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Sample records for left prefrontal region

  1. Left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia.

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    Holi, Matti M; Eronen, Markku; Toivonen, Kari; Toivonen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri; Naukkarinen, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    In a double-blind, controlled study, we examined the therapeutic effects of high-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on schizophrenia symptoms. A total of 22 chronic hospitalized schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to 2 weeks (10 sessions) of real or sham rTMS. rTMS was given with the following parameters: 20 trains of 5-second 10-Hz stimulation at 100 percent motor threshold, 30 seconds apart. Effects on positive and negative symptoms, self-reported symptoms, rough neuropsychological functioning, and hormones were assessed. Although there was a significant improvement in both groups in most of the symptom measures, no real differences were found between the groups. A decrease of more than 20 percent in the total PANSS score was found in 7 control subjects but only 1 subject from the real rTMS group. There was no change in hormone levels or neuropsychological functioning, measured by the MMSE, in either group. Left prefrontal rTMS (with the used parameters) seems to produce a significant nonspecific effect of the treatment procedure but no therapeutic effect in the most chronic and severely ill schizophrenia patients.

  2. Major Thought Restructuring: The Roles of Different Prefrontal Cortical Regions.

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    Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Avanaki, Zahra Nasiri; Bahrami, Bahador; Shallice, Tim

    2017-07-01

    An important question for understanding the neural basis of problem solving is whether the regions of human prefrontal cortices play qualitatively different roles in the major cognitive restructuring required to solve difficult problems. However, investigating this question using neuroimaging faces a major dilemma: either the problems do not require major cognitive restructuring, or if they do, the restructuring typically happens once, rendering repeated measurements of the critical mental process impossible. To circumvent these problems, young adult participants were challenged with a one-dimensional Subtraction (or Nim) problem [Bouton, C. L. Nim, a game with a complete mathematical theory. The Annals of Mathematics, 3, 35-39, 1901] that can be tackled using two possible strategies. One, often used initially, is effortful, slow, and error-prone, whereas the abstract solution, once achieved, is easier, quicker, and more accurate. Behaviorally, success was strongly correlated with sex. Using voxel-based morphometry analysis controlling for sex, we found that participants who found the more abstract strategy (i.e., Solvers) had more gray matter volume in the anterior medial, ventrolateral prefrontal, and parietal cortices compared with those who never switched from the initial effortful strategy (i.e., Explorers). Removing the sex covariate showed higher gray matter volume in Solvers (vs. Explorers) in the right ventrolateral prefrontal and left parietal cortex.

  3. Differential contribution of left and right prefrontal cortex to associative cued-recall memory: a parametric PET study.

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    Lepage, Martin

    2004-03-01

    Several brain imaging studies have implicated prefrontal regions bilaterally during cued-recall memory tasks and yet the functional significance of these regions remains poorly understood. Using PET, we examined the neural activity in prefrontal regions of 15 subjects while they performed three cued-recall tasks differing in pre-experimental semantic associations between cues and targets. This manipulation produced varying levels of retrieval performance when one member (a semantic category name) of the triad was used as a cue for the retrieval of the other two members. The percentage of items correctly recalled was 10, 46, and 70 in the low, medium, and high cued-recall conditions, respectively. Linear contrast analyses of the PET data identified brain regions where neural activity varied with the number of items retrieved from memory. A left lateral prefrontal region showed maximal activity during the high cued-recall condition, which likely reflects processes involved in retrieval success and possibly in the generation of memory responses. Three right prefrontal regions (anterior and dorsolateral) showed maximal activity during the low cued-recall condition, which likely reflects processes involved in memory search/monitoring. These findings add further support for a bilateral prefrontal contribution to memory cued-recall tasks and point to differential roles of the two hemispheres.

  4. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

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    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  5. Differential involvement of left prefrontal cortex in inductive and deductive reasoning.

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    Goel, Vinod; Dolan, Raymond J

    2004-10-01

    While inductive and deductive reasoning are considered distinct logical and psychological processes, little is known about their respective neural basis. To address this issue we scanned 16 subjects with fMRI, using an event-related design, while they engaged in inductive and deductive reasoning tasks. Both types of reasoning were characterized by activation of left lateral prefrontal and bilateral dorsal frontal, parietal, and occipital cortices. Neural responses unique to each type of reasoning determined from the Reasoning Type (deduction and induction) by Task (reasoning and baseline) interaction indicated greater involvement of left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44) in deduction than induction, while left dorsolateral (BA 8/9) prefrontal gyrus showed greater activity during induction than deduction. This pattern suggests a dissociation within prefrontal cortex for deductive and inductive reasoning.

  6. Tempering Proactive Cognitive Control by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Right (but Not the Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

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    Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroimaging data support the distinction of two different modes of cognitive control: proactive, which involves the active and sustained maintenance of task-relevant information to bias behavior in accordance with internal goals; and reactive, which entails the detection and resolution of interference at the time it occurs. Both control modes may be flexibly deployed depending on a variety of conditions (i.e., age, brain alterations, motivational factors, prior experience. Critically, and in line with specific predictions derived from the dual mechanisms of control account (Braver, 2012, findings from neuroimaging studies indicate that the same lateral prefrontal regions (i.e., left dorsolateral cortex and right inferior frontal junction may implement different control modes on the basis of temporal dynamics of activity, which would be modulated in response to external or internal conditions. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether transcraneal direct current stimulation over either the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the right inferior frontal junction would differentially modulate performance on the AX-CPT, a well-validated task that provides sensitive and reliable behavioral indices of proactive/reactive control. The study comprised six conditions of real stimulation [3 (site: left dorsolateral, right dorsolateral and right inferior frontal junction × 2 (polarity: anodal and cathodal], and one sham condition. The reference electrode was always placed extracephalically. Performance on the AX-CPT was assessed through two blocks of trials. The first block took place while stimulation was being delivered, whereas the second block was administered after stimulation completion. The results indicate that both offline cathodal stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and online anodal stimulation of the right inferior frontal junction led participants to be much less proactive, with such a dissociation

  7. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate pathway: New evidence for cue-induced craving of smokers.

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    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Wang, Ruonan; Li, Min; Zhang, Yajuan; Dong, Minghao; Zhai, Jinquan; Li, Yangding; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Although the activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the striatum had been found in smoking cue induced craving task, whether and how the functional interactions and white matter integrity between these brain regions contribute to craving processing during smoking cue exposure remains unknown. Twenty-five young male smokers and 26 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in the smoking cue-reactivity task. Craving related brain activation was extracted and psychophysiological interactions (PPI) analysis was used to specify the PFC-efferent pathways contributed to smoking cue-induced craving. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography was used to explore whether the fiber connectivity strength facilitated functional coupling of the circuit with the smoking cue-induced craving. The PPI analysis revealed the negative functional coupling of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the caudate during smoking cue induced craving task, which positively correlated with the craving score. Neither significant activation nor functional connectivity in smoking cue exposure task was detected in nonsmokers. DTI analyses revealed that fiber tract integrity negatively correlated with functional coupling in the DLPFC-caudate pathway and activation of the caudate induced by smoking cue in smokers. Moreover, the relationship between the fiber connectivity integrity of the left DLPFC-caudate and smoking cue induced caudate activation can be fully mediated by functional coupling strength of this circuit in smokers. The present study highlighted the left DLPFC-caudate pathway in smoking cue-induced craving in smokers, which may reflect top-down prefrontal modulation of striatal reward processing in smoking cue induced craving processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4644-4656, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Single Session Low Frequency Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Changes Neurometabolite Relationships in Healthy Humans

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    Nathaniel R. Bridges

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS has shown promise as a treatment and investigative tool in the medical and research communities. Researchers have made significant progress elucidating DLPFC LF-rTMS effects—primarily in individuals with psychiatric disorders. However, more efforts investigating underlying molecular changes and establishing links to functional and behavioral outcomes in healthy humans are needed.Objective: We aimed to quantify neuromolecular changes and relate these to functional changes following a single session of DLPFC LF-rTMS in healthy participants.Methods: Eleven participants received sham-controlled neuronavigated 1 Hz rTMS to the region most activated by a 7-letter Sternberg working memory task (SWMT within the left DLPFC. We quantified SWMT performance, functional magnetic resonance activation and proton Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS neurometabolite measure changes before and after stimulation.Results: A single LF-rTMS session was not sufficient to change DLPFC neurometabolite levels and these changes did not correlate with DLPFC activation changes. Real rTMS, however, significantly altered neurometabolite correlations (compared to sham rTMS, both with baseline levels and between the metabolites themselves. Additionally, real rTMS was associated with diminished reaction time (RT performance improvements and increased activation within the motor, somatosensory and lateral occipital cortices.Conclusion: These results show that a single session of LF-rTMS is sufficient to influence metabolite relationships and causes widespread activation in healthy humans. Investigating correlational relationships may provide insight into mechanisms underlying LF-rTMS.

  9. tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex enhances cognitive control for positive affective stimuli.

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    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; Brunoni, Andre R; Campanhã, Camila; Baeken, Chris; Remue, Jonathan; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP) as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation), we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial expressions. Gender did not influence the effects of tDCS on cognitive control for emotional information. In line with the Valence Theory of side-lateralized activity, this stimulation protocol might have led to a left dominant (relative to right) prefrontal cortical activity, resulting in augmented cognitive control specifically for positive relative to negative stimuli. To verify that tDCS induces effects that are in line with all aspects of the well known Valence Theory, future research should investigate the effects of tDCS over the left vs. right DLPFC on cognitive control for emotional information.

  10. tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex enhances cognitive control for positive affective stimuli.

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    Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation, we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial expressions. Gender did not influence the effects of tDCS on cognitive control for emotional information. In line with the Valence Theory of side-lateralized activity, this stimulation protocol might have led to a left dominant (relative to right prefrontal cortical activity, resulting in augmented cognitive control specifically for positive relative to negative stimuli. To verify that tDCS induces effects that are in line with all aspects of the well known Valence Theory, future research should investigate the effects of tDCS over the left vs. right DLPFC on cognitive control for emotional information.

  11. Brain structural network topological alterations of the left prefrontal and limbic cortex in psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

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    Chen, Jianhuai; Chen, Yun; Gao, Qingqiang; Chen, Guotao; Dai, Yutian; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2018-05-01

    Despite increasing understanding of the cerebral functional changes and structural abnormalities in erectile dysfunction, alterations in the topological organization of brain networks underlying psychogenic erectile dysfunction remain unclear. Here, based on the diffusion tensor image data of 25 patients and 26 healthy controls, we investigated the topological organization of brain structural networks and its correlations with the clinical variables using the graph theoretical analysis. Patients displayed a preserved overall small-world organization and exhibited a less connectivity strength in the left inferior frontal gyrus, amygdale and the right inferior temporal gyrus. Moreover, an abnormal hub pattern was observed in patients, which might disturb the information interactions of the remaining brain network. Additionally, the clustering coefficient of the left hippocampus was positively correlated with the duration of patients and the normalized betweenness centrality of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left calcarine fissure were negatively correlated with the sum scores of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. These findings suggested that the damaged white matter and the abnormal hub distribution of the left prefrontal and limbic cortex might contribute to the pathogenesis of psychogenic erectile dysfunction and provided new insights into the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

  12. Semantic encoding and retrieval in the left inferior prefrontal cortex: a functional MRI study of task difficulty and process specificity.

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    Demb, J B; Desmond, J E; Wagner, A D; Vaidya, C J; Glover, G H; Gabrieli, J D

    1995-09-01

    Prefrontal cortical function was examined during semantic encoding and repetition priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a noninvasive technique for localizing regional changes in blood oxygenation, a correlate of neural activity. Words studied in a semantic (deep) encoding condition were better remembered than words studied in both easier and more difficult nonsemantic (shallow) encoding conditions, with difficulty indexed by response time. The left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) (Brodmann's areas 45, 46, 47) showed increased activation during semantic encoding relative to nonsemantic encoding regardless of the relative difficulty of the nonsemantic encoding task. Therefore, LIPC activation appears to be related to semantic encoding and not task difficulty. Semantic encoding decisions are performed faster the second time words are presented. This represents semantic repetition priming, a facilitation in semantic processing for previously encoded words that is not dependent on intentional recollection. The same LIPC area activated during semantic encoding showed decreased activation during repeated semantic encoding relative to initial semantic encoding of the same words. This decrease in activation during repeated encoding was process specific; it occurred when words were semantically reprocessed but not when words were nonsemantically reprocessed. The results were apparent in both individual and averaged functional maps. These findings suggest that the LIPC is part of a semantic executive system that contributes to the on-line retrieval of semantic information.

  13. Congenital olfactory impairment is linked to cortical changes in prefrontal and limbic brain regions

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    Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Vestergaard, Martin; Baaré, William F C

    2018-01-01

    differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI...... in left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal sulcus (SFS). COI subjects with severe olfactory impairment (anosmia) had reduced grey matter volume in the left mOFC and increased volume in right piriform cortex and SFS. Within the COI group olfactory ability, measured with the "Sniffin' Sticks...... piriform cortex, while olfactory identification was negatively associated with right SFS volume. Our findings suggest that lifelong olfactory deprivation trigger changes in the cortical volume of prefrontal and limbic brain regions previously linked to olfactory memory....

  14. Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words

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    Nishizawa, Y; Olsen, T S; Larsen, B

    1982-01-01

    1. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during rest and during listening to simple words. The xenon-133 intracarotid technique was used and results were obtained from 254 regions of seven right hemispheres and seven left hemispheres. The measurements were performed just after carotid...... of the entire hemisphere. The focal rCBF increases were localized to the superior part of the temporal regions, the prefrontal regions, the frontal eye fields, and the orbitofrontal regions. Significant asymmetries were found in particular in the superior temporal region with the left side showing a more...

  15. Lesions to the left lateral prefrontal cortex impair decision threshold adjustment for lexical selection.

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    Anders, Royce; Riès, Stéphanie; Van Maanen, Leendert; Alario, F-Xavier

    Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data. We also compare the results to healthy speakers. Analysis of the cognitive parameters indicates an impairment of the PFC patients to appropriately adjust their decision threshold, in order to handle the increased item difficulty that is introduced by semantic interference. Also, the modelling contributes to other topics in psycholinguistic theory, in which specific effects are observed on the cognitive parameters according to item familiarization, and the opposing effects of priming (lower threshold) and semantic interference (lower drift) which are found to depend on repetition. These results are developed for the blocked-cyclic picture naming paradigm, in which pictures are presented within semantically homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (HET) blocks, and are repeated several times per block. Overall, the results are in agreement with a role of the left PFC in adjusting the decision threshold for lexical selection in language production.

  16. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex shifts preference of moral judgments.

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    Maria Kuehne

    Full Text Available Attitude to morality, reflecting cultural norms and values, is considered unique to human social behavior. Resulting moral behavior in a social environment is controlled by a widespread neural network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, which plays an important role in decision making. In the present study we investigate the influence of neurophysiological modulation of DLPFC reactivity by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on moral reasoning. For that purpose we administered anodal, cathodal, and sham stimulation of the left DLPFC while subjects judged the appropriateness of hard moral personal dilemmas. In contrast to sham and cathodal stimulation, anodal stimulation induced a shift in judgment of personal moral dilemmas towards more non-utilitarian actions. Our results demonstrate that alterations of left DLPFC activity can change moral judgments and, in consequence, provide a causal link between left DLPFC activity and moral reasoning. Most important, the observed shift towards non-utilitarian actions suggests that moral decision making is not a permanent individual trait but can be manipulated; consequently individuals with boundless, uncontrollable, and maladaptive moral behavior, such as found in psychopathy, might benefit from neuromodulation-based approaches.

  17. Left prefrontal neuronavigated electrode localization in tDCS : 10–20 EEG system versus MRI-guided neuronavigation

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    De Witte, Sara; Klooster, Debby; Dedoncker, Josefien; Duprat, Romain; Remue, Jonathan; Baeken, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) involves positioning two electrodes at specifically targeted locations on the human scalp. In neuropsychiatric research, the anode is often placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while the cathode is positioned over a contralateral

  18. Categorization is modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation over left prefrontal cortex.

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    Lupyan, Gary; Mirman, Daniel; Hamilton, Roy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2012-07-01

    Humans have an unparalleled ability to represent objects as members of multiple categories. A given object, such as a pillow may be-depending on current task demands-represented as an instance of something that is soft, as something that contains feathers, as something that is found in bedrooms, or something that is larger than a toaster. This type of processing requires the individual to dynamically highlight task-relevant properties and abstract over or suppress object properties that, although salient, are not relevant to the task at hand. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence suggests that this ability may depend on cognitive control processes associated with the left inferior prefrontal gyrus. Here, we show that stimulating the left inferior frontal cortex using transcranial direct current stimulation alters performance of healthy subjects on a simple categorization task. Our task required subjects to select pictures matching a description, e.g., "click on all the round things." Cathodal stimulation led to poorer performance on classification trials requiring attention to specific dimensions such as color or shape as opposed to trials that required selecting items belonging to a more thematic category such as objects that hold water. A polarity reversal (anodal stimulation) lowered the threshold for selecting items that were more weakly associated with the target category. These results illustrate the role of frontally-mediated control processes in categorization and suggest potential interactions between categorization, cognitive control, and language. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Categorization is modulated by transcranical direct current stimulation over left prefrontal cortex

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    Lupyan, Gary; Mirman, Daniel; Hamilton, Roy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have an unparalleled ability to represent objects as members of multiple categories. A given object, such as a pillow may be—depending on current task demands—represented as an instance of something that is soft, as something that contains feathers, as something that is found in bedrooms, or something that is larger than a toaster. This type of processing requires the individual to dynamically highlight task-relevant properties and abstract over or suppress object properties that, although salient, are not relevant to the task at hand. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence suggests that this ability may depend on cognitive control processes associated with the left inferior prefrontal gyrus. Here, we show that stimulating the left inferior frontal cortex using transcranial direct current stimulation alters performance of healthy subjects on a simple categorization task. Our task required subjects to select pictures matching a description, e.g., “click on all the round things.“ Cathodal stimulation led to poorer performance on classification trials requiring attention to specific dimensions such as color or shape as opposed to trials that required selecting items belonging to a more thematic category such as objects that hold water. A polarity reversal (anodal stimulation) lowered the threshold for selecting items that were more weakly associated with the target category. These results illustrate the role of frontally-mediated control processes in categorization and suggest potential interactions between categorization, cognitive control, and language. PMID:22578885

  20. Enhancement Of Motor Recovery Through Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation After Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Shahram Oveisgharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two previous studies, which investigated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS use in motor recovery after acute ischemic stroke, did not show tDCS to be effective in this regard. We speculated that additional left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ‎(DLPFC ‎stimulation may enhance post stroke motor recovery.  ‎ Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 20 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited. Patients received real motor cortex (M1 stimulation in both arms of the trial. The two arms differed in terms of real vs. sham stimulation over the left DLPFC‎. Motor component of the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity assessment (FM and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT scores were used to assess primary outcomes, and non-linear mixed effects models were used for data analyses. Results: Primary outcome measures improved more and faster among the real stimulation group. During the first days of stimulations, sham group’s FM scores increased 1.2 scores per day, while real group’s scores increased 1.7 scores per day (P = 0.003. In the following days, FM improvement decelerated in both groups. Based on the derived models, a hypothetical stroke patient with baseline FM score of 15 improves to 32 in the sham stimulation group and to 41 in the real stimulation group within the first month after stroke. Models with ARAT scores yielded nearly similar results. Conclusion: The current study results showed that left DLPFC‎ stimulation in conjunction with M1 stimulation resulted in better motor recovery than M1 stimulation alone.

  1. Effect of Bilateral Prefrontal rTMS on Left Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Schizophrenia Patients with Predominant Negative Symptoms: An Exploratory Study.

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    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J; Liemburg, Edith J; Bais, Leonie; van de Poel-Mustafayeva, Aida T; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S M; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    Prefrontal repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) may improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanism. This study aims to investigate changes in the levels of glutamate and glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia treated with active bilateral prefrontal rTMS as compared to sham-rTMS, as measured with 1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Patients were randomized to a 3-week course of active or sham high-frequency rTMS. Pre-treatment and post-treatment 1 H-MRS data were available for 24 patients with schizophrenia with moderate to severe negative symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale ≥ 15). Absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated using LCModel with the water peak as reference. To explore the association between treatment condition and changes in concentration of Glx and NAA, we applied a linear regression model. We observed an increase of Glx concentration in the active treatment group and a decrease of Glx concentration in the group receiving sham treatment. The association between changes in Glx concentration and treatment condition was significant. No significant associations between changes in NAA and treatment condition were found. Noninvasive neurostimulation with high-frequency bilateral prefrontal rTMS may influence Glx concentration in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and further elucidate the underlying neural working mechanism of rTMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for medication-resistant burning mouth syndrome.

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    Umezaki, Y; Badran, B W; Gonzales, T S; George, M S

    2015-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a persistent and chronic burning sensation in the mouth in the absence of any abnormal organic findings. The pathophysiology of BMS is unclear and its treatment is not fully established. Although antidepressant medication is commonly used for treatment, there are some medication-resistant patients, and a new treatment for medication-resistant BMS is needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technology approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of depression. Recent studies have found beneficial effects of TMS for the treatment of pain. A case of BMS treated successfully with daily left prefrontal rTMS over a 2-week period is reported here. Based on this patient's clinical course and a recent pain study, the mechanism by which TMS may act to decrease the burning pain is discussed. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deficit in rewarding mechanisms and prefrontal left/right cortical effect in vulnerability for internet addiction.

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    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta

    2016-10-01

    The present research explored the cortical correlates of rewarding mechanisms and cortical 'unbalance' effect in internet addiction (IA) vulnerability. Internet Addiction Inventory (IAT) and personality trait (Behavioural Inhibition System, BIS; Behavioural Activation System, BAS) were applied to 28 subjects. Electroencephalographic (EEG, alpha frequency band) and response times (RTs) were registered during a Go-NoGo task execution in response to different online stimuli: gambling videos, videogames or neutral stimuli. Higher-IAT (more than 50 score, with moderate or severe internet addiction) and lower-IAT (internet addiction). Alpha band and RTs were affected by IAT, with significant bias (reduced RTs) for high-IAT in response to gambling videos and videogames; and by BAS, BAS-Reward subscale (BAS-R), since not only higher-IAT, but also BAS and BAS-R values determined an increasing of left prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity (alpha reduction) in response to videogames and gambling stimuli for both Go and NoGo conditions, in addition to decreased RTs for these stimuli categories. The increased PFC responsiveness and the lateralisation (left PFC hemisphere) effect in NoGo condition was explained on the basis of a 'rewarding bias' towards more rewarding cues and a deficit in inhibitory control in higher-IAT and higher-BAS subjects. In contrast lower-IAT and lower-BAS predicted a decreased PFC response and increased RTs for NoGo (inhibitory mechanism). These results may support the significance of personality (BAS) and IAT measures for explaining future internet addiction behaviour based on this observed 'vulnerability'.

  4. Modulation of the Left Prefrontal Cortex with High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Facilitates Gait in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Amer M. Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a chronic central nervous system (CNS demyelinating disease. Gait abnormalities are common and disabling in patients with MS with limited treatment options available. Emerging evidence suggests a role of prefrontal attention networks in modulating gait. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is known to enhance cortical excitability in stimulated cortex and its correlates. We investigated the effect of high-frequency left prefrontal rTMS on gait parameters in a 51-year-old Caucasian male with chronic relapsing/remitting MS with residual disabling attention and gait symptoms. Patient received 6 Hz, rTMS at 90% motor threshold using figure of eight coil centered on F3 location (using 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG lead localization system. GAITRite gait analysis system was used to collect objective gait measures before and after one session and in another occasion three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Two-tailed within subject repeated measure t-test showed significant enhancement in ambulation time, gait velocity, and cadence after three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Modulating left prefrontal cortex excitability using rTMS resulted in significant change in gait parameters after three sessions. To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates the effect of rTMS applied to the prefrontal cortex on gait in MS patients.

  5. Short-Term Memory Impairment and Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Dysfunction in the Orthostatic Position: A Single Case Study of Sinking Skin Flap Syndrome

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    Luca Sebastianelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient who underwent craniectomy for hemorrhage of the left parietal lobe. Three weeks later, orthostatic memory impairment was detected as initial symptom of sinking skin flap syndrome (SSFS. This deficit was examined by neuropsychological testing and associated with a posture-dependent increase in the delta/alpha ratio at the F3 electrode, an electroencephalographic (EEG index related to brain hypoperfusion. This EEG spectral alteration was detected in a brain region that includes the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, an area known to be involved in memory processing; therefore we hypothesize that SSFS induced reversible hypoperfusion of this otherwise undamaged cortical region. Neither of these findings was present after cranioplasty. This case suggests that SSFS may induce neuropsychological deficits potentially influencing outcome in the postacute phase and is further evidence supporting the clinical benefits of early cranioplasty.

  6. rTMS on left prefrontal cortex contributes to memories for positive emotional cues: a comparison between pictures and words.

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    Balconi, M; Cobelli, C

    2015-02-26

    The present research explored the cortical correlates of emotional memories in response to words and pictures. Subjects' performance (Accuracy Index, AI; response times, RTs; RTs/AI) was considered when a repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) was applied on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC). Specifically, the role of LDLPFC was tested by performing a memory task, in which old (previously encoded targets) and new (previously not encoded distractors) emotional pictures/words had to be recognized. Valence (positive vs. negative) and arousing power (high vs. low) of stimuli were also modulated. Moreover, subjective evaluation of emotional stimuli in terms of valence/arousal was explored. We found significant performance improving (higher AI, reduced RTs, improved general performance) in response to rTMS. This "better recognition effect" was only related to specific emotional features, that is positive high arousal pictures or words. Moreover no significant differences were found between stimulus categories. A direct relationship was also observed between subjective evaluation of emotional cues and memory performance when rTMS was applied to LDLPFC. Supported by valence and approach model of emotions, we supposed that a left lateralized prefrontal system may induce a better recognition of positive high arousal words, and that evaluation of emotional cue is related to prefrontal activation, affecting the recognition memories of emotions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Left Prefrontal Activity Reflects the Ability of Vicarious Fear Learning: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

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    Qingguo Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear could be acquired indirectly via social observation. However, it remains unclear which cortical substrate activities are involved in vicarious fear transmission. The present study was to examine empathy-related processes during fear learning by-proxy and to examine the activation of prefrontal cortex by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We simultaneously measured participants’ hemodynamic responses and skin conductance responses when they were exposed to a movie. In this movie, a demonstrator (i.e., another human being was receiving a classical fear conditioning. A neutral colored square paired with shocks (CSshock and another colored square paired with no shocks (CSno-shock were randomly presented in front of the demonstrator. Results showed that increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in left prefrontal cortex was observed when participants watched a demonstrator seeing CSshock compared with that exposed to CSno-shock. In addition, enhanced skin conductance responses showing a demonstrator's aversive experience during learning object-fear association were observed. The present study suggests that left prefrontal cortex, which may reflect speculation of others’ mental state, is associated with social fear transmission.

  8. Left prefrontal activity reflects the ability of vicarious fear learning: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Huang, Yujing; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Fear could be acquired indirectly via social observation. However, it remains unclear which cortical substrate activities are involved in vicarious fear transmission. The present study was to examine empathy-related processes during fear learning by-proxy and to examine the activation of prefrontal cortex by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We simultaneously measured participants' hemodynamic responses and skin conductance responses when they were exposed to a movie. In this movie, a demonstrator (i.e., another human being) was receiving a classical fear conditioning. A neutral colored square paired with shocks (CS(shock)) and another colored square paired with no shocks (CS(no-shock)) were randomly presented in front of the demonstrator. Results showed that increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in left prefrontal cortex was observed when participants watched a demonstrator seeing CS(shock) compared with that exposed to CS(no-shock). In addition, enhanced skin conductance responses showing a demonstrator's aversive experience during learning object-fear association were observed. The present study suggests that left prefrontal cortex, which may reflect speculation of others' mental state, is associated with social fear transmission.

  9. Elevated left and reduced right orbitomedial prefrontal fractional anisotropy in adults with bipolar disorder revealed by tract-based spatial statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Amelia; Almeida, Jorge R C; Hassel, Stefanie; Walsh, Nicholas D; Novelli, Massimiliano; Klein, Crystal R; Kupfer, David J; Phillips, Mary L

    2008-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in adults with bipolar disorder (BD) indicate altered white matter (WM) in the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC), potentially underlying abnormal prefrontal corticolimbic connectivity and mood dysregulation in BD. To use tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to examine WM skeleton (ie, the most compact whole-brain WM) in subjects with BD vs healthy control subjects. Cross-sectional, case-control, whole-brain DTI using TBSS. University research institute. Fifty-six individuals, 31 having a DSM-IV diagnosis of BD type I (mean age, 35.9 years [age range, 24-52 years]) and 25 controls (mean age, 29.5 years [age range, 19-52 years]). Fractional anisotropy (FA) longitudinal and radial diffusivities in subjects with BD vs controls (covarying for age) and their relationships with clinical and demographic variables. Subjects with BD vs controls had significantly greater FA (t > 3.0, P left uncinate fasciculus (reduced radial diffusivity distally and increased longitudinal diffusivity centrally), left optic radiation (increased longitudinal diffusivity), and right anterothalamic radiation (no significant diffusivity change). Subjects with BD vs controls had significantly reduced FA (t > 3.0, P right uncinate fasciculus (greater radial diffusivity). Among subjects with BD, significant negative correlations (P right anterothalamic radiation, as well as between medication load and FA in the left optic radiation. Decreased FA (P left optic radiation and in the right anterothalamic radiation among subjects with BD taking vs those not taking mood stabilizers, as well as in the left optic radiation among depressed vs remitted subjects with BD. Subjects having BD with vs without lifetime alcohol or other drug abuse had significantly decreased FA in the left uncinate fasciculus. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use TBSS to examine WM in subjects with BD. Subjects with BD vs controls showed greater WM FA in the left OMPFC that

  10. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex enhances emotion recognition in depressed patients and controls.

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    Brennan, Sean; McLoughlin, Declan M; O'Connell, Redmond; Bogue, John; O'Connor, Stephanie; McHugh, Caroline; Glennon, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance a range of neuropsychological functions but its efficacy in addressing clinically significant emotion recognition deficits associated with depression is largely untested. A randomized crossover placebo controlled study was used to investigate the effects of tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) on a range of neuropsychological variables associated with depression as well as neural activity in the associated brain region. A series of computerized tests was administered to clinical (n = 17) and control groups (n = 20) during sham and anodal (1.5 mA) stimulation. Anodal tDCS led to a significant main effect for overall emotion recognition (p = .02), with a significant improvement in the control group (p = .04). Recognition of disgust was significantly greater in the clinical group (p = .01). Recognition of anger was significantly improved for the clinical group (p = .04) during anodal stimulation. Differences between groups for each of the six emotions at varying levels of expression found that at 40% during anodal stimulation, happy recognition significantly improved for the clinical group (p = .01). Anger recognition at 80% during anodal stimulation significantly improved for the clinical group (p = .02). These improvements were observed in the absence of any change in psychomotor speed or trail making ability during anodal stimulation. Working memory significantly improved during anodal stimulation for the clinical group but not for controls (p = .03). The tentative findings of this study indicate that tDCS can have a neuromodulatory effect on a range of neuropsychological variables. However, it is clear that there was a wide variation in responses to tDCS and that individual difference and different approaches to testing and stimulation have a significant impact on final outcomes. Nonetheless, tDCS remains a promising tool for future neuropsychological research.

  11. Effects of Unilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Left Prefrontal Cortex on Processing and Memory of Emotional Visual Stimuli.

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    Stefania Balzarotti

    Full Text Available The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is generally thought to be involved in affect and emotional processing; however, the specific contribution of each hemisphere continues to be debated. In the present study, we employed unilateral tDCS to test the unique contribution of left DLPFC in the encoding and retrieval of emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. Forty-two right handed undergraduate students received either anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation of left DLPFC while viewing neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. After completing a filler task, participants were asked to remember as many pictures as possible. Results showed that participants were able to remember a larger amount of emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant pictures than of neutral ones, regardless of the type of tDCS condition. Participants who received anodal stimulation recalled a significantly higher number of pleasant images than participants in the sham and cathodal conditions, while no differences emerged in the recall of neutral and unpleasant pictures. We conclude that our results provide some support to the role of left prefrontal cortex in the encoding and retrieval of pleasant stimuli.

  12. Effects of Unilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Left Prefrontal Cortex on Processing and Memory of Emotional Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarotti, Stefania; Colombo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is generally thought to be involved in affect and emotional processing; however, the specific contribution of each hemisphere continues to be debated. In the present study, we employed unilateral tDCS to test the unique contribution of left DLPFC in the encoding and retrieval of emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. Forty-two right handed undergraduate students received either anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation of left DLPFC while viewing neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. After completing a filler task, participants were asked to remember as many pictures as possible. Results showed that participants were able to remember a larger amount of emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant) pictures than of neutral ones, regardless of the type of tDCS condition. Participants who received anodal stimulation recalled a significantly higher number of pleasant images than participants in the sham and cathodal conditions, while no differences emerged in the recall of neutral and unpleasant pictures. We conclude that our results provide some support to the role of left prefrontal cortex in the encoding and retrieval of pleasant stimuli.

  13. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Affects Brain Structure in Prefrontal and Motor Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the “non-flipped” data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the “flipped” data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control. PMID:24416397

  14. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

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    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  15. Emergence of realism: Enhanced visual artistry and high accuracy of visual numerosity representation after left prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Saito, Fumie; Muramatsu, Taro; Yamada, Makiko; Shirahase, Joichiro; Tabuchi, Hajime; Suhara, Tetsuya; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Motoichiro

    2014-05-01

    Over the last two decades, evidence of enhancement of drawing and painting skills due to focal prefrontal damage has accumulated. It is of special interest that most artworks created by such patients were highly realistic ones, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be understood. Our hypothesis is that enhanced tendency of realism was associated with accuracy of visual numerosity representation, which has been shown to be mediated predominantly by right parietal functions. Here, we report a case of left prefrontal stroke, where the patient showed enhancement of artistic skills of realistic painting after the onset of brain damage. We investigated cognitive, functional and esthetic characteristics of the patient׳s visual artistry and visual numerosity representation. Neuropsychological tests revealed impaired executive function after the stroke. Despite that, the patient׳s visual artistry related to realism was rather promoted across the onset of brain damage as demonstrated by blind evaluation of the paintings by professional art reviewers. On visual numerical cognition tasks, the patient showed higher performance in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. These results paralleled increased perfusion in the right parietal cortex including the precuneus and intraparietal sulcus. Our data provide new insight into mechanisms underlying change in artistic style due to focal prefrontal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in online sentence processing

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    Nazbanou Nozari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with damage to the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC are often not impaired in understanding simple sentences. It is, however, possible that the damage may cause subclinical effects. If VLPFC has a role in biasing competition towards what is relevant to the task, we would expect patients with VLPFC damage to be slower in using the relevant information and discarding the irrelevant information when they process sentences online. Methods: Nine patients, five with lesions limited to VLPFC, and four with lesions sparing VLPFC participated. The groups were matched in age, education, WAB-AQ and total lesion volume. Two experiments explored processing of online cues during sentence comprehension by tracking eye fixations in a Visual World paradigm with four pictures. Participants only listened to the sentences and looked at the pictures. Experiment 1 investigated how quickly cues can be used for target identification using a simple “She will [verb] the [target].” sentence structure. The verbs in the restrictive condition were compatible with only one of the four pictures (e.g., “eat”; target “apple” + three inedible competitors. The verbs in the control conditions were matched to the restrictive verbs in length and frequency, but did not point to a unique target (e.g., “see”. If VLPFC is critical for quickly biasing competition towards the relevant target, the VLPFC patients should to be slower than the non-VLPFC patients in fixating the noun when the verb is restrictive. Experiment 2 probed how effectively irrelevant cues are suppressed. A similar Visual World paradigm was used, but all verbs were restrictive, and one of the distractors was also compatible with the verb (e.g., “banana”. The sentences contained an adjective that ruled out one of verb-compatible pictures (e.g., “red”. The critical manipulation involved a third picture (the adjective competitor which was compatible with the

  17. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

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    Meyer Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism.

  18. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Reveals Abnormal Hemodynamics in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Menopausal Depression Patients

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    Xiang-Yun Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective. Menopausal depression (MD is characterized by depressive symptoms along with hormonal fluctuations. We investigate brain function alteration between major depressive disorder (MDD and MD. Methods. The difference in oxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb for the prefrontal cortex (PFC was compared retrospectively among 90 females presented with 30 MDD, 30 MD, and 30 healthy controls (HCs using verbal fluency task (VFT with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Results. We observed a significant difference in Oxy-Hb alteration in the left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC using VFT with NIRS (channel 18, P=0.007 between the MD and MDD groups. A significant difference in Oxy-Hb levels was observed among the three groups in the bilateral DLPFC (channels 18, 27, 33, 39, 41, and 45; P<0.05. Compared to the HCs, the MD group presented lower Oxy-Hb activation in the right DLPFC (channel 41; P=0.048 and the left DLPFC (channels 18, 39, and 45; P<0.05, and the MDD group presented lower Oxy-Hb activation in the right DLPFC (channels 27, 33, and 41; P<0.05 and the left DLPFC (channels 39 and 45; P<0.05. Conclusion. Abnormal hemodynamics of the left DLPFC can differentiate MD from MDD by NIRS.

  19. Decreased regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the prefrontal regions in adults' with internet game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Bang, Soong Ae; Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Internet Game Addiction (IGA) is known to be associated with poor decision-making and diminished impulse control; however, the underlying neural substrates of IGA have not been identified. To investigate the neural substrates of IGA, we compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between adults with and without IGA, primarily in the prefrontal brain regions, which have been implicated in inhibitory control. We studied 10 right-handed participants (5 controls: male, 23.8±0.75 y, 5 IGAs: male, 22.6±2.42 y) with FDG PET. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess the severity of IGA. Before scanning, all subjects carried out a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), as measures of behavioral inhibitory control. Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) was used to analyze differences in regional brain glucose metabolism between adults with and without IGA. Consistent with our predictions, compared to controls, significant reductions in FDG uptake in individuals with IGA were found in the bilateral orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 11, 47), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44, 48), cingulate cortex (BA 24), and bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) (BA 6); whereas increases were found in the bilateral hippocampus. Correlation analyses within the IGA group further showed that the level of glucose metabolism in the right orbitofrontal gyrus was marginally positively correlated with task scores in BART. Our results showed that IGA is associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control. This finding highlights dysfunctional inhibitory brain systems in individuals with IGA and offers implications for the development for therapeutic paradigms for IGA

  20. Beyond the medial regions of prefrontal cortex in the regulation of fear and anxiety

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    Yoshiro eShiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fear and anxiety are adaptive responses but if left unregulated, or inappropriately regulated, they become biologically and socially maladaptive. Dysregulated emotions are manifest in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions but the external expression gives little indication of the underlying causes, which are inevitably multi-determined. To go beyond the overt phenotype and begin to understand the causal mechanisms leading to conditions characterized by anxiety and disorders of mood, it is necessary to identify the base psychological processes that have become dysregulated, and map them on to their associated neural substrates. So far, attention has been focused primarily on the medial regions of prefrontal cortex (PFC and in particular their contribution to the expression and extinction of conditioned fear. However, functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the sphere of influence within the PFC is not restricted to its medial regions, but extends into dorsal, ventrolateral (vlPFC and orbitofrontal (OFC regions too; although the causal role of these other areas in the regulation of fear and anxiety remains to be determined and in the case of the OFC, existing findings are conflicting. Here we review the evidence for the contribution of these other regions in negative emotion regulation in rodents and old world and new world monkeys. We consider a variety of different contexts, including conditioned and innate fear, learned and unlearned anxiety and cost-benefit decision-making, and a range of physiological and behavioral measures of emotion. It is proposed that both the OFC and vlPFC contribute to emotion regulation via their involvement, respectively, in the prediction of future outcomes and higher-order attentional control. The fractionation of these neurocognitive and neurobehavioral systems that regulate fear and anxiety opens up new opportunities for diagnostic stratification and personalized treatment strategies.

  1. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Area Promotes Implicit Motor Learning in a Golf Putting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Frank F; Yeung, Andrew Y; Poolton, Jamie M; Lee, Tatia M C; Leung, Gilberto K K; Masters, Rich S W

    2015-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is characterized by low dependence on working memory and stable performance despite stress, fatigue, or multi-tasking. However, current paradigms for implicit motor learning are based on behavioral interventions that are often task-specific and limited when applied in practice. To investigate whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area during motor learning suppressed working memory activity and reduced explicit verbal-analytical involvement in movement control, thereby promoting implicit motor learning. Twenty-seven healthy individuals practiced a golf putting task during a Training Phase while receiving either real cathodal tDCS stimulation over the left DLPFC area or sham stimulation. Their performance was assessed during a Test phase on another day. Verbal working memory capacity was assessed before and after the Training Phase, and before the Test Phase. Compared to sham stimulation, real stimulation suppressed verbal working memory activity after the Training Phase, but enhanced golf putting performance during the Training Phase and the Test Phase, especially when participants were required to multi-task. Cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC may foster implicit motor learning and performance in complex real-life motor tasks that occur during sports, surgery or motor rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Motor facilitation during observation of implied motion: Evidence for a role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Ludovico; Fetterman, Alexander; Concerto, Carmen; Warren, Michael; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Freedberg, David; Chusid, Eileen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2018-06-01

    The phenomenon of motor resonance (the increase in motor cortex excitability during observation of actions) has been previously described. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have demonstrated a similar effect during perception of implied motion (IM). The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to be activated during action observation. Furthermore, the role of this brain area in motor resonance to IM is yet to be investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled into the study. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to stimulate DLPFC aiming to investigate whether stimulation with different polarities would affect the amplitude of motor evoked potential collected during observation of images with and without IM. The results of our experiment indicated that Cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC prevented motor resonance during observation of IM. On the contrary, anodal and sham tDCS did not significantly modulate motor resonance to IM. The current study expands the understanding of the neural circuits engaged during observation of IM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that action understanding requires the interaction of large networks and that the left DLPFC plays a crucial role in generating motor resonance to IM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low Dose Propofol-induced Amnesia Is Not Due to a Failure of Encoding: Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Is Still Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselis, Robert A.; Pryor, Kane O.; Reinsel, Ruth A.; Mehta, Meghana; Pan, Hong; Johnson, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Background Propofol may produce amnesia by affecting encoding. The hypothesis that propofol weakens encoding was tested by measuring regional cerebral blood flow during verbal encoding. Methods 17 volunteer participants (12 M, 30.4±6.5 years old) had regional cerebral blood flow measured using H2O15 positron emission tomography during complex and simple encoding tasks (deep vs. shallow level of processing), to identify a region of interest in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPFC). The effect of either propofol (n=6, 0.9 mcg/ml target concentration), placebo with a divided attention task (n=5), or thiopental at sedative doses (n=6, 3 mcg/ml) on regional cerebral blood flow activation in the LIPFC was tested. The divided attention task was expected to decrease activation in the LIPFC. Results Propofol did not impair encoding performance or reaction times, but impaired recognition memory of deeply encoded words 4 hours later (median recognition of 35% (17–54 interquartile) of words presented during propofol versus 65% (38–91) before drug, pdeep encoding was present in this region of interest in each group before drug (T>4.41, pprocesses. PMID:18648230

  4. Low-dose propofol-induced amnesia is not due to a failure of encoding: left inferior prefrontal cortex is still active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselis, Robert A; Pryor, Kane O; Reinsel, Ruth A; Mehta, Meghana; Pan, Hong; Johnson, Ray

    2008-08-01

    Propofol may produce amnesia by affecting encoding. The hypothesis that propofol weakens encoding was tested by measuring regional cerebral blood flow during verbal encoding. Seventeen volunteer participants (12 men; aged 30.4 +/- 6.5 yr) had regional cerebral blood flow measured using H2O positron emission tomography during complex and simple encoding tasks (deep vs. shallow level of processing) to identify a region of interest in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPFC). The effect of either propofol (n = 6, 0.9 microg/ml target concentration), placebo with a divided attention task (n = 5), or thiopental at sedative doses (n = 6, 3 microg/ml) on regional cerebral blood flow activation in the LIPFC was tested. The divided attention task was expected to decrease activation in the LIPFC. Propofol did not impair encoding performance or reaction times, but impaired recognition memory of deeply encoded words 4 h later (median recognition of 35% [interquartile range, 17-54%] of words presented during propofol vs. 65% [38-91%] before drug; P deep encoding was present in this region of interest in each group before drug (T > 4.41, P memory processes.

  5. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Drives Mesolimbic Dopaminergic Regions to Initiate Motivated Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Ian C.; Murty, Vishnu P.; Carter, R. McKell; MacInnes, Jeffrey J.; Huettel, Scott A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    How does the brain translate information signaling potential rewards into motivation to get them? Motivation to obtain reward is thought to depend on the midbrain, (particularly the ventral tegmental area, VTA), the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), but it is not clear how the interactions amongst these regions relate to reward-motivated behavior. To study the influence of motivation on these reward-responsive regions and on their interactions, we used ...

  6. No Effects of Stimulating the Left Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex with tDCS on Verbal Working Memory Updating

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    Karolina M. Lukasik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functions, such as working memory (WM, have been examined in a number of studies. However, much less is known about the behavioral effects of tDCS over other important WM-related brain regions, such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In a counterbalanced within-subjects design with 33 young healthy participants, we examined whether online and offline single-session tDCS over VLPFC affects WM updating performance as measured by a digit 3-back task. We compared three conditions: anodal, cathodal and sham. We observed no significant tDCS effects on participants' accuracy or reaction times during or after the stimulation. Neither did we find any differences between anodal and cathodal stimulation. Largely similar results were obtained when comparing subgroups of high- and low-performing participants. Possible reasons for the lack of effects, including individual differences in responsiveness to tDCS, features of montage, task and sample characteristics, and the role of VLPFC in WM, are discussed.

  7. Quantitation of global and regional left ventricular function by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, RJ; Reiber, JHC; Reiber, JHC; VanDerWall, EE

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several imaging strategies for assessing left ventricular function. As a three-dimensional imaging technique, all measurements can be performed without relying on geometrical assumptions. Global and regional function parameters can be derived from

  8. The Medial Temporal Lobe and the Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Jointly Support Interference Resolution in Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ilke; Curtis, Clayton E.; McElree, Brian

    2009-01-01

    During working memory retrieval, proactive interference (PI) can be induced by semantic similarity and episodic familiarity. Here, we used fMRI to test hypotheses about the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in successful resolution of PI. Participants studied six-word lists and responded to a…

  9. Effect of Bilateral Prefrontal rTMS on Left Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Schizophrenia Patients with Predominant Negative Symptoms : An Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Bais, Leonie; van de Poel-Mustafayeva, Aida T.; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S. M.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prefrontal repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) may improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanism. Objective: This study aims to investigate changes in the levels of glutamate and glutamine (Glx,

  10. Distinct regions of prefrontal cortex are associated with the controlled retrieval and selection of social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Badre, David; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-05-01

    Research in social neuroscience has uncovered a social knowledge network that is particularly attuned to making social judgments. However, the processes that are being performed by both regions within this network and those outside of this network that are nevertheless engaged in the service of making a social judgment remain unclear. To help address this, we drew upon research in semantic memory, which suggests that making a semantic judgment engages 2 distinct control processes: A controlled retrieval process, which aids in bringing goal-relevant information to mind from long-term stores, and a selection process, which aids in selecting the information that is goal-relevant from the information retrieved. In a neuroimaging study, we investigated whether controlled retrieval and selection for social information engage distinct portions of both the social knowledge network and regions outside this network. Controlled retrieval for social information engaged an anterior ventrolateral portion of the prefrontal cortex, whereas selection engaged both the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction within the social knowledge network. These results suggest that the social knowledge network may be more involved with the selection of social information than the controlled retrieval of it and incorporates lateral prefrontal regions in accessing memory for making social judgments.

  11. Role of prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions in decision-making processes shared by memory and nonmemory tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleck, M.S.; Daselaar, S.M.; Dobbins, I.G.; Cabeza, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the episodic retrieval (ER) domain, activations in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are often attributed to postretrieval monitoring. Yet, right DLPFC activations are also frequently found during nonmemory tasks. To investigate the role of this region across different cognitive

  12. Comparison of Metabolite Concentrations in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, the Left Frontal White Matter, and the Left Hippocampus in Patients in Stable Schizophrenia Treated with Antipsychotics with or without Antidepressants. 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Study

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    Dominik Strzelecki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Managing affective, negative, and cognitive symptoms remains the most difficult therapeutic problem in stable phase of schizophrenia. Efforts include administration of antidepressants. Drugs effects on brain metabolic parameters can be evaluated by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy. We compared spectroscopic parameters in the left prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, the left frontal white matter (WM and the left hippocampus and assessed the relationship between treatment and the spectroscopic parameters in both groups. We recruited 25 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR, with dominant negative symptoms and in stable clinical condition, who were treated with antipsychotic and antidepressive medication for minimum of three months. A group of 25 patients with schizophrenia, who were taking antipsychotic drugs but not antidepressants, was matched. We compared metabolic parameters (N-acetylaspartate (NAA, myo-inositol (mI, glutamatergic parameters (Glx, choline (Cho, and creatine (Cr between the two groups. All patients were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. In patients receiving antidepressants we observed significantly higher NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios within the DLPFC, as well as significantly higher mI/Cr within the frontal WM. Moreover, we noted significantly lower values of parameters associated with the glutamatergic transmission—Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho in the hippocampus. Doses of antipsychotic drugs in the group treated with antidepressants were also significantly lower in the patients showing similar severity of psychopathology.

  13. Low-frequency brain stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the negative impact of social exclusion among those high in personal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette Mary; Kirkovski, Melissa; Bailey, Neil Wayne; Thomson, Richard Hilton; Eisenberger, Naomi; Enticott, Peter Gregory; Fitzgerald, Paul Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to play a key role in the cognitive control of emotion and has therefore, unsurprisingly, been implicated in the regulation of physical pain perception. This brain region may also influence the experience of social pain, which has been shown to activate similar neural networks as seen in response to physical pain. Here, we applied sham or active low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC, previously shown to exert bilateral effects in pain perception, in healthy participants. Following stimulation, participants played the "Cyberball Task"; an online ball-tossing game in which the subject participant is included or excluded. Compared to sham, rTMS did not modulate behavioural response to social exclusion. However, within the active rTMS group only, greater trait personal distress was related to enhanced negative outcomes to social exclusion. These results add further support to the notion that the effect of brain stimulation is not homogenous across individuals, and indicates the need to consider baseline individual differences when assessing response to brain stimulation. This seems particularly relevant in social neuroscience investigations, where trait factors may have a meaningful effect.

  14. Physiological dysfunction of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. IV. Further evidence for regional and behavioral specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, K.F.; Illowsky, B.P.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    In previous studies we found that patients with chronic schizophrenia had lower regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) than did normal subjects during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test, an abstract reasoning task linked to DLPFC function. This was not the case during less complex tasks. To examine further whether this finding represented regionally circumscribed pathophysiology or a more general correlate of abstract cognition, 24 medication-free patients and 25 age- and sex-matched normal control subjects underwent rCBF measurements with the xenon 133 technique while they performed two tasks: Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) and an active baseline control task. While performing RPM, normal subjects activated posterior cortical areas over baseline, but did not activate DLPFC, as had been seen during the Wisconsin Card Sort Test. Like normal subjects, patients showed maximal rCBF elevations posteriorly and, moreover, they had no significant DLPFC or other cortical deficit while performing RPM. These results suggest that DLPFC dysfunction in schizophrenia is linked to pathophysiology of a regionally specific neural system rather than to global cortical dysfunction, and that this pathophysiology is most apparent under prefrontally specific cognitive demand

  15. Regional ejection fraction: a quantitative radionuclide index of regional left ventricular performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, D.E.; Wynne, J.; Uren, R.; Parker, J.A.; Idoine, J.; Siegel, L.C.; Neill, J.M.; Cohn, P.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Left ventricular regional ejection fractions were derived from background-corrected, time-activity curves in 43 patients assessed by both gated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography and left ventricular contrast angiography. From a single, modified left anterior oblique projection, the regional change in background corrected counts was determined in each of three anatomic regions. The normal range for regional radionuclide ejection fraction was determined in 10 patients with normal contrast ventriculograms and without obstructive coronary artery disease at coronary arteriography. Regional ejection fraction was compared with percent segmental axis shortening and extent of akinetic segments in corresponding regions of the contrast ventriculogram. Radionuclide and roentgenographic methods were in agreement as to the presence or absence of abnormal wall motion in 83 of 99 left ventricular regions (84%) in 33 patients evaluated prospectively. Comparison of regional ejection fraction demonstrated significant differences between regions with roentgenographically determined normokinesis hypokinesis, and akinesis. We conclude that the left ventricular regional ejection fraction provides a reliable quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular performance

  16. Equivalent brain SPECT perfusion changes underlying therapeutic efficiency in pharmacoresistant depression using either high-frequency left or low-frequency right prefrontal rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richieri, Raphaëlle; Boyer, Laurent; Padovani, Romain; Adida, Marc; Colavolpe, Cécile; Mundler, Olivier; Lançon, Christophe; Guedj, Eric

    2012-12-03

    Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested similar mechanisms underlying antidepressant effects of distinct therapeutics. This study aimed to determine and compare functional brain patterns underlying the antidepressant response of 2 distinct protocols of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). 99mTc-ECD SPECT was performed before and after rTMS of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in 61 drug-resistant right-handed patients with major depression, using high frequency (10Hz) left-side stimulation in 33 patients, and low frequency (1Hz) right-side stimulation in 28 patients. Efficiency of rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction of the baseline Beck Depression Inventory score. We compared the whole-brain voxel-based brain SPECT changes in perfusion after rTMS, between responders and non-responders in the whole sample (pleft- and right-stimulation. Before rTMS, the left- and right-prefrontal stimulation groups did not differ from clinical data and brain SPECT perfusion. rTMS efficiency (evaluated on % of responders) was statistically equivalent in the two groups of patients. In the whole-group of responder patients, a perfusion decrease was found after rTMS, in comparison to non-responders, within the left perirhinal cortex (BA35, BA36). This result was secondarily confirmed separately in the two subgroups, i.e. after either left stimulation (p=0.017) or right stimulation (pbrain functional changes associated to antidepressive efficiency, consisting to a remote brain limbic activity decrease within the left perirhinal cortex. However, these results will have to be confirmed in a double-blind randomized trial using a sham control group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The regional neuronal activity in left posterior middle temporal gyrus is correlated with the severity of chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Dunren; Gao, Wei; Sun, Xichun; Xie, Haizhu; Zhang, Gang; Li, Jian; Li, Honglun; Li, Kefeng

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most disabling cognitive deficits affecting >2 million people in the USA. The neuroimaging characteristics of chronic aphasic patients (>6 months post onset) remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the regional signal changes of spontaneous neuronal activity of brain and the inter-regional connectivity in chronic aphasia. Resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to obtain fMRI data from 17 chronic aphasic patients and 20 healthy control subjects in a Siemens Verio 3.0T MR Scanner. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was determined, which directly reflects the regional neuronal activity. The functional connectivity (FC) of fMRI was assessed using a seed voxel linear correlation approach. The severity of aphasia was evaluated by aphasia quotient (AQ) scores obtained from Western Aphasia Battery test. Compared with normal subjects, aphasic patients showed decreased ALFF values in the regions of left posterior middle temporal gyrus (PMTG), left medial prefrontal gyrus, and right cerebellum. The ALFF values in left PMTG showed strong positive correlation with the AQ score (coefficient r =0.79, P temporal gyrus (BA20), fusiform gyrus (BA37), and inferior frontal gyrus (BA47\\45\\44). Left PMTG might play an important role in language dysfunction of chronic aphasia, and ALFF value might be a promising indicator to evaluate the severity of aphasia.

  18. Decreased regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the prefrontal regions in adults' with internet game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Bang, Soong Ae; Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Internet Game Addiction (IGA) is known to be associated with poor decision-making and diminished impulse control; however, the underlying neural substrates of IGA have not been identified. To investigate the neural substrates of IGA, we compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between adults with and without IGA, primarily in the prefrontal brain regions, which have been implicated in inhibitory control. We studied 10 right-handed participants (5 controls: male, 23.8{+-}0.75 y, 5 IGAs: male, 22.6{+-}2.42 y) with FDG PET. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess the severity of IGA. Before scanning, all subjects carried out a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), as measures of behavioral inhibitory control. Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) was used to analyze differences in regional brain glucose metabolism between adults with and without IGA. Consistent with our predictions, compared to controls, significant reductions in FDG uptake in individuals with IGA were found in the bilateral orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 11, 47), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44, 48), cingulate cortex (BA 24), and bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) (BA 6); whereas increases were found in the bilateral hippocampus. Correlation analyses within the IGA group further showed that the level of glucose metabolism in the right orbitofrontal gyrus was marginally positively correlated with task scores in BART. Our results showed that IGA is associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control. This finding highlights dysfunctional inhibitory brain systems in individuals with IGA and offers implications for the development for therapeutic paradigms for IGA.

  19. Network-wise cerebral blood flow redistribution after 20 Hz rTMS on left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuan-Qi; Xie, Jun; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Chang, Da; Wang, Ze

    2018-04-01

    The repetitive application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been consistently shown to be beneficial for treating various neuropsychiatric or neuropsychological disorders, but its neural mechanisms still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of high-frequency left DLPFC rTMS using cerebral blood flow (CBF) collected from 40 young healthy subjects before and after applying 20 Hz left DLPFC rTMS or SHAM stimulations. Relative CBF (rCBF) changes before and after 20 Hz rTMS or SHAM were assessed with paired-t test. The results show that 20 Hz DLPFC rTMS induced CBF redistribution in the default mode network, including increased rCBF in left medial temporal cortex (MTC)/hippocampus, but reduced rCBF in precuneus and cerebellum. Meanwhile, SHAM stimulation didn't produce any rCBF changes. After controlling SHAM effects, only the rCBF increase in MTC/hippocampus remained. Those data suggest that the beneficial effects of high-frequency rTMS may be through a within-network rCBF redistribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Anodal and Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex during Attention Bias Modification: An Eye-Tracking Study.

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    Alexandre Heeren

    Full Text Available People with anxiety disorders show an attentional bias for threat (AB, and Attention Bias Modification (ABM procedures have been found to reduce this bias. However, the underlying processes accounting for this effect remain poorly understood. One explanation suggests that ABM requires the modification of attention control, driven by the recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. In the present double-blind study, we examined whether modifying left DLPFC activation influences the effect of ABM on AB. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to directly modulate cortical excitability of the left DLPFC during an ABM procedure designed to reduce AB to threat. Anodal tDCS increases excitability, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases it. We randomly assigned highly trait-anxious individuals to one of three conditions: 1 ABM combined with cathodal tDCS, 2 ABM combined with anodal tDCS, or 3 ABM combined with sham tDCS. We assessed the effects of these manipulations on both reaction times and eye-movements on a task indexing AB. Results indicate that combining ABM and anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC reduces the total duration that participants' gaze remains fixated on threat, as assessed using eye-tracking measurement. However, in contrast to previous studies, there were no changes in AB from baseline to post-training for participants that received ABM without tDCS. As the tendency to maintain attention to threat is known to play an important role in the maintenance of anxiety, the present findings suggest that anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC may be considered as a promising tool to reduce the maintenance of gaze to threat. Implications for future translational research combining ABM and tDCS are discussed.

  1. Regional inactivations of primate ventral prefrontal cortex reveal two distinct mechanisms underlying negative bias in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Hannah F; Horst, Nicole K; Roberts, Angela C

    2015-03-31

    Dysregulation of the orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices is implicated in anxiety and mood disorders, but the specific contributions of each region are unknown, including how they gate the impact of threat on decision making. To address this, the effects of GABAergic inactivation of these regions were studied in marmoset monkeys performing an instrumental approach-avoidance decision-making task that is sensitive to changes in anxiety. Inactivation of either region induced a negative bias away from punishment that could be ameliorated with anxiolytic treatment. However, whereas the effects of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex inactivation on punishment avoidance were seen immediately, those of orbitofrontal cortex inactivation were delayed and their expression was dependent upon an amygdala-anterior hippocampal circuit. We propose that these negative biases result from deficits in attentional control and punishment prediction, respectively, and that they provide the basis for understanding how distinct regional prefrontal dysregulation contributes to the heterogeneity of anxiety disorders with implications for cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies.

  2. Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Silberstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 days GBE and 14 days placebo in random order. For both groups, SSVEP was recorded from 64 scalp electrode sites during the completion of an object WM task both pre- and 14 days post-treatment. GBE was found to improve behavioural performance on the WM task. GBE was also found to increase the SSVEP amplitude at occipital and frontal sites and increase SSVEP latency at left temporal and left frontal sites during the hold component of the WM task. These SSVEP changes associated with GBE may represent more efficient processing during WM task completion.

  3. No change in N-acetyl aspartate in first episode of moderate depression after antidepressant treatment: 1H magnetic spectroscopy study of left amygdala and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajs Janović M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maja Bajs Janović,1,3 Petra Kalember,2 Špiro Janović,1,3 Pero Hrabač,2 Petra Folnegović Grošić,1 Vladimir Grošić,4 Marko Radoš,5 Neven Henigsberg2,61University Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 2Polyclinic Neuron, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 3University North, Varaždin, 4Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan, Zagreb, 5University Department of Radiology, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 6Psychiatric Clinic Vrapče, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: The role of brain metabolites as biological correlates of the intensity, symptoms, and course of major depression has not been determined. It has also been inconclusive whether the change in brain metabolites, measured with proton magnetic spectroscopy, could be correlated with the treatment outcome. Methods: Proton magnetic spectroscopy was performed in 29 participants with a first episode of moderate depression occurring in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left amygdala at baseline and after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment with escitalopram. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess the intensity of depression at baseline and at the endpoint of the study. At endpoint, the participants were identified as responders (n=17 or nonresponders (n=12 to the antidepressant therapy. Results: There was no significant change in the N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr after treatment with antidepressant medication. The baseline and endpoint NAA/Cr ratios were not significantly different between the responder and nonresponder groups. The correlation between NAA/Cr and changes in the scores of clinical scales were not significant in either group. Conclusion: This study could not confirm any significant changes in NAA after antidepressant treatment in the first episode of moderate depression, or in

  4. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left h...

  5. View-Independent Working Memory Representations of Artificial Shapes in Prefrontal and Posterior Regions of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophel, Thomas B; Allefeld, Carsten; Endisch, Christian; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2017-05-13

    Traditional views of visual working memory postulate that memorized contents are stored in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using an adaptive and flexible code. In contrast, recent studies proposed that contents are maintained by posterior brain areas using codes akin to perceptual representations. An important question is whether this reflects a difference in the level of abstraction between posterior and prefrontal representations. Here, we investigated whether neural representations of visual working memory contents are view-independent, as indicated by rotation-invariance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate pattern analyses, we show that when subjects memorize complex shapes, both posterior and frontal brain regions maintain the memorized contents using a rotation-invariant code. Importantly, we found the representations in frontal cortex to be localized to the frontal eye fields rather than dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Thus, our results give evidence for the view-independent storage of complex shapes in distributed representations across posterior and frontal brain regions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Targeting Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Task-Induced Acute Pain in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Timothy Y; Van't Wout, Mascha; Garnaat, Sarah L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Current chronic pain treatments target nociception rather than affective "suffering" and its associated functional and psychiatric comorbidities. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been implicated in affective, cognitive, and attentional aspects of pain and is a primary target of neuromodulation for affective disorders. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can non-invasively modulate cortical activity. The present study tests whether anodal tDCS targeting the left DLPFC will increase tolerability of acute painful stimuli vs cathodal tDCS. Forty tDCS-naive healthy volunteers received anodal and cathodal stimulation targeting the left DLPFC in two randomized and counterbalanced sessions. During stimulation, each participant performed cold pressor (CP) and breath holding (BH) tasks. We measured pain intensity with the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) before and after each task. Mixed ANOVA revealed no main effect of stimulation polarity for mean CP threshold, tolerance, or endurance, or mean BH time (allP > 0.27). However, DVPRS rise associated with CP was significantly smaller with anodal vs cathodal tDCS (P = 0.024). We further observed a significant tDCS polarity × stimulation order interaction (P = 0.042) on CP threshold, suggesting task sensitization. Although our results do not suggest that polarity of tDCS targeting the left DLPFC differentially modulates the tolerability of CP- and BH-related pain distress in healthy volunteers, there was a significant effect on DVPRS pain ratings. This contrasts with our previous findings that tDCS targeting the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex showed a trend toward higher mean CP tolerance with cathodal vs anodal stimulation. The present results may suggest tDCS-related effects on nociception or DLPFC-mediated attention, or preferential modulation of the affective valence of pain as captured by the DVPRS. Sham-controlled clinical studies are needed. © 2015

  7. Adding Sarcosine to Antipsychotic Treatment in Patients with Stable Schizophrenia Changes the Concentrations of Neuronal and Glial Metabolites in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr

    2015-10-15

    The glutamatergic system is a key point in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Sarcosine (N-methylglycine) is an exogenous amino acid that acts as a glycine transporter inhibitor. It modulates glutamatergic transmission by increasing glycine concentration around NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptors. In patients with schizophrenia, the function of the glutamatergic system in the prefrontal cortex is impaired, which may promote negative and cognitive symptoms. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method enabling the evaluation of brain metabolite concentration, which can be applied to assess pharmacologically induced changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a six-month course of sarcosine therapy on the concentration of metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with stable schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia, treated with constant antipsychotics doses, in stable clinical condition were randomly assigned to administration of sarcosine (25 patients) or placebo (25 patients) for six months. Metabolite concentrations in DLPFC were assessed with 1.5 Tesla ¹H-NMR spectroscopy. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The first spectroscopy revealed no differences in metabolite concentrations between groups. After six months, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr and mI/Cho ratios in the left DLPFC were significantly higher in the sarcosine than the placebo group. In the sarcosine group, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr, mI/Cho ratios also significantly increased compared to baseline values. In the placebo group, only the NAA/Cr ratio increased. The addition of sarcosine to antipsychotic therapy for six months increased markers of neurons viability (NAA) and neurogilal activity (mI) with simultaneous improvement

  8. Adding Sarcosine to Antipsychotic Treatment in Patients with Stable Schizophrenia Changes the Concentrations of Neuronal and Glial Metabolites in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Strzelecki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The glutamatergic system is a key point in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Sarcosine (N-methylglycine is an exogenous amino acid that acts as a glycine transporter inhibitor. It modulates glutamatergic transmission by increasing glycine concentration around NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. In patients with schizophrenia, the function of the glutamatergic system in the prefrontal cortex is impaired, which may promote negative and cognitive symptoms. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method enabling the evaluation of brain metabolite concentration, which can be applied to assess pharmacologically induced changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a six-month course of sarcosine therapy on the concentration of metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in patients with stable schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia, treated with constant antipsychotics doses, in stable clinical condition were randomly assigned to administration of sarcosine (25 patients or placebo (25 patients for six months. Metabolite concentrations in DLPFC were assessed with 1.5 Tesla 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. The first spectroscopy revealed no differences in metabolite concentrations between groups. After six months, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr and mI/Cho ratios in the left DLPFC were significantly higher in the sarcosine than the placebo group. In the sarcosine group, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr, mI/Cho ratios also significantly increased compared to baseline values. In the placebo group, only the NAA/Cr ratio increased. The addition of sarcosine to antipsychotic therapy for six months increased markers of neurons viability (NAA and neurogilal activity (mI with simultaneous

  9. Memory Contextualization: The Role of Prefrontal Cortex in Functional Integration across Item and Context Representational Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; van Ast, Vanessa A; Klumpers, Floris; Roelofs, Karin; Hermans, Erno J

    2018-04-01

    Memory recall is facilitated when retrieval occurs in the original encoding context. This context dependency effect likely results from the automatic binding of central elements of an experience with contextual features (i.e., memory "contextualization") during encoding. However, despite a vast body of research investigating the neural correlates of explicit associative memory, the neural interactions during encoding that predict implicit context-dependent memory remain unknown. Twenty-six participants underwent fMRI during encoding of salient stimuli (faces), which were overlaid onto unique background images (contexts). To index subsequent context-dependent memory, face recognition was tested either in intact or rearranged contexts, after scanning. Enhanced face recognition in intact relative to rearranged contexts evidenced successful memory contextualization. Overall subsequent memory effects (brain activity predicting whether items were later remembered vs. forgotten) were found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and right amygdala. Effective connectivity analyses showed that stronger context-dependent memory was associated with stronger coupling of the left IFG with face- and place-responsive areas, both within and between participants. Our findings indicate an important role for the IFG in integrating information across widespread regions involved in the representation of salient items and contextual features.

  10. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  11. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions. PMID:26696865

  12. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left premotor/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex does not have analgesic effect on central poststroke pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rogério Adas Ayres; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Mendonça, Melina; Barros, Rafael; Luvisoto, Tatiana; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2014-12-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is caused by an encephalic vascular lesion of the somatosensory pathways and is commonly refractory to current pharmacologic treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the premotor cortex/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PMC/DLPFC) can change thermal pain threshold toward analgesia in healthy subjects and has analgesic effects in acute postoperative pain as well as in fibromyalgia patients. However, its effect on neuropathic pain and in CPSP, in particular, has not been assessed. The aim of this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of PMC/DLPFC rTMS in CPSP patients. Patients were randomized into 2 groups, active (a-) rTMS and sham (s-) rTMS, and were treated with 10 daily sessions of rTMS over the left PMC/DLPFC (10 Hz, 1,250 pulses/d). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, during the stimulation phase, and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the last stimulation. The main outcome was pain intensity changes measured by the visual analog scale on the last stimulation day compared to baseline. Interim analysis was scheduled when the first half of the patients completed the study. The study was terminated because of a significant lack of efficacy of the active arm after 21 patients completed the whole treatment and follow-up phases. rTMS of the left PMC/DLPFC did not improve pain in CPSP. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of rTMS to the PMC/DLPFC in CPSP patients. An interim analysis showed a consistent lack of analgesic effect, and the study was terminated. rTMS of the PMC/DLPFC is not effective in relieving CPSP. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affects performance in Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Zhang, Zhuoran; Da, Shu; Sheng, Xiaotian; Zhang, Xichao

    2018-02-01

    Studies on risk preferences have long been of great concern and have examined the neural basis underlying risk-based decision making. However, studies using conventional transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) revealed that bilateral stimulation could change risk propensity with limited evidence of precisely focalized unilateral high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS). The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of HD-tDCS focalizing the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on risk-taking behavior during the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). This study was designed as a between-subject, single-blind, sham-controlled experiment. University students were randomly assigned to three groups: the anodal group (F3 anode, AF3, F1, F5, FC3 returned), the cathodal group (F3 cathodal, AF3, F1, F5, FC3 returned) and the sham group. Subsequently, 1.5-mA 20-min HD-tDCS was applied during the BART, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), the Sensation Seeking Scale-5 (SSS-5), and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Approach System scale (BIS/BAS) were measured as control variables. The cathodal group earned less total money than the sham group, and no significant difference was observed between the anodal group and the sham group. These results showed that, to some extent, focalized unilateral cathodal HD-tDCS on left DLPFC could change performance during risky tasks and diminish risky decision making. Further studies are needed to investigate the dose effect and electrode distribution of HD-tDCS during risky tasks and examine synchronous brain activity to show the neural basis.

  14. Quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular motion using endocardial landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); T.E.H. Hooghoudt (Ton); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); G.T. Meester (Geert); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this study the hypothesis is tested that the motion pattern of small anatomic landmarks, recognizable at the left ventricular endocardial border in the contrast angiocardiogram, reflects the motion of the endocardial wall. To verify this, minute metal markers were inserted in the

  15. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Garreth; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve; Ingamells, Ed; Gathercole, Susan; Baddeley, Alan; Green, Gary G R

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  16. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garreth Prendergast

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  17. Measurement of global and regional left ventricular performance with isotope technique in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, P.-A.; Svensson, M.; Lilja, B.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate left ventricular function in coronary artery disease, radionuclide measurements of global and regional ejection fraction (EF), regional wall motion and phase analyses of left ventricular contraction were performed by equilibrium technique, using sup(99m)Tc. One group of patients with angina pectoris and one group with myocardial infarction were compared with a control group. All above-mentioned parameters significantly separated the infarction group from the reference group both at rest and during work, while the group of patients with angina pectoris showed disturbances mainly during work, such as impaired ability to increase global and regional ejection fraction and regional wall motion. Adding regional analysis and phase analysis to the global EF determination increases the possibility of studying the left ventricular function. However, this addition has a limited value in detecting impaired left ventricular function compared to the determination of just global EF in patients with angina pectoris and in patients with myocardial infarction. (author)

  18. Regionally Selective Requirement for D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] Dopaminergic Neurotransmission in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Object-in-Place Associative Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Giorgia; Bashir, Zafar I.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2015-01-01

    Object-in-place (OiP) memory is critical for remembering the location in which an object was last encountered and depends conjointly on the medial prefrontal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus. Here we examined the role of dopamine D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] receptor neurotransmission within these brain regions for OiP memory. Bilateral…

  19. Stress induced a shift from dorsal hippocampus to prefrontal cortex-dependent memory retrieval: role of regional corticosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle eDominguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the deleterious effects of stress on memory retrieval are due to a dysfunction of the hippocampo-prefrontal cortex interplay. The role of the stress-induced regional corticosterone increase in such dysfunction remains however unclear, since there is no published study as yet dedicated to measuring corticosterone concentrations simultaneously in both the prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the hippocampus (dHPC in relation with memory impairments. To that aim, we first showed in Experiment 1 that an acute stress (3 electric footschocks; 0.9 mA each delivered before memory testing reversed the memory retrieval pattern (MRP in a serial discrimination task in which mice learned two successive discriminations. More precisely, whereas non-stressed animals remembered accurately the first learned discrimination and not the second one, stressed mice remembered more accurately the second discrimination but not the first one. We demonstrated that local inactivation of dHPC or mPFC with the anesthetic lidocaine recruited the dHPC activity in non-stress conditions whereas the stress-induced MRP inversion recruited the mPFC activity. In a second experiment, we showed that acute stress induced a very similar time-course evolution of corticosterone rises within both the mPFC and dHPC. In a 3rd experiment, we found however that in situ injections of corticosterone either within the mPFC or the dHPC before memory testing favored the emergence of the mPFC-dependent MRP but blocked the emergence of the dHPC-dependent one. Overall, our study evidences that the simultaneous increase of corticosterone after stress in both areas induces a shift from dHPC (non stress condition to mPFC-dependent memory retrieval pattern and that corticosterone is critically involved in mediating the deleterious effects of stress on cognitive functions involving the mPFC-HPC interplay.

  20. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Prefrontal and Limbic Volume and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Casper; Morris, Laurel S.; Kvamme, Timo L.

    2017-01-01

    prefrontal cortex (whole brain, cluster corrected FWE P motivational salience and emotion processing, and impaired functional connectivity between prefrontal control regulatory and limbic regions...

  1. Regional differences in right versus left congenital heart disease diagnoses in neonates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer S; Strassle, Paula D

    2018-03-01

    Differences in the prevalence of left and right congenital heart defects (CHD) across the United States are unclear. This study evaluated the overall prevalence and the distribution of right versus left CHD across US regions and divisions in neonates. Newborns born from 2000 to 2014 diagnosed with CHD were identified using the National Inpatient Sample. Heart defects were stratified into right, left, and "neither" subtypes. The risk of right and left heart diagnoses between US Census regions and divisions was compared using multivariable binomial regression, adjusting for infant, and hospital characteristics. Two hundred forty thousand four hundred fifty-five newborns were included and 38,185 (15.9%) were classifiable as having either right or left subtypes. Between 2000 and 2014, the prevalence of right defects increased from 1.65 to 2.88 cases/1,000 live born infants (p right heart defect diagnosis compared to the West. When stratified by division, New England states had a significantly higher prevalence of right defects compared to the Pacific (RD adj .09, 95% CI .06, 0.11). No differences in the prevalence of left defects were seen. The prevalence of CHD diagnoses at birth in the US has increased, and regional differences in the prevalence of right defects appear to exist. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Quantification of left ventricular regional functions using ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Validation of left ventricular systolic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Takahashi, Naoto; Iwahara, Shin-ichiro; Munakata, Kazuo; Hosoya, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a program to quantify regional left ventricular (LV) function and wall motion synchrony using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). This preliminary study was undertaken to validate the use of this program for estimating regional LV systolic function. Patients were subjected to MPS by 99m Tc-sestamibi at rest. The study included 20 patients who were confirmed to have a low probability of coronary artery disease (LPG; low probability group), 19 heart disease patients who were examined by MPS and equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA) (ERG; ERNA group), and 24 patients who were examined by MPS and 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) (2DEG; 2DE group). The values of the ejection fraction (EF) and peak ejection rate (PER) were estimated. The global functions evaluated by this program were compared with those obtained by ERNA in the ERG. For regional assessment, the reference values of the functional indices were obtained for 17 LV segments in LPG. The Z score, (reference average value of the segment-patient's value of the segment)/reference standard deviation of the segment, was used for the evaluation of regional functions; a score equal to or greater than 2 was defined as abnormal. Semiquantitative visual interpretation of 2DE was used as the standard to assess wall motion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of these criteria and the relationship between 2DE grading and Z scoring were validated in 2DEG. The values of the global EF and PER evaluated by this program correlated with those determined by ERNA (r=0.76 and 0.58, respectively; p -10 ). The potential of this program to quantify the regional systolic function was validated. (author)

  3. Reduced prefrontal and increased subcortical brain functioning assessed using positron emission tomography in predatory and affective murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Meloy, J R; Bihrle, S; Stoddard, J; LaCasse, L; Buchsbaum, M S

    1998-01-01

    There appear to be no brain imaging studies investigating which brain mechanisms subserve affective, impulsive violence versus planned, predatory violence. It was hypothesized that affectively violent offenders would have lower prefrontal activity, higher subcortical activity, and reduced prefrontal/subcortical ratios relative to controls, while predatory violent offenders would show relatively normal brain functioning. Glucose metabolism was assessed using positron emission tomography in 41 comparisons, 15 predatory murderers, and nine affective murderers in left and right hemisphere prefrontal (medial and lateral) and subcortical (amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, and thalamus) regions. Affective murderers relative to comparisons had lower left and right prefrontal functioning, higher right hemisphere subcortical functioning, and lower right hemisphere prefrontal/subcortical ratios. In contrast, predatory murderers had prefrontal functioning that was more equivalent to comparisons, while also having excessively high right subcortical activity. Results support the hypothesis that emotional, unplanned impulsive murderers are less able to regulate and control aggressive impulses generated from subcortical structures due to deficient prefrontal regulation. It is hypothesized that excessive subcortical activity predisposes to aggressive behaviour, but that while predatory murderers have sufficiently good prefrontal functioning to regulate these aggressive impulses, the affective murderers lack such prefrontal control over emotion regulation.

  4. Quantitative description of the regional mechanics of the left atria by electroanatomical mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuklik, Pawel; Molaee, Payman; Brooks, Anthony G; John, Bobby; Worthley, Stephen G; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2010-01-01

    The left atrium is a complex chamber, which plays an integral role in the maintenance of physiologic hemodynamic and electrical stability of the heart and is involved in many disease states, most commonly atrial fibrillation. Preserving regions of the left atrium that contribute the greatest to atrial mechanical function during curative strategies for atrial fibrillation are important. We present here a new application of the CARTO electroanatomical mapping system in the assessment of the left atria mechanical function. Electroanatomical data were collected in course of the electrophysiological procedure in 11 control patients and 12 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The three-dimensional geometry of the left atria was reconstructed in 10 ms intervals and segmented into distinct regions. For each segment, a regional ejection fraction was calculated. We found that anterior, septal and lateral segments have significantly greater regional ejection fraction than atria roof, inferior and posterior segments. Therefore, we hypothesize that in order to minimize the impact on atrial mechanical function, an important determinant of thromboembolic risk, damage should be minimized to these atrial regions

  5. Contribution of different regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion laterality to deficit of decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerchefani, Riadh; Ouerchefani, Naoufel; Allain, Philippe; Ben Rejeb, Mohamed Riadh; Le Gall, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined the contribution of different sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion laterality to decision-making abilities. In addition, there are inconsistent findings about the role of ventromedial and dorsolateral lesions in decision-making deficit. In this study, decision-making processes are investigated following different damaged areas of the prefrontal cortex. We paid particular attention to the contribution of laterality, lesion location and lesion volume in decision-making deficit. Twenty-seven patients with discrete ventromedial lesions, dorsolateral lesions or extended-frontal lesions were compared with normal subjects on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Our results showed that all frontal subgroups were impaired on the IGT in comparison with normal subjects. We noted also that IGT performance did not vary systematically based on lesion laterality or location. More precisely, our lesion analysis revealed that decision-making processes depend on a large cerebral network, including both ventromedial and dorsolateral areas of the prefrontal cortex. Consistent with past findings, our results support the claim that IGT deficit is not solitarily associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-activation-based parcellation of the lateral prefrontal cortex delineates the inferior frontal junction area

    OpenAIRE

    Muhle-Karbe, Paul Simon; Derrfuss, Jan; Lynn, Maggie; Neubert, Franz Xaver; Fox, Peter; Brass, Marcel; Eickhoff, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The inferior frontal junction (IFJ) area, a small region in the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), has received increasing interest in recent years due to its central involvement in the control of action, attention, and memory. Yet, both its function and anatomy remain controversial. Here, we employed a meta-analytic parcellation of the left LPFC to show that the IFJ can be isolated based on its specific functional connections. A seed region, oriented along the left inferior frontal ...

  7. A method to quantitate regional wall motion in left ventriculography using Hildreth algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashima, Mikio [Hyogo Red Cross Blood Center (Japan); Naito, Hiroaki; Sato, Yoshinobu; Tamura, Shinichi; Kurosawa, Tsutomu

    1998-06-01

    Quantitative measurement of ventricular wall motion is indispensable for objective evaluation of cardiac function associated with coronary artery disease. We have modified the Hildreth`s algorithm to estimate excursions of the ventricular wall on left ventricular images yielded by various imaging techniques. Tagging cine-MRI was carried out on 7 healthy volunteers. The original Hildreth method, the modified Hildreth method and the centerline method were applied to the outlines of the images obtained, to estimate excursion of the left ventricular wall and regional shortening and to evaluate the accuracy of these methods when measuring these parameters, compared to the values of these parameters measured actually using the attached tags. The accuracy of the original Hildreth method was comparable to that of the centerline method, while the modified Hildreth method was significantly more accurate than the centerline method (P<0.05). Regional shortening as estimated using the modified Hildreth method differed less from the actually measured regional shortening than did the shortening estimated using the centerline method (P<0.05). The modified Hildreth method allowed reasonable estimation of left ventricular wall excursion in all cases where it was applied. These results indicate that when applied to left ventriculograms for ventricular wall motion analysis, the modified Hildreth method is more useful than the original Hildreth method. (author)

  8. A robust automated left ventricle region of interest localization technique using a cardiac cine MRI atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zikri, Yehuda Kfir; Linte, Cristian A.

    2016-03-01

    Region of interest detection is a precursor to many medical image processing and analysis applications, including segmentation, registration and other image manipulation techniques. The optimal region of interest is often selected manually, based on empirical knowledge and features of the image dataset. However, if inconsistently identified, the selected region of interest may greatly affect the subsequent image analysis or interpretation steps, in turn leading to incomplete assessment during computer-aided diagnosis or incomplete visualization or identification of the surgical targets, if employed in the context of pre-procedural planning or image-guided interventions. Therefore, the need for robust, accurate and computationally efficient region of interest localization techniques is prevalent in many modern computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy applications. Here we propose a fully automated, robust, a priori learning-based approach that provides reliable estimates of the left and right ventricle features from cine cardiac MR images. The proposed approach leverages the temporal frame-to-frame motion extracted across a range of short axis left ventricle slice images with small training set generated from les than 10% of the population. This approach is based on histogram of oriented gradients features weighted by local intensities to first identify an initial region of interest depicting the left and right ventricles that exhibits the greatest extent of cardiac motion. This region is correlated with the homologous region that belongs to the training dataset that best matches the test image using feature vector correlation techniques. Lastly, the optimal left ventricle region of interest of the test image is identified based on the correlation of known ground truth segmentations associated with the training dataset deemed closest to the test image. The proposed approach was tested on a population of 100 patient datasets and was validated against the ground truth

  9. Paradox image: a noninvasive index of regional left-ventricular dyskinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Wynne, J.; Idoine, J.; Zielonka, J.; Neill, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paradox image, a functional image of regional dyskinesis derived from the equilibrium (gated) radionuclide ventriculogram, was constructed by subtracting the background-corrected end-diastolic frame from the background-corrected end-systolic frame. In 11 patients showing dyskinesis by contrast ventriculography, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox ranged from 3.6 to 55.6% (21.44% +- 4.45 s.e.m.). In 11 patients with normokinesis and in eight patients with hypookinesis by contrast ventriculography, the left-ventricular picture elements demonstrating paradox were less than 1.1% in all cases. In nine patients with akinesis, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox was 2.05% +- 0.96 s.e.m. and was less than 2% in seven patients. There was also an excellent agreement between the location of dyskinesis on the paradox image and that by contrast ventriculography. The paradox image is a sensitive indicator of left-ventricular dyskinesis and should be useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected left-ventricular asynergy

  10. Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-11-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Temporal Fourier transform of digital angiograms for left ventricular regional wall motion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Guth, B.D.; Widmann, T.F.; Lee, Jong-Dae; Seitelberger, R.; Peterson, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether or not the first harmonic of a temporal Fourier transform, applied pixel-by-pixel on time-intensity curves, can detect the subtle wall motion abnormalities due to ischemia, 6 dogs were instrumented with a micromanometer in the left ventricles, a hydraulic cuff occluder around the circumflex coronary artery, and sonomicrometers on the inferior (ischemic) and anterior (non-ischemic) walls. Left ventricular images, obtained after contrast injection via the pulmonary artery, were compared with dimension signals in control and 3 progressive levels of coronary stenosis (Stenosis I, II and III). Normalized, digital functional images (512 x 512 matrix, 256 shades of gray/pixel) were divided into anterior, apical, and inferior areas to acquire regional mean phase (degrees) and amplitude (intensity units) values. After inducing stenosis, phase in ischemic region significantly increased at all 3 levels of stenosis, whereas amplitude significantly decreased at Stenosis II and III. However, amplitude images showed clearly the topographic site of ischemia. There was a progressive increase in phase and decrease in amplitude in ischemic areas as the percent wall thickening (%WTh) fell (phase vs. %WTh: r = -0.55, p < 0.005; amplitude vs. %WTh: r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Heart rate and peak systolic pressure showed no significant changes during stenoses. We conclude that quantitative functional images, generated from a temporal Fourier transform, are sensitive to the detection of left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities during mild, moderate, and severe degrees of ischemia. (author)

  12. Assessment of cardiac performance with quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography: sequential left ventricular ejection fraction, normalized left ventricular ejection rate, and regional wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.C.; Berger, H.J.; Costin, J.C.; Freedman, G.S.; Wolberg, J.; Cohen, L.S.; Gotischalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    Sequential quantitative first pass radionuclide angiocardiograms (RA) were used to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular ejection rate (LVER), and to assess regional wall motion (RWM) in the anterior (ANT) and left anterior oblique (LAO) positions. Studies were obtained with a computerized multicrystal scintillation camera suitable for acquiring high count-rate data. Background was determined in a new fashion by selecting frames temporally from the left ventricular region of interest time-activity curve. A ''representative'' cardiac cycle was formed by summing together counts over three to six cardiac cycles. From this background corrected, high count-rate ''representative''cardiac cycle, LVEF, LVER, and RWM were determined. In 22 patients with normal sinus rhythm in the absence of significant valvular regurgitation, RA LVEF correlated well with that measured by contrast angiography (r = 0.95). LVER correlated well with LVEF measured at contrast angiography (r = 0.90) and allowed complete separation of those with normal (LVER = 3.4 +- 0.17 sec -1 ) and abnormal (LVER = 1.22 +- 0.11 sec -1 ) (P < 0.001) left ventricular performance. This separation was independent of background. Isoproterenol infusion in five normal subjects caused LVER to increase by 81 +- 17% while LVEF increased by 10 +- 2.0%. RWM was correctly defined in 21/22 patients and 89% of left ventricular segments with abnormal wall motion

  13. Effect of myocardial viability in the infarct area on regional left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Takeshi; Usui, Mikio; Nagai, Yoshikazu

    1990-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), regional LVEF of infarct myocardium, and the viability of the myocardium due to the development of collaterals in the infarct area. Each was evaluated by exercise thallium-201 myocardial SPECT, multigated blood pool scintigraphy and coronary angiography. A total of 68 patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction and 23 normal persons were studied. The patients were found to have septal defect on exercise thallium images. According to the appearance of redistribution (RD) on delayed images, the patients were classified as having positive RD (n=42, 62%) or negative RD (n=26, 38%). The global LVEF was compared with regional LVEF of the basal, middle and apical areas within septum, as calculated by multigated blood pool scintigraphy. There was no significant difference in global LVEF between the groups of positive and negative RD patients. However, regional LVEF of the basal and middle areas was significantly larger in the group of positive RD than the group of negative RD. Collaterals were significantly observed in the group of positive RD, as compared with the group of negative RD (53% vs 25%). It was more frequent in cases of higher degree of stenosis. In the group of negative RD, none of the patients had collaterals when coronary stenosis was 90% or less. Redistribution may reflect myocardial viability. Myocardial viability within the infarct area had favorable influences on the regional left ventricular function. Therefore, not only global but also regional left ventricular function is necessary for better understanding of pathophysiology of myocardial infarction.(N.K.)

  14. Developmental dyscalculia: compensatory mechanisms in left intraparietal regions in response to nonsymbolic magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starke Marc

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying developmental dyscalculia are scarce and results are thus far inconclusive. Main aim of the present study is to investigate the neural correlates of nonsymbolic number magnitude processing in children with and without dyscalculia. Methods 18 children (9 with dyscalculia were asked to solve a non-symbolic number magnitude comparison task (finger patterns during brain scanning. For the spatial control task identical stimuli were employed, instructions varying only (judgment of palm rotation. This design enabled us to present identical stimuli with identical visual processing requirements in the experimental and the control task. Moreover, because numerical and spatial processing relies on parietal brain regions, task-specific contrasts are expected to reveal true number-specific activations. Results Behavioral results during scanning reveal that despite comparable (almost at ceiling performance levels, task-specific activations were stronger in dyscalculic children in inferior parietal cortices bilaterally (intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, extending to left angular gyrus. Interestingly, fMRI signal strengths reflected a group × task interaction: relative to baseline, controls produced significant deactivations in (intraparietal regions bilaterally in response to number but not spatial processing, while the opposite pattern emerged in dyscalculics. Moreover, beta weights in response to number processing differed significantly between groups in left – but not right – (intraparietal regions (becoming even positive in dyscalculic children. Conclusion Overall, findings are suggestive of (a less consistent neural activity in right (intraparietal regions upon processing nonsymbolic number magnitudes; and (b compensatory neural activity in left (intraparietal regions in developmental dyscalculia.

  15. Developmental dyscalculia: compensatory mechanisms in left intraparietal regions in response to nonsymbolic magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Liane; Vogel, Stephan E; Starke, Marc; Kremser, Christian; Schocke, Michael; Wood, Guilherme

    2009-08-05

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying developmental dyscalculia are scarce and results are thus far inconclusive. Main aim of the present study is to investigate the neural correlates of nonsymbolic number magnitude processing in children with and without dyscalculia. 18 children (9 with dyscalculia) were asked to solve a non-symbolic number magnitude comparison task (finger patterns) during brain scanning. For the spatial control task identical stimuli were employed, instructions varying only (judgment of palm rotation). This design enabled us to present identical stimuli with identical visual processing requirements in the experimental and the control task. Moreover, because numerical and spatial processing relies on parietal brain regions, task-specific contrasts are expected to reveal true number-specific activations. Behavioral results during scanning reveal that despite comparable (almost at ceiling) performance levels, task-specific activations were stronger in dyscalculic children in inferior parietal cortices bilaterally (intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, extending to left angular gyrus). Interestingly, fMRI signal strengths reflected a group x task interaction: relative to baseline, controls produced significant deactivations in (intra)parietal regions bilaterally in response to number but not spatial processing, while the opposite pattern emerged in dyscalculics. Moreover, beta weights in response to number processing differed significantly between groups in left - but not right - (intra)parietal regions (becoming even positive in dyscalculic children). Overall, findings are suggestive of (a) less consistent neural activity in right (intra)parietal regions upon processing nonsymbolic number magnitudes; and (b) compensatory neural activity in left (intra)parietal regions in developmental dyscalculia.

  16. Task-dependent modulation of regions in the left temporal cortex during auditory sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjun; Yue, Qiuhai; Zhang, Yang; Shu, Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the essential role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension along with evidence of the functional specialization of the anterior and posterior temporal sub-areas. However, it is unclear whether task demands (e.g., active vs. passive listening) modulate the functional specificity of these sub-areas. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we addressed this issue by applying both independent component analysis (ICA) and general linear model (GLM) methods. Consistent with previous studies, intelligible sentences elicited greater activity in the left lateral temporal cortex relative to unintelligible sentences. Moreover, responses to intelligibility in the sub-regions were differentially modulated by task demands. While the overall activation patterns of the anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG) were equivalent during both passive and active tasks, a middle portion of the STS/MTG was found to be selectively activated only during the active task under a refined analysis of sub-regional contributions. Our results not only confirm the critical role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension but further demonstrate that task demands modulate functional specialization of the anterior-middle-posterior temporal sub-areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the relationship between myocardial viability and regional left ventricular wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furutani, Yuhji; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Sato, Shinichi; Saiki, Atsushi; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1993-01-01

    Myocardial viability was determined by using postsystolic shortening (PSS) as an index, as obtained by cardiac blood pool scintigraphy with Tc-99m HSA. The findings were compared with those of thallium-201 myocardial SPECT. The study population was comparised of 41 patients with single blood vessel disease in the left anterior descending artery (34 with old myocardial infarction and 7 with effort angina pectoris). Left ventricular area was divided into 6 segments, and global and regional left ventricular blood volume curves were obtained. Delayed end-systole was the most common in the apex (41%), followed by the upper septum (37%) and lower septum (10%). PSS resulting from delayed end-systole was seen in 36 areas. PSS/end-diastolic volume (EDV) and PSS/systolic volume (SV) were obtained by adjusting end-diastolic and stroke counts, respectively. Thallium-201 myocardial SPECT images were divided into 5 segments to obtain defect score (DS) for visual Tl uptake. Both PSS/EDV and PSS/SV were greater in association with more delayed end-systole, greater DS, and lower reginal ejection fraction. Areas showing greater PSS were associated with less myocardial viability, as observed on Tl myocardial SPECT images. Thus, PSS seemed to reflect the degree of myocardial necrosis within the region of interest. (N.K.)

  18. Unimodal and multimodal regions for logographic language processing in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eDeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human neocortex appears to contain a dedicated visual word form area (VWFA and an adjacent multimodal (visual/auditory area. However, these conclusions are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of alphabetic language processing, languages that have clear grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence (GPC rules that make it difficult to disassociate visual-specific processing from form-to-sound mapping. In contrast, the Chinese language has no clear GPC rules. Therefore, the current study examined whether native Chinese readers also have the same VWFA and multimodal area. Two cross-modal tasks, phonological retrieval of visual words and orthographic retrieval of auditory words, were adopted. Different task requirements were also applied to explore how different levels of cognitive processing modulate activation of putative VWFA-like and multimodal-like regions. Results showed that the left occipitotemporal sulcus responded exclusively to visual inputs and an adjacent region, the left inferior temporal gyrus, showed comparable activation for both visual and auditory inputs. Surprisingly, processing levels did not significantly alter activation of these two regions. These findings indicated that there are both unimodal and multimodal word areas for non-alphabetic language reading, and that activity in these two word-specific regions are independent of task demands at the linguistic level.

  19. Evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function obtained by quantitative gated SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin for left ventricular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Kazunobu; Nakajima, Tohru; Iseki, Harukazu; Abe, Sumihisa; Handa, Shunnosuke; Suzuki, Yutaka [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    The quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software is able to calculate LV volumes and visualize LV wall motion and perfusion throughout the cardiac cycle using an automatic edge detection algorithm of the left ventricle. We evaluated the reliability of global and regional LV function assessment derived from QGS by comparing it with the results from left ventriculo-cineangiography (LVG). In 20 patients with left ventricular dysfunction who underwent ECG gated {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT, the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated. The QGS-assessed regional wall motion was determined using the cinematic display. QGS-derived EDV, ESV and LVEF correlated well with those by LVG (p<0.001 for each). There was a good correlation between wall motion score (WMS) derived from the QGS and the LVG (r=0.40, p<0.05). In some patients with extensive myocardial infarction, there was a discrepancy in the regional wall motion results between QGS and LVG. The ECG-gated SPECT using QGS is useful to evaluate global and regional LV functions in left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  20. Arteriolymphatic Fistula: An Unusual Cause of Spontaneous Swelling in the Left Supraclavicular Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuppiah Viswanathan, Ashok Mithra, E-mail: ashokmithrakv@gmail.com; Irodi, Aparna; Keshava, Shyamkumar N., E-mail: aparna-shyam@yahoo.com [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology (India); Aneez, Joseph; Karthik, Gunasekaran [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Medicine (India)

    2016-09-15

    An abnormal fistulous communication between an artery and lymphatic system is a rare occurrence. We report a 38-year-old male presenting with sudden onset, spontaneous, pulsatile swelling in the left supraclavicular region following a recent cardiac catheterisation via right femoral arterial access. On evaluation, he was found to have a femoral arteriolymphatic fistula. He was managed conservatively with ultrasound-guided compression with complete resolution of symptoms at follow-up. This case describes a hitherto unknown complication of percutaneous vascular cannulation presenting in an unusual manner, diagnosed with Doppler Ultrasonography and CT angiography and managed effectively with a non-invasive therapeutic image-guided manoeuvre.

  1. Automatic determination of the regional ejection fraction of the left ventricle (gated bloodpool)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feser, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The left ventricular volume curve and the ejection fraction are calculated according to the ''sliding region of interest'' method in which the ventricle contour is redetermined for every single picture of the various phases of the heart beat. The original set of data, consisting of 32 pictures in 64 x 64 matrix resolution, is processed by a three-dimensional filtering process in space (x,y) and time (t). The ventricle contour is determined by convolution of the filtered images with a 7-point Laplacian operator in 4 independent directions. The atrial and ventricular phase histograms are then calculated on the basis of this contour. (WU) [de

  2. The influence of rTMS over prefrontal and motor areas in a morphological task: grammatical vs. semantic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerfo, Emanuele Lo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Torriero, Sara; Salerno, Silvia; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2008-01-31

    We investigated the differential role of two frontal regions in the processing of grammatical and semantic knowledge. Given the documented specificity of the prefrontal cortex for the grammatical class of verbs, and of the primary motor cortex for the semantic class of action words, we sought to investigate whether the prefrontal cortex is also sensitive to semantic effects, and whether the motor cortex is also sensitive to grammatical class effects. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefontal cortex (first experiment) and of the motor area (second experiment). In the first experiment we found that rTMS applied to the left prefrontal cortex delays the processing of action verbs' retrieval, but is not critical for retrieval of state verbs and state nouns. In the second experiment we found that rTMS applied to the left motor cortex delays the processing of action words, both name and verbs, while it is not critical for the processing of state words. These results support the notion that left prefrontal and motor cortex are involved in the process of action word retrieval. Left prefrontal cortex subserves processing of both grammatical and semantic information, whereas motor cortex contributes to the processing of semantic representation of action words without any involvement in the representation of grammatical categories.

  3. Regional wall movement of the left ventricle in coronary heat diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, N.

    1979-01-01

    The regional wall movement of the left ventriculus is a substantial criterion for the treatment of coronary heart diseases. The non-invasive and riskless intravenous injections of a bolus of Technetium 99m-Pertechnetat and the recording of the first passage through the heart allow to present the regional wall movement of the left ventriculus and, in addition, to make a statement on the haemodynamic feed back effects on lungs and the right heart. The congruency with the wall movement determined invasively, in the contrast substance angiocardiogram, is high both for the normokinesis and for hypo-, A - and dyskinesis (90-92%). The examination proved good in following groups of patients and makes the decision on the further proceding easier: 1) After myocardial infarction. 2) In ishaemia-ECG or persistent ST-elevation. 3) In unstable progressive angina pectoris. 4) In unclear breast aches and negative ECG on exertion. 5) For course control after conservative and surgial therapy. The myocardial reserve can be shown using a after nitroglycerin administration. An investigation on exertion can find out affected vessel territories in the circulation. (orig.) [de

  4. Global and Regional Left Ventricular Contractile Impairment In Patients With Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Jacob

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess regional systolic function and global contractile function in patients with WPW Syndrome.Method: Eleven cases with manifest Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome in sinus rhythm were compared to 11 age matched controls. 2D strain analysis was performed and peak segmental radial strain (pRS values obtained from basal ventricular parasternal short-axis images (70 ± 5 frames/sec using a dedicated software package. Heterogeneity of radial strain pattern in six circumferential basal left ventricular segments was measured in terms of standard deviations of peak RS (SDpRS or range (difference between maximum and minimum peak RS i.e. RangepRS. Spectral Doppler (continuous wave measurements were acquired through the left ventricular outflow tract to determine Pre Ejection Period (PEP, Left Ventricular Ejection Time (LVET and measures of left ventricular systolic performance. Results: LV segmental radial strain was profoundly heterogeneous in WPW cases in contrast to fairly homogenous strain pattern in normal subjects. Wide SDpRS values 17.5 ± 8.9 vs 3.3 ± 1.4, p<0.001 and RangepRS 42.7 ± 20.8 vs.8.5 ± 3.6 , p<0.001 were observed among WPW and healthy subjects respectively. PEP (132.4 ± 14.7 vs 4.7 ± 0.5ms, p<0.001 and corrected PEP (76.1 ± 8.0 vs 2.7 ± 0.4ms, p<0.001 were significantly longer in WPW patients compared to controls. The PEP/LVET ratio was also significantly greater in WPW cohort (0.49 ± 0.04 vs. 0.28 ± 0.05, p <0.001 suggesting global systolic dysfunction. Conclusion: Patients with manifest preexcitation (predominantly those with right-sided pathways have regional and global contractile dysfunction resulting from aberrant impulse propagation inherent to the preexcited state.

  5. Visual object naming in patients with small lesions centered at the left temporopolar region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Pablo; Poch, Claudia; Toledano, Rafael; Igoa, José Manuel; Belinchón, Mercedes; García-Morales, Irene; Gil-Nagel, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Naming is considered a left hemisphere function that operates according to a posterior-anterior specificity gradient, with more fine-grained information processed in most anterior regions of the temporal lobe (ATL), including the temporal pole (TP). Word finding difficulties are typically assessed using visual confrontation naming tasks, and have been associated with selective damage to ATL resulting from different aetiologies. Nonetheless, the role of the ATL and, more specifically, of the TP in the naming network is not completely established. Most of the accumulated evidence is based on studies on patients with extensive lesions, often bilateral. Furthermore, there is a considerable variability in the anatomical definition of ATL. To better understand the specific involvement of the left TP in visual object naming, we assessed a group of patients with an epileptogenic lesion centered at the TP, and compared their performance with that of a strictly matched control group. We also administered a battery of verbal and non-verbal semantic tasks that was used as a semantic memory baseline. Patients showed an impaired naming ability, manifesting in a certain degree of anomia and semantically related naming errors, which was influenced by concept familiarity. This pattern took place in a context of mild semantic dysfunction that was evident in different types and modalities of semantic tasks. Therefore, current findings demonstrate that a restricted lesion to the left TP can cause a significant deficit in object naming. Of importance, the observed semantic impairment was far from the devastating degradation observed in semantic dementia and other bilateral conditions.

  6. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Doallo

    Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.

  7. Reduced left precentral regional responses in patients with major depressive disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Noa; Mikawa, Wakako; Tsujimoto, Emi; Adachi, Toru; Niwa, Atsushi; Ono, Hisae; Shirakawa, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed frontal and temporal functional abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of suicidal behavior. However, it is unknown whether multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal changes among individuals with MDD are associated with a history of suicide attempts and a diathesis for suicidal behavior (impulsivity, hopelessness, and aggression). Therefore, we aimed to explore frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts using 52-channel NIRS. We recruited 30 patients with MDD and a history of suicidal behavior (suicide attempters; SAs), 38 patient controls without suicidal behavior (non-attempters; NAs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, gender ratio, and estimated IQ. Regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task (VFT) were monitored using NIRS. Our results showed that severities of depression, impulsivity, aggression, and hopelessness were similar between SAs and NAs. Both patient groups had significantly reduced activation compared with HCs in the bilateral frontotemporal regions. Post hoc analyses revealed that SAs exhibited a smaller hemodynamic response in the left precentral gyrus than NAs and HCs. Furthermore, the reduced response in the left inferior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with impulsivity level and hemodynamic responses in the right middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with hopelessness and aggression in SAs but not in NAs and HCs. Our findings suggest that MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts demonstrate patterns of VFT-induced NIRS signal changes different from those demonstrated by individuals without a history of suicidal behaviors, even in cases where clinical symptoms are similar. NIRS has a relatively high time resolution, which may help visually differentiate SAs from NAs.

  8. Selective reductions in prefrontal glucose metabolism in murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Buchsbaum, M S; Stanley, J; Lottenberg, S; Abel, L; Stoddard, J

    1994-09-15

    This study tests the hypothesis that seriously violent offenders pleading not guilty by reason of insanity or incompetent to stand trial are characterized by prefrontal dysfunction. This hypothesis was tested in a group of 22 subjects accused of murder and 22 age-matched and gender-matched controls by measuring local cerebral uptake of glucose using positron emission tomography during the continuous performance task. Murderers had significantly lower glucose metabolism in both lateral and medial prefrontal cortex relative to controls. No group differences were observed for posterior frontal, temporal, and parietal glucose metabolism, indicating regional specificity for the prefrontal deficit. Group differences were not found to be a function of raised levels of left-handedness, schizophrenia, ethnic minority status, head injury, or motivation deficits in the murder group. These preliminary results suggest that deficits localized to the prefrontal cortex may be related to violence in a selected group of offenders, although further studies are needed to establish the generalizability of these findings to violent offenders in the community.

  9. I find you more attractive … after (prefrontal cortex) stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, C.; Lega, C.; Tamietto, M.; Nadal, M.; Cattaneo, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Facial attractiveness seems to be perceived immediately. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the appraisal of facial attractiveness is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical regions, mainly encompassing the reward circuit, but also including prefrontal cortices. The prefrontal cortex is

  10. Regional left ventricular contractile dynamics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy estimated by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    1994-01-01

    To assess the regional myocardial function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), I examined the systolic wall thickening (%WT) and percent change of segmental wall area (%AR) using cine magnetic resonance imaging in 23 normal volunteers (G1) and 40 patients (G2) with HCM. Short axis images of the left ventricle were recorded at the base and the apex, and were divided into 5 segments, and %WT and %AR were measured for each segment. There were no significant differences in %WT and %AR among the segments in G1, while %WT of the posterior septum, posterior and lateral segments in the apex were higher than the corresponding segments of the base. Wall segments of G2 were classified into 3 groups according to the end-diastolic wall thickness: G2a, ≤12 mm; G2b, 12 15. At each slice level, %WT and %AR were highest in G2a and lowest in G2c. These findings suggest that myocardial shortening in normal subjects is higher in the apex than in the base, and, in HCM, regional myocardial function decreases in association with an advance of hypertrophy, with a possible compensatory increased wall function of normal segments. (author)

  11. Mindful attention to breath regulates emotions via increased amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Anselm; Hölzel, Britta K; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Boucard, Christine C; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness practice is beneficial for emotion regulation; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The current study focuses on effects of attention-to-breath (ATB) as a basic mindfulness practice on aversive emotions at behavioral and brain levels. A key finding across different emotion regulation strategies is the modulation of amygdala and prefrontal activity. It is unclear how ATB relevant brain areas in the prefrontal cortex integrate with amygdala activation during emotional stimulation. We proposed that, during emotional stimulation, ATB down-regulates activation in the amygdala and increases its integration with prefrontal regions. To address this hypothesis, 26 healthy controls were trained in mindfulness-based attention-to-breath meditation for two weeks and then stimulated with aversive pictures during both attention-to-breath and passive viewing while undergoing fMRI. Data were controlled for breathing frequency. Results indicate that (1) ATB was effective in regulating aversive emotions. (2) Left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex was associated with ATB in general. (3) A fronto-parietal network was additionally recruited during emotional stimulation. (4) ATB down regulated amygdala activation and increased amygdala-prefrontal integration, with such increased integration being associated with mindfulness ability. Results suggest amygdala-dorsal prefrontal cortex integration as a potential neural pathway of emotion regulation by mindfulness practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-invasive evaluation of regional function of the left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, N.; Nickel, O.

    1980-01-01

    Assessment of regional left ventricular function with first pass angiocardiography in the RAO view almost entirely depends on high image statistics, accurate border definition and background subtraction, as well as an analysis of so called functional images which regionally measure and illustrate functional change during heart action. During first bolus transit the multicrystal camera gives an average of 300,000 cts/sec allowing precise border definition because of steepness of count changes at the LV-border. A varying background adjacent to each border point and also over the LV is subtracted. Measurements of segmental hemiaxis shortening and of zonal ejection fractions in the three zones supplied by the major coronary arteries have been performed. Clinical applications comprise examinations at rest, peak exercise, after nitroglycerin administration and after bypass graft surgery. Wall motion measured by means of hemiaxis shortening (210 segments) showed good correlation with angiocardiography in 91% of segments with normokinesis, in 90% asynergic and 88% of hypokinetic segments. Functional images corrected false negativ and false positiv wall motion measurements. In patients after myocardial infarction, there was (after NTG-administration) a significant increase in hemiaxis shortening in asynergic segment, but not in dyskinesias. Exercise studies in patients with wall motion disorders showed a significantly higher increase in global ejection fraction in patients with resting EF-values and 58% than above that value. Zonal ejection fractions after bypass surgery showed an average increase of 6.4 points if complete vascularization was performed, but no zonal increase or decrease when vascularization was incomplete or the zone included a previous myocardial infarction. (orig.) [de

  13. Resting-state functional connectivity of antero-medial prefrontal cortex sub-regions in major depression and relationship to emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Helen; Johnson, Kevin; Schmidt, Matthew; Arana, Ashley; Chahine, George; Atoui, Mia; Pincus, David; George, Mark S; Panksepp, Jaak; Nahas, Ziad

    2015-03-05

    Major depressive disorder has been associated with abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), especially in cognitive processing and emotional regulation networks. Although studies have found abnormal FC in regions of the default mode network (DMN), no study has investigated the FC of specific regions within the anterior DMN based on cytoarchitectonic subdivisions of the antero-medial pre-frontal cortex (PFC). Studies from different areas in the field have shown regions within the anterior DMN to be involved in emotional intelligence. Although abnormalities in this region have been observed in depression, the relationship between the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) function and emotional intelligence has yet to be investigated in depressed individuals. Twenty-one medication-free, non-treatment resistant, depressed patients and 21 healthy controls underwent a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging session. The participants also completed an ability-based measure of emotional intelligence: the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. FC maps of Brodmann areas (BA) 25, 10 m, 10r, and 10p were created and compared between the two groups. Mixed-effects analyses showed that the more anterior seeds encompassed larger areas of the DMN. Compared to healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly lower connectivity between BA10p and the right insula and between BA25 and the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. Exploratory analyses showed an association between vmPFC connectivity and emotional intelligence. These results suggest that individuals with depression have reduced FC between antero-medial PFC regions and regions involved in emotional regulation compared to control subjects. Moreover, vmPFC functional connectivity appears linked to emotional intelligence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  14. Effects of excision of a mass lesion of the precentral region of the left hemisphere on disturbances of graphomotor output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, L.I.; Smely, C.; Lange, K.W.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of neurosurgery on graphomotor output of a right-handed female patient with a mass lesion of the precentral region of the left frontal lobe was reported. For examination of handwriting movements a digitizing tablet was used. Preoperatively, the patient showed longer

  15. Is non-operative approach applicable for penetrating injuries of the left thoraco-abdominal region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Kones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Currently, diagnostic laparoscopy (DL is recommended for the left thoraco-abdominal region penetrating injuries (LTARP. However, organ and diaphragmatic injury may not be detected in all of these patients. Our aim is to focus on this LTARP patient group without any operative findings and to highlight the evaluation of diagnostic tools in the high-tech era for a possible selected conservative treatment. Material and methods: The patients who were admitted to ED due to LTARP, and who underwent routine DL were evaluated retrospectively in terms of demographic, clinical, radiological, and operative findings of the patients. Results: The current study included 79 patients with LTARP. In 44 of 79 patients, abdominal injury was not detected. In 30 patients an isolated diaphragmatic injury was revealed and in 4 patients a visceral injury was accompanying to diaphragmatic injury. Surgical findings revealed that the diaphragm was the organ most likely to sustain injury. In patients with more than one positive diagnostic findings need for surgery rate was 61.5%, however; in patients with one positive diagnostic finding (n = 53, positive surgical finding rate was only 35.8%, (p = 0.03. Regarding the combined use of all diagnostic tools in these patients; such as physical examination, plain chest X-ray, and computed tomography, when this method was used for pre-operative diagnosis, sensitivity was measured as 82.7%, specificity 84.1%, PPV 77.4% and NPV 88.1%. Conclusion: Although DL is reliable for diagnosis of diaphragmatic and visceral injury in patients with LTARP. However, individual decision making for laparoscopic intervention is needed to prevent morbidity of an unnecessary operation under emergent setting due to high rates of negative intraabdominal findings. Keywords: Wounds penetrating, Physical examination, Diagnostic imaging, Treatment outcome

  16. Global left ventricular function in cardiac CT. Evaluation of an automated 3D region-growing segmentation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlenbruch, Georg; Das, Marco; Hohl, Christian; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Rinck, Daniel; Flohr, Thomas G.; Koos, Ralf; Knackstedt, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate a new semi-automated 3D region-growing segmentation algorithm for functional analysis of the left ventricle in multislice CT (MSCT) of the heart. Twenty patients underwent contrast-enhanced MSCT of the heart (collimation 16 x 0.75 mm; 120 kV; 550 mAseff). Multiphase image reconstructions with 1-mm axial slices and 8-mm short-axis slices were performed. Left ventricular volume measurements (end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, ejection fraction and stroke volume) from manually drawn endocardial contours in the short axis slices were compared to semi-automated region-growing segmentation of the left ventricle from the 1-mm axial slices. The post-processing-time for both methods was recorded. Applying the new region-growing algorithm in 13/20 patients (65%), proper segmentation of the left ventricle was feasible. In these patients, the signal-to-noise ratio was higher than in the remaining patients (3.2±1.0 vs. 2.6±0.6). Volume measurements of both segmentation algorithms showed an excellent correlation (all P≤0.0001); the limits of agreement for the ejection fraction were 2.3±8.3 ml. In the patients with proper segmentation the mean post-processing time using the region-growing algorithm was diminished by 44.2%. On the basis of a good contrast-enhanced data set, a left ventricular volume analysis using the new semi-automated region-growing segmentation algorithm is technically feasible, accurate and more time-effective. (orig.)

  17. Evidence for a Specific Integrative Mechanism for Episodic Memory Mediated by AMPA/kainate Receptors in a Circuit Involving Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampal CA3 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Huston, Joseph P; Wang, An-Li; Petri, David; Chao, Owen Yuan-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    We asked whether episodic-like memory requires neural mechanisms independent of those that mediate its component memories for "what," "when," and "where," and if neuronal connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HPC) CA3 subregion is essential for episodic-like memory. Unilateral lesion of the mPFC was combined with unilateral lesion of the CA3 in the ipsi- or contralateral hemispheres in rats. Episodic-like memory was tested using a task, which assesses the integration of memories for "what, where, and when" concomitantly. Tests for novel object recognition (what), object place (where), and temporal order memory (when) were also applied. Bilateral disconnection of the mPFC-CA3 circuit by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) lesions disrupted episodic-like memory, but left the component memories for object, place, and temporal order, per se, intact. Furthermore, unilateral NMDA lesion of the CA3 plus injection of (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) (CNQX) (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist), but not AP-5 (NMDA receptor antagonist), into the contralateral mPFC also disrupted episodic-like memory, indicating the mPFC AMPA/kainate receptors as critical for this circuit. These results argue for a selective neural system that specifically subserves episodic memory, as it is not critically involved in the control of its component memories for object, place, and time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A region-specific quantitative profile of autonomic innervation of the canine left atrium and pulmonary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chong-han; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Rong; Zhang, Jin; Mou, Huamin; Yin, Yue-hui

    2011-07-05

    The aim of the present study was to determine and quantify the cardiac autonomic innervation of the canine atria and pulmonary vein. Tissue specimens were taken from the canine pulmonary veins (PVs), posterior left atrium (PLA), left atrial roof (LAR), anterior left atrium (ALA), interatrial septum (IAS), and left atrial appendage (LAA) respectively for immunohistochemical analysis and nerve density determination. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve densities decreased in the order: PLA>PV>IAS>LAR>ALA>LAA. For sympathetic nerve, multiple comparisons between any two regions showed a significant difference (PIAS vs. LAR, and LAR vs. ALA; for parasympathetic nerve, all the differences between any pair of regions were statistically significant (PIAS vs. LAR, LAR vs. ALA, and ALA vs. LAA. For both nerve types, there was a decreasing gradient of nerve densities from the external to internal layer (P<0.001, for each comparisons). Nerve density at the ostia for either nerve type was significantly higher than at the distal segments of PVs (P<0.001). In summary, the LA and PVs are innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves in a regionally heterogeneous way, which may be important for the pathophysiological investigation and ablation therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cine MR imaging assessment of regional left ventricular systolic wall thickening in patients with remote myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfugfelder, P.; White, R.D.; Sechtem, U.; Gould, R.G.; Higgins, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Cine MR imaging, a new rapid imaging technique, was used to acquire transverse images of the heart at a rate of 16-30 frames per cardiac cycle. Left ventricular wall thickness was measured at end diastole and end systole in six regions in the midventricular section of 13 healthy subjects and seven patients with previously documented myocardial infarction. Mean percent systolic wall thickening (%SWT) was 51% +- 26% in healthy subjects. In patients, %SWT was -8% +- 22% in the infarct zone and 42% +- 22% in the normal myocardium. In addition to the qualitative information derived from the cinematic display, determination of regional %SWT by cine-MR imaging may be useful for quantifying regional left ventricular dysfunction

  20. Population-specific left ventricular hypertrophy in three groups from the northeastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, P K; Hazarika, N C; Biswas, D; Kalita, H C; Mahanta, J

    2010-01-01

    People living in the hills are continuously exposed to strenuous physical activity for their day-to-day work. Besides hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy in different populations may be related to continuous physical activity. Electrocardiogram, blood pressure and sociodemographic information of 12 252 subjects > or = 30 years of age from three different population groups living in Mizoram (hilly) and Assam (plain) were recorded. Of them, 8058 were from Mizoram and 3180 and 1014 were Indigenous Assamese and tea garden workers of Assam. Among the subjects from Mizoram the percentage of smokers (41.9%), mean (SD) BMI (21.9 [3.8]) and waist-hip ratio (0.87 [0.02]) were significantly higher than in those from other groups. Tea garden workers had a higher mean systolic blood pressure (145.2 [25.7]) and diastolic blood pressure (87.6 [13.6]). The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was highest among tea garden workers (16.5%) followed by people from Mizoram (3.7%) and the indigenous Assamese (2%) people. In spite of a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension among the indigenous Assamese community than among those from Mizoram, left ventricular hypertrophy was found to be lower in the former. High prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among tea garden workers was possibly related to a higher prevalence of hypertension but the higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among people from Mizoram might be related to more physical activity.

  1. Correlation between Left Ventricular Global and Regional Longitudinal Systolic Strain and Impaired Microcirculation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Christophersen, Thomas Brøcher

    2012-01-01

    investigated if LRS and GLS imaging is superior to conventional measures of left ventricle (LV) function. Methods: In a consecutive population of first time AMI patients, who underwent successful revascularization, we performed comprehensive TTE. GLS and LRS were obtained from the three standard apical views...... elevation myocardial infarction. The GLS was -15.2 [-19.3;-10.1]% in the total population of 183 patients. Total wall motion score index (WMSI) in the population was 1.19 [1;1.5]. Eighty-five patients suffered from culprit lesion in left anterior descending artery (LAD). The CFR in these patients was 1......Objectives: We investigated the correlation between left ventricular global and regional longitudinal systolic strain (GLS and LRS) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Furthermore, we...

  2. Antagonism at the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors induces increased connectivity of the prefrontal and subcortical regions regulating reward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Natalia; Becker, Robert; Sack, Markus; Schwarz, Adam J; Reinwald, Jonathan; Cosa-Linan, Alejandro; Zheng, Lei; von Hohenberg, Christian Clemm; Inta, Dragos; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter; Sartorius, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    Evidence indicates that ketamine's rapid antidepressant efficacy likely results from its antagonism of NR2B-subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Since ketamine equally blocks NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDAR, and has affinity to other receptors, NR2B-selective drugs might have improved therapeutic efficiency and side effect profile. We aimed to compare the effects of (S)-ketamine and two different types of NR2B-selective antagonists on functional brain networks in rats, in order to find common circuits, where their effects intersect, and that might explain their antidepressant action. The experimental design comprised four parallel groups of rats (N = 37), each receiving (S)-Ketamine, CP-101,606, Ro 25-6981 or saline. After compound injection, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging time series. We used graph theoretical approach to calculate brain network properties. Ketamine and CP-101,606 diminished the global clustering coefficient and small-worldness index. At the nodal level, all compounds induced increased connectivity of the regions mediating reward and cognitive aspects of emotional processing, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex, septal nuclei, and nucleus accumbens. The dorsal hippocampus and regions involved in sensory processing and aversion, such as superior and inferior colliculi, exhibited an opposite effect. The effects common to ketamine and NR2B-selective compounds were localized to the same brain regions as those reported in depression, but in the opposite direction. The upregulation of the reward circuitry might partially underlie the antidepressant and anti-anhedonic effects of the antagonists and could potentially serve as a translational imaging phenotype for testing putative antidepressants, especially those targeting the NR2B receptor subtype.

  3. Unleashing creativity: The role of left temporoparietal regions in evaluating and inhibiting the generation of creative ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayseless, Naama; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone

    2014-11-01

    Human creativity is thought to entail two processes. One is idea generation, whereby ideas emerge in an associative manner, and the other is idea evaluation, whereby generated ideas are evaluated and screened. Thus far, neuroimaging studies have identified several brain regions as being involved in creativity, yet only a handful of studies have examined the neural basis underlying these two processes. We found that an individual with left temporoparietal hemorrhage who had no previous experience as an artist developed remarkable artistic creativity, which diminished as the hemorrhage receded. We thus hypothesized that damage to the evaluation network of creativity during the initial hematoma had a releasing effect on creativity by "freeing" the idea generation system. In line with this hypothesis, we conducted a subsequent fMRI study showing that decreased left temporal and parietal activations among healthy individuals as they evaluated creative ideas selectively predicted higher creativity. The current studies provide converging multi-method evidence suggesting that the left temporoparietal area is part of a neural network involved in evaluating creativity, and that as such may act as inhibitors of creativity. We propose an explanatory model of creativity centered upon the key role of the left temporoparietal regions in evaluating and inhibiting creativity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The left fusiform gyrus is a critical region contributing to the core behavioral profile of semantic dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua eDing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Given that extensive cerebral regions are co-atrophic in semantic dementia (SD, it is not yet known which critical regions (SD-semantic-critical regions are really responsible for the semantic deficits of SD. To identify the SD-semantic-critical regions, we explored the relationship between the degree of cerebral atrophy in the whole brain and the severity of semantic deficits in 19 individuals with SD. We found that the gray matter volumes of two regions [left fusiform gyrus (lFFG and left parahippocampal gyrus (lPHG] significantly correlated with the semantic scores of patients with SD. Importantly, the effects of the lFFG remained significant after controlling for the gray matter volumes of the lPHG. Moreover, the effects of the region could not be accounted for by the total gray matter volume, general cognitive ability, laterality of brain atrophy, or control task performance. We further observed that each atrophic portion of the lFFG along the anterior-posterior axis might dedicate to the loss of semantic functions in SD. These results reveal that the lFFG could be a critical region contributing to the semantic deficits of SD.

  5. Opiate sensitization induces FosB/ΔFosB expression in prefrontal cortical, striatal and amygdala brain regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary B Kaplan

    Full Text Available Sensitization to the effects of drugs of abuse and associated stimuli contributes to drug craving, compulsive drug use, and relapse in addiction. Repeated opiate exposure produces behavioral sensitization that is hypothesized to result from neural plasticity in specific limbic, striatal and cortical systems. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors that are implicated in neural plasticity in addiction. This study examined the effects of intermittent morphine treatment, associated with motor sensitization, on FosB/ΔFosB levels using quantitative immunohistochemistry. Motor sensitization was tested in C57BL/6 mice that received six intermittent pre-treatments (on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 with either subcutaneous morphine (10 mg/kg or saline followed by a challenge injection of morphine or saline on day 16. Mice receiving repeated morphine injections demonstrated significant increases in locomotor activity on days 8, 10, and 12 of treatment (vs. day 1, consistent with development of locomotor sensitization. A morphine challenge on day 16 significantly increased locomotor activity of saline pre-treated mice and produced even larger increases in motor activity in the morphine pre-treated mice, consistent with the expression of opiate sensitization. Intermittent morphine pre-treatment on these six pre-treatment days produced a significant induction of FosB/ΔFosB, measured on day 16, in multiple brain regions including prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc core, dorsomedial caudate-putamen (CPU, basolateral amygdala (BLA and central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA but not in a motor cortex control region. Opiate induced sensitization may develop via Fos/ΔFosB plasticity in motivational pathways (NAc, motor outputs (CPU, and associative learning (PL, IL, BLA and stress pathways (CNA.

  6. Decreased prefrontal functional brain response during memory testing in women with Cushing's syndrome in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, Oskar; Stomby, Andreas; Dahlqvist, Per; Evang, Johan A; Ryberg, Mats; Olsson, Tommy; Bollerslev, Jens; Nyberg, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-08-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is an important feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our hypothesis was that patients with CS in remission have decreased functional brain responses in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during memory testing. In this cross-sectional study we included 19 women previously treated for CS and 19 controls matched for age, gender, and education. The median remission time was 7 (IQR 6-10) years. Brain activity was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic- and working-memory tasks. The primary regions of interest were the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. A voxel-wise comparison of functional brain responses in patients and controls was performed. During episodic-memory encoding, patients displayed lower functional brain responses in the left and right prefrontal gyrus (pright inferior occipital gyrus (pbrain responses in the left posterior hippocampus in patients (p=0.05). During episodic-memory retrieval, the patients displayed lower functional brain responses in several brain areas with the most predominant difference in the right prefrontal cortex (pbrain response during a more complex working memory task compared with a simpler one. In conclusion, women with CS in long-term remission have reduced functional brain responses during episodic and working memory testing. This observation extends previous findings showing long-term adverse effects of severe hypercortisolaemia on brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of 1H-MR spectroscopy in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of heroine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanying; Wang Yarong; Li Qiang; Xiong Xiaoshuang; Wang Wei; Zhao Wei; Bai Yunliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristic findings of 1 H-MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of patients with heroine dependence (HD), and the relationship to total cumulative dose of inhaled heroine. Methods: Fourteen male HD patients and 12 healthy controls (HC) underwent 1 H-MRS at the prefrontal cortex and amygdala regions. The total cumulative in haled heroin dose was (852±341) g in HD. Ratios of N-acetylaspartate/creatine(NAA/Cr) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) were respectively measured in the prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdale regions. The student's t test and the linear correlation were employed for statistical analysis. Results: Compared to HC group, HD patients had a significant lower ratio of NAA/Cr in the prefrontal cortex (1.44±0.46 vs 1.50±0.75, t=1.77, P< 0.05), left amygdala region (1.32±0.08 vs 1.42±0.08, t=3.41, P<0.05), and right amygdala region (1.34±0.09 vs 1.44±0.10, t=2.63, P<0.05), the HD patients had a significant increased ratio of Cho/Cr in the prefrontal cortex (0.92±0.06 vs 0.86±0.08, t=2.31, P<0.05), left amygdala region (1.20±0.12 vs 1.07±0.04, t=3.60, P<0.05) and right amygdala region(1.26±0.15 vs 1.12±0.11, t=2.60, P<0.05). There was a negative linear correlation between the total cumulative inhaled heroine dose and the ratio of NAA/Cr in the prefrontal cortex (r=-0.9159, P<0.01), left amygdala region( r= -0.8756, P<0.01), and right amygdala region (r=-0.9399, P<0.01) respectively. Conclusions: The study indicates that neuronal damage and glial proliferation may occur in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala region, which suggests the abnormalities of executive function and emotion in patients with HD. A relationship exists between the heroin-induced metabolic abnormality and the total cumulative dose of inhaled heroine. (authors)

  8. Estimation of global and regional ejection fraction of the left ventricle using a fully digitalised technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuengerthal, S.; Reifart, N.; Standke, R.; Lang, J.; Kollath, J.; Riemann, H.E.; Frankfurt Univ.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Subtraction angiocardiography (DSAK) with a fully digitalised system (DR 960) provides a well defined demonstration of the left ventricle after peripheral venous contrast injection. Cardiac volume and ejection fractions were calculated by a dedicated software programme and the findings correlated with cine ventriculography (CA) (r=0.91), biplane echo cardiography (2 DE) (r=0.77) and radionucleid ventriculography (RNV) (r=0.85); the method can be used even with reduced cardiac output (EF [de

  9. Visualisation of regional motility disorders in the left ventricular wall using radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.

    1985-01-01

    During this study ECG-triggered intramyocardial scintiscans were obtained following in-vivo labelling of erythrocytes (99mTc) from 74 patients showing coronary heart disease and analysed with the aim to assess the suitability of this method for the detection of mural motility disorders and for visualisation of the accurate size of the left ventricle. The results of the intramyocardial scintiscans were evaluated against those of levocardiograms recorded for reasons of comparison and found to demonstrate mural motility disorders with a specifity of 0.70 and a sensitivity of 0.75. Relatively reliable data to diagnose those myocardial motility disorders were obtained by combined analysis of the individual scintiphotographic displays of amplitudes, phases, ejection fractions and positive gradients. The investigation of further parameters like the recorded stroke volumes and negative gradients provided no additional information. The phase recording proved to be the most suitable parameter to assess the size of the left ventricle. All other recordings gave a distorted picture of the left ventricle in terms of a reduction in size. (TRV) [de

  10. Prefrontal control of the amygdala during real-time fMRI neurofeedback training of emotion regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Zotev

    Full Text Available We observed in a previous study (PLoS ONE 6:e24522 that the self-regulation of amygdala activity via real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf with positive emotion induction was associated, in healthy participants, with an enhancement in the functional connectivity between the left amygdala (LA and six regions of the prefrontal cortex. These regions included the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC, bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG, and right medial frontopolar cortex (MFPC. Together with the LA, these six prefrontal regions thus formed the functional neuroanatomical network engaged during the rtfMRI-nf procedure. Here we perform a structural vector autoregression (SVAR analysis of the effective connectivity for this network. The SVAR analysis demonstrates that the left rACC plays an important role during the rtfMRI-nf training, modulating the LA and the other network regions. According to the analysis, the rtfMRI-nf training leads to a significant enhancement in the time-lagged effect of the left rACC on the LA, potentially consistent with the ipsilateral distribution of the monosynaptic projections between these regions. The training is also accompanied by significant increases in the instantaneous (contemporaneous effects of the left rACC on four other regions - the bilateral DMPFC, the right MFPC, and the left SFG. The instantaneous effects of the LA on the bilateral DMPFC are also significantly enhanced. Our results are consistent with a broad literature supporting the role of the rACC in emotion processing and regulation. Our exploratory analysis provides, for the first time, insights into the causal relationships within the network of regions engaged during the rtfMRI-nf procedure targeting the amygdala. It suggests that the rACC may constitute a promising target for rtfMRI-nf training along with the amygdala in patients with affective disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress

  11. The Stressed Female Brain: Neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y. Maeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. 24h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similar to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful

  12. Trail making test performance in youth varies as a function of anatomical coupling between the prefrontal cortex and distributed cortical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Raitano Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While researchers have gained a richer understanding of the neural correlates of executive function in adulthood, much less is known about how these abilities are represented in the developing brain and what structural brain networks underlie them. Thus, the current study examined how individual differences in executive function, as measured by the Trail Making Test (TMT, relate to structural covariance in the pediatric brain. The sample included 146 unrelated, typically developing youth (80 females, ages 9-14 years, who completed a structural MRI scan of the brain and the Halstead-Reitan TMT (intermediate form. TMT scores used to index executive function included those that evaluated set-shifting ability: Trails B time (number-letter sequencing and the difference in time between Trails B and A (number sequencing only. Anatomical coupling was measured by examining correlations between mean cortical thickness (MCT across the entire cortical ribbon and individual vertex thickness measured at ~81,000 vertices. To examine how TMT scores related to anatomical coupling strength, linear regression was utilized and the interaction between age-normed TMT scores and both age and sex-normed MCT was used to predict vertex thickness. Results revealed that stronger Trails B scores were associated with greater anatomical coupling between a large swath of prefrontal cortex and the rest of cortex. For the difference between Trails B and A, a network of regions in the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes was found to be more tightly coupled with the rest of cortex in stronger performers. This study is the first to highlight the importance of structural covariance in the prediction of individual differences in executive function skills in youth. Thus, it adds to the growing literature on the neural correlates of childhood executive functions and identifies neuroanatomic coupling as a biological substrate that may contribute to executive function and dysfunction in

  13. Trail making test performance in youth varies as a function of anatomical coupling between the prefrontal cortex and distributed cortical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Raznahan, Armin; Clasen, Liv S.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have gained a richer understanding of the neural correlates of executive function in adulthood, much less is known about how these abilities are represented in the developing brain and what structural brain networks underlie them. Thus, the current study examined how individual differences in executive function, as measured by the Trail Making Test (TMT), relate to structural covariance in the pediatric brain. The sample included 146 unrelated, typically developing youth (80 females), ages 9–14 years, who completed a structural MRI scan of the brain and the Halstead-Reitan TMT (intermediate form). TMT scores used to index executive function included those that evaluated set-shifting ability: Trails B time (number-letter sequencing) and the difference in time between Trails B and A (number sequencing only). Anatomical coupling was measured by examining correlations between mean cortical thickness (MCT) across the entire cortical ribbon and individual vertex thickness measured at ~81,000 vertices. To examine how TMT scores related to anatomical coupling strength, linear regression was utilized and the interaction between age-normed TMT scores and both age and sex-normed MCT was used to predict vertex thickness. Results revealed that stronger Trails B scores were associated with greater anatomical coupling between a large swath of prefrontal cortex and the rest of cortex. For the difference between Trails B and A, a network of regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes was found to be more tightly coupled with the rest of cortex in stronger performers. This study is the first to highlight the importance of structural covariance in in the prediction of individual differences in executive function skills in youth. Thus, it adds to the growing literature on the neural correlates of childhood executive functions and identifies neuroanatomic coupling as a biological substrate that may contribute to executive function and dysfunction in

  14. Association between left ventricular regional sympathetic denervation and mechanical dyssynchrony in phase analysis: a cardiac CZT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Giorgetti, Assuero; Kusch, Annette [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Liga, Riccardo [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Marzullo, Paolo [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); CNR, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    To evaluate the relationships among myocardial sympathetic innervation, perfusion and mechanical synchronicity assessed with cardiac cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) scintigraphy. A group of 29 patients underwent an evaluation of myocardial perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin CZT scintigraphy and adrenergic innervation with {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) CZT scintigraphy. The summed rest score (SRS), motion score (SMS) and thickening score (STS), as well as the summed {sup 123}I-MIBG defect score (SS-MIBG), were determined. Regional tracer uptake for both {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 123}I-MIBG was also calculated. Finally, the presence of significant myocardial mechanical dyssynchrony was evaluated in phase analysis on gated CZT images and the region of latest mechanical activation identified. Significant mechanical dyssynchrony was present in 17 patients (59 %) and associated with higher SRS (P = 0.030), SMS (P < 0.001), STS (P = 0.003) and early SS-MIBG (P = 0.037) as well as greater impairments in left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.001) and end-diastolic volume (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis a higher end-diastolic volume remained the only predictor of mechanical dyssynchrony (P = 0.047). Interestingly, while in the whole population regional myocardial perfusion and adrenergic activity were strongly correlated (R = 0.68), in patients with mechanical dyssynchrony the region of latest mechanical activation was predicted only by greater impairment in regional {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake (P = 0.012) that overwhelmed the effect of depressed regional perfusion. Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony is associated with greater depression in contractile function and greater impairments in regional myocardial perfusion and sympathetic activity. In patients with dyssynchrony, the region of latest mechanical activation is characterized by a significantly altered adrenergic tone. (orig.)

  15. Shared and distinct contributions of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex to analogical reasoning and episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Andrew J; Reggente, Nicco; Ito, Kaori L; Rissman, Jesse

    2016-03-01

    Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) is widely appreciated to support higher cognitive functions, including analogical reasoning and episodic memory retrieval. However, these tasks have typically been studied in isolation, and thus it is unclear whether they involve common or distinct RLPFC mechanisms. Here, we introduce a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task paradigm to compare brain activity during reasoning and memory tasks while holding bottom-up perceptual stimulation and response demands constant. Univariate analyses on fMRI data from twenty participants identified a large swath of left lateral prefrontal cortex, including RLPFC, that showed common engagement on reasoning trials with valid analogies and memory trials with accurately retrieved source details. Despite broadly overlapping recruitment, multi-voxel activity patterns within left RLPFC reliably differentiated these two trial types, highlighting the presence of at least partially distinct information processing modes. Functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that while left RLPFC showed consistent coupling with the fronto-parietal control network across tasks, its coupling with other cortical areas varied in a task-dependent manner. During the memory task, this region strengthened its connectivity with the default mode and memory retrieval networks, whereas during the reasoning task it coupled more strongly with a nearby left prefrontal region (BA 45) associated with semantic processing, as well as with a superior parietal region associated with visuospatial processing. Taken together, these data suggest a domain-general role for left RLPFC in monitoring and/or integrating task-relevant knowledge representations and showcase how its function cannot solely be attributed to episodic memory or analogical reasoning computations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Atomoxetine Enhances Connectivity of Prefrontal Networks in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Robin J; Rittman, Timothy; Passamonti, Luca; Ye, Zheng; Sami, Saber; Jones, Simon P; Nombela, Cristina; Vázquez Rodríguez, Patricia; Vatansever, Deniz; Rae, Charlotte L; Hughes, Laura E; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but often not improved by dopaminergic treatment. New treatment strategies targeting other neurotransmitter deficits are therefore of growing interest. Imaging the brain at rest ('task-free') provides the opportunity to examine the impact of a candidate drug on many of the brain networks that underpin cognition, while minimizing task-related performance confounds. We test this approach using atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that modulates the prefrontal cortical activity and can facilitate some executive functions and response inhibition. Thirty-three patients with idiopathic PD underwent task-free fMRI. Patients were scanned twice in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, following either placebo or 40-mg oral atomoxetine. Seventy-six controls were scanned once without medication to provide normative data. Seed-based correlation analyses were used to measure changes in functional connectivity, with the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) a critical region for executive function. Patients on placebo had reduced connectivity relative to controls from right IFG to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and to left IFG and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Atomoxetine increased connectivity from the right IFG to the dorsal anterior cingulate. In addition, the atomoxetine-induced change in connectivity from right IFG to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was proportional to the change in verbal fluency, a simple index of executive function. The results support the hypothesis that atomoxetine may restore prefrontal networks related to executive functions. We suggest that task-free imaging can support translational pharmacological studies of new drug therapies and provide evidence for engagement of the relevant neurocognitive systems.

  17. Whether regional lymph nodes evaluation should be equally required for both right and left colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xu; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Zheng; Hu, Hanqing; Zhao, Zhixun; Wang, Song; Chen, Yinggang; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2016-09-13

    Despite the adequacy of nodal evaluation was gradually improved for colon cancer, the disparity in nodal examination for right colon cancer (RCC) and left colon cancer (LCC) still begs the question of whether 12 nodes is an appropriate threshold for both RCC and LCC. From Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database, we identified 53897 RCC patients and 11822 LCC patients. Compared with LCC patients, RCC patients examined more lymph nodes (18.7 vs 16.3), and more likely to examine ≥12 nodes (Pcancer specific survival (CSS) was calculated according to the optimal node number in RCC and LCC patients, Cox's regression model were used to further assess the prognostic value of this revised nodal evaluation. The results showed that 5-year CSSs were significantly improved for RCC patients with ≥15 lymph nodes, and also for LCC patients with ≥11 lymph nodes (Pcolon cancer as a whole.

  18. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Friberg, L

    1991-01-01

    To measure prefrontal and subcortical activity during a cognitive task, we examined 19 newly diagnosed schizophrenics and patients with schizophreniform psychosis. Seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The patients were drug naive or had received neuroleptics for a few days only. Cerebral ...

  19. Increased functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and reward system in pathological gambling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Koehler

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum. PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder.

  20. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany ePlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  1. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition. PMID:25100931

  2. Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan eKolb

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions.

  3. Assessment of regional left ventricular function by Dual Source Computed Tomography: Interobserver variability and validation to laevocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflederer, T. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: tobiaspflederer@web.de; Ho, K.T. [Department of Cardiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore)], E-mail: contact@ttsh.com.sg; Anger, T. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.anger@uk-erlangen.de; Kraehner, R. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: robert.kraehner@uk-erlangen.de; Ropers, D. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: dieter.ropers@uk-erlangen.de; Muschiol, G. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: gerd.muschiol@uk-erlangen.de; Renz, A. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: alexandra.renz@uk-erlangen.de; Daniel, W.G. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: werner.daniel@uk-erlangen.de; Achenbach, S. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: stephan.achenbach@uk-erlangen.de

    2009-10-15

    Objective: Assessment of left ventricular function is possible in contrast-enhanced cardiac CT data sets. However, rapid ventricular motion especially in systole can lead to artifacts. Dual Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) has high temporal resolution which effectively limits motion artifact. We therefore assessed the accuracy of DSCT to detect regional left ventricular wall motion abnormalities in comparison to invasive cine angiocardiography. Methods: We analyzed DSCT data sets of 50 patients (39 male, 11 female, mean age: 61 {+-} 10 years) which were acquired after intravenous injection of 55-70 mL contrast agent (rotation time: 330 ms, collimation: 2 mm x 64 mm x 0.6 mm, 120 kV, 380 mAs, ECG-correlated tube current modulation). 10 data sets consisting of transaxial slices with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm, an increment of 1.0 mm and a matrix of 256 x 256 pixels were reconstructed at 10 time instants during the cardiac cycle (0-90% in 10% increments). The data sets were analyzed visually by two independent readers, using standard left ventricular planes, concerning regional wall motion abnormalities. DSCT was verified in a blinded fashion against cine ventriculography performed during cardiac catheterization (RAO and LAO projection), using a 7-segment model. Analysis was performed on a per-patient (presence of at least one hypo-, a- or dyskinetic segment) and on a per-segment basis. Results: Concerning the presence of a wall motion abnormality, the two observers agreed in 340/350 segments (97%) and 48/50 patients (96%). In invasive cine angiocardiography, 22 of 50 patients displayed at least one segment with abnormal contraction. To detect these patients, DSCT showed a sensitivity of 95% (21/22), specificity of 96% (27/28), positive predictive value of 95% and negative predictive value of 96%. Out of a total of 350 left ventricular segments, 66 segments had abnormal contraction in cine angiocardiography (34 hypokinetic, 26 akinetic, 6 dyskinetic). For detection

  4. Reduced dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugman, André; Gadelha, Ary; Assunção, Idaiane; Sato, João; Ota, Vanessa K; Rocha, Deyvis L; Mari, Jair J; Belangero, Sintia I; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Brietzke, Elisa; Jackowski, Andrea P

    2013-08-01

    Treatment resistance affects up to one third of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). A better understanding of its biological underlying processes could improve treatment. The aim of this study was to compare cortical thickness between non-resistant SCZ (NR-SCZ), treatment-resistant SCZ (TR-SCZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). Structural MRI scans were obtained from 3 groups of individuals: 61 treatment resistant SCZ individuals, 67 non-resistant SCZ and 80 healthy controls. Images were analyzed using cortical surface modelling (implemented in freesurfer package) to identify group differences in cortical thickness. Statistical significant differences were identified using Monte-Carlo simulation method with a corrected p-cluster<0.01. Patients in the TR-SCZ group showed a widespread reduction in cortical thickness in frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions bilaterally. NR-SCZ group had reduced cortex in two regions (left superior frontal cortex and left caudal middle frontal cortex). TR-SCZ group also showed decreased thickness in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when compared with patients from NR-SCZ group. The reduction in cortical thickness in DLPFC indicates a more severe form of the disease or a specific finding for this group. Alterations in this region should be explored as a putative marker for treatment resistance. Prospective studies, with individuals being followed from first episode psychosis until refractoriness is diagnosed, are needed to clarify these hypotheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Role for the Left Angular Gyrus in Episodic Simulation and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Thakral, Preston P.; Madore, Kevin P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in c...

  6. Association between left ventricular regional sympathetic denervation and mechanical dyssynchrony in phase analysis: a cardiac CZT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Giorgetti, Assuero; Kusch, Annette; Liga, Riccardo; Marzullo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relationships among myocardial sympathetic innervation, perfusion and mechanical synchronicity assessed with cardiac cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) scintigraphy. A group of 29 patients underwent an evaluation of myocardial perfusion with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin CZT scintigraphy and adrenergic innervation with 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) CZT scintigraphy. The summed rest score (SRS), motion score (SMS) and thickening score (STS), as well as the summed 123 I-MIBG defect score (SS-MIBG), were determined. Regional tracer uptake for both 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and 123 I-MIBG was also calculated. Finally, the presence of significant myocardial mechanical dyssynchrony was evaluated in phase analysis on gated CZT images and the region of latest mechanical activation identified. Significant mechanical dyssynchrony was present in 17 patients (59 %) and associated with higher SRS (P = 0.030), SMS (P 123 I-MIBG uptake (P = 0.012) that overwhelmed the effect of depressed regional perfusion. Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony is associated with greater depression in contractile function and greater impairments in regional myocardial perfusion and sympathetic activity. In patients with dyssynchrony, the region of latest mechanical activation is characterized by a significantly altered adrenergic tone. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative description of the 3D regional mechanics of the left atrium using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuklik, P; Molaee, P; Ganesan, A N; Brooks, A G; Worthley, S G; Sanders, P; Podziemski, P

    2014-01-01

    The left atrium (LA) plays an important role in the maintenance of hemodynamic and electrical stability of the heart. One of the conditions altering the atrial mechanical function is atrial fibrillation (AF), leading to an increased thromboembolic risk due to impaired mechanical function. Preserving the regions of the LA that contribute the greatest to atrial mechanical function during curative strategies for AF is important. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method of regional assessment of mechanical function of the LA. We used cardiac MRI to reconstruct the 3D geometry of the LA in nine control and nine patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Regional mechanical function of the LA in pre-defined segments of the atrium was calculated using regional ejection fraction and wall velocity. We found significantly greater mechanical function in anterior, septal and lateral segments as opposed to roof and posterior segments, as well as a significant decrease of mechanical function in the PAF group. We suggest that in order to minimize the impact of the AF treatment on global atrial mechanical function, damage related to therapeutic intervention, such as catheter ablation, in those areas should be minimized. (paper)

  8. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M.; Willun, Steffen; Dewey, Marc; Schlattmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I"2 statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. (orig.)

  9. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M.; Willun, Steffen; Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [Jena University Hospital, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I{sup 2} statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. (orig.)

  10. Bilingual language processing after a lesion in the left thalamic and temporal regions. A case report with early childhood onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lieshout, P.; Renier, W.; Eling, P.; de Bot, K.; Slis, I.

    1990-01-01

    This case study concerns an 18-year-old bilingual girl who suffered a radiation lesion in the left (dominant) thalamic and temporal region when she was 4 years old. Language and memory assessment revealed deficits in auditory short-term memory, auditory word comprehension, nonword repetition, syntactic processing, word fluency, and confrontation naming tasks. Both languages (English and Dutch) were found to be affected in a similar manner, despite the fact that one language (English) was acquired before and the other (Dutch) after the period of lesion onset. Most of the deficits appear to be related to verbal (short-term) memory dysfunction. Several hypotheses of subcortical involvement in memory processes are discussed with reference to existing theories in this area

  11. Global and regional left ventricular function and tomographic radionuclide perfusion: the Western Washington Intracoronary Streptokinase In Myocardial Infarction Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.L.; Davis, K.B.; Williams, D.L.; Caldwell, J.; Kennedy, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Western Washington Intracoronary Streptokinase In Myocardial Infarction Trial enrolled 250 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After the coronary angiographic diagnosis of thrombosis, patients were randomly assigned to receive either conventional therapy with heparin or intracoronary streptokinase followed by heparin. Of the 232 patients who survived at least 60 days, 207 (89%) underwent radionuclide ventriculographic determination of global and regional ejection fraction at a single institution at 62 +/- 35 days after infarction. In the first 100 patients, infarct size was also determined by quantitative single-photon emission tomographic imaging with thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) and expressed as a percentage of the left ventricle with a perfusion defect. Overall, global ejection fraction did not differ between patients treated with streptokinase (45.9 +/- 13.9%; n . 115) and control patients (46.1 +/- 14.4%; n . 92, p . NS). Similarly, the regional posterolateral, inferior, and anteroseptal ejection fraction did not differ between the two groups. Infarct size as measured by 201 Tl tomography was 19.4 +/- 12.8% (n . 52) of the left ventricle for the streptokinase group and 19.6 +/- 11.8% (n . 48; p . NS) for the control group. When patients were compared within groups by electrocardiographic location of infarction, time to treatment, or the presence or absence of vessel opening, there were no significant differences between streptokinase and control patients. Statistical inclusion of the 18 patients who died early and were unavailable for study also failed to modify the results, except for a possible reduction in inferior infarct size as measured by 201 Tl tomography

  12. Merge processing in the human brain: a sub-region based functional investigation in the left pars opercularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eZaccarella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Language is thought to represent one of the most complex cognitive functions in humans. Here we break down complexity of language to its most basic syntactic computation which hierarchically binds single words together to form larger phrases and sentences. So far, the neural implementation of this basic operation has only been inferred indirectly from studies investigating more complex linguistic phenomena. In the present sub-region based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study we directly assessed the neuroanatomical nature of this process. Our results showed that syntactic phrases—compared to word-list sequences—corresponded to increased neural activity in the ventral-anterior portion of the left pars opercularis (Brodmann Area (BA 44, whereas the adjacently located deep frontal operculum/anterior insula (FOP/aINS, a phylogenetically older and less specialized region, was found to be equally active for both conditions. Crucially, the functional activity of syntactic binding was confined to one out of five clusters proposed by a recent fine-grained sub-anatomical parcellation for BA 44, with consistency across individuals. Neuroanatomically, the present results call for a redefinition of BA 44 as a region with internal functional specializations. Neurocomputationally, they support the idea of invariance within BA 44 in the location of activation across participants for basic syntactic building processing.

  13. Impaired Prefrontal-Amygdala Pathway, Self-Reported Emotion, and Erection in Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients With Normal Nocturnal Erection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhuai Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA. However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA.Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED. In addition, whether there are correlations between network property changes and self-reported emotion and erection.Design, setting, and participants: We used the RigiScan device to evaluate erectile function of patients and employed diffusion MRI and graph theory to construct brain networks of 21 pED patients and 24 healthy controls.Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We considered four nodal metrics and their asymmetry scores, and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT parameters, to evaluate the topological properties of brain networks of pED and their relationships with the impaired self-reported emotion and erection.Results and limitations: All the pED patients showed normal nocturnal penile erection, however impaired self-reported erection and negative emotion. In addition, patients showed lower connectivity degree and strength in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway. We also found that pED exhibited lower leftward asymmetry in the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, patients showed more hub regions and fewer pivotal connections. Moreover, the degree of the left amygdala of pED showed significantly negative correlation with the self-reported erection and positive correlation with the self-reported negative emotion.Conclusions: Together, these results suggest normal nocturnal erection in pED. However, abnormalities of brain network organization in pED, particularly in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway, are associated

  14. Impaired Prefrontal-Amygdala Pathway, Self-Reported Emotion, and Erection in Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients With Normal Nocturnal Erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhuai; Chen, Yun; Gao, Qingqiang; Chen, Guotao; Dai, Yutian; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA). However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA. Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED) patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED. In addition, whether there are correlations between network property changes and self-reported emotion and erection. Design, setting, and participants: We used the RigiScan device to evaluate erectile function of patients and employed diffusion MRI and graph theory to construct brain networks of 21 pED patients and 24 healthy controls. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We considered four nodal metrics and their asymmetry scores, and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) parameters, to evaluate the topological properties of brain networks of pED and their relationships with the impaired self-reported emotion and erection. Results and limitations: All the pED patients showed normal nocturnal penile erection, however impaired self-reported erection and negative emotion. In addition, patients showed lower connectivity degree and strength in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway. We also found that pED exhibited lower leftward asymmetry in the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, patients showed more hub regions and fewer pivotal connections. Moreover, the degree of the left amygdala of pED showed significantly negative correlation with the self-reported erection and positive correlation with the self-reported negative emotion. Conclusions: Together, these results suggest normal nocturnal erection in pED. However, abnormalities of brain network organization in pED, particularly in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway, are associated with the

  15. The role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in esthetic appreciation of representational and abstract art: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Gardelli, Chiara; Merabet, Lotfi B; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Nadal, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To explain the biological foundations of art appreciation is to explain one of our species' distinctive traits. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have pointed to the prefrontal and the parietal cortex as two critical regions mediating esthetic appreciation of visual art. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left prefrontal cortex and the right posterior parietal cortex while participants were evaluating whether they liked, and by how much, a particular painting. By depolarizing cell membranes in the targeted regions, TMS transiently interferes with the activity of specific cortical areas, which allows clarifying their role in a given task. Our results show that both regions play a fundamental role in mediating esthetic appreciation. Critically though, the effects of TMS varied depending on the type of art considered (i.e. representational vs. abstract) and on participants' a-priori inclination toward one or the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Behavioral effects of congenital ventromedial prefrontal cortex malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boes Aaron D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurological and psychiatric sequelae stemming from focal cortical malformation of the left vmPFC. Case Presentation B.W.'s behavior has been characterized through extensive review Patience of clinical and personal records along with behavioral and neuropsychological testing. A central feature of the behavioral profile is severe antisocial behavior. He is aggressive, manipulative, and callous; features consistent with psychopathy. Other problems include: egocentricity, impulsivity, hyperactivity, lack of empathy, lack of respect for authority, impaired moral judgment, an inability to plan ahead, and poor frustration tolerance. Conclusions The vmPFC has a profound contribution to the development of human prosocial behavior. B.W. demonstrates how a congenital lesion to this cortical region severely disrupts this process.

  17. Global and regional left ventricular function: a comparison between gated SPECT, 2D echocardiography and multi-slice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneman, Maureen M.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Holman, Eduard R.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Jukema, J.W.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Stokkel, Marcel P.M.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Roos, Albert de

    2006-01-01

    Global and regional left ventricular (LV) function are important indicators of the cardiac status in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Therapy and prognosis are to a large extent dependent on LV function. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) has already earned its place as an imaging modality for non-invasive assessment of the coronary arteries, but since retrospective gating to the patient's ECG is performed, information on LV function can be derived. In 49 patients with known or suspected CAD, coronary angiography with MSCT imaging was performed, in addition to gated SPECT and 2D echocardiography. LV end-diastolic and LV end-systolic volumes and LV ejection fraction were analysed with dedicated software (CMR Analytical Software System, Medis, Leiden, The Netherlands for MSCT; gated SPECT by QGS, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA), and by the biplane Simpson's rule for 2D echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated according to a 17-segment model and a three-point score system. Correlations were fairly good between gated SPECT and MSCT (LVEDV: r=0.65; LVESV: r=0.63; LVEF: r=0.60), and excellent between 2D echocardiography and MSCT (LVEDV: r=0.92; LVESV: r=0.93; LVEF: r=0.80). Agreement for regional wall motion was 95% (κ=0.66) between gated SPECT and MSCT, and 96% (κ=0.73) between 2D echocardiography and MSCT. Global and regional LV function and LV volumes can be adequately assessed with MSCT. Correlations with 2D echocardiography are stronger than with gated SPECT. (orig.)

  18. Executive Semantic Processing Is Underpinned by a Large-scale Neural Network: Revealing the Contribution of Left Prefrontal, Posterior Temporal, and Parietal Cortex to Controlled Retrieval and Selection Using TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Carin; Kirk, Marie; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    To understand the meanings of words and objects, we need to have knowledge about these items themselves plus executive mechanisms that compute and manipulate semantic information in a task-appropriate way. The neural basis for semantic control remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies have focused on the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus…

  19. Left ventricular regional myocardial motion and twist function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot evaluated by magnetic resonance tissue phase mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Meng-Chu; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Wu, Ming-Ting; Weng, Ken-Pen; Su, Mao-Yuan; Menza, Marius; Huang, Hung-Chieh

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to characterise regional myocardial motion and twist function in the left ventricles (LV) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and preserved LV global function. We recruited 47 rTOF patients and 38 age-matched normal volunteers. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) was performed for evaluating the LV myocardial velocity in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential (Vz, Vr, and VOe) directions in basal, middle, and apical slices. The VOe peak-to-peak (PTP) during systolic phases, the rotation angle of each slice, and VOe inconsistency were computed for evaluating LV twist function and VOe dyssynchrony. As compared to the controls, the rTOF patients presented decreased RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.002) and preserved global LV ejection fraction (LVEF). They also demonstrated decreased systolic and diastolic Vz in several LV segments and higher diastolic Vr in the septum (all p < 0.05). A lower VOe PTP, higher VOe inconsistency, and reduced peak net rotation angle (all p < 0.05) were observed. The aforementioned indices demonstrated an altered LV twist function in rTOF patients in an early disease stage. MR TPM could provide information about early abnormalities of LV regional motion and twist function in rTOF patients with preserved LV global function. (orig.)

  20. Left ventricular regional myocardial motion and twist function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot evaluated by magnetic resonance tissue phase mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Meng-Chu; Peng, Hsu-Hsia [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Weng, Ken-Pen [National Yang-Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung (China); Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Department of Physical Therapy, Kaohsiung (China); Su, Mao-Yuan [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Menza, Marius [Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Huang, Hung-Chieh [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China)

    2018-01-15

    We aimed to characterise regional myocardial motion and twist function in the left ventricles (LV) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and preserved LV global function. We recruited 47 rTOF patients and 38 age-matched normal volunteers. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) was performed for evaluating the LV myocardial velocity in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential (Vz, Vr, and VOe) directions in basal, middle, and apical slices. The VOe peak-to-peak (PTP) during systolic phases, the rotation angle of each slice, and VOe inconsistency were computed for evaluating LV twist function and VOe dyssynchrony. As compared to the controls, the rTOF patients presented decreased RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.002) and preserved global LV ejection fraction (LVEF). They also demonstrated decreased systolic and diastolic Vz in several LV segments and higher diastolic Vr in the septum (all p < 0.05). A lower VOe PTP, higher VOe inconsistency, and reduced peak net rotation angle (all p < 0.05) were observed. The aforementioned indices demonstrated an altered LV twist function in rTOF patients in an early disease stage. MR TPM could provide information about early abnormalities of LV regional motion and twist function in rTOF patients with preserved LV global function. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of left ventricular regional function in affected and carrier dogs with duchenne muscular dystrophy using speckle tracking echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugeta Naoko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE is a relatively new method to detect regional myocardial dysfunction. To assess left ventricular (LV regional myocardial dysfunction using STE in Duchenne muscular dystrophy model dogs (CXMDJ without overt clinical signs of heart failure. Methods Six affected dogs, 8 carrier dogs with CXMDJ, and 8 control dogs were used. Conventional echocardiography, systolic and diastolic function by Doppler echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI, and strain indices using STE, were assessed and compared among the 3 groups. Results Significant differences were seen in body weight, transmitral E wave and E' wave derived from TDI among the 3 groups. Although no significant difference was observed in any global strain indices, in segmental analysis, the peak radial strain rate during early diastole in posterior segment at chordae the tendineae level showed significant differences among the 3 groups. Conclusions The myocardial strain rate by STE served to detect the impaired cardiac diastolic function in CXMDJ without any obvious LV dilation or clinical signs. The radial strain rate may be a useful parameter to detect early myocardial impairment in CXMDJ.

  2. Bihemispheric stimulation over left and right inferior frontal region enhances recovery from apraxia of speech in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangolo, Paola; Fiori, Valentina; Cipollari, Susanna; Campana, Serena; Razzano, Carmelina; Di Paola, Margherita; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have already shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful tool for enhancing recovery in aphasia. However, all tDCS studies have previously investigated the effects using unihemisperic stimulation. No reports to date have examined the role of bihemispheric tDCS on aphasia recovery. Here, eight aphasic persons with apraxia of speech underwent intensive language therapy in two different conditions: real bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional stimulation over the left Broca's area and cathodic contralesional stimulation over the right homologue of Broca's area, and a sham condition. In both conditions, patients underwent concurrent language therapy for their apraxia of speech. The language treatment lasted 10 days (Monday to Friday, then weekend off, then Monday to Friday). There was a 14-day intersession interval between the real and the sham conditions. In all patients, language measures were collected before (T0), at the end of (T10) and 1 week after the end of (F/U) treatment. Results showed that after simultaneous excitatory stimulation to the left frontal hemisphere and inhibitory stimulation to the right frontal hemisphere regions, patients exhibited a significant recovery not only in terms of better accuracy and speed in articulating the treated stimuli but also in other language tasks (picture description, noun and verb naming, word repetition, word reading) which persisted in the follow-up session. Taken together, these data suggest that bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional and cathodic contralesional stimulation in chronic aphasia patients may affect the treated function, resulting in a positive influence on different language tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Development of the Ventral Prefrontal Cortex and Social Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eric E.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several years a number of studies in both humans and animals have suggested that the orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices play an important role in generating flexible behavior. We suggest that input from these brain regions contribute to three functions involved in generating flexible behavior within social contexts: valuation, inhibition, and rule use. Recent studies have also demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex undergoes a prolonged course of maturation that extends well after puberty. Here, we review evidence that the prolonged development of these prefrontal regions parallels a slowly emerging ability for flexible social behavior. We also speculate on the possibility that sensitive periods for organizing social behavior may be embedded within this developmental time-fame. Finally, we discuss the role of prefrontal cortex in adolescent mood and anxiety disorders, particularly as orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices are engaged in a social context. PMID:21804907

  4. Monetary reward activates human prefrontal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thut, G.; Roelcke, U.; Nienhusmeier, M.; Missimer, J.; Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Schultz, W.

    1997-01-01

    We present a rCBF PET activation study, in which we demonstrated that reward processing in humans activates a cortical-subcortical network including dorsolateral prefrontal, orbital frontal, thalamic and midbrain regions. It is suggested that, as found for non-human primates, the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system is implicated in reward processing. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs

  5. Decoding rule search domain in the left inferior frontal gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the left hemisphere has been thought to extract mainly verbal patterns of information, but recent evidence has shown that the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) is active during inductive reasoning in both the verbal and spatial domains. We aimed to understand whether the left IFG supports inductive reasoning in a domain-specific or domain-general fashion. To do this we used Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis to decode the representation of domain during a rule search task. Thirteen participants were asked to extract the rule underlying streams of letters presented in different spatial locations. Each rule was either verbal (letters forming words) or spatial (positions forming geometric figures). Our results show that domain was decodable in the left prefrontal cortex, suggesting that this region represents domain-specific information, rather than processes common to the two domains. A replication study with the same participants tested two years later confirmed these findings, though the individual representations changed, providing evidence for the flexible nature of representations. This study extends our knowledge on the neural basis of goal-directed behaviors and on how information relevant for rule extraction is flexibly mapped in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:29547623

  6. Guanfacine modulates the emotional biasing of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity for cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kurt P; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Fan, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Functional interactions between amygdala and prefrontal cortex provide a cortical entry point for emotional cues to bias cognitive control. Stimulation of α2 adrenoceptors enhances the prefrontal control functions and blocks the amygdala-dependent encoding of emotional cues. However, the impact of this stimulation on amygdala-prefrontal interactions and the emotional biasing of cognitive control have not been established. We tested the effect of the α2 adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on psychophysiological interactions of amygdala with prefrontal cortex for the emotional biasing of response execution and inhibition. Fifteen healthy adults were scanned twice with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an emotional go/no-go task following administration of oral guanfacine (1mg) and placebo in a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Happy, sad, and neutral faces served as trial cues. Guanfacine moderated the effect of face emotion on the task-related functional connectivity of left and right amygdala with left inferior frontal gyrus compared to placebo, by selectively reversing the functional co-activation of the two regions for response execution cued by sad faces. This shift from positively to negatively correlated activation for guanfacine was associated with selective improvements in the relatively low accuracy of responses to sad faces seen for placebo. These results demonstrate the importance of functional interactions between amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus to both bottom-up biasing of cognitive control and top-down control of emotional processing, as well as for the α2 adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of these processes. These mechanisms offer a possibile method to address the emotional reactivity that is common to several psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Capacity-speed relationships in prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Prabhakaran

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity and WM processing speed are simple cognitive measures that underlie human performance in complex processes such as reasoning and language comprehension. These cognitive measures have shown to be interrelated in behavioral studies, yet the neural mechanism behind this interdependence has not been elucidated. We have carried out two functional MRI studies to separately identify brain regions involved in capacity and speed. Experiment 1, using a block-design WM verbal task, identified increased WM capacity with increased activity in right prefrontal regions, and Experiment 2, using a single-trial WM verbal task, identified increased WM processing speed with increased activity in similar regions. Our results suggest that right prefrontal areas may be a common region interlinking these two cognitive measures. Moreover, an overlap analysis with regions associated with binding or chunking suggest that this strategic memory consolidation process may be the mechanism interlinking WM capacity and WM speed.

  8. Real-time radionuclide cineangiography in the noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function at rest and during exercise in patients with coronary-artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, J.S.; Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Kent, K.M.; Epstein, S.E.; Johnston, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    Although coronary angiography defines regions of potential ischemia in patients with coronary-artery disease, accurate assessment of the presence and functional importance of ischemia requires appraisal of regional and global left ventricular function during stress. To perform such assessment, we developed a noninvasive real-time radionuclide cineangiographic procedure permitting continuous monitoring and analysis of left ventricular function during exercise. In 11 patients with coronary disease who had normal regional and global ventricular function at rest, new regions of dysfunction developed during exercise (P less than 0.001), and in 10, global ejection fraction dropped 7 to 47 percent. Fourteen age-matched normal subjects were studied; during exercise none had regional dysfunction, and each increased global ejection fraction (average increase, 23 +- 3 percent [+-S.E.], P less than 0.001 as compared with patients with coronary disease). Radionuclide cineangiography during exercise permits accurate assessment of the presence and functional severity of ischemic heart disease

  9. Cognitive deficits caused by prefrontal cortical and hippocampal neural disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Tobias; Pezze, Marie; McGarrity, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    We review recent evidence concerning the significance of inhibitory GABA transmission and of neural disinhibition, that is, deficient GABA transmission, within the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, for clinically relevant cognitive functions. Both regions support important cognitive functions, including attention and memory, and their dysfunction has been implicated in cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders. GABAergic inhibition shapes cortico-hippocampal neural activity, and, recently, prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition has emerged as a pathophysiological feature of major neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline. Regional neural disinhibition, disrupting spatio-temporal control of neural activity and causing aberrant drive of projections, may disrupt processing within the disinhibited region and efferent regions. Recent studies in rats showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition (by local GABA antagonist microinfusion) dysregulates burst firing, which has been associated with important aspects of neural information processing. Using translational tests of clinically relevant cognitive functions, these studies showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupts regional cognitive functions (including prefrontal attention and hippocampal memory function). Moreover, hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupted attentional performance, which does not require the hippocampus but requires prefrontal-striatal circuits modulated by the hippocampus. However, some prefrontal and hippocampal functions (including inhibitory response control) are spared by regional disinhibition. We consider conceptual implications of these findings, regarding the distinct relationships of distinct cognitive functions to prefrontal and hippocampal GABA tone and neural activity. Moreover, the findings support the proposition that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition

  10. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  11. Involvement of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Learning Others' Bad Reputations and Indelible Distrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ito, Yuichi; Kiyama, Sachiko; Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Ohira, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Jun; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    A bad reputation can persistently affect judgments of an individual even when it turns out to be invalid and ought to be disregarded. Such indelible distrust may reflect that the negative evaluation elicited by a bad reputation transfers to a person. Consequently, the person him/herself may come to activate this negative evaluation irrespective of the accuracy of the reputation. If this theoretical model is correct, an evaluation-related brain region will be activated when witnessing a person whose bad reputation one has learned about, regardless of whether the reputation is deemed valid or not. Here, we tested this neural hypothesis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants memorized faces paired with either a good or a bad reputation. Next, they viewed the faces alone and inferred whether each person was likely to cooperate, first while retrieving the reputations, and then while trying to disregard them as false. A region of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), which may be involved in negative evaluation, was activated by faces previously paired with bad reputations, irrespective of whether participants attempted to retrieve or disregard these reputations. Furthermore, participants showing greater activity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal region in response to the faces with bad reputations were more likely to infer that these individuals would not cooperate. Thus, once associated with a bad reputation, a person may elicit evaluation-related brain responses on their own, thereby evoking distrust independently of their reputation.

  12. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow in the right cortex homologous to left language areas are directly affected by left hemispheric damage in aphasic stroke patients: evaluation by Tc-ECD SPECT and novel analytic software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, G; Kakuda, W; Abo, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the influence of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on rCBF in each region in the non-dominant hemisphere in post-stroke aphasic patients. The study subjects were 27 aphasic patients who suffered their first symptomatic stroke in the left hemisphere. In each subject, we measured rCBF by means of 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimmer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The SPECT images were analyzed by the statistical imaging analysis programs easy Z-score Imaging System (eZIS) and voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation (vbSEE). Segmented into Brodmann Area (BA) levels, Regions of Interest (ROIs) were set in language-relevant areas bilaterally, and changes in the relative rCBF as average negative and positive Z-values were computed fully automatically. To assess the relationship between rCBF changes of each ROIs in the left and right hemispheres, the Spearman ranked correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied. Globally, a negative and asymmetric influence of rCBF changes in the language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on the right hemisphere was found. The rCBF decrease in left BA22 significantly influenced the rCBF increase in right BA39, BA40, BA44 and BA45. The results suggested that the chronic increase in rCBF in the right language-relevant areas is due at least in part to reduction in the trancallosal inhibitory activity of the language-dominant left hemisphere caused by the stroke lesion itself and that these relationships are not always symmetric.

  13. Continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over the lateral prefrontal cortex alters reinforcement learning bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Derek V M; Ullsperger, Markus; Jocham, Gerhard; Neumann, Jane; Klein, Tilmann A

    2011-07-15

    The prefrontal cortex is known to play a key role in higher-order cognitive functions. Recently, we showed that this brain region is active in reinforcement learning, during which subjects constantly have to integrate trial outcomes in order to optimize performance. To further elucidate the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in reinforcement learning, we applied continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) either to the left or right DLPFC, or to the vertex as a control region, respectively, prior to the performance of a probabilistic learning task in an fMRI environment. While there was no influence of cTBS on learning performance per se, we observed a stimulation-dependent modulation of reward vs. punishment sensitivity: Left-hemispherical DLPFC stimulation led to a more reward-guided performance, while right-hemispherical cTBS induced a more avoidance-guided behavior. FMRI results showed enhanced prediction error coding in the ventral striatum in subjects stimulated over the left as compared to the right DLPFC. Both behavioral and imaging results are in line with recent findings that left, but not right-hemispherical stimulation can trigger a release of dopamine in the ventral striatum, which has been suggested to increase the relative impact of rewards rather than punishment on behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Peng, Long; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Li-Xue; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yi; Rao, Li

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnosis value of four-dimensional echocardiography area strain (AS) combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis. Based on treadmill exercise load status, two-dimensional conventional echocardiography and four-dimensional echocardiography area strain were performed on patients suspected coronary artery disease before coronary angiogram. Thirty patients (case group) with mild left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (stenosis Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography could sensitively find left ventricular regional systolic function abnormality in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, and locate stenosis coronary artery accordingly. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  16. The interaction of process and domain in prefrontal cortex during inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Inductive reasoning is an everyday process that allows us to make sense of the world by creating rules from a series of instances. Consistent with accounts of process-based fractionations of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) along the left-right axis, inductive reasoning has been reliably localized to left PFC. However, these results may be confounded by the task domain, which is typically verbal. Indeed, some studies show that right PFC activation is seen with spatial tasks. This study used fMRI to examine the effects of process and domain on the brain regions recruited during a novel pattern discovery task. Twenty healthy young adult participants were asked to discover the rule underlying the presentation of a series of letters in varied spatial locations. The rules were either verbal (pertaining to a single semantic category) or spatial (geometric figures). Bilateral ventrolateral PFC activations were seen for the spatial domain, while the verbal domain showed only left ventrolateral PFC. A conjunction analysis revealed that the two domains recruited a common region of left ventrolateral PFC. The data support a central role of left PFC in inductive reasoning. Importantly, they also suggest that both process and domain shape the localization of reasoning in the brain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced prefrontal cortical gray matter volume in young adults exposed to harsh corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Suzuki, Hanako; Rabi, Keren; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H

    2009-08-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such as sexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associated with discernible alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). 1455 young adults (18-25 years) were screened to identify 23 with exposure to HCP (minimum 3 years duration, 12 episodes per year, frequently involving objects) and 22 healthy controls. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were obtained using Siemens 3 T trio scanner. GMV was reduced by 19.1% in the right medial frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex; MPFC, BA10) (P=0.037, corrected cluster level), by 14.5% in the left medial frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DLPFC, BA9) (P=0.015, uncorrected cluster level) and by 16.9% in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (BA24) (P<0.001, uncorrected cluster level) of HCP subjects. There were significant correlations between GMV in these identified regions and performance IQ on the WAIS-III. Exposing children to harsh HCP may have detrimental effects on trajectories of brain development. However, it is also conceivable that differences in prefrontal cortical development may increase risk of exposure to HCP.

  18. Differential Effects of Inactivation of Discrete Regions of Medial Prefrontal Cortex on Memory Consolidation of Moderate and Intense Inhibitory Avoidance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Torres-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is involved in memory encoding of aversive events, such as inhibitory avoidance (IA training. Dissociable roles have been described for different mPFC subregions regarding various memory processes, wherein the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prelimbic cortex (PL, and infralimbic cortex (IL are involved in acquisition, retrieval, and extinction of aversive events, respectively. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that intense training impedes the effects on memory of treatments that typically interfere with memory consolidation. The aim of this work was to determine if there are differential effects on memory induced by reversible inactivation of neural activity of ACC, PL, or IL produced by tetrodotoxin (TTX in rats trained in IA using moderate (1.0 mA and intense (3.0 mA foot-shocks. We found that inactivation of ACC has no effects on memory consolidation, regardless of intensity of training. PL inactivation impairs memory consolidation in the 1.0 mA group, while no effect on consolidation was produced in the 3.0 mA group. In the case of IL, a remarkable amnestic effect in LTM was observed in both training conditions. However, state-dependency can explain the amnestic effect of TTX found in the 3.0 mA IL group. In order to circumvent this effect, TTX was injected into IL immediately after training (thus avoiding state-dependency. The behavioral results are equivalent to those found after PL inactivation. Therefore, these findings provide evidence that PL and IL, but not ACC, mediate LTM of IA only in moderate training.

  19. Interaction of Left Ventricular Remodeling and Regional Dyssynchrony on Long-Term Prognosis after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayal, Bhupendar; Sogaard, Peter; Delgado-Montero, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) remodeling in heart failure (HF) manifested by chamber dilatation is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, the impact of LV dilatation on the association of measures of dyssynchrony with long-term prognosis and resynchronization potential after cardiac...... resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains unclear. METHODS: Two hundred sixty CRT patients in New York Heart Association classes II to IV, with ejection fractions ≤ 35% and QRS intervals ≥ 120 msec, were prospectively studied. Quantitative echocardiographic assessment of LV volumes and mechanical dyssynchrony...... of the baseline indexed LV end-diastolic volume (EDVI). Patients with less dilated left ventricles (EDVI left ventricles (EDVI ≥ 90 mL/m(2)) for both primary (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; 95% CI, 1.44-3.38; P

  20. Verbal Memory Deficits Are Correlated with Prefrontal Hypometabolism in 18FDG PET of Recreational MDMA Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Oliver G.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Kühn, Kai-Uwe; Joe, Alexius; Seifritz, Erich; Maier, Wolfgang; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Quednow, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a recreational club drug with supposed neurotoxic effects selectively on the serotonin system. MDMA users consistently exhibit memory dysfunction but there is an ongoing debate if these deficits are induced mainly by alterations in the prefrontal or mediotemporal cortex, especially the hippocampus. Thus, we investigated the relation of verbal memory deficits with alterations of regional cerebral brain glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) in recreational MDMA users. Methods Brain glucose metabolism in rest was assessed using 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) in 19 male recreational users of MDMA and 19 male drug-naïve controls. 18FDG PET data were correlated with memory performance assessed with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results As previously shown, MDMA users showed significant impairment in verbal declarative memory performance. PET scans revealed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right precuneus, right cerebellum, and pons (at the level of raphe nuclei) of MDMA users. Among MDMA users, learning and recall were positively correlated with rMRGlu predominantly in bilateral frontal and parietal brain regions, while recognition was additionally related to rMRGlu in the right mediotemporal and bihemispheric lateral temporal cortex. Moreover, cumulative lifetime dose of MDMA was negatively correlated with rMRGlu in the left dorsolateral and bilateral orbital and medial PFC, left inferior parietal and right lateral temporal cortex. Conclusions Verbal learning and recall deficits of recreational MDMA users are correlated with glucose hypometabolism in prefrontal and parietal cortex, while word recognition was additionally correlated with mediotemporal hypometabolism. We conclude that memory deficits of MDMA users arise from combined

  1. Negative emotion modulates prefrontal cortex activity during a working memory task: A NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo eOzawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the neural processing underlying the cognitive control of emotions induced by the presentation of task-irrelevant emotional pictures before a working memory task. Previous studies have suggested that the cognitive control of emotion involves the prefrontal regions. Therefore, we measured the hemodynamic responses that occurred in the prefrontal region with a 16-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS system. In our experiment, participants observed two negative or two neutral pictures in succession immediately before a 1-back or 3-back task. Pictures were selected from the International Affective Picture System. We measured the changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb during picture presentation and during the n-back task. The emotional valence of the picture affected the oxyHb changes in anterior parts of the medial prefrontal cortex (located in the left and right superior frontal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus during the n-back task; the oxyHb changes during the task were significantly greater following negative rather than neutral stimulation. As indicated in a number of previous studies, and the time courses of the oxyHb changes in our study, activation in these locations is possibly led by cognitive control of emotion, though we cannot deny it may simply be emotional responses. There were no effects of emotion on oxyHb changes during picture presentation or on n-back task performance. Although further studies are necessary to confirm this interpretation, our findings suggest that NIRS can be used to investigate neural processing during emotional control.

  2. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hemodynamic response in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirosawa R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rikuei Hirosawa,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Seiji Nishida,2 Takuya Ishida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Yuichi Takei,3 Kenji Fukui1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 2Maizuru Medical Center, Kyoto, 3Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy has helped our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and has advantages including noninvasiveness, lower cost, and ease of use compared with other imaging techniques, like functional magnetic resonance imaging. The verbal fluency task is the most common and well established task used to assess cognitive activation during near-infrared spectroscopy. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, may play important roles in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. This study aimed to evaluate hemodynamic responses in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with OCD using near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task and to compare these with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses in healthy controls. Methods: Twenty patients with OCD and 20 controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and estimated intelligence quotient participated in this study. The verbal fluency task was used to elicit near-infrared spectroscopic activation and consisted of a 30-second pre-task, followed by three repetitions of a 20-second verbal fluency task (total 60 seconds, followed by a 70-second post-task period. The near-infrared spectroscopy experiment was conducted on the same day as surveys of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Z-scores for changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin were compared between the OCD patients and controls in 14 channels set over the

  3. Specialized prefrontal auditory fields: organization of primate prefrontal-temporal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eMedalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No other modality is more frequently represented in the prefrontal cortex than the auditory, but the role of auditory information in prefrontal functions is not well understood. Pathways from auditory association cortices reach distinct sites in the lateral, orbital, and medial surfaces of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys. Among prefrontal areas, frontopolar area 10 has the densest interconnections with auditory association areas, spanning a large antero-posterior extent of the superior temporal gyrus from the temporal pole to auditory parabelt and belt regions. Moreover, auditory pathways make up the largest component of the extrinsic connections of area 10, suggesting a special relationship with the auditory modality. Here we review anatomic evidence showing that frontopolar area 10 is indeed the main frontal auditory field as the major recipient of auditory input in the frontal lobe and chief source of output to auditory cortices. Area 10 is thought to be the functional node for the most complex cognitive tasks of multitasking and keeping track of information for future decisions. These patterns suggest that the auditory association links of area 10 are critical for complex cognition. The first part of this review focuses on the organization of prefrontal-auditory pathways at the level of the system and the synapse, with a particular emphasis on area 10. Then we explore ideas on how the elusive role of area 10 in complex cognition may be related to the specialized relationship with auditory association cortices.

  4. Projection from the prefrontal cortex to histaminergic cell groups in the posterior hypothalamic region of the rat. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemistry of histidine decarboxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterlood, F.G.; Steinbusch, H.W.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Bol, J.G.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the projection from the infralimbic division of the prefrontal cortex (area 25) to histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamic area. Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) was injected in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Frozen brain sections were subjected to combined

  5. Reasoning by analogy requires the left frontal pole: lesion-deficit mapping and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Marika; Bréchemier, Marie-Laure; Garcin, Béatrice; Bendetowicz, David; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Foulon, Chris; Rosso, Charlotte; Clarençon, Frédéric; Dupont, Sophie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    SEE BURGESS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW092 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : Analogical reasoning is at the core of the generalization and abstraction processes that enable concept formation and creativity. The impact of neurological diseases on analogical reasoning is poorly known, despite its importance in everyday life and in society. Neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects and the few studies that have been performed on patients have highlighted the importance of the prefrontal cortex in analogical reasoning. However, the critical cerebral bases for analogical reasoning deficits remain elusive. In the current study, we examined analogical reasoning abilities in 27 patients with focal damage in the frontal lobes and performed voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping and tractography analyses to investigate the structures critical for analogical reasoning. The findings revealed that damage to the left rostrolateral prefrontal region (or some of its long-range connections) specifically impaired the ability to reason by analogies. A short version of the analogy task predicted the existence of a left rostrolateral prefrontal lesion with good accuracy. Experimental manipulations of the analogy tasks suggested that this region plays a role in relational matching or integration. The current lesion approach demonstrated that the left rostrolateral prefrontal region is a critical node in the analogy network. Our results also suggested that analogy tasks should be translated to clinical practice to refine the neuropsychological assessment of patients with frontal lobe lesions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular function using 64-slice multislice computed tomography and 2D echocardiography: A comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annuar, Bin Rapaee; Liew, Chee Khoon; Chin, Sze Piaw; Ong, Tiong Kiam; Seyfarth, M. Tobias; Chan, Wei Ling; Fong, Yean Yip; Ang, Choon Kiat; Lin, Naing; Liew, Houng Bang; Sim, Kui Hian

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function using 64-slice multislice computed tomography (MSCT), 2D echocardiography (2DE) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (mean age, 56.5 ± 9.7 years) referred for evaluation of coronary artery using 64-slice MSCT also underwent 2DE and CMR within 48 h. The global left ventricular function which include left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVdV) and left ventricular end systolic volume (LVsV) were determine using the three modalities. Regional wall motion (RWM) was assessed visually in all three modalities. The CMR served as the gold standard for the comparison between 64-slice MSCT with CMR and 2DE with CMR. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plots and κ-statistics. Results: The 64-slice MSCT agreed well with CMR for assessment of LVEF (r = 0.92; p < 0.0001), LVdV (r = 0.98; p < 0.0001) and LVsV (r = 0.98; p < 0.0001). In comparison with 64-slice MSCT, 2DE showed moderate correlation with CMR for the assessment of LVEF (r = 0.84; p < 0.0001), LVdV (r = 0.83; p < 0.0001) and LVsV (r = 0.80; p < 0.0001). However in RWM analysis, 2DE showed better accuracy than 64-slice MSCT (94.3% versus 82.4%) and closer agreement (κ = 0.89 versus 0.63) with CMR. Conclusion: 64-Slice MSCT correlates strongly with CMR in global LV function however in regional LV function 2DE showed better agreement with CMR than 64-slice MSCT

  8. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular function using 64-slice multislice computed tomography and 2D echocardiography: A comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annuar, Bin Rapaee [Faculty of Medicine, University Malaysia Sarawak (Malaysia); Department of Cardiology, Sarawak General Hospital (Malaysia)], E-mail: rannuar@fmhs.unimas.my; Liew, Chee Khoon; Chin, Sze Piaw; Ong, Tiong Kiam [Department of Cardiology, Sarawak General Hospital (Malaysia); Seyfarth, M. Tobias [Sieman Medical Solution (Germany); Chan, Wei Ling; Fong, Yean Yip; Ang, Choon Kiat [Department of Cardiology, Sarawak General Hospital (Malaysia); Lin, Naing [Universiti Sains Malaysia (Malaysia); Liew, Houng Bang; Sim, Kui Hian [Department of Cardiology, Sarawak General Hospital (Malaysia)

    2008-01-15

    Objectives: To compare the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function using 64-slice multislice computed tomography (MSCT), 2D echocardiography (2DE) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (mean age, 56.5 {+-} 9.7 years) referred for evaluation of coronary artery using 64-slice MSCT also underwent 2DE and CMR within 48 h. The global left ventricular function which include left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVdV) and left ventricular end systolic volume (LVsV) were determine using the three modalities. Regional wall motion (RWM) was assessed visually in all three modalities. The CMR served as the gold standard for the comparison between 64-slice MSCT with CMR and 2DE with CMR. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plots and {kappa}-statistics. Results: The 64-slice MSCT agreed well with CMR for assessment of LVEF (r = 0.92; p < 0.0001), LVdV (r = 0.98; p < 0.0001) and LVsV (r = 0.98; p < 0.0001). In comparison with 64-slice MSCT, 2DE showed moderate correlation with CMR for the assessment of LVEF (r = 0.84; p < 0.0001), LVdV (r = 0.83; p < 0.0001) and LVsV (r = 0.80; p < 0.0001). However in RWM analysis, 2DE showed better accuracy than 64-slice MSCT (94.3% versus 82.4%) and closer agreement ({kappa} = 0.89 versus 0.63) with CMR. Conclusion: 64-Slice MSCT correlates strongly with CMR in global LV function however in regional LV function 2DE showed better agreement with CMR than 64-slice MSCT.

  9. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular function using 64-slice multislice computed tomography and 2D echocardiography: a comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, Bin Rapaee; Liew, Chee Khoon; Chin, Sze Piaw; Ong, Tiong Kiam; Seyfarth, M Tobias; Chan, Wei Ling; Fong, Yean Yip; Ang, Choon Kiat; Lin, Naing; Liew, Houng Bang; Sim, Kui Hian

    2008-01-01

    To compare the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function using 64-slice multislice computed tomography (MSCT), 2D echocardiography (2DE) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Thirty-two consecutive patients (mean age, 56.5+/-9.7 years) referred for evaluation of coronary artery using 64-slice MSCT also underwent 2DE and CMR within 48h. The global left ventricular function which include left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVdV) and left ventricular end systolic volume (LVsV) were determine using the three modalities. Regional wall motion (RWM) was assessed visually in all three modalities. The CMR served as the gold standard for the comparison between 64-slice MSCT with CMR and 2DE with CMR. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plots and kappa-statistics. The 64-slice MSCT agreed well with CMR for assessment of LVEF (r=0.92; p<0.0001), LVdV (r=0.98; p<0.0001) and LVsV (r=0.98; p<0.0001). In comparison with 64-slice MSCT, 2DE showed moderate correlation with CMR for the assessment of LVEF (r=0.84; p<0.0001), LVdV (r=0.83; p<0.0001) and LVsV (r=0.80; p<0.0001). However in RWM analysis, 2DE showed better accuracy than 64-slice MSCT (94.3% versus 82.4%) and closer agreement (kappa=0.89 versus 0.63) with CMR. 64-Slice MSCT correlates strongly with CMR in global LV function however in regional LV function 2DE showed better agreement with CMR than 64-slice MSCT.

  10. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  11. [Chronic periapical periodontitis of left maxillary first premolar with localized mineralized structure at periapical region: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Li, Ren; Wen, Liming; Qi, Mengchun

    2013-04-01

    Chronic periapical periodontitis is characterized by destruction of periapical tissue and demonstrates translucent feature under X-ray examination. In this article, a localized mineralized structure, which showed high density under X-ray examination, was reported in a patient with chronic periapical periodontitis of left maxillary first premolar. Possible causes of the structure were analyzed and relevant literatures were reviewed.

  12. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Prefrontal and Limbic Volume and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Casper; Morris, Laurel S.; Kvamme, Timo L.

    2017-01-01

    with matched healthy volunteers (HV). Methods: Structural MRI (MPRAGE) data were collected in 92 subjects (23 CSB males and 69 age-matched male HV) and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Resting state functional MRI data using multi-echo planar sequence and independent components analysis (ME-ICA) were...... prefrontal cortex (whole brain, cluster corrected FWE P motivational salience and emotion processing, and impaired functional connectivity between prefrontal control regulatory and limbic regions...

  13. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Grosskreutz, Julian; Prell, Tino; Kaufmann, Jörn; Bodammer, Nils; Peschel, Thomas

    2014-01-07

    Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS "only" (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded.

  14. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS “only” (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Results Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Conclusions Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded. PMID:24397347

  15. Altered effect of dopamine transporter 3'UTR VNTR genotype on prefrontal and striatal function in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Diana P; Mechelli, Andrea; Picchioni, Marco M; Fu, Cynthia H Y; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Bramon, Elvira; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M; Collier, David A; McGuire, Philip

    2009-11-01

    The dopamine transporter plays a key role in the regulation of central dopaminergic transmission, which modulates cognitive processing. Disrupted dopamine function and impaired executive processing are robust features of schizophrenia. To examine the effect of a polymorphism in the dopamine transporter gene (the variable number of tandem repeats in the 3' untranslated region) on brain function during executive processing in healthy volunteers and patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that this variation would have a different effect on prefrontal and striatal activation in schizophrenia, reflecting altered dopamine function. Case-control study. Psychiatric research center. Eighty-five subjects, comprising 44 healthy volunteers (18 who were 9-repeat carriers and 26 who were 10-repeat homozygotes) and 41 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (18 who were 9-repeat carriers and 23 who were 10-repeat homozygotes). Regional brain activation during word generation relative to repetition in an overt verbal fluency task measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Main effects of genotype and diagnosis on activation and their interaction were estimated with analysis of variance in SPM5. Irrespective of diagnosis, the 10-repeat allele was associated with greater activation than the 9-repeat allele in the left anterior insula and right caudate nucleus. Trends for the same effect in the right insula and for greater deactivation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex were also detected. There were diagnosis x genotype interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus and left nucleus accumbens, where the 9-repeat allele was associated with greater activation than the 10-repeat allele in patients but not controls. Insular, cingulate, and striatal function during an executive task is normally modulated by variation in the dopamine transporter gene. Its effect on activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum is altered in patients with schizophrenia

  16. Levels of integration in cognitive control and sequence processing in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Korb, Franziska M; Gratton, Caterina; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive control is necessary to flexibly act in changing environments. Sequence processing is needed in language comprehension to build the syntactic structure in sentences. Functional imaging studies suggest that sequence processing engages the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In contrast, cognitive control processes additionally recruit bilateral rostral lateral PFC regions. The present study aimed to investigate these two types of processes in one experimental paradigm. Sequence processing was manipulated using two different sequencing rules varying in complexity. Cognitive control was varied with different cue-sets that determined the choice of a sequencing rule. Univariate analyses revealed distinct PFC regions for the two types of processing (i.e. sequence processing: left ventrolateral PFC and cognitive control processing: bilateral dorsolateral and rostral PFC). Moreover, in a common brain network (including left lateral PFC and intraparietal sulcus) no interaction between sequence and cognitive control processing was observed. In contrast, a multivariate pattern analysis revealed an interaction of sequence and cognitive control processing, such that voxels in left lateral PFC and parietal cortex showed different tuning functions for tasks involving different sequencing and cognitive control demands. These results suggest that the difference between the process of rule selection (i.e. cognitive control) and the process of rule-based sequencing (i.e. sequence processing) find their neuronal underpinnings in distinct activation patterns in lateral PFC. Moreover, the combination of rule selection and rule sequencing can shape the response of neurons in lateral PFC and parietal cortex.

  17. The Cortical Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex in the Monkey Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeterian, Edward H.; Pandya, Deepak N.; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Petrides, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One dimension of understanding the functions of the prefrontal cortex is knowledge of cortical connectivity. We have surveyed three aspects of prefrontal cortical connections: local projections (within the frontal lobe), the termination patterns of long association (post-Rolandic) projections, and the trajectories of major fiber pathways. The local connections appear to be organized in relation to dorsal (hippocampal origin) and ventral (paleocortical origin) architectonic trends. According to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex, cortical areas can be traced as originating from archicortex (hippocampus) on the one hand, and paleocortex, on the other hand, in a stepwise manner (e.g., Sanides, 1969; Pandya and Yeterian, 1985). Prefrontal areas within each trend are connected with less architectonically differentiated areas, and, on the other hand, with more differentiated areas. Such organization may allow for the systematic exchange of information within each architectonic trend. The long connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions seem to be organized preferentially in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Prefrontal areas are connected with post-Rolandic auditory, visual and somatosensory association areas, and with multimodal and paralimbic regions. This long connectivity likely works in conjunction with local connections to serve prefrontal cortical functions. The afferent and efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions are conveyed by specific long association pathways. These pathways as well appear to be organized in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Finally, although prefrontal areas have preferential connections in relation to dual architectonic trends, it is clear that there are interconnections between and among areas in each trend, which may provide a substrate for the overall integrative function of the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal

  18. Glutamate in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia: A 1H MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Bais, Leonie; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Pijnenborg, Hendrika Maria; Knegtering, Henderikus; Liemburg, Edith; Aleman, André

    2017-08-01

    Glutamatergic models of psychosis propose that dysfunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and associated excess of glutamate, may underlie psychotic experiences in people with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the specific relation between glutamate and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with psychosis. In this study, levels of glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the left lateral prefrontal lobe were determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) to calculate their association with AVH. Sixty-seven patients with schizophrenia and thirty healthy control participants (HC) underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to estimate levels of Glx in the white matter of the left prefrontal lobe. The spectrum was estimated from an 8mm 3 voxel placed in the left lateral prefrontal region, belonging to both the cingulum and forceps minor. Patients with lifetime AVH (AVH group; n=45) and patients without lifetime AVH were compared (NoAVH group; n=22) to control participants. Levels of Glx were significantly different between the groups (F(2,94)=5.27, p=0.007). Planned comparisons showed that higher Glx levels were found in control participants than in the total patient group (p=0.010). However, patients with lifetime AVH had higher levels of Glx compared to patients without lifetime AVH (p=0.019). Creatin levels were similar in all three groups. We found no association between Glx and the severity of symptoms (item P3 of the PANSS or PANSS positive subscale). The higher Glx levels in patients with lifetime AVH as compared to patients without lifetime AVH suggest a mediating role for Glx in AVH. Our results are consistent with a previous study that found similar decreased levels of Glx in patients with schizophrenia, and increased levels in an AVH group as compared to a NoAVH group. The role of the glutamatergic system deserves further investigation, for example in different brain regions and in relation to clinical variables

  19. Task-based and resting-state fMRI reveal compensatory network changes following damage to left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Glyn P; Thompson, Hannah E; Hymers, Mark; Millman, Rebecca E; Rodd, Jennifer M; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex in stroke aphasia is associated with semantic deficits reflecting poor control over conceptual retrieval, as opposed to loss of knowledge. However, little is known about how functional recruitment within the semantic network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits. The current study acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 14 patients with semantic aphasia, who had difficulty with flexible semantic retrieval following left prefrontal damage, and 16 healthy age-matched controls, allowing us to examine activation and connectivity in the semantic network. We examined neural activity while participants listened to spoken sentences that varied in their levels of lexical ambiguity and during rest. We found group differences in two regions thought to be good candidates for functional compensation: ventral anterior temporal lobe (vATL), which is strongly implicated in comprehension, and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which is hypothesized to work together with left inferior prefrontal cortex to support controlled aspects of semantic retrieval. The patients recruited both of these sites more than controls in response to meaningful sentences. Subsequent analysis identified that, in control participants, the recruitment of pMTG to ambiguous sentences was inversely related to functional coupling between pMTG and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) at rest, while the patients showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, stronger connectivity between pMTG and aSTG in patients was associated with better performance on a test of verbal semantic association, suggesting that this temporal lobe connection supports comprehension in the face of damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex. These results characterize network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits and converge with studies of healthy participants in providing evidence for a distributed system underpinning semantic control that

  20. Normal values of regional left ventricular myocardial thickness, mass and distribution-assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsø, Louise; Fuchs, Andreas; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias

    2017-01-01

    regional normal reference values of the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to derive reference values of regional LV myocardial thickness (LVMT) and mass (LVMM) from a healthy study group of the general population using cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We wanted to introduce LV...... myocardial distribution (LVMD) as a measure of regional variation of the LVMT. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these parameters varied between men and women. We studied 568 (181 men; 32%) adults, free of cardiovascular disease and risk factors, who underwent 320-detector CCTA. Mean age was 55 (range...... 40-84) years. Regional LVMT and LVMM were measured, according to the American Heart Association's 17 segment model, using semi-automatic software. Mean LVMT were 6.6 mm for men and 5.4 mm for women (p normal LV was thickest in the basal septum (segment 3; men = 8.3 mm; women = 7.2 mm...

  1. Right prefrontal rTMS treatment for refractory auditory command hallucinations - a neuroSPECT assisted case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Shaul; Dannon, Pinhas N; Goshen, Elinor; Amiaz, Revital; Zwas, Tzila S; Grunhaus, Leon

    2002-11-30

    Auditory command hallucinations probably arise from the patient's failure to monitor his/her own 'inner speech', which is connected to activation of speech perception areas of the left cerebral cortex and to various degrees of dysfunction of cortical circuits involved in schizophrenia as supported by functional brain imaging. We hypothesized that rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), by increasing cortical activation of the right prefrontal brain region, would bring about a reduction of the hallucinations. We report our first schizophrenic patient affected with refractory command hallucinations treated with 10 Hz rTMS. Treatment was performed over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with 1200 magnetic stimulations administered daily for 20 days at 90% motor threshold. Regional cerebral blood flow changes were monitored with neuroSPECT. Clinical evaluation and scores on the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale demonstrated a global improvement in the patient's condition, with no change in the intensity and frequency of the hallucinations. NeuroSPECT performed at intervals during and after treatment indicated a general improvement in cerebral perfusion. We conclude that right prefrontal rTMS may induce a general clinical improvement of schizophrenic brain function, without directly influencing the mechanism involved in auditory command hallucinations.

  2. Lateral prefrontal cortex subregions make dissociable contributions during fluid reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John; Owen, Adrian M

    2011-01-01

    Reasoning is a key component of adaptable "executive" behavior and is known to depend on a network of frontal and parietal brain regions. However, the mechanisms by which this network supports reasoning and adaptable behavior remain poorly defined. Here, we examine the relationship between reasoning, executive control, and frontoparietal function in a series of nonverbal reasoning experiments. Our results demonstrate that, in accordance with previous studies, a network of frontal and parietal brain regions is recruited during reasoning. Our results also reveal that this network can be fractionated according to how different subregions respond when distinct reasoning demands are manipulated. While increased rule complexity modulates activity within a right lateralized network including the middle frontal gyrus and the superior parietal cortex, analogical reasoning demand-or the requirement to remap rules on to novel features-recruits the left inferior rostrolateral prefrontal cortex and the lateral occipital complex. In contrast, the posterior extent of the inferior frontal gyrus, associated with simpler executive demands, is not differentially sensitive to rule complexity or analogical demand. These findings accord well with the hypothesis that different reasoning demands are supported by different frontal and parietal subregions.

  3. Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Subregions Make Dissociable Contributions during Fluid Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John; Owen, Adrian M.

    2011-01-01

    Reasoning is a key component of adaptable “executive” behavior and is known to depend on a network of frontal and parietal brain regions. However, the mechanisms by which this network supports reasoning and adaptable behavior remain poorly defined. Here, we examine the relationship between reasoning, executive control, and frontoparietal function in a series of nonverbal reasoning experiments. Our results demonstrate that, in accordance with previous studies, a network of frontal and parietal brain regions is recruited during reasoning. Our results also reveal that this network can be fractionated according to how different subregions respond when distinct reasoning demands are manipulated. While increased rule complexity modulates activity within a right lateralized network including the middle frontal gyrus and the superior parietal cortex, analogical reasoning demand—or the requirement to remap rules on to novel features—recruits the left inferior rostrolateral prefrontal cortex and the lateral occipital complex. In contrast, the posterior extent of the inferior frontal gyrus, associated with simpler executive demands, is not differentially sensitive to rule complexity or analogical demand. These findings accord well with the hypothesis that different reasoning demands are supported by different frontal and parietal subregions. PMID:20483908

  4. Guanfacine modulates the influence of emotional cues on prefrontal cortex activation for cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kurt P; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Fan, Jin; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2013-03-01

    Functional interactions between limbic regions that process emotions and frontal networks that guide response functions provide a substrate for emotional cues to influence behavior. Stimulation of postsynaptic α₂ adrenoceptors enhances the function of prefrontal regions in these networks. However, the impact of this stimulation on the emotional biasing of behavior has not been established. This study tested the effect of the postsynaptic α₂ adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on the emotional biasing of response execution and inhibition in prefrontal cortex. Fifteen healthy young adults were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task following counterbalanced administration of single doses of oral guanfacine (1 mg) and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over design. Lower perceptual sensitivity and less response bias for sad faces resulted in fewer correct responses compared to happy and neutral faces but had no effect on correct inhibitions. Guanfacine increased the sensitivity and bias selectively for sad faces, resulting in response accuracy comparable to happy and neutral faces, and reversed the valence-dependent variation in response-related activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting in enhanced activation for response execution cued by sad faces relative to happy and neutral faces, in line with other frontoparietal regions. These results provide evidence that guanfacine stimulation of postsynaptic α₂ adrenoceptors moderates DLPFC activation associated with the emotional biasing of response execution processes. The findings have implications for the α₂ adrenoceptor agonist treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF and cognitive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Method: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was performed for 139 OCD patients and 139 controls, and the radioactivity rate (RAR was calculated. Cognitive function was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results: The RARs of the prefrontal, anterior temporal, and right occipital lobes were higher in patients than controls. For the WCST, correct and classification numbers were significantly lower, and errors and persistent errors were significantly higher in OCD patients. Right prefrontal lobe RAR was negatively correlated with correct numbers, right anterior temporal lobe RAR was positively correlated with errors, and the RARs of the right prefrontal lobe and left thalamus were positively correlated with persistent errors. Conclusion: OCD patients showed higher CBF in the prefrontal and anterior temporal lobes, suggesting that these areas may be related with cognitive impairment.

  6. Functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during ultrarapid object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei V.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Borisov, Sergey V.; Vanmeter, John

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing technology for low-cost noninvasive functional brain imaging. With multichannel optical instruments, it becomes possible to measure not only local changes in hemoglobin concentrations but also temporal correlations of those changes in different brain regions which gives an optical analog of functional connectivity traditionally measured by fMRI. We recorded hemodynamic activity during the Go-NoGo task from 11 right-handed subjects with probes placed bilaterally over prefrontal areas. Subjects were detecting animals as targets in natural scenes pressing a mouse button. Data were low-pass filtered right versus left hemisphere. Intra- and interhemispheric functional connectivity was also significantly stronger during the task compared to baseline. Functional connectivity between the inferior and the middle frontal regions was significantly stronger in the right hemisphere. Our results demonstrate that optical methods can be used to detect transient changes in functional connectivity during rapid cognitive processes.

  7. Cardiac dose reduction with deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy patients with and without regional nodal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Rosanna; Conroy, Leigh; Long, Karen; Walrath, Daphne; Li, Haocheng; Smith, Wendy; Hudson, Alana; Phan, Tien

    2015-09-22

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) reduces heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) dose during left-sided breast radiation therapy (RT); however there is limited information about which patients derive the most benefit from DIBH. The primary objective of this study was to determine which patients benefit the most from DIBH by comparing percent reduction in mean cardiac dose conferred by DIBH for patients treated with whole breast RT ± boost (WBRT) versus those receiving breast/chest wall plus regional nodal irradiation, including internal mammary chain (IMC) nodes (B/CWRT + RNI) using a modified wide tangent technique. A secondary objective was to determine if DIBH was required to meet a proposed heart dose constraint of Dmean irradiation.

  8. Differential Involvement of Left Prefrontal Cortexin Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2004-01-01

    While inductive and deductive reasoning are considered distinct logical and psychological processes, little is known about their respective neural basis. To address this issue we scanned 16 subjects with fMRI, using an event-related design, while they engaged in inductive and deductive reasoning tasks. Both types of reasoning were characterized by…

  9. Amodal processing in human prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Dux, Paul E; Tombu, Michael N; Asplund, Christopher L; Marois, René

    2013-07-10

    Information enters the cortex via modality-specific sensory regions, whereas actions are produced by modality-specific motor regions. Intervening central stages of information processing map sensation to behavior. Humans perform this central processing in a flexible, abstract manner such that sensory information in any modality can lead to response via any motor system. Cognitive theories account for such flexible behavior by positing amodal central information processing (e.g., "central executive," Baddeley and Hitch, 1974; "supervisory attentional system," Norman and Shallice, 1986; "response selection bottleneck," Pashler, 1994). However, the extent to which brain regions embodying central mechanisms of information processing are amodal remains unclear. Here we apply multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to compare response selection, a cognitive process widely believed to recruit an amodal central resource across sensory and motor modalities. We show that most frontal and parietal cortical areas known to activate across a wide variety of tasks code modality, casting doubt on the notion that these regions embody a central processor devoid of modality representation. Importantly, regions of anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex consistently failed to code modality across four experiments. However, these areas code at least one other task dimension, process (instantiated as response selection vs response execution), ensuring that failure to find coding of modality is not driven by insensitivity of multivariate pattern analysis in these regions. We conclude that abstract encoding of information modality is primarily a property of subregions of the prefrontal cortex.

  10. Comparison of different methods for assessment of left ventricular regional motility using the gated blood pool method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, P.; Schicha, H.; Karsch, K.R.; Kreuzer, H.; Emrich, D.

    1983-01-01

    The following methods of evaluation were compared: qualitative analysis of cine mode; qualitative analysis of parametric scans obtained by Fourier analysis including the phase histogram; quantitative analysis of regional ejection fraction (EF). Regional wall motion abnormalities of high degree (akinesia, dyskinesia) were recognized by all three methods with a high sensitivity of 89.7-96.6% without statistically significant differences. The sensitivity for detecting hypokinetic segments was significantly lower (50.0-68.2%) without statistically significant differences between the three methods. Sensitivity for all kinds of wall motion abnormalities could be increased by combining the quantitative method of regional EF with the qualitative evaluation after Fourier analysis

  11. Improved recovery of regional left ventricular function after PCI of chronic total occlusion in STEMI patients: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the randomized controlled EXPLORE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Joëlle; van Dongen, Ivo M; Hoebers, Loes P; Ouweneel, Dagmar M; Claessen, Bimmer E P M; Råmunddal, Truls; Laanmets, Peep; Eriksen, Erlend; van der Schaaf, René J; Ioanes, Dan; Nijveldt, Robin; Tijssen, Jan G; Hirsch, Alexander; Henriques, José P S

    2017-07-19

    The Evaluating Xience and left ventricular function in PCI on occlusiOns afteR STEMI (EXPLORE) trial did not show a significant benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the concurrent chronic total occlusion (CTO) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients on global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However a possible treatment effect will be most pronounced in the CTO territory. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI on the recovery of regional LV function, particularly in the CTO territory. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) we studied 180 of the 302 EXPLORE patients with serial CMR (baseline and 4 months follow-up). Segmental wall thickening (SWT) was quantified on cine images by an independent core laboratory. Dysfunctional segments were defined as SWT PCI compared to no-CTO PCI (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 23%, p = 0.03). This recovery was most pronounced in the dysfunctional but viable segments(TEI PCI compared with no-CTO PCI is associated with a greater recovery of regional systolic function in the CTO territory, especially in the dysfunctional but viable segments. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of CMR in selecting post-STEMI patients for CTO PCI and the effect of regional LV function recovery on clinical outcome. Trialregister.nl NTR1108 , Date registered NTR: 30-okt-2007.

  12. Assessment of global and regional LV function obtained by quantitative gated SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin. Comparison with left ventricular cineangiography and echocardiography

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    Ban, Kazunobu; Nakajima, Toru; Aoki, Naoto; Abe, Sumihisa; Handa, Shunnosuke; Suzuki, Yutaka [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    The quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software that has automatic edge detection algorithm of the left ventricle, is able to calculate LV volumes and visualize LV wall motion with perfusion throughout the cardiac cycle. We evaluated the reliability of global and regional LV function derived from QGS using {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin by comparing with left ventricular cineangiography (LVG) and echocardiography (ECHO). In 22 cardiac patients, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated. Using cinematic display, regional LV wall motion were scored on a 3-point scale (1=normal, 2=hypokinesis, 3=akinesis; WMS). EDV, ESV and LVEF correlated well with those by LVG (p<0.001 for each). Correlation between WMS derived from QGS and ECHO was high (r=0.85, p<0.001). There was an inverse correlation between WMS and LVEF (r=0.77, p<0.001). In conclusion, QGS is useful to evaluate global LV function. Regional wall motion evaluated by QGS is good enough for clinical application. (author)

  13. Stress amplifies sex differences in primate prefrontal profiles of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex G; Hagenauer, Megan; Absher, Devin; Morrison, Kathleen E; Bale, Tracy L; Myers, Richard M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lyons, David M

    2017-11-02

    Stress is a recognized risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders that occur more often in women than men. Prefrontal brain regions mediate stress coping, cognitive control, and emotion. Here, we investigate sex differences and stress effects on prefrontal cortical profiles of gene expression in squirrel monkey adults. Dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and ventromedial prefrontal cortical regions from 18 females and 12 males were collected after stress or no-stress treatment conditions. Gene expression profiles were acquired using HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip arrays adapted for squirrel monkeys. Extensive variation between prefrontal cortical regions was discerned in the expression of numerous autosomal and sex chromosome genes. Robust sex differences were also identified across prefrontal cortical regions in the expression of mostly autosomal genes. Genes with increased expression in females compared to males were overrepresented in mitogen-activated protein kinase and neurotrophin signaling pathways. Many fewer genes with increased expression in males compared to females were discerned, and no molecular pathways were identified. Effect sizes for sex differences were greater in stress compared to no-stress conditions for ventromedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortical regions but not dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stress amplifies sex differences in gene expression profiles for prefrontal cortical regions involved in stress coping and emotion regulation. Results suggest molecular targets for new treatments of stress disorders in human mental health.

  14. Evaluation of Left Ventricle Function by Regional Fractional Area Change (RFAC) in a Mouse Model of Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Valsartan Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Laura; Colazzo, Francesca; Fontana, Lucia; Colombo, Gualtiero I.; Piacentini, Luca; Bono, Elisa; Milano, Giuseppina; Paleari, Serena; Palermo, Annamaria; Guerrini, Uliano; Tremoli, Elena; Sironi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Aim Left ventricle (LV) regional fractional area change (RFAC) measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allows the non-invasive localization and quantification of the degree of myocardial infarction (MI), and could be applied to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological or regenerative therapies. Here we investigate the ability of RFAC to identify regional dysfunction and discriminate the effect of pharmacological treatment with valsartan, a selective antagonist of angiotensin II type 1 receptor, in a model of MI. Methods and Results C57BL/6N mice, undergoing coronary artery ligation, were divided into two groups: untreated (MI) or treated with valsartan (MI+Val). Sham-operated mice were used as a control. Cardiac dimensions and function were assessed at baseline, 24 hours, 1 and 4 weeks post surgery by CMR and echocardiography. At sacrifice histology and whole-genome gene expression profiling were performed. RFAC was able to detect significant differences between treatment groups whereas the global ejection fraction was not. RFAC showed greater loss of regional contraction in remote non-infarcted myocardium in MI group than in MI+Val group. Consistently, in the same region MI+Val mice showed reduced myocyte hypertrophy, fibroblast proliferation, and fibrosis and modulation of target genes; in addition, left atrium volumes, appendage length and duct contraction were preserved. Conclusion In this study, RFAC effectively estimated the degree of systolic dysfunction and discriminated the regions preserved by pharmacological treatment. RFAC index is a promising tool to monitor changes in LV contraction and to assess the effectiveness of therapeutic regimens in clinical settings. PMID:26291973

  15. Changes in prefrontal-limbic function in major depression after 15 months of long-term psychotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchheim

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV unmedicated outpatients (N = 16 and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17 before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

  16. Changes in Prefrontal-Limbic Function in Major Depression after 15 Months of Long-Term Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna; Viviani, Roberto; Kessler, Henrik; Kächele, Horst; Cierpka, Manfred; Roth, Gerhard; George, Carol; Kernberg, Otto F.; Bruns, Georg; Taubner, Svenja

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV) unmedicated outpatients (N = 16) and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17) before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. PMID:22470470

  17. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional left ventricular myocardial contraction abnormalities and asynchrony in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy evaluated by magnetic resonance spatial modulation of magnetization myocardial tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishiro, Yuichiro; Oki, Takashi; Iuchi, Arata

    1999-01-01

    Global left ventricular (LV) pump function is generally preserved in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, it is unknown whether regional myocardial contractility is impaired, especially in nonhypertrophied regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional LV myocardial contraction in patients with HCM using magnetic resonance (MR) spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) myocardial tagging. The study group comprised 20 patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (HCM group) and 16 age-matched normal patients (control group), and data were collected using transthoracic M-mode and 2-dimensional echocardiography, and MR SPAMM myocardial tagging. The systolic strain ratio, maximum systolic strain velocity, and time from end-diastole to maximum systolic strain (ΔT) in the anterior, ventricular septal, inferior and lateral regions for 2 LV short-axis sections at the levels of the chordae tendineae and papillary muscles were measured at 50-ms intervals by MR myocardial tagging. The end-diastolic anterior and ventricular septal wall thicknesses and LV mass index were significantly different between the HCM and control groups. The systolic strain ratio for all 4 walls, particularly the anterior and ventricular septal regions, was significantly lower in the HCM group. In the HCM group, the maximum systolic strain velocity was significantly lower and ΔT was significantly shorter for all 4 walls, particularly the anterior and ventricular septal regions. The standard deviation for the ΔT, calculated from the ΔT for the 8 regions of the 2 LV short-axis sections, was significantly greater in the HCM group. In conclusion, regional LV myocardial contraction is impaired in both hypertrophied and nonhypertrophied regions, and systolic LV wall asynchrony occurs in patients with HCM. (author)

  19. Structural Variation within the Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Predict Memory for Impressions in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Shane Cassidy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that lesions to regions involved in social and emotional cognition disrupt socioemotional processing and memory. We investigated how structural variation of regions involved in socioemotional memory (ventromedial prefrontal cortex [vmPFC], amygdala, as opposed to a region implicated in explicit memory (hippocampus, affected memory for impressions in young and older adults. Anatomical MRI scans for fifteen young and fifteen older adults were obtained and reconstructed to gather information about cortical thickness and subcortical volume. Young adults had greater amygdala and hippocampus volumes than old, and thicker left vmPFC than old, although right vmPFC thickness did not differ across the age groups. Participants formed behavior-based impressions and responded to interpersonally meaningful, social but interpersonally irrelevant, or non-social prompts, and completed a memory test. Results showed that greater left amygdala volume predicted enhanced overall memory for impressions in older but not younger adults. Increased right vmPFC thickness in older, but not younger, adults correlated with enhanced memory for impressions formed in the interpersonally meaningful context. Hippocampal volume was not predictive of social memory in young or older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of structural variation in regions linked to socioemotional processing in the retention of impressions with age, and suggest that the amygdala and vmPFC play an integral role when encoding and retrieving social information.

  20. Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: A 4-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Vijayakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between the development of effortful control (EC, a temperamental measure of self-regulation, and concurrent development of three regions of the prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dlPFC; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, vlPFC between early- and mid-adolescence. It also examined whether development of EC mediated the relationship between cortical maturation and emotional and behavioral symptoms. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline assessments when they were approximately 12 years old and follow-up assessments approximately 4 years later. At each assessment, participants had MRI scans and completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, as well as measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, and aggressive and risk taking behavior. Cortical thicknesses of the ACC, dlPFC and vlPFC, estimated using the FreeSurfer software, were found to decrease over time. EC also decreased over time in females. Greater thinning of the left ACC was associated with less reduction in EC. Furthermore, change in effortful control mediated the relationship between greater thinning of the left ACC and improvements in socioemotional functioning, including reductions in psychopathological symptoms. These findings highlight the dynamic association between EC and the maturation of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the importance of this relationship for socioemotional functioning during adolescence.

  1. Posterior and prefrontal contributions to the development posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity: an fMRI study of symptom provocation in acute stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Jan C; Sartory, Gudrun; Nuyken, Malte; Schürholt, Benjamin; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2017-09-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is predictive of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In response to symptom provocation, the exposure to trauma-related pictures, ASD patients showed increased activation of the medial posterior areas of precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex as well as of superior prefrontal cortex in a previous study. The current study aimed at investigating which activated areas are predictive of the development of PTSD. Nineteen ASD patients took part in an fMRI study in which they were shown personalized trauma-related and neutral pictures within 4 weeks of the traumatic event. They were assessed for severity of PTSD 4 weeks later. Activation contrasts between trauma-related and neutral pictures were correlated with subsequent PTSD symptom severity. Greater activation in, among others, right medial precuneus, left retrosplenial cortex, precentral and right superior temporal gyrus as well as less activation in lateral, superior prefrontal and left fusiform gyrus was related to subsequently increased PTSD severity. The results are broadly in line with neural areas related to etiological models of PTSD, namely multisensory associative learning recruiting posterior regions on the one hand and failure to reappraise maladaptive cognitions, thought to involve prefrontal areas, on the other.

  2. Preserved speech abilities and compensation following prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, R L; Corbetta, M; Schatz, J; Raichle, M E; Petersen, S E

    1996-02-06

    Lesions to left frontal cortex in humans produce speech production impairments (nonfluent aphasia). These impairments vary from subject to subject and performance on certain speech production tasks can be relatively preserved in some patients. A possible explanation for preservation of function under these circumstances is that areas outside left prefrontal cortex are used to compensate for the injured brain area. We report here a direct demonstration of preserved language function in a stroke patient (LF1) apparently due to the activation of a compensatory brain pathway. We used functional brain imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) as a basis for this study.

  3. Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior striatum and prefrontal cortex predicts reading performance in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcauter, Sarael; García-Mondragón, Liliana; Gracia-Tabuenca, Zeus; Moreno, Martha B; Ortiz, Juan J; Barrios, Fernando A

    2017-11-01

    The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed). Functional connectivity of the left frontal and temporal cortices and subcortical regions predicted reading speed. These results extend previous findings on the relationship between functional connectivity and reading competence in children, providing new evidence about such relationships in previously unexplored regions in the resting brain, including the left caudate, putamen and thalamus. This work highlights the relevance of a broad network, functionally synchronized in the resting state, for the acquisition and perfecting of reading abilities in young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Grammatical distinctions in the left frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, K A; Pascual-Leone, A; Mottaghy, F M; Gangitano, M; Caramazza, A

    2001-08-15

    Selective deficits in producing verbs relative to nouns in speech are well documented in neuropsychology and have been associated with left hemisphere frontal cortical lesions resulting from stroke and other neurological disorders. The basis for these impairments is unresolved: Do they arise because of differences in the way grammatical categories of words are organized in the brain, or because of differences in the neural representation of actions and objects? We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefrontal cortex and to assess its role in producing nouns and verbs. In one experiment subjects generated real words; in a second, they produced pseudowords as nouns or verbs. In both experiments, response latencies increased for verbs but were unaffected for nouns following rTMS. These results demonstrate that grammatical categories have a neuroanatomical basis and that the left prefrontal cortex is selectively engaged in processing verbs as grammatical objects.

  5. Gated blood pool tomography for the evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function in comparison to planar techniques and echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canclini, S; Terzi, A; Rossini, P; Vignati, A; La Canna, G; Magri, G C; Pizzocaro, C; Giubbini, R

    2001-01-01

    Multigated radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) is a simple and reliable tool for the assessment of global systolic and diastolic function and in several studies it is still considered a standard for the assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction. However the evaluation of regional wall motion by MUGA is critical due to two-dimensional imaging and its clinical use is progressively declining in favor of echocardiography. Tomographic MUGA (T-MUGA) is not widely adopted in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare T-MUGA to planar MUGA (P-MUGA) for the assessment of global ejection fraction and to transthoracic echocardiography for the evaluation of regional wall motion. A 16-segment model was adopted for the comparison with echo regional wall motion. For each one of the 16 segments the normal range of T-MUGA ejection fraction was quantified and a normal data file was defined; the average value -2.5 SD was used as the lower threshold to identify abnormal segments. In addition, amplitude images from Fourier analysis were quantified and considered abnormal according to three different thresholds (25, 50 and 75% of the maximum). In a study group of 33 consecutive patients the ejection fraction values of T-MUGA highly correlated with those of P-MUGA (r = 0.93). The regional ejection fraction (according to the normal database) and the amplitude analysis (50% threshold) allowed for the correct identification of 203/226 and 167/226 asynergic segments by echocardiography, and of 269/302 and 244/302 normal segments, respectively. Therefore sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy to detect regional wall motion abnormalities were 90, 89, 89% and 74, 81, 79% for regional ejection fraction and amplitude analysis, respectively. T-MUGA is a reliable tool for regional wall motion evaluation, well correlated with echocardiography, less subjective and able to provide quantitative data.

  6. Functional asymmetries in early learning during right, left, and bimanual performance in right-handed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Loayza, Francis R; Pastor, Maria A

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate differences in activity and connectivity during early learning due to the performing hand. Twenty right-handed subjects were recruited. The neural correlates of explicit visuospatial learning executed with the right, the left hand, and bimanually were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Connectivity analyses were carried out using the psychophysiological interactions model, considering right and left anterior putamen as index regions. A common neural network was found for the three tasks during learning. Main activity increases were located in posterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, anterior putamen, and cerebellum (IV-V), whereas activity decrements were observed in prefrontal regions. However, the left hand task showed a greater recruitment of left hippocampal areas when compared with the other tasks. In addition, enhanced connectivity between the right anterior putamen and motor cortical and cerebellar regions was found for the left hand when compared with the right hand task. An additional recruitment of brain regions and increased striato-cortical and striato-cerebellar functional connections is needed when early learning is performed with the nondominant hand. In addition, access to brain resources during learning may be directed by the dominant hand in the bimanual task. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hyperresponsivity and impaired prefrontal control of the mesolimbic reward system in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Anja; Petrovic, Aleksandra; Diekhof, Esther K; Trost, Sarah; Wolter, Sarah; Gruber, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by substantial dysfunctions of reward processing, leading to detrimental consequences for decision-making. The neurotransmitter dopamine is responsible for the transmission of reward signals and also known to be involved in the mechanism of psychosis. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), sixteen medicated patients with schizophrenia and sixteen healthy controls performed the 'desire-reason dilemma' (DRD) paradigm. This paradigm allowed us to directly investigate reward-related brain activations depending on the interaction of bottom-up and top-down mechanisms, when a previously conditioned reward stimulus had to be rejected to achieve a superordinate long-term goal. Both patients and controls showed significant activations in the mesolimbic reward system. In patients with schizophrenia, however, we found a significant hyperactivation of the left ventral striatum (vStr) when they were allowed to accept the conditioned reward stimuli, and a reduced top-down regulation of activation in the ventral striatum (vStr) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) while having to reject the immediate reward to pursue the superordinate task-goal. Moreover, while healthy subjects exhibited a negative functional coupling of the vStr with both the anteroventral prefrontal cortex (avPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in the dilemma situation, this functional coupling was significantly impaired in the patient group. These findings provide evidence for an increased ventral striatal activation to reward stimuli and an impaired top-down control of reward signals by prefrontal brain regions in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Addressing the selective role of distinct prefrontal areas in response suppression: A study with brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Pacella, Valentina; De Pellegrin, Serena; Rossetto, Marta; Denaro, Luca; D'Avella, Domenico; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The diverging evidence for functional localization of response inhibition within the prefrontal cortex might be justified by the still unclear involvement of other intrinsically related cognitive processes like response selection and sustained attention. In this study, the main aim was to understand whether inhibitory impairments, previously found in patients with both left and right frontal lesions, could be better accounted for by assessing these potentially related cognitive processes. We tested 37 brain tumor patients with left prefrontal, right prefrontal and non-prefrontal lesions and a healthy control group on Go/No-Go and Foreperiod tasks. In both types of tasks inhibitory impairments are likely to cause false alarms, although additionally the former task requires response selection and the latter target detection abilities. Irrespective of the task context, patients with right prefrontal damage showed frequent Go and target omissions, probably due to sustained attention lapses. Left prefrontal patients, on the other hand, showed both Go and target omissions and high false alarm rates to No-Go and warning stimuli, suggesting a decisional rather than an inhibitory impairment. An exploratory whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis confirmed the association of left ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal lesions with target discrimination failure, and right ventrolateral and medial prefrontal lesions with target detection failure. Results from this study show how left and right prefrontal areas, which previous research has linked to response inhibition, underlie broader cognitive control processes, particularly involved in response selection and target detection. Based on these findings, we suggest that successful inhibitory control relies on more than one functionally distinct process which, if assessed appropriately, might help us to better understand inhibitory impairments across different pathologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation over prefrontal cortex diminishes degree of risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hang; Chen, Shu; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Jia, Yongmin; Luo, Jun

    2015-06-26

    Previous studies have established that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a powerful technique for manipulating the activity of the human cerebral cortex. Many studies have found that weighing the risks and benefits in decision-making involves a complex neural network that includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We studied whether participants change the balance of risky and safe responses after receiving tDCS applied over the right and left prefrontal cortex. A total of 60 healthy volunteers performed a risk task while they received either anodal tDCS over the right prefrontal cortex, with cathodal over the left; anodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex, with cathodal over the right; or sham stimulation. The participants tended to choose less risky options after receiving sham stimulation, demonstrating that the task might be highly influenced by the "wealth effect". There was no statistically significant change after either right anodal/left cathodal or left anodal/right cathodal tDCS, indicating that both types of tDCS impact the participants' degrees of risk aversion, and therefore, counteract the wealth effect. We also found gender differences in the participants' choices. These findings extend the notion that DLPFC activity is critical for risk decision-making. Application of tDCS to the right/left DLPFC may impact a person's attitude to taking risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prefrontal-Amygdala Connectivity and State Anxiety during Fear Extinction Recall in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina E. Ganella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While deficits in fear extinction recall have been suggested to underlie vulnerability to anxiety disorders in adolescents, the neurobiology of these deficits remain underexplored. Here we investigate the functional connectivity (FC of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC underlying extinction recall in healthy adolescents, and assess associations between FC and state/trait anxiety. Adolescents (17 and adults (14, for comparison completed a fear-learning paradigm involving extinction and extinction recall during a functional magnetic resonance imaging session, in which skin conductance response (SCR was recorded. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that during extinction recall there was significant negative connectivity between the vmPFC and amygdala in adults, but not adolescents. vmPFC-amygdala connectivity was positively correlated with SCR. Adolescents showed significant negative FC between the dlPFC and the left and right hippocampus, and the amygdala, which was positively correlated with state anxiety. Recall was also associated with negative connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, posterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pallidum in adolescents. These results demonstrate that fear extinction recall in healthy adolescents is associated with FC between prefrontal and limbic brain regions, and suggest that alterations in connectivity may be associated with vulnerability to anxiety in adolescence.

  11. Prefrontal activity and impaired memory encoding strategies in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Hawco, Colin; Lepage, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan. Brain activity was examined for conditions where participants were a) prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, or b) not prompted but required to self-initiate such strategies. When prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, schizophrenia patients exhibited similar recognition performance and brain activity as healthy controls. However, when required to self-initiate these strategies, patients had significant reduced recognition performance and brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in the left temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. When patients were divided based on performance on the SEMT, the subgroup with more severe deficits in self-initiation also showed greater reduction in left dorsolateral prefrontal activity. These results suggest that impaired self-initiation of elaborative encoding strategies is a driving feature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. We also identified the neural correlates of impaired self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies, in which a failure to activate the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a key role. These findings provide important new targets in the development of novel treatments aiming to improve memory and ultimately patients' outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Half of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases Were Left Undiagnosed in Prisons of the Tigray Region of Ethiopia: Implications for Tuberculosis Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelemework Adane

    Full Text Available Prison settings have been often identified as important but neglected reservoirs for TB. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed pulmonary TB and assess the potential risk factors for such TB cases in prisons of the Tigray region.A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2013 and February 2014 in nine prisons. A standardized symptom-based questionnaire was initially used to identify presumptive TB cases. From each, three consecutive sputum samples were collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB microscopy and culture. Blood samples were collected from consented participants for HIV testing.Out of 809 presumptive TB cases with culture result, 4.0% (95% CI: 2.65-5.35 were confirmed to have undiagnosed TB. The overall estimated point prevalence of undiagnosed TB was found to be 505/100,000 prisoners (95% CI: 360-640. Together with the 27 patients who were already on treatment, the overall estimated point prevalence of TB would be 793/100,000 prisoners (95% CI: 610-970, about four times higher than in the general population. The ratio of active to passive case detection was 1.18:1. The prevalence of HIV was 4.4% (36/809 among presumptive TB cases and 6.3% (2/32 among undiagnosed TB cases. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, chewing Khat (adjusted OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.02-7.75 and having had a close contact with a TB patient (adjusted OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.05-4.51 were found to be predictors of undiagnosed TB among presumptive TB cases.This study revealed that at least half of symptomatic pulmonary TB cases in Northern Ethiopian prisons remain undiagnosed and hence untreated. The prevalence of undiagnosed TB in the study prisons was more than two folds higher than in the general population of Tigray. This may indicate the need for more investment and commitment to improving TB case detection in the study prisons.

  13. The Working Memory and Dorsolateral Prefrontal-Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Changes in Long-Term Survival Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingui; Tao, Longxiang; Li, Jingjing; Wu, Jiaonan; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jingjie; Qiu, Bensheng; Yu, Yongqiang; He, Xiaoxuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tamoxifen is the most widely used drug for treating patients with estrogen receptor-sensitive breast cancer. There is evidence that breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen exhibit cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying working memory deficits in combination with functional connectivity changes in premenopausal women with breast cancer who received long-term tamoxifen treatment. Methods: A total of 31 premenopausal women with breast cancer who received tamoxifen and 32 matched healthy control participants were included. The participants completed n-back tasks and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which measure working memory performance and brain functional connectivity, respectively. A seed-based functional connectivity analysis within the whole brain was conducted, for which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was chosen as the seed region. Results: Our results indicated that the tamoxifen group had significant deficits in working memory and general executive function performance and significantly lower functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with the right hippocampus compared with the healthy controls. There were no significant changes in functional connectivity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex within the whole brain between the tamoxifen group and healthy controls. Moreover, significant correlations were found in the tamoxifen group between the functional connectivity strength of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with the right hippocampus and decreased working memory performance. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be affected by tamoxifen treatment, supporting an antagonistic role of tamoxifen in the long-term treatment of breast cancer patients. PMID:28177081

  14. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates visual attention during facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Richard C; Philippi, Carissa L; Motzkin, Julian C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is known to play a crucial role in regulating human social and emotional behaviour, yet the precise mechanisms by which it subserves this broad function remain unclear. Whereas previous neuropsychological studies have largely focused on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in higher-order deliberative processes related to valuation and decision-making, here we test whether ventromedial prefrontal cortex may also be critical for more basic aspects of orienting attention to socially and emotionally meaningful stimuli. Using eye tracking during a test of facial emotion recognition in a sample of lesion patients, we show that bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage impairs visual attention to the eye regions of faces, particularly for fearful faces. This finding demonstrates a heretofore unrecognized function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex-the basic attentional process of controlling eye movements to faces expressing emotion. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of global and regional magnetic resonance feature tracking derived strain parameters of the left and right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Björn, E-mail: bjoernschmidt1989@gmx.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Dick, Anastasia, E-mail: anastasia-dick@web.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Treutlein, Melanie, E-mail: melanie-treutlein@web.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Schiller, Petra, E-mail: petra.schiller@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Bunck, Alexander C., E-mail: alexander.bunck@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Maintz, David, E-mail: david.maintz@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Baeßler, Bettina, E-mail: bettina.baessler@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Left and right ventricular CMR feature tracking is highly reproducible. • The only exception is radial strain and strain rate. • Sample size estimations are presented as a practical reference for future studies. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the reproducibility of regional and global strain and strain rate (SR) parameters of both ventricles and to determine sample sizes for all investigated strain and SR parameters in order to generate a practical reference for future studies. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with acute myocarditis. Cine sequences in three horizontal long axis views and a stack of short axis views covering the entire left and right ventricle (LV, RV) were retrospectively analysed using a dedicated feature tracking (FT) software algorithm (TOMTEC). For intra-observer analysis, one observer analysed CMR images of all patients and volunteers twice. For inter-observer analysis, three additional blinded observers analysed the same datasets once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were tested in all patients and controls using Bland-Altman analyses, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Results: Intra-observer reproducibility of global LV strain and SR parameters was excellent (range of ICCs: 0.81–1.00), the only exception being global radial SR with a poor reproducibility (ICC 0.23). On a regional level, basal and midventricular strain and SR parameters were more reproducible when compared to apical parameters. Inter-observer reproducibility of all LV parameters was slightly lower than intra-observer reproducibility, yet still good to excellent for all global and regional longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters (range of ICCs: 0.66–0.93). Similar to the LV, all global RV longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters showed an excellent reproducibility, (range of ICCs: 0.75–0

  16. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of global and regional magnetic resonance feature tracking derived strain parameters of the left and right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Björn; Dick, Anastasia; Treutlein, Melanie; Schiller, Petra; Bunck, Alexander C.; Maintz, David; Baeßler, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Left and right ventricular CMR feature tracking is highly reproducible. • The only exception is radial strain and strain rate. • Sample size estimations are presented as a practical reference for future studies. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the reproducibility of regional and global strain and strain rate (SR) parameters of both ventricles and to determine sample sizes for all investigated strain and SR parameters in order to generate a practical reference for future studies. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with acute myocarditis. Cine sequences in three horizontal long axis views and a stack of short axis views covering the entire left and right ventricle (LV, RV) were retrospectively analysed using a dedicated feature tracking (FT) software algorithm (TOMTEC). For intra-observer analysis, one observer analysed CMR images of all patients and volunteers twice. For inter-observer analysis, three additional blinded observers analysed the same datasets once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were tested in all patients and controls using Bland-Altman analyses, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Results: Intra-observer reproducibility of global LV strain and SR parameters was excellent (range of ICCs: 0.81–1.00), the only exception being global radial SR with a poor reproducibility (ICC 0.23). On a regional level, basal and midventricular strain and SR parameters were more reproducible when compared to apical parameters. Inter-observer reproducibility of all LV parameters was slightly lower than intra-observer reproducibility, yet still good to excellent for all global and regional longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters (range of ICCs: 0.66–0.93). Similar to the LV, all global RV longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters showed an excellent reproducibility, (range of ICCs: 0.75–0

  17. MRI volumetry of prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheline, Yvette I.; Black, Kevin J.; Lin, Daniel Y.; Pimmel, Joseph; Wang, Po; Haller, John W.; Csernansky, John G.; Gado, Mokhtar; Walkup, Ronald K.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex volumetry by brain magnetic resonance (MR) is required to estimate changes postulated to occur in certain psychiatric and neurologic disorders. A semiautomated method with quantitative characterization of its performance is sought to reliably distinguish small prefrontal cortex volume changes within individuals and between groups. Stereological methods were tested by a blinded comparison of measurements applied to 3D MR scans obtained using an MPRAGE protocol. Fixed grid stereologic methods were used to estimate prefrontal cortex volumes on a graphic workstation, after the images are scaled from 16 to 8 bits using a histogram method. In addition images were resliced into coronal sections perpendicular to the bicommissural plane. Prefrontal cortex volumes were defined as all sections of the frontal lobe anterior to the anterior commissure. Ventricular volumes were excluded. Stereological measurement yielded high repeatability and precision, and was time efficient for the raters. The coefficient of error was volumetry by stereology can yield accurate and repeatable measurements. Small frontal lobe volume reductions in patients with brain disorders such as depression and schizophrenia can be efficiently assessed using this method.

  18. Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone Pascual, A

    1996-02-01

    We studied the effects of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of different scalp positions on mood. Ten normal volunteers rated themselves before and after rTMS on five analog scales labeled "Tristeza" (Sadness), "Ansiedad" (Anxiety), "Alegria" (Happiness), "Cansancio" (Tiredness), and "Dolor/Malestar" (Pain/Discomfort). rTMS was applied to the right lateral prefrontal, left prefrontal, or midline frontal cortex in trains of 5 seconds' duration at 10 Hz and 110% of the subject's motor threshold intensity. Each stimulation position received 10 trains separated by a 25-second pause. No clinically apparent mood changes were evoked by rTMS to any of the scalp positions in any subject. However, left prefrontal rTMS resulted in a significant increase in the Sadness ratings (Tristeza) and a significant decrease in the Happiness ratings ("Alegria") as compared with right prefrontal and midfrontal cortex stimulation. These results show differential effects of rTMS of left and right prefrontal cortex stimulation on mood and illustrate the lateralized control of mood in normal volunteers.

  19. A Role for the Left Angular Gyrus in Episodic Simulation and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Preston P; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-08-23

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in core network regions are critical for episodic simulation and episodic memory. In the current study, we used MRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess whether temporary disruption of the left angular gyrus would impair both episodic simulation and memory (16 participants, 10 females). Relative to TMS to a control site (vertex), disruption of the left angular gyrus significantly reduced the number of internal (i.e., episodic) details produced during the simulation and memory tasks, with a concomitant increase in external detail production (i.e., semantic, repetitive, or off-topic information), reflected by a significant detail by TMS site interaction. Difficulty in the simulation and memory tasks also increased after TMS to the left angular gyrus relative to the vertex. In contrast, performance in a nonepisodic control task did not differ statistically as a function of TMS site (i.e., number of free associates produced or difficulty in performing the free associate task). Together, these results are the first to demonstrate that the left angular gyrus is critical for both episodic simulation and episodic memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans have the ability to imagine future episodes (i.e., episodic simulation) and remember episodes from the past (i.e., episodic memory). A wealth of neuroimaging studies have revealed that these abilities are associated with enhanced activity in a core network of neural regions, including the hippocampus, medial prefrontal

  20. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Contributions to Human Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K.; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in executive control functions for human intelligence, the necessity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) for key competencies of general intelligence and executive function remains to be well established. Here we studied human brain lesion patients with dlPFC lesions to investigate whether this region is computationally necessary for performance on neuropsychological tests of general intelligence and executive function, administering the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and subtests of the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) to three groups: dlPFC lesions (n = 19), non-dlPFC lesions (n = 152), and no brain lesions (n = 55). The key results indicate that: (1) patients with focal dlPFC damage exhibit lower scores, at the latent variable level, than controls in general intelligence (g) and executive function; (2) dlPFC patients demonstrate lower scores than controls in several executive measures; and (3) these latter differences are no longer significant when the pervasive influence of the general factor of intelligence (g) is statistically removed. The observed findings support a central role for the dlPFC in general intelligence and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the WAIS and D-KEFS to the study of high-level cognition in health and disease. PMID:22634247

  1. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pollmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  2. Cardiac MRI: evaluation of phonocardiogram-gated cine imaging for the assessment of global und regional left ventricular function in clinical routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas; Orzada, Stephan; Haering, Lars; Czylwik, Andreas; Zenge, Michael; Mueller, Edgar; Eberle, Holger; Bruder, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E.; Maderwald, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    To validate a phonocardiogram (PCG)-gated cine imaging approach for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. In this prospective study, cine MR imaging of the LV was performed twice in 79 patients by using retrospectively PCG- and retrospectively ECG-gated cine SSFP sequences at 1.5 T. End-diastolic volumes (EDV), end-systolic volumes (ESV), stroke volumes (SV), ejection fraction (EF), muscle mass (MM), as well as regional wall motion were assessed. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients with valvular defects and for patients with dysrhythmia. PCG-gated imaging was feasible in 75 (95%) patients, ECG-gating in all patients. Excellent correlations were observed for all volumetric parameters (r > 0.98 for all variables analysed). No significant differences were observed for EDV (-0.24 ± 3.14 mL, P = 0.5133), ESV (-0.04 ± 2.36 mL, P = 0.8951), SV (-0.20 ± 3.41 mL, P = 0.6083), EF (-0.16 ± 1.98%, P = 0.4910), or MM (0.31 ± 4.2 g, P = 0.7067) for the entire study cohort, nor for either of the subgroups. PCG- and ECG-gated cine imaging revealed similar results for regional wall motion analyses (115 vs. 119 segments with wall motion abnormalities, P = 0.3652). The present study demonstrates that PCG-gated cine imaging enables accurate assessment of global and regional LV function in the vast majority of patients in clinical routine. (orig.)

  3. Hemispheric asymmetry in stress processing in rat prefrontal cortex and the role of mesocortical dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R M

    2004-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to play an important role not only in the regulation of emotion, but in the integration of affective states with appropriate modulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine stress regulatory systems. The present review highlights findings in the rat which helps to elucidate the complex nature of prefrontal involvement in emotion and stress regulation. The medial PFC is particularly important in this regard and while dorsomedial regions appear to play a suppressive role in such regulation, the ventromedial (particularly infralimbic) region appears to activate behavioral, neuroendocrine and sympathetic autonomic systems in response to stressful situations. This may be especially true of spontaneous stress-related behavior or physiological responses to relatively acute stressors. The role of the medial PFC is somewhat more complex in conditions involving learned adjustments to stressful situations, such as the extinction of conditioned fear responses, but it is clear that the medial PFC is important in incorporating stressful experience for future adaptive behavior. It is also suggested that mesocortical dopamine plays an important adaptive role in this region by preventing excessive behavioral and physiological stress reactivity. The rat brain shows substantial hemispheric specialization in many respects, and while the right PFC is normally dominant in the activation of stress-related systems, the left may play a role in countering this activation through processes of interhemispheric inhibition. This proposed basic template for the lateralization of stress regulatory systems is suggested to be associated with efficient stress and emotional self-regulation, and also to be shaped by both early postnatal experience and gender differences.

  4. Damage to white matter bottlenecks contributes to language impairments after left hemispheric stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Griffis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the white matter underlying the left posterior temporal lobe leads to deficits in multiple language functions. The posterior temporal white matter may correspond to a bottleneck where both dorsal and ventral language pathways are vulnerable to simultaneous damage. Damage to a second putative white matter bottleneck in the left deep prefrontal white matter involving projections associated with ventral language pathways and thalamo-cortical projections has recently been proposed as a source of semantic deficits after stroke. Here, we first used white matter atlases to identify the previously described white matter bottlenecks in the posterior temporal and deep prefrontal white matter. We then assessed the effects of damage to each region on measures of verbal fluency, picture naming, and auditory semantic decision-making in 43 chronic left hemispheric stroke patients. Damage to the posterior temporal bottleneck predicted deficits on all tasks, while damage to the anterior bottleneck only significantly predicted deficits in verbal fluency. Importantly, the effects of damage to the bottleneck regions were not attributable to lesion volume, lesion loads on the tracts traversing the bottlenecks, or damage to nearby cortical language areas. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping revealed additional lesion predictors of deficits. Post-hoc fiber tracking of the peak white matter lesion predictors using a publicly available tractography atlas revealed evidence consistent with the results of the bottleneck analyses. Together, our results provide support for the proposal that spatially specific white matter damage affecting bottleneck regions, particularly in the posterior temporal lobe, contributes to chronic language deficits after left hemispheric stroke. This may reflect the simultaneous disruption of signaling in dorsal and ventral language processing streams.

  5. Cardiac dose reduction with deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy patients with and without regional nodal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Rosanna; Conroy, Leigh; Long, Karen; Walrath, Daphne; Li, Haocheng; Smith, Wendy; Hudson, Alana; Phan, Tien

    2015-01-01

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) reduces heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) dose during left-sided breast radiation therapy (RT); however there is limited information about which patients derive the most benefit from DIBH. The primary objective of this study was to determine which patients benefit the most from DIBH by comparing percent reduction in mean cardiac dose conferred by DIBH for patients treated with whole breast RT ± boost (WBRT) versus those receiving breast/chest wall plus regional nodal irradiation, including internal mammary chain (IMC) nodes (B/CWRT + RNI) using a modified wide tangent technique. A secondary objective was to determine if DIBH was required to meet a proposed heart dose constraint of D mean < 4 Gy in these two cohorts. Twenty consecutive patients underwent CT simulation both free breathing (FB) and DIBH. Patients were grouped into two cohorts: WBRT (n = 11) and B/CWRT + RNI (n = 9). 3D-conformal plans were developed and FB was compared to DIBH for each cohort using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for continuous variables and McNemar’s test for discrete variables. The percent relative reduction conferred by DIBH in mean heart and LAD dose, as well as lung V 20 were compared between the two cohorts using Wilcox rank-sum testing. The significance level was set at 0.05 with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. All patients had comparable target coverage on DIBH and FB. DIBH statistically significantly reduced mean heart and LAD dose for both cohorts. Percent reduction in mean heart and LAD dose with DIBH was significantly larger in the B/CWRT + RNI cohort compared to WBRT group (relative reduction in mean heart and LAD dose: 55.9 % and 72.1 % versus 29.2 % and 43.5 %, p < 0.02). All patients in the WBRT group and five patients (56 %) in the B/CWBRT + RNI group met heart D mean <4 Gy with FB. All patients met this constraint with DIBH. All patients receiving WBRT met D mean Heart < 4 Gy on FB, while only slightly over

  6. Assessment of changes in regional cerebral blood flow in patients with major depression using the 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission tomography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, K.; Kapucu, Oe.; Erbas, B.; Varoglu, E.; Guelec, C.; Bekdik, C.F.; Hacettepe Univ., Ankara

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was investigated in 14 patients with major depression diagnosed according to the DSM-III-R criteria (six patients with single and eight patients with recurrent episodes) and in ten healthy volunteers. The mean ages of the patients and the controls were 33.5±2.7 and 31.6±2.6 years, respectively. The severity of the depression was assessed using the 17-item Hamiltonian Depression Scale (mean: 23.2±1.5). None of the patients was under medication. After administration of 500 MBq technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime, a single photon emission tomography study was performed and then transaxial, sagittal and coronal slices were obtained. For the semiquantitative analysis of the data, the ratios of the mean counts/pixel to the whole slice were calculated for 24 regions on three consecutive transaxial slices in the orbitomeatal plane. Additionally, left/right and frontal/occipital ratios were calculated. Both sides of the temporal region had a significantly decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) when compared to the controls. The left/right ratio of the prefrontal region was also significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. The Hamilton score had a negative correlation with blood flow in the anterofrontal and left prefrontal regions. According to our results, regional CBF seems to be decreased in the left prefrontal and in both temporal regions in major depression. The severity of depression is correlated with the reduction in CBF in the regions of the anterofrontal and left prefrontal cortex. (orig.)

  7. Alterations of Resting-State Static and Dynamic Functional Connectivity of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Subjects with Internet Gaming Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Han

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder (IGD, a major behavior disorder, has gained increasing attention. Recent studies indicate altered resting-state static functional connectivity (FC of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in subjects with IGD. Whereas static FC often provides information on functional changes in subjects with IGD, investigations of temporal changes in FC between the DLPFC and the other brain regions may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain function associated with IGD. Thirty subjects with IGD and 30 healthy controls (HCs matched for age, gender and education status were recruited. Using the bilateral DLPFC as seeds, static FC and dynamic FC maps were calculated and compared between groups. Correlations between alterations in static FC and dynamic FC and clinical variables were also investigated within the IGD group. The IGD group showed significantly lower static FC between the right DLPFC and the left rolandic operculum while higher static FC between the right DLPFC and the left pars triangularis when compared to HCs. The IGD group also had significantly decreased dynamic FC between the right DLPFC and the left insula, right putamen and left precentral gyrus, and increased dynamic FC in the left precuneus. Moreover, the dynamic FC between the right DLPFC and the left insula was negatively correlated with the severity of IGD. Dynamic FC can be used as a powerful supplement to static FC, helping us obtain a more comprehensive understanding of large-scale brain network activity in IGD and put forward new ideas for behavioral intervention therapy for it.

  8. Cognitive and behavioural deficits associated with the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra L; Charleston, Alison J; Tippett, Lynette J

    2010-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a progressive disease affecting motor neurons, may variably affect cognition and behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that functions associated with orbitomedial prefrontal cortex are affected by evaluating the behavioural and cognitive performance of 18 participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis without dementia and 18 healthy, matched controls. We measured Theory of Mind (Faux Pas Task), emotional prosody recognition (Aprosodia Battery), reversal of behaviour in response to changes in reward (Probabilistic Reversal Learning Task), decision making without risk (Holiday Apartment Task) and aberrant behaviour (Neuropsychiatric Inventory). We also assessed dorsolateral prefrontal function, using verbal and written fluency and planning (One-touch Stockings of Cambridge), to determine whether impairments in tasks sensitive to these two prefrontal regions co-occur. The patient group was significantly impaired at identifying social faux pas, recognizing emotions and decision-making, indicating mild, but consistent impairment on most measures sensitive to orbitomedial prefrontal cortex. Significant levels of aberrant behaviour were present in 50% of patients. Patients were also impaired on verbal fluency and planning. Individual subject analyses involved computing classical dissociations between tasks sensitive to different prefrontal regions. These revealed heterogeneous patterns of impaired and spared cognitive abilities: 33% of participants had classical dissociations involving orbitomedial prefrontal tasks, 17% had classical dissociations involving dorsolateral prefrontal tasks, 22% had classical dissociations between tasks of both regions, and 28% had no classical dissociations. These data indicate subtle changes in behaviour, emotional processing, decision-making and altered social awareness, associated with orbitomedial prefrontal cortex, may be present in a significant proportion of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  9. Aberrant prefrontal beta oscillations predict episodic memory encoding deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Meconi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal episodic memory is one of the core cognitive functions affected in patients with schizophrenia (SZ. Although this verbal memory impairment in SZ is a well-known finding, our understanding about its underlying neurophysiological mechanisms is rather scarce. Here we address this issue by recording brain oscillations during a memory task in a sample of healthy controls and patients with SZ. Brain oscillations represent spectral fingerprints of specific neurocognitive operations and are therefore a promising tool to identify neurocognitive mechanisms that are affected by SZ. Healthy controls showed a prominent suppression of left prefrontal beta oscillatory activity during successful memory formation, which replicates several previous oscillatory memory studies. In contrast, patients failed to exhibit such a left prefrontal beta power suppression. Utilizing a new topographical pattern similarity approach, we further demonstrate that the degree of similarity between a patient's beta power decrease to that of the controls reliably predicted memory performance. This relationship between beta power decreases and memory was such that the patients' memory performance improved as they showed a more similar topographical beta desynchronization pattern compared to that of healthy controls. Together, these findings support left prefrontal beta desynchronization as the spectral fingerprint of verbal episodic memory formation, likely indicating deep semantic processing of verbal material. These findings also demonstrate that left prefrontal beta power suppression (or lack thereof during memory encoding are a reliable biomarker for the observed encoding impairments in SZ in verbal memory.

  10. Aberrant prefrontal beta oscillations predict episodic memory encoding deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meconi, Federica; Anderl-Straub, Sarah; Raum, Heidelore; Landgrebe, Michael; Langguth, Berthold; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Hanslmayr, Simon

    Verbal episodic memory is one of the core cognitive functions affected in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Although this verbal memory impairment in SZ is a well-known finding, our understanding about its underlying neurophysiological mechanisms is rather scarce. Here we address this issue by recording brain oscillations during a memory task in a sample of healthy controls and patients with SZ. Brain oscillations represent spectral fingerprints of specific neurocognitive operations and are therefore a promising tool to identify neurocognitive mechanisms that are affected by SZ. Healthy controls showed a prominent suppression of left prefrontal beta oscillatory activity during successful memory formation, which replicates several previous oscillatory memory studies. In contrast, patients failed to exhibit such a left prefrontal beta power suppression. Utilizing a new topographical pattern similarity approach, we further demonstrate that the degree of similarity between a patient's beta power decrease to that of the controls reliably predicted memory performance. This relationship between beta power decreases and memory was such that the patients' memory performance improved as they showed a more similar topographical beta desynchronization pattern compared to that of healthy controls. Together, these findings support left prefrontal beta desynchronization as the spectral fingerprint of verbal episodic memory formation, likely indicating deep semantic processing of verbal material. These findings also demonstrate that left prefrontal beta power suppression (or lack thereof) during memory encoding are a reliable biomarker for the observed encoding impairments in SZ in verbal memory.

  11. Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: effect of aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated dopamine (DA) release in the bilateral striatal regions following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in young subjects. Several lines of evidence support substantial age-related changes in human dopaminergic neurotransmission. One possible explanation is alteration of cortico striatal neural connection with aging. Therefore, we investigated how frontal activation by rTMS influences striatal DA release in the elderly with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I]iodobenzamide (lBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy elderly male subjects (age, 64 3 y) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM. rTMS session consisted of three blocks. In each block, 15 trains of 2 sec duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency and 100% motor threshold. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital)/occipital radioactivity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over left DLPFC induced no significant change in V3' in the right striatum compared with baseline condition (0.91 0.25 vs. 0.96 0.25, P = NS). Interestingly, left striatal V3' showed a significant increase after rTMS over left DLPFC compared with sham condition (1.09 0.33 vs. 0.93 0.27, P < 0.05; 17.0 11.1% increase). These results are discrepant from previous ones from young subjects, who showed frontal rTMS-induced reduction of striatal V3', indicating rTMS-induced striatal DA release. We found no significant striatal DA release induced by rTMS over DLPFC in healthy elderly subjects using in vivo binding competition techniques. These results may support an altered cortico striatal circuit in normal aging

  12. Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: effect of aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated dopamine (DA) release in the bilateral striatal regions following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in young subjects. Several lines of evidence support substantial age-related changes in human dopaminergic neurotransmission. One possible explanation is alteration of cortico striatal neural connection with aging. Therefore, we investigated how frontal activation by rTMS influences striatal DA release in the elderly with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I]iodobenzamide (lBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy elderly male subjects (age, 64 3 y) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM. rTMS session consisted of three blocks. In each block, 15 trains of 2 sec duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency and 100% motor threshold. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital)/occipital radioactivity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over left DLPFC induced no significant change in V3' in the right striatum compared with baseline condition (0.91 0.25 vs. 0.96 0.25, P = NS). Interestingly, left striatal V3' showed a significant increase after rTMS over left DLPFC compared with sham condition (1.09 0.33 vs. 0.93 0.27, P < 0.05; 17.0 11.1% increase). These results are discrepant from previous ones from young subjects, who showed frontal rTMS-induced reduction of striatal V3', indicating rTMS-induced striatal DA release. We found no significant striatal DA release induced by rTMS over DLPFC in healthy elderly subjects using in vivo binding competition techniques. These results may support an altered cortico striatal circuit in normal aging.

  13. Measuring Regional Changes in the Diastolic Deformation of the Left Ventricle of SHR Rats Using microPET Technology and Hyperelastic Warping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant T; VERESS , ALEXANDER I.; WEISS, JEFFREY A.; HUESMAN, RONALD H.; REUTTER, BRYAN W.; TAYLOR , SCOTT E.; SITEK , AREK; FENG, BING; YANG , YONGFENG; GULLBERG, GRANT T.

    2008-04-04

    The objective of this research was to assess applicability of a technique known as hyperelastic warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle (LV) directly from microPET image data sets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image data sets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target images. For validation, the template image was defined as the end-systolic microPET image data set from a Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The target image was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a FE model of diastolic filling. Regression analysis revealed highly significant correlations between the simulated forward FE solution and image derived warping predictions for fiber stretch (R2 = 0.96), circumferential strain (R2 = 0.96), radial strain (R2 = 0.93), and longitudinal strain (R2 = 0.76) (p<0.001for all cases). The technology was applied to microPET image data of two spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a WKY control. Regional analysis revealed that, the lateral freewall in the SHR subjects showed the greatest deformation compared with the other wall segments. This work indicates that warping can accurately predict the strain distributions during diastole from the analysis of microPET data sets.

  14. Noninvasive identification of left main and triple vessel coronary artery disease: improved accuracy using quantitative analysis of regional myocardial stress distribution and washout of thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddahi, J.; Abdulla, A.; Garcia, E.V.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of visual and quantitative analysis of stress redistribution thallium-201 scintigrams, exercise electrocardiography and exercise blood pressure response were compared for correct identification of extensive coronary disease, defined as left main or triple vessel coronary artery disease, or both (50% or more luminal diameter coronary narrowing), in 105 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Extensive disease was present in 56 patients and the remaining 49 had either less extensive coronary artery disease (n = 34) or normal coronary arteriograms (n = 15). Although exercise blood pressure response, exercise electrocardiography and visual thallium-201 analysis were highly specific (98, 88 and 96%, respectively), they were insensitive for identification of patients with extensive disease (14, 45 and 16%, respectively). Quantitative thallium-201 analysis significantly improved the sensitivity of visual thallium-201 analysis for identification of patients with extensive disease (from 16 to 63%, p less than 0.001) without a significant loss of specificity (96 versus 86%, p = NS). Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients who were misclassified by visual analysis as having less extensive disease were correctly classified as having extensive disease by virtue of quantitative analysis of regional myocardial thallium-201 washout. When the results of quantitative thallium-201 analysis were combined with those of blood pressure and electrocardiographic response to exercise, the sensitivity and specificity for identification of patients with extensive disease was 86 and 76%, respectively, and the highest overall accuracy (0.82) was obtained

  15. Measuring Regional Changes in the Diastolic Deformation of the Left Ventricle of SHR Rats Using microPET Technology and Hyperelastic Warping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Grant T; VERESS, ALEXANDER I.; WEISS, JEFFREY A.; HUESMAN, RONALD H.; REUTTER, BRYAN W.; TAYLOR, SCOTT E.; SITEK, AREK; FENG, BING; YANG, YONGFENG; GULLBERG, GRANT T.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess applicability of a technique known as hyperelastic warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle (LV) directly from microPET image data sets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image data sets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target images. For validation, the template image was defined as the end-systolic microPET image data set from a Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The target image was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a FE model of diastolic filling. Regression analysis revealed highly significant correlations between the simulated forward FE solution and image derived warping predictions for fiber stretch (R2 = 0.96), circumferential strain (R2 = 0.96), radial strain (R2 = 0.93), and longitudinal strain (R2 = 0.76) (p < 0.001 for all cases). The technology was applied to microPET image data of two spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a WKY control. Regional analysis revealed that, the lateral freewall in the SHR subjects showed the greatest deformation compared with the other wall segments. This work indicates that warping can accurately predict the strain distributions during diastole from the analysis of microPET data sets

  16. Regional gray matter volume is associated with trait modesty: Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuhua; Wu, Qiong; Jin, Yan; Wu, Yanhong

    2017-11-02

    Modesty when defined as a personality trait, is highly beneficial to interpersonal relationship, group performance, and mental health. However, the potential neural underpinnings of trait modesty remain poorly understood. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the structural neural basis of trait modesty in Chinese college students. VBM results showed that higher trait modesty score was associated with lager regional gray matter volume in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left superior temporal gyrus/left temporal pole, and right posterior insular cortex. These results suggest that individual differences in trait modesty are linked to brain regions associated with self-evaluation, self-regulation, and social cognition. The results remained robust after controlling the confounding factor of global self-esteem, suggesting unique structural correlates of trait modesty. These findings provide evidence for the structural neural basis of individual differences in trait modesty.

  17. The left middle temporal gyrus in the middle of an impaired social-affective communication network in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Chang; Ku, Jeonghun; Shin, Jung-Eun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Choi, Soo-Hee

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies on patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) reported changed patterns of the resting-state functional connectivity network (rs-FCN) between the prefrontal cortices and other prefrontal, amygdalar or striatal regions. Using a graph theory approach, this study explored the modularity-based community profile and patterns of inter-/intra-modular communication for the rs-FCN in SAD. In total, for 28 SAD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in resting-state and subjected to a graph theory analysis. The within-module degree z-score for a hub region [out of a total of 10 hub regions ranked using the participation coefficient] named left middle temporal gyrus was impaired in SAD compared to HC, proportional to the severity of clinician-scored and patient-reported functional impairment in SAD. Most of participants included in this study were undergraduate students in their early-to-mid 20's. This study showed the importance of functional communication from the left middle temporal gyrus with other opercular-insular-subcortical regions for better objective functioning and lesser subjective disability in SAD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced Operant Extinction and Prefrontal Excitability in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Michael S; Judson, Matthew C; Kim, Hyojin; Rougie, Marie; Ferrer, Alejandra I; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Riddick, Natallia V; Moy, Sheryl S; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2018-03-14

    Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, is caused by loss of maternal allele expression of UBE3A in neurons. Mouse models of AS faithfully recapitulate disease phenotypes across multiple domains, including behavior. Yet in AS, there has been only limited study of behaviors encoded by the prefrontal cortex, a region broadly involved in executive function and cognition. Because cognitive impairment is a core feature of AS, it is critical to develop behavioral readouts of prefrontal circuit function in AS mouse models. One such readout is behavioral extinction, which has been well described mechanistically and relies upon prefrontal circuits in rodents. Here we report exaggerated operant extinction in male AS model mice, concomitant with enhanced excitability in medial prefrontal neurons from male and female AS model mice. Abnormal behavior was specific to operant extinction, as two other prefrontally dependent tasks (cued fear extinction and visuospatial discrimination) were largely normal in AS model mice. Inducible deletion of Ube3a during adulthood was not sufficient to drive abnormal extinction, supporting the hypothesis that there is an early critical period for development of cognitive phenotypes in AS. This work represents the first formal experimental analysis of prefrontal circuit function in AS, and identifies operant extinction as a useful experimental paradigm for modeling cognitive aspects of AS in mice. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prefrontal cortex encodes "high-level" cognitive processes. Thus, understanding prefrontal function is critical in neurodevelopmental disorders where cognitive impairment is highly penetrant. Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with speech and motor impairments, an outwardly happy demeanor, and intellectual disability. We describe a behavioral phenotype in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome and related abnormalities in prefrontal cortex function. We

  19. Neuroticism and extraversion mediate the association between loneliness and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xia; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Cun, Lingli; Xue, Song; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is an unpleasant and distressing feeling that a person experiences when he/she perceives that his/her social relationships are lacking in someway, either quantitatively or qualitatively; this can be linked to anxiety, depression, and suicide risk. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits (which are temporally stable and heritable) are predictors of loneliness. However, little empirical evidence is available on the brain structures associated with loneliness, as well as how personality traits impact the relationship between loneliness and brain structure. Thus, the current study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain structures underlying individual differences in loneliness (as measured by the UCLA Loneliness Scale) in a large sample, and then, applied multiple mediation analyses to explore the nature of the influence of personality traits on the relationship between loneliness and brain structure. The results showed that lonely individuals had greater regional gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which might reflect immature functioning in terms of emotional regulation. More importantly, we found that neuroticism and extraversion partially mediated the relationship between the left DLPFC and loneliness. In summary, through morphometric and multiple mediation analyses, this paper further validates the influence of both neuroticism and extraversion on loneliness.

  20. Analogical reasoning and prefrontal cortex: evidence for separable retrieval and integration mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Silvia A; Wendelken, Carter; Badre, David; Wagner, Anthony D

    2005-03-01

    The present study examined the contributions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregions to two component processes underlying verbal analogical reasoning: semantic retrieval and integration. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while subjects performed propositional analogy and semantic decision tasks. On each trial, subjects viewed a pair of words (pair 1), followed by an instructional cue and a second word pair (pair 2). On analogy trials, subjects evaluated whether pair 2 was semantically analogous to pair 1. On semantic trials, subjects indicated whether the pair 2 words were semantically related to each other. Thus, analogy--but not semantic--trials required integration across multiple retrieved relations. To identify regions involved in semantic retrieval, we manipulated the associative strength of pair 1 words in both tasks. Anterior left inferior PFC (aLIPC) was modulated by associative strength, consistent with a role in controlled semantic retrieval. Left frontopolar cortex was insensitive to associative strength, but was more sensitive to integration demands than was aLIPC, consistent with a role in integrating the products of semantic retrieval to evaluate whether distinct representations are analogous. Right dorsolateral PFC exhibited a profile consistent with a role in response selection rather than retrieval or integration. These findings indicate that verbal analogical reasoning depends on multiple, PFC-mediated computations.

  1. A face to remember: emotional expression modulates prefrontal activity during memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergerie, Karine; Lepage, Martin; Armony, Jorge L

    2005-01-15

    Emotion can exert a modulatory role on episodic memory. Several studies have shown that negative stimuli (e.g., words, pictures) are better remembered than neutral ones. Although facial expressions are powerful emotional stimuli and have been shown to influence perception and attention processes, little is known about their effect on memory. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to investigate the effects of expression (happy, neutral, and fearful) on prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during the encoding of faces, using a subsequent memory effect paradigm. Our results show that activity in right PFC predicted memory for faces, regardless of expression, while a homotopic region in the left hemisphere was associated with successful encoding only for faces with an emotional expression. These findings are consistent with the proposed role of right dorsolateral PFC in successful encoding of nonverbal material, but also suggest that left DLPFC may be a site where integration of memory and emotional processes occurs. This study sheds new light on the current controversy regarding the hemispheric lateralization of PFC in memory encoding.

  2. Changes in prefrontal and amygdala activity during olanzapine treatment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Popolizio, Teresa; Taurisano, Paolo; Caforio, Grazia; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Sambataro, Fabio; Rubino, Valeria; Latorre, Valeria; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Fazio, Leonardo; Nardini, Marcello; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2009-07-15

    Earlier imaging studies in schizophrenia have reported abnormal amygdala and prefrontal cortex activity during emotion processing. We investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during emotion processing changes in activity of the amygdala and of prefrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia during 8 weeks of olanzapine treatment. Twelve previously drug-free/naive patients with schizophrenia were treated with olanzapine for 8 weeks and underwent two fMRI scans after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment during implicit and explicit emotional processing. Twelve healthy subjects were also scanned twice to control for potential repetition effects. Results showed a diagnosis by time interaction in left amygdala and a diagnosis by time by task interaction in right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In particular, activity in left amygdala was greater in patients than in controls at the first scan during both explicit and implicit processing, while it was lower in patients at the second relative to the first scan. Furthermore, during implicit processing, right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activity was lower in patients than controls at the first scan, while it was greater in patients at the second relative to the first scan. These results suggest that longitudinal treatment with olanzapine may be associated with specific changes in activity of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex during emotional processing in schizophrenia.

  3. Predicting risk-taking behavior from prefrontal resting-state activity and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Studer

    Full Text Available Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants' trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers' brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior.

  4. Predicting Risk-Taking Behavior from Prefrontal Resting-State Activity and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Bettina; Pedroni, Andreas; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants’ trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers’ brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior. PMID:24116176

  5. Avaliação quantitativa da movimentação parietal regional do ventrículo esquerdo na endomiocardiofibrose Quantitative assessment of left ventricular regional wall motion in endomyocardial fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mady

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a movimentação parietal regional do ventrículo esquerdo (VE em pacientes com endomiocardiofibrose (EMF. MÉTODOS: Estudados 88 pacientes, 59 do sexo feminino, com idade média de 39±13 anos (variação de 9 a 65 com evidência ecocardiográfica e angiográfica de EMF do VE. A intensidade da deposição de tecido fibroso na cineventriculografia contrastada foi classificada como discreta, moderada ou importante. A fração de ejeção global do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE foi determinada pelo método área-comprimento por meio da ventriculografia. O movimento foi medido em 100 cordas eqüidistantes e perpendiculares à linha média desenhada no meio dos contornos diastólico e sistólico finais e normalizadas para o tamanho cardíaco. Analisaram-se cinco segmentos do VE: A - apical; AL - ântero-lateral; AB - ântero-basal; IA - ínfero-apical; IB - ínfero-basal. A anormalidade foi expressa em unidades de desvio padrão do movimento médio em uma população de referência normal, composta por 103 pacientes com VE normal, conforme dados de clínica, eletrocardiograma e padrões angiográficos. RESULTADOS: A FEVE média foi de 0,47±0,12. O envolvimento de tecido fibroso do VE foi discreto em 12 pacientes, moderado em 40 e importante em 36. As regiões com pior movimentação parietal foram A (-1,4±1,6 desvio-padrão/cordas e IA (-1,6±1,8 desvio-padrão/cordas comparadas com AB (-0,3±1,9 desvio-padrão /cordas, AL (-0,5±1,8 desvio-padrão/cordas e IB (-0,9±1,3 desvio-padrão/cordas. Não se observou relação entre a intensidade de envolvimento do tecido fibroso e a manutenção parietal regional. CONCLUSÃO : Existe alteração da movimentação parietal regional na EMF e é independente da intensidade de deposição de tecido fibroso avaliada qualitativamente. O envolvimento não uniforme do VE deve ser levado em conta no planejamento cirúrgico dessa doença.OBJECTIVE: To analyze left ventricular (LV regional wall

  6. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex in the valproic Acid animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Tania; Perrodin, Catherine; Markram, Henry

    2008-01-01

    of synapses. The microcircuit alterations found in the prefrontal cortex are therefore similar to the alterations previously found in the somatosensory cortex. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the prefrontal cortex implies hyper-functionality of one of the highest order processing regions...

  7. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Nielsen

    Full Text Available Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area, whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields. Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right

  8. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jared A; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ferguson, Michael A; Lainhart, Janet E; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction) and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area), whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields). Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right-brained" network strength

  9. Increased contextual cue utilization with tDCS over the prefrontal cortex during a recognition task

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    Pergolizzi, Denise; Chua, Elizabeth F.

    2016-01-01

    The precise role of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices in recognition performance remains controversial, with questions about whether these regions contribute to recognition via the availability of mnemonic evidence or via decision biases and retrieval orientation. Here we used an explicit memory cueing paradigm, whereby external cues probabilistically predict upcoming memoranda as old or new, in our case with 75% validity, and these cues affect recognition decision biases in the direction of the cue. The present study applied bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over prefrontal or posterior parietal cortex, or sham tDCS, to test the causal role of these regions in recognition accuracy or decision biasing. Participants who received tDCS over prefrontal cortex showed increased cue utilization compared to tDCS over posterior parietal cortex and sham tDCS, suggesting that the prefrontal cortex is involved in processes that contribute to decision biases in memory. PMID:27845032

  10. The prefrontal landscape: implications of functional architecture for understanding human mentation and the central executive.

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    Goldman-Rakic, P S

    1996-10-29

    The functional architecture of prefrontal cortex is central to our understanding of human mentation and cognitive prowess. This region of the brain is often treated as an undifferentiated structure, on the one hand, or as a mosaic of psychological faculties, on the other. This paper focuses on the working memory processor as a specialization of prefrontal cortex and argues that the different areas within prefrontal cortex represent iterations of this function for different information domains, including spatial cognition, object cognition and additionally, in humans, semantic processing. According to this parallel processing architecture, the 'central executive' could be considered an emergent property of multiple domain-specific processors operating interactively. These processors are specializations of different prefrontal cortical areas, each interconnected both with the domain-relevant long-term storage sites in posterior regions of the cortex and with appropriate output pathways.

  11. Investigating the Usability and Acute Effects of a Bedside Video Console to Prefrontal Cortical Activity Alterations: A Preclinical Study in Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knols, Ruud H; Swanenburg, Jaap; De Bon, Dino; Gennaro, Federico; Wolf, Martin; Krüger, Bernard; Bettex, Dominique; de Bruin, Eling D

    2017-01-01

    Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON). Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model) were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in-) correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play. Further, prefrontal cortical involvement of the regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation (rS02%) assessed with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) ( n = 5) and EEG power ( n = 10) was analyzed. All participants completed the study without any adverse events. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (TAM scores range 1-7) of the system varied between 3.9 and 6.3. The game levels reached for awareness varied between 9 and 11 (initial score 8-10), for reaction speed between 439 and 469 ms, and for correct responses between 74.1 and 78.8%. The highest level for the selective attention games was 2 (initial score 1), where reaction speed varied between 439 and 469 ms, correct responses between 96.2 and 98.5%, respectively. The decrease of rS02% in the right prefrontal cortex during gameplay was significantly ( p games ( p games. EEG recordings of theta power significantly decreased in the averaged ~0.25-0.75 time interval for the left prefrontal cortex sensor across the cognitive game levels between the ALERT 1 and SELECT 1, as well as between SELECT 1 and 2 games. Participants rated the usability of the COPHYCON training positively. Further results indicate that video gaming may be an effective measure to affect prefrontal cortical functioning in elderly. The results warrant a clinical explorative study investigating the

  12. A dorsolateral prefrontal cortex semi-automatic segmenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Fallon, James; Nain, Delphine; Melonakos, John; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-03-01

    Structural, functional, and clinical studies in schizophrenia have, for several decades, consistently implicated dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in the etiology of the disease. Functional and structural imaging studies, combined with clinical, psychometric, and genetic analyses in schizophrenia have confirmed the key roles played by the prefrontal cortex and closely linked "prefrontal system" structures such as the striatum, amygdala, mediodorsal thalamus, substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area, and anterior cingulate cortices. The nodal structure of the prefrontal system circuit is the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), or Brodmann area 46, which also appears to be the most commonly studied and cited brain area with respect to schizophrenia. 1, 2, 3, 4 In 1986, Weinberger et. al. tied cerebral blood flow in the DLPFC to schizophrenia.1 In 2001, Perlstein et. al. demonstrated that DLPFC activation is essential for working memory tasks commonly deficient in schizophrenia. 2 More recently, groups have linked morphological changes due to gene deletion and increased DLPFC glutamate concentration to schizophrenia. 3, 4 Despite the experimental and clinical focus on the DLPFC in structural and functional imaging, the variability of the location of this area, differences in opinion on exactly what constitutes DLPFC, and inherent difficulties in segmenting this highly convoluted cortical region have contributed to a lack of widely used standards for manual or semi-automated segmentation programs. Given these implications, we developed a semi-automatic tool to segment the DLPFC from brain MRI scans in a reproducible way to conduct further morphological and statistical studies. The segmenter is based on expert neuroanatomist rules (Fallon-Kindermann rules), inspired by cytoarchitectonic data and reconstructions presented by Rajkowska and Goldman-Rakic. 5 It is semi-automated to provide essential user interactivity. We present our results and provide details on

  13. Investigating the Usability and Acute Effects of a Bedside Video Console to Prefrontal Cortical Activity Alterations: A Preclinical Study in Healthy Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud H. Knols

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON. Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in- correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play. Further, prefrontal cortical involvement of the regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation (rS02% assessed with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS (n = 5 and EEG power (n = 10 was analyzed. All participants completed the study without any adverse events. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (TAM scores range 1–7 of the system varied between 3.9 and 6.3. The game levels reached for awareness varied between 9 and 11 (initial score 8–10, for reaction speed between 439 and 469 ms, and for correct responses between 74.1 and 78.8%. The highest level for the selective attention games was 2 (initial score 1, where reaction speed varied between 439 and 469 ms, correct responses between 96.2 and 98.5%, respectively. The decrease of rS02% in the right prefrontal cortex during gameplay was significantly (p < 0.001 lower, compared to the left prefrontal cortex. Four participants yielded significant lower rS02% measures after exergaming with the ALERT games (p < 0.000, but not with the SELECT games. EEG recordings of theta power significantly decreased in the averaged ~0.25–0.75 time interval for the left prefrontal cortex sensor across the cognitive game levels between the ALERT 1 and SELECT 1, as well as between SELECT 1 and 2 games. Participants rated the usability of the COPHYCON training positively

  14. Trait impulsivity and impaired prefrontal impulse inhibition function in adolescents with internet gaming addiction revealed by a Go/No-Go fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei-na; Sun, Jin-hua; Sun, Ya-Wen; Chen, Xue; Zhou, Yan; Zhuang, Zhi-guo; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Jian-rong; Du, Ya-song

    2014-05-30

    Recent studies suggest that Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is an impulse disorder, or is at least related to impulse control disorders. In the present study, we hypothesized that different facets of trait impulsivity may be specifically linked to the brain regions with impaired impulse inhibition function in IGA adolescents. Seventeen adolescents with IGA and seventeen healthy controls were scanned during performance of a response-inhibition Go/No-Go task using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS)-11 was used to assess impulsivity. There were no differences in the behavioral performance on the Go/No-Go task between the groups. However, the IGA group was significantly hyperactive during No-Go trials in the left superior medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex, right superior/middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left precentral gyrus, and left precuneus and cuneus. Further, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule were significantly hypoactive during No-Go trials. Activation of the left superior medial frontal gyrus was positively associated with BIS-11 and Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) total score across IGA participants. Our data suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be involved in the circuit modulating impulsivity, while its impaired function may relate to high impulsivity in adolescents with IGA, which may contribute directly to the Internet addiction process.

  15. Prefrontal cortex modulates desire and dread generated by nucleus accumbens glutamate disruption.

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    Richard, Jocelyn M; Berridge, Kent C

    2013-02-15

    Corticolimbic circuits, including direct projections from prefrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens (NAc), permit top-down control of intense motivations generated by subcortical circuits. In rats, localized disruptions of glutamate signaling within medial shell of NAc generate desire or dread, anatomically organized along a rostrocaudal gradient analogous to a limbic keyboard. At rostral locations in shell, these disruptions generate appetitive eating, but at caudal locations the disruptions generate progressively fearful behaviors (distress vocalizations, escape attempts, and antipredator reactions). Here, we asked whether medial prefrontal cortex can modulate intense motivations generated by subcortical NAc disruptions. We used simultaneous microinjections in medial prefrontal cortex regions and in NAc shell to examine whether the desire or dread generated by NAc shell disruptions is modulated by activation/inhibition of three specific regions of prefrontal cortex: medial orbitofrontal cortex, infralimbic cortex (homologous to area 25 or subgenual anterior cingulate in the human), or prelimbic cortex (midventral anterior cingulate). We found that activation of medial orbitofrontal cortex biased intense bivalent motivation in an appetitive direction by amplifying generation of eating behavior by middle to caudal NAc disruptions, without altering fear. In contrast, activation of infralimbic prefrontal cortex powerfully and generally suppressed both appetitive eating and fearful behaviors generated by NAc shell disruptions. These results suggest that corticolimbic projections from discrete prefrontal regions can either bias motivational valence or generally suppress subcortically generated intense motivations of desire or fear. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activation of prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus in alcoholic subjects on exposure to alcohol-specific cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M S; Anton, R F; Bloomer, C; Teneback, C; Drobes, D J; Lorberbaum, J P; Nahas, Z; Vincent, D J

    2001-04-01

    Functional imaging studies have recently demonstrated that specific brain regions become active in cocaine addicts when they are exposed to cocaine stimuli. To test whether there are regional brain activity differences during alcohol cue exposure between alcoholic subjects and social drinkers, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol involving alcohol-specific cues. Ten non-treatment-seeking adult alcoholic subjects (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.9 [9.9] years) as well as 10 healthy social drinking controls of similar age (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [8.9] years) were recruited, screened, and scanned. In the 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, subjects were serially rated for alcohol craving before and after a sip of alcohol, and after a 9-minute randomized presentation of pictures of alcoholic beverages, control nonalcoholic beverages, and 2 different visual control tasks. During picture presentation, changes in regional brain activity were measured with the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Alcoholic subjects, compared with the social drinking subjects, reported higher overall craving ratings for alcohol. After a sip of alcohol, while viewing alcohol cues compared with viewing other beverage cues, only the alcoholic subjects had increased activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior thalamus. The social drinkers exhibited specific activation only while viewing the control beverage pictures. When exposed to alcohol cues, alcoholic subjects have increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus-brain regions associated with emotion regulation, attention, and appetitive behavior.

  17. Lateral and medial prefrontal contributions to emotion generation by semantic elaboration during episodic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Takumi; Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration. In semantic elaboration, participants imagined background stories related to the pictures. Encoding trials with semantic elaboration were subdivided into conditions in which participants imagined negative, positive, or neutral stories. One week later, memories for target pictures were tested. In behavioral results, memories for target pictures were significantly enhanced by semantic elaboration, compared to passive viewing, and the memory enhancement was more remarkable when negative or positive stories were imagined. fMRI results demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) were greater during the encoding of target pictures with semantic elaboration than those with passive viewing, and that these activations further increased during encoding with semantic elaboration of emotional stories than of neutral stories. Functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus and dmPFC/hippocampus during encoding significantly predicted retrieval accuracies of memories encoded with self-generated emotional stories. These findings suggest that networks including the left inferior frontal region, dmPFC, and hippocampus could contribute to the modulation of memories encoded with the emotion generation.

  18. Prefrontal cortex volume reductions and tic inhibition are unrelated in uncomplicated GTS adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Kühn, Simone; Kahl, Ursula; Schunke, Odette; Brandt, Valerie; Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Haggard, Patrick; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) are repetitive patterned movements, resembling spontaneous motor behaviour, but escaping voluntary control. Previous studies hypothesised relations between structural alterations in prefrontal cortex of GTS adults and tic severity using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), but could not demonstrate a significant association. The relation between prefrontal cortex structure and tic inhibition has not been investigated. Here, we used VBM to examine 14 GTS adults without associated comorbidities, and 15 healthy controls. We related structural alterations in GTS to clinical measures of tic severity and tic control. Grey matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left frontal pole were reduced in patients relative to healthy controls. These changes were not related to tic severity and tic inhibition. Prefrontal grey matter volume reductions in GTS adults are not related to state measures of tic phenomenology. © 2013.

  19. Prefrontal Cortex, Emotion, and Approach/Withdrawal Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Stewart, Jennifer L; Levin, Rebecca L; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a selective review of the literature and current theories regarding the role of prefrontal cortex, along with some other critical brain regions, in emotion and motivation. Seemingly contradictory findings have often appeared in this literature. Research attempting to resolve these contradictions has been the basis of new areas of growth and has led to more sophisticated understandings of emotional and motivational processes as well as neural networks associated with these processes. Progress has, in part, depended on methodological advances that allow for increased resolution in brain imaging. A number of issues are currently in play, among them the role of prefrontal cortex in emotional or motivational processes. This debate fosters research that will likely lead to further refinement of conceptualizations of emotion, motivation, and the neural processes associated with them.

  20. Entrainment of prefrontal beta oscillations induces an endogenous echo and impairs memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Matuschek, Jonas; Fellner, Marie-Christin

    2014-04-14

    Brain oscillations across all frequency bands play a key role for memory formation. Specifically, desynchronization of local neuronal assemblies in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the beta frequency (∼18 Hz) has been shown to be central for encoding of verbal memories. However, it remains elusive whether prefrontal beta desynchronization is causally relevant for memory formation and whether these endogenous beta oscillations can be entrained by external stimulation. By using combined EEG-TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), we here address these fundamental questions in human participants performing a word-list learning task. Confirming our predictions, memory encoding was selectively impaired when the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was driven at beta (18.7 Hz) compared to stimulation at other frequencies (6.8 Hz and 10.7 Hz) and to ineffective sham stimulation (18.7 Hz). Furthermore, a sustained oscillatory "echo" in the left IFG, which outlasted the stimulation period by approximately 1.5 s, was observed solely after beta stimulation. The strength of this beta echo was related to memory impairment on a between-subjects level. These results show endogenous oscillatory entrainment effects and behavioral impairment selectively in beta frequency for stimulation of the left IFG, demonstrating an intimate causal relationship between prefrontal beta desynchronization and memory formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rumination mediates the relationship between structural variations in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and sensitivity to negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, L; Wei, D T; Li, W F; Chen, Q L; Che, X W; Li, B B; Li, Y D; Qiu, J; Zhang, Q L; Liu, Y J

    2013-01-01

    Individuals have different levels of stress sensitivity. An individual's predisposition to experience negative life events (NLEs) may make him/her more vulnerable to a series of psychopathological and physical diseases. However, the neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in sensitivity to NLEs remain unknown. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was used to identify the gray matter (GM) associations of individual differences in sensitivity to NLEs measured by adolescent self-rating life events checklist. Results showed that there was a positive association between individual NLEs sensitivity and regional GM volume (rGMV) in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). GM was mostly evident in the left frontal operculum and a small part of the left middle frontal gyrus. This region was thought to play an important role in introception. Importantly, our study revealed that rumination served as a mediator between the rGMV of the VLPFC and individual NLEs sensitivity. These findings suggest that people with greater VLPFC might be more inclined to ruminate and the ruminative response style might make them more sensitive to NLEs. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the role of task performance and learning style on prefrontal hemodynamics during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Afrouz A; Parsa, Kian; Geiger, Sydney; Zaragoza, Rachel; Kermanian, Riley; Miguel, Helga; Dashtestani, Hadis; Chowdhry, Fatima A; Smith, Elizabeth; Aram, Siamak; Gandjbakhche, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    Existing literature outlines the quality and location of activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during working memory (WM) tasks. However, the effects of individual differences on the underlying neural process of WM tasks are still unclear. In this functional near infrared spectroscopy study, we administered a visual and auditory n-back task to examine activation in the PFC while considering the influences of task performance, and preferred learning strategy (VARK score). While controlling for age, results indicated that high performance (HP) subjects (accuracy > 90%) showed task dependent lower activation compared to normal performance subjects in PFC region Specifically HP groups showed lower activation in left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) region during performance of auditory task whereas during visual task they showed lower activation in the right DLPFC. After accounting for learning style, we found a correlation between visual and aural VARK score and level of activation in the PFC. Subjects with higher visual VARK scores displayed lower activation during auditory task in left DLPFC, while those with higher visual scores exhibited higher activation during visual task in bilateral DLPFC. During performance of auditory task, HP subjects had higher visual VARK scores compared to NP subjects indicating an effect of learning style on the task performance and activation. The results of this study show that learning style and task performance can influence PFC activation, with applications toward neurological implications of learning style and populations with deficits in auditory or visual processing.

  3. Prefrontal cortex glutamate correlates with mental perspective-taking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Montag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysfunctions in theory of mind and empathic abilities have been suggested as core symptoms in major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Since self monitoring, perspective taking and empathy have been linked to prefrontal (PFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC function, neurotransmitter variations in these areas may account for normal and pathological variations of these functions. Converging evidence indicates an essential role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in psychiatric diseases with pronounced deficits in empathy. However, the role of the glutamate system for different dimensions of empathy has not been investigated so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Absolute concentrations of cerebral glutamate in the ACC, left dorsolateral PFC and left hippocampus were determined by 3-tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in 17 healthy individuals. Three dimensions of empathy were estimated by a self-rating questionnaire, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI. Linear regression analysis showed that dorsolateral PFC glutamate concentration was predicted by IRI factor "perspective taking" (T = -2.710, p = 0.018; adjusted alpha-level of 0.017, Bonferroni but not by "empathic concern" or "personal distress". No significant relationship between IRI subscores and the glutamate levels in the ACC or left hippocampus was detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to investigate the role of the glutamate system for dimensions of theory of mind and empathy. Results are in line with recent concepts that executive top-down control of behavior is mediated by prefrontal glutamatergic projections. This is a preliminary finding that needs a replication in an independent sample.

  4. Effects of childhood trauma on left inferior frontal gyrus function during response inhibition across psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Y; O'Reilly, N; Watkeys, O J; Carr, V J; Green, M J

    2018-07-01

    Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs). Among the participants, 71 clinical cases and 21 HCs reported significant levels of childhood trauma exposure, while 41 clinical cases and 32 HCs did not. In the absence of effects on response inhibition performance, childhood trauma exposure was associated with increased activation in the left IFG, and increased connectivity between the left IFG seed region and the cerebellum and calcarine sulcus, in both cases and healthy individuals. There was no main effect of psychosis, and no trauma-by-psychosis interaction for any other region-of-interest. Within the clinical sample, the effects of trauma-exposure on the left IFG activation were mediated by symptom severity. Trauma-related increases in activation of the left IFG were not associated with performance differences, or dependent on clinical diagnostic status; increased IFG functionality may represent a compensatory (overactivation) mechanism required to exert adequate inhibitory control of the motor response.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow of the patients with schizophrenia. A study using 99mTc-ECD SPECT at rest and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ping; Wu Kening; Zeng Shiquan; Lin Zengtao; Yu Jinlong

    1996-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes of the patients with schizophrenia were observed. 99m Tc-ECD SPECT was performed on 22 patients with schizophrenia and 10 healthy volunteers at rest and activation with a cognitive task: a modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. At rest state, only 4 patients have abnormal rCBF pattern: left hemisphere over-perfusion relative to the right. A significant relative activation deficit in the left inferior prefrontal region was revealed in the patients during activation. The patients with schizophrenia may have frontal lobe dysfunction

  6. Predictive value of dorso-lateral prefrontal connectivity for rTMS response in treatment-resistant depression: A brain perfusion SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richieri, Raphaëlle; Verger, Antoine; Boyer, Laurent; Boucekine, Mohamed; David, Anthony; Lançon, Christophe; Cermolacce, Michel; Guedj, Eric

    2018-05-18

    Previous clinical trials have suggested that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has a significant antidepressant effect in patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD). However, results remain heterogeneous with many patients without effective response. The aim of this SPECT study was to determine before treatment the predictive value of the connectivity of the stimulated area on further rTMS response in patients with TRD. Fifty-eight TRD patients performed a brain perfusion SPECT before high frequency rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A voxel based-analysis was achieved to compare connectivity of the left DLPFC in responders and non-responders using inter-regional correlations (p left DLPFC and the right cerebellum in comparison to non-responders, independently of age, gender, severity of depression, and severity of treatment resistance. The area under the curve for the combination of these two SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.756 (p left DLPFC predicts rTMS response before treatment. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prefrontal-hippocampal interactions for spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi T

    2018-04-01

    Animals have the ability to navigate to a desired location by making use of information about environmental landmarks and their own movements. While decades of neuroscience research have identified neurons in the hippocampus and parahippocampal structures that represent an animal's position in space, it is still largely unclear how an animal can choose the next movement direction to reach a desired goal. As the goal destination is typically located somewhere outside of the range of sensory perception, the animal is required to rely on the internal metric of space to estimate the direction and distance of the destination to plan a next action. Therefore, the hippocampal spatial map should interact with action-planning systems in other cortical regions. In accordance with this idea, several recent studies have indicated the importance of functional interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex for goal-directed navigation. In this paper, I will review these studies and discuss how an animal can estimate its future positions correspond to a next movement. Investigation of the navigation problem may further provide general insights into internal models of the brain for action planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  9. The prefrontal cortex: insights from functional neuroimaging using cognitive activation tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Polikliniek 7, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2004-03-01

    This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the functional anatomy of a variety of cognitive processes represented by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Overall, these studies have demonstrated that standard prefrontal neuroactivation tasks recruit a widely distributed network within the brain of which the PFC consistently forms a part. As such, these results are in keeping with the notion that executive functions within the PFC rely not only on anterior (mainly prefrontal) brain areas, but also on posterior (mainly parietal) brain regions. Moreover, intervention of similar brain regions in a large number of different executive tasks suggests that higher-level cognitive functions may best be understood in terms of an interactive network of specialised anterior as well as posterior brain regions. (orig.)

  10. The prefrontal cortex: insights from functional neuroimaging using cognitive activation tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi; Audenaert, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the functional anatomy of a variety of cognitive processes represented by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Overall, these studies have demonstrated that standard prefrontal neuroactivation tasks recruit a widely distributed network within the brain of which the PFC consistently forms a part. As such, these results are in keeping with the notion that executive functions within the PFC rely not only on anterior (mainly prefrontal) brain areas, but also on posterior (mainly parietal) brain regions. Moreover, intervention of similar brain regions in a large number of different executive tasks suggests that higher-level cognitive functions may best be understood in terms of an interactive network of specialised anterior as well as posterior brain regions. (orig.)

  11. White matter integrity deficits in prefrontal-amygdala pathways in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Suzanne N; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Anderson, Adam W; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2012-01-16

    Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with significant non-social fears. Consistent with this elevated non-social fear, individuals with Williams syndrome have an abnormally elevated amygdala response when viewing threatening non-social stimuli. In typically-developing individuals, amygdala activity is inhibited through dense, reciprocal white matter connections with the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies suggest a functional uncoupling of normal prefrontal-amygdala inhibition in individuals with Williams syndrome, which might underlie both the extreme amygdala activity and non-social fears. This functional uncoupling might be caused by structural deficits in underlying white matter pathways; however, prefrontal-amygdala white matter deficits have yet to be explored in Williams syndrome. We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate prefrontal-amygdala white matter integrity differences in individuals with Williams syndrome and typically-developing controls with high levels of non-social fear. White matter pathways between the amygdala and several prefrontal regions were isolated using probabilistic tractography. Within each pathway, we tested for between-group differences in three measures of white matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and parallel diffusivity (λ(1)). Individuals with Williams syndrome had lower FA, compared to controls, in several of the prefrontal-amygdala pathways investigated, indicating a reduction in white matter integrity. Lower FA in Williams syndrome was explained by significantly higher RD, with no differences in λ(1), suggestive of lower fiber density or axon myelination in prefrontal-amygdala pathways. These results suggest that deficits in the structural integrity of prefrontal-amygdala white matter pathways might underlie the increased amygdala activity and extreme non-social fears observed in Williams syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced prefrontal connectivity in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph P; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2011-11-30

    Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, to date there is limited brain imaging data to directly test whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area. In this study, we employ two complementary imaging techniques to assess the structural and functional connectivity of vmPFC in psychopathic and non-psychopathic criminals. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced functional connectivity between vmPFC and amygdala as well as between vmPFC and medial parietal cortex. Together, these data converge to implicate diminished vmPFC connectivity as a characteristic neurobiological feature of psychopathy.

  13. fNIRS evidence of prefrontal regulation of frustration in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Susan B; Luna, Beatriz; Hein, Tyler C; Huppert, Theodore J

    2014-01-15

    The experience of frustration is common in early childhood, yet some children seem to possess a lower tolerance for frustration than others. Characterizing the biological mechanisms underlying a wide range of frustration tolerance observed in early childhood may inform maladaptive behavior and psychopathology that is associated with this construct. The goal of this study was to measure prefrontal correlates of frustration in 3-5-year-old children, who are not readily adaptable for typical neuroimaging approaches, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). fNIRS of frontal regions were measured as frustration was induced in children through a computer game where a desired and expected prize was "stolen" by an animated dog. A fNIRS general linear model (GLM) was used to quantify the correlation of brain regions with the task and identify areas that were statistically different between the winning and frustrating test conditions. A second-level voxel-based ANOVA analysis was then used to correlate the amplitude of each individual's brain activation with measure of parent-reported frustration. Experimental results indicated increased activity in the middle prefrontal cortex during winning of a desired prize, while lateral prefrontal cortex activity increased during frustration. Further, activity increase in lateral prefrontal cortex during frustration correlated positively with parent-reported frustration tolerance. These findings point to the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex as a potential region supporting the regulation of emotion during frustration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences between Neural Activity in Prefrontal Cortex and Striatum during Learning of Novel Abstract Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to classify diverse experiences into meaningful groups, like categories, is fundamental to normal cognition. To understand its neural basis, we simultaneously recorded from multiple electrodes in the lateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, two interconnected brain structures critical for learning. Each day, monkeys learned to associate novel, abstract dot-based categories with a right vs. left saccade. Early on, when they could acquire specific stimulus-response associations, ...

  15. Left fronto-temporal dynamics during agreement processing: evidence for feature-specific computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barber, Horacio A; Pérez, Alejandro; Parkkonen, Lauri; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Grammatical agreement is a widespread language phenomenon that indicates formal syntactic relations between words; however, it also conveys basic lexical (e.g. grammatical gender) or semantic (e.g. numerosity) information about a discourse referent. In this study, we focus on the reading of Spanish noun phrases, violating either number or gender determiner-noun agreement compared to grammatical controls. Magnetoencephalographic activity time-locked to the onset of the noun in both types of violation revealed a left-lateralized brain network involving anterior temporal regions (~220 ms) and, later in time, ventro-lateral prefrontal regions (>300 ms). These activations coexist with dependency-specific effects: in an initial step (~170 ms), occipito-temporal regions are employed for fine-grained analysis of the number marking (in Spanish, presence or absence of the suffix '-s'), while anterior temporal regions show increased activation for gender mismatches compared to grammatical controls. The semantic relevance of number agreement dependencies was mainly reflected by left superior temporal increased activity around 340 ms. These findings offer a detailed perspective on the multi-level analyses involved in the initial computation of agreement dependencies, and theoretically support a derivational approach to agreement computation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Integration of Teaching Processes and Learning Assessment in the Prefrontal Cortex during a Video Game Teaching-learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Mori, Takayuki; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Human teaching is a social interaction that supports reciprocal and dynamical feedback between the teacher and the student. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a region of particular interest due to its demonstrated role in social interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the PFC activity simultaneously in two individuals playing the role of a teacher and student in a video game teaching-learning task. For that, we used two wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices in order to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive interactions between teachers and students. Fifteen teacher-student pairs in total ( N = 30) participated in this study. Each teacher was instructed to teach the video game to their student partner, without speaking. The PFC activity was simultaneously evaluated in both participants using a wearable 16-channel NIRS system during the video game teaching-learning task. Two sessions, each including a triplet of a 30-s teaching-learning task, were performed in order to evaluate changes in PFC activity after advancement of teaching-learning state. Changes in the teachers' left PFC activity between the first and second session positively correlated with those observed in students ( r = 0.694, p = 0.004). Moreover, among teachers, multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation between the left PFC activity and the assessment gap between one's own teaching and the student's understanding ( β = 0.649, p = 0.009). Activity in the left PFC changed synchronously in both teachers and students after advancement of the teaching-learning state. The left PFC of teachers may be involved in integrating information regarding one's own teaching process and the student's learning state. The present observations indicate that simultaneous recording and analysis of brain activity data during teacher-student interactions may be useful in the field of educational neuroscience.

  17. Semantic strategy training increases memory performance and brain activity in patients with prefrontal cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Eliane C; Savage, Cary R; Evans, Jonathan J; Wilson, Barbara A; Martin, Maria G M; Balardin, Joana B; Barros, Fabio G; Garrido, Griselda; Teixeira, Manoel J; Amaro Junior, Edson

    2013-03-01

    Memory deficit is a frequent cognitive disorder following acquired prefrontal cortex lesions. In the present study, we investigated the brain correlates of a short semantic strategy training and memory performance of patients with distinct prefrontal cortex lesions using fMRI and cognitive tests. Twenty-one adult patients with post-acute prefrontal cortex (PFC) lesions, twelve with left dorsolateral PFC (LPFC) and nine with bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (BOFC) were assessed before and after a short cognitive semantic training using a verbal memory encoding paradigm during scanning and neuropsychological tests outside the scanner. After the semantic strategy training both groups of patients showed significant behavioral improvement in verbal memory recall and use of semantic strategies. In the LPFC group, greater activity in left inferior and medial frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus and insula was found after training. For the BOFC group, a greater activation was found in the left parietal cortex, right cingulated and precuneus after training. The activation of these specific areas in the memory and executive networks following cognitive training was associated to compensatory brain mechanisms and application of the semantic strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling gender-stereotypical associations: a TMS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Platania, Elisa; Papagno, Costanza

    2011-06-01

    Stereotypes associated with gender, race, ethnicity and religion are powerful forces in human social interactions. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies point to a role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling stereotypical responses. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to highlight the possible causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the right anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (aDMPFC) in controlling gender-stereotypical responses. Young male and female participants were tested. Our results showed that applying TMS over the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC increased the gender-stereotypical bias in male participants compared to when TMS was applied to a control site (vertex). This suggests that both the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC play a direct role in stereotyping. Females did not show a significant gender bias on the IAT; correspondingly their responses were unaffected by TMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  20. Use of Multichannel Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Study Relationships Between Brain Regions and Neurocognitive Tasks of Selective/Divided Attention and 2-Back Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Imai, Shoji; Kanayama, Yusuke; Kawashima, Issaku; Kumano, Hiroaki

    2017-06-01

    While dichotic listening (DL) was originally intended to measure bottom-up selective attention, it has also become a tool for measuring top-down selective attention. This study investigated the brain regions related to top-down selective and divided attention DL tasks and a 2-back task using alphanumeric and Japanese numeric sounds. Thirty-six healthy participants underwent near-infrared spectroscopy scanning while performing a top-down selective attentional DL task, a top-down divided attentional DL task, and a 2-back task. Pearson's correlations were calculated to show relationships between oxy-Hb concentration in each brain region and the score of each cognitive task. Different brain regions were activated during the DL and 2-back tasks. Brain regions activated in the top-down selective attention DL task were the left inferior prefrontal gyrus and left pars opercularis. The left temporopolar area was activated in the top-down divided attention DL task, and the left frontopolar area and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were activated in the 2-back task. As further evidence for the finding that each task measured different cognitive and brain area functions, neither the percentages of correct answers for the three tasks nor the response times for the selective attentional task and the divided attentional task were correlated to one another. Thus, the DL and 2-back tasks used in this study can assess multiple areas of cognitive, brain-related dysfunction to explore their relationship to different psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  1. Specific marker of feigned memory impairment: The activation of left superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Xue, Li; Liang, Chun-Yu; Wang, Li-Li; Mei, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Hu

    2015-11-01

    Faking memory impairment means normal people complain lots of memory problems without organic damage in forensic assessments. Using alternative forced-choice paradigm, containing digital or autobiographical information, previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that faking memory impairment could cause the activation in the prefrontal and parietal regions, and might involve a fronto-parietal-subcortical circuit. However, it is still unclear whether different memory types have influence on faking or not. Since different memory types, such as long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM), were found supported by different brain areas, we hypothesized that feigned STM or LTM impairment had distinct neural activation mapping. Besides that, some common neural correlates may act as the general characteristic of feigned memory impairment. To verify this hypothesis, the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with an alternative word forced-choice paradigm were used in this study. A total of 10 right-handed participants, in this study, had to perform both STW and LTM tasks respectively under answering correctly, answering randomly and feigned memory impairment conditions. Our results indicated that the activation of the left superior frontal gyrus and the left medial frontal gyrus was associated with feigned LTM impairment, whereas the left superior frontal gyrus, the left precuneus and the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were highly activated while feigning STM impairment. Furthermore, an overlapping was found in the left superior frontal gyrus, and it suggested that the activity of the left superior frontal gyrus might be acting as a specific marker of feigned memory impairment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  3. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Ting; Peng, Jing; Nie, Binbin; Gao, Juan; Liu, Jiangtao; Li, Yang; Wang, Gang; Ma, Xin; Li, Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  4. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Ting, E-mail: yeting@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie, Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Juan, E-mail: gaojuan@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Ma, Xin, E-mail: lijianshe@medmail.com.cn [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li, Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); and others

    2012-12-15

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  5. The Effects of a Single Night of Sleep Deprivation on Fluency and Prefrontal Cortex Function during Divergent Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshin eVartanian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal and ventral aspects of the prefrontal cortex (PFC are the two regions most consistently recruited in divergent thinking tasks. Given that frontal tasks have been shown to be vulnerable to sleep loss, we explored the impact of a single night of sleep deprivation on fluency (i.e., number of generated responses and PFC function during divergent thinking. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scanning twice while engaged in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT—once following a single night of sleep deprivation and once following a night of normal sleep. They also wore wrist activity monitors, which enabled us to quantify daily sleep and model cognitive effectiveness. The intervention was effective, producing greater levels of fatigue and sleepiness. Modelled cognitive effectiveness and fluency were impaired following sleep deprivation, and sleep deprivation was associated with greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus during AUT. The results suggest that an intervention known to temporarily compromise frontal function can impair fluency, and that this effect is instantiated in the form of an increased haemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

  6. Working Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2017-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley’s working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand. Recent neurophysiological studies have attempted to reveal how prefrontal neurons achieve the functions of the central executive. For example, the neural mechanisms of memory control have been examined using the interference effect in a dual-task paradigm. It has been shown that this interference effect is caused by the competitive and overloaded recruitment of overlapping neural populations in the prefrontal cortex by two concurrent tasks and that the information-processing capacity of a single neuron is limited to a fixed level, can be flexibly allocated or reallocated between two concurrent tasks based on their needs, and enhances behavioral performance when its allocation to one task is increased. Further, a metamemory task requiring spatial information has been used to understand the neural mechanism for monitoring its own operations, and it has been shown that monitoring the quality of spatial information represented by prefrontal activity is an important factor in the subject's choice and that the strength of spatially selective delay-period activity reflects confidence in decision-making. Although further studies are needed to elucidate how the prefrontal cortex controls memory resource and supervises other systems, some important mechanisms related to the central executive have been identified. PMID:28448453

  7. Functions of the left superior frontal gyrus in humans: a lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle; Seassau, Magali; Duffau, Hughes; Kinkingnehun, Serge; Samson, Yves; Zhang, Sandy; Dubois, Bruno

    2006-12-01

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is thought to contribute to higher cognitive functions and particularly to working memory (WM), although the nature of its involvement remains a matter of debate. To resolve this issue, methodological tools such as lesion studies are needed to complement the functional imaging approach. We have conducted the first lesion study to investigate the role of the SFG in WM and address the following questions: do lesions of the SFG impair WM and, if so, what is the nature of the WM impairment? To answer these questions, we compared the performance of eight patients with a left prefrontal lesion restricted to the SFG with that of a group of 11 healthy control subjects and two groups of patients with focal brain lesions [prefrontal lesions sparing the SFG (n = 5) and right parietal lesions (n = 4)] in a series of WM tasks. The WM tasks (derived from the classical n-back paradigm) allowed us to study the impact of the SFG lesions on domain (verbal, spatial, face) and complexity (1-, 2- and 3-back) processing within WM. As expected, patients with a left SFG lesion exhibited a WM deficit when compared with all control groups, and the impairment increased with the complexity of the tasks. This complexity effect was significantly more marked for the spatial domain. Voxel-to-voxel mapping of each subject's performance showed that the lateral and posterior portion of the SFG (mostly Brodmann area 8, rostral to the frontal eye field) was the subregion that contributed the most to the WM impairment. These data led us to conclude that (i) the lateral and posterior portion of the left SFG is a key component of the neural network of WM; (ii) the participation of this region in WM is triggered by the highest level of executive processing; (iii) the left SFG is also involved in spatially oriented processing. Our findings support a hybrid model of the anatomical and functional organization of the lateral SFG for WM, according to which this region is

  8. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow: successful pain relief of intractable CRPS type II patients by motor cortex stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J. A.; Son, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, S. G

    2004-01-01

    Authors report the effectiveness of MCS in extraordinarily extended pain due to intractable CRPS type II and rCBF study result for mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old male presented severe spontaneous burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. Authors planned MCS as a neuromodulation therapy for this intractable peripheral neuropathic pain patient because further neurodestructive procedure did not work anymore and have a potential risk of further aggrevation of neuopathic pain. We performed baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using 20 mCi of Tc-99m ECD. The baseline CBD studies were done with stimulator 'off' state and stimulation studies were done after stimulator 'on' with satisfactory pain relief. For the stimulation study, the radioisotope was injected immediately after pain-relief and the images were taken about 50 minutes after injection of radioisotope. In resting rCBF in the patient was compared with normal control datas, we found significant increase in rCBF in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, left temporooccipital area. When rCBF datas obtained after alleviation of pain with stimulator 'on' . there were significant increase in rCBF in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left temporoocipital area. After subtraction of ECD SPECT, we found significant increase in rCBF in the right premotor and supplementary motor cortex left sensorimotor cortex, right cingulated cortex, right posterior insular cortex, right anterior limb of internal capsule. left orbitofrontal cortex and right pyramidal tract in cerebral peduncle. Authors report exellent pain control by MCS in a case of severe CRPS type II with hemibody involvement and regional cerebral blood flow changes according to successful pain control

  9. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow: successful pain relief of intractable CRPS type II patients by motor cortex stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J. A.; Son, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, S. G [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Authors report the effectiveness of MCS in extraordinarily extended pain due to intractable CRPS type II and rCBF study result for mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old male presented severe spontaneous burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. Authors planned MCS as a neuromodulation therapy for this intractable peripheral neuropathic pain patient because further neurodestructive procedure did not work anymore and have a potential risk of further aggrevation of neuopathic pain. We performed baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using 20 mCi of Tc-99m ECD. The baseline CBD studies were done with stimulator 'off' state and stimulation studies were done after stimulator 'on' with satisfactory pain relief. For the stimulation study, the radioisotope was injected immediately after pain-relief and the images were taken about 50 minutes after injection of radioisotope. In resting rCBF in the patient was compared with normal control datas, we found significant increase in rCBF in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, left temporooccipital area. When rCBF datas obtained after alleviation of pain with stimulator 'on' . there were significant increase in rCBF in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left temporoocipital area. After subtraction of ECD SPECT, we found significant increase in rCBF in the right premotor and supplementary motor cortex left sensorimotor cortex, right cingulated cortex, right posterior insular cortex, right anterior limb of internal capsule. left orbitofrontal cortex and right pyramidal tract in cerebral peduncle. Authors report exellent pain control by MCS in a case of severe CRPS type II with hemibody involvement and regional cerebral blood flow changes according to successful pain control.

  10. Association between Ability Emotional Intelligence and Left Insula during Social Judgment of Facial Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Maddalena, Chiara; Viscanti, Giovanna; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Mangiulli, Ivan; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Curci, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI). Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain "somatic marker circuitry" (SMC) sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid) about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotion-specific.

  11. Association between Ability Emotional Intelligence and Left Insula during Social Judgment of Facial Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Quarto

    Full Text Available The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI. Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain "somatic marker circuitry" (SMC sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC. Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotion-specific.

  12. Habitual 'sleep credit' is associated with greater grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex, higher emotional intelligence and better mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mareen; Webb, Christian A; Deldonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Weiner, Melissa R; Killgore, William D S

    2013-10-01

    In modern society, people often fail to obtain the amount of sleep that experts recommend for good health and performance. Insufficient sleep can lead to degraded cognitive performance and alterations in emotional functioning. However, most people also acknowledge that on a regular basis they obtain more sleep than they subjectively perceive they need at a minimum to stave off performance decrements, a construct we describe as subjective 'sleep credit'. Few people would contest the notion that getting more sleep is better, but data on both behavioural and neuroanatomical correlates of 'sleep credit' are surprisingly limited. We conducted a voxel-based morphometric study to assess cerebral grey matter correlates of habitually sleeping more than one's subjective requirements. We further tested whether these structural correlates are associated with perceived emotional intelligence and indices of psychopathology while controlling for age, gender, and total intracranial volume. In a sample of 55 healthy adults aged 18-45 years (28 males, 27 females), whole-brain multiple regression showed that habitual subjective 'sleep credit' was correlated positively with grey matter volume within regions of the left medial prefrontal cortex and right orbitofrontal gyrus. Volumes were extracted and regressed against self-report emotion and psychopathology indices. Only grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex cluster correlated with greater emotional intelligence and lower scores on several indices of psychopathology. Findings converge with previous evidence of the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in the relationship between sleep and emotional functioning, and suggest that behaviour and brain structure vary with habitual 'sleep credit'. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on implicit self-esteem is mediated by rumination after criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raedt, Rudi; Remue, Jonathan; Loeys, Tom; Hooley, Jill M; Baeken, Chris

    2017-12-01

    It has been proposed that a crucial link between cognitive (i.e., self-schemas) and biological vulnerability is prefrontal control. This is because decreased control leads to impaired ability to inhibit ruminative thinking after the activation of negative self-schemas. However, current evidence is mainly correlational. In the current experimental study we tested whether the effect of neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on self-esteem is mediated by momentary ruminative self-referential thinking (MRST) after the induction of negative self-schemas by criticism. We used a single, sham-controlled crossover session of anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) applied to the left DLPFC (cathode over the right supraorbital region) in healthy female individuals. After receiving tDCS/sham stimulation, we measured MRST and exposed the participants to critical audio scripts, followed by another MRST measurement. Subsequently, all participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures to implicitly measure actual and ideal self-esteem. Our behavioral data indicated a significant decrease in MRST after real but not sham tDCS. Moreover, although there was no immediate effect of tDCS on implicit self-esteem, an indirect effect was found through double mediation, with the difference in MRST from baseline to after stimulation and from baseline to after criticism as our two mediators. The larger the decrease of criticism induced MRST after real tDCS, the higher the level of actual self-esteem. Our results show that tDCS can influence cognitive processes such as rumination, and subsequently self-esteem, but only after the activation of negative self-schemas. Rumination and negative self-esteem characterize different forms of psychopathology, and these data expand our knowledge of the role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling these self-referential processes, and the mechanisms of action of tDCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Altered communicative decisions following ventromedial prefrontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; D'Imperio, Daniela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Toni, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    Damage to the human ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) leads to profound changes in everyday social interactions [1, 2]. Yet, in the lab, vmPFC patients show surprising proficiency in reasoning about other agents [3-8]. These conflicting observations suggest that what vmPFC patients lack in everyday social interactions might be the ability to guide their decisions with knowledge about a social partner [9-13], despite preserved access to that knowledge [2, 14]. Quantification of socially relevant decisions during live interaction with different partners offers the possibility of testing this hypothesis. Eight patients with vmPFC damage, eight patients with brain damage elsewhere, and 15 healthy participants were asked to communicate non-verbally with two different addressees, an adult or a child, in an experimentally controlled interactive setting [15, 16]. In reality, a confederate blindly performed the role of both adult and child addressee, with matched performance and response times, such that the two addressees differed only in terms of the communicator's beliefs. Patients with vmPFC damage were able-and motivated-to generate communicatively effective behaviors. However, unlike patient and healthy controls, vmPFC patients failed to adjust their communicative decisions to the presumed abilities of their addressee. These findings indicate that the human vmPFC is necessarily involved in social interactions, insofar as those interactions need to be tailored toward knowledge about a social partner. In this perspective, the known contribution of this region to disparate domains like value-based decision-making [17-19], schema-based memory-processing [20-22], and person-specific mentalizing [11-13] might be instances of decisions based on contingently updated conceptual knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Better together: Left and right hemisphere engagement to reduce age-related memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Michela; Manenti, Rosa; Ferrari, Clarissa; Cotelli, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Episodic memory is a cognitive function that appears more susceptible than others to the effects of aging. The main aim of this study is to investigate if the magnitude of functional hemispheric lateralization during episodic memory test was positively correlated with memory performance, proving the presence of a beneficial pattern of neural processing in high-performing older adults but not in low-performing participants. We have applied anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) or sham stimulation over left and right hemisphere in a group of young subjects and in high-performing and low-performing older participants during an experimental verbal episodic memory task. Remarkably, young individuals and high-performing older adults exhibited similar performances on episodic memory tasks and both groups showed symmetrical recruitment of left and right areas during memory retrieval. In contrast, low-performing older adults, who obtained lower scores on the memory tasks, demonstrated a greater engagement of the left hemisphere during verbal memory task. Furthermore, structural equation model was performed for analyzing the interrelations between the index of interhemispheric asymmetry and several neuropsychological domains. We found that the bilateral engagement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex regions had a direct correlation with memory and executive functions evaluated as latent constructs. These findings drew attention to brain maintenance hypothesis. The potential of neurostimulation in cognitive enhancement is particularly promising to prevent memory loss during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ventricular Fibrillation-Induced Cardiac Arrest Results in Regional Cardiac Injury Preferentially in Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Territory in Piglet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar Kaliki Venkata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Decreased cardiac function after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA results from global ischemia of the myocardium. In the evolution of postarrest myocardial dysfunction, preferential involvement of any coronary arterial territory is not known. We hypothesized that there is no preferential involvement of any coronary artery during electrical induced ventricular fibrillation (VF in piglet model. Design. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Methods. 12 piglets were randomized to baseline and electrical induced VF. After 5 min, the animals were resuscitated according to AHA PALS guidelines. After return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, animals were observed for an additional 4 hours prior to cardiac MRI. Data (mean ± SD was analyzed using unpaired t-test; p value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Segmental wall motion (mm; baseline versus postarrest group in segment 7 (left anterior descending (LAD was 4.68±0.54 versus 3.31±0.64, p=0.0026. In segment 13, it was 3.82±0.96 versus 2.58±0.82, p=0.02. In segment 14, it was 2.42±0.44 versus 1.29±0.99, p=0.028. Conclusion. Postarrest myocardial dysfunction resulted in segmental wall motion defects in the LAD territory. There were no perfusion defects in the involved segments.

  17. Ornithological Fauna of the Waste Water Treatment Plants in the Northern Left Bank Ukraine (Chernihiv and Kyiv Regions: Winter Populations and Ecological Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedun О. М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses winter bird populations of the waste water treatment plants (WWTP located in the North of Left -bank Ukraine. The said population comprises 12 orders and 29 families. The most numerous are Passeriformes (37 species, Аnsеriformes (16 species and Falconiformes (6 species. Parus major was registered at all types of facilities while most of the others house Passer montanus, Carduelis carduelis, Turdus pilaris, and Parus caeruleus. The largest number of wintering birds was registered at Bortnychi aeration station, Chernihiv municipal WWTP and Chernihiv wool processing factory - 79. 51 and 15 species respectively. The nuclear part of the bird numbers are the species residing at the facilities all year around (65.8 %; species occurring there in winter only account for 34.2 %. Dendrophilous (38 species and hydrophilous (35 species dominate among them. The primary role in forming the winter fauna of the waste water treatment plants belongs to the zones of water bodies and dams.

  18. Gender moderates the association between dorsal medial prefrontal cortex volume and depressive symptoms in a subclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joshua M; Depetro, Emily; Maxwell, Joshua; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-30

    Major depressive disorder is associated with lower medial prefrontal cortex volumes. The role that gender might play in moderating this relationship and what particular medial prefrontal cortex subregion(s) might be implicated is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess dorsal, ventral, and anterior cingulate regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in a normative sample of male and female adults. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to measure these three variables. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for correlations between medial prefrontal gray matter volume and depressive traits. The dorsal medial frontal cortex was correlated with greater levels of depression, but not anxiety and stress. Gender moderates this effect: in males greater levels of depression were associated with lower dorsal medial prefrontal volumes, but in females no relationship was observed. The results indicate that even within a non-clinical sample, male participants with higher levels of depressive traits tend to have lower levels of gray matter volume in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Our finding is consistent with low dorsal medial prefrontal volume contributing to the development of depression in males. Future longitudinal work is needed to substantiate this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Heskamp, Linda; Simons, Esther M F; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21 healthy older adults and 14 patients with MCI received five weeks of adaptive computerized working-memory (WM) training. Before and after training, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to assess the hemodynamic response in left and right prefrontal cortex during performance of a verbal n-back task with varying levels of WM load. After training, healthy older adults demonstrated decreased prefrontal activation at high WM load, which may indicate increased processing efficiency. Although MCI patients showed improved behavioral performance at low WM load after training, no evidence was found for training-related changes in prefrontal activation. Whole-group analyses showed that a relatively strong hemodynamic response at low WM load was related to worse behavioral performance, while a relatively strong hemodynamic response at high WM load was related to higher training gain. Therefore, a 'youth-like' prefrontal activation pattern at older age may be associated with better behavioral outcome and cognitive plasticity.

  20. Brain activation during fast driving in a driving simulator: the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Brunner, Béatrice; Esslen, Michaela

    2008-07-16

    Little is currently known about the neural underpinnings of the cognitive control of driving behavior in realistic situations and of the driver's speeding behavior in particular. In this study, participants drove in realistic scenarios presented in a high-end driving simulator. Scalp-recorded EEG oscillations in the alpha-band (8-13 Hz) with a 30-electrode montage were recorded while the participants drove under different conditions: (i) excessively fast (Fast), (ii) in a controlled manner at a safe speed (Correct), and (iii) impatiently in the context of testing traffic conditions (Impatient). Intracerebral sources of alpha-band activation were estimated using low resolution electrical tomography. Given that previous studies have shown a strong negative correlation between the Bold response in the frontal cortex and the alpha-band power, we used alpha-band-related activity as an estimation of frontal activation. Statistical analysis revealed more alpha-band-related activity (i.e. less neuronal activation) in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, during fast driving. Those participants who speeded most and exhibited greater risk-taking behavior demonstrated stronger alpha-related activity (i.e. less neuronal activation) in the left anterior lateral prefrontal cortex. These findings are discussed in the context of current theories about the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex in controlling risk-taking behavior, task switching, and multitasking.

  1. Levels of conflict in reasoning modulate right lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollstorff, Melanie; Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2012-01-05

    Right lateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) has previously been implicated in logical reasoning under conditions of conflict. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to explore its role in conflict more precisely. Specifically, we distinguished between belief-logic conflict and belief-content conflict, and examined the role of rlPFC under each condition. The results demonstrated that a specific region of rlPFC is consistently activated under both types of conflict. Moreover, the results of a parametric analysis demonstrated that the same region was modulated by the level of conflict contained in reasoning arguments. This supports the idea that this specific region is engaged to resolve conflict, including during deductive reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Cognitive Neuroscience of Thought". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chae, J. H.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging studies by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrates biological activities of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after a series of therapeutic rTMS sessions. Nine patients with refractory depression who had not been responsive to appropriate pharmacotherapy over 1 year were randomly assigned to daily 1 Hz right-sided rTMS or 20 Hz left-sided rTMS sessions for over 3 weeks. Baseline and 3-week post-rTMS treatment SPECT images were obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of approximately 740925 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a multi-detector scanner (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a low-energy, fan-beam collimator. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common increase in rCBF patterns was found in the fusiform gyrus of left temporal lobe, left hippocampus, left superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, right lateral globus pallidus and cingulated gyrus of both limbic lobes. And in the fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe decreased uptake was seen compared to controls. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased activity in specific brain regions in patients with treatment refractory depression. Therapeutic TMS seems to influence distinct cortical regions, as well as different pathways, affecting rCBF in a homogeneous manner that is probably region dependent and illness related

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chae, J. H.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging studies by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrates biological activities of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after a series of therapeutic rTMS sessions. Nine patients with refractory depression who had not been responsive to appropriate pharmacotherapy over 1 year were randomly assigned to daily 1 Hz right-sided rTMS or 20 Hz left-sided rTMS sessions for over 3 weeks. Baseline and 3-week post-rTMS treatment SPECT images were obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of approximately 740925 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a multi-detector scanner (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a low-energy, fan-beam collimator. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common increase in rCBF patterns was found in the fusiform gyrus of left temporal lobe, left hippocampus, left superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, right lateral globus pallidus and cingulated gyrus of both limbic lobes. And in the fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe decreased uptake was seen compared to controls. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased activity in specific brain regions in patients with treatment refractory depression. Therapeutic TMS seems to influence distinct cortical regions, as well as different pathways, affecting rCBF in a homogeneous manner that is probably region dependent and illness related.

  4. Comparison of two-dimensional echocardiography with gated radionuclide ventriculography in the evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Reet, R.E.; Quinones, M.A.; Poliner, L.R.; Nelson, J.G.; Waggoner, A.D.; Kanon, D.; Lubetkin, S.J.; Pratt, C.M.; Winters, W.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography and gated radionuclide ventriculography were performed in 93 patients (66 men, 27 women; mean age 61 years) with 95 episodes of acute myocardial infarction within 48 hours and at 10 days after infarction. Abnormal motion of an inferior or posterior wall segment was seen in 91% of inferoposterior infarctions by echocardiography versus 61% seen by radionuclide ventriculography. Ejection fractions determined by echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography correlated well (r . 0.82) and did not change from the first 48 hours to 10 days after infarction (0.48 +/- 0.14). Similarly, wall motion score showed minimal change from the first 48 hours to 10 days. In-hospital mortality was 37 and 42% in patients with an ejection fraction of 0.35 or less by echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography, respectively. No mortality was seen in patients with an ejection fraction above 0.40 by either test. The echocardiographic wall motion score was also predictive of mortality (40 versus 2%; score less than or equal to 0.50 versus greater than 0.50). The 1 year mortality rate in the 81 short-term survivors was 17%. Mortality was lowest in patients with an ejection fraction above 0.49 or wall motion score above (0.79 (2 to 5%) and worse in those with an ejection fraction below 0.36 or wall motion score below 0.51 (36 to 63%) by either technique. Thus in acute myocardial infarction, echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography provide a comparable assessment of left ventricular function and wall motion in anterior infarction. Echocardiography appears more sensitive in detecting inferoposterior wall motion abnormalities. Both techniques are capable of identifying subgroups of patients with a high risk of death during the acute event and with an equally high mortality rate over a 1 year follow-up period

  5. Characterization of regional left ventricular function in nonhuman primates using magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers: a test-retest repeatability and inter-subject variability study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sampath

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF. Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs, that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain

  6. Intervendor consistency and reproducibility of left ventricular 2D global and regional strain with two different high-end ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Kenji; Yamada, Akira; Ischenko, Matthew; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Hudaverdi, Mahala; Speranza, Vicki; Harten, Mary; Benjamin, Anthony; Hamilton-Craig, Christian R; Platts, David G; Burstow, Darryl J; Scalia, Gregory M; Chan, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess intervendor agreement of global (GLS) and regional longitudinal strain by vendor-specific software after EACVI/ASE Industry Task Force Standardization Initiatives for Deformation Imaging. Fifty-five patients underwent prospective dataset acquisitions on the same day by the same operator using two commercially available cardiac ultrasound systems (GE Vivid E9 and Philips iE33). GLS and regional peak longitudinal strain were analyzed offline using corresponding vendor-specific software (EchoPAC BT13 and QLAB version 10.3). Absolute mean GLS measurements were similar between the two vendors (GE -17.5 ± 5.2% vs. Philips -18.9 ± 5.1%, P = 0.15). There was excellent intervendor correlation of GLS by the same observer [r = 0.94, P limits of agreement (LOA) -4.8 to 2.2%). Intervendor comparison for regional longitudinal strain by coronary artery territories distribution were: LAD: r = 0.85, P < 0.0001; bias 0.5%, LOA -5.3 to 6.4%; RCA: r = 0.88, P < 0.0001; bias -2.4%, LOA -8.6 to 3.7%; LCX: r = 0.76, P < 0.0001; bias -5.3%, LOA -10.6 to 2.0%. Intervendor comparison for regional longitudinal strain by LV levels were: basal: r = 0.86, P < 0.0001; bias -3.6%, LOA -9.9 to 2.0%; mid: r = 0.90, P < 0.0001; bias -2.6%, LOA -7.8 to 2.6%; apical: r = 0.74; P < 0.0001; bias -1.3%, LOA -9.4 to 6.8%. Intervendor agreement in GLS and regional strain measurements have significantly improved after the EACVI/ASE Task Force Strain Standardization Initiatives. However, significant wide LOA still exist, especially for regional strain measurements, which remains relevant when considering vendor-specific software for serial measurements. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Noradrenergic Action in Prefrontal Cortex in the Late Stage of Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronel, Sophie; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; Sara, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    These experiments investigated the role of the noradrenergic system in the late stage of memory consolidation and in particular its action at beta receptors in the prelimbic region (PL) of the prefrontal cortex in the hours after training. Rats were trained in a rapidly acquired, appetitively motivated foraging task based on olfactory…

  8. Noradrenergic action in prefrontal cortex in the late stage of memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tronel, Sophie; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; Sara, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    These experiments investigated the role of the noradrenergic system in the late stage of memory consolidation and in particular its action at beta receptors in the prelimbic region (PL) of the prefrontal cortex in the hours after training. Rats were trained in a rapidly acquired, appetitively

  9. Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Penelope; Petrides, Michael

    2016-02-16

    There is evidence from the visual, verbal, and tactile memory domains that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the top-down modulation of activity within posterior cortical areas for the selective retrieval of specific aspects of a memorized experience, a functional process often referred to as active controlled retrieval. In the present functional neuroimaging study, we explore the neural bases of active retrieval for auditory nonverbal information, about which almost nothing is known. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a task in which they were presented with short melodies from different locations in a simulated virtual acoustic environment within the scanner and were then instructed to retrieve selectively either the particular melody presented or its location. There were significant activity increases specifically within the midventrolateral prefrontal region during the selective retrieval of nonverbal auditory information. During the selective retrieval of information from auditory memory, the right midventrolateral prefrontal region increased its interaction with the auditory temporal region and the inferior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere. These findings provide evidence that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortical region interacts with specific posterior cortical areas in the human cerebral cortex for the selective retrieval of object and location features of an auditory memory experience.

  10. Lateral, Not Medial, Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Punishment and Aversive Instrumental Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Richard-dit-Bressel , Philip; McNally, Gavan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aversive outcomes punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in punishment learning and behavior, although the exact roles for different PFC regions in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the orbitofrontal (OFC), rostral…

  11. Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Narp in the Extinction of Morphine Conditioned Place Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Han, Sungho; Pearce, Anne M.; Cheng, KaiLun; Lee, JongAh J.; Johnson, Alexander W.; Wang, Chuansong; During, Matthew J.; Holland, Peter C.; Shaham, Yavin; Baraban, Jay M.; Reti, Irving M.

    2013-01-01

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate an impaired extinction of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). Because the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in extinction learning, we tested whether Narp cells in this region play a role in the extinction of morphine CPP. We found that intracranial injections of adenoassociated virus…

  12. Basal ganglia impairments in autism spectrum disorder are related to abnormal signal gating to prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Chantel S; Stocco, Andrea; Neuhaus, Emily; Kleinhans, Natalia M

    2016-10-01

    Research on the biological basis of autism spectrum disorder has yielded a list of brain abnormalities that are arguably as diverse as the set of behavioral symptoms that characterize the disorder. Among these are patterns of abnormal cortical connectivity and abnormal basal ganglia development. In attempts to integrate the existing literature, the current paper tests the hypothesis that impairments in the basal ganglia's function to flexibly select and route task-relevant neural signals to the prefrontal cortex underpins patterns of abnormal synchronization between the prefrontal cortex and other cortical processing centers observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested this hypothesis using a Dynamic Causal Modeling analysis of neuroimaging data collected from 16 individuals with ASD (mean age=25.3 years; 6 female) and 17 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls (mean age=25.6, 6 female), who performed a Go/No-Go test of executive functioning. Consistent with the hypothesis tested, a random-effects Bayesian model selection procedure determined that a model of network connectivity in which basal ganglia activation modulated connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and other key cortical processing centers best fit the data of both neurotypicals and individuals with ASD. Follow-up analyses suggested that the largest group differences were observed for modulation of connectivity between prefrontal cortex and the sensory input region in the occipital lobe [t(31)=2.03, p=0.025]. Specifically, basal ganglia activation was associated with a small decrease in synchronization between the occipital region and prefrontal cortical regions in controls; however, in individuals with ASD, basal ganglia activation resulted in increased synchronization between the occipital region and the prefrontal cortex. We propose that this increased synchronization may reflect a failure in basal ganglia signal gating mechanisms, resulting in a non-selective copying

  13. Lesions to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex selectively impair reasoning about emotional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Lam, Elaine; Smith, Kathleen W; Goel, Amit; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2017-05-01

    While it is widely accepted that lesions to orbital prefrontal cortex lead to emotion related disruptions and poor decision-making, there is very little patient data on this issue involving actual logical reasoning tasks. We tested patients with circumscribed, focal lesions largely confined to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex (BA 10 & 11) (N=17) on logical reasoning tasks involving neutral and emotional content, and compared their performance to that of an age and education-matched normal control group (N=22) and a posterior lesion control group (N=24). Our results revealed a significant group by content interaction driven by a selective impairment in the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex group compared to healthy normal controls and to the parietal patient group, in the emotional content reasoning trials. Subsequent analyses of congruent and incongruent reasoning trials indicated that this impairment was driven by the poor performance of patients with polar/orbital lesions in the incongruent trials. We conclude that the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in filtering emotionally charged content from the material before it is passed on to the reasoning system in lateral/dorsal regions of prefrontal cortex. Where unfiltered content is passed to the reasoning engine, either as a result of pathology (as in the case of our patients) or as a result of individual differences, reasoning performance suffers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of dopamine synthesis and release in striatal and prefrontal cortical brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Brain slices were used to investigate the role of nerve terminal autoreceptors in modulating dopamine (DA) synthesis and release in striatum and prefrontal cortex. Accumulation of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) was used as an index of tyrosine hydroxylation in vitro. Nomifensine, a DA uptake blocker, inhibited DOPA synthesis in striatal but not prefrontal slices. This effect was reversed by the DA antagonist sulpiride, suggesting it involved activation of DA receptors by elevated synaptic levels of DA. The autoreceptor-selective agonist EMD-23-448 also inhibited striatal but not prefrontal DOPA synthesis. DOPA synthesis was stimulated in both brain regions by elevated K + , however only striatal synthesis could be further enhanced by sulpiride. DA release was measured by following the efflux of radioactivity from brain slices prelabeled with [ 3 H]-DA. EMD-23-448 and apomorphine inhibited, while sulpiride enhanced, the K + -evoked overflow of radioactivity from both striatal and prefrontal cortical slices. These findings suggest that striatal DA nerve terminals possess autoreceptors which modulate tyrosine hydroxylation as well as autoreceptors which modulate release. Alternatively, one site may be coupled to both functions through distinct transduction mechanisms. In contrast, autoreceptors on prefrontal cortical terminals appear to regulate DA release but not DA synthesis

  15. Changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging process : A study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Normal aging results in detectable changes in the brain structure and function. We evaluated the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal aging process with FDG PET. Brain PET images were obtained in 44 healthy volunteers (age range 20-69'y'; M:F = 29:15) who had no history of neuropsychiatric disorders. On 6 representative transaxial images, ROls were drawn in the cortical and subcortical areas. Regional FDG uptake was normalized using whole brain uptake to adjust for the injection dose and correct for nonspecific declines of glucose metabolism affecting all brain areas equally. In the prefrontal, temporoparietal and primary sensorimotor cortex, the normalized FDG uptake (NFU) reached a peak In subjects in their 30s. The NFU in the prefrontal and primary sensorimotor cortex declined with age after 30s at a rate of 3.15%/decade and 1.93%/decade, respectively. However, the NFU in the lernporoparietal cortex did not change significantly with age after 30s. The anterior (prefrontal) posterior (temporoparietal) gradient peaked in subjects in their 30s and declined with age the reafter at a rate of 35%/decade. The NFU in the caudate nucleus was decreased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.39%/decade. In the primary visual cortex, putamen, and thalamus, the NFU values did not change significantly throughout the ages covered. These patterns were not significantly different between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of interest was that the NFU in the left cerebellar cortex was increased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.86%/decade. These data demonstrate regional variation of the age-related changes in the cerebral glucose metabolism, with the most prominent age-related decline of metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in the cerebellar metabolism with age might reflect a process of neuronal plasticity associated with aging.

  16. Changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging process : A study with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae

    2001-01-01

    Normal aging results in detectable changes in the brain structure and function. We evaluated the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal aging process with FDG PET. Brain PET images were obtained in 44 healthy volunteers (age range 20-69'y'; M:F = 29:15) who had no history of neuropsychiatric disorders. On 6 representative transaxial images, ROls were drawn in the cortical and subcortical areas. Regional FDG uptake was normalized using whole brain uptake to adjust for the injection dose and correct for nonspecific declines of glucose metabolism affecting all brain areas equally. In the prefrontal, temporoparietal and primary sensorimotor cortex, the normalized FDG uptake (NFU) reached a peak In subjects in their 30s. The NFU in the prefrontal and primary sensorimotor cortex declined with age after 30s at a rate of 3.15%/decade and 1.93%/decade, respectively. However, the NFU in the lernporoparietal cortex did not change significantly with age after 30s. The anterior (prefrontal) posterior (temporoparietal) gradient peaked in subjects in their 30s and declined with age the reafter at a rate of 35%/decade. The NFU in the caudate nucleus was decreased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.39%/decade. In the primary visual cortex, putamen, and thalamus, the NFU values did not change significantly throughout the ages covered. These patterns were not significantly different between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of interest was that the NFU in the left cerebellar cortex was increased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.86%/decade. These data demonstrate regional variation of the age-related changes in the cerebral glucose metabolism, with the most prominent age-related decline of metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in the cerebellar metabolism with age might reflect a process of neuronal plasticity associated with aging

  17. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF at rest in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10. Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  18. Serotonin 1B Receptors Regulate Prefrontal Function by Gating Callosal and Hippocampal Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Athilingam, Jegath; Robinson, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Both medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and serotonin play key roles in anxiety; however, specific mechanisms through which serotonin might act on the mPFC to modulate anxiety-related behavior remain unknown. Here, we use a combination of optogenetics and synaptic physiology to show that serotonin...... acts presynaptically via 5-HT1B receptors to selectively suppress inputs from the contralateral mPFC and ventral hippocampus (vHPC), while sparing those from mediodorsal thalamus. To elucidate how these actions could potentially regulate prefrontal circuit function, we infused a 5-HT1B agonist...... into the mPFC of freely behaving mice. Consistent with previous studies that have optogenetically inhibited vHPC-mPFC projections, activating prefrontal 5-HT1B receptors suppressed theta-frequency mPFC activity (4-12 Hz), and reduced avoidance of anxiogenic regions in the elevated plus maze. These findings...

  19. Prefrontal serotonin transporter availability is positively associated with the cortisol awakening response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2013-01-01

    higher cortisol responses when exposed to psychosocial stressors relative to high expressing 5-HTTLPR variants. However, it is not clear how the relation between SERT and cortisol output is reflected in the adult brain. We investigated the relation between cortisol response to awakening (CAR) and SERT...... binding in brain regions considered relevant to modify the cortisol awakening response. Methods: thirty-two healthy volunteers underwent in vivo SERT imaging with [11C]DASB-Positron Emission Tomography (PET), genotyping, and performed home-sampling of saliva to assess CAR. Results: CAR, defined...... between CAR and prefrontal SERT binding as tested by an interaction analysis (genotype×CAR). Conclusion: prefrontal SERT binding is positively associated with cortisol response to awakening. We speculate that in mentally healthy individuals prefrontal serotonergic neurotransmission may exert an inhibitory...

  20. The neural dynamics of competition resolution for language production in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Nicolas J; Ohashi, Hiroki; Nguyen, Don; Gracco, Vincent L

    2018-03-01

    Previous research suggests a pivotal role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in word selection during tasks of confrontation naming (CN) and verb generation (VG), both of which feature varying degrees of competition between candidate responses. However, discrepancies in prefrontal activity have also been reported between the two tasks, in particular more widespread and intense activation in VG extending into (left) ventrolateral PFC, the functional significance of which remains unclear. We propose that these variations reflect differences in competition resolution processes tied to distinct underlying lexico-semantic operations: Although CN involves selecting lexical entries out of limited sets of alternatives, VG requires exploration of possible semantic relations not readily evident from the object itself, requiring prefrontal areas previously shown to be recruited in top-down retrieval of information from lexico-semantic memory. We tested this hypothesis through combined independent component analysis of functional imaging data and information-theoretic measurements of variations in selection competition associated with participants' performance in overt CN and VG tasks. Selection competition during CN engaged the anterior insula and surrounding opercular tissue, while competition during VG recruited additional activity of left ventrolateral PFC. These patterns remained after controlling for participants' speech onset latencies indicative of possible task differences in mental effort. These findings have implications for understanding the neural-computational dynamics of cognitive control in language production and how it relates to the functional architecture of adaptive behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Susceptibility to social pressure following ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Rusch, Michelle L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-11-01

    Social pressure influences human behavior including risk taking, but the psychological and neural underpinnings of this process are not well understood. We used the human lesion method to probe the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in resisting adverse social pressure in the presence of risk. Thirty-seven participants (11 with vmPFC damage, 12 with brain damage outside the vmPFC and 14 without brain damage) were tested in driving simulator scenarios requiring left-turn decisions across oncoming traffic with varying time gaps between the oncoming vehicles. Social pressure was applied by a virtual driver who honked aggressively from behind. Participants with vmPFC damage were more likely to select smaller and potentially unsafe gaps under social pressure, while gap selection by the comparison groups did not change under social pressure. Participants with vmPFC damage also showed prolonged elevated skin conductance responses (SCR) under social pressure. Comparison groups showed similar initial elevated SCR, which then declined prior to making left-turn decisions. The findings suggest that the vmPFC plays an important role in resisting explicit and immediately present social pressure with potentially negative consequences. The vmPFC appears to contribute to the regulation of emotional responses and the modulation of decision making to optimize long-term outcomes. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao; Nakazawa, Shinpei [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

  3. Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao; Nakazawa, Shinpei

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

  4. Altered Communicative Decisions following Ventromedial Prefrontal Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.; D'Imperio, D.; Pellegrino, G. di; Toni, I.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the human ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) leads to profound changes in everyday social interactions [1, 2]. Yet, in the lab, vmPFC patients show surprising proficiency in reasoning about other agents [3-8]. These conflicting observations suggest that what vmPFC patients lack in

  5. Neural modeling of prefrontal executive function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Brain executive function is based in a distributed system whereby prefrontal cortex is interconnected with other cortical. and subcortical loci. Executive function is divided roughly into three interacting parts: affective guidance of responses; linkage among working memory representations; and forming complex behavioral schemata. Neural network models of each of these parts are reviewed and fit into a preliminary theoretical framework.

  6. Ventromedial prefrontal volume predicts understanding of others and social network size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penelope A; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Brown, Rachel; Roberts, Neil; Dunbar, R I M

    2011-08-15

    Cognitive abilities such as Theory of Mind (ToM), and more generally mentalizing competences, are central to human sociality. Neuroimaging has associated these abilities with specific brain regions including temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal sulcus, frontal pole, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Previous studies have shown both that mentalizing competence, indexed as the ability to correctly understand others' belief states, is associated with social network size and that social group size is correlated with frontal lobe volume across primate species (the social brain hypothesis). Given this, we predicted that both mentalizing competences and the number of social relationships a person can maintain simultaneously will be a function of gray matter volume in these regions associated with conventional Theory of Mind. We used voxel-based morphometry of Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) to test this hypothesis in humans. Specifically, we regressed individuals' mentalizing competences and social network sizes against gray matter volume. This revealed that gray matter volume in bilateral posterior frontal pole and left temporoparietal junction and superior temporal sucus varies parametrically with mentalizing competence. Furthermore, gray matter volume in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the ventral portion of medial frontal gyrus, varied parametrically with both mentalizing competence and social network size, demonstrating a shared neural basis for these very different facets of sociality. These findings provide the first fine-grained anatomical support for the social brain hypothesis. As such, they have important implications for our understanding of the constraints limiting social cognition and social network size in humans, as well as for our understanding of how such abilities evolved across primates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal cortex under an ego-blocking frustration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Minamoto

    Full Text Available Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive, while others punish themselves (intropunitive. Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9 showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9 showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation.

  8. Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal cortex under an ego-blocking frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation.

  9. Prefrontal Activity and Connectivity with the Basal Ganglia during Performance of Complex Cognitive Tasks Is Associated with Apathy in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Leonardo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Taurisano, Paolo; Amico, Graziella; Quarto, Tiziana; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Mancini, Marina; Gelao, Barbara; Ferranti, Laura; Popolizio, Teresa; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence indicates that apathy affects cognitive behavior in different neurological and psychiatric conditions. Studies of clinical populations have also suggested the primary involvement of the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia in apathy. These brain regions are interconnected at both the structural and functional levels and are deeply involved in cognitive processes, such as working memory and attention. However, it is unclear how apathy modulates brain processing during cognition and whether such a modulation occurs in healthy young subjects. To address this issue, we investigated the link between apathy and prefrontal and basal ganglia function in healthy young individuals. We hypothesized that apathy may be related to sub-optimal activity and connectivity in these brain regions. Three hundred eleven healthy subjects completed an apathy assessment using the Starkstein's Apathy Scale and underwent fMRI during working memory and attentional performance tasks. Using an ROI approach, we investigated the association of apathy with activity and connectivity in the DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Apathy scores correlated positively with prefrontal activity and negatively with prefrontal-basal ganglia connectivity during both working memory and attention tasks. Furthermore, prefrontal activity was inversely related to attentional behavior. These results suggest that in healthy young subjects, apathy is a trait associated with inefficient cognitive-related prefrontal activity, i.e., it increases the need for prefrontal resources to process cognitive stimuli. Furthermore, apathy may alter the functional relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia during cognition.

  10. Prefrontal Activity and Connectivity with the Basal Ganglia during Performance of Complex Cognitive Tasks Is Associated with Apathy in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fazio

    Full Text Available Convergent evidence indicates that apathy affects cognitive behavior in different neurological and psychiatric conditions. Studies of clinical populations have also suggested the primary involvement of the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia in apathy. These brain regions are interconnected at both the structural and functional levels and are deeply involved in cognitive processes, such as working memory and attention. However, it is unclear how apathy modulates brain processing during cognition and whether such a modulation occurs in healthy young subjects. To address this issue, we investigated the link between apathy and prefrontal and basal ganglia function in healthy young individuals. We hypothesized that apathy may be related to sub-optimal activity and connectivity in these brain regions.Three hundred eleven healthy subjects completed an apathy assessment using the Starkstein's Apathy Scale and underwent fMRI during working memory and attentional performance tasks. Using an ROI approach, we investigated the association of apathy with activity and connectivity in the DLPFC and the basal ganglia.Apathy scores correlated positively with prefrontal activity and negatively with prefrontal-basal ganglia connectivity during both working memory and attention tasks. Furthermore, prefrontal activity was inversely related to attentional behavior.These results suggest that in healthy young subjects, apathy is a trait associated with inefficient cognitive-related prefrontal activity, i.e., it increases the need for prefrontal resources to process cognitive stimuli. Furthermore, apathy may alter the functional relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia during cognition.

  11. Decreased prefrontal lobe interhemispheric functional connectivity in adolescents with internet gaming disorder: a primary study using resting-state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with Internet gaming disorder (IGD have structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain areas and connections. However, little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC in participants with IGD. In the present study, we used a newly developed voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC method to investigate the interhemispheric rsFC of the whole brain in participants with IGD.We compared interhemispheric rsFC between 17 participants with IGD and 24 healthy controls, group-matched on age, gender, and education status. All participants were provided written informed consent. Resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for all participants. The rsFC between bilateral homotopic voxels was calculated. Regions showing abnormal VMHC in IGD participants were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses.Compared to healthy controls, IGD participants showed decreased VMHC between the left and right superior frontal gyrus (orbital part, inferior frontal gyrus (orbital part, middle frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. Further analyses showed Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-related VMHC in superior frontal gyrus (orbital part and CIAS (r = -0.55, p = 0.02, uncorrected.Our findings implicate the important role of altered interhemispheric rsFC in the bilateral prefrontal lobe in the neuropathological mechanism of IGD, and provide further supportive evidence for the reclassification of IGD as a behavioral addiction.

  12. The time course of activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex during top-down attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Rebecca Levin; Heller, Wendy; Towers, David N; Engels, Anna S; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Edgar, J Christopher; Sass, Sarah M; Stewart, Jennifer L; Sutton, Bradley P; Banich, Marie T; Miller, Gregory A

    2010-04-15

    A network of brain regions has been implicated in top-down attentional control, including left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The present experiment evaluated predictions of the cascade-of-control model (Banich, 2009), which predicts that during attentionally-demanding tasks, LDLPFC imposes a top-down attentional set which precedes late-stage selection performed by dACC. Furthermore, the cascade-of-control model argues that dACC must increase its activity to compensate when top-down control by LDLPFC is poor. The present study tested these hypotheses using fMRI and dense-array ERP data collected from the same 80 participants in separate sessions. fMRI results guided ERP source modeling to characterize the time course of activity in LDLPFC and dACC. As predicted, dACC activity subsequent to LDLPFC activity distinguished congruent and incongruent conditions on the Stroop task. Furthermore, when LDLPFC activity was low, the level of dACC activity was related to performance outcome. These results demonstrate that dACC responds to attentional demand in a flexible manner that is dependent on the level of LDLPFC activity earlier in a trial. Overall, results were consistent with the temporal course of regional brain function proposed by the cascade-of-control model. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential Resting-State Connectivity Patterns of the Right Anterior and Posterior Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices (DLPFC in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Chechko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia (SCZ, dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has been linked to the deficits in executive functions and attention. It has been suggested that, instead of considering the right DLPFC as a cohesive functional entity, it can be divided into two parts (anterior and posterior based on its whole-brain connectivity patterns. Given these two subregions' differential association with cognitive processes, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC profile of both subregions through resting-state data to determine whether they are differentially affected in SCZ. Resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans were obtained from 120 patients and 172 healthy controls (HC at 6 different MRI sites. The results showed differential FC patterns for the anterior and posterior parts of the right executive control-related DLPFC in SCZ with the parietal, the temporal and the cerebellar regions, along with a convergent reduction of connectivity with the striatum and the occipital cortex. An increased psychopathology level was linked to a higher difference in posterior vs. anterior FC for the left IFG/anterior insula, regions involved in higher-order cognitive processes. In sum, the current analysis demonstrated that even between two neighboring clusters connectivity could be differentially disrupted in SCZ. Lacking the necessary anatomical specificity, such notions may in fact be detrimental to a proper understanding of SCZ pathophysiology.

  14. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  16. Causal role of prefrontal cortex in the threshold for access to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cul, A; Dehaene, S; Reyes, P; Bravo, E; Slachevsky, A

    2009-09-01

    What neural mechanisms support our conscious perception of briefly presented stimuli? Some theories of conscious access postulate a key role of top-down amplification loops involving prefrontal cortex (PFC). To test this issue, we measured the visual backward masking threshold in patients with focal prefrontal lesions, using both objective and subjective measures while controlling for putative attention deficits. In all conditions of temporal or spatial attention cueing, the threshold for access to consciousness was systematically shifted in patients, particular after a lesion of the left anterior PFC. The deficit affected subjective reports more than objective performance, and objective performance conditioned on subjective visibility was essentially normal. We conclude that PFC makes a causal contribution to conscious visual perception of masked stimuli, and outline a dual-route signal detection theory of objective and subjective decision making.

  17. Directional hippocampal-prefrontal interactions during working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiaotiao; Bai, Wenwen; Xia, Mi; Tian, Xin

    2018-02-15

    Working memory refers to a system that is essential for performing complex cognitive tasks such as reasoning, comprehension and learning. Evidence shows that hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) play important roles in working memory. The HPC-PFC interaction via theta-band oscillatory synchronization is critical for successful execution of working memory. However, whether one brain region is leading or lagging relative to another is still unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from rat ventral hippocampus (vHPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and while the rats performed a Y-maze working memory task. We then applied instantaneous amplitudes cross-correlation method to calculate the time lag between PFC and vHPC to explore the functional dynamics of the HPC-PFC interaction. Our results showed a strong lead from vHPC to mPFC preceded an animal's correct choice during the working memory task. These findings suggest the vHPC-leading interaction contributes to the successful execution of working memory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex, adding value to autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Jing; Horner, Aidan J; Burgess, Neil

    2016-06-24

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been consistently implicated in autobiographical memory recall and decision making. Its function in decision making tasks is believed to relate to value representation, but its function in autobiographical memory recall is not yet clear. We hypothesised that the mPFC represents the subjective value of elements during autobiographical memory retrieval. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an autobiographical memory recall task, we found that the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was parametrically modulated by the affective values of items in participants' memories when they were recalling and evaluating these items. An unrelated modulation by the participant's familiarity with the items was also observed. During retrieval of the event, the BOLD signal in the same region was modulated by the personal significance and emotional intensity of the memory, which was correlated with the values of the items within them. These results support the idea that vmPFC processes self-relevant information, and suggest that it is involved in representing the personal emotional values of the elements comprising autobiographical memories.

  19. Dopaminergic Modulation of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in Parkinson Depression

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    Anders H. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is associated with emotional abnormalities. Dopaminergic medications ameliorate Parkinsonian motor symptoms, but less is known regarding the impact of dopaminergic agents on affective processing, particularly in depressed PD (dPD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on brain activation to emotional stimuli in depressed versus nondepressed Parkinson disease (ndPD patients. Participants included 18 ndPD patients (11 men, 7 women and 10 dPD patients (7 men, 3 women. Patients viewed photographs of emotional faces during functional MRI. Scans were performed while the patient was taking anti-Parkinson medication and the day after medication had been temporarily discontinued. Results indicate that dopaminergic medications have opposite effects in the prefrontal cortex depending upon depression status. DPD patients show greater deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC on dopaminergic medications than off, while ndPD patients show greater deactivation in this region off drugs. The VMPFC is in the default-mode network (DMN. DMN activity is negatively correlated with activity in brain systems used for external visual attention. Thus dopaminergic medications may promote increased attention to external visual stimuli among dPD patients but impede normal suppression of DMN activity during external stimulation among ndPD patients.

  20. Social cognition and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a working memory task in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Yamada, Sayaka; Masai, Mieko; Miura, Akihiko; Yamauchi, Takahira; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Roberts, David L; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Social cognition is an important determinant of functional impairment in schizophrenia, but its relationship with the prefrontal functional abnormalities associated with the condition is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between social cognition and prefrontal function in patients with schizophrenia using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical regions were assessed during a working memory task using NIRS. Social cognition was assessed using the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ). The observed hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the frontopolar cortex, and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia compared to HCs. Additionally, lateral PFC hemodynamic responses assessed during the working memory task demonstrated a strong positive correlation with the SCSQ theory of mind (ToM) subscale score even after controlling for working memory performance. These results suggest that ToM integrity is closely related to lateral PFC functional abnormalities found in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, this study provides evidence to suggest that NIRS could be used to identify biomarkers of social cognition function in subjects with schizophrenia.

  1. Prefrontal contributions to visual selective attention.

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    Squire, Ryan F; Noudoost, Behrad; Schafer, Robert J; Moore, Tirin

    2013-07-08

    The faculty of attention endows us with the capacity to process important sensory information selectively while disregarding information that is potentially distracting. Much of our understanding of the neural circuitry underlying this fundamental cognitive function comes from neurophysiological studies within the visual modality. Past evidence suggests that a principal function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is selective attention and that this function involves the modulation of sensory signals within posterior cortices. In this review, we discuss recent progress in identifying the specific prefrontal circuits controlling visual attention and its neural correlates within the primate visual system. In addition, we examine the persisting challenge of precisely defining how behavior should be affected when attentional function is lost.

  2. Prefrontal system dysfunction and credit card debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2004-10-01

    Credit card use often involves a disadvantageous allocation of finances because they allow for spending beyond means and buying on impulse. Accordingly they are associated with increased bankruptcy, anxiety, stress, and health problems. Mounting evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical studies implicates prefrontal-subcortical systems in processing financial information. This study examined the relationship of credit card debt and executive functions using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FRSBE). After removing the influences of demographic variables (age, sex, education, and income), credit card debt was associated with the Executive Dysfunction scale, but not the Apathy or Disinhibition scales. This suggests that processes of conceptualizing and organizing finances are most relevant to credit card debt, and implicates dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction.

  3. An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E K; Cohen, J D

    2001-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has long been suspected to play an important role in cognitive control, in the ability to orchestrate thought and action in accordance with internal goals. Its neural basis, however, has remained a mystery. Here, we propose that cognitive control stems from the active maintenance of patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex that represent goals and the means to achieve them. They provide bias signals to other brain structures whose net effect is to guide the flow of activity along neural pathways that establish the proper mappings between inputs, internal states, and outputs needed to perform a given task. We review neurophysiological, neurobiological, neuroimaging, and computational studies that support this theory and discuss its implications as well as further issues to be addressed

  4. The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy

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    Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by remorseless and impulsive antisocial behavior. Given the significant societal costs of the recidivistic criminal activity associated with the disorder, there is a pressing need for more effective treatment strategies, and hence, a better understanding of the psychobiological mechanisms underlying the disorder. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is likely to play an important role in psychopathy. In particular, the ventromedial and anterior cingulate sectors of PFC are theorized to mediate a number of social and affective decision-making functions that appear to be disrupted in psychopathy. This article provides a critical summary of human neuroimaging data implicating prefrontal dysfunction in psychopathy. A growing body of evidence associates psychopathy with structural and functional abnormalities in ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex. Although this burgeoning field still faces a number of methodological challenges and outstanding questions that will need to be resolved by future studies, the research to date has established a link between psychopathy and PFC. PMID:22752782

  5. Modulating Memory Performance in Healthy Subjects with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

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    Smirni, Daniela; Turriziani, Patrizia; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Cipolotti, Lisa; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) in recognition memory has been well documented in lesion, neuroimaging and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the left and the right DLPFC during the delay interval of a non-verbal recognition memory task. 36 right-handed young healthy subjects participated in the study. The experimental task was an Italian version of Recognition Memory Test for unknown faces. Study included two experiments: in a first experiment, each subject underwent one session of sham tDCS and one session of left or right cathodal tDCS; in a second experiment each subject underwent one session of sham tDCS and one session of left or right anodal tDCS. Cathodal tDCS over the right DLPFC significantly improved non verbal recognition memory performance, while cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC had no effect. Anodal tDCS of both the left and right DLPFC did not modify non verbal recognition memory performance. Complementing the majority of previous studies, reporting long term memory facilitations following left prefrontal anodal tDCS, the present findings show that cathodal tDCS of the right DLPFC can also improve recognition memory in healthy subjects.

  6. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with gliomas adjacent to classical language areas. Lateralization of activated prefrontal cortex is important in determining the dominant hemisphere

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    Karibe, Hiroshi; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Shirane, Reizo; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    In patients with gliomas adjacent to classical language areas, lateralized activation of prefrontal cortex was assessed to determine language dominant hemisphere using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve patients presented with aphasias were studied. In all patients, either the left frontal operculum or left superior temporal gyri were adjacent to gliomas, suggesting all patients had left lateralization in hemispheric language dominance. Functional MRI was performed with a 1.5T scanner, with the sequence of gradient-echo type echo-planar imaging. As specific language tasks, verb, word, and capping generations were used. Using a cross-correlation analysis method, primary activation maps were generated using pixels with a correlation coefficient of >0.7. The lateralized activation of frontal operculum, superior temporal gyrus, and prefrontal cortex were assessed by calculating laterality index. Successful activation of frontal operculum was imaged in 11 of 12, in the superior temporal gyrus or prefrontal cortex. Three out of 11 cases had apparent activation lateralized in the right frontal operculum on fMRI, while 3 out of 12 cases showed activation in the superior temporal gyrus. On the other hand, all cases had apparent activation lateralized to the left prefrontal cortex. Significant activation of true language area may not be obtained in some cases with gliomas adjacent to classical language areas. In such cases, lateralization of apparent activation of prefrontal cortex may reflect lateralization in the dominant hemisphere. These result suggest that the assessment of apparent activation of prefrontal cortex lateralization is useful to determine the language dominant hemisphere. (author)

  7. Two Days' Sleep Debt Causes Mood Decline During Resting State Via Diminished Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity.

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    Motomura, Yuki; Katsunuma, Ruri; Yoshimura, Michitaka; Mishima, Kazuo

    2017-10-01

    Sleep debt (SD) has been suggested to evoke emotional instability by diminishing the suppression of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Here, we investigated how short-term SD affects resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC, self-reported mood, and sleep parameters. Eighteen healthy adult men aged 29 ± 8.24 years participated in a 2-day sleep control session (SC; time in bed [TIB], 9 hours) and 2-day SD session (TIB, 3 hours). On day 2 of each session, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed, followed immediately by measuring self-reported mood on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale (STAI-S). STAI-S score was significantly increased, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC was significantly decreased in SD compared with SC. Significant correlations were observed between reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced left amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity (FCL_amg-MPFC) and between reduced FCL_amg-MPFC and increased STAI-S score in SD compared with SC. These findings suggest that reduced MPFC functional connectivity of amygdala activity is involved in mood deterioration under SD, and that REM sleep reduction is involved in functional changes in the corresponding brain regions. Having adequate REM sleep may be important for mental health maintenance. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Altering risky decision-making: Influence of impulsivity on the neuromodulation of prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Lee, Tatia M C

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves complex cognitive abilities, including risky decision-making; the modulation of this brain area is shown to alter the way people take risks. Yet, neuromodulation of the PFC in relation to risk-taking behavior remains relatively less well-studied. Moreover, the psychological variables that influence such neuromodulation remain poorly understood. To address these issues, 16 participants took part in 3 experimental sessions on separate days. They received: (i) left anodal-right cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); (ii) left cathodal-right anodal stimulation; or (iii) sham stimulation while they completed two risk-taking tasks. They also measured on several cognitive-affective abilities and personality traits. It was revealed that left cathodal-right anodal stimulation led to significantly reduced risk-taking under a context of haste. The reduction of risk-taking (relative to sham) correlated with state and trait impulsivity, such that the effect was larger in more impulsive individuals. For these individuals, the tDCS effect size was considered to be large (generalized partial η(2) > .17). The effect of prefrontal-neuromodulation in reducing risk-taking was influenced by baseline impulsivity, reflecting a state-dependent effect of neuromodulation on the PFC. The results of this study carry important insights into the use of neuromodulation to alter higher cognition.

  9. Using fMRI to investigate a component process of reflection: prefrontal correlates of refreshing a just-activated representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Mitchell, Karen J; Greene, Erich J; Cunningham, William A; Sanislow, Charles A

    2005-09-01

    Using fMRI, we investigated the functional organization of prefrontal cortex (PFC) as participants briefly thought of a single just-experienced item (i.e., refreshed an active representation). The results of six studies, and a meta-analysis including previous studies, identified regions in left dorsolateral, anterior, and ventrolateral PFC associated in varying degrees with refreshing different types of information (visual and auditory words, drawings, patterns, people, places, or locations). In addition, activity increased in anterior cingulate with selection demands and in orbitofrontal cortex when a nonselected item was emotionally salient, consistent with a role for these areas in cognitive control (e.g., overcoming "mental rubbernecking"). We also found evidence that presenting emotional information disrupted an anterior component of the refresh circuit. We suggest that refreshing accounts for some neural activity observed in more complex tasks, such as working memory, long-term memory, and problem solving, and that its disruption (e.g., from aging or emotion) could have a broad impact.

  10. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy and neurological subjects: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia eTurriziani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC during recognition memory retrieval.We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs and in 8 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings and words were used in different experiments.rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory of verbal and non verbal material in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance.Bilateral recruitment of the DLPFC could represent a dysfunctional use of brain resources in recognition memory. Inhibitory rTMS of the right DLPFC may modulate the activity in this dysfunctional network enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI.

  11. Women with Premenstrual Dysphoria Lack the Seemingly Normal Premenstrual Right-Sided Relative Dominance of 5-HTP-Derived Serotonergic Activity in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices - A Possible Cause of Disabling Mood Symptoms.

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    Olle Eriksson

    Full Text Available To investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in brain serotonergic activity between women with Premenstrual Dysphoria (PMD and asymptomatic controls.Serotonin-augmenting drugs alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms in the majority of women with PMD while serotonin-depleting diets worsen PMD symptoms, both indicating intrinsic differences in brain serotonergic activity in women with PMD compared to asymptomatic women.Positron-emission tomography with the immediate precursor of serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, radiolabelled by 11C in the beta-3 position, was performed in the follicular and luteal phases for 12 women with PMD and 8 control women. Brain radioactivity-a proxy for serotonin precursor uptake and synthesis-was measured in 9 regions of interest (ROIs: the right and left sides of the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus, and the single "whole brain".There were no significant quantitative differences in brain 5-HTP-derived activity between the groups in either of the menstrual phases for any of the 9 ROIs. However, multivariate analysis revealed a significant quantitative and qualitative difference between the groups. Asymptomatic control women showed a premenstrual right sided relative increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 5-HTP derived activity, whereas PMD women displayed the opposite (p = 0.0001. Menstrual phase changes in this asymmetry (premenstrual-follicular correlated with changes in self ratings of 'irritability' for the entire group (rs = -0.595, p = 0.006. The PMD group showed a strong inverse correlation between phase changes (premenstrual-follicular in plasma levels of estradiol and phase changes in the laterality (dx/sin of radiotracer activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal ROI (rs = -0.635; 0.027. The control group showed no such correlation.Absence of increased premenstrual right-sided relative 5-HTP-derived activity of the dorsolateral

  12. Morphometry of Left Frontal and Temporal Poles Predicts Analogical Reasoning Abilities.

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    Aichelburg, Clarisse; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Humbert, Frederic; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical for making inferences and adapting to novelty. It can be studied experimentally using tasks that require creating similarities between situations or concepts, i.e., when their constituent elements share a similar organization or structure. Brain correlates of analogical reasoning have mostly been explored using functional imaging that has highlighted the involvement of the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) in healthy subjects. However, whether inter-individual variability in analogical reasoning ability in a healthy adult population is related to differences in brain architecture is unknown. We investigated this question by employing linear regression models of performance in analogy tasks and voxel-based morphometry in 54 healthy subjects. Our results revealed that the ability to reason by analogy was associated with structural variability in the left rlPFC and the anterior part of the inferolateral temporal cortex. Tractography of diffusion-weighted images suggested that these 2 regions have a different set of connections but may exchange information via the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest that enhanced integrative and semantic abilities supported by structural variation in these areas (or their connectivity) may lead to more efficient analogical reasoning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The role of prefrontal catecholamines in attention and working memory

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    Behrad eNoudoost

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While much progress has been made in identifying the brain regions and neurochemical systems involved in the cognitive processes disrupted in mental illnesses, To date, the level of detail at which neurobiologists can describe the chain of events giving rise to cognitive functions is very rudimentary. Much of the intense interest in understanding cognitive functions is motivated by the hope that it might be possible to understand these complex functions at the level of neurons and neural circuits. Here, we review the current state of the literature regarding how modulations in catecholamine levels within the prefrontal cortex alter the neuronal and behavioral correlates of cognitive functions, particularly attention and working memory.

  14. The role of prefrontal catecholamines in attention and working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelsey L.; Noudoost, Behrad

    2014-01-01

    While much progress has been made in identifying the brain regions and neurochemical systems involved in the cognitive processes disrupted in mental illnesses, to date, the level of detail at which neurobiologists can describe the chain of events giving rise to cognitive functions is very rudimentary. Much of the intense interest in understanding cognitive functions is motivated by the hope that it might be possible to understand these complex functions at the level of neurons and neural circuits. Here, we review the current state of the literature regarding how modulations in catecholamine levels within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) alter the neuronal and behavioral correlates of cognitive functions, particularly attention and working memory. PMID:24782714

  15. Prefrontal control of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Yang, Li; Xu, Yan; Wu, Guang-yan; Yao, Juan; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Zhi-ru; Hu, Zhi-an; Sui, Jian-feng; Hu, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral studies have demonstrated that both medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and cerebellum play critical roles in trace eyeblink conditioning. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which the two brain regions interact. By use of electrical stimulation of the caudal mPFC as a conditioned stimulus, we show evidence that persistent outputs from the mPFC to cerebellum are necessary and sufficient for the acquisition and expression of a trace conditioned response (CR)-like response. Specifically, the persistent outputs of caudal mPFC are relayed to the cerebellum via the rostral part of lateral pontine nuclei. Moreover, interfering with persistent activity by blockade of the muscarinic Ach receptor in the caudal mPFC impairs the expression of learned trace CRs. These results suggest an important way for the caudal mPFC to interact with the cerebellum during associative motor learning.

  16. Does rTMS Alter Neurocognitive Functioning in Patients with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia? An fNIRS-Based Investigation of Prefrontal Activation during a Cognitive Task and Its Modulation via Sham-Controlled rTMS

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    Saskia Deppermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Neurobiologically, panic disorder (PD is supposed to be characterised by cerebral hypofrontality. Via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, we investigated whether prefrontal hypoactivity during cognitive tasks in PD-patients compared to healthy controls (HC could be replicated. As intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS modulates cortical activity, we furthermore investigated its ability to normalise prefrontal activation. Methods. Forty-four PD-patients, randomised to sham or verum group, received 15 iTBS-sessions above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in addition to psychoeducation. Before first and after last iTBS-treatment, cortical activity during a verbal fluency task was assessed via fNIRS and compared to the results of 23 HC. Results. At baseline, PD-patients showed hypofrontality including the DLPFC, which differed significantly from activation patterns of HC. However, verum iTBS did not augment prefrontal fNIRS activation. Solely after sham iTBS, a significant increase of measured fNIRS activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG during the phonological task was found. Conclusion. Our results support findings that PD is characterised by prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive performance. However, verum iTBS as an “add-on” to psychoeducation did not augment prefrontal activity. Instead we only found increased fNIRS activation in the left IFG after sham iTBS application. Possible reasons including task-related psychophysiological arousal are discussed.

  17. Does rTMS alter neurocognitive functioning in patients with panic disorder/agoraphobia? An fNIRS-based investigation of prefrontal activation during a cognitive task and its modulation via sham-controlled rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, Saskia; Vennewald, Nadja; Diemer, Julia; Sickinger, Stephanie; Haeussinger, Florian B; Notzon, Swantje; Laeger, Inga; Arolt, Volker; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Zwanzger, Peter; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiologically, panic disorder (PD) is supposed to be characterised by cerebral hypofrontality. Via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we investigated whether prefrontal hypoactivity during cognitive tasks in PD-patients compared to healthy controls (HC) could be replicated. As intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) modulates cortical activity, we furthermore investigated its ability to normalise prefrontal activation. Forty-four PD-patients, randomised to sham or verum group, received 15 iTBS-sessions above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in addition to psychoeducation. Before first and after last iTBS-treatment, cortical activity during a verbal fluency task was assessed via fNIRS and compared to the results of 23 HC. At baseline, PD-patients showed hypofrontality including the DLPFC, which differed significantly from activation patterns of HC. However, verum iTBS did not augment prefrontal fNIRS activation. Solely after sham iTBS, a significant increase of measured fNIRS activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the phonological task was found. Our results support findings that PD is characterised by prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive performance. However, verum iTBS as an "add-on" to psychoeducation did not augment prefrontal activity. Instead we only found increased fNIRS activation in the left IFG after sham iTBS application. Possible reasons including task-related psychophysiological arousal are discussed.

  18. Effect of acupuncture on regional cerebral blood flow at acupoints GV 20, GV. 26, LI, 4. ST. 36, SP. 6 evaluated by Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT

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    Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung; Kang, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Seong Min; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Ji Yeul [College of Medicine, Dongshin Univ., Naju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Soo Gi [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at acupoints suggested by oriental medicine to be related to the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Rest/acupuncture-stimulation Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT using a same-dose subtraction method was performed on 54 normal volunteers (34 males, 20 females, age range from 18 to 62 years) using six paradigms: acupuncture at acupoints GV. 20, GV. 26, LI. 4, ST. 36 and SP. 6. In the control study, needle location was chosen on a non-meridian focus 1 cm posterior to the right fibular head. All images were spatially normalized, and the differences between rest and acupuncture stimulation were statistically analyzed using SPM for Windows. Acupuncture applied at acupoint GV. 20 increased rCBF in both the anterior frontal lobes, the right frontotemporal lobes, and the left anterior temporal lobe and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Acupuncture at GV. 26 increased rCBF in the left prefrontal cortex. Acupuncture at LI. 4 increased rCBF in the left prefrontal and both the inferior frontal lobes, and the left anterior temporal lobe and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Acupuncture at ST. 36 increased rCBF in the left anterior temporal lobe, the right inferior frontal lobes, and the left cerebellum. Acupuncture at SP 6 increased rCBF in the left inferior frontal and anterior temporal lobes. In the control stimulation, no significant rCBF increase was observed. The results demonstrated a correlation between stimuation at each acupoint with increase in rCBF to the corresponding brain areas.

  19. Effect of acupuncture on regional cerebral blood flow at acupoints GV 20, GV. 26, LI, 4. ST. 36, SP. 6 evaluated by Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung; Kang, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Seong Min; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Ji Yeul; Ahn, Soo Gi

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at acupoints suggested by oriental medicine to be related to the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Rest/acupuncture-stimulation Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT using a same-dose subtraction method was performed on 54 normal volunteers (34 males, 20 females, age range from 18 to 62 years) using six paradigms: acupuncture at acupoints GV. 20, GV. 26, LI. 4, ST. 36 and SP. 6. In the control study, needle location was chosen on a non-meridian focus 1 cm posterior to the right fibular head. All images were spatially normalized, and the differences between rest and acupuncture stimulation were statistically analyzed using SPM for Windows. Acupuncture applied at acupoint GV. 20 increased rCBF in both the anterior frontal lobes, the right frontotemporal lobes, and the left anterior temporal lobe and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Acupuncture at GV. 26 increased rCBF in the left prefrontal cortex. Acupuncture at LI. 4 increased rCBF in the left prefrontal and both the inferior frontal lobes, and the left anterior temporal lobe and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Acupuncture at ST. 36 increased rCBF in the left anterior temporal lobe, the right inferior frontal lobes, and the left cerebellum. Acupuncture at SP 6 increased rCBF in the left inferior frontal and anterior temporal lobes. In the control stimulation, no significant rCBF increase was observed. The results demonstrated a correlation between stimuation at each acupoint with increase in rCBF to the corresponding brain areas

  20. Electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves memory monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Elizabeth F; Ahmed, Rifat

    2016-05-01

    The ability to accurately monitor one's own memory is an important feature of normal memory function. Converging evidence from neuroimaging and lesion studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in memory monitoring. Here we used high definition transcranial direct stimulation (HD-tDCS), a non-invasive form of brain stimulation, to test whether the DLPFC has a causal role in memory monitoring, and the nature of that role. We used a metamemory monitoring task, in which participants first attempted to recall the answer to a general knowledge question, then gave a feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgment, followed by a forced choice recognition task. When participants received DLPFC stimulation, their feeling-of-knowing judgments were better predictors of memory performance, i.e., they had better memory monitoring accuracy, compared to stimulation of a control site, the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). Effects of DLPFC stimulation were specific to monitoring accuracy, as there was no significant increase in memory performance, and if anything, there was poorer memory performance with DLPFC stimulation. Thus we have demonstrated a causal role for the DLPFC in memory monitoring, and showed that electrically stimulating the left DLPFC led people to more accurately monitor and judge their own memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

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    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  2. Where vision meets memory: prefrontal-posterior networks for visual object constancy during categorization and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendan, Haline E; Stern, Chantal E

    2008-07-01

    Objects seen from unusual relative to more canonical views require more time to categorize and recognize, and, according to object model verification theories, additionally recruit prefrontal processes for cognitive control that interact with parietal processes for mental rotation. To test this using functional magnetic resonance imaging, people categorized and recognized known objects from unusual and canonical views. Canonical views activated some components of a default network more on categorization than recognition. Activation to unusual views showed that both ventral and dorsal visual pathways, and prefrontal cortex, have key roles in visual object constancy. Unusual views activated object-sensitive and mental rotation (and not saccade) regions in ventrocaudal intraparietal, transverse occipital, and inferotemporal sulci, and ventral premotor cortex for verification processes of model testing on any task. A collateral-lingual sulci "place" area activated for mental rotation, working memory, and unusual views on correct recognition and categorization trials to accomplish detailed spatial matching. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and object-sensitive lateral occipital sulcus activated for mental rotation and unusual views on categorization more than recognition, supporting verification processes of model prediction. This visual knowledge framework integrates vision and memory theories to explain how distinct prefrontal-posterior networks enable meaningful interactions with objects in diverse situations.

  3. Hemodynamic Responses on Prefrontal Cortex Related to Meditation and Attentional Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh eDeepeshwar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies state that meditation increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. The present study employed functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to evaluate the relative hemodynamic changes in prefrontal cortex during a cognitive task. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers with ages between 18 and 30 years (group mean age ± SD; 22.9 ± 4.6 years performed a color-word stroop task before and after 20 minutes of meditation and random thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed followed by a post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons between the mean values of ‘During’ and ‘Post’ with ‘Pre’ state. During meditation there was an increased in oxy-hemoglobin (∆HbO and total hemoglobin (∆THC concentration with reduced deoxy-hemoglobin (∆HbR concentration over the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC, whereas in random thinking there was increased ∆HbR with reduced total hemoglobin concentration on the rPFC. The mean reaction time was shorter in stroop color word task with reduced ∆THC after meditation, suggestive of improved performance and efficiency in task related to attention. Our findings demonstrated that meditation increased cerebral oxygenation and enhanced performance, which was associated with prefrontal cortex activation.

  4. Influence of restoration adjustments on prefrontal blood flow: A simplified NIRS preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaguri, Kenichi; Otsuka, Takero; Tsunashima, Hiroyuki; Shimazaki, Tateshi; Kubo, Kin-Ya; Onozuka, Minoru

    The aim of this study was to examine, after setting several restorations, the influence of adjusted occlusal interference during gum chewing on blood flow in the prefrontal area as determined using near-infrared spectroscopy. The physiological rate was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire. We selected 16 patients who desired prosthetic restorative treatment on the lateral dentition, and eight healthy volunteers. Subjects were divided into three eight-person groups. One group received restorations on the premolar area (PA), another group received restorations on the molar area (MA), and the control group (CT) received no prosthetic restorations. The spectroscope was fastened to the frontal region of the head after placement of the final restoration, but before adjustment. Pre-adjustment (first gum chewing for CT) blood flow in the prefrontal cortex was measured during gum chewing. Blood flow was again measured during gum chewing after the restoration (second gum chewing for CT) had been adjusted in accordance with the subjective assessment of the patient while wearing the device. The VAS provided quantification of comfort during gum chewing before and after restoration adjustment. For the PA and MA groups, adjusting restorations decreased discomfort significantly during gum chewing. Moreover, in the MA group, prefrontal blood flow was significantly reduced, and blood flow correlated with discomfort. Activation of the prefrontal area may provide an objective criterion for judging the functionality of occlusion after prosthetic occlusal reconstruction and/or orthodontics.

  5. Back to front: cerebellar connections and interactions with the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Watson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although recent neuroanatomical evidence has demonstrated closed-loop connectivity between prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum, the physiology of cerebello-cerebral circuits and the extent to which cerebellar output modulates neuronal activity in neocortex during behavior remain relatively unexplored. We show that electrical stimulation of the contralateral cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN in awake, behaving rats evokes distinct local field potential (LFP responses (onset latency ~13 ms in the prelimbic (PrL subdivision of the medial prefrontal cortex. Trains of FN stimulation evoke heterogeneous patterns of response in putative pyramidal cells in frontal and prefrontal regions in both urethane-anaesthetized and awake, behaving rats. However, the majority of cells showed decreased firing rates during stimulation and subsequent rebound increases; more than 90% of cells showed significant changes in response. Simultaneous recording of on-going LFP activity from FN and PrL while rats were at rest or actively exploring an open field arena revealed significant network coherence restricted to the theta frequency range (5-10 Hz. Granger causality analysis indicated that this coherence was significantly directed from cerebellum to PrL during active locomotion. Our results demonstrate the presence of a cerebello-prefrontal pathway in rat and reveal behaviorally dependent coordinated network activity between the two structures, which could facilitate transfer of sensorimotor information into ongoing neocortical processing during goal directed behaviors.

  6. Neurons responsive to face-view in the primate ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanski, L M; Diehl, M M

    2011-08-25

    Studies have indicated that temporal and prefrontal brain regions process face and vocal information. Face-selective and vocalization-responsive neurons have been demonstrated in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and some prefrontal cells preferentially respond to combinations of face and corresponding vocalizations. These studies suggest VLPFC in nonhuman primates may play a role in communication that is similar to the role of inferior frontal regions in human language processing. If VLPFC is involved in communication, information about a speaker's face including identity, face-view, gaze, and emotional expression might be encoded by prefrontal neurons. In the following study, we examined the effect of face-view in ventrolateral prefrontal neurons by testing cells with auditory, visual, and a set of human and monkey faces rotated through 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and -30°. Prefrontal neurons responded selectively to either the identity of the face presented (human or monkey) or to the specific view of the face/head, or to both identity and face-view. Neurons which were affected by the identity of the face most often showed an increase in firing in the second part of the stimulus period. Neurons that were selective for face-view typically preferred forward face-view stimuli (0° and 30° rotation). The neurons which were selective for forward face-view were also auditory responsive compared to other neurons which responded to other views or were unselective which were not auditory responsive. Our analysis showed that the human forward face (0°) was decoded better and also contained the most information relative to other face-views. Our findings confirm a role for VLPFC in the processing and integration of face and vocalization information and add to the growing body of evidence that the primate ventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a prominent role in social communication and is an important model in understanding the cellular mechanisms of communication

  7. Dopamine release in human striatum induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

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    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Animal study suggests that prefrontal cortex plays an important Animal studies suggest that prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the modulation of dopamine (DA) release in subcortical areas. However, little is known about the relationship between DA release and prefrontal activation in human. We investigated whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) influences DA release in human striatum with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I)iodobenzamide (IBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy male volunteers (age, 25{+-}2 yr) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, Sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left DLPFC), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM DLPFC was defined as a 6 cm anterior and 1cm lateral from the primary motor cortex. rTMS session consisted of three blocks, in each block, 15 trains of 2 see duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency, 100% motor threshold, and between-train intervals of 10 sec. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital) / occipital activity ratio, was measured under equilibrium condition, at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over DLPFC induced reduction of V3' in the ipsilateral and contralateral striatum by 9.7% {+-} 1.3% and 10.6% {+-} 3.2%, respectively, compared with sham procedures (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively), indicating striatal DA release elicited by rTMS over DLPFC. V3' reduction in the ipsilateral caudate nucleus was greater than that in the contralateral caudate nucleus (9.9% {+-} 4.5% vs. 6.6% {+-} 3.1%, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate DA release in human striatum induced by rTMS over DLPFC, supporting that cortico-striatal fibers originating in prefrontal cortex are involved in local DA release.

  8. Dopamine release in human striatum induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    Animal study suggests that prefrontal cortex plays an important Animal studies suggest that prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the modulation of dopamine (DA) release in subcortical areas. However, little is known about the relationship between DA release and prefrontal activation in human. We investigated whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) influences DA release in human striatum with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I)iodobenzamide (IBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy male volunteers (age, 25±2 yr) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, Sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left DLPFC), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM DLPFC was defined as a 6 cm anterior and 1cm lateral from the primary motor cortex. rTMS session consisted of three blocks, in each block, 15 trains of 2 see duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency, 100% motor threshold, and between-train intervals of 10 sec. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital) / occipital activity ratio, was measured under equilibrium condition, at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over DLPFC induced reduction of V3' in the ipsilateral and contralateral striatum by 9.7% ± 1.3% and 10.6% ± 3.2%, respectively, compared with sham procedures (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively), indicating striatal DA release elicited by rTMS over DLPFC. V3' reduction in the ipsilateral caudate nucleus was greater than that in the contralateral caudate nucleus (9.9% ± 4.5% vs. 6.6% ± 3.1%, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate DA release in human striatum induced by rTMS over DLPFC, supporting that cortico-striatal fibers originating in prefrontal cortex are involved in local DA release

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, George; Short, Baron; Spicer, Ken; Schmidt, Matthew; Burns, Carol; Atoui, Mia; George, Mark S; Sackeim, Harold A; Nahas, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is limited by cognitive disturbance. Focal electrically-administered seizure therapy (FEAST) is designed to initiate focal seizures in the prefrontal cortex. To date, no studies have documented the effects of FEAST on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). A 72 year old depressed man underwent three single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans to capture the onset and resolution of seizures triggered with right unilateral FEAST. We used Bioimage Suite for within-subject statistical analyses of perfusion differences ictally and post-ictally compared with the baseline scan. Early ictal increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were limited to the right prefrontal cortex. Post-ictally, perfusion was reduced in bilateral frontal and occipital cortices and increased in left motor and precuneus cortex. FEAST appears to triggers focal onsets of seizure activity in the right prefrontal cortex with subsequent generalization. Future studies are needed on a larger sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Categorization Is Modulated by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Left Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupyan, Gary; Mirman, Daniel; Hamilton, Roy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have an unparalleled ability to represent objects as members of multiple categories. A given object, such as a pillow may be--depending on current task demands--represented as an instance of something that is soft, as something that contains feathers, as something that is found in bedrooms, or something that is larger than a toaster. This…

  11. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex in the valproic acid animal model of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rinaldi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex has been extensively implicated in autism to explain deficits in executive and other higher-order functions related to cognition, language, sociability and emotion. The possible changes at the level of the neuronal microcircuit are however not known. We studied microcircuit alterations in the prefrontal cortex in the valproic acid rat model of autism and found that the layer 5 pyramidal neurons are connected to significantly more neighbouring neurons than in controls. These excitatory connections are more plastic displaying enhanced long-term potentiation of the strength of synapses. The microcircuit alterations found in the prefrontal cortex are therefore similar to the alterations previously found in the somatosensory cortex. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the prefrontal cortex implies hyper-functionality of one of the highest order processing regions in the brain, and stands in contrast to the hypo-functionality that is normally proposed in this region to explain some of the autistic symptoms. We propose that a number of deficits in autism such as sociability, attention, multi-tasking and repetitive behaviours, should be re-interpreted in the light of a hyper-functional prefrontal cortex.

  12. Neuromodulation directed at the prefrontal cortex of subjects with obesity reduces snack food intake and hunger in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinitz, Sascha; Reinhardt, Martin; Piaggi, Paolo; Weise, Christopher M; Diaz, Enrique; Stinson, Emma J; Venti, Colleen; Votruba, Susanne B; Wassermann, Eric M; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity. Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity. Design: In a randomized parallel-design study combining inpatient and outpatient assessments over 31 d, 23 individuals with obesity [12 men; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 39.3 ± 8.42] received 15 sessions of anodal (i.e., enhancing cortical activity) or sham tDCS aimed at the left DLPFC. Ad libitum food intake was assessed through the use of a vending machine paradigm and snack food taste tests (SFTTs). Appetite was evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS). Body weight was measured. We examined the effect of short-term (i.e., 3 sessions) and long-term (i.e., 15 sessions) tDCS on these variables. Results: Relative to sham tDCS, short-term anodal tDCS did not influence ad libitum intake of food from the vending machines. Accordingly, no effect on short-term or 4-wk weight change was observed. In the anodal tDCS group, compared with the sham group, VAS ratings for hunger and the urge to eat declined significantly more ( P = 0.01 and P = 0.05, respectively), and total energy intake during an SFTT was relatively lower in satiated individuals ( P = 0.01), after long-term tDCS. Conclusions: Short-term anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC did not have an immediate effect on ad libitum food intake or thereby weight change, relative to sham tDCS. Hunger and snack food intake were reduced only after a longer period

  13. Coding of vocalizations by single neurons in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Diltz, Mark D; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal activity in single prefrontal neurons has been correlated with behavioral responses, rules, task variables and stimulus features. In the non-human primate, neurons recorded in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) have been found to respond to species-specific vocalizations. Previous studies have found multisensory neurons which respond to simultaneously presented faces and vocalizations in this region. Behavioral data suggests that face and vocal information are inextricably linked in animals and humans and therefore may also be tightly linked in the coding of communication calls in prefrontal neurons. In this study we therefore examined the role of VLPFC in encoding vocalization call type information. Specifically, we examined previously recorded single unit responses from the VLPFC in awake, behaving rhesus macaques in response to 3 types of species-specific vocalizations made by 3 individual callers. Analysis of responses by vocalization call type and caller identity showed that ∼19% of cells had a main effect of call type with fewer cells encoding caller. Classification performance of VLPFC neurons was ∼42% averaged across the population. When assessed at discrete time bins, classification performance reached 70 percent for coos in the first 300 ms and remained above chance for the duration of the response period, though performance was lower for other call types. In light of the sub-optimal classification performance of the majority of VLPFC neurons when only vocal information is present, and the recent evidence that most VLPFC neurons are multisensory, the potential enhancement of classification with the addition of accompanying face information is discussed and additional studies recommended. Behavioral and neuronal evidence has shown a considerable benefit in recognition and memory performance when faces and voices are presented simultaneously. In the natural environment both facial and vocalization information is present simultaneously and

  14. The prefrontal cortex shows context-specific changes in effective connectivity to motor or visual cortex during the selection of action or colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, James B.; Stephan, Klaas E.; Friston, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The role of the prefrontal cortex remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies support modality-specific and process-specific functions related to working memory and attention. Its role may also be defined by changes in its influence over other brain regions including sensory and motor cortex. We...... used functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) to study the free selection of actions and colours. Control conditions used externally specified actions and colours. The prefrontal cortex was activated during free selection, regardless of modality, in contrast to modality-specific activations outside...... included high-order interactions between modality, selection and regional activity. There was greater coupling between prefrontal cortex and motor cortex during free selection and action tasks, and between prefrontal cortex and visual cortex during free selection of colours. The results suggest...

  15. Right prefrontal TMS disrupts interregional anticipatory EEG alpha activity during shifting of visuospatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSauseng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention can be shifted in space without moving the eyes. Amplitude decrease of rhythmical brain activity around 10 Hz (so called alpha activity at contralateral posterior sites has been reported during covert shifts of visuospatial attention to one visual hemifield. Alpha amplitude increase, on the other hand, can be found at ipsilateral visual cortex. There is some evidence suggesting an involvement of prefrontal brain areas during the control of attention-related anticipatory alpha amplitude asymmetry. However, the exact neural mechanism by which prefrontal cortex influences visual processing has not been completely clear yet. This open question has been studied in detail using a multimodal approach combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and multichannel electroencephalography (EEG in healthy humans. Slow (1 Hz repetitive TMS inducing an inhibitory effect at the stimulation site was delivered either to right frontal eye field or a control site (vertex. Subsequently, participants had to perform a spatial cueing task in which covert shifts of attention were required to either the left or the right visual hemi-field. After stimulation at the vertex (control condition a pattern of anticipatory, attention-related ipsilateral alpha increase / contralateral alpha decrease over posterior recording sites could be obtained. Additionally, there was pronounced coupling between (in particular right FEF and posterior brain sites. When, however, the right prefrontal cortex had been virtually lesioned preceding the task, these EEG correlates of visuospatial attention were attenuated. Notably, the effect of TMS at the right FEF on interregional fronto-parietal alpha coupling predicted the effect on response times. This suggests that visual attention processes associated with posterior EEG alpha activity are at least partly top-down controlled by the prefrontal cortex.

  16. Prefrontal Structure Varies as a Function of Pain Symptoms in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke E; De Lange, Floris P; Schmits, Iris C; Geurts, Dirk E M; Roelofs, Karin; van der Meer, Jos W M; Toni, Ivan; Knoop, Hans

    2017-02-15

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe fatigue persisting for ≥6 months and leading to considerable impairment in daily functioning. Neuroimaging studies of patients with CFS have revealed alterations in prefrontal brain morphology. However, it remains to be determined whether these alterations are specific for fatigue or whether they relate to other common CFS symptoms (e.g., chronic pain, lower psychomotor speed, and reduced physical activity). We used magnetic resonance imaging to quantify gray matter volume (GMV) and the N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr) in a group of 89 women with CFS. Building on previous reports, we tested whether GMV and NAA/Cr in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are associated with fatigue severity, pain, psychomotor speed, and physical activity, while controlling for depressive symptoms. We also considered GMV and NAA/Cr differences between patients with CFS and 26 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls. The presence of pain symptoms was the main predictor of both GMV and NAA/Cr in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with CFS. More pain was associated with reduced GMVs and NAA/Cr, over and above the effects of fatigue, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and psychomotor speed. In contrast to previous reports and despite a large representative sample, global GMV did not differ between the CFS and healthy control groups. CFS, as diagnosed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, is not a clinical entity reliably associated with reduced GMV. Individual variation in the presence of pain, rather than fatigue, is associated with neuronal alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with CFS. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pedophilia is linked to reduced activation in hypothalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex during visual erotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin; Witzel, Joachim; Wiebking, Christine; Gubka, Udo; Rotte, Michael; Schiltz, Kolja; Bermpohl, Felix; Tempelmann, Claus; Bogerts, Bernhard; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Northoff, Georg

    2007-09-15

    Although pedophilia is of high public concern, little is known about underlying neural mechanisms. Although pedophilic patients are sexually attracted to prepubescent children, they show no sexual interest toward adults. This study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of deficits of sexual and emotional arousal in pedophiles. Thirteen pedophilic patients and 14 healthy control subjects were tested for differential neural activity during visual stimulation with emotional and erotic pictures with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions showing differential activations during the erotic condition comprised the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the latter correlating with a clinical measure. Alterations of emotional processing concerned the amygdala-hippocampus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Hypothesized regions relevant for processing of erotic stimuli in healthy individuals showed reduced activations during visual erotic stimulation in pedophilic patients. This suggests an impaired recruitment of key structures that might contribute to an altered sexual interest of these patients toward adults.

  18. Theta coupling between V4 and prefrontal cortex predicts visual short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Stefanie; Hoerzer, Gregor M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-01-29

    Short-term memory requires communication between multiple brain regions that collectively mediate the encoding and maintenance of sensory information. It has been suggested that oscillatory synchronization underlies intercortical communication. Yet, whether and how distant cortical areas cooperate during visual memory remains elusive. We examined neural interactions between visual area V4 and the lateral prefrontal cortex using simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings and single-unit activity (SUA) in monkeys performing a visual short-term memory task. During the memory period, we observed enhanced between-area phase synchronization in theta frequencies (3-9 Hz) of LFPs together with elevated phase locking of SUA to theta oscillations across regions. In addition, we found that the strength of intercortical locking was predictive of the animals' behavioral performance. This suggests that theta-band synchronization coordinates action potential communication between V4 and prefrontal cortex that may contribute to the maintenance of visual short-term memories.

  19. Phencyclidine administration during neurodevelopment alters network activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Hovelsø, Nanna; Dalby, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms of schizophrenia have been linked to insults during neurodevelopment such as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist exposure. In animal models, this leads to schizophrenia-like behavioral symptoms as well as molecular and functional changes within hippocampal and prefrontal regions. The aim of...... in the evolvement of schizophrenia-like symptoms and contribute to the understanding of the functional deficits underlying aberrant behavior in this disease.......Symptoms of schizophrenia have been linked to insults during neurodevelopment such as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist exposure. In animal models, this leads to schizophrenia-like behavioral symptoms as well as molecular and functional changes within hippocampal and prefrontal regions. The aim...... that NMDAR antagonist exposure during brain development alters functional networks within hippocampus and mPFC possibly contributing to the reported behavioral symptoms of this animal model of schizophrenia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that insults with a NMDA receptor antagonist during neurodevelopment lead...

  20. Early Prefrontal Brain Responses to the Hedonic Quality of Emotional Words – A Simultaneous EEG and MEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Kati; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rehbein, Maimu A.; Eden, Annuschka S.; Laeger, Inga; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80–120 ms), P2 (150–190 ms) and EPN component (200–300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed. We account for these effects in terms of an “emotional tagging” of word forms during language acquisition. These tags then give rise to different processing strategies, including enhanced lexical processing of positive words and a very fast language-independent alert response to negative words. The valence-specific recruitment of different networks might underlie fast adaptive responses to both approach- and withdrawal-related stimuli, be they acquired or biological. PMID:23940642

  1. Early prefrontal brain responses to the Hedonic quality of emotional words--a simultaneous EEG and MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Kati; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rehbein, Maimu A; Eden, Annuschka S; Laeger, Inga; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80-120 ms), P2 (150-190 ms) and EPN component (200-300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed. We account for these effects in terms of an "emotional tagging" of word forms during language acquisition. These tags then give rise to different processing strategies, including enhanced lexical processing of positive words and a very fast language-independent alert response to negative words. The valence-specific recruitment of different networks might underlie fast adaptive responses to both approach- and withdrawal-related stimuli, be they acquired or biological.

  2. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  3. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  4. Functional Connectivity Bias in the Prefrontal Cortex of Psychopaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Pujol, Jesus; Batalla, Iolanda; Harrison, Ben J; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deus, Joan; López-Solà, Marina; Macià, Dídac; Pera, Vanessa; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Pifarré, Josep; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcís

    2015-11-01

    Psychopathy is characterized by a distinctive interpersonal style that combines callous-unemotional traits with inflexible and antisocial behavior. Traditional emotion-based perspectives link emotional impairment mostly to alterations in amygdala-ventromedial frontal circuits. However, these models alone cannot explain why individuals with psychopathy can regularly benefit from emotional information when placed on their focus of attention and why they are more resistant to interference from nonaffective contextual cues. The present study aimed to identify abnormal or distinctive functional links between and within emotional and cognitive brain systems in the psychopathic brain to characterize further the neural bases of psychopathy. High-resolution anatomic magnetic resonance imaging with a functional sequence acquired in the resting state was used to assess 22 subjects with psychopathy and 22 control subjects. Anatomic and functional connectivity alterations were investigated first using a whole-brain analysis. Brain regions showing overlapping anatomic and functional changes were examined further using seed-based functional connectivity mapping. Subjects with psychopathy showed gray matter reduction involving prefrontal cortex, paralimbic, and limbic structures. Anatomic changes overlapped with areas showing increased degree of functional connectivity at the medial-dorsal frontal cortex. Subsequent functional seed-based connectivity mapping revealed a pattern of reduced functional connectivity of prefrontal areas with limbic-paralimbic structures and enhanced connectivity within the dorsal frontal lobe in subjects with psychopathy. Our results suggest that a weakened link between emotional and cognitive domains in the psychopathic brain may combine with enhanced functional connections within frontal executive areas. The identified functional alterations are discussed in the context of potential contributors to the inflexible behavior displayed by individuals with

  5. Power spectrum scale invariance identifies prefrontal dysregulation in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Anca R; Rubin, Denis; Strey, Helmut H; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2012-07-01

    Theory and experimental evidence suggest that complex living systems function close to the boundary of chaos, with erroneous organization to an improper dynamical range (too stiff or chaotic) underlying system-wide dysregulation and disease. We hypothesized that erroneous organization might therefore also characterize paranoid schizophrenia, via optimization abnormalities in the prefrontal-limbic circuit regulating emotion. To test this, we acquired fMRI scans from 35 subjects (N = 9 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and N = 26 healthy controls), while they viewed affect-valent stimuli. To quantify dynamic regulation, we analyzed the power spectrum scale invariance (PSSI) of fMRI time-courses and computed the geometry of time-delay (Poincaré) maps, a measure of variability. Patients and controls showed distinct PSSI in two clusters (k(1) : Z = 4.3215, P = 0.00002 and k(2) : Z = 3.9441, P = 0.00008), localized to the orbitofrontal/medial prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10), represented by β close to white noise in patients (β ≈ 0) and in the pink noise range in controls (β ≈ -1). Interpreting the meaning of PSSI differences, the Poincaré maps indicated less variability in patients than controls (Z = -1.9437, P = 0.05 for k(1) ; Z = -2.5099, P = 0.01 for k(2) ). That the dynamics identified Brodmann Area 10 is consistent with previous schizophrenia research, which implicates this area in deficits of working memory, executive functioning, emotional regulation and underlying biological abnormalities in synaptic (glutamatergic) transmission. Our results additionally cohere with a large body of work finding pink noise to be the normal range of central function at the synaptic, cellular, and small network levels, and suggest that patients show less supple responsivity of this region. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Dual-source computed tomography. Effect on regional and global left ventricular function assessment compared to magnetic resonance imaging; Untersuchung der regionalen und globalen linksventrikulaeren Funktion mit der Dual-Source-Computertomografie im Vergleich zur Magnetresonanztomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueders, F.; Seifarth, H.; Wessling, J.; Heindel, W.; Juergens, Kai Uwe [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Fischbach, R. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Neuroradiologie, Asklepios Klinik Altona (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to determine regional and global left ventricular (LV) functional parameters and to perform segmental wall thickness (SWT) and motion (WM) analysis of dual source CT (DSCT) with optimized temporal resolution versus MRI. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with known or suspected CAD, non-obstructive HCM, DCM, ARVCM, Fallot Tetralogy, cardiac sarcoidosis and cardiac metastasis underwent DSCT and MRI. The DSCT and MR images were evaluated: end-systolic (ESV), end-diastolic LV (EDV) volumes, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and myocardial mass (MM) as well as LV wall thickening and segmental WM applying the AHA model were obtained and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean LV-EDV (r = 0.96) and ESV (r = 0.98) as well as LV-EF (r = 0.97), SV (r = 0.83), and MM (r = 0.95) correlated well. Bland Altman analysis revealed little systematic underestimation of LV-EF (-1.1 {+-} 7.8%), EDV (-0.3 {+-} 18.2 ml), SV (-1.3 {+-} 16.7 ml) and little overestimation of ESV (1.1 {+-} 7.8 ml) and MM (12.8 {+-} 14.4 g) determined by DSCT. Systolic reconstruction time points correlated well (DSCT 32.2 {+-} 6.7 vs. MRI 35.6 {+-} 4.4% RR-interval). The LV wall thickness obtained by DSCT and MRI showed close correlation in all segments (diameter diff 0.42 {+-} 1 mm). In 413 segments (89%) WM abnormalities were equally rated, whereas DSCT tended to underestimate the degree of wall motion impairment. Conclusion: DSCT with optimized temporal resolution enables regional and global LV function analysis as well as segmental WM analysis in good correlation with MRI. However, the degree of WM impairment is slightly underestimated by DSCT. (orig.)

  7. Regional homogeneity and functional connectivity patterns in major depressive disorder, cognitive vulnerability to depression and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Luo, Lizhu; Yuan, Xinru; Zhang, Lu; He, Yini; Yao, Shuqiao; Wang, Jiaojian; Xiao, Jing

    2018-08-01

    Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns. Significant ReHo differences were found in right posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left lingual gyrus (LG) and precuneus. Compared to HC, CVD subjects showed increased ReHo in the PLC, which was similar to the difference found between MDD and HC. Compared to MDD patients, CVD subjects showed decreased ReHo in PLC, LG, and precuneus. R-FC analyses found increased functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in CVD compared to both HC and MDD. Moreover, Regional mean ReHo values were positively correlated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores. These analyses revealed that PLC and functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be a potential marker for CVD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrophysiological mapping of novel prefrontal - cerebellar pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Watson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the cerebellum is predominantly considered a sensorimotor control structure, accumulating evidence suggests that it may also subserve non motor functions during cognition. However, this possibility is not universally accepted, not least because the nature and pattern of links between higher cortical structures and the cerebellum are poorly characterized. We have therefore used in vivo electrophysiological methods in anaesthetized rats to directly investigate connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic subdivision, PrL and the cerebellum. Stimulation of deep layers of PrL evoked distinct field potentials in the cerebellar cortex with a mean latency to peak of approximately 35ms. These responses showed a well-defined topography, and were maximal in lobule VII of the contralateral vermis (a known oculomotor centre; they were not attenuated by local anesthesia of the overlying M2 motor cortex, though M2 stimulation did evoke field potentials in lobule VII with a shorter latency. Single-unit recordings showed that prelimbic cortical stimulation elicits complex spikes in lobule VII Purkinje cells, indicating transmission via a previously undescribed cerebro-olivocerebellar pathway. Our results therefore establish a physiological basis for communication between PrL and the cerebellum. The role(s of this pathway remain to be resolved, but presumably relate to control of eye movements and/or distributed networks associated with integrated prefrontal cortical functions.

  9. Comparison of Hemodynamic Responses in the Prefrontal Cortex According to Differences in Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Kazuki

    2017-07-01

    Although self-efficacy has been used extensively in the field of nursing (e.g., as an outcome measure of nursing interventions), its underlying nature is poorly understood. Investigation of the relationship between self-efficacy and brain activation will help explain the fundamental nature of self-efficacy. In this study, we compared prefrontal activation measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) across 89 undergraduate students categorized into three groups based on their General Self-Efficacy Scale scores: low self-efficacy ( n = 59), moderate self-efficacy ( n = 17), and high self-efficacy ( n = 13). Changes in the hemoglobin levels of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a verbal fluency task were assessed using two-channel NIRS. Significant differences in the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) level of the left PFC (LPFC) were observed via analysis of variance. Post hoc Tukey's test showed a significant difference only between low self-efficacy and moderate self-efficacy groups. We found a medium between-group effect size in the moderate self-efficacy group versus the low self-efficacy group for the changes in oxy-Hb levels of the LPFC ( d = .78; 95% confidence interval for effect size [0.22, 1.33]). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to changes in the oxy-Hb in the right PFC. The results indicate less left prefrontal activation in the low self-efficacy group than in the moderate self-efficacy group. These findings provide evidence to support the fundamental nature of self-efficacy.

  10. High social desirability and prefrontal cortical activity in cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Manabu; Juengling, Freimut D; Moser, Ernst; Reinhardt, Michael J; Kubota, Kazuo; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Hidetada; Nitzsche, Egbert U; Kumano, Hiroaki; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2003-04-01

    Social desirability is sometimes associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Psycho-neuro-immune interaction has been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism of the negative clinical outcome. Purpose of this study was to examine possible effects of high social desirability on the regional brain activity in patients with malignant diseases. Brain metabolism of 16 patients with various malignant diseases was measured by PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Patients were divided into 2 groups using median split on Marlowe & Crown's Social Desirability Scale (MC), controlling for age, gender, and for severity of depression and anxiety, the possible two major influential factors. A group comparison of the regional cerebral activity was calculated on a voxel-by-voxel basis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The subgroup comparison showed that the high social desirability was associated with relatively increased metabolism in the cortical regions in the prefrontal, temporal and occipital lobes as well as in the anterior cingulate gyrus. High social desirability seems to be associated with increased activity in the prefrontal and other cortical areas. The finding is in an accordance with previous studies that demonstrated an association between prefrontal damage and anti-social behavior. Functional neuroimaging seems to be useful not only for psychiatric evaluation of major factors such as depression and anxiety but also for further psychosocial factors in cancer patients.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence during episodic prospection implicates medial prefrontal and bilateral middle temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Fen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-08-01

    fMRI studies have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, components of the default mode network (DMN), in episodic prospection. This study compared quantitative EEG localized to these DMN regions during prospection and during resting and while waiting for rewards. EEG was recorded in twenty-two adults while they were asked to (i) envision future monetary episodes; (ii) wait for rewards and (iii) rest. Activation sources were localized to core DMN regions. EEG power and phase coherence were compared across conditions. Prospection, compared to resting and waiting, was associated with reduced power in the medial prefrontal gyrus and increased power in the bilateral medial temporal gyrus across frequency bands as well as greater phase synchrony between these regions in the delta band. The current quantitative EEG analysis confirms prior fMRI research suggesting that medial prefrontal and medial temporal gyrus interactions are central to the capacity for episodic prospection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Medial prefrontal cortex subserves diverse forms of self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Adrianna C; Mitchell, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    The ability to think about oneself--to self--reflect--is one of the defining features of the human mind. Recent research has suggested that this ability may be subserved by a particular brain region: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). However, although humans can contemplate a variety of different aspects of themselves, including their stable personality traits, current feelings, and physical attributes, no research has directly examined the extent to which these different forms of self-reflection are subserved by common mechanisms. To address this question, participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while making judgments about their own personality traits, current mental states, and physical attributes as well as those of another person. Whereas some brain regions responded preferentially during only one form of self-reflection, a robust region of MPFC was engaged preferentially during self-reflection across all three types of judgment. These results suggest that--although dissociable--diverse forms of self-referential thought draw on a shared cognitive process subserved by MPFC.

  13. Activation of 5-HT2 receptors enhances the release of acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sunila G; Gudelsky, Gary A

    2004-09-15

    The role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release was examined in the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus using in vivo microdialysis. The 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist +/-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) -2- aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the extracellular concentration of ACh in both brain regions, and this response was attenuated in rats treated with the 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) antagonist LY-53,857 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Treatment with LY-53,857 alone did not significantly alter ACh release in either brain region The 5-HT(2C) agonist 6-chloro-2-(1-piperazinyl)-pyrazine) (MK-212) (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly enhanced the release of ACh in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, whereas the 5-HT2 agonist mescaline (10 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a 2-fold increase in ACh release only in the prefrontal cortex. Intracortical, but not intrahippocampal, infusion of DOI (100 microM) significantly enhanced the release of ACh, and intracortical infusion of LY-53,857 (100 microM) significantly attenuated this response. These results suggest that the release of ACh in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is influenced by 5-HT2 receptor mechanisms. The increase in release of ACh induced by DOI in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus, appears to be due to 5-HT2 receptor mechanisms localized within this brain region. Furthermore, it appears that the prefrontal cortex is more sensitive than the dorsal hippocampus to the stimulatory effect of 5-HT2 agonists on ACh release.

  14. Prefrontal involvement in imitation learning of hand actions: effects of practice and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Stefan; Buccino, Giovanni; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Canessa, Nicola; Shah, N Jon; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fink, Gereon R

    2007-10-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, we demonstrate the effects of a single session of practising configural hand actions (guitar chords) on cortical activations during observation, motor preparation and imitative execution. During the observation of non-practised actions, the mirror neuron system (MNS), consisting of inferior parietal and ventral premotor areas, was more strongly activated than for the practised actions. This finding indicates a strong role of the MNS in the early stages of imitation learning. In addition, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was selectively involved during observation and motor preparation of the non-practised chords. This finding confirms Buccino et al.'s [Buccino, G., Vogt, S., Ritzl, A., Fink, G.R., Zilles, K., Freund, H.-J., Rizzolatti, G., 2004a. Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 42, 323-334] model of imitation learning: for actions that are not yet part of the observer's motor repertoire, DLPFC engages in operations of selection and combination of existing, elementary representations in the MNS. The pattern of prefrontal activations further supports Shallice's [Shallice, T., 2004. The fractionation of supervisory control. In: Gazzaniga, M.S. (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, Third edition. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 943-956] proposal of a dominant role of the left DLPFC in modulating lower level systems and of a dominant role of the right DLPFC in monitoring operations.

  15. Similar or different? The role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in similarity detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    Full Text Available Patients with frontal lobe syndrome can exhibit two types of abnormal behaviour when asked to place a banana and an orange in a single category: some patients categorize them at a concrete level (e.g., "both have peel", while others continue to look for differences between these objects (e.g., "one is yellow, the other is orange". These observations raise the question of whether abstraction and similarity detection are distinct processes involved in abstract categorization, and that depend on separate areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We designed an original experimental paradigm for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study involving healthy subjects, confirming the existence of two distinct processes relying on different prefrontal areas, and thus explaining the behavioural dissociation in frontal lesion patients. We showed that: 1 Similarity detection involves the anterior ventrolateral PFC bilaterally with a right-left asymmetry: the right anterior ventrolateral PFC is only engaged in detecting physical similarities; 2 Abstraction per se activates the left dorsolateral PFC.

  16. Prefrontal mediation of emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder during laughter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Ethofer, Thomas; Ritter, Jan; Weigel, Lena; Erb, Michael; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal. We found that reappraisal abolished the negative laughter interpretation bias in SAD and that this process was directly mediated through activation patterns of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) serving as a cerebral pivot between biased social perception and its normalization through reappraisal. Connectivity analyses revealed reduced prefrontal control over threat-processing sensory cortices (here: the temporal voice area) during cognitive emotion regulation in SAD. Our results indicate a central role for the left DLPFC in SAD which might represent a valuable target for future research on interventions either aiming to directly modulate cognitive emotion regulation in SAD or to evaluate its potential as physiological marker for psychotherapeutic interventions relying on emotion regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Khat distorts the prefrontal cortex histology and function of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khat is a psychoactive herbal drug of pronounced ethno-pharmacological significance often abused due to its unregulated use. It affects many brain centers including the prefrontal cortex which is the anterior most part of the frontal lobe. The prefrontal cortex modulates working memory, planning complex cognitive ...

  18. Implicit and Explicit Learning Mechanisms Meet in Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, Matthew V; Crowe, David A

    2017-10-11

    In this issue, Loonis et al. (2017) provide the first description of unique synchrony patterns differentiating implicit and explicit forms of learning in monkey prefrontal networks. Their results have broad implications for how prefrontal networks integrate the two learning mechanisms to control behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of rostral prefrontal cortex in prospective memory: a voxel-based lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volle, Emmanuelle; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Costello, Angela de Lacy; Gilbert, Sam J; Burgess, Paul W

    2011-07-01

    Patients with lesions in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) often experience problems in everyday-life situations requiring multitasking. A key cognitive component that is critical in multitasking situations is prospective memory, defined as the ability to carry out an intended action after a delay period filled with unrelated activity. The few functional imaging studies investigating prospective memory have shown consistent activation in both medial and lateral rostral PFC but also in more posterior prefrontal regions and non-frontal regions. The aim of this study was to determine regions that are necessary for prospective memory performance, using the human lesion approach. We designed an experimental paradigm allowing us to assess time-based (remembering to do something at a particular time) and event-based (remembering to do something in a particular situation) prospective memory, using two types of material, words and pictures. Time estimation tasks and tasks controlling for basic attention, inhibition and multiple instructions processing were also administered. We examined brain-behaviour relationships with a voxelwise lesion method in 45 patients with focal brain lesions and 107 control subjects using this paradigm. The results showed that lesions in the right polar prefrontal region (in Brodmann area 10) were specifically associated with a deficit in time-based prospective memory tasks for both words and pictures. This deficit could not be explained by impairments in basic attention, detection, inhibition or multiple instruction processing, and there was also no deficit in event-based prospective memory conditions. In addition to their prospective memory difficulties, these polar prefrontal patients were significantly impaired in time estimation ability compared to other patients. The same region was found to be involved using both words and pictures, suggesting that right rostral PFC plays a material nonspecific role in prospective memory. This is the first

  20. Nonlinear response of the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia as a function of variable attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Caforio, Grazia; Romano, Raffaella; Lobianco, Luciana; Fazio, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Latorre, Valeria; Sambataro, Fabio; Popolizio, Teresa; Nardini, Marcello; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormal prefrontal and cingulate activity during attentional control processing in schizophrenia. However, it is not clear how variation in attentional control load modulates activity within these brain regions in this brain disorder. The aim of this study in schizophrenia is to investigate the impact of increasing levels of attentional control processing on prefrontal and cingulate activity. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses of 16 outpatients with schizophrenia were compared with those of 21 healthy subjects while performing a task eliciting increasing levels of attentional control during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Results showed reduced behavioral performance in patients at greater attentional control levels. Imaging data indicated greater prefrontal activity at intermediate attentional control levels in patients but greater prefrontal and cingulate responses at high attentional control demands in controls. The BOLD activity profile of these regions in controls increased linearly with increasing cognitive loads, whereas in patients, it was nonlinear. Correlation analysis consistently showed differential region and load-specific relationships between brain activity and behavior in the 2 groups. These results indicate that varying attentional control load is associated in schizophrenia with load- and region-specific modification of the relationship between behavior and brain activity, possibly suggesting earlier saturation of cognitive capacity.

  1. Continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over the lateral prefrontal cortex alters reinforcement learning bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, D.V.M.; Ullsperger, M.; Jocham, G.; Neumann, J.; Klein, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is known to play a key role in higher-order cognitive functions. Recently, we showed that this brain region is active in reinforcement learning, during which subjects constantly have to integrate trial outcomes in order to optimize performance. To further elucidate the role of

  2. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Oka

    Full Text Available In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves, but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task. Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections.Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05, but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p < 0.05 in the right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p < 0.05 only in the right frontal eye field.Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  3. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Kouji; Takahashi, Hideki; Li, Shuguang; Sugimachi, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Kimihiko; Suda, Yoshihiro; Kato, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves), but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Research Design and Methods The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task). Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections. Results Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05), but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p right frontal eye field. Conclusions Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions

  4. Neuroticism is linked to microstructural left-right asymmetry of fronto-limbic fibre tracts in adolescents with opposite effects in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Vestergaard, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Baaré, William F C

    2018-06-01

    Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait that reflects a tendency to experience heightened negative affect and susceptibility to stress. Negative emotionality has been associated with fronto-limbic brain structures and connecting fibre tracts. The major fibre tracts connecting the frontal and limbic brain regions are the cingulum bundle and uncinate fasciculus. We previously found that healthy adults with higher neuroticism scores had decreased left relative to right fractional anisotropy (FA) of the cingulum. Both cingulum and uncinate fasciculus FA increases throughout childhood and into early adulthood. Since adolescence is associated with an increased incidence of anxiety and mood disorders, for which neuroticism is a known risk factor, the question arises whether the association between neuroticism and fronto-limbic white matter microstructure asymmetry is already present in children and adolescents or whether such relationship emerges during this age period. To address this question, we assessed 72 typically-developing 10-to-15 year-olds with diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner. Neuroticism was assessed with the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. FA and parallel and perpendicular diffusivity measures were extracted for cingulum, uncinate fasciculus as well as the white matter underlying the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Higher neuroticism scores were associated with decreased left relative to right cingulum FA in boys, while in girls, higher neuroticism scores were associated with increased left relative to right cingulum and ventromedial prefrontal white matter FA, indicating that there are sex differences in the neural correlates of neuroticism. Our findings suggest that the link between neuroticism and frontal-limbic white matter microstructure asymmetry likely predates early adolescence. Future studies need to elucidate the significance of the observed sex differences in the neural correlates of neuroticism

  5. Real-time monitoring prefrontal activities during online video game playing by functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Lei; Long, Kehong; Gong, Hui; Lei, Hao

    2018-02-16

    A growing body of literature has suggested that video game playing can induce functional and structural plasticity of the brain. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record prefrontal activities in 24 experienced game players when they played a massively multiplayer online battle arena video game, League of Legends (LOL), under naturalistic conditions. It was observed that game onset was associated with significant activations in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and concomitant deactivations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and frontal pole area (FPA). Game events, such as slaying an enemy and being slain by an enemy evoked region-specific time-locked hemodynamic/oxygenation responses in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It was proposed that the VLPFC activities during LOL playing are likely responses to visuo-motor task load of the game, while the DLPFC/FPA activities may be involved in the constant shifts of attentional states and allocation of cognitive resources required by game playing. The present study demonstrated that it is feasible to use fNIRS to monitor real-time prefrontal activity during online video game playing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Analgesic and Anxiolytic Effect of Souvenaid, a Novel Nutraceutical, Is Mediated by Alox15 Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, Suku-Maran; Herr, Deron R; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2017-10-01

    Pain and anxiety have a complex relationship and pain is known to share neurobiological pathways and neurotransmitters with anxiety. Top-down modulatory pathways of pain have been shown to originate from cortical and subcortical regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this study, a novel docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing nutraceutical, Souvenaid, was administered to mice with infraorbital nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain and behavioral responses recorded. Infraorbital nerve ligation resulted in increased face wash strokes of the face upon von Frey hair stimulation, indicating increased nociception. Part of this response involves general pain sensitization that is dependent on the CNS, since increased nociception was also found in the paws during the hot plate test. Mice receiving oral gavage of Souvenaid, a nutraceutical containing DHA; choline; and other cell membrane components, showed significantly reduced pain sensitization. The mechanism of Souvenaid's activity involves supraspinal antinociception, originating in the prefrontal cortex, since inhibition of the DHA-metabolizing enzyme 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in the prefrontal cortex attenuated the antinociceptive effect of Souvenaid. Alox15 inhibition also modulated anxiety behavior associated with pain after infraorbital nerve ligation. The effects of Souvenaid components and Alox15 on reducing central sensitization of pain may be due to strengthening of a known supraspinal antinociceptive pathway from the prefrontal cortex to the periaqueductal gray. Together, results indicate the importance of the prefrontal cortex and DHA/Alox15 in central antinociceptive pathways and suggest that Souvenaid may be a novel therapeutic for neuropathic pain.

  7. Predicting Treatment Outcomes from Prefrontal Cortex Activation for Self-Harming Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Charles Ruocco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-harm is a potentially lethal symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD that often improves with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT. While DBT is effective for reducing self-harm in many patients with BPD, a small but significant number of patients either does not improve in treatment or ends treatment prematurely. Accordingly, it is crucial to identify factors that may prospectively predict which patients are most likely to benefit from and remain in treatment. In the present preliminary study, twenty-nine actively self-harming patients with BPD completed brain-imaging procedures probing activation of the prefrontal cortex during impulse control prior to beginning DBT and after seven months of treatment. Patients that reduced their frequency of self-harm the most over treatment displayed lower levels of neural activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex prior to beginning treatment, and they showed the greatest increases in activity within this region after seven months of treatment. Prior to starting DBT, treatment non-completers demonstrated greater activation than treatment-completers in the medial prefrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus. Reductions in self-harm over the treatment period were associated with increases in activity in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex even after accounting for improvements in depression, mania, and BPD symptom severity. These findings suggest that pre-treatment patterns of activation in the prefrontal cortex underlying impulse control may be prospectively associated with improvements in self-harm and treatment attrition for patients with BPD treated with DBT.

  8. Association of Oxytocin and Parental Prefrontal Activation during Reunion with Infant: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

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    Jun Ito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have revealed the role of oxytocin (OT in parental behavior, the role of OT has not been investigated through the direct assessment of prefrontal brain activation during parenting. By using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to show the relationship between parental [maternal (N = 15 and paternal (N = 21] OT levels and the activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, while holding their infants after separation. Baseline OT levels were measured in the subjects’ saliva samples before the experiment. Prefrontal brain activation was assessed in participants sitting alone on a chair (i.e., separation from their infant for 120 s and during the target period (i.e., holding their infant for 45 s, which was done in triplicate. The oxygen hemoglobin (oxy-Hb dissociation curve significantly increased in 9 out of 22 channels on the PFC when maternal and paternal samples were combined. However, only the fathers showed a correlation between salivary OT and oxy-Hb signal. Furthermore, while holding their infants, high-OT fathers showed left hemispheric dominance compared to low-OT fathers, while high-OT mothers showed right hemispheric dominance compared to low-OT mothers. This study showed that fathers with high-OT levels showed neural activation with left hemispheric dominance, while holding their infants, suggesting that increase of OT level might activate paternal PFC related to parenting behavior, although the same is not true for mothers.

  9. Gustatory imagery reveals functional connectivity from the prefrontal to insular cortices traced with magnetoencephalography.

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    Kobayashi, Masayuki; Sasabe, Tetsuya; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Our experience and prejudice concerning food play an important role in modulating gustatory information processing; gustatory memory stored in the central nervous system influences gustatory information arising from the peripheral nervous system. We have elucidated the mechanism of the "top-down" modulation of taste perception in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and demonstrated that gustatory imagery is mediated by the prefrontal (PFC) and insular cortices (IC). However, the temporal order of activation of these brain regions during gustatory imagery is still an open issue. To explore the source of "top-down" signals during gustatory imagery tasks, we analyzed the temporal activation patterns of activated regions in the cerebral cortex using another non-invasive brain imaging technique, magnetoencephalography (MEG). Gustatory imagery tasks were presented by words (Letter G-V) or pictures (Picture G-V) of foods/beverages, and participants were requested to recall their taste. In the Letter G-V session, 7/9 (77.8%) participants showed activation in the IC with a latency of 401.7±34.7 ms (n = 7) from the onset of word exhibition. In 5/7 (71.4%) participants who exhibited IC activation, the PFC was activated prior to the IC at a latency of 315.2±56.5 ms (n = 5), which was significantly shorter than the latency to the IC activation. In the Picture G-V session, the IC was activated in 6/9 (66.7%) participants, and only 1/9 (11.1%) participants showed activation in the PFC. There was no significant dominance between the right and left IC or PFC during gustatory imagery. These results support those from our previous fMRI study in that the Letter G-V session rather than the Picture G-V session effectively activates the PFC and IC and strengthen the hypothesis that the PFC mediates "top-down" control of retrieving gustatory information from the storage of long-term memories and in turn activates the IC.

  10. Gustatory imagery reveals functional connectivity from the prefrontal to insular cortices traced with magnetoencephalography.

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    Masayuki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Our experience and prejudice concerning food play an important role in modulating gustatory information processing; gustatory memory stored in the central nervous system influences gustatory information arising from the peripheral nervous system. We have elucidated the mechanism of the "top-down" modulation of taste perception in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and demonstrated that gustatory imagery is mediated by the prefrontal (PFC and insular cortices (IC. However, the temporal order of activation of these brain regions during gustatory imagery is still an open issue. To explore the source of "top-down" signals during gustatory imagery tasks, we analyzed the temporal activation patterns of activated regions in the cerebral cortex using another non-invasive brain imaging technique, magnetoencephalography (MEG. Gustatory imagery tasks were presented by words (Letter G-V or pictures (Picture G-V of foods/beverages, and participants were requested to recall their taste. In the Letter G-V session, 7/9 (77.8% participants showed activation in the IC with a latency of 401.7±34.7 ms (n = 7 from the onset of word exhibition. In 5/7 (71.4% participants who exhibited IC activation, the PFC was activated prior to the IC at a latency of 315.2±56.5 ms (n = 5, which was significantly shorter than the latency to the IC activation. In the Picture G-V session, the IC was activated in 6/9 (66.7% participants, and only 1/9 (11.1% participants showed activation in the PFC. There was no significant dominance between the right and left IC or PFC during gustatory imagery. These results support those from our previous fMRI study in that the Letter G-V session rather than the Picture G-V session effectively activates the PFC and IC and strengthen the hypothesis that the PFC mediates "top-down" control of retrieving gustatory information from the storage of long-term memories and in turn activates the IC.

  11. Atypical prefrontal cortical responses to joint/non-joint attention in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

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    Zhu, Huilin; Li, Jun; Fan, Yuebo; Li, Xinge; Huang, Dan; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder, characterized by impairments in one’s capacity for joint attention. In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was applied to study the differences in activation and functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children. 21 ASD and 20 TD children were recruited to perform joint and non-joint attention tasks. Compared with TD children, children with ASD showed reduced activation and atypical functional connectivity pattern in the prefrontal cortex during joint attention. The atypical development of left prefrontal cortex might play an important role in social cognition defects of children with ASD. PMID:25798296

  12. Common and dissociable prefrontal loci associated with component mechanisms of analogical reasoning.

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    Cho, Soohyun; Moody, Teena D; Fernandino, Leonardo; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A; Cannon, Tyrone D; Knowlton, Barbara J; Holyoak, Keith J

    2010-03-01

    The ability to draw analogies requires 2 key cognitive processes, relational integration and resolution of interference. The present study aimed to identify the neural correlates of both component processes of analogical reasoning within a single, nonverbal analogy task using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants verified whether a visual analogy was true by considering either 1 or 3 relational dimensions. On half of the trials, there was an additional need to resolve interference in order to make a correct judgment. Increase in the number of dimensions to integrate was associated with increased activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex as well as lateral frontal pole in both hemispheres. When there was a need to resolve interference during reasoning, activation increased in the lateral prefrontal cortex but not in the frontal pole. We identified regions in the middle and inferior frontal gyri which were exclusively sensitive to demands on each component process, in addition to a partial overlap between these neural correlates of each component process. These results indicate that analogical reasoning is mediated by the coordination of multiple regions of the prefrontal cortex, of which some are sensitive to demands on only one of these 2 component processes, whereas others are sensitive to both.

  13. The default modes of reading: Modulation of posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex connectivity associated with subjective and objective differences in reading experience

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    Jonathan eSmallwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a fundamental human capacity and yet it can easily be derailed by the simple act of mind-wandering. A large-scale brain network, referred to as the default mode network (DMN, has been shown to be involved in both mind-wandering and reading, raising the question as to how the same neural system could be implicated in processes with both costs and benefits to narrative comprehension. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to explore whether the intrinsic functional connectivity of the two key midline hubs of the DMN — the posterior cingulate (PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC — was predictive of individual differences in reading effectiveness (better comprehension, superior and task focus recorded outside of the scanner. Worse comprehension was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and a region of the ventral striatum. By contrast reports of increasing task focus were associated with functional connectivity from the aMPFC to clusters in the PCC, the left parietal and temporal cortex, and the cerebellum. Our results suggest that the DMN has both costs (such as poor comprehension and benefits to reading (such as an on-task focus because its midline core can couple its activity with other regions to form distinct functional communities that allow seemingly opposing mental states to occur. This flexible coupling allows the DMN to participate in cognitive states that complement the act of reading as well as others that do not.

  14. The topology of connections between rat prefrontal and temporal cortices

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    Stacey eBedwell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the structural organisation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is an important step towards determining its functional organisation. Here we investigated the organisation of PFC using different neuronal tracers. We injected retrograde (Fluoro-Gold, 100nl and anterograde (Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA or Fluoro-Ruby, 100nl tracers into sites within PFC subdivisions (prelimbic, ventral orbital, ventrolateral orbital, dorsolateral orbital along a coronal axis within PFC. At each injection site one injection was made of the anterograde tracer and one injection was made of the retrograde tracer. The projection locations of retrogradely labelled neurons and anterogradely labelled axon terminals were then analysed in the temporal cortex: area Te, entorhinal and perirhinal cortex. We found evidence for an ordering of both the anterograde (anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes: p<0.001 and retrograde (anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes: p<0.001 connections of PFC. We observed that anterograde and retrograde labelling in ipsilateral temporal cortex (i.e. PFC inputs and outputs often occurred reciprocally (i.e. the same brain region, such as area 35d in perirhinal cortex, contained anterograde and retrograde labelling. However, often the same specific columnar temporal cortex regions contained only either labelling of retrograde or anterograde tracer, indicating that PFC inputs and outputs are frequently non-matched.

  15. Integration of auditory and visual communication information in the primate ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

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    Sugihara, Tadashi; Diltz, Mark D; Averbeck, Bruno B; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2006-10-25

    The integration of auditory and visual stimuli is crucial for recognizing objects, communicating effectively, and navigating through our complex world. Although the frontal lobes are involved in memory, communication, and language, there has been no evidence that the integration of communication information occurs at the single-cell level in the frontal lobes. Here, we show that neurons in the macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) integrate audiovisual communication stimuli. The multisensory interactions included both enhancement and suppression of a predominantly auditory or a predominantly visual response, although multisensory suppression was the more common mode of response. The multisensory neurons were distributed across the VLPFC and within previously identified unimodal auditory and visual regions (O'Scalaidhe et al., 1997; Romanski and Goldman-Rakic, 2002). Thus, our study demonstrates, for the first time, that single prefrontal neurons integrate communication information from the auditory and visual domains, suggesting that these neurons are an important node in the cortical network responsible for communication.

  16. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

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    Jiliang Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zhongwan (CV12 were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation.

  17. The Interplay of Hippocampus and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Memory-Based Decision Making

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    Regina A. Weilbächer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory and value-based decision making are two central and intensively studied research domains in cognitive neuroscience, but we are just beginning to understand how they interact to enable memory-based decisions. The two br