region of the medial clavicle may suggest the presence of a neoplastic or inflammatory lesion. This report describes a 27-year-old man with a painful tumor-like lesion over the medial clavicle, which was found to be a stress fracture caused by a nervous tic resulting from mental stress. (orig.)

  6. Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Joseph, Ed.

    This booklet describes only a glimpse of what is known about the nervous system, brain disorders, and the exciting avenues of research that promise new therapies for many of the most devastating neurological and psychiatric diseases. The neuron, brain development, sensation and perception, learning and memory, movement, advances and challenges in…

  7. The Nervous Flyer: Nerves, Flying and the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Cobden, Lynsey

    2018-02-02

    This is not an article about 'shell-shock'. It explores the military medical response to nervous disorders in the Royal Flying Corps. The First World War exposed the propensity of pilots to the nervous and psychological rigours of aerial warfare, but their unique experiences have been overlooked in favour of 'trauma' in infantrymen. This represents a critical lacuna in the historiography of military medicine, for flying personnel were studied apart from 'shell-shocked' soldiers. This article will show that flyers were believed to be medically different, and what set them apart from men in the trenches was their unique employment. The war necessitated, and provided the conditions for, the study of the medical problems of flying, including the significant nervous strains. Medical officers quickly established that flying not only affected bodily functions, but also 'wore down' the nerves that regulated psychological responses. This article will therefore present the medical view. It will study the research of air-minded medical officers and the conclusions reached on the nervous disorders of flying personnel.

  8. Chikungunya Virus and Central Nervous System Infections in Children, India

    OpenAIRE

    Lewthwaite, Penny; Vasanthapuram, Ravi; Osborne, Jane C.; Begum, Ashia; Plank, Jenna L.M.; Shankar, M. Veera; Hewson, Roger; Desai, Anita; Beeching, Nick J.; Ravikumar, Ravi; Solomon, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus best known for causing fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. By using real-time reverse transcription?PCR, we detected CHIKV in plasma samples of 8 (14%) of 58 children with suspected central nervous system infection in Bellary, India. CHIKV was also detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of 3 children.

  9. Is there anything "autonomous" in the nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

    2006-03-01

    The terms "autonomous" or "vegetative" are currently used to identify one part of the nervous system composed of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions. However, the concepts that are under the literal meaning of these words can lead to misconceptions about the actual nervous organization. Some clear-cut examples indicate that no element shows "autonomy" in an integrated body. Nor are they solely "passive" or generated "without mental elaboration." In addition, to be "not consciously controlled" is not a unique attribute of these components. Another term that could be proposed is "homeostatic nervous system" for providing conditions to the execution of behaviors and maintenance of the internal milieu within normal ranges. But, not all homeostatic conditions are under the direct influence of these groups of neurons, and some situations clearly impose different ranges for some variables that are adaptative (or hazardous) in the tentative of successfully coping with challenging situations. Finally, the name "nervous system for visceral control" emerges as another possibility. Unfortunately, it is not only "viscera" that represent end targets for this specific innervation. Therefore, it is commented that no quite adequate term for the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions has already been coined. The basic condition for a new term is that it should clearly imply the whole integrated and collaborative functions that the components have in an indivisible organism, including the neuroendocrine, immunological, and respiratory systems. Until that, we can call these parts simply by their own names and avoid terms that are more "convenient" than appropriate.

  10. The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinstroop, Eveline; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Foppen, Ewout; Wortel, Joke; Kooijman, Sander; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-01-01

    The liver is a key organ in controlling glucose and lipid metabolism during feeding and fasting. In addition to hormones and nutrients, inputs from the autonomic nervous system are also involved in fine-tuning hepatic metabolic regulation. Previously, we have shown in rats that during fasting an

  11. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These accidents (RTA) have been attributed to various causes including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Objective: This study was aimed at determining the role of CNS affecting drugs in the causation of RTA among these motorcyclists and also to make recommendations ...

  12. Primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Sevilla, G.; Olivan, M.; Gutierrez, P.; Guelbenzo, S.; Ayuso, T.

    1995-01-01

    A case of a young man with primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system manifesting as a seizure is presented. The patient did not show previous pathology. Laboratory tests, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, but the definitive diagnosis was made only by means of brain biopsy. Administration of steroids showed and improvement in symptoms. 8 refs

  13. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolicki, L.; Bak, M.; Grieb, P.

    1996-01-01

    The article presents the current results of MR spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system. This method is useful in examination of brain ischemia, brain tumors, epilepsy; white matter disorders and degeneration diseases. MR spectroscopy is unique technique for in vivo examination of the brain in physiological and pathophysiological states. (author)

  14. Sino-orbital aspergillosis with central nervous system complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A central nervous system (CNS) complication (cerebral abscess) was diagnosed following seizures in the patient. The patient died a few days later. Conclusion: The diagnosis of aspergillosis of the orbit was only made from fungal culture after the patient's death. It requires a high index of suspicion to make a diagnosis of ...

  15. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this article a review is given of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the central nervous system. An example of the screening of the population for multiple scelerosis is given. A good preliminary examination and the supply of relevant information to the person which performs the imaging is necessary. (R.B.). 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  18. Thiophene Scaffold as Prospective Central Nervous System Agent: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Aggarwal, Swati; Kaushik, Dhirender; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are extensively dispersed in nature and are vital for life. Various investigational approaches towards Structural Activity Relationship that focus upon the exploration of optimized candidates have become vastly important. Literature studies tell that for a series of compounds that are imperative in industrial and medicinal chemistry, thiophene acts as parent. Among various classes of heterocyclic compounds that have potential central nervous system activity, thiophene is the most important one. In the largely escalating chemical world of heterocyclic compounds showing potential pharmacological character, thiophene nucleus has been recognized as the budding entity. Seventeen Papers were included in this review article to define the central nervous system potential of thiophene. This review article enlightens the rationalized use and scope of thiophene scaffold as novel central nervous system activity such as anticonvulsant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5/p25) inhibitors, CNS depressant, capability to block norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake by their respective transporters etc. The Finding of this review confirm the importance of thiophene scaffold as potential central nervous system agents. From this outcome, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to the novel derivatives with better constructive pharmacological potential may be derived.

  19. Spontaneous nervous system concussion in dogs: A description of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human medicine, central nervous system (CNS) concussion is defined as a transient neurological dysfunction following a traumatic event, without evidence of structural abnormalities of the affected region on advanced diagnostic imaging. Depending on the anatomical region involved, three forms of concussive ...

  20. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  1. Primary cerebral angitis of the central nervous | Das | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various medications like intravenous immunoglobulin, antibiotics, acyclovir, methyl prednisolone and management for raised intracranial pressure were instituted. She rapidly deteroriated and died on tenth hospital day. Only at autopsy was the diagnosis of primary angitis of central nervous system established. East African ...

  2. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carl Ludwig Schleich (1859-1922) was an anaesthetist and a surgeon who for the first time emphasized the role of neuroglia in brain function. In an era that was dominated by the idea that neurons alone were functional units of the nervous system and that glial cells were a mere glue holding neurons in place, Schleich ...

  3. [Imaging diagnosis of central nervous system involvement in panarteritis nodosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhagen, K; Stoppe, G; Meyer, G J; Heintz, P; Hundeshagen, H; Deicher, H

    1989-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement of periarteritis nodosa is a rare complication of this disease. The diagnosis of CNS manifestation in vasculitis has been improved by using imaging techniques (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography). A case of polyarteritis nodosa with CNS involvement is presented; the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography is discussed.

  4. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - An Introduction to Glial Cells. Medha S Rajadhyaksha Yasmin Khan. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 4-10 ...

  5. Nervous Cowboys ja Eesti kui märk Prahas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    16. XI toimus Tšehhi pealinna Praha Karli sillal Eesti Taassünnipäevale pühendatud performance 'Eesti kui märk', mille viis läbi kunstirühmitus Nervous Cowboys koosseisus Kiwa ja Jasper Zoova. Eesti Suursaatkonnas avati näitus, kus eksponeeritakse xerox-tehnikas graafilisi lehti ja performance'i videdokumentatsiooni.

  6. [The interface between the immune system and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Shunya; Mukaino, Akihiro; Ando, Yukio

    2017-01-01

      The nervous system and the immune system are two major systems in human body. Although it was revealed these two systems correlated, the control of immune cell dynamics by the nervous system has come to draw a lot of attention at the present time. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in several animal models. One well-characterized cytokine-inhibiting mechanism, termed the "inflammatory reflex", is dependent upon vagus nerve stimulation that inhibits cytokine production and attenuates the inflammation. And the mechanism for controlling lymphocyte trafficking becomes clear, and molecular basis of immune regulation by the nervous system was reported. On the other hand, the nervous system is protected from the invasion of harmful agents by the barrier. However, there are neuroimmunological disorders, which is associated with autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and infection immunity. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder that leads to widespread autonomic manifestations, in which autoantibodies to ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play a central role. Previously, we elucidated the prevalence of extra-autonomic manifestations in patients with AAG. It is necessary to establish the new systems for the detection of autoantibodies to other subunits of acetylcholine receptor.

  7. Responses of the Autonomic Nervous System to Flavors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de René A.; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory flavor perception plays an important role in decision-making, for instance for food products. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, towards such flavor stimuli may provide insights into processes related to consumer acceptance

  8. Settling a Nervous Stomach: The Neural Regulation of Enteric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Michelle

    2017-01-09

    The nervous system is emerging as a regulator of malignancy. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Hayakawa et al. demonstrate a feedforward signaling loop in which tumor-derived nerve growth factor promotes enteric tumor innervation, and recruited nerves drive cancer growth through acetylcholine-regulated Wnt signaling and stimulation of further NGF release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  10. Stress fracture of the medial clavicle secondary to nervous tic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Sugiura, H.; Suzuki, Y. [Department of Orthopaedics, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa, 464-8681, Nagoya (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    The clinical and radiological characteristics of swelling in the region of the medial clavicle may suggest the presence of a neoplastic or inflammatory lesion. This report describes a 27-year-old man with a painful tumor-like lesion over the medial clavicle, which was found to be a stress fracture caused by a nervous tic resulting from mental stress. (orig.)

  11. Using Awareness Training to Decrease Nervous Habits during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in…

  12. Autonomic nervous system involvement in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Mylène; Chia, Pamela; Sarji, Shervin; Nguyen, Jason; Hoftman, Nir; Ruffenach, Gregoire; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Mahajan, Aman; Umar, Soban

    2017-12-04

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic pulmonary vascular disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) leading to right ventricular (RV) failure. Autonomic nervous system involvement in the pathogenesis of PAH has been demonstrated several years ago, however the extent of this involvement is not fully understood. PAH is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, decreased heart rate variability, and presence of cardiac arrhythmias. There is also evidence for increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in PAH patients associated with clinical worsening. Reduction of neurohormonal activation could be an effective therapeutic strategy for PAH. Although therapies targeting adrenergic receptors or RAAS signaling pathways have been shown to reverse cardiac remodeling and improve outcomes in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH)-models, the effectiveness and safety of such treatments in clinical settings have been uncertain. Recently, novel direct methods such as cervical ganglion block, pulmonary artery denervation (PADN), and renal denervation have been employed to attenuate SNS activation in PAH. In this review, we intend to summarize the multiple aspects of autonomic nervous system involvement in PAH and overview the different pharmacological and invasive strategies used to target autonomic nervous system for the treatment of PAH.

  13. Role of semaphorins in the adult nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Joris; Verhaagen, J.

    2003-01-01

    In the developing nervous system, extending axons are directed towards their appropriate targets by a myriad of attractive and repulsive guidance cues. Work in the past decade has significantly advanced our understanding of these molecules and has made it increasingly clear that their function is

  14. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles...

  15. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, F.; Gandon, Y.; Heautot, J.F.; Montagne, C.; Michelet, C.; Carsin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined [fr

  16. Spontaneous Electrical Activity in the Nervous System and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of biogenic amines on the spontaneous electrical activity of the nervous system in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The activity recorded from different segments of the ventral nerve cord differed in the frequency and number of spike categories firing. The activity was highest ...

  17. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  18. The role of the autonomic nervous system in hypertension: a bond graph model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shuzhen; Gong, Yuexian; Dai, Kaiyong; Sui, Meirong; Yu, Yi; Ning, Gangmin; Zhang, Shaowen

    2008-01-01

    A bond graph model of the cardiovascular system with embedded autonomic nervous regulation was developed for a better understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in hypertension. The model is described by a pump model of the heart and a detailed representation of the head and neck, pulmonary, coronary, abdomen and extremity circulation. It responds to sympathetic and parasympathetic activities by modifying systemic peripheral vascular resistance, heart rate, ventricular end-systolic elastance and venous unstressed volumes. The impairment of ANS is represented by an elevation of the baroreflex set point. The simulation results show that, compared with normotensive, in hypertension the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) rose from 112/77 mmHg to 144/94 mmHg and the left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT) increased from 10 mm to 12.74 mm. In the case that ANS regulation was absent, both the SBP and DBP further increased by 8 mmHg and the LVWT increased to 13.22 mm. The results also demonstrate that when ANS regulation is not severely damaged, e.g. the baroreflex set point is 97 mmHg, it still has an effect in preventing the rapid rise of blood pressure in hypertension; however, with the worsening of ANS regulation, its protective role weakens. The results agree with human physiological and pathological features in hemodynamic parameters and carotid baroreflex function curves, and indicate the role of ANS in blood pressure regulation and heart protection. In conclusion, the present model may provide a valid approach to study the pathophysiological conditions of the cardiovascular system and the mechanism of ANS regulation

  19. Social aspects of left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout human history left-handedness has been considered as sinful. It has been associated with the devil, weakness, female gender, unhealthiness, evil, something that has to be turned to a “good” - right side by force. Left-handedness is being more and more acceptable at rational level, but in everyday life it is still considered to be unusual if someone writes with the left hand. Lessening of the number of lefthanders is associated with ageing. There are about 13% lefthanders among people in twenties and less than 1% lefthanders among those in eighties. This finding may be explaned with more pronounced socio-cultural pressure on left-handed people in the past, compared to nowadays. On the other hand, this may also support the hypothesis about a reduced life span of lefthanded people. With cross-exercising of left-handedness, certain typical characteristics and behavioral patterns appear in these people. This was a sort of provoked behavior and an attack on the integrity of an emotional attitude toward oneself. Stuttering may also appear as a consequence of unsuccessful cross-exercising of left-handedness. The hypothesis about left-handedness as an advantage is supported with the reports about relatively more lefthanders in some specific groups such as: mathematicians, sculptors, architects, painters, musicians, actors, tennis players, as well as famous army commanders and rulers.

  20. Left ventricular performance during triggered left ventricular pacing in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy and left bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Christoffer Tobias; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the acute effect of triggered left ventricular pacing (tLVp) on left ventricular performance and contraction pattern in patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS: Twenty-three patients with pre-implant QRS...... complex >150 ms, QRS complex narrowing under CRT, and sinus rhythm were included ≥3 months after CRT implantation. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS), and contraction pattern by 2D strain was performed during intrinsic......V pacing. CONCLUSIONS: The acute effect of tLVp on LV systolic function and contraction pattern is significantly lower than the effect of BiV pacing and not different from intrinsic conduction in patients with LBBB and CRT....

  1. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of left intraventricular conduction disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1979-01-01

    Both, the vectorcardiographic changes produced by the various degrees of left bundle branch block and these observed with the different types of left distal block, are described. When a "wave jumping" phenomenon exists, the vectorcardiographic changes are more characteristic in the horizontal plane than in the frontal plane and can be interpreted satisfactorily in basis of the ventricular activation sequence. The normal counterclockwise rotation of the horizontal vectorcardiogram persists in the presence of left bundle branch block of slight and moderate degrees, since the electromotive forces of the free left ventricular wall are still predominant. In the majority of intermediate degree blocks, the middle portion of the RH loop develops with a clockwise rotation and general aspect with a clockwise rotation and the general aspect of the ventricular loop resembles an eight figure. This is due to the electromotive forces originated by the delayed depolarization of the left septal mass that starts to predominate. With advanced degrees of block, the largest portion of the RH loop shows a clockwise rotation, as well as marked notchings and slurrings. The initial anterior portion of the horizontal vectorcardiogram does not disappear, but is situated to the left of the anterior-posterior axis with a counterclockwise rotation (first right septal vector). Otherwise, the direct electrical sign of left distal block emphasized: evidence of delayed activation in a limited zone of the homolateral ventricle. This local delay gives rise to an asynchronism of the activation phenomenon between the upper and lower regions of the ventricle. The diagnosis of left bifascicular block is based essentially on the evidence of unequal delay of the activation sequence in the basal regions and in the inferior ones of the homolateral ventricle and also on the frequent persistence of the first left septal vector.

  2. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  3. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, and is defined as a gallbladder located to the left of the ligamentum teres and the falciform ligament.1 LSGB was first described by Hochstetter in 1886, and its identification is important because of the numerous and potentially hazardous.

  4. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  5. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior myocardial infarction with resultant left ventricular aneurysm formation were found in a 22-year-old man who had sustained a ballistic missile injury to his chest.

  6. No Child Left Inside Week: Pilot Program

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Jamie C.

    2013-01-01

    This program evaluation assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of a free No Child Left Inside (NCLI) week-long outdoor program to coincide with the Utah state-designated No Child Left Inside Week. The pilot program was implemented at the community level in Cache Valley, Utah, in 2012. Families attended eleven activities throughout the week that included hands-on experience and participation. A community BioBlitz was also planned as a conclusion to the week. Survey results demonstrate incr...

  7. Drilling simulated temporal bones with left-handed tools: a left-hander's right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Cory S; Brydges, Ryan; Chen, Joseph M; Dubrowski, Adam

    2007-11-01

    Left-handed trainees can be at a disadvantage in the surgical environment because of a right-handed bias. The effectiveness of teaching left-handed trainees to use an otologic drill designed for their dominant hand versus the conventional right-handed drill was examined. Novice medical students were recruited from the university community. Twenty-four subjects were left-handed, and 12 were right-handed. Eight left-handed surgeons also participated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the performance of left-handed trainees using novel left-handed drills to that of left-handed trainees using right-handed tools and to that of right-handed trainees using right-handed tools. The evaluation consisted of 3 phases: pretest, skill acquisition, and 2 post-tests. The measurement tools included expert assessment of performance, and subjective and objective final product analyses. An initial construct validity phase was conducted in which validity of the assessment tools was ensured. Both the left-handers using left-handed tools and the right-handers using right-handed tools significantly outperformed the left-handers using right-handed tools at pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest. All participants improved their performance as a function of practice. The left-handed trainees learned bone drilling better with tools designed for the left hand. These tools may be incorporated into residency training programs for the development of surgical technical skills. Future studies should assess skill transfer between the left-handed and right-handed drills.

  8. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cabral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a, and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  9. Nervous system and receptors. Chapter 3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The literature is reviewed for the effects of sulphur-containing radioprotective agents on the nervous system and receptors. Studies of the neurological changes observed in alert animals and their modification by anaesthetics have indicated that a direct effect is exerted on the cortical and subcortical structures. Some local anaesthetic effects may result from nerve endings being squeezed by the edematous papule formed on the site of the injection. MEA and, to a lesser extent, cystamine, competitively block the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting the action of acetylcholine on the motor end-plate. The effects of radioprotective substances on the autonomic nervous system in different species have also been considered. The sensitivity of the chemo- and pressor-sensitive endings of the aortic branch, the carotids and the lungs is not affected by the administration of radioprotective agents. (U.K.)

  10. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-I Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  11. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  12. Measles virus and associated central nervous system sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Renee; Bonthius, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    Worldwide, measles remains one of the most deadly vaccine-preventable diseases. In the United States, enrollment in the public schools requires that each child receives 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine before entry, essentially eliminating this once endemic disease. Recent outbreaks of measles in the United States have been associated with importation of measles virus from other countries and subsequent transmission to intentionally undervaccinated children. The central nervous system complications of measles can occur within days or years of acute infection and are often severe. These include primary measles encephalitis, acute postinfectious measles encephalomyelitis, measles inclusion body encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. These measles-associated central nervous system diseases differ in their pathogenesis and pathologic effects. However, all involve complex brain-virus-immune system interactions, and all can lead to severe and permanent brain injury. Despite better understanding of the clinical presentations and pathogenesis of these illnesses, effective treatments remain elusive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MRI findings in central nervous system of neurofibromatosis-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoen; Huang Suiqiao; Shen Jun; Hong Guobin; Wu Zhuo; Lin Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in central nervous system involvement of neurofibromatosis II. Methods: 7 patients with surgically and pathologically proved neurofibromatosis II were included. Their MR imaging findings and clinical features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The main findings of 7 cases of neurofibraomaosis II on MR imaging included bilateral acoustic neurilemoma, multiple neurofibroma, meningioma and schwannoma. Among the 7 patients, Tl-weighted imaging after contrast enhancement displayed additional lesions which had been ignored on un-enhanced scan. Conclusion: MR imaging has advantages in the detection of central nervous sys- tem involvement of neurofibromatosis II with regard to its ability to show the lesions well, meanwhile displaying the size, morphology and signal features clearly. (authors)

  14. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  15. Central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Ignacio; Minces, Pablo; De Cristofano, Analía M; Negroni, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Neurohistoplasmosis is a rare disease, most prevalent in immunosuppressed patients, secondary to disseminated disease with a high mortality rate when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. We report a previously healthy 12 year old girl, from a bat infested region of Tucuman Province, Argentine Republic, who developed meningoencephalitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum. Eighteen months prior to admission the patient started with headaches and intermittent fever. The images of the central nervous system showed meningoencephalitis suggestive of tuberculosis. She received antibiotics and tuberculostatic medications without improvement. Liposomal amphotericin B was administered for six weeks. The patient's clinical status improved remarkably. Finally the culture of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for micelial form of Histoplasma capsulatum. The difficulties surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of neurohistoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients are discussed in this manuscript, as it also intends to alert to the presence of a strain of Histoplasma capsulatum with affinity for the central nervous system. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  16. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; López Soto, Eduardo J; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perelló, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  17. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation of the nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, D; Han, Yong-Chang; Rani, M R

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the production of chemokines by resident glial cells of the nervous system. We describe studies in two distinct categories of inflammation within the nervous system: immune-mediated inflammation as seen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) or multiple sclerosis...... (MS) and post-traumatic inflammation. We provide evidence that chemokines play a role in amplifying the inflammatory reaction in EAE (and, probably, MS). In the context of neural trauma, chemokines appear to be primary stimuli for leukocyte recruitment. Strikingly, expression of monocyte...... that produce aggregates of simultaneous stimuli. These characteristics, in turn, mirror the expression patterns of the endogenous genes: MCP-1 is expressed under a variety of circumstances, while IP-10 appears primarily during immune-mediated processes that feature exposure of resident neuroglia to high levels...

  18. The Multifactorial role of Peripheral Nervous System in Bone Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkiatas, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Pakos, Emilios E.; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Gelalis, Ioannis; Vekris, Marios; Korompilias, Anastasios

    2017-09-01

    Bone alters its metabolic and anabolic activities in response to the variety of systemic and local factors such as hormones and growth factors. Classical observations describing abundance of the nerve fibers in bone also predict a paradigm that the nervous system influences bone metabolism and anabolism. Since 1916 several investigators tried to analyze the effect of peripheral nervous system in bone growth and most of them advocated for the positive effect of innervation in the bones of growing organisms. Moreover, neuronal tissue controls bone formation and remodeling. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the most recent data concerning the influence of innervation on bone growth, the current understanding of the skeletal innervation and their proposed physiological effects on bone metabolism as well as the implication of denervation in human skeletal biology in the developing organism since the peripheral neural trauma as well as peripheral neuropathies are common and they have impact on the growing skeleton.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of central nervous system haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Hennessy, O.

    1993-01-01

    The variable magnetic resonance imaging appearances of central nervous system haemorrhage, both intra- and extra-axial, are described. These will vary with the type of image contrast (T1 or T2 weighting), the nature of the imaging sequence (spin-echo or gradient-echo) and the time from onset of haemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful technique for imaging haemorrhage in the central nervous system as it yields temporal information about haematoma development, and it is the only non-invasive means of imaging intraspinal haemorrhage. However, in the imaging of haematomas within 24 h of onset and in subarachnoid haemorrhage computed tomography is the investigation of choice. 13 refs., 6 figs

  20. Comprehensive allelotype and genetic anaysis of 466 human nervous system tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Deimling, A; Fimmers, R; Schmidt, M C

    2000-01-01

    Brain tumors pose a particular challenge to molecular oncology. Many different tumor entities develop in the nervous system and some of them appear to follow distinct pathogenic routes. Molecular genetic alterations have increasingly been reported in nervous system neoplasms. However...

  1. Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Lesions of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Lesions of the Central Nervous System Fact Sheet What are arteriovenous malformations? What are ... What other types of vascular lesions affect the central nervous system? Besides AVMs, three other main types of vascular ...

  2. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children : The ABCD Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Hoekstra, Christine M C A; Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R; Twickler, Marcel T B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system

  3. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  4. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H H; Huygen, P L M; Merx, J L; Kremer, H P H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Longridge, Neil S

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  5. Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Pan

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including

  6. Simulation of less master production schedule nervousness model

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera , Carlos; Thomas , André

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In production decision making systems, Master Production Schedule (MPS) states the requirements for individual end items by date and quantity. The solution sensitivity to demand forecast changes, unforeseen supplier and production problem occurrences, is known as nervousness. This feature cause undesirable effects at tactical and operational levels. Some of these effects are production and inventory cost increases and, also, negative impacts on overall and labor produc...

  7. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toirac Romani, Carlos Andres; Salmon Cruzata, Acelia; Musle Acosta, Mirelvis; Rosales Fargie, Yamile; Dosouto Infante, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  8. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Tsioufis, Costas; Kordalis, Athanasios; Flessas, Dimitris; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge po...

  9. Acute Central Nervous System Complications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytan, Birol; Evim, Melike Sezgin; Güler, Salih; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Okan, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved because of intensive chemotherapy and supportive care. The frequency of adverse events has also increased, but the data related to acute central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment are sparse. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these complications and to determine their long term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital reports of 323 children with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia from a 13-year period for acute neurological complications. The central nervous system complications of leukemic involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and post-treatment late-onset encephalopathy, and neurocognitive defects were excluded. Twenty-three of 323 children (7.1%) suffered from central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. The majority of these complications (n = 13/23; 56.5%) developed during the induction period. The complications included posterior reversible encephalopathy (n = 6), fungal abscess (n = 5), cerebrovascular lesions (n = 5), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (n = 4), and methotrexate encephalopathy (n = 3). Three of these 23 children (13%) died of central nervous system complications, one from an intracranial fungal abscess and the others from intracranial thrombosis. Seven of the survivors (n = 7/20; 35%) became epileptic and three of them had also developed mental and motor retardation. Acute central neurological complications are varied and require an urgent approach for proper diagnosis and treatment. Collaboration among the hematologist, radiologist, neurologist, microbiologist, and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent fatal outcome and serious morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. O...... the subtle nature of HME, CSF HSV PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection....

  11. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur; Toorn, Ronald van

    2009-01-01

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  12. Hyperammonemia-induced toxicity for the developing central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Cagnon, L.; Braissant, O.

    2007-01-01

    In pediatric patients, hyperammonemia can be caused by various acquired or inherited disorders such as urea cycle deficiencies or organic acidemias. The brain is much more susceptible to the deleterious effects of ammonium during development than in adulthood. Hyperammonemia can provoke irreversible damages to the developing central nervous system that lead to cortical atrophy, ventricular enlargement and demyelination, responsible for cognitive impairment, seizures and cerebral palsy. Until ...

  13. Functional structure and dynamics of the human nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The status of an effort to define the directions needed to take in extending pilot models is reported. These models are needed to perform closed-loop (man-in-the-loop) feedback flight control system designs and to develop cockpit display requirements. The approach taken is to develop a hypothetical working model of the human nervous system by reviewing the current literature in neurology and psychology and to develop a computer model of this hypothetical working model.

  14. Neuronal expression of muskelin in the rodent central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges-Labouesse Elisabeth

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kelch repeat protein muskelin mediates cytoskeletal responses to the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin 1, (TSP1, that is known to promote synaptogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS. Muskelin displays intracellular localization and affects cytoskeletal organization in adherent cells. Muskelin is expressed in adult brain and has been reported to bind the Cdk5 activator p39, which also facilitates the formation of functional synapses. Since little is known about muskelin in neuronal tissues, we here analysed the tissue distribution of muskelin in rodent brain and analysed its subcellular localization using cultured neurons from multiple life stages. Results Our data show that muskelin transcripts and polypeptides are expressed throughout the central nervous system with significantly high levels in hippocampus and cerebellum, a finding that resembles the tissue distribution of p39. At the subcellular level, muskelin is found in the soma, in neurite projections and the nucleus with a punctate distribution in both axons and dendrites. Immunostaining and synaptosome preparations identify partial localization of muskelin at synaptic sites. Differential centrifugation further reveals muskelin in membrane-enriched, rather than cytosolic fractions. Conclusion Our results suggest that muskelin represents a multifunctional protein associated with membranes and/or large protein complexes in most neurons of the central nervous system. These data are in conclusion with distinct roles of muskelin's functional interaction partners.

  15. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Teresa Cristina de Abreu

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS) is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resources available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  16. HHV-6 symptoms in central nervous system. Encephalitis and encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinari, Satoshi; Hamano, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described is the present knowledge of central nervous symptoms, mainly encephalitis and encephalopathy, caused by the primary infection of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) in the pediatric field. Discovery of HHV-6 is in 1986, the virus, normally latent, has a high nervous affinity, and most infants are infected until the age of 3 years. Encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by the primary infection can be derived from direct viral invasion in nervous system or secondary like that through angitis. Most of early clinical symptoms are febrile convulsion. Imaging of the head by MRI particularly with diffusion weighted imaging and by cerebral blood flow SPECT with 123 I-infetamine (IMP) is important for classification of encephalitis and encephalopathy by HHV-6: Four types of them are defined according to the area of lesion observed in abnormal images, the basal nuclei-diencephalon-brainstem, frontal lobe-dominant one, cerebral hemisphere and diffusive one. Further reviewed are the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis together with other HHV-6 related problems like infection in neonate, temporal lobe epilepsy and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Current topics are related with activation of latent HHV-6. Despite numerous findings, many remain to be elucidated in acute encephalitis and encephalopathy which are most important in pediatrics. (R.T.)

  17. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Gross anatomy and development of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, Martin; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) composed of the brain, the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of the different nerves arising from the CNS. The PNS is divided into the cranial nerves III to XII supplying the head and the spinal nerves that supply the upper and lower limbs. The general anatomy of the PNS is organized according to the arrangement of the fibers along the rostro-caudal axis. The control of the development of the PNS has been unravelled during the last 30 years. Motor nerves arise from the ventral neural tube. This ventralization is induced by morphogenetic molecules such as sonic hedgehog. In contrast, the sensory elements of the PNS arise from a specific population of cells originating from the roof of the neural tube, namely the neural crest. These cells give rise to the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic ganglia and the paraganglia including the adrenergic neurons of the adrenals. Furthermore, the supportive glial Schwann cells of the PNS originate from the neural crest cells. Growth factors as well as myelinating proteins are involved in the development of the PNS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gangliosides in the Nervous System: Biosynthesis and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Robert K.; Ariga, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zeng, Guichao

    Gangliosides, abundant in the nervous system, are known to play crucial modulatory roles in cellular recognition, interaction, adhesion, and signal transduction, particularly during early developmental stages. The expression of gangliosides in the nervous system is developmentally regulated and is closely related to the differentiation state of the cell. Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs in intracellular organelles, from which gangliosides are transported to the plasma membrane. During brain development, the ganglioside composition of the nervous system undergoes remarkable changes and is strictly regulated by the activities of glycosyltransferases, which can occur at different levels of control, including glycosyltransferase gene transcription and posttranslational modification. Genes for glycosyltransferase involved in ganglioside biosynthesis have been cloned and classified into families of glycosyltransferases based on their amino acid sequence similarities. The donor and acceptor substrate specificities are determined by enzymatic analysis of the glycosyltransferase gene products. Cell-type specific regulation of these genes has also been studied. Gangliosides are degraded by lysosomal exoglycosidases. The action of these enzymes occurs frequently in cooperation with activator proteins. Several human diseases are caused by defects of degradative enzymes, resulting in massive accumulation of certain glycolipids, including gangliosides in the lysosomal compartment and other organelles in the brain and visceral organs. Some of the representative lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by the accumulation of lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes will be discussed.

  20. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors

  1. Pazopanib efficacy in recurrent central nervous system hemangiopericytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Alentorn, Agusti; Mokhtari, Karima; Kalamarides, Michel; Sanson, Marc

    2018-04-26

    There is currently no treatment for solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/H) of the central nervous system recurring after multiple surgeries and radiotherapies. The NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion is the hallmark of these tumors, and upregulates Early Growth Factor, activating several growth pathways. We treated two patients presenting pluri-recurrent meningeal SFT/H with Pazopanib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We analyzed the exome and RNA sequencing data of one of them and, in addition to another meningeal SFT/H, compared it to the transcriptomic profiling of 5 systemic SFT/H. A dramatic clinical and radiological response was observed in both cases, respectively 84 and 43% decrease after 3 months. As a comparison, Pazopanib has only a stabilizing effect in systemic SFT/H. Indeed, central nervous system SFT/H show overexpression of different tyrosine kinases targeted by Pazopanib. Two consecutive patients with untreatable central nervous system SFT/H showed a spectacular partial response to Pazopanib, an unprecedented result in SFT/H. This result could be explained by differences in expression profiles and calls for a confirmation in a larger cohort of patients.

  2. Labile neurotoxin in serum of calves with "nervous" coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, C M; Bellamy, J E; Wobeser, G A

    1987-01-01

    Mouse inoculation was used to test for the presence of a toxin in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and intestinal contents collected from cases of bovine enteric coccidiosis, with and without neurological signs, and from control calves. Intravenous inoculation of mice with 10 mL/kg of serum from calves showing nervous signs caused effects significantly different from those caused by the inoculation of serum from calves not showing nervous signs and from control calves. The effect was particularly evident in female mice. At this dosage severe neurological signs such as loss of righting reflex, seizures and death occurred only with serum from calves with "nervous coccidiosis". The results suggest that serum from the calves with neurological signs contains a neurotoxin. This toxin appears to be highly labile. It was not present in the cerebrospinal fluid at levels comparable to those in the serum. The significance of this labile neurotoxin with respect to the pathogenesis of the neurological signs associated with bovine enteric coccidiosis is unknown. PMID:2955865

  3. Effects of snake venom polypeptides on central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Alexey; Utkin, Yuri

    2012-12-01

    The nervous system is a primary target for animal venoms as the impairment of its function results in the fast and efficient immobilization or death of a prey. There are numerous evidences about effects of crude snake venoms or isolated toxins on peripheral nervous system. However, the data on their interactions with the central nervous system (CNS) are not abundant, as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes penetration of these compounds into brain. This updated review presents the data about interaction of snake venom polypeptides with CNS. Such data will be described according to three main modes of interactions: - Direct in vivo interaction of CNS with venom polypeptides either capable to penetrate BBB or injected into the brain. - In vitro interactions of cell or sub-cellular fractions of CNS with crude venoms or purified toxins. - Indirect effects of snake venoms or their components on functioning of CNS under different conditions. Although the venom components penetrating BBB are not numerous, they seem to be the most suitable candidates for the leads in drug design. The compounds with other modes of action are more abundant and better studied, but the lack of the data about their ability to penetrate BBB may substantially aggravate the potentials for their medical perspectives. Nevertheless, many such compounds are used for research of CNS in vitro. These investigations may give invaluable information for understanding the molecular basis of CNS diseases and thus lay the basis for targeted drug design. This aspect also will be outlined in the review.

  4. Learning priors for Bayesian computations in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    Full Text Available Our nervous system continuously combines new information from our senses with information it has acquired throughout life. Numerous studies have found that human subjects manage this by integrating their observations with their previous experience (priors in a way that is close to the statistical optimum. However, little is known about the way the nervous system acquires or learns priors. Here we present results from experiments where the underlying distribution of target locations in an estimation task was switched, manipulating the prior subjects should use. Our experimental design allowed us to measure a subject's evolving prior while they learned. We confirm that through extensive practice subjects learn the correct prior for the task. We found that subjects can rapidly learn the mean of a new prior while the variance is learned more slowly and with a variable learning rate. In addition, we found that a Bayesian inference model could predict the time course of the observed learning while offering an intuitive explanation for the findings. The evidence suggests the nervous system continuously updates its priors to enable efficient behavior.

  5. Novel mechanisms of central nervous system damage in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy E Hazleton

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Joy E Hazleton1, Joan W Berman1,2, Eliseo A Eugenin11Department of Pathology and 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of the central nervous system is an early event after primary infection, resulting in motor and cognitive defects in a significant number of individuals despite successful antiretroviral therapy. The pathology of the infected brain is characterized by enhanced leukocyte infiltration, microglial activation and nodules, aberrant expression of inflammatory factors, neuronal dysregulation and loss, and blood–brain barrier disruption. Months to years following the primary infection, these central nervous system insults result in a spectrum of motor and cognitive dysfunction, ranging from mild impairment to frank dementia. The mechanisms that mediate impairment are still not fully defined. In this review we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that facilitate impairment and new data that implicate intercellular communication systems, gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, as mediators of human immunodeficiency virus-1 toxicity and infection within the central nervous system. These data suggest potential targets for novel therapeutics.Keywords: AIDS, dementia, inflammation, gap junctions, nanotubes, chemokines

  6. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

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    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  7. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del

    1997-01-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  8. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Irfan A. [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Mehler, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mehler@einstein.yu.edu [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States)

    2011-09-13

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.

  9. [Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus - diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka, Magdalena

    Nervous system involvement in lupus belongs to its severe complications and significantly impacts its prognosis. Neuropsychiatric lupus includes 19 disease manifestations concerning both central and peripheral nervous system. This paper presents clinical aspects of central nervous system involvement in lupus. It reviews its epidemiology, risk factors and principles of diagnosis and therapy.

  10. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...) and/or abnormal vascularity (abnormal blood supply and circulation) of the central nervous system. The...

  11. A history of the autonomic nervous system: part II: from Reil to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Peter C; Fisahn, Christian; Iwanaga, Joe; DiLorenzo, Daniel; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-12-01

    The history of the study of the autonomic nervous system is rich. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists were beginning to more firmly grasp the reality of this part of the human nervous system. The evolution of our understanding of the autonomic nervous system has a rich history. Our current understanding is based on centuries of research and trial and error.

  12. Chagas' disease and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Ademir Batista

    2003-06-01

    Chagas' disease is a major endemic disease in Latin America and a great cause for concern due to its high incidence: it afflicts 16 to 18 million individuals and places over 90 million people at risk of infection. At present, five mechanisms can be proposed to explain the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas cardiopathy: 1. direct lesion of the tissue by Trypanosoma cruzi; 2. dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (neurogenic concept); 3. microvascular disease; 4. immunologic reaction; 5. alterations in the extracellular matrix. The neurogenic concept is the most attractive explanation for the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas cardiopathy through the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, an issue that has been prominent ever since Chagas first initiated research in the field. Köberle, in his pioneering studies on the role of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas patients in the 1950s, adopted the technique of neuron counts, whereby he registered a reduction in parasympathetic nerve cells, and thus considered Chagas cardiopathy a "parasympathetic reduction" with predominance of the sympathetic. In the 1960s, systematic studies on autonomic function, organized by Professor Dalmo Amorim, were initiated in the School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto. Several aspects of cardiac autonomic control were later described independently by teams in Brazil (Ribeirão Preto and Brasília), Argentina (Cordoba) and Venezuela (Mérida). In general, the studies performed in Ribeirăo Preto by Amorim and Marin Neto and in Brasília by Junqueira Jr. reflected the functional involvement of the parasympathetic system, while the studies performed in Córdoba were linked with the view of cardiovascular sympathetic dysfunction. In Brazil, the involvement of the sympathetic system, with relation to the functional aspect of sympathetic denervation, is well characterized by Marin Neto through the assessment of heart rate using the tilt test in both Chagas and control groups. Further

  13. Space for the Nervous Tissue: Instead of introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A university campus is not only a complex of living, education and auxiliary facilities. It is a certain style of life. It is developed to fulfill a certain task: knowledge preservation and generation.The system of preservation and processing of the society’s knowledge has functions similar to the nervous system. The stronger the society’s scientific and academic network is, the more intellectual, advanced, diverse and flexible is the society’s response to extrinsic stimuli. The nervous system of present day states is similar to the nervous system of insects – with ganglions and different sense organs.A university campus is an elaborate complex of “sense organs” (research laboratories and “ganglions” (theoretic groups, seminars etc.. The nervous tissue is the most delicate and volatile of all tissues in the organism. Under nutritional deficiency, too strong or too light external effects, the nervous system fails. Its signals malfunction, and either neuralgia or anesthesia occurs. If disorders in the nervous system become more serious, they can lead to a complete paralysis.A university campus is to provide comfortable working conditions for scientists – preservers and generators of knowledge. Comfort is a special thing for them. The level of material needs among campus residents is usually not very high. Their food, clothing and housing requirements are rather modest. Certainly, the sense of security is necessary – any violation in the campus is very painful, like touching a naked nerve. But the most important and vital thing in the campus is a constant and intense flow of all kinds of information.The Internet, libraries, scientific conferences, symposiums and forums are necessary to the campus as the breath of life. It makes dying gasps without it. At the same time, all these “adventures of a thought” are outwardly almost undistinguished. Intensively thinking people look lazy and even inert. A true brainwork is not

  14. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain M. Dykes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease.

  15. Left behind radiological investigations: An inherent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar A Govindswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the number of investigations left behind by patients in radiology department, their cost, and the possible methods of reducing the problem. Materials and Methods: A total of 1424 radiographs, 160 computed tomography (CT scans, 300 ultrasonography (USG reports, and 46 Doppler reports were left behind by patients in one financial year. The total cost of these left behind investigations was calculated and the reports were categorized into normal and abnormal for each modality. Results: Of the radiographs left behind 658 were abnormal, with 211 among these being radiographs of postoperative patients. Thirty-seven percent of CT scans had positive findings. Sixty-eight percent of USG reports had positive findings while 46% of Doppler reports were abnormal. Conclusion: We believe that the cost and number of these left behind investigations over a period of time would definitely be significant for the health care system in a developing country. It is time to think of the possible reasons and methods for containing this problem.

  16. Left atrial laceration with epicardial ligation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Vincent P; Kolibash, Christopher P; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Bajwa, Tanvir; Sra, Jasbir; Kress, David C

    2014-01-01

    Many new devices and techniques are being developed to attempt a reduction in embolic stroke risk for patients with atrial fibrillation who are either unable or unwilling to maintain long-term anticoagulation. One of these new devices (LARIAT®, SentreHEART Inc., Redwood City, California, USA) employs delivery of an epicardial suture to ligate the left atrial appendage after percutaneous pericardial and transseptal access. This series presents three clinical cases that demonstrate a serious and recurrent complication of left atrial laceration and cardiac tamponade shortly following delivery of an epicardial suture ligation to the left atrial appendage. Three clinical cases are described in detail with pre- and postprocedure angiography and echocardiography as well as illustrations reflecting the surgeon's findings on direct visualization of the left atrial lacerations postligation. Potential hypotheses of each injury are examined in light of the case timelines and findings at sternotomy. There was no suggestion that tamponade was related to pericardial or transseptal access, but rather a complication with device delivery. These three patients quickly progressed to clinical cardiac tamponade despite attempted drainage, stressing the importance of cardiovascular surgery backup, including a cardiopulmonary bypass pump, when delivering novel, percutaneous ligation devices for the left atrial appendage.

  17. [Central nervous system abnormalities related to congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguel-Ancheita, Silvia; Rodríguez-Garcidueñas, Wendolyn

    2009-01-01

    We undertook this study to describe central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities associated with congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD). This was a retrospective, observational, transversal and descriptive study including patients with congenital fibrotic strabismus. We analyzed clinical files of patients from 2001 to 2006. Neurological lesions were reported. Restrictive strabismus was demonstrated in all cases. Sixteen patients were included: nine males and seven females. Different neurological lesions were reported: corpus callosum anomalies, severe cortipathy, epilepsy, cavum vergae, nystagmus, occipital subarachnoid cyst, and hydrocephalus. Mental retardation was reported in 56% of patients. Different malformations were reported: genital malformations, trigonocephalus, camptodactyly, mild facial hypoplasia, low set ears, and agenesis of left ear. Blepharoptosis was present in 81% of patients. The most frequent form of strabismus was exotropia (56%), hypotropia in 37.5%, hypertropia 18.7%, "A" pattern 18.7%, and esotropia in 6.25%. Affection was cranial nerve III, 93.75%; cranial nerve VI, 6.25%; cranial nerve VII, 6.25%; and lesion to cranial nerve II in eight cases (50%). We have suggested that failure in early stages of embryology of the CNS can lead to the development of paralytic strabismus and generate secondary fibrotic changes, not only in muscle structures but also in other orbital tissues. That is the reason why we have used the term "congenital fibrotic strabismus" to report cases included in CCDD. We have demonstrated the strong association of mental retardation and neurological alterations. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation is relevant for these patients.

  18. Central nervous system complications during pediatric extracorporeal life support: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Pelin; Seidel, Kristy; Rycus, Peter T; Brogan, Thomas V; Roberts, Joan S

    2005-12-01

    Identify the incidence and risk factors for development of acute, severe central nervous system (CNS) complications of pediatric extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Retrospective review of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry database. Pediatric intensive care units of 115 tertiary centers internationally. Pediatric patients, 1 month to 18 yrs of age, who had ECLS between the years 1981-2002. Data concerning 4,942 patients who underwent one run of ECLS were analyzed. Six hundred thirty-six patients (12.9%) developed acute, severe CNS complications. Patients who required ECLS during extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 161; 3.3%) were more likely to develop CNS complications (n = 42; 26.1%) than patients who did not have extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (p 3.0 mg/dL, use of inotropes, presence of myocardial stun, and requirement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during ECLS independently predicted development of CNS complications. Patients who have metabolic acidosis, a bicarbonate or inotrope/vasopressor requirement, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or a left ventricular assist device before initiation of ECLS are at greater risk for development of CNS complications. After initiation of ECLS, patients who develop renal failure or metabolic acidosis or undergo venoarterial ECLS should be closely monitored for development of CNS complications.

  19. Non-centralized and functionally localized nervous system of ophiuroids: evidence from topical anesthetic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiya Matsuzaka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ophiuroids locomote along the seafloor by coordinated rhythmic movements of multi-segmented arms. The mechanisms by which such coordinated movements are achieved are a focus of interest from the standpoints of neurobiology and robotics, because ophiuroids appear to lack a central nervous system that could exert centralized control over five arms. To explore the underlying mechanism of arm coordination, we examined the effects of selective anesthesia to various parts of the body of ophiuroids on locomotion. We observed the following: (1 anesthesia of the circumoral nerve ring completely blocked the initiation of locomotion; however, initiation of single arm movement, such as occurs during the retrieval of food, was unaffected, indicating that the inability to initiate locomotion was not due to the spread of the anesthetic agent. (2 During locomotion, the midsegments of the arms periodically made contact with the floor to elevate the disc. In contrast, the distal segments of the arms were pointed aborally and did not make contact with the floor. (3 When the midsegments of all arms were anesthetized, arm movements were rendered completely uncoordinated. In contrast, even when only one arm was left intact, inter-arm coordination was preserved. (4 Locomotion was unaffected by anesthesia of the distal arms. (5 A radial nerve block to the proximal region of an arm abolished coordination among the segments of that arm, rendering it motionless. These findings indicate that the circumoral nerve ring and radial nerves play different roles in intra- and inter-arm coordination in ophiuroids.

  20. Vagal Reactions during Cryoballoon-Based Pulmonary Vein Isolation: A Clue for Autonomic Nervous System Modulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Peyrol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF is known to be initiated by rapid firing of pulmonary veins (PV and non-PV triggers, the crucial role of cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS in the initiation and maintenance of AF has long been appreciated in both experimental and clinical studies. The cardiac intrinsic ANS is composed of ganglionated plexi (GPs, located close to the left atrium-pulmonary vein junctions and a vast network of interconnecting neurons. Ablation strategies aiming for complete PV isolation (PVI remain the cornerstone of AF ablation procedures. However, several observational studies and few randomized studies have suggested that GP ablation, as an adjunctive strategy, might achieve better clinical outcomes in patients undergoing radiofrequency-based PVI for both paroxysmal and nonparoxysmal AF. In these patients, vagal reactions (VR such as vagally mediated bradycardia or asystole are thought to reflect intrinsic cardiac ANS modulation and/or denervation. Vagal reactions occurring during cryoballoon- (CB- based PVI have been previously reported; however, little is known on resulting ANS modulation and/or prevalence and significance of vagal reactions during PVI with the CB technique. We conducted a review of prevalence, putative mechanisms, and significance of VR during CB-based PVI.

  1. The central nervous system manifestation and CT findings of Fabry's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyonaga, Kazutaka; Nishihira, Takeo

    1983-01-01

    A case of Fabry's disease with central nervous system dysfunction is reported. This 27-year-old man had recurrent episodes of pains in the extremities when he was a child. Spontaneous clinical remission occured around puberty. He had been well until age 22 when he experienced transient weakness of the left arm. The following year he developed transient blindness of the right eye. Then, he developed weakness in the extremities, dysphagia, dysarthria, and was brought to the hospital in unconscious state. Several members of his family are affected with the same disease presenting leg pains, kidney disease and angiokeratoma. Physical examination disclosed an optic atrophy, pseudobulbar palsy with spastic weakness in the all extremities and multiple angiokeratoma in the flank, buttocks and thighs. Abnormal laboratory findings included leukocytosis, increased ESR and strongly positive CRP. Biopsy of the skin disclosed dilated capilaries with numerous vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Thin-layer chromatography of the urine sediment showed a marked increase in ceramide trihexoside. Leukocyte alphagalactosidase level was abnormally low. CT scan showed diffuse cerebral atrophy and multiple low density areas in the thalamus, ventral pons and centrum semiovale. The CT findings and possible mechanism of the response to predonisolone were also discussed. (author)

  2. Central nervous system manifestation and CT findings of Fabry's disease. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyonaga, Kazutaka; Nishihira, Takeo (Okinawa Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    A case of Fabry's disease with central nervous system dysfunction is reported. This 27-year-old man had recurrent episodes of pains in the extremities when he was a child. Spontaneous clinical remission occured around puberty. He had been well until age 22 when he experienced transient weakness of the left arm. The following year he developed transient blindness of the right eye. Then, he developed weakness in the extremities, dysphagia, dysarthria, and was brought to the hospital in unconscious state. Several members of his family are affected with the same disease presenting leg pains, kidney disease and angiokeratoma. Physical examination disclosed an optic atrophy, pseudobulbar palsy with spastic weakness in the all extremities and multiple angiokeratoma in the flank, buttocks and thighs. Abnormal laboratory findings included leukocytosis, increased ESR and strongly positive CRP. Biopsy of the skin disclosed dilated capilaries with numerous vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Thin-layer chromatography of the urine sediment showed a marked increase in ceramide trihexoside. Leukocyte alphagalactosidase level was abnormally low. CT scan showed diffuse cerebral atrophy and multiple low density areas in the thalamus, ventral pons and centrum semiovale. The CT findings and possible mechanism of the response to predonisolone were also discussed.

  3. Paranodal reorganization results in the depletion of transverse bands in the aged central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mark N.; Pomicter, Anthony D.; Velazco, Cristine S.; Henderson, Scott C.; Dupree, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Paranodal axo-glial junctional complexes anchor the myelin sheath to the axon and breakdown of these complexes presumably facilitates demyelination. Myelin deterioration is also prominent in the aging central nervous system (CNS); however, the stability of the paranodal complexes in the aged CNS has not been examined. Here, we show that transverse bands, prominent components of paranodal junctions, are significantly reduced in the aged CNS; however, the number of paired clusters of both myelin and axonal paranodal proteins is not altered. Ultrastructural analyses also reveal that thicker myelin sheaths display a “piling” of paranodal loops, the cytoplasm-containing sacs that demarcate the paranode. Loops involved in piling are observed throughout the paranode and are not limited to loops positioned in either the nodal- or juxtanodal-most regions. Here, we propose that as myelination continues, previously anchored loops lose their transverse bands and recede away from the axolemma. Newly juxtaposed loops then lose their transverse bands, move laterally to fill in the gap left by the receded loops and finally reform their transverse bands. This paranodal reorganization results in conservation of paranodal length, which may be important in maintaining ion channel spacing and axonal function. Furthermore, we propose that transverse band reformation is less efficient in the aged CNS, resulting in the significant reduction of these junctional components. Although demyelination was not observed, we propose that loss of transverse bands facilitates myelin degeneration and may predispose the aged CNS to a poorer prognosis following a secondary insult. PMID:20888080

  4. Central Nervous System Involvement in Henoch-Schonlein Purpura in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyana H. Pacheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS involvement in Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP is rare but poses diagnostic difficulties. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of CNS involvement in HSP, to analyze its clinical characteristics and do a literature review. Medical files of patients with HSP admitted at the Department of Pediatrics, Plovdiv, were studied retrospectively for a five-year period (2009–2013. Diagnosis was based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Out of 112 children with HSP 1 case (0.9% had CNS involvement presenting as Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES, which may be a result of CNS vasculitis or arterial hypertension. It was an 8-year-old girl with atypical HSP which started with abdominal pain requiring surgery. On the third day after the operation a transient macular rash and arterial hypertension appeared, followed by visual disturbances, hemiconvulsive epileptic seizures, postictal hemiparesis, and confusion. Head CT showed occipital hypodense lesions and MRT-T2 hyperintense lesion in the left occipital lobe. The patient experienced a second similar episode after 2 weeks when palpable purpura had also appeared. Neurological symptoms and MRI resolved completely. HSP can be an etiological factor for PRES in childhood. Although PRES is a rare complication of HSP, clinicians must be aware of it and avoid diagnostic and therapeutic delays.

  5. The role of left supplementary motor area in grip force scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier White

    Full Text Available Skilled tool use and object manipulation critically relies on the ability to scale anticipatorily the grip force (GF in relation to object dynamics. This predictive behaviour entails that the nervous system is able to store, and then select, the appropriate internal representation of common object dynamics, allowing GF to be applied in parallel with the arm motor commands. Although psychophysical studies have provided strong evidence supporting the existence of internal representations of object dynamics, known as "internal models", their neural correlates are still debated. Because functional neuroimaging studies have repeatedly designated the supplementary motor area (SMA as a possible candidate involved in internal model implementation, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to interfere with the normal functioning of left or right SMA in healthy participants performing a grip-lift task with either hand. TMS applied over the left, but not right, SMA yielded an increase in both GF and GF rate, irrespective of the hand used to perform the task, and only when TMS was delivered 130-180 ms before the fingers contacted the object. We also found that both left and right SMA rTMS led to a decrease in preload phase durations for contralateral hand movements. The present study suggests that left SMA is a crucial node in the network processing the internal representation of object dynamics although further experiments are required to rule out that TMS does not affect the GF gain. The present finding also further substantiates the left hemisphere dominance in scaling GF.

  6. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  7. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  8. Echocardiographic study of left atrial myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal J

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed pre-operatively by echocardiography. All cases showed characteristic echocardio-graphic features of variegated shadows behind the mitral valve in diastole and within the left atrium in systole. In two cases the my-xomas were surgically removed and confirmed on histology. In one case the post-operative echocardiogram showed complete dis-appearance of the abnormal shadows. Echocardiography is the most reliable method today for the diagnosis of a myxoma.

  9. “Getting the Left Right”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Marianne E.; Zahavi, Dan; Hjaltason, Haukur

    2015-01-01

    experience was captured in the overarching theme, “getting the left right,” which encompasses the two subthemes of (a) surreal awareness of the left and (b) emergence of a different world. Patients had unclear perceptions of their own body and surroundings, their attention was brittle, and they encountered...... bewildering reactions from other people. They simultaneously pursued the ineffable neglected space and searched for coherence. The vulnerability, loss, and conflicting perceptions that patients with neglect face should be acknowledged and alleviation sought. Facilitating methods should provide additional...

  10. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry....... Surprisingly, existing methods only deal with special cases. In this paper, we clarify different kinds of left-truncation and suggest estimators for semiparametric survival models under specific truncation schemes. The large-sample properties of the estimators are established. Small-sample properties...

  11. Left paraduodenal hernias; Hernias paraduodenales izquierdas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Tejeiro, A.; Sala, J. [Hospital Valle del Nalon. Riano-Sama. Asturias (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    We report two cases of left paraduodenal internal hernias located in the fossa of Landzert that were diagnosed by CT. Internal hernias are an infrequent cause of acute abdomen, due to the intestinal sub occlusion they produce. Left paraduodenal hernias are responsible for about 50% of internal hernias. CT makes it possible to demonstrate the group of herniated loops between the stomach, fourth segment of the duodenum, descending colon, and tail of the pancreas. The identification of the loops in an atypical position together with displaced blood vessels (mesenteric vessels) and colon gives concerns on them a typical radiological semiology that makes them easily identifiable. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Left ventricular assist device implantation via left thoracotomy: alternative to repeat sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Howser, Renee; Donaldson, Terri; Merrill, Walter H; Dignan, Rebecca J; Drinkwater, Davis C; Christian, Karla G; Butler, Javed; Chomsky, Don; Wilson, John R; Clark, Rick; Davis, Stacy F

    2002-03-01

    Repeat sternotomy for left ventricular assist device insertion may result in injury to the right heart or patent coronary grafts, complicating intraoperative and postoperative management. In 4 critically ill patients, left thoracotomy was used as an alternative to repeat sternotomy. Anastomosis of the outflow conduit to the descending thoracic aorta provided satisfactory hemodynamic support.

  13. Applications of Nanotechnology to the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumling, James P., II

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials, in general, have become prominent areas of academic research. The ability to engineer at the nano scale is critical to the advancement of the physical and medical sciences. In the realm of physical sciences, the applications are clear: smaller circuitry, more powerful computers, higher resolution intruments. However, the potential impact in the fields of biology and medicine are perhaps even grander. The implementation of novel nanodevices is of paramount importance to the advancement of drug delivery, molecular detection, and cellular manipulation. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development of nanotechnology for applications in neuroscience. The nervous system provides unique challenges and opportunities for nanoscale research. This thesis discusses some background in nanotechnological applications to the central nervous system and details: (1) The development of a novel calcium nanosenser for use in neurons and astrocytes. We implemented the calcium responsive component of Dr. Roger Tsien's Cameleon sensor, a calmodulin-M13 fusion, in the first quantum dot-based calcium sensor. (2) The exploration of cell-penetrating peptides as a delivery mechanism for nanoparticles to cells of the nervous system. We investigated the application of polyarginine sequences to rat primary cortical astrocytes in order to assess their efficacy in a terminally differentiated neural cell line. (3) The development of a cheap, biocompatible alternative to quantum dots for nanosensor and imaging applications. We utilized a positively charged co-matrix to promote the encapsulation of free sulforhodamine B in silica nanoparticles, a departure from conventional reactive dye coupling to silica matrices. While other methods have been invoked to trap dye not directly coupled to silica, they rely on positively charged dyes that typically have a low quantum yield and are not extensively tested biologically, or they implement reactive dyes bound

  14. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M.; Altena, R. van; Laridon, A.; Coeman, V.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  15. Central nervous system relapse of treated stage IV neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, S.; Egelhoff, J.C.; Koch, B.L.; Ball, W.S. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Morris, J.D. [Department of Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in pediatrics. The long-term survival of patients with advanced-stage neurobastoma has remarkably improved secondary to aggressive treatment protocols including autologous bone marrow transplant (BMT). As a result, a different natural history of this disease is being reported with unusual, late manifestations. The central nervous system (CNS), once a rare site of disease, is being involved with increasing frequency. Appropriate neuroimaging in these patients is important. Two cases of patients with treated stage IV neuroblastoma who developed isolated CNS metastases are presented. The proposed pathogenesis and neuroradiologic manifestations of this complication are reviewed. (orig.) With 2 figs., 23 refs.

  16. [Cholinergic receptors in early (pre-nervous) sea urchin embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buznikov, G A; Rakic, L

    1998-10-01

    Agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) nicotine and 1-acetyl-4-methylpiperazine do not act on the early sea urchin embryogenesis but evoke calcium shock in both oocytes and early embryos under certain conditions. Many nAChR ligands protect both oocytes and embryos against this shock. There seem to exist putative nAChR on the cell surface of the early sea urchin oocytes and early embryos. Pre-nervous acetylcholine seems to be functionally coupled via these receptors with the second messengers, endogenous activators of the protein kinase C.

  17. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  18. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  19. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  20. Peripheral nervous system involvement in chronic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankisi, Hatice; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Upper motor neuron disorders are believed to leave the peripheral nervous system (PNS) intact. In this study we examined whether there is evidence of PNS involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Twelve subjects with chronic low cervical or thoracic SCI were included...... prospectively. Needle electromyography was done in 10 different muscles in each subject bilaterally. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were conducted in the fibular, tibial, and femoral motor and fibular and sural sensory nerves. Results: Half the subjects had widespread abnormal spontaneous activity (SA...

  1. Histophysiology of the vegetative peripheral nervous system of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, F J; Heine, H; Schaeg, G

    1975-12-31

    Preterminal nerve fibers of the peripheral vegetative nervous system make inmediate contact (neuro-effector-areas) to interstitial cells (I.C.). This connection is characterized through a common glycocalyx with the nerve fiber. The I.C. are specific innervated cells and differ morphologically from Schwann-cells, fibrocytes, and histiocytes. The I.C. are able to come into morphologically different contacts with neighbouring cells by microvilli-like cell protrusions. These neighbouring cells then are able to contact other cells by themselves. The results are interpreted in the sense of electro-mechanical feed-back system of information processing in the vegetative periphery.

  2. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  3. Prophylactic radiotherapy for central nervous system in acute leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Ferrigno, R.

    1994-01-01

    Prophylaxis of the central nervous system in leukemias is a complex problem and there is no optimal solution that is universal for all patients. Radiation therapy, because of its CNS toxicity and potential carcinogenicity, is reserved for those in the highest risk groups. The cranial radiation dose is 18 Gy, while the spinal cord is treated with intrathecal methotrexate or multidrug therapy. The authors describe the basic aspects of radiation therapy treatment planning, as the main areas that should be included in treatment field, in order to guarantee favourable results. (author)

  4. Role of nervous system on immunological response of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elssayed, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Autoantibodies occur more frequently in old age. Both organ and non organ specific antibodies have been reported to occur in increasing frequency in sera of diseased free men and mice relatively late in life. The prevalence of auto-anti-thyroglobulin antibodies in various thyroid abnormalities are common regardless of age. The investigation reported in the present study was aimed to provide some insights on virtually unexplored area of auto-anti-thyroglobulin as related to central nervous system using various radio immunological and serological techniques for the determination of antibody formation and toter, in artificial case of auto-immunity developed by induced T G immunity in rabbits

  5. Central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, A.G.; Boyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ischemic neurologic events and neuropsychiatric disorders occur in approximately 70% of patients with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The CT and MR findings in adults with central nervous system (CNS) SLE have been described, but to the authors' knowledge no pediatric series has been reported. The MR and CT findings in four children with CNS SLE are compared with those reported in adults. Large infarcts are less frequent in children than in adults with CNS SLE, while multiple small infarctions and white matter lesions are more common. These findings in children who have no obvious source of emboli, intracardiac shunt, or history of trauma should raise the suspicion of SLE

  6. Role of nervous system on immunological response of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elssayed, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Autoantibodies occur more frequently in old age. Both organ and non organ specific antibodies have been reported to occur in increasing frequency in sera of diseased free men and mice relatively late in life. The prevalence of autoantithyroglobulin antibodies in various thyroid abnormalities are common regardless of age. The investigation reported in the present study was aimed to provide some insights on virtually unexplored area of autoantithyroglobulin as related to central nervous system using various radio immunological and serological techniques for the determination of antibody formation and toter, in artificial case of auto immunity developed by induced T G immunity in rabbits

  7. Nervous and muscle system development in Phascolion strombus (Sipuncula)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Koop, Demian; Bromham, Lindell

    2005-01-01

    possible cryptic segmentation patterns. In this paper, we present the first immunocytochemical data on the ontogeny of the nervous system and the musculature in the sipunculan Phascolion strombus. Myogenesis of the first anlagen of the body wall ring muscles occurs synchronously and not subsequently from......Recent interpretations of developmental gene expression patterns propose that the last common metazoan ancestor was segmented, although most animal phyla show no obvious signs of segmentation. Developmental studies of non-model system trochozoan taxa may shed light on this hypothesis by assessing...

  8. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  9. Magnetization of left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    We propose a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic fields in negative refraction index composite metamaterials. Considering the propagation of a high-frequency modulated amplitude electric field in a left-handed material (LHM), we show that the ponderomotive interaction between the field and low-frequency potential distributions leads to spontaneous generation of magnetic fields, whose form and properties are discussed

  10. Left ventricular mass: Myxoma or thrombus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S Raut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient with embolic episode should always be evaluated for cardiac mass. Mass in left ventricular can be a myxoma or thrombus even in a normal functioning heart . In either case, mobile mass with embolic potential should be surgically resected.

  11. Left atrial myxoma with biventricular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S. Raut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of left atrial myxoma with severe ventricular dysfunction without any obstructive coronary artery disease, as presented in our case, is very rare. It may be due to undiagnosed concomitant dilated cardiomyopathy or unknown cardiodepressant effect of myxoma which warrants further research.

  12. Left atrial myxoma with biventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Monish S; Shad, Sujay; Maheshwari, Arun

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of left atrial myxoma with severe ventricular dysfunction without any obstructive coronary artery disease, as presented in our case, is very rare. It may be due to undiagnosed concomitant dilated cardiomyopathy or unknown cardiodepressant effect of myxoma which warrants further research. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vergisson 4: a left-handed Neandertal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Silvana; Monge, Janet; Quertelet, Sylvain; Frayer, David W; Combier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Handedness is an important marker for lateralization of humans in the modern and fossil record. For the most part, Neandertals and their ancestors are strongly right-handed. We describe a single tooth from a Neandertal level at Vergisson 4 (Vg 4-83). This left upper central incisor shows all the features typical of Neandertal incisors. It also exhibits a predominance of left-handed striations. Striations on the incisor's labial surface were mapped at 20x magnification using Photoshop. Angulations of the striations were determined from their deviation from the maximum mesio-distal line and were analyzed using NIH's freeware, Image J. Of the 60 labial surface striations, Vg 4-83 shows a strong predominance of left-handed striations (46; 76.7%), which are statistically significantly different (p handed striations. The identification of another left-handed Neandertal adds to our understanding about handedness variation in this fossil hominin. Given the high frequency of right-handed Neandertals, the 90: 10 modern ratio is still preserved in this group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-01

    Jan 1, 1983 ... sniper with an Armourlite assault rifle in Ireland. He had received a single bullet injury to the left ... His history negated any cardiovascular impairment, angina or limitation in effort tolerance. He plays ... In view of the patient's age, history and the cardiovascular findings, we would like to postulate that the ...

  15. Radiative left-right Dirac neutrino mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ernest; Sarkar, Utpal

    2018-01-01

    We consider the conventional left-right gauge extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons without a scalar bidoublet. We study systematically how one-loop radiative Dirac neutrino masses may be obtained. In addition to two well-known cases from almost 30 years ago, we find two new scenarios with verifiable predictions.

  16. Giant melanoma of the left thumb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    A 74-year-old female patient is described with a giant melanoma of the left thenar and concomitant bilateral pulmonary metastases. Palliative treatment consisted of a two-staged procedure in order to save the limb from amputation. Firstly, perfusion with gamma-interferon, tumour necrosis

  17. Submitral Left Ventricular Aneurysm Associated with Thrombus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... She was given drugs for management of heart failure and ... treatment abroad. KEYWORDS: Ethiopia, heart failure, submitral aneurysm, thrombus. INTRODUCTION. Submitral left ventricle aneurysm is a rare cardiovascular disorder worldwide, but ... grade 2 pulmonary edema, and bilateral pleural effusion.

  18. Left-Right Symmetry at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the issue of the limit on the scale of Left-Right symmetry breaking. We focus on the minimal SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_B-L gauge theory with the seesaw mechanism and discuss the two possibilities of defining Left-Right symmetry as parity or charge conjugation. In the commonly adopted case of parity, we perform a complete numerical study of the quark mass matrices and the associated left and right mixing matrices without any assumptions usually made in the literature about the ratio of vacuum expectation values. We find that the usual lower limit on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson from the K mass difference, M_WR>2.5TeV, is subject to a possible small reduction due to the difference between right and left Cabibbo angles. In the case of charge conjugation the limit on M_WR is somewhat more robust. However, the more severe bounds from CP-violating observables are absent in this case. In fact, the free phases can also resolve the present mild discrepancy between the Standard Model and CP-violat...

  19. Left Dislocation: a typological overview | Westbury | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Left Dislocation construction is a typologically universal phenomenon that has received detailed analysis, from both formal and functional perspectives, in a number of genetically and areally diverse languages. The present paper aims to provide a general overview of this cross-linguistic research with a concentration ...

  20. Left-forbidding cooperating distributed grammar systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldefus, F.; Masopust, Tomáš; Meduna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 40-42 (2010), s. 3661-3667 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : cooperating distributed grammar system * cooperating derivation mode * left-forbidding grammar * generative power * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510003440

  1. Left Ventricular Thrombus among patients undergoing Transthoracic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Left Ventricular Thrombus (LVT) is a well recognized complication of various cardiac conditions, particularly following an acute anterior myocardial infarction and in those with systolic congestive heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) remains the most common imaging modality to make the diagnosis ...

  2. Modern Democratic Left and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Radošević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political left, notably social democracy, implies acceptance of market economy and parliamentary democracy, as a political framework within which the interests of large sections of the population could be preserved. Does the modern political left have a chance to revive, after the global economic crisis? We believe it does. The core idea of social democracy is the idea of equality. It is the growing inequality that could help the return of social democracy. In Croatia, during transition, there was predominantly the process of neoliberalization, and the democratic left accepted a neoliberal economic agenda. Currently Croatia has a structural economic problem and deep recession. Due to the global crisis, the democratic left in Croatia should abandon economic neoliberalism. Macroeconomic policy decision-makers in Croatia should reject orthodox policies, and it is necessary to implement heterodox economic policies. There is an urgent need to achieve a new (postKeynesian consensus, a new combination of post-Keynesian economics and social democracy

  3. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  4. Left ventricular function in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, B.; Amenta, A.; Kane, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was determined in 42 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation during upright exercise by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction and volume with radionuclide ventriculography. Classification of the patients according to exercise tolerance showed that patients with normal exercise tolerance (greater than or equal to 7.0 minutes) had a significantly higher ejection fraction at rest (probability [p] . 0.02) and during exercise (p . 0.0002), higher cardiac index at exercise (p . 0.0008) and lower exercise end-systolic volume (p . 0.01) than did patients with limited exercise tolerance. Similar significant differences were noted in younger patients compared with older patients in ejection fraction at rest and exercise (both p . 0.001) and cardiac index at rest (p . 0.03) and exercise (p . 0.0005). The end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise in 60% of the patients. The patients with a decrease in volume were significantly younger and had better exercise tolerance and a larger end-diastolic volume at rest than did patients who showed an increase in volume. The mean corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients with abnormal than in those with normal exercise reserve (mean +/- standard deviation 476 +/- 146 versus 377 +/- 92 mm Hg, p less than 0.05). Thus, in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: 1) left ventricular systolic function during exercise was related to age, exercise tolerance and corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio, and 2) the end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise, especially in younger patients and patients with normal exercise tolerance or a large volume at rest

  5. Axonal Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination: Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingseisen, Anna; Lyons, David A

    2018-02-01

    Approximately half of the human brain consists of myelinated axons. Central nervous system (CNS) myelin is made by oligodendrocytes and is essential for nervous system formation, health, and function. Once thought simply as a static insulator that facilitated rapid impulse conduction, myelin is now known to be made and remodeled in to adult life. Oligodendrocytes have a remarkable capacity to differentiate by default, but many aspects of their development can be influenced by axons. However, how axons and oligodendrocytes interact and cooperate to regulate myelination in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of how such interactions generate the complexity of myelination known to exist in vivo. We highlight intriguing results that indicate that the cross-sectional size of an axon alone may regulate myelination to a surprising degree. We also review new studies, which have highlighted diversity in the myelination of axons of different neuronal subtypes and circuits, and structure-function relationships, which suggest that myelinated axons can be exquisitely fine-tuned to mediate precise conduction needs. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of how neuronal activity regulates CNS myelination, and aim to provide an integrated overview of how axon-oligodendrocyte interactions sculpt neuronal circuit structure and function.

  6. Wnt signaling through the Ror receptor in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Iveta M; Malessy, Martijn J; Verhaagen, Joost; Fradkin, Lee G; Noordermeer, Jasprina N

    2014-02-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are conserved tyrosine kinase receptors that play roles in a variety of cellular processes that pattern tissues and organs during vertebrate and invertebrate development. Ror signaling is required for skeleton and neuronal development and modulates cell migration, cell polarity, and convergent extension. Ror has also been implicated in two human skeletal disorders, brachydactyly type B and Robinow syndrome. Rors are widely expressed during metazoan development including domains in the nervous system. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the roles of the Ror receptors in neuronal migration, axonal pruning, axon guidance, and synaptic plasticity. The processes by which Ror signaling execute these diverse roles are still largely unknown, but they likely converge on cytoskeletal remodeling. In multiple species, Rors have been shown to act as Wnt receptors signaling via novel non-canonical Wnt pathways mediated in some tissues by the adapter protein disheveled and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src. Rors can either activate or repress Wnt target expression depending on the cellular context and can also modulate signal transduction by sequestering Wnt ligands away from their signaling receptors. Future challenges include the identification of signaling components of the Ror pathways and bettering our understanding of the roles of these pleiotropic receptors in patterning the nervous system.

  7. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  8. HIV Immune Recovery Inflammatory Syndrome and Central Nervous System Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Roza, Thiago Henrique

    2017-04-01

    The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a deregulated inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. It is manifested when there is an abrupt change in host immunity from an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state to a pro-inflammatory state as a result of rapid depletion or removal of factors that promote immune suppression or inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to discuss and re-interpret the possibility of association of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) with IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS) in a case from Brazil published by Silva-Vergara ML. et al. (Mycopathologia 177:137-141, 6). An AIDS patient who was not receiving medical care developed pulmonary PCM successfully treated with itraconazole. The patient developed central nervous system PCM (NPCM) after starting the ARV therapy with recovery of immunity and control of HIV viral load, although it was not interpreted as IRIS by the authors, it fulfills the criteria for CNS IRIS. This could be the first case of NPCM associated with IRIS described. Although not frequent, IRIS must be considered in PCM patients and HIV, from endemic areas or patients that traveled to endemic areas, receiving ARV treatment and with worsening symptoms.

  9. Spectral Mixing in Nervous Systems: Experimental Evidenceand Biologically Plausible Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfeld, D.; Mehta, S. B.

    The ability to compute the difference frequency for two periodic signals depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes those signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the vertebrate nervous system as a means to compare rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. Electrophysiological data from electroreceptors in the immobilized electric fish and somatosensory cortex in the anesthetized rat yield direct evidence for such mixing, providing a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals. We consider an analytical model of spectral mixing that makes use of the threshold characteristics of neuronal firing and which has features consistent with the experimental observations. This model serves as a guide for constructing circuits that isolate given mixture components. In particular, such circuits can generate nearly pure difference tones from sinusoidal inputs without the use of band-pass filters, in analogy to an image-reject mixer in communications engineering. We speculate that such computations may play a role in coding of sensory input and feedback stabilization of motor output in nervous systems.

  10. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10 -5 M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3 H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  11. Phosphoprotein phosphatase in the central nervous system of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, E E; Newburgh, R W

    1975-02-19

    The existence and some enzymological properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.16) have been established in the larval central nervous system of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). A simple, sensitive and reproducible assay employing 32-P-labeled protamine as a phosphoprotein substrate was employed to measure phosphatase activity in both soluble and particulate fractions of the insect nerve cord. The specific activity of soluble phosphatase in the Manduca sexta central nervous system is of the same order of magnitude as that in mammalian brain. Nerve cord phosphoprotamine phosphatase activity may be stimulated by a variety of monovalent salts, the optimal concentration of NaCl or KCl being 0.2 molar. Activity does not appear to be dependent on bivalent metals and is stimulated by EDTA. A reduced sulfhydryl group is obligatory for maximum activity. Phosphatase could be greatly inhibited by sodium fluoride, ATP and GTP. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP are without effect on enzyme activity. Although most of the phosphatase activity in the insect nerve cord appears to be of cytosolic origin, much latent activity can be unmasked by incubating membranous fractions with Triton X-100. In contrast to soluble phosphatase, the detergent-solubilized activity is moderately stimulated by Mn-2+.?

  12. Involvement of the central nervous system in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Ritsuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kuroiwa, Yoshigoro; Iwashita, Hiroshi; Kato, Motohiro.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy, intelligence quotient (IQ), brain CT scan, EEG and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) were analyzed in 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Impaired intelligence was observed in 9 out of 10 patients, abnormal brain CT in 7, and EEG abnormality in 7. The brain CT showed a diffuse cortical atrophy, a dilatation of the ventricles, and a periventricular lucency, mainly around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. The EEG findings showed a tendency toward generalized slowing of the background activity. These abnormal findings were well related to the clinical severity of MD, indicating that there is a diffuse cerebral involvement in the majority of the MD patients. VEP showed a prolonged P100 latency in 5 out of 10 patints, or 7 out of 19 eyes examined. These prolonged latency of the P100 component was considered to be due to dysfunctions of the visual pathway in the cerebral hemisphere, rather than due to cataracts and retinal dysfunctions because it was observed only in moderate and severe cases. These severe and moderate cases showed abnormalities in all four examinations. It was concluded that combination of different parameters might be useful to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in patients with MD. (author)

  13. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangbing; Chen Liguang; Ma Yuxiang; Liu Wen; Lin Xiangtao; Shi Hao; Yang Zhenzhen; Qu Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T 2 -weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T 1 -weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T 2 -weighted images. T 1 -weighted images were not as good as T 2 -weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  14. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Reis Lopes

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system and especially the intracardiac autonomic nervous system is involved in Chagas' disease. Ganglionitis and periganglionitis were noted in three groups ofpatients dying with Chagas'disease: 1 Those in heart failure; 2 Those dying a sudden, non violent death and; 3 Those dying as a consequence ofaccidents or homicide. Hearts in the threegroups also revealed myocarditis and scattered involvement of intramyocardial ganglion cells as well as lesions of myelinic and unmyelinic fibers ascribable to Chagas'disease. In mice with experimentally induced Chagas' disease weobserved more intensive neuronal lesions of the cardiac ganglia in the acute phase of infection. Perhaps neuronal loss has a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy. However based on our own experience and on other data from the literature we conclude that the loss of neurones is not the main factor responsible for the manifestations exhibited by chronic chagasic patients. On the other hand the neuronal lesions may have played a role in the sudden death ofone group of patients with Chagas'disease but is difficult to explain the group of patients who did not die sudderly but instead progressed to cardiac failure.

  15. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  16. Multifunctional mechanosensitive neurons in the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, Michael; Mazzuoli, Gemma

    2010-02-16

    One of the most intriguing abilities of the gut is to function in isolation. This is possible because the gut's own nervous system, the enteric nervous system, contains the necessary elements to control reflex behaviors. Much progress has been made in identifying those neurons that encode mechanical or chemical stimuli. Thus, muscle behaviors in the small and large intestines depend on mechanosensitive neurons which encode a variety of mechanical stimuli, ranging from brief deformation of the neurons soma or processes to sustained tissue stretch. Mechanosensitivity has been recorded in a wide variety of neurons which behave like rapid or slowly adapting mechanosensors. Strikingly, mechanosensitive neurons do not appear to belong to a distinct class of highly specialised neurons but rather differ in their electrophysiology, neurochemistry and morphology. While some mechanosensitive neurons may respond to one stimulus type others appear to be polymodal. Available data would suggest that mechanosensitive enteric neurons are multitasking and hence belong to multifunctional circuits. This review summarises the main arguments in favour of this concept, discusses the stimulus modalities, the response patterns and the functional role of mechanosensitive enteric neurons and concludes with identifying future challenges. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prolactin gene expression in primary central nervous system tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Graziella Alebrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin (PRL is a hormone synthesized in both the pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites. It has been associated with the occurrence of neoplasms and, more recently, with central nervous system (CNS neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate prolactin expression in primary central nervous system tumors through quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IH. Results Patient mean age was 49.1 years (SD 15.43, and females accounted for 70% of the sample. The most frequent subtype of histological tumor was meningioma (61.5%, followed by glioblastoma (22.9%. Twenty cases (28.6% showed prolactin expression by immunohistochemistry, most of them females (18 cases, 90%. Quantitative real-time PCR did not show any prolactin expression. Conclusions Despite the presence of prolactin expression by IH, the lack of its expression by quantitative real-time PCR indicates that its presence in primary tumors in CNS is not a reflex of local production.

  18. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  19. Evaluating the autonomic nervous system in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ju; Shu, Chih-Hung; Chou, Kun-Ta; Wang, Yi-Fen; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Ho, Ching-Yin; Lan, Ming-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) remains unclear. It is linked to but distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has been shown to be related to disturbed autonomic regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of LPR. Case-control study. Tertiary care center. Seventeen patients with LPR and 19 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 50 years, were enrolled in the study. The patients were diagnosed with LPR if they had a reflux symptom index (RSI) ≥ 13 and a reflux finding score (RFS) ≥ 7. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic function. Anxiety and depression levels measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also conducted. In HRV analysis, high frequency (HF) represents the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequency (LF) represents the total autonomic activity. There were no significant differences in the LF power and HF power between the 2 groups. However, significantly lower HF% (P = .003) and a higher LF/HF ratio (P = .012) were found in patients with LPR, who demonstrated poor autonomic modulation and higher sympathetic activity. Anxiety was also frequently observed in the patient group. The study suggests that autonomic dysfunction seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPR. The potential beneficial effect of autonomic nervous system modulation as a therapeutic modality for LPR merits further investigation.

  20. Assessment of stiffness of the hypertrophied left ventricle of bicyclists using left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R; Van den Broeke, C; Bielen, E; Vanhees, L; Amery, A

    1987-06-01

    Sixteen male bicyclists and 16 control subjects were studied to assess whether the left ventricular hypertrophy of athletes is associated with changes in diastolic left ventricular function. The cyclists had a larger left ventricular internal diameter on echocardiography (55.2 versus 47.9 mm; p less than 0.001) and a disproportionate increase in wall thickness relative to the internal diameter (0.48 versus 0.41; p less than 0.01), indicating a mixed eccentric-concentric type of hypertrophy. Left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry showed similar results in athletes and control subjects for peak flow velocities in the atrial contraction phase (30 versus 32 cm/s; p = NS) and in the early diastolic rapid filling phase (71 versus 67 cm/s; p = NS). The similar ratio of both velocities, that is, 0.43 in the cyclists and 0.49 in the control subjects, suggests that left ventricular distensibility is unaltered in cyclists. It is concluded that the left ventricular hypertrophy observed in cyclists is not associated with changes in ventricular stiffness, as estimated from left ventricular inflow Doppler velocimetry.

  1. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch ranges between 1% and 5.8%.1,2 This anomaly has important implications for thoracic surgery and interventional procedures. The left vertebral artery may originate from: • the left common carotid artery. • the root of the left subclavian artery ...

  2. Left bronchial artery arising from a replaced left hepatic artery in a patient with massive hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jae Myung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 70-year-old man with a 3-year history of bronchiectasis presented with massive hemoptysis that had lasted for 3 days. In our attempt to perform bronchial artery embolization, upper abdominal angiography was required to locate the left bronchial artery, which in this case was of anomalous origin, arising from a replaced left hepatic artery, which arose from the left gastric artery-a very unusual anatomical variant. We performed embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely, with no additional complications after conservative treatment.

  3. Adrenomedullin plasma levels predict left ventricular reverse remodeling after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Maria-Aurora; Maltinti, Maristella; Piacenti, Marcello; Turchi, Stefano; Giannessi, Daniela; Del Ry, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    Increase in adrenomedullin (ADM) plasma levels in congestive heart failure (HF) patients is due to many cardiac and systemic factors, particularly to greater fluid retention and to activation of sympathetic nervous system. Aim of this study was to assess the role of plasma ADM levels in HF patients treated by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). 50 patients, mean age 70 years, 34 male, New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III-IV HF, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or=1 NYHA Class improvement was observed in 38 patients. However, a >10% reduction in end-systolic dimensions (ESD) was reported in 21 patients (Group I): -16.6 +/- 1.8%; in the remaining 29 patients ESD change was almost negligible: -2.0 +/- 1.03% (Group II), P values before CRT could represent a group in whom the dysfunction is so advanced that no improvement can be expected.

  4. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  5. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  6. Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy and left ventricular assist device: a word of caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornberger, A; Stock, U A; Risteski, P; Beiras Fernandez, A

    2016-07-15

    In patients with left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) may be performed as a bridge to transplantation. In this respect, the particular characteristics of the left ventricular myocardium may represent a challenge. We report a patient with LVNC who required urgent heart transplantation for inflow cannula obstruction nine months after receiving a LVAD. LVAD parameters, echocardiography and examination of the explanted heart suggested changes of left ventricular configuration brought about by LVAD support as the most likely cause of inflow cannula obstruction. We conclude that changes experienced by non-compacted myocardium during LVAD support may give rise to inflow cannula obstruction and flow reduction. Presence of LVNC mandates tight surveillance for changes in LV configuration and LVAD flow characteristics and may justify urgent transplantation listing status.

  7. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  8. Left-right symmetric electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, F.I.

    1989-10-01

    We present a critical analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs sector of the conventional SU(2) L circle-times SU(2) R circle-times U(1) B-L left-right symmetric theory involving bi-doublet and triplet Higgs fields. We examine the phenomenological constraints imposed on the minimization of the Higgs potential arising from experimental observations, and explore the resulting consequences including the problem of ''fine- tuning'' arising from the hierarchy of mass scales involved. We show that it is non-trivial to satisfy all of these constraints. We contrast the benefits of this general class left-right models against the required ''fine-tuning'' necessary to force the phenomenology to conform to experimental fact. 17 refs., 1 fig

  9. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  10. FTIR-Microspectroscopy of Prion-Infected Nervous Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretlow,A.; Wang, Q.; Kneipp, J.; Lasch, P.; Beekes, M.; Miller, L.; Naumann, D.

    2006-01-01

    The family of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), also termed prion diseases, is a group of fatal, neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the accumulation of a misfolded protein, the disease-associated prion protein PrPSc. This glycoprotein differs in secondary structure from its normal, cellular isoform PrPC, which is physiologically expressed mostly by neurons. Scrapie is a prion disease first described in the 18th century in sheep and goats, and has been established as a model in rodents to study the pathogenesis and pathology of prion diseases. Assuming a multitude of molecular parameters change in the tissue in the course of the disease, FTIR microspectroscopy has been proposed as a valuable new method to study and identify prion-affected tissues due to its ability to detect a variety of changes in molecular structure and composition simultaneously. This paper reviews and discusses results from previous FTIR microspectroscopic studies on nervous tissue of scrapie-infected hamsters in the context of histological and molecular alterations known from conventional pathogenesis studies. In particular, data from studies reporting on disease-specific changes of protein structure characteristics, and also results of a recent study on hamster dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are discussed. These data include an illustration on how the application of a brilliant IR synchrotron light source enables the in situ investigation of localized changes in protein structure and composition in nervous cells or tissue due to PrPSc deposition, and a demonstration on how the IR spectral information can be correlated with results of complementary studies using immunohistochemistry and x-ray fluorescence techniques. Using IR microspectroscopy, some neurons exhibited a high accumulation of disease-associated prion protein evidenced by an increased amount of beta-sheet at narrow regions in or around the infected nervous cells. However, not all neurons from terminally diseased

  11. Total agenesis of the left pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Fº

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the report of a 46-year-old patient with the preoperative diagnosis of an atrial septal defect (ASD of the ostium secudum type. After sternectomy, partial agenesis of the left pericardium was diagnosed. It is our opinion that, if the radiographic picture is suggestive of this entity, a clinical search for cardiopulmonary anomalies should be performed, because the majority of these associated anomalies can and should be surgically corrected.

  12. The New Arab Left and 1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In Arab political culture, the Naksa of 1967 had a number of watershed effects. Scholars have paid a lot of attention to the decline of secular Arab nationalism and the concurrent rise of Islamism. Much less research has been done on the way 1967 spurred radical left organizations, also known as ...... moment that followed. This moment has had a lasting impact on Arab political culture and is being re-interpreted in interesting ways today by Arab revolutionaries post-2011....

  13. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Varda, Rajsekhar; Chitimilla, Santosh Kumar; Lalani, Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair) usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 1 4 × 2 8  mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and ...

  14. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajsekhar Varda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 14×28 mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and symptoms.

  15. Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma involving the left pulmonary vein presenting as a left atrial tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman presented with 4 months history of progressively increasing intermittent dyspnea and hemoptysis. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a loculated mass in the left atrium (LA. A provisional diagnosis of LA myxoma was made. Intraoperatively the tumor was found extending into and closely adherent to the left pulmonary vein and could not be completely cleared off from the pulmonary venous wall. The histopathological examination of the tumor revealed it to be a myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

  16. Implantation of left ventricular assist device in a patient with left ventricular non-compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Keki R; Bierhals, Andrew; Vader, Justin; Pasque, Michael K; Itoh, Aki

    2017-02-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) may result in systolic left ventricular (LV) failure resulting in the need for heart transplantation. LV assist devices (LVAD) have been used to bridge these patients to transplantation; however, the extensive trabeculations found in these patients predispose them to thromboembolic events and pump thrombosis. We describe a patient with LVNC in whom an aggressive surgical approach was used to debride the LV cavity of trabeculations to successfully implant an LVAD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension secondary to Left Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbach, Ghazal; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2017-09-12

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) related to left heart disease (LHD) is the most common form of PH, accounting for more than two third of all PH cases. The hemodynamic abnormalities seen in PH-LHD are complex, and there are currently minimal evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. While it is accepted that PH in the context of left heart disease is a marker of worse prognosis, it remains unclear whether its primary treatment is beneficial or harmful. In this article, we discuss the prevalence and significance of PH in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) as well as HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and those with valvular heart disease and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interrelationship in individuals with PH due to left heart disease. Furthermore, we provide a framework for diagnostic testing and an approach to optimal management of these complex patients based on current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Anomalous Origin of Left Circumflex Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çitaku, Hajdin; Kamberi, Lulzim; Gorani, Daut; Koçinaj, Dardan; Krasniqi, Xhevdet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The coronary anatomic variation of the left circumflex artery (LCx) is considered as the most common anatomic variation with a separate ostium from the right sinus, and very unusual variation as a proximal branch of right coronary artery (RCA). Case report: We report two cases, the first case is a 64-year-old man with chest pain and with history of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and current smoker, and the second case is a 67-year-old who presented to the emergency department with chest pain and with a past medical history of arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the coronarography of the first case is detected an ectopic left circumflex coronary artery from the right coronary sinus with stenotic changes in RCA and LCx. The second case in the coronary angiography revealed an ectopic left circumflex coronary artery from the proximal part of the right coronary artery with stenotic changes in LAD, RCA and LCx. Based on guidelines for revascularization our patients successfully underwent treatment procedures. We present two cases that because of the atherosclerotic coronary artery disease leads to the need of coronarography find out the presence of coronary artery anomalies. Conclusion: During the coronarography we should think about coronary artery anomaly or missing artery knowing that type of these anomalies, considering that may be a contributing factor in the development of the atherosclerosis determines the method of the treatment. PMID:26843740

  19. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  1. Vascular supply of the central nervous system of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    OpenAIRE

    Noblega, Hector Gabriel; Missaglia, Vivian; Stenert, Cristina; Heuser, Maria Cristina Faccioni; Achaval-Elena, Matilde

    2003-01-01

    The vascularization of the central nervous system of the snail Megalobulimus oblongus was studied by injection of carmine-gelatin solution into the arterial system and using a histochemical technique for the detection of alkaline phosphatase. The central nervous system of M. oblongus is irrigated by the anterior aorta, from which a series of small branches emerge that supply the subesophageal nervous ganglia. In turn, these branches give rise to a series of smaller vessels that irrigate the b...

  2. Ipsilesional deficit of selective attention in left homonymous hemianopia and left unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, Sylvie; Peyrin, Carole; Perez, Céline

    2018-03-15

    Patients with homonymous hemianopia may present a subtle ipsilesional deficit, recently referred to as 'sightblindness' in addition to the contralesional visual field defect. We recently demonstrated that this deficit could be worse in right brain-damaged patients with left hemianopia than in left brain-damaged patients with right hemianopia, confirming right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial and attentional capacities. In the present study we investigate whether this ipsilesional deficit could be attentional in nature and to what extent it is comparable in right brain-damaged (RBD) patients with left hemianopia and in RBD patients with left neglect. The study was also conducted in RBD patients with neither left hemianopia nor left neglect signs in order to test if a right hemisphere lesion per se could be responsible for subtle ipsilesional attentional deficit. To reach this aim, we tested selective attentional capacities in both visual fields of 10 right brain-damaged patients with left neglect (LN), 8 right brain-damaged patients with left homonymous hemianopia (LHH), 8 right brain-damaged patients with no signs of left neglect or left hemianopia (RBD controls), and 17 healthy age-matched participants (Normal controls). A lateralized letter-detection task was used to test if right-brain damaged patients with LN or LH may present a deficit of selective attention in their right, ipsilesional visual field, in comparison to Normal and RBD controls. Participants were asked to detect a target letter in either a single large stimulus (low attentional load) or a small stimulus surrounded by flankers (high attentional load). Stimuli were displayed either in the left or in the right visual field. Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Results on accuracy showed that both LN and LH patients exhibited lower correct responses than Normal controls in their ipsilesional right visual field, suggesting an attentional deficit in their ipsilesional, supposed healthy

  3. Fractals in the nervous system: conceptual implications for theoretical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    This essay is presented with two principal objectives in mind: first, to document the prevalence of fractals at all levels of the nervous system, giving credence to the notion of their functional relevance; and second, to draw attention to the as yet still unresolved issues of the detailed relationships among power-law scaling, self-similarity, and self-organized criticality. As regards criticality, I will document that it has become a pivotal reference point in Neurodynamics. Furthermore, I will emphasize the not yet fully appreciated significance of allometric control processes. For dynamic fractals, I will assemble reasons for attributing to them the capacity to adapt task execution to contextual changes across a range of scales. The final Section consists of general reflections on the implications of the reviewed data, and identifies what appear to be issues of fundamental importance for future research in the rapidly evolving topic of this review.

  4. Central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis in an AIDS patient: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Rocha, Ivonete Helena; Vasconcelos, Rakel Rocha; Maltos, André Luiz; Neves, Fernando de Freitas; Teixeira, Luciana de Almeida Silva; Mora, Delio José

    2014-02-01

    Up to now, over 200 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) associated to HIV infection have already been reported; however, the central nervous system involvement in this coinfection was rarely reported. This paper presents a 35-year-old Brazilian male AIDS patient who developed pulmonary PCM successfully treated with itraconazole. At the antiretroviral therapy starting, he had 32 CD4(+) T cells baseline count and high viral load levels. After 9 months, he presented severe fungal meningoencephalitis diagnosed by sublenticular enhanced nodular lesion at computerized tomography and magnetic resonance brain imaging and a positive Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis smear and culture from cerebrospinal fluid. At the time, a sixfold increase in CD4(+) T cell count and undetectable viral load level were evidenced. The patient received amphotericin B during 1 year presenting slow but progressive clinical improvement, and he is currently asymptomatic and without neurological disabilities. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of a patient with neuroparacoccidioidomycosis associated to HIV infection.

  5. Monitoring In Patients With Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunoday G R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of brain injury in infections of central nervous system (CNS are complex. While the primary injury may be due to meningeal and/or parenchymal invasion by the pathogen and release of toxins, a variety of secondary insults occur, which may influence the outcome as much as the primary insult. This concept is well recognized in brain trauma(1,2 where early recognition of secondary injuries and their appropriate treatment has been shown to improve outcome. Hypoxia, ischemia and metabolic disturbances are important secondary insults recognized in brain trauma, These are known to cause permanent neurological damage and worsening of outcome if undetected and untreated. In CNS infections, with their complex pathophysiologies, there is ample scope for such secondary insults. Monitoring in patients with CNS infections is to detect these secondary insults, allowing for a more informed approach to treatment.

  6. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schwingel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  7. Central nervous system hypoxia in children due to near drowning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, S.J.; Gerald, B.; Magill, H.L.; Tonkin, I.L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen children who experienced acute, profound central nervous system hypoxia secondary to near drowning, aspiration, or respiratory arrest underwent CT examination. During the first week after the episode, the most frequent finding was a loss of gray-white matter differentiation. Other findings included effacement of sulci and cisterns, focal areas of edema in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, and hemorrhagic infarctions of the basal ganglia. Subsequent CT scans obtained from two weeks to five months after the hypoxic episode showed progression of cerebral loss from cortical infarction with gyral hemorrhage and enhancement to global parenchymal atrophy. The prognosis is poor in these patients: seven children experienced severe neurologic deficits and seven died

  8. Endocrine factors influencing radiation injury to central nervous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, S.A.; Boone, M.L.; Laguna, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Corticosteroids have been shown experimentally to lower the tolerance of various normal tissues (lung, kidney, intestine) to irradiation. Pre-existing hypertension also modified the effect of irradiation on the rat spinal cord and brain. Hypercorticism and hypertension co-exist in patients with Cushing's disease. Although these patients are often approached therapeutically by irradiation, no reports concerning differences in the radiation sensitivity of nervous tissue between normal subjects (non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and those with hormonal imbalance and/or hypertension appear to be available. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed 14 patients with radiation damage to brain or to optic pathways following moderate doses for pituitary adenomas. Seven of the 14 patients (50%) had Cushing's disease. This apparent higher incidence of radiation injury is significant if we consider that less than 5% of all patients receiving irradiation for pituitary adenomas have Cushing's disease

  9. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  10. Congenital and acquired mitochondrial disorders of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nikitina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentations of disorders of the nervous system manifest in young and middle-aged patients with congenital and acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions and cognitive disorders manifest in patients with mitochondrial diseases more often. Nowadays the effective methods of initial diagnosing of these conditions are neurological and neuropsychological examination of patients, using of biochemical markers of mitochondrial diseases: the indices of lactate, total homocysteine in plasma and liquor. Neuro-visual study (Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, MR spectroscopy, tractography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, mitochondrial DNA typing is actually used for the differential diagnosing of mitochondrial diseases with other disorders that are accompanied by demyelinating disorders.

  11. Tendencies the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Jimenez Medina, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) and that chemotherapy (QMT) is used even more, as well as the other drugs. A bibliographic review was made to update the knowledge on the current trends and perspectives of RT applied to CNS tumors. The following were found among them: a) combinations of RT and CMT; b) radiosensitizers incorporated to the radiant treatment; c) angiogenesis inhibitors associated with RT; d) the scale-up or increase of the RT doses thanks to the development of new technologies, such as 3 D conformal radiotherapy, intensity- modulated radiotherapy, surgery and others. Another field of research is that of the changes in the rhythm or fractioning of the RT: hyperfractionated, accelerated, combinations of both, etc., which will allow mainly to increase the dosage scale-up

  12. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  13. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  14. Central Nervous System (CNS Disease Triggering Takotsubo Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is usually triggered by psychological or physical stress. One of the many physical sources of stress are central nervous system (CNS disorders. CNS disorders most frequently triggering TTS include subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, migraine, and intracerebral bleeding. More rare CNS-triggers of TTS include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encephalitis, or traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. TTS triggered by any of the CNS disorders needs to be recognized since adequate treatment of TTS may improve the general outcome from the CNS disorder as well. Neurologists need to be aware of TTS as a complication of specific CNS disorders but TTS may be triggered also by CNS disorders so far not recognised as causes of TTS.

  15. MRT of the central nervous system; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, M.; Jansen, O. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The book presents the state of the art of MRT imaging of the central nervous system. Detailed information is presented in order to provide sufficient knowledge for the medical diagnostician to discuss any case encountered at eye level with the clinical physician. The book is an indispensable reference manual and a quick orientation already during examination in difficult cases. It contains images made with the most recent technology and with excellent representation of details. Even rare findings are described in detail. The imaging principle is illustrated by more than 1000 pictures and graphical representations as well as more than 100 complementary tables. Findings are classified by regions, i.e. 'brain' and 'spinal cord', including anatomical descriptions. (orig.)

  16. Implication of coumarins towards central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Budzyńska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are widely distributed, plant-derived, 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one derivatives which have attracted intense interest in recent years as a result of their diverse and potent pharmacological properties. Particularly, their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have been established. The present review discusses the most important pharmacological effects of natural and synthetic coumarins on the CNS, including their interactions with benzodiazepine receptors, their dopaminergic and serotonergic affinity, and their ability to inhibit cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases. The structure-activity relationships pertaining to these effects are also discussed. This review posits that natural or synthetic coumarins have the potential for development in the therapy of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, anxiety, epilepsy, and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...... and/or demyelinating pathology. This article will review the molecular and cellular dynamics of immune responses in the CNS, with particular emphasis on autoimmune inflammation, as has been studied in the authors' laboratory....

  18. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Sica

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, Huntington’s dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well.

  19. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using human embryonal carcinoma (Ntera2=NT2) and Human neuroblastoma cell (NB1). They exposed to heavy ions and X ray 80% confluent cells in culture bottles. The cells were different type about growth and differentiation in the neuron. The apoptosis profile was measured by AnnexinV-EGFP, PI stained and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after carbon- or iron-ion irradiation. Memory functions were rapidly decreased after irradiation both ions. Iron -ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation C-ion group were recovered 25 weeks after irradiation. Tier memory were still keep at over 100 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  20. Normal sympathetic nervous system response in reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, María de Lourdes; Levin, Gloria; Bertotti, Alicia; Ferreiro, Jorge; Barontini, Marta

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated sympathetic nervous system activity by sympathetic skin response (SSR) recording and we further investigated sympathetic and opioid outflow indirectly in patients with features of reflex sympathetic dystrophy by measuring concentrations of plasma catecholamines (CAs) and their metabolites and plasma metenkephalin (ME), before and after corticoid treatment. Six patients were studied. Basal SSR latencies, morphologies and amplitudes were normal in five patients. In one woman, latency and amplitude were also normal but the morphology was disturbed. Basal plasma ME, CA and metabolite levels were similar in the affected and non-affected limbs and a significant increase in plasma ME concentrations was observed in both affected and non-affected limbs after two weeks of steroid treatment. Altogether these results point to an adaptive supersensitivity rather than a sympathetic hyperactivity in this syndrome; also, they indicate that the therapeutic effect of steroids adds, to their known anti-inflammatory action, a stimulatory action on the endogenous opioid system.

  1. Radiation therapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Shibamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Up until the late 1970s, radiation therapy played an important role in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL but more recently its role has changed due to the increased use of systemic chemotherapy. In this article, the current status of radiotherapy for PCNSL and optimal forms of radiotherapy, including the treatment volume and radiation dose, are discussed. Data from nationwide Japanese surveys of PCNSL patients treated with radiation therapy suggest that the prognosis of PCNSL patients improved during the 1990s, in part due to the use of high-dose methotrexate-containing chemotherapy. The prognosis of patients treated with radiation alone also improved. Radiotherapy still seems to play an important role in the attempt to cure this disease.

  2. Parkinson disease: the enteric nervous system spills its guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkinderen, P; Rouaud, T; Lebouvier, T; Bruley des Varannes, S; Neunlist, M; De Giorgio, R

    2011-11-08

    Lewy pathology in Parkinson disease (PD) extends well beyond the CNS, also affecting peripheral autonomic neuronal circuits, especially the enteric nervous system (ENS). The ENS is an integrative neuronal network also referred to as "the brain in the gut" because of its similarities to the CNS. We have recently shown that the ENS can be readily analyzed using routine colonic biopsies. This led us to propose that the ENS could represent a unique window to assess the neuropathology in living patients with PD. In this perspective, we discuss current evidence which indicates that the presence of ENS pathology may by exploited to improve our understanding and management of PD and likely other neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  4. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  5. Protective and Pathological Immunity during Central Nervous System Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Robyn S; Hunter, Christopher A

    2017-06-20

    The concept of immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has dominated the study of inflammatory processes in the brain. However, clinically relevant models have highlighted that innate pathways limit pathogen invasion of the CNS and adaptive immunity mediates control of many neural infections. As protective responses can result in bystander damage, there are regulatory mechanisms that balance protective and pathological inflammation, but these mechanisms might also allow microbial persistence. The focus of this review is to consider the host-pathogen interactions that influence neurotropic infections and to highlight advances in our understanding of innate and adaptive mechanisms of resistance as key determinants of the outcome of CNS infection. Advances in these areas have broadened our comprehension of how the immune system functions in the brain and can readily overcome immune privilege. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Optical cuff for optogenetic control of the peripheral nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Frédéric; Sottas, Loïc; Browne, Liam E.; Asboth, Léonie; Latremoliere, Alban; Sakuma, Miyuki; Courtine, Grégoire; Woolf, Clifford J.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) contain axons with specific motor, somatosensory and autonomic functions. Optogenetics offers an efficient approach to selectively activate axons within the nerve. However, the heterogeneous nature of nerves and their tortuous route through the body create a challenging environment to reliably implant a light delivery interface. Approach. Here, we propose an optical peripheral nerve interface—an optocuff—, so that optogenetic modulation of peripheral nerves become possible in freely behaving mice. Main results. Using this optocuff, we demonstrate orderly recruitment of motor units with epineural optical stimulation of genetically targeted sciatic nerve axons, both in anaesthetized and in awake, freely behaving animals. Behavioural experiments and histology show the optocuff does not damage the nerve thus is suitable for long-term experiments. Significance. These results suggest that the soft optocuff might be a straightforward and efficient tool to support more extensive study of the PNS using optogenetics.

  7. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  8. R1 autonomic nervous system in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rapid loss of kidney function resulting in accumulation of end metabolic products and associated abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The pathophysiology of AKI is complex and multifactorial involving numerous vascular, tubular and inflammatory pathways. Neurohumoral activation with heightened activity of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a critical role in this scenario. Inflammation and/or local renal ischaemia are underlying mechanisms triggering renal tissue hypoxia and resultant renal microcirculation dysfunction; a common feature of AKI occurring in numerous clinical conditions leading to a high morbidity and mortality rate. The contribution of renal nerves to the pathogenesis of AKI has been extensively demonstrated in a series of experimental models over the past decades. While this has led to better knowledge of the pathogenesis of human AKI, therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcomes are scarce. Restoration of autonomic regulatory function with vagal nerve stimulation resulting in anti-inflammatory effects and modulation of centrally-mediated mechanisms could be of clinical relevance. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that a therapeutic splenic ultrasound approach may prevent AKI via activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This review briefly summarizes renal nerve anatomy, basic insights into neural control of renal function in the physiological state and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of AKI chiefly due to sepsis, cardiopulmonary bypass and ischaemia/reperfusion experimental model. Finally, potentially preventive experimental pre-clinical approaches for the treatment of AKI aimed at sympathetic inhibition and/or parasympathetic stimulation are presented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  10. The effect of space radiation of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Grant E.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Yang, Tracy; Whitney, Monroe

    The long-term effects of irradiation by accelerated heavy ions on the structure and function of the nervous system have not been studied extensively. Although the adult brain is relatively resistant to low LET radiation, cellular studies indicate that individual heavy ions can produce serious membrane lesions and multiple chromatin breaks. Capillary hemorrhages may follow high LET particle irradiation of the developing brain as high RBE effects. Evidence has been accumulating that the glial system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are relatively sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. While DNA repair is active in neural systems, it may be assumed that a significant portion of this molecular process is misrepair. Since the expression of cell lethality usually requires cell division, and nerve cells have an extremely low rate of division, it is possible that some of the characteristic changes of premature aging may represent a delayed effect of chromatin misrepair in brain. Altered microcirculation, decreased local metabolism, entanglement and reduction in synaptic density, premature loss of neurons, myelin degeneration, and glial proliferation are late signs of such injuries. HZE particles are very efficient in producing carcinogenic cell transformation, reaching a peak for iron particles. The promotion of viral transformation is also efficient up to an energy transfer of approximately 300 keV/micron. The RBE for carcinogenesis in nerve tissues remains unknown. On the basis of available information concerning HZE particle flux in interplanetary space, only general estimates of the magnitude of the effects of long-term spaceflight on some nervous system parameters may be constructed.

  11. A neurochemical map of the developing amphioxus nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candiani Simona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphioxus, representing the most basal group of living chordates, is the best available proxy for the last invertebrate ancestor of the chordates. Although the central nervous system (CNS of amphioxus comprises only about 20,000 neurons (as compared to billions in vertebrates, the developmental genetics and neuroanatomy of amphioxus are strikingly vertebrate-like. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of amphioxus CNS cells producing distinctive neurochemicals. To this end, we cloned genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and/or transporters of the most common neurotransmitters and assayed their developmental expression in the embryo and early larva. Results By single and double in situ hybridization experiments, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in developing amphioxus. In addition to characterizing the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the developing amphioxus CNS, we observed that cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons are segmentally arranged in the hindbrain, whereas serotonergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons are restricted to specific regions of the cerebral vesicle and the hindbrain. We were further able to identify discrete groups of GABAergic and glutamatergic interneurons and cholinergic motoneurons at the level of the primary motor center (PMC, the major integrative center of sensory and motor stimuli of the amphioxus nerve cord. Conclusions In this study, we assessed neuronal differentiation in the developing amphioxus nervous system and compiled the first neurochemical map of the amphioxus CNS. This map is a first step towards a full characterization of the neurotransmitter signature of previously described nerve cell types in the amphioxus CNS, such as motoneurons and interneurons.

  12. An Electerophisioligic Study Of Autonomic Nervous System In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorolahi Moghaddam H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetics can occur apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and sometimes leads to complaints which may be diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Moreover glycemic control of these patients may prevent such a complications."nMaterials and Methods: 30 diabetic patients were compared to the same number of age and sex-matched controls regarding to electrophysiologic findings of autonomic nervous system. Symptoms referable to autonomic disorder including nightly diarrhea, dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, nausea, and mouth dryness were recorded in all diabetic patients. Palmar and plantar SSR and expiration to inspiration ratio (E: I and Valsalva ratio were recorded in all diabetics and control individuals by electromyography device. In addition NCS was performed on two sensory and two motor nerves in diabetic patients."nResults: There was no relation between age of diabetics and abnormal D: I ratio, Valsalva ratio and degree of electrophysiologic autonomic impairment. Also no relation between peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment was found. Plantar SSR was absent in 80% of diabetics with orthostatic hypotension (p~ 0.019. Palmar and plantar SSR were absent in many diabetics in comparison to control group (for palmar SSR p~ 0.00 and for plantar SSR p< 0.015. There was no relation between diabetes duration since diagnosis and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment."nConclusion: According to the above mentioned findings diabetic autonomic neuropathy develops apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and probably with different mechanisms. Remarkable absence of palmar SSR in diabetics with orthostatic hypotension can be due to its sympathetic origin. Absence of any relation between diabetes duration and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment can be due to late diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or no pathophysiologic relation between chronic

  13. Connexin32 expression in central and peripheral nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, S.M.; Scherer, S.S.; Fischbeck, K.H. [Univ. of Pennslylvania, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Mutations have been identified in the gap junction gene, connexin32 (Cx32), in patients affected with the X-linked form of the demyelinating neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX). Gap junctions composed of Cx32 are present and developmentally regulated in a wide variety of tissues. In peripheral nerve, our immunohistochemical analysis localized Cx32 to the noncompacted myelin of the paranodal regions and the Schmidt-Lantermann incisures, where previous studies describe gap junctions. In contrast to the location of Cx32 in peripheral nerve and the usual restriction of clinical manifestations to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (abstract by Paulson describes an exception), preliminary studies show that Cx32 is present in the compacted myelin of the central nervous system (CNS), as demonstrated by radial staining through the myelin sheath of oligodendrocytes in rat spinal cord. Analysis of Cx32 expression in various regions of rat CNS during development shows that the amount of Cx32 mRNA and protein increases as myelination increases, a pattern observed for other myelin genes. Studies in the PNS provide additional evidence that Cx32 and myelin genes are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level; Cx32 and peripheral myelin gene PMP-22 mRNAs are expressed in parallel following transient or permanent nerve injury. Differences in post-translational regulation of Cx32 in the CNS and PNS may be indicated by the presence of a faster migrating form of Cs32 in cerebrum versus peripheral nerve. Studies are currently underway to determine the unique role of Cx32 in peripheral nerve.

  14. Marital conflict and children's externalizing behavior: interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Moore, Ginger A

    2009-01-01

    "Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS...

  15. Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. III: Estimating historical rates of left-handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Moore, James; Freegard, Matthew; Rawles, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The BBC television programme Right Hand, Left Hand, broadcast in August 1953, used a postal questionnaire to ask viewers about their handedness. Respondents were born between 1864 and 1948, and in principle therefore the study provides information on rates of left-handedness in those born in the nineteenth century, a group for which few data are otherwise available. A total of 6,549 responses were received, with an overall rate of left-handedness of 15.2%, which is substantially above that expected for a cohort born in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Left-handers are likely to respond preferentially to surveys about handedness, and the extent of over-response can be estimated in modern control data obtained from a handedness website, from the 1953 BBC data, and from Crichton-Browne's 1907 survey, in which there was also a response bias. Response bias appears to have been growing, being relatively greater in the most modern studies. In the 1953 data there is also evidence that left-handers were more common among later rather than early responders, suggesting that left-handers may have been specifically recruited into the study, perhaps by other left-handers who had responded earlier. In the present study the estimated rate of bias was used to correct the nineteenth-century BBC data, which was then combined with other available data as a mixture of two constrained Weibull functions, to obtain an overall estimate of handedness rates in the nineteenth century. The best estimates are that left-handedness was at its nadir of about 3% for those born between about 1880 and 1900. Extrapolating backwards, the rate of left-handedness in the eighteenth century was probably about 10%, with the decline beginning in about 1780, and reaching around 7% in about 1830, although inevitably there are many uncertainties in those estimates. What does seem indisputable is that rates of left-handedness fell during most of the nineteenth century, only subsequently to rise in

  16. Dysregulation of Autonomic Nervous System in Chagas’ Heart Disease Is Associated with Altered Adipocytokines Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Ferreira, João Marcos; Mady, Charles; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Lopes, Heno Ferreira; Ramires, Felix José Alvarez; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Grupi, Cesar José; Hachul, Denise Tessariol; Fernandes, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease (CD) induces autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory activity, which may promote metabolic abnormalities. We studied metabolism and his correlation with Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and inflammation in CD. Methods and Results Sixty subjects were divided into 4 groups: control group (CG), IF (indeterminate form) group; ECG group (ECG abnormalities and normal left ventricular systolic function), and LVD group (left ventricular sistolic dysfunction). Levels of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were assayed in serum samples by ELISA. ANS was assessed by heart rate variability in frequency domain in 24-hour Holter and postural tilt test (rest and orthostatic position). High frequency (HFr) component values were used to estimate parasympathetic activity and low frequency (LFr) component, sympathetic activity. Analyzes were made of the correlations of each of the metabolic parameters (leptin and adiponectin) with the inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and TNF- alpha) and with the ANS assessment measurements. No significant differences were observed in leptin and insulin levels. Adiponectin was higher in ECG and LVD groups: [CG = 4766.5 (5529.5), IF = 4003.5 (2482.5), ECG = 8376.5 (8388.5), LVD = 8798 (4188.0) ng/mL, p<0.001)]. IL-6 and TNF-alpha were higher in LVD group: [IL-6: CG = 1.85 (6.41); IF = 1.58 (1.91); ECG = 1.0 (1.57); LVD= 31.44 (72.19) pg/ml; p = 0.001. TNF-alpha: CG = 22.57 (88.2); IF = 19.31 (33.16); ECG = 12.45 (3.07); LVD = 75.15 (278.57) pg/ml; p = 0.04]. Adiponectin levels had a positive association with the HFr component (r = 0.539; p = 0.038) and an inverse association with the LFr component (r = - 0.539; p = 0.038) in ECG group. Leptin levels had a negative association with the HFr component (r= - 0.632; p = 0.011) and a positive association with the LFr component (r = 0.632; p = 0.011) in LVD group. Conclusions We found increased adiponectin levels in

  17. Dysregulation of Autonomic Nervous System in Chagas' Heart Disease Is Associated with Altered Adipocytokines Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Barbosa-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD induces autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory activity, which may promote metabolic abnormalities. We studied metabolism and his correlation with Autonomic Nervous System (ANS and inflammation in CD.Sixty subjects were divided into 4 groups: control group (CG, IF (indeterminate form group; ECG group (ECG abnormalities and normal left ventricular systolic function, and LVD group (left ventricular sistolic dysfunction. Levels of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha were assayed in serum samples by ELISA. ANS was assessed by heart rate variability in frequency domain in 24-hour Holter and postural tilt test (rest and orthostatic position. High frequency (HFr component values were used to estimate parasympathetic activity and low frequency (LFr component, sympathetic activity. Analyzes were made of the correlations of each of the metabolic parameters (leptin and adiponectin with the inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and TNF- alpha and with the ANS assessment measurements. No significant differences were observed in leptin and insulin levels. Adiponectin was higher in ECG and LVD groups: [CG = 4766.5 (5529.5, IF = 4003.5 (2482.5, ECG = 8376.5 (8388.5, LVD = 8798 (4188.0 ng/mL, p<0.001]. IL-6 and TNF-alpha were higher in LVD group: [IL-6: CG = 1.85 (6.41; IF = 1.58 (1.91; ECG = 1.0 (1.57; LVD= 31.44 (72.19 pg/ml; p = 0.001. TNF-alpha: CG = 22.57 (88.2; IF = 19.31 (33.16; ECG = 12.45 (3.07; LVD = 75.15 (278.57 pg/ml; p = 0.04]. Adiponectin levels had a positive association with the HFr component (r = 0.539; p = 0.038 and an inverse association with the LFr component (r = - 0.539; p = 0.038 in ECG group. Leptin levels had a negative association with the HFr component (r= - 0.632; p = 0.011 and a positive association with the LFr component (r = 0.632; p = 0.011 in LVD group.We found increased adiponectin levels in Chagas' heart disease with systolic dysfunction and in

  18. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left

  19. A comprehensive musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous system assessment of war-related bilateral upper extremity amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Mostafa; Mousavi, Batool; Masoumi, Mehdi; Modirian, Ehsan; Shojaei, Hadi; Mirsalimi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Maryam; Pirouzi, Pirouz

    2016-01-01

    Upper limb amputations are one of the unpleasant war injuries that armed forces are exposed to frequently. The present study aimed to assess the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems in Iraq-Iran war veterans with bilateral upper extremity amputation. The study consisted of taking a history and clinical examinations including demographic data, presence and location of pain, level of amputation, passive and active ranges of movement of the joints across the upper and lower extremities and spine, manual palpation, neurological examination, blood circulation pulses and issues related to a prosthetic limb. In this study, 103 Iranian bilateral upper extremity amputees (206 amputations) from the Iran-Iraq war were evaluated, and a detailed questionnaire was also administered. The most common level of amputation was the finger or wrist level (108, 52.4 %). Based on clinical examination, we found high frequencies of limited active and passive joint range of movement across the scapula, shoulder, elbow, wrist and metacarpophalangeal, interphalangeal and thumb joints. Based on muscle strength testing, we found varying degrees of weakness across the upper limbs. Musculoskeletal disorders included epicondylitis (65, 31.6 %), rotator cuff injury (24, 11.7 %), bicipital tendonitis (69, 33.5 %), shoulder drop (42, 20.4 %) and muscle atrophy (19, 9.2 %). Peripheral nerve disorders included carpal tunnel syndrome in 13 (6.3 %) and unilateral brachial plexus injury in 1 (1 %). Fifty-three (51.5 %) were diagnosed with facet joint syndrome at the level of the cervical spine (the most frequent site). Using a prosthesis was reported by 65 (63.1 %), both left and right sides. The back was the most common site of pain (71.8 %). The high prevalence of neuro-musculoskeletal disorders among bilateral upper extremity amputees indicates that they need regular rehabilitation care.

  20. Localization of serotonin in the nervous system of Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host for schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Nadia; Vallejo, Deborah; Miller, Mark W

    2012-10-01

    The digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni that causes the form of schistosomiasis found in the Western Hemisphere requires the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as its primary intermediate host. It has been proposed that the transition from the free-living S. mansoni miracidium to parasitic mother sporocyst depends on uptake of biogenic amines, e.g. serotonin, from the snail host. However, little is known about potential sources of serotonin in B. glabrata tissues. This investigation examined the localization of serotonin-like immunoreactivity (5HTli) in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues of B. glabrata. Emphasis was placed on the cephalic and anterior pedal regions that are commonly the sites of S. mansoni miracidium penetration. The anterior foot and body wall were densely innervated by 5HTli fibers but no peripheral immunoreactive neuronal somata were detected. Within the CNS, clusters of 5HTli neurons were observed in the cerebral, pedal, left parietal, and visceral ganglia, suggesting that the peripheral serotonergic fibers originate from the CNS. Double-labeling experiments (biocytin backfill × serotonin immunoreactivity) of the tentacular nerve and the three major pedal nerves (Pd n. 10, Pd n. 11, and Pd n. 12) disclosed central neurons that project to the cephalopedal periphery. Overall, the central distribution of 5HTli neurons suggests that, as in other gastropods, serotonin regulates the locomotion, reproductive, and feeding systems of Biomphalaria. The projections to the foot and body wall indicate that serotonin may also participate in defensive, nociceptive, or inflammation responses. These observations identify potential sources of host-derived serotonin in this parasite-host system. Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The New Left in the European Democracies: The Case of the German Radical Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Damiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The new form of the social and political conflict cannot be explained by the traditional categories of right and left, but it articulates to them on two plans, that of the establishment, intended like plan of the structured political conflict from the traditional actors, and that of the anti-establishment, in which new representations of politics emerge. The New Left is characterized by type of intermittent participation and new perspectives on mobilization inside the parties and the social movements. This type of parties differs moreover from the traditional ones left of the socialist and social democratic left in not arranging of organizations collaterals placed under the direction of the leadership of the same party. The mobilization that spontaneously assumes not conventional forms of active participation of the citizens, or is primed by the action of an associative network of which the same parties take part, than however does not monopo-lize the collective action. In this regard, the attention will be dedicated to the study of Die Linke: an anti-establishment party of the non-socialist German left-wing, heir to the communist tradition. The choice was affected to the German model because: 1 Germany is a country with a strong social democratic tradition, but 25 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall the German political system identifies a new antagonist political party; 2 Die Linke represents an interesting case in the political landscape of the European radical left because is a one-party that gives up at the federation of parties to try to unify the political parties of German radical left-wing.

  2. Prognostic value of heart rate variability indexes with regard to acute postinfarction aneurysm of left ventricle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kyselov

    2017-12-01

    autonomic nervous system influence, prevalence of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia episodes and corrected QT interval duration in patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction and left ventricular aneurysm. The main indicators of heart rate variability and arrhythmias have a close connection with early postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm formation. Duration of the corrected QT interval is an independent predictor of acute postinfarction left ventricle aneurysm formation.

  3. Left atrio-vertebral ratio: A new computed-tomography measurement to identify left atrial dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque-Juston, Marie; Volondat, Manuelle; Fontas, Eric; Roger, Coralie; Brunner, Philippe; Padovani, Bernard; Chevallier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Left cardiac chambers dilation, interstitial lung changes and pleural effusions are the characteristics of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema on computed tomography (CT) of the chest but mensuration of the left atrial size is not routinely performed. Cardiac chambers normal dimensions are known to be proportional to the patient's build and anthropomorphic data but adjustment of chambers dimensions to available elements seen on the axial CT images has never been evaluated before. Our objective was to use data easily available on axial images to directly scale the left atrium. We chose to divide the left atrial diameter by the thoracic vertebral diameter, using the latter as a body-mass indicator. As a preliminary study, we aimed to evaluate the range of values of this left atrio-vertebral ratio (LAVR) by comparing patients suffering from cardiogenic pulmonary oedema with patients free of cardiac disease. We hypothesized that if the difference of values in these two populations of patients was significant enough, this ratio would be relevant and could be used as a quick criterion in different clinical situations. Two radiologists reviewed CT scans of 32 of patients free of cardiac disease and 40 patients in acute cardiac failure. The maximum diameter of the left atrium at the level of the right inferior pulmonary vein was divided by the vertebral transverse diameter to generate a left atrio-vertebral ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves identified the threshold associated with pulmonary oedema. The mean LAVR was 1.85 ± 0.27 in asymptomatic patients and 2.48 ± 0.35 in patients with pulmonary oedema. A LAVR of 2.1 yielded 85% sensitivity and 88% specificity for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. LAVR is a simple new measure directly scaling the left atrial diameter to the anthropomorphic characteristics of the patient. In our series, a ratio above 2.1 is strongly associated with cardiogenic pulmonary oedema indirectly suggesting left atrial dilation

  4. Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169

  5. Left ventricular noncompaction in a patient presenting with a left ventricular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Anđelkov Anđelka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a congenital disorder characterised by prominent trabeculations in the left ventricular myocardium. This heart condition very often goes completely undetected, or is mistaken for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or coronary disease. Case report. A middle-aged female with a positive family history of coronary disease was admitted with chest pain, electrocardiography (ECG changes in the area of the inferolateral wall and elevation in cardiac specific enzymes. Initially, she was suspected of having acute coronary syndrome. However, in the left ventricular apex, especially alongside the lateral and inferior walls, cardiac ultrasound visualised hypertrabeculation with multiple trabeculae projecting inside the left ventricular cavity. A short-axis view of the heart above the papillary muscles revealed the presence of two layers of the myocardium: a compacted homogeneous layer adjacent to the epicardium and a spongy layer with trabeculae and sinusoids under the endocardium. The thickness ratio between the two layers was 2.2:1. The same abnormalities were corroborated by multislice computed tomography (MSCT of the heart. Conclusion. Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare, usually hereditary cardiomyopathy, which should be considered as a possibility in patients with myocardial hypertrophy. It is very often mistaken for coronary disease owing to ECG changes and elevated cardiac specific enzymes associated with myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure.

  6. Doubling left syntactic positions in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the doubling of left syntactic positions in Danish. Such doublings consist of a referential element: a NP or a clause, and an anaphoric element, an unstressed personal pronoun or an unstressed resumptive adverb. In main clauses, the CP-spec position may double in this way, w...... in the analysis of a broadcasted public speech (sect. 5). In earlier versions of Danish, as shown in sect. 4, the construction is both more frequent in writing and also seems almost obligatory....

  7. Mycobacterium chimaera left ventricular assist device infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Leora B; Louie, Eddie; Hill, Fred; Levine, Jamie; Phillips, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after cardiac surgery has recently been linked to bioaerosols from contaminated heater-cooler units. The majority of cases have occurred after valvular surgery or aortic graft surgery and nearly half have resulted in death. To date, infections in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been characterized in the literature. We report two cases of device-associated M. chimaera infection in patients with continuous-flow LVADs and describe challenges related to diagnosis and management in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anomalous Origin of Left Circumflex Artery

    OpenAIRE

    ?itaku, Hajdin; Kamberi, Lulzim; Gorani, Daut; Ko?inaj, Dardan; Krasniqi, Xhevdet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The coronary anatomic variation of the left circumflex artery (LCx) is considered as the most common anatomic variation with a separate ostium from the right sinus, and very unusual variation as a proximal branch of right coronary artery (RCA). Case report: We report two cases, the first case is a 64-year-old man with chest pain and with history of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and current smoker, and the second case is a 67-year-old who presented to the emergency departme...

  9. Multiple Coronary Artery Microfistulas Associated with Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Left and Right Coronary Artery to the Left Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Woo Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old woman underwent coronary angiography for chest pain. On the coronary angiogram, no significant coronary artery atherosclerotic stenosis was observed. Multiple coronary artery microfistulas, draining from the left anterior descending artery to the left ventricle and from the posterior descending artery of the right coronary artery to the left ventricle, were observed. Apical wall thickening and fistula flow from the left anterior descending artery were demonstrated by using transthoracic echocardiography. We describe a rare case of multiple coronary artery microfistulas from the left and right coronary artery to the left ventricle combined with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  10. Disturbances of mental image processing in post-stroke patients with left and right hemisphere damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachalska, M; Talar, J; Brodziak, A; MacQueen, B D

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to point out significant differences in how mental images are processed by post-stroke patients with left and right hemisphere damage. The issues involved are of theoretical importance because of the light shed on the modularity of cerebral functions, especially the imagination, and of clinical importance due to the better understanding of the underlying pathomechanism. The research involved 82 right-handed patients with a lesion in the left hemisphere (Group L), 82 right-handed patients with a lesion in the right hemisphere (Group R), and, as a control group, 82 patients with musculo-skeletal disorders not affecting the central nervous system (Group C), matched by age and sex. Image processing of complex notions was examined by using selected items from the Simple Neurolinguistic Test. In the control group, the majority of the patients responded to most of the prompts with polymodal associations of various types. In Group L, responses were dominated by isolated elements of the complex situation, while in Group R the associations were mostly verbal (lexical) and highly restricted in scope. The results indicate that the loss of LH functions interferes with the ability to assemble pieces of polymodal image information into sensible strings, while the loss of RH functions leaves strings to which little information is attached.

  11. A case of congenital left brachium agenesis (amelia, brachiomelia monobrachium) in Sahel goat ecotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael O; Adamu, Simon S; Ogiji, Emmanuel E; Bello, Danlami F; Allagh, John S; Ate, Iorhemba U; Rabol, Jude S

    2015-01-01

    This rare case of amelia in a doe-goat was observed in Tarka local government area, Benue State, middle belt region of Nigeria. The congenital deformity consisted of complete agenesis of the affected fore limb; the defect is commonly unilaterally manifested. The present congenitally impaired goat was approximately one and a half years old, and was a second kiddling of a normal multiparous dam. The left fore limb was grossly vestigial in development, while the homologous right hoof was splayed; the hind limbs were anatomically normal. Radiographs revealed morphological aberrations in intergumentary, skeletal, vascular, nervous systems and musculature of the affected limb. Sahel goat is alien to this developmental syndrome and this is to the best of our knowledge--the first case report of left sided brachial agenesia, (amelia) in a doe-goat of this breed. By season of occurrence, the hypothesis of interplay between genetics, climate and environment at large in the pathogenesis of this hereditary anomaly is raised and supported by the abundance of phytoteratogens in alternative diets in the dry seasons. The condition is compatible with life but may contribute to reproductive and economic loss in farms.

  12. Heart Failure with Transient Left Bundle Branch Block in the Setting of Left Coronary Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Juraschek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary arterial fistulas are rare communications between vessels or chambers of the heart. Although cardiac symptoms associated with fistulas are well described, fistulas are seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with left shoulder pain, signs of heart failure, and a new left bundle branch block (LBBB. Cardiac catheterization revealed a small left anterior descending (LAD-to-pulmonary artery (PA fistula. Diuresis led to subjective improvement of the patient's symptoms and within several days the LBBB resolved. We hypothesize that the coronary fistula in this patient contributed to transient ischemia of the LAD territory through a coronary steal mechanism. We elected to observe rather than repair the fistula, as his symptoms and ECG changes resolved with treatment of his heart failure.

  13. Central nervous system aspergillus infection complicating renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, M.; Wilson, J.

    2001-01-01

    A case of catastrophic intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to aspergillus infection in an immunocompromised renal transplant patient is presented. The pathological features and related images are described and the radiology of CNS aspergillus infection is reviewed. A 37-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain. She had recently received a cadaveric renal transplant following failure of the previous live donor kidney. Gastroscopy showed changes suspicious of cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastroduodenitis and she was treated with gancyclovir, with resolution of her symptoms. While in hospital her creatinine began to rise. The renal biopsy was suggestive of cyclosporin toxicity and the cyclosporin level was raised 537 mg/mL (normal 160-360 mg/mL). Several days later, she developed slurred speech and weakness in her right arm. Non-contrast CT showed multifocal regions of low attenuation over the right temporal convexity, within the basal ganglia, inferior frontal lobe and corona radiata on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging on the same day showed multiple areas of high signal on the FLAIR images, some of which contained central areas of low signal. There was no significant enhancement post gadolinium but several of the lesions showed increased signal on the diffusion-weighted images, reflecting cytotoxic oedema. Repeat CT showed an increase in the size of the cerebral lesions with haemorrhagic transformation of the right basal ganglia mass. A further lesion with a peripheral dense rim on the non-contrast images was identified in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The possibility of a vasculitis secondary to a fungal infection was raised. Two days later the patient became comatose with CT showing a large intracerebral haematoma in the left basal ganglia, intraventricular blood and hydrocephalus. The patient died soon afterwards. Post-mortem examination showed multifocal cerebral haemorrhage associated with necrotizing vasculitis and aspergillus infection

  14. Nonlinear left-handed transmission line metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A B; Weide, D W van der

    2008-01-01

    Metamaterials, exhibiting simultaneously negative permittivity ε and permeability μ, more commonly referred to as left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) and also known as negative-index materials, have received substantial attention in the scientific and engineering communities [1]. Most studies of LHMs (and electromagnetic metamaterials in general) have been in the linear regime of wave propagation and have already inspired new types of microwave circuits and devices. The results of these studies have already been the subject of numerous reviews and books. This review covers a less explored but rapidly developing area of investigation involving media that combine nonlinearity (dependence of the permittivity and permeability on the magnitude of the propagating field) with the anomalous dispersion exhibited by LHM. The nonlinear phenomena in such media will be considered on the example of a model system: the nonlinear left-handed transmission line. These nonlinear phenomena include parametric generation and amplification, harmonic and subharmonic generation as well as modulational instabilities and envelope solitons. (topical review)

  15. Emission computer tomography of the left ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmler, W.; Felix, R.; Calder, D.; Golde, G.; Botsch, H.

    1983-10-01

    Tomographic studies and time-dependent tomograms on phantoms and patients were carried out using a 7-pinhole collimator in order to study the clinical value of ECG-triggered tomographic radionuclid ventriculography. A suitable computer programme has been developed. The results have shown that it is possible to evaluate local contraction abnormalities by this method. Using a left oblique position of the collimator (LAO (45/sup 0/) - cranial (15/sup 0/)), emission computer tomography is aligned with the longitudinal axis for the heart. In this way, a single projection is sufficient to show the montility of the anterior and posterior walls and of the septum. Hypokinesis, akinesis or dyskinesis can be recognised visually. The localisation and extent of the defect can be determined through the 7-pinhole collimator. Reconstructed images of the triggered radionuclide scintigrams show excellent marginal definition. In the RAO projection the left ventricle can be seen without superimposition and images obtained which equal those of a first-pass technique.

  16. Left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamoto, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Takuya; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2017-12-01

    Repeat hepatectomy is beneficial for selected patients with recurrence of liver malignancies. However, the operative procedure becomes technically demanding when the previous hepatectomy was complex, with hepatic veins and stump of portal pedicles exposed on the liver transection surface. We performed left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy (RPMS) for three patients. Here, we describe our surgical technique and the postoperative outcomes achieved. This procedure allowed for safe adhesiolysis between the middle and right hepatic veins by following a fibrous plane. The mean operative time was 8.7 h, including 4.9 h of adhesiolysis. The mean remnant liver volume (right lateral sector and the caudate lobe) was calculated as 704 ml, being 62% of total liver volume. There was no postoperative liver failure or mortality. In conclusion, left hepatectomy after RPMS is a feasible procedure for patients with sufficient remnant liver volume, even though the middle and right hepatic veins run side by side after liver regeneration.

  17. Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy by propranolol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension contributes significantly to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with increased incidence of sudden cardiac death. Recognition and management of hypertension is, therefore, imperative. Objective: To establish whether propranolol can reverse ...

  18. Incidental retroaortic left innominate vein in adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Semionov, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Retro-aortic left innominate vein is a rare vascular abnormality, usually associated with congenital heart disease. Here we report a case of isolated retro-aortic left innominate vein in an adult female.

  19. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  20. International society of neuropathology-haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, D.N.; Perry, A.; Burger, P.; Ellison, D.W.; Reifenberger, G.; Deimling, A. Von; Aldape, K.; Brat, D.; Collins, V.P.; Eberhart, C.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Fuller, G.N.; Giangaspero, F.; Giannini, C.; Hawkins, C.; Kleihues, P.; Korshunov, A.; Kros, J.M.; Lopes, M. Beatriz; Ng, H.K.; Ohgaki, H.; Paulus, W.; Pietsch, T.; Rosenblum, M.; Rushing, E.; Soylemezoglu, F.; Wiestler, O.; Wesseling, P.

    2014-01-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of

  1. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee...

  2. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  3. Central nervous system complications in non-Hodgkin-lymphomas and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liffers, R.

    1981-01-01

    261 case historys of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphomas were analysed in the years from 1969 until 1978 in the 'Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Kiel'/West-Germany. 18 Patients got a central nervous complication of Non Hodgkin-Lymphoma earlier or later, a percentage of about 7. There were 7 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma (LB), a percentage of 10 for this entity. In the group of immunoblastic lymphoma (IB) 6 cases of central nervous infiltration were detected, that is a ratio of 7.7 percent. 4 case histories M. Brill-Symmers (CC/CB) were complicated by central nervous dissemination, a percentage of 5.3. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma have the highest risk of central nervous complication. The beginning of central nervous dissemination in the single case histories is very different between the histological groups. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma suffered from central nervous complication in an early phase of history, in cases of M. Brill-Symmers central nervous infiltration can occur also in a late phase. The results may determine the discussion about stratifying of radiotherapy. Early radiotherapy including central nervous system may be discussed and investigated in special histological entities of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphoma. (orig.) [de

  4. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  5. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal.

  6. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  7. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  8. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  9. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  10. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  11. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  12. Cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging with (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine: Perspectives from Japan and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, K.; Scholte, A.; Nakata, T.; Dimitriu-Leen, A.C.; Chikamori, T.; Vitola, J.V.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic nervous system dysfunction is closely associated with risk of serious cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF), including HF progression, pump-failure death, and sudden cardiac death by lethal ventricular arrhythmia. For cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging,

  13. [Panarteritis nodosa: infection of the central nervous system with headache and clinical symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H

    1981-01-29

    Headache in various forms is frequent in panarteritis nodosa and possibly is an early symptom of affection of the central nervous system. 2 typical cases are described. In up to 13% of patients with panarteritis nodosa the central nervous system is affected, the forms of the disease are described as well as development of prognosis under today's therapy.

  14. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot

  15. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate,

  16. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  17. Solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system: a 15-year literature survey of 220 cases (August 1996-July 2011).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bisceglia, Michele

    2011-09-01

    We reviewed the world literature on solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system from August 1996 to July 2011, focusing on both clinicopathological features and diagnostic findings. The anatomical distribution of the 220 cases reported so far reveals that most are intracranial and just over one-fifth are intraspinal. In decreasing frequency, intracranial tumors involve the supratentorial and infratentorial compartments, the pontocerebellar angle, the sellar and parasellar regions, and the cranial nerves. Intraspinal tumors are mainly located in the thoracic and cervical segments. Although most solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system are dural based, a small subset presents as subpial, intraparenchymal, intraventricular, or as tumors involving the nerve rootlets with no dural connection. Preoperative imaging and intraoperative findings suggest meningioma, schwannoma or neurofibroma, hemangiopericytoma, or pituitary tumors. Immunohistochemistry is critical to establish a definitive histopathological diagnosis. Vimentin, CD34, BCL2, and CD99 are the most consistently positive markers. The usual histologic type generally behaves in a benign manner if complete removal is achieved. Recurrence is anticipated when resection is subtotal or when the tumor exhibits atypical histology. The proliferative index as assessed by MIB1 labeling is of prognostic significance. Occasionally, tumors featuring conventional morphology may recur, perhaps because of minimal residual disease left behind during surgical extirpation. Rare extracranial metastases and tumor-related deaths are on record. Surgery is the treatment of choice. Stereotactic and external beam radiation therapy may be indicated for postsurgical tumor remnants and for unresectable recurrences. Long-term active surveillance of the patients is mandatory.

  18. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  19. Visualisation of the left superior intercostal vein in MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrea, M.; Meydam, K.; Schmitt, W.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 56 MRT chest examinations showed the left intercostal vein in its horizontal trajectory in 3 patients with left mediastinal masses compressing the superior vena cava. In 2 patients the posterior trajectory of the horizontal segment was clearly visualised. In the third case the anterior part, namely the insertion of the left superior intercostal vein into the left brachiocephalic trunk, was demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  20. Early development of chick embryo respiratory nervous system: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, R; Parisi Salvi, E; Renda, T

    2006-10-01

    The extrinsic and intrinsic respiratory nervous systems receive specific contributions from the vagal and sympathetic components. Using specific markers for vagal and sympathetic structures, we studied the distribution patterns of immunoreactivity to galanin (GAL), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP) and the tachykinin substance P in extrinsic and intrinsic nerve of chick embryo respiratory system, during development from the very early age to hatching. All peptides studied appeared in the intrinsic and extrinsic nervous systems early. We found substance P in both the vagal and sympathetic systems, PACAP in vagal components alone and GAL mainly in the sympathetic system. The intrinsic nervous system showed high immunoreactivity for all peptides studied. These data accord with the well known early trophic functions that peptides have on the development of nervous networks and modulatory activity on the intrinsic nervous system. The GAL again proves to be the main peptide in chick embryo sympathetic respiratory system.

  1. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for radiation-induced nervous system disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation-Induced Nervous System Disease has been issued and implemented by the Ministry of health. This standard contained three independent criteria of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury. These three kinds of disease often go together in clinic,therefore,the three diagnostic criteria were merged into radioactive nervous system disease diagnostic criteria for entirety and maneuverability of the standard. This standard was formulated based on collection of the clinical practice experience, extensive research of relevant literature and foreign relevant publications. It is mainly applied to diagnosis and treatment of occupational radiation-induced nervous system diseases, and to nervous system diseases caused by medical radiation exposure as well. In order to properly implement this standard, also to correctly deal with radioactive nervous system injury, the main contents of this standard including dose threshold, clinical manifestation, indexing standard and treatment principle were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  2. Branching patterns of left coronary artery among North Indians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The left coronary artery displays variations in pattern, number and distribution of its branches. These variations influence the manifestation and extent of the coronary artery disease affecting the left main branch. A total of 100 North Indian cadaveric hearts were dissected to observe the main trunk of the left coronary artery.

  3. Learning Conflict Among Mixed-Dominance Left-Handed Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    This study investigates the hypothesis that it is mixed-dominance among left handers (i.e. left handedness and right eye and/or foot dominance), that is related to academic learning difficulties among such individuals, rather than the generally held notion that their difficulties stem from the fact that they are left handers in a "right handed…

  4. Spatial Deficit in Familial Left-Handed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Eme, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The study evaluated the hypothesis that familial left-handed children, who presumably have bilateral representation of language ability, should show an impairment in spatial abiblity on 44 children (22 right handed, 11 familial left handed, and 11 nonfamilial left handed) whose average age was 8 years old. (Author/PHR)

  5. Left-Handed Students: A Forgotten Minority. Fastback 399.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Evelyn B.

    This fastback, a booklet bound "left-handed," is designed to help educators become aware of the problems faced by left-handed students in school and to suggest ways that many of the problems might be solved. Following an introduction discussing a personal experience with left-handedness, the booklet continues with a brief history of the treatment…

  6. Left-Handed Children--Are They Losing Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Lauren

    1995-01-01

    Discusses difficulties faced by left-handed children in everyday schoolwork. Highlights include right-handed bias of toys, clothing, and tools; the need for guidance in handwriting; problem areas including domestic science, arts and crafts, and metal and woodwork; left-hand advantages in sports and creative arts; and the European Left-Handers Club…

  7. Prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were divided into hypertensives without left ventricular hypertrophy and those with left ventricular hypertrophy based on echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass index. Pulsed Doppler transmitral inflow and the pulmonary venous flow waves were used to categorise the patterns of diastolic dysfunction.

  8. Left Ventricular Geometry In Nigerians With Type II Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy is independently associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular and all cause mortality. In a relatively healthy hypertensive adult population, type II diabetes is associated with higher left ventricular mass, concentric left ventricular geometry and lower ...

  9. Isolated left carotid artery in CHARGE association: diagnosis and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalili, K; Issenberg, H J; Freeman, N J; Brodman, R F

    1990-07-01

    Isolation of the left carotid artery is extremely rare. We report a case of isolation of the left carotid artery with CHARGE association. Aortic arch abnormalities should be looked for in all children with CHARGE association. The technique of repair involved implantation of the isolated left carotid artery to the ascending aorta.

  10. Peripheral nervous system insulin resistance in ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Caleb W; Groover, Anna L; Ryals, Janelle M; Geiger, Paige C; Feldman, Eva L; Wright, Douglas E

    2013-05-10

    A reduction in peripheral nervous system (PNS) insulin signaling is a proposed mechanism that may contribute to sensory neuron dysfunction and diabetic neuropathy. Neuronal insulin resistance is associated with several neurological disorders and recent evidence has indicated that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in primary culture display altered insulin signaling, yet in vivo results are lacking. Here, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the PNS of insulin-resistant mice displays altered insulin signal transduction in vivo. For these studies, nondiabetic control and type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice were challenged with an intrathecal injection of insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and downstream signaling was evaluated in the DRG and sciatic nerve using Western blot analysis. The results indicate that insulin signaling abnormalities documented in other "insulin sensitive" tissues (i.e. muscle, fat, liver) of ob/ob mice are also present in the PNS. A robust increase in Akt activation was observed with insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in nondiabetic mice in both the sciatic nerve and DRG; however this response was blunted in both tissues from ob/ob mice. The results also suggest that upregulated JNK activation and reduced insulin receptor expression could be contributory mechanisms of PNS insulin resistance within sensory neurons. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that alterations in insulin signaling occur in the PNS and may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Central nervous system and cervical spine abnormalities in Apert syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breik, Omar; Mahindu, Antony; Moore, Mark H; Molloy, Cindy J; Santoreneos, Stephen; David, David J

    2016-05-01

    Apert syndrome characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare autosomal dominant congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1/65,000 births. With an extensive range of phenotypic and developmental manifestations, its management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A variety of craniofacial, central nervous system (CNS), and cervical spine abnormalities have been reported in these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence of these CNS abnormalities in our case series. Retrospective review of Australian Craniofacial Unit (ACFU) database for Apert patients was performed. Data collected that included demographics, place of origin, age at presentation, imaging performed, and images were reviewed and recorded. Where available, developmental data was also recorded. Ninety-four patients seen and managed at the ACFU had their CNS and cervical spine abnormalities documented. The main CNS abnormalities were prominent convolutional markings (67 %), ventriculomegaly (48 %), crowded foramen magnum (36 %), deficient septum pellucidum (13 %), and corpus callosum agenesis in 11 %. Major C-spine findings were present in 50.8 % of patients and included fusion of posterior elements of C5/C6 (50 %) and C3/4 (27 %). Multilevel fusion was seen in 20 %. Other abnormalities were C1 spina bifida occulta (7 %) and atlanto-axial subluxation (7 %). Multiple CNS and cervical spine (c-spine) abnormalities are common in Apert syndrome. The significance of these abnormalities remains largely unknown. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of these findings on growth, development, and treatment outcomes.

  12. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  13. Iron Homeostasis in Peripheral Nervous System, Still a Black Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveggia, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Iron is the most abundant transition metal in biology and an essential cofactor for many cellular enzymes. Iron homeostasis impairment is also a component of peripheral neuropathies. Recent Advances: During the past years, much effort has been paid to understand the molecular mechanism involved in maintaining systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. This has been stimulated by the evidence that iron dyshomeostasis is an initial cause of several disorders, including genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Critical Issues: However, very little has been done to investigate the physiological role of iron in peripheral nervous system (PNS), despite the development of suitable cellular and animal models. Future Directions: To stimulate research on iron metabolism and peripheral neuropathy, we provide a summary of the knowledge on iron homeostasis in the PNS, on its transport across the blood–nerve barrier, its involvement in myelination, and we identify unresolved questions. Furthermore, we comment on the role of iron in iron-related disorder with peripheral component, in demyelinating and metabolic peripheral neuropathies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 634–648. PMID:24409826

  14. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the central nervous system: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Section of Neuroradiology, Service of Radiology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Toni, G. de [University Hospital, Medical School of Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Borba, L.A. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Oliveira, G.G. [Division of Pathology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil)

    1995-11-01

    A retrospective analisis of six cases of central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis, all but one proven by biopsy and surgery, was carried out to study the CT and clinical data and pathological correlation. Most of the patients were from the country. Headache, vomiting, seizures and hemiparesis were the most frequent symptoms. Papilloedema was present in four patients with raised intracranial pressure. Five patients had chronic lung disease and two with advanced systemic disease, skin and mucous membrane lesions were also observed. The neurological disturbance was sometimes the presenting features and the diagnosis was discovered incidentally after surgery. Both solitary and multiple parenchymal lesions were observed and the cerebral hemispheres were more commonly involved in four patients. Local meningeal involvement was observed in one with a single cortical granuloma. We enphasise the usefulness of CT, showing a rounded or lobulated mass with an isodense or radiolucent centre after contrast enhancement, surrounded by an irregular wall of varying thickness. There was always moderate oedema, extending peripherally. Other infections or neoplastic diseases may present similar findings. Preoperative diagnosis should rest on integration of clinical data, chest films, laboratory and neuroimaging studies. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Maternal rearing environment impacts autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Capitanio, John P

    2017-05-01

    While it is now well known that social deprivation during early development permanently perturbs affective responding, accumulating evidence suggests that less severe restriction of the early social environment may also have deleterious effects. In the present report, we evaluate the affective responding of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) infants raised by their mothers in restricted social environments or by their mothers in large social groups by indexing autonomic nervous system activity. Following a 25-hr evaluation of biobehavioral organization, electrocardiogram, and an index of respiration were recorded for 10 min. This allowed for an evaluation of both heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic activity, during a challenging situation. Three- to four-month-old infants raised in restricted social environments had significantly higher heart rates and lower RSA as compared to infants raised in unrestricted social environments, consistent with a more potent stress response to the procedure. These results are consistent with mounting evidence that the environment in which individuals are raised has important consequences for affective processing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Complexity of autonomic nervous system function in individuals with COPD

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    Laís Manata Vanzella

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate autonomic modulation in individuals with COPD, compared with healthy controls, via recurrence plots (RPs and linear heart rate variability (HRV indices. Methods: We analyzed data on 74 volunteers, who were divided into two groups: COPD (n = 43 and control (n = 31. For calculation of HRV indices, heart rate was measured beat-by-beat during 30 min of supine rest using a heart-rate meter. We analyzed linear indices in the time and frequency domains, as well as indices derived from the RPs. Results: In comparison with the control group, the COPD group showed significant increases in the indices derived from the RPs, as well as significant reductions in the linear indices in the time and frequency domains. No significant differences were observed in the linear indices in the frequency domains expressed in normalized units or in the low frequency/high frequency ratio. Conclusions: Individuals with COPD show a reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, associated with decreased complexity of autonomic nervous system function, as identified by RPs, which provide important complementary information in the detection of autonomic changes in this population.

  17. Delayed cell death signaling in traumatized central nervous system: hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Danielle; Qiu, JingXin; Grafe, Marjorie; Fabian, Roderick; Kent, Thomas A; Rassin, David; Nesic, Olivera; Werrbach-Perez, Karin; Perez-Polo, Regino

    2002-02-01

    There are two different ways for cells to die: necrosis and apoptosis. Cell death has traditionally been described as necrotic or apoptotic based on morphological criteria. There are controversy about the respective roles of apoptosis and necrosis in cell death resulting from trauma to the central nervous system (CNS). An evaluation of work published since 1997 in which electron microscopy was applied to ascertain the role of apoptosis and necrosis in: spinal cord injury, stroke, and hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) showed evidence for necrosis and apoptosis based on DNA degradation, presence of histones in cytoplasm, and morphological evidence in spinal cord. In the aftermath of stroke, many of the biochemical markers for apoptosis were present but the morphological determinations suggested that necrosis is the major source of post-traumatic cell death. This was not the case in H/I where both biochemical assays and the morphological studies gave more consistent results in a manner similar to the spinal cord injury studies. After H/I, major factors affecting cell death outcomes are DNA damage and repair processes, expression of bcl-like gene products and inflammation-triggered cytokine production.

  18. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

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    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  19. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  20. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O'Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement