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Sample records for left panoramic camera

  1. IMAGE ACQUISITION CONSTRAINTS FOR PANORAMIC FRAME CAMERA IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kauhanen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an approach to quantify the amount of projective error produced by an offset of projection centres in a panoramic imaging workflow. We have limited this research to such panoramic workflows in which several sub-images using planar image sensor are taken and then stitched together as a large panoramic image mosaic. The aim is to simulate how large the offset can be before it introduces significant error to the dataset. The method uses geometrical analysis to calculate the error in various cases. Constraints for shooting distance, focal length and the depth of the area of interest are taken into account. Considering these constraints, it is possible to safely use even poorly calibrated panoramic camera rig with noticeable offset in projection centre locations. The aim is to create datasets suited for photogrammetric reconstruction. Similar constraints can be used also for finding recommended areas from the image planes for automatic feature matching and thus improve stitching of sub-images into full panoramic mosaics. The results are mainly designed to be used with long focal length cameras where the offset of projection centre of sub-images can seem to be significant but on the other hand the shooting distance is also long. We show that in such situations the error introduced by the offset of the projection centres results only in negligible error when stitching a metric panorama. Even if the main use of the results is with cameras of long focal length, they are feasible for all focal lengths.

  2. Measurement methods and accuracy analysis of Chang'E-5 Panoramic Camera installation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Tan, Xu; Wang, Wenrui; Chen, Wangli; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Li, Chunlai

    2016-04-01

    Chang'E-5 (CE-5) is a lunar probe for the third phase of China Lunar Exploration Project (CLEP), whose main scientific objectives are to implement lunar surface sampling and to return the samples back to the Earth. To achieve these goals, investigation of lunar surface topography and geological structure within sampling area seems to be extremely important. The Panoramic Camera (PCAM) is one of the payloads mounted on CE-5 lander. It consists of two optical systems which installed on a camera rotating platform. Optical images of sampling area can be obtained by PCAM in the form of a two-dimensional image and a stereo images pair can be formed by left and right PCAM images. Then lunar terrain can be reconstructed based on photogrammetry. Installation parameters of PCAM with respect to CE-5 lander are critical for the calculation of exterior orientation elements (EO) of PCAM images, which is used for lunar terrain reconstruction. In this paper, types of PCAM installation parameters and coordinate systems involved are defined. Measurement methods combining camera images and optical coordinate observations are studied for this work. Then research contents such as observation program and specific solution methods of installation parameters are introduced. Parametric solution accuracy is analyzed according to observations obtained by PCAM scientifically validated experiment, which is used to test the authenticity of PCAM detection process, ground data processing methods, product quality and so on. Analysis results show that the accuracy of the installation parameters affects the positional accuracy of corresponding image points of PCAM stereo images within 1 pixel. So the measurement methods and parameter accuracy studied in this paper meet the needs of engineering and scientific applications. Keywords: Chang'E-5 Mission; Panoramic Camera; Installation Parameters; Total Station; Coordinate Conversion

  3. RELATIVE PANORAMIC CAMERA POSITION ESTIMATION FOR IMAGE-BASED VIRTUAL REALITY NETWORKS IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakagawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Image-based virtual reality (VR is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  4. Selecting the geology filter wavelengths for the ExoMars Panoramic Camera instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Cousins, C. R.; Gunn, M.; Prosser, B. J.; Barnes, D. P.; Crawford, I. A.; Griffiths, A. D.; Davis, L. E.; Coates, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Panoramic Camera (PanCam) instrument will provide surface remote sensing data for the ExoMars mission. A combination of wide-angle stereo, multispectral, and high resolution imagery will generate contextual geological information to help inform which scientific targets should be selected for drilling and analysis. One component of the PanCam dataset is narrowband multispectral imaging in the visible to near infrared, which utilises a dedicated set of 12 “geology” filters of predetermined ...

  5. Trajectories and Maneuvers of Surrounding Vehicles with Panoramic Camera Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    four visual sensors for a full surround view of a vehicle in order to achieve an understanding of surrounding vehicle behaviors. The framework will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies by automating the task of data reduction of the observed trajectories. To this end, trajectories......Vision-based research for intelligent vehicles have traditionally focused on specific regions around a vehicle, such as a front looking camera for, e.g., lane estimation. Traffic scenes are complex and vital information could be lost in unobserved regions. This paper proposes a framework that uses...... are estimated using a vehicle detector together with a multiperspective optimized tracker in each view. The trajectories are transformed to a common ground plane, where they are associated between perspectives and analyzed to reveal tendencies around the ego-vehicle. The system is tested on sequences from 2.5 h...

  6. PANIC: A General-purpose Panoramic Near-infrared Camera for the Calar Alto Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Vázquez, M.-C.; Dorner, B.; Huber, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Alter, M.; Rodríguez Gómez, J. F.; Bizenberger, P.; Naranjo, V.; Ibáñez Mengual, J.-M.; Panduro, J.; García Segura, A. J.; Mall, U.; Fernández, M.; Laun, W.; Ferro Rodríguez, I. M.; Helmling, J.; Terrón, V.; Meisenheimer, K.; Fried, J. W.; Mathar, R. J.; Baumeister, H.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Storz, C.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Bouy, H.; Ubierna, M.; Fopp, P.; Funke, B.

    2018-02-01

    PANIC7 is the new PAnoramic Near-Infrared Camera for Calar Alto and is a project jointly developed by the MPIA in Heidelberg, Germany, and the IAA in Granada, Spain, for the German-Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA; Almería, Spain). This new instrument works with the 2.2 m and 3.5 m CAHA telescopes covering a field of view of 30 × 30 arcmin and 15 × 15 arcmin, respectively, with a sampling of 4096 × 4096 pixels. It is designed for the spectral bands from Z to K S , and can also be equipped with narrowband filters. The instrument was delivered to the observatory in 2014 October and was commissioned at both telescopes between 2014 November and 2015 June. Science verification at the 2.2 m telescope was carried out during the second semester of 2015 and the instrument is now at full operation. We describe the design, assembly, integration, and verification process, the final laboratory tests and the PANIC instrument performance. We also present first-light data obtained during the commissioning and preliminary results of the scientific verification. The final optical model and the theoretical performance of the camera were updated according to the as-built data. The laboratory tests were made with a star simulator. Finally, the commissioning phase was done at both telescopes to validate the camera real performance on sky. The final laboratory test confirmed the expected camera performances, complying with the scientific requirements. The commissioning phase on sky has been accomplished.

  7. A new star tracker concept for satellite attitude determination based on a multi-purpose panoramic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele; Pernechele, Claudio; Dionisio, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative algorithm developed for attitude determination of a space platform. The algorithm exploits images taken from a multi-purpose panoramic camera equipped with hyper-hemispheric lens and used as star tracker. The sensor architecture is also original since state-of-the-art star trackers accurately image as many stars as possible within a narrow- or medium-size field-of-view, while the considered sensor observes an extremely large portion of the celestial sphere but its observation capabilities are limited by the features of the optical system. The proposed original approach combines algorithmic concepts, like template matching and point cloud registration, inherited from the computer vision and robotic research fields, to carry out star identification. The final aim is to provide a robust and reliable initial attitude solution (lost-in-space mode), with a satisfactory accuracy level in view of the multi-purpose functionality of the sensor and considering its limitations in terms of resolution and sensitivity. Performance evaluation is carried out within a simulation environment in which the panoramic camera operation is realistically reproduced, including perturbations in the imaged star pattern. Results show that the presented algorithm is able to estimate attitude with accuracy better than 1° with a success rate around 98% evaluated by densely covering the entire space of the parameters representing the camera pointing in the inertial space.

  8. Novel Airborne Video Sensors. Super-Resolution Multi-Camera Panoramic Imaging System for UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negahdaripour, Shahriar

    2004-01-01

    ... by computer simulations, with/without supplementary gyro and GPS. How various system parameters impact the achievable precision of panoramic system in 3-D terrain feature localization and UAV motion estimation is determined for the A=0.5-2 KM...

  9. Only Image Based for the 3d Metric Survey of Gothic Structures by Using Frame Cameras and Panoramic Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ramos, A.; Robleda Prieto, G.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor Gothic apse provides a complex environment for virtualization using imaging techniques due to its light conditions and architecture. Light entering throw large windows in combination with the apse shape makes difficult to find proper conditions to photo capture for reconstruction purposes. Thus, documentation techniques based on images are usually replaced by scanning techniques inside churches. Nevertheless, the need to use Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for indoor virtualization means a significant increase in the final surveying cost. So, in most cases, scanning techniques are used to generate dense point clouds. However, many Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) internal cameras are not able to provide colour images or cannot reach the image quality that can be obtained using an external camera. Therefore, external quality images are often used to build high resolution textures of these models. This paper aims to solve the problem posted by virtualizing indoor Gothic churches, making that task more affordable using exclusively techniques base on images. It reviews a previous proposed methodology using a DSRL camera with 18-135 lens commonly used for close range photogrammetry and add another one using a HDR 360° camera with four lenses that makes the task easier and faster in comparison with the previous one. Fieldwork and office-work are simplified. The proposed methodology provides photographs in such a good conditions for building point clouds and textured meshes. Furthermore, the same imaging resources can be used to generate more deliverables without extra time consuming in the field, for instance, immersive virtual tours. In order to verify the usefulness of the method, it has been decided to apply it to the apse since it is considered one of the most complex elements of Gothic churches and it could be extended to the whole building.

  10. a Low-Cost Panoramic Camera for the 3d Documentation of Contaminated Crime Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Toschi, I.; Sturdy-Colls, C.; Remondino, F.

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene documentation is a fundamental task which has to be undertaken in a fast, accurate and reliable way, highlighting evidence which can be further used for ensuring justice for victims and for guaranteeing the successful prosecution of perpetrators. The main focus of this paper is on the documentation of a typical crime scene and on the rapid recording of any possible contamination that could have influenced its original appearance. A 3D reconstruction of the environment is first generated by processing panoramas acquired with the low-cost Ricoh Theta 360 camera, and further analysed to highlight potentials and limits of this emerging and consumer-grade technology. Then, a methodology is proposed for the rapid recording of changes occurring between the original and the contaminated crime scene. The approach is based on an automatic 3D feature-based data registration, followed by a cloud-to-cloud distance computation, given as input the 3D point clouds generated before and after e.g. the misplacement of evidence. All the algorithms adopted for panoramas pre-processing, photogrammetric 3D reconstruction, 3D geometry registration and analysis, are presented and currently available in open-source or low-cost software solutions.

  11. Panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.H.; Kircher, D.R.; Hart, F.W.; Ciavattoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for improving the handling rate of patients in panoramic dental radiography when tube head-camera assembly of a low silhouette panoramic dental X-ray machine is rotated for a scan in one direction only. This is effected by fast return of the tube head-camera assembly with its simultaneous elevation, thus facilitating the radiographed patient's exit from the machine and the entrance of another patient. Fast speed is about twice the scanning speed. (author)

  12. Stereo-panoramic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Cutchin, Steve

    2013-03-07

    Systems and methods for automatically generating three-dimensional panoramic images for use in various virtual reality settings are disclosed. One embodiment of the system includes a stereo camera capture device (SCD), a programmable camera controller (PCC) that rotates, orients, and controls the SCD, a robotic maneuvering platform (RMP), and a path and adaptation controller (PAC). In that embodiment, the PAC determines the movement of the system based on an original desired path and input gathered from the SCD during an image capture process.

  13. Automatic Thermal Infrared Panoramic Imaging Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset...

  14. Automatic panoramic thermal integrated sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Mikhail A.; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga N.

    2005-05-01

    Historically, the US Army has recognized the advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution: increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The novel ViperViewTM high-resolution panoramic thermal imager is the heart of the Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) in support of the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the Intelligent Munitions Systems (IMS). The APTIS is anticipated to operate as an intelligent node in a wireless network of multifunctional nodes that work together to improve situational awareness (SA) in many defense and offensive operations, as well as serve as a sensor node in tactical Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR). The ViperView is as an aberration-corrected omnidirectional imager with small optics designed to match the resolution of a 640x480 pixels IR camera with improved image quality for longer range target detection, classification, and tracking. The same approach is applicable to panoramic cameras working in the visible spectral range. Other components of the ATPIS sensor suite include ancillary sensors, advanced power management, and wakeup capability. This paper describes the development status of the APTIS system.

  15. Strategies for Characterizing the Sensory Environment: Objective and Subjective Evaluation Methods using the VisiSonic Real Space 64/5 Audio-Visual Panoramic Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    distribution is unlimited. 17 6.1 Batch Processing of Beamformers To execute batch commands under the Windows operating system , first open a command...ecological frequency project was the first full-field deployment of the VRAP. By using this auxiliary system the operators would have a record of the...camera. Once satisfied that a camera was operational , the new window was closed and the next camera on the list was checked in the same manner

  16. Thermal infrared panoramic imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-05-01

    Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset control, security including port security, perimeter security, video surveillance, border control, airport security, coastguard operations, search and rescue, intrusion detection, and many others. Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence of target detection, and enables both man-in-the-loop and fully automated system operation. Thermal imaging provides the benefits of all-weather, 24-hour day/night operation with no downtime. In addition, thermal signatures of different target types facilitate better classification, beyond the limits set by camera's spatial resolution. The useful range of catadioptric panoramic cameras is affected by their limited resolution. In many existing systems the resolution is optics-limited. Reflectors customarily used in catadioptric imagers introduce aberrations that may become significant at large camera apertures, such as required in low-light and thermal imaging. Advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution include increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) combines the strengths of improved, high-resolution panoramic optics with thermal imaging in the 8 - 14 micron spectral range, leveraged by intelligent video processing for automated detection, location, and tracking of moving targets. The work in progress supports the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the

  17. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small ... limitations of Panoramic X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is ...

  18. Experiments in interactive panoramic cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.; Anderson, Steve; Ruiz, Susana; Naimark, Michael; Hoberman, Perry; Bolas, Mark; Weinberg, Richard

    2005-03-01

    For most of the past 100 years, cinema has been the premier medium for defining and expressing relations to the visible world. However, cinematic spectacles delivered in darkened theaters are predicated on a denial of both the body and the physical surroundings of the spectators who are watching it. To overcome these deficiencies, filmmakers have historically turned to narrative, seducing audiences with compelling stories and providing realistic characters with whom to identify. This paper describes several research projects in interactive panoramic cinema that attempt to sidestep the narrative preoccupations of conventional cinema and instead are based on notions of space, movement and embodied spectatorship rather than traditional storytelling. Example projects include interactive works developed with the use of a unique 360 degree camera and editing system, and also development of panoramic imagery for a large projection environment with 14 screens on 3 adjacent walls in a 5-4-5 configuration with observations and findings from an experiment projecting panoramic video on 12 of the 14, in a 4-4-4 270 degree configuration.

  19. Interpretation of panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perschbacher, Susanne

    2012-03-01

    Panoramic radiography has become a commonly used imaging modality in dental practice and can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the dentist's armamentarium. However, the panoramic image is a complex projection of the jaws with multiple superimpositions and distortions which may be exacerbated by technical errors in image acquisition. Furthermore, the panoramic radiograph depicts numerous anatomic structures outside of the jaws which may create additional interpretation challenges. Successful interpretation of panoramic radiographs begins with an understanding of the normal anatomy of the head and neck and how it is depicted in this image type. This article will describe how osseous structures, soft tissues, air spaces and ghost shadows contribute to the final panoramic image. A systematic and repeated approach to examining panoramic radiographs, which is recommended to ensure that critical findings are not overlooked, is also outlined. Examples of challenging interpretations, including variations of anatomy, artefacts and disease, are presented to illustrate these concepts. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  20. A Novel Mapping System for Panoramic Mapping of the Left Atrium: Application to Detect and Characterize Localized Sources Maintaining Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarbakhsh, Shohreh; Schilling, Richard J; Dhillon, Gurpreet; Ullah, Waqas; Keating, Emily; Providencia, Rui; Chow, Anthony; Earley, Mark J; Hunter, Ross J

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to use a novel panoramic mapping system (CARTOFINDER) to detect and characterize drivers in persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Mechanisms sustaining persistent AF remain uncertain. Patients undergoing catheter ablation for persistent AF were included. A 64-pole basket catheter was used to acquire unipolar signals, which were processed by the mapping system to generate wavefront propagation maps. The system was used to identify and characterize potential drivers in AF pre- and post-pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. The effect of ablation on drivers identified post-PV isolation was assessed. Twenty patients were included in the study with 112 CARTOFINDER maps created. Potential drivers were mapped in 19 of 20 patients with AF (damage to the basket and noise on electrograms was present in 1 patient). Thirty potential drivers were identified all of which were transient but repetitive; 19 were rotational and 11 focal. Twenty-six drivers were ablated with a predefined response in 22 of 26 drivers: AF terminated with 12 and cycle length slowed (≥30 ms) with 10. Drivers with rotational activation were predominantly mapped to sites of low-voltage zones (81.8%). PV isolation had no remarkable impact on the cycle length at the driver sites (138.4 ± 14.3 ms pre-PV isolation vs. 137.2 ± 15.2 ms post-PV isolation) and drivers that had also been identified on pre-PV isolation maps were more commonly associated with AF termination. Drivers were identified in almost all patients in the form of intermittent but repetitive focal or rotational activation patterns. The mechanistic importance of these phenomena was confirmed by the response to ablation.

  1. Panoramic lens applications revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Simon

    2008-04-01

    During the last few years, innovative optical design strategies to generate and control image mapping have been successful in producing high-resolution digital imagers and projectors. This new generation of panoramic lenses includes catadioptric panoramic lenses, panoramic annular lenses, visible/IR fisheye lenses, anamorphic wide-angle attachments, and visible/IR panomorph lenses. Given that a wide-angle lens images a large field of view on a limited number of pixels, a systematic pixel-to-angle mapping will help the efficient use of each pixel in the field of view. In this paper, we present several modern applications of these modern types of hemispheric lenses. Recently, surveillance and security applications have been proposed and published in Security and Defence symposium. However, modern hemispheric lens can be used in many other fields. A panoramic imaging sensor contributes most to the perception of the world. Panoramic lenses are now ready to be deployed in many optical solutions. Covered applications include, but are not limited to medical imaging (endoscope, rigiscope, fiberscope...), remote sensing (pipe inspection, crime scene investigation, archeology...), multimedia (hemispheric projector, panoramic image...). Modern panoramic technologies allow simple and efficient digital image processing and the use of standard image analysis features (motion estimation, segmentation, object tracking, pattern recognition) in the complete 360° hemispheric area.

  2. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: Panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Pillai Devu; Varma, Nilambur Kovilakam Sapna; Ajith, Vallikat Velath [Dept. of Orthodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging in measuring the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles with the angles determined using a lateral cephalogram of adult patients with class I malocclusion. The gonial angles of 50 class I malocclusion patients (25 males and 25 females; mean age: 23 years) were measured using both a lateral cephalogram and a panoramic radiograph. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane. In the panoramic radiographs, the gonial angle was measured by drawing a line tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle on both sides. The data obtained from both radiographs were statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was observed between the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms and that determined using the panoramic radiographs. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in the measured gonial angle with respect to gender. The results also showed a statistically insignificant difference in the mean of the right and the left gonial angles measured using the panoramic radiographs. As the gonial angle measurements using panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms showed no statistically significant difference, panoramic radiography can be considered in orthodontics for measuring the gonial angle without any interference due to superimposed images.

  3. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  4. Panoramic dental X-ray machine X-motion drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.H.; Flynn, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A panoramic dental x-ray machine is described which provides continuous and discontinuous radiographic images of the dental arch area of a patient. The systems for moving the chair and the column which carries the x-ray source and camera are specified. (U.K.)

  5. Prediction of left main or 3-vessel disease using myocardial perfusion reserve on dynamic thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography with a semiconductor gamma camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Shinya; Sakamoto, Fumi; Tsuda, Noriko; Yoshida, Morikatsu; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Ogawa, Hisao; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) may fail to detect balanced ischemia. We evaluated myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) using Tl dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and a novel cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) camera for predicting 3-vessel or left main coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 55 consecutive patients with suspected CAD underwent SPECT-MPI and coronary angiography. The MPR index was calculated using the standard 2-compartment kinetic model. We analyzed the utility of MPR index, other SPECT findings, and various clinical variables. On multivariate analysis, MPR index and history of previous myocardial infarction (MI) predicted left main and 3-vessel disease. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81 for MPR index, 0.699 for history of previous MI, and 0.86 for MPR index plus history of previous MI. MPR index ≤1.5 yielded the highest diagnostic accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 86%, 78%, and 80%, respectively, for MPR index, 64%, 76%, 73% for previous MI, and 57%, 93%, and 84% for MPR index plus history of previous MI. Quantification of MPR using dynamic SPECT and a novel CZT camera may identify balanced ischemia in patients with left main or 3-vessel disease.

  6. Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging...

  7. Radiation Exposure to Critical Organs in Panoramic Dental Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Akbari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, radiography is a necessary procedure in diagnosis and treatment of patients with dental problems. According to the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable principle, dentists must take radiographs of sufficient quality at the lowest possible radiation dose to the patients. The assessment of patient dose on panoramic radiography is difficult because of dynamic nature of the imaging process and the narrow width of the x-ray beam. The present work describes an experiment undertaken using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-100 to obtain the absorbed dose in organs and sensitive tissues in head and neck region during panoramic radiography, based on patient measurement. The overall mean entrance surface dose on thyroid, right and left lens of eyes, parotid glands (right and left and occipital region in panoramic were 38, negligible, negligible, 367, 319 and 262 μGy, respectively. The results show that there are differences between patient doses examined by different panoramic systems. There is a tendency for lower organ doses for digital compared with analogue panoramic units

  8. Registration of vehicle based panoramic image and LiDAR point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun; Cao, Liang; Xie, Hong; Zhuo, Xiangyu

    2013-10-01

    Higher quality surface information would be got when data from optical images and LiDAR were integrated, owing to the fact that optical images and LiDAR point cloud have unique characteristics that make them preferable in many applications. While most previous works focus on registration of pinhole perspective cameras to 2D or 3D LiDAR data. In this paper, a method for the registration of vehicle based panoramic image and LiDAR point cloud is proposed. Using the translation among panoramic image, single CCD image, laser scanner and Position and Orientation System (POS) along with the GPS/IMU data, precise co-registration between the panoramic image and the LiDAR point cloud in the world system is achieved. Results are presented under a real world data set collected by a new developed Mobile Mapping System (MMS) integrated with a high resolution panoramic camera, two laser scanners and a POS.

  9. The absorbed dose and the effective dose of panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Ayae; Gotoh, Kenichi; Yokoi, Midori; Hirukawa, Akiko; Okumura, Shinji; Okano, Tsuneichi; Koyama, Syuji

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the radiation doses absorbed by the patient during Panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography (Panoramic TMJ), Schullers method and Orbitoramus projection. The dose of the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Orbitoramus projection and the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Schuellers method. We measured the doses received by various organs and calculated the effective doses using the guidelines of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 103. Organ absorbed doses were measured using an anthropomorphic phantom, loaded with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), located at 160 sensitive sites. The dose shows the sum value of irradiation on both the right and left sides. In addition, we set a few different exposure field sizes. The effective dose for a frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was 11 μSv, and that for the lateral view was 14 μSv. The lens of the Orbitoramus projection was 40 times higher than the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ. Although the effective dose of the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was 3 times higher than that of the small exposure field (10 x 10 cm on film) in Schueller's method, it was the same as that of a mid-sized exposure field. When the exposure field in the inferior 1/3 was reduced during panoramic TMJ, the effective doses could be decreased. Therefore we recommend that the size of the exposure field in Panoramic TMJ be decreased. (author)

  10. Automatic registration of panoramic image sequence and mobile laser scanning data using semantic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping; Yang, Bisheng; Chen, Chi; Huang, Ronggang; Dong, Zhen; Xiao, Wen

    2018-02-01

    Inaccurate exterior orientation parameters (EoPs) between sensors obtained by pre-calibration leads to failure of registration between panoramic image sequence and mobile laser scanning data. To address this challenge, this paper proposes an automatic registration method based on semantic features extracted from panoramic images and point clouds. Firstly, accurate rotation parameters between the panoramic camera and the laser scanner are estimated using GPS and IMU aided structure from motion (SfM). The initial EoPs of panoramic images are obtained at the same time. Secondly, vehicles in panoramic images are extracted by the Faster-RCNN as candidate primitives to be matched with potential corresponding primitives in point clouds according to the initial EoPs. Finally, translation between the panoramic camera and the laser scanner is refined by maximizing the overlapping area of corresponding primitive pairs based on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), resulting in a finer registration between panoramic image sequences and point clouds. Two challenging urban scenes were experimented to assess the proposed method, and the final registration errors of these two scenes were both less than three pixels, which demonstrates a high level of automation, robustness and accuracy.

  11. Line-Based Registration of Panoramic Images and LiDAR Point Clouds for Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For multi-sensor integrated systems, such as the mobile mapping system (MMS, data fusion at sensor-level, i.e., the 2D-3D registration between an optical camera and LiDAR, is a prerequisite for higher level fusion and further applications. This paper proposes a line-based registration method for panoramic images and a LiDAR point cloud collected by a MMS. We first introduce the system configuration and specification, including the coordinate systems of the MMS, the 3D LiDAR scanners, and the two panoramic camera models. We then establish the line-based transformation model for the panoramic camera. Finally, the proposed registration method is evaluated for two types of camera models by visual inspection and quantitative comparison. The results demonstrate that the line-based registration method can significantly improve the alignment of the panoramic image and the LiDAR datasets under either the ideal spherical or the rigorous panoramic camera model, with the latter being more reliable.

  12. Panoramic zonography in ear radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallikainen, D.; Sjoeblom, C.J.; Toetterman, S.; Melartin, E.; Paukku, P.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1983-01-01

    Thirty ears in 15 patients were examined by plain film radiography and by panoramic zonography with two tracks: A cylindrical concave image layer with 26 mm. radius and a paired sagittal image layer, at 51 mm. distance from midline. The films were interpreted according to the visibility of 23 different anatomic details. On panoramic films the visualization was better in 14 details, equal in 6 and worse in 3 compared to the plain films. The result suggests that panoramic techniques can replace conventional radiography of the ear. (orig.)

  13. Dynamic Image Stitching for Panoramic Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yu Shieh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of this paper is based on the Dynamic image titching for panoramic video. By utilizing OpenCV visual function data library and SIFT algorithm as the basis for presentation, this article brings forward Gaussian second differenced MoG which is processed basing on DoG Gaussian Difference Map to reduce order in synthesizing dynamic images and simplify the algorithm of the Gaussian pyramid structure. MSIFT matches with overlapping segmentation method to simplify the scope of feature extraction in order to enhance speed. And through this method traditional image synthesis can be improved without having to take lots of time in calculation and being limited by space and angle. This research uses four normal Webcams and two IPCAM coupled with several-wide angle lenses. By using wide-angle lenses to monitor over a wide range of an area and then by using image stitching panoramic effect is achieved. In terms of overall image application and control interface, Microsoft Visual Studio C# is adopted to a construct software interface. On a personal computer with 2.4-GHz CPU and 2-GB RAM and with the cameras fixed to it, the execution speed is three images per second, which reduces calculation time of the traditional algorithm.

  14. Meteor observation from space - The Smart Panoramical Optical Sensor (SPOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschny, D.; di Martino, M.; Oberst, J.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is funding two parallel studies for a ``Smart Panoramic Optical Head''. The main goal is to develop the technology for a space-qualified, very light-sensitive camera with a wide field of view, both from the hardware and the software side. The scientific application is to allow imaging of phenomena on the dark side of planets or moons, e.g. lightning flashes from thunderstorms or electrical discharges in sand storms, meteors, impact flashes, aurorae, etc. This paper will concentrate on the potential of this camera for the study of meteors from an orbit around a planet.

  15. Comparison of the reproducibility of panoramic radiographs between dentulous and edentulous patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woong; Huh, Kyung Hee; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the reproducibility of panoramic radiographs of dentulous and edentulous patients. The reproducibility of panoramic radiographs was evaluated using the panoramic radiographs acquired from 30 anterior dentulous patients by using a common biting positioning device (dentulous group) and 30 anterior edentulous patients by using chin-support devices to take a panoramic radiograph (edentulous group), respectively; these patients had undergone 3 or more panoramic radiographs. The widths and angles between the designated landmarks were measured on the panoramic radiographs, and the reproducibility was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the coefficient of variation. In the dentulous and edentulous groups, the ICCs of the mandibular ramus and mandibular angle areas were higher than the condylar head and zygomatic areas. The mandibular ramus and angle areas showed statistically lower mean coefficients of variation than the condylar head and zygomatic areas in the dentulous group. The mandibular angle area showed a significantly lower mean coefficient of variation than the zygomatic area in the edentulous group. By comparing the two groups, each ICC of the edentulous group was lower than that of the dentulous group, and the mean coefficients of variation of the mandibular ramus area, zygomatic area, left condylar inclination, and ramus ratio between the right and the left in the edentulous group were significantly higher than those in the dentulous group. Biting positioning for dentulous patients provided better positioning reproducibility than chin-support positioning when performing panoramic radiography for edentulous patients.

  16. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Chandramani B; Asrani, Mukesh K

    2010-01-01

    The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 – 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin

  17. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Chandramani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 - 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. Aim: To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. Results: The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin.

  18. Comparison of the Absorbed Dose of Target Organs between Conventional and Digital Panoramic Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Zohre Reyhani; Nadia Nil Avar; Mohamad Ali Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare target organ’s exposure by direct digital and conventional panoramic radiography. Dose measurements were carried out on a RANDO phantom, which TLDs were placed into 5 target area: thyroid gland, left and right submandibular and parotid salivary glands. Panoramic radiographs were taken with two conventional (CRANEX Tome, Soredex, Tusula Finland) and direct digital devices (CRANEX D, Soredex, Tusula Finland).In total, the phantom was ir...

  19. Agreement Between Panoramic and Lateral Cephalometric Radiographs for Measuring the Gonial Angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangouei-Booshehri, Maryam; Aghili, Hossein-Agha; Abasi, Mojtaba; Ezoddini-Ardakani, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    The gonial angle is one of the most important measurements required for orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. It is difficult to determine the accurate measurement of each gonial angle on cephalometric radiographs because of superimposition of the left and right angles. The aim of the present study was to determine the right and left gonial angles on panoramic radiographs and to compare them with an evaluated cephalometric sample. A total of 80 panoramic and 80 cephalometric radiographs were obtained from 6 to 12-year-old children and the gonial angle was determined by the tangent of the inferior border of the mandible and the most distal aspect of the ascending ramus and the condyleon both panoramic and cephalometric radiographs. We used Pearson’s correlation coefficient and paired t-test for comparison. The mean gonial angle was 127.07 ± 6.10 and 127.5 ± 6.67 degrees on panoramic and cephalometric radiographs, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the measured gonial angles on panoramic and cephalometric radiographs and also no difference between the right and left (both Ps = 0.18) The value of the gonial angle measured on panoramic radiography was the same as that measured on the routinely used cephalometric radiography

  20. A Master-Slave Surveillance System to Acquire Panoramic and Multiscale Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a master-slave visual surveillance system that uses stationary-dynamic camera assemblies to achieve wide field of view and selective focus of interest. In this system, the fish-eye panoramic camera is capable of monitoring a large area, and the PTZ dome camera has high mobility and zoom ability. In order to achieve the precise interaction, preprocessing spatial calibration between these two cameras is required. This paper introduces a novel calibration approach to automatically calculate a transformation matrix model between two coordinate systems by matching feature points. In addition, a distortion correction method based on Midpoint Circle Algorithm is proposed to handle obvious horizontal distortion in the captured panoramic image. Experimental results using realistic scenes have demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of the system with real-time surveillance.

  1. Gated SPECT evaluation of left ventricular function using a CZT camera and a fast low-dose clinical protocol: comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgetti, Assuero; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Marras, Gavino; Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Lombardi, Massimo [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana ' ' G. Monasterio' ' , Pisa (Italy); Rustamova, Yasmine K. [Azerbaijan Medical University, Department of internal medicine Central Customs Hospital, Baku (Azerbaijan); Marzullo, Paolo [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica del CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    CZT technology allows ultrafast low-dose myocardial scintigraphy but its accuracy in assessing left ventricular function is still to be defined. The study group comprised 55 patients (23 women, mean age 63 {+-} 9 years) referred for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The patients were studied at rest using a CZT camera (Discovery NM530c; GE Healthcare) and a low-dose {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin clinical protocol (mean dose 264 {+-} 38 MBq). Gated SPECT imaging was performed as a 6-min list-mode acquisition, 15 min after radiotracer injection. Images were reformatted (8-frame to 16-frame) using Lister software on a Xeleris workstation (GE Healthcare) and then reconstructed with a dedicated iterative algorithm. Analysis was performed using Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS) software. Within 2 weeks patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI, 1.5-T unit CVi; GE Healthcare) using a 30-frame acquisition protocol and dedicated software for analysis (MASS 6.1; Medis). The ventricular volumes obtained with 8-frame QGS showed excellent correlations with the cMRI volumes (end-diastolic volume (EDV), r = 0.90; end-systolic volume (ESV), r = 0.94; p < 0.001). However, QGS significantly underestimated the ventricular volumes (mean differences: EDV, -39.5 {+-} 29 mL; ESV, -15.4 {+-} 22 mL; p < 0.001). Similarly, the ventricular volumes obtained with 16-frame QGS showed an excellent correlations with the cMRI volumes (EDV, r = 0.92; ESV, r = 0.95; p < 0.001) but with significant underestimations (mean differences: EDV, -33.2 {+-} 26 mL; ESV, -17.9 {+-} 20 mL; p < 0.001). Despite significantly lower values (47.9 {+-} 16 % vs. 51.2 {+-} 15 %, p < 0.008), 8-frame QGS mean ejection fraction (EF) was closely correlated with the cMRI values (r = 0.84, p < 0.001). The mean EF with 16-frame QGS showed the best correlation with the cMRI values (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) and was similar to the mean cMRI value (49.6 {+-} 16 %, p not significant). Regional analysis showed a good

  2. Registration of Vehicle-Borne Point Clouds and Panoramic Images Based on Sensor Constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lianbi; Wu, Hangbin; Li, Yayun; Meng, Bin; Qian, Jinfei; Liu, Chun; Fan, Hongchao

    2017-04-11

    A mobile mapping system (MMS) is usually utilized to collect environmental data on and around urban roads. Laser scanners and panoramic cameras are the main sensors of an MMS. This paper presents a new method for the registration of the point clouds and panoramic images based on sensor constellation. After the sensor constellation was analyzed, a feature point, the intersection of the connecting line between the global positioning system (GPS) antenna and the panoramic camera with a horizontal plane, was utilized to separate the point clouds into blocks. The blocks for the central and sideward laser scanners were extracted with the segmentation feature points. Then, the point clouds located in the blocks were separated from the original point clouds. Each point in the blocks was used to find the accurate corresponding pixel in the relative panoramic images via a collinear function, and the position and orientation relationship amongst different sensors. A search strategy is proposed for the correspondence of laser scanners and lenses of panoramic cameras to reduce calculation complexity and improve efficiency. Four cases of different urban road types were selected to verify the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. Results indicate that most of the point clouds (with an average of 99.7%) were successfully registered with the panoramic images with great efficiency. Geometric evaluation results indicate that horizontal accuracy was approximately 0.10-0.20 m, and vertical accuracy was approximately 0.01-0.02 m for all cases. Finally, the main factors that affect registration accuracy, including time synchronization amongst different sensors, system positioning and vehicle speed, are discussed.

  3. Image distortion in rotational panoramic radiography. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronje, G.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretic analysis of the distortion and displacement of the inner structures of three-dimensional objects in panoramic films has been performed. Mathematical calculations were carried out of the distortion of model structures simulating structural details in an object. Although the model structures are affected by the distortion effects inherent in rotational panoramic radiography, the panoramic film still gives a recognizable image of the inner structure of an object. (Auth.)

  4. Panoramic zonography in radiographing the carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toetterman, S.; Paukku, P.; Hallikainen, D.

    1984-01-01

    The panoramic radiography technique enables the visualization of different image layers. In the search for a method for improving the radiological fracture diagnosis of the carpal bones the suitability of this technique for visualization of the carpal bones was tested. For panoramic zonography, Zonarc (Palomex, Finland) and its programme with cylindrical image layer with 85 mm radius was used. The present study showed that panoramic technique is suitable for discerning the carpal bones but not for demonstrating their skeletal details. (orig.)

  5. Interstudy repeatability of left and right ventricular volume estimations by serial-gated tomographic radionuclide angiographies using a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Maj; Haase, Christine; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with 99MTc-HSA equilibrium radionuclide angiography (RA) is frequently used for assessing cardiac function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interstudy repeatability of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular volume...

  6. Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging...

  7. Image panoramic mosaicing with global and local registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Ji, Zhen; Zhang, Jihong

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents techniques for constructing full view panoramic mosaics from sequences of images. The goal of this work is to remove too many limitations for pure panning motion. The best reference block is critical for the block- matching method for improving the robustness and performance. It is automatically selected in the high- frequency image, which always contains the plenty visible features. In order to reduce accumulated registration errors, the global registration using the phase-correlation matching method with rotation adjustment is applied to the whole sequence of images, which results in an optimal image mosaic with resolving translational or rotational motion. The local registration using the Levenberg-Marquardt iterative non-linear minimization algorithm is applied to compensate for small amounts of motion parallax introduced by translations of the camera and other unmodeled distortions, when minimize the discrepancy after applying the global registration. The accumulated misregistration errors may cause a visible gap between the two images. A smoothing filter is introduced, derived from Marr's computer vision theory for removing the visible artifact. By combining both global and local registration, together with artifact smoothing, the quality of the image mosaics is significantly improved, thereby enabling the creation of full view panoramic mosaics with hand-held cameras.

  8. Evaluation of mental foramen position from panoramic dental radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Muhammed

    2014-07-01

    Evaluate the position of mental foramen by measuring the vertical bone height from digital panoramic radiograph and also the variation of resorption pattern by gender and extraction time frame. Materials and methods/study design: Digital panoramic radiographs of 500 patients were reviewed. The study population was divided into four age groups aged 30 to 70 years as (30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years of age). Radiographic Position of mental foramen was evaluated in each panoramic radiograph by measuring the distance from the marginal bone to the mental foramen was being measured. Measurements were taken in each radiograph using Clini-view software. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using paired students t-test and chi-square tests. In our study it was noted that the vertical measurements calculated from the superior margin of mental foramen to the crest of alveolar ridge were greater in edentulous men than in women. This measurement decreased significantly with age. We have noted here that resorption pattern between males and females can be used as an early diagnostic tool and for implant analysis. Studies comparing right and left side edentulous mandibular region are needed for further confirmation.

  9. Carotid Artery Calcification: A Digital Panoramic-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasseh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carotid artery calcification (CAC in a sample of Lebanese population using digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 500 patients (281 females and 219 males, aged between 18 and 88 years (mean: 47.9 years, were assessed for CAC. Data collected were analyzed statistically using IBM® SPSS® for Windows version 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA. Results: CAC were found in 34 cases (6.8%, among them, 23 females (8.18% and 11 males (5.02%. Six of all the calcifications were on the right side, against six on the left side, and 22 on both sides. The mean age of patients affected with CAC was 60.9 years (ranging from 18 to 88 years. Chi-square test showed no statistical significance between gender and CAC, while Spearman correlation analysis showed positive low correlation with age (r = 0.179. Conclusion: CAC can be found on routine panoramic radiographs taken in dental clinics; dentists should automatically refer the patients in question for specialized medical evaluation.

  10. Image distortion in rotational panoramic radiography. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronje, G.; Welander, U.; McDavid, W.D.; Morris, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical calculations have been performed to analyse how accurately the angle between objects, inclined in space, is reproduced on panoramic films. A marked tolerance against angle distortion was found. Angular measurements may be performed on correctly exposed panoramic films, and the values obtained are satisfactorily accurate for most clinical purposes. (Auth.)

  11. The algorithm to generate color point-cloud with the registration between panoramic image and laser point-cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Fanyang; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-01-01

    Laser point cloud contains only intensity information and it is necessary for visual interpretation to obtain color information from other sensor. Cameras can provide texture, color, and other information of the corresponding object. Points with color information of corresponding pixels in digital images can be used to generate color point-cloud and is conducive to the visualization, classification and modeling of point-cloud. Different types of digital cameras are used in different Mobile Measurement Systems (MMS).the principles and processes for generating color point-cloud in different systems are not the same. The most prominent feature of the panoramic images is the field of 360 degrees view angle in the horizontal direction, to obtain the image information around the camera as much as possible. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate color point-cloud with panoramic image and laser point-cloud, and deduce the equation of the correspondence between points in panoramic images and laser point-clouds. The fusion of panoramic image and laser point-cloud is according to the collinear principle of three points (the center of the omnidirectional multi-camera system, the image point on the sphere, the object point). The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm and formulae in this paper are correct

  12. Dose assessment in panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the problem of dosimetry at panoramic radiography. Panoramic radiography is a rather complex technique, based on the simultaneous movement of an X-ray tube and an image receptor. A panoramic exposure is acquired by rotating the x-ray tube in an arc around the patients jaw. A thin X-ray beam oriented perpendicular to direction of the motion passes through the jaws at a slight upward angulation with respect to the occlusal plane. Due to this geometry of an examination, it is not straightforward, how to express a dose delivered to a patient during the examination. Because of a similarity with CT examinations, a dose descriptor product of kerma and length PKL is used in panoramic radiology also. However, the way of measurement is different. Currently, no dose descriptor in panoramic radiography is measured in the Czech Republic during the quality control measurements. Therefore, it would be appropriate to accept the product of kerma and length as a standard dose descriptor for panoramic radiography. This measurement should be included in QC procedures as well. Methods of dosimetry at panoramic radiography are discussed. (author)

  13. Panoramic three-dimensional CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Akitoshi; Fujishita, Masami

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a unique projection technique for producing a single image of both maxillary and mandibular arches and many other anatomical structures. To obtain a similar panoramic image without panoramic radiography system, a modified three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging technique was designed. A set of CT slice image data extending from the chin to the orbit was used for 3D reconstruction. The CT machine used in this study was the X-Vision (TOSHIBA, Japan). The helical scan technique was used. The slice thickness of reconstructed image was one or 1.5 mm. The occlusal plane or Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was used as the reference line. The resultant slice image data was stored on a magnetic optical disk and then used to create panoramic 3D-CT images on a Macintosh computer systems (Power Macintosh 8600/250, Apple Computer Inc., USA). To create the panoramic 3D-CT image, the following procedure was designed: Design a curved panoramic 3D-CT imaging layer using the imaging layer and the movement of the x-ray beam in panoramic radiography system as a template; Cut this imaging layer from each slice image, then the trimmed image was transformed to a rectangular layer using the ''still image warping'' special effect in the Elastic Reality special effects system (Elastic Reality Inc., USA); Create panoramic 3D-CT image using the Voxel View (Vital Images Inc., USA) rendering system and volume rendering technique. Although the image quality was primitive, a panoramic view of maxillofacial region was obtained by this technique. (author)

  14. Comparison of the Absorbed Dose of Target Organs between Conventional and Digital Panoramic Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Reyhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure and compare target organ’s exposure by direct digital and conventional panoramic radiography. Dose measurements were carried out on a RANDO phantom, which TLDs were placed into 5 target area: thyroid gland, left and right submandibular and parotid salivary glands. Panoramic radiographs were taken with two conventional (CRANEX Tome, Soredex, Tusula Finland and direct digital devices (CRANEX D, Soredex, Tusula Finland.In total, the phantom was irradiated 30 times in the two systems. The TLDs were then coded and analyzed. T-test of statistical analysis was used to find the correlation. We found statistically significant reduction in absorbed dose of target organs in digital panoramic radiography(P<0.01. The highest absorbed dose was for submandibular gland and the lowest was for thyroid gland. We concluded that can reduce absorbed dose in vital organs.

  15. Comparative analysis of mandibular anatomical variations between panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Nascimento, Monikelly Carmo Chagas; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Almeida, Solange Maria; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the ability of panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting anatomical variations of the mandibular canal and mental foramen. One hundred twenty-seven preoperative panoramic and CBCT images were evaluated. Two oral and maxillofacial radiologists investigated the presence of bifid mandibular canals and/or additional mental foramina on the right, left, or both sides of the mandible. Intra- and interobserver reliability was determined using Cohen's kappa coefficient. McNemar's test compared the prevalence of mandibular anatomical variations between panoramic radiography and CBCT. The significance level was set at 0.05. Additional mental foramen and bifid mandibular canal were detected in 1.2 and 7.4 % of the panoramic radiographs and 7.4 and 9.8 % of the CBCT images, respectively. The incidence of anatomical variations on the mandibular canal was not significantly different between both imaging modalities (P > 0.05). Although CBCT provides better viewing of anatomical structures, including location, shape, and relationship with the surrounding area, panoramic radiography is a conventional imaging modality that can be used in the study of the bifid mandibular canals.

  16. Pre-chemotherapy values for left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by gated tomographic radionuclide angiography using a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Haase, Christine; Jensen, Maria Maj

    2016-01-01

    limits defined as mean value minus two standard deviations for ventricular ejection fraction and end diastolic volume were LVEF (men: 50%, women: 50%), LEDV (men: 45 mL, women: 40 mL), RVEF (men: 29%, women: 28%), and REDV (men: 73 mL, women: 57 mL).There was a significant negative correlation between...... disease is presented. There are age-related changes in cardiac dimensions with age depending on gender, although with only limited influence on LVEF or RVEF....... age and both left and right ventricular volumes in women (r = -0.4, P values for cardiac evaluation prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients without other known cardiopulmonary...

  17. USING VERTICAL PANORAMIC IMAGES TO RECORD A HISTORIC CEMETERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. Tommaselli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1919, during colonization of the West Region of São Paulo State, Brazil, the Ogassawara family built a cemetery and a school with donations received from the newspaper Osaka Mainichi Shimbum, in Osaka, Japan. The cemetery was closed by President Getúlio Vargas in 1942, during the Second World War. The architecture of the Japanese cemetery is a unique feature in Latin America. Even considering its historical and cultural relevance, there is a lack of geometric documentation about the location and features of the tombs and other buildings within the cemetery. As an alternative to provide detailed and fast georeferenced information about the area, it is proposed to use near vertical panoramic images taken with a digital camera with fisheye lens as the primary data followed by bundle adjustment and photogrammetric restitution. The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study on the proposed technique with the assessment of the results with a strip of five panoramic images, taken over some graves in the Japanese cemetery. The results showed that a plant in a scale of 1 : 200 can be produced with photogrammetric restitution at a very low cost, when compared to topographic surveying or laser scanning. The paper will address the main advantages of this technique as well as its drawbacks, with quantitative analysis of the results achieved in this experiment.

  18. Using Vertical Panoramic Images to Record a Historic Cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Polidori, L.; Hasegawa, J. K.; Camargo, P. O.; Hirao, H.; Moraes, M. V. A.; Rissate, E. A., Jr.; Henrique, G. R.; Abreu, P. A. G.; Berveglieri, A.; Marcato, J., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    In 1919, during colonization of the West Region of São Paulo State, Brazil, the Ogassawara family built a cemetery and a school with donations received from the newspaper Osaka Mainichi Shimbum, in Osaka, Japan. The cemetery was closed by President Getúlio Vargas in 1942, during the Second World War. The architecture of the Japanese cemetery is a unique feature in Latin America. Even considering its historical and cultural relevance, there is a lack of geometric documentation about the location and features of the tombs and other buildings within the cemetery. As an alternative to provide detailed and fast georeferenced information about the area, it is proposed to use near vertical panoramic images taken with a digital camera with fisheye lens as the primary data followed by bundle adjustment and photogrammetric restitution. The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study on the proposed technique with the assessment of the results with a strip of five panoramic images, taken over some graves in the Japanese cemetery. The results showed that a plant in a scale of 1 : 200 can be produced with photogrammetric restitution at a very low cost, when compared to topographic surveying or laser scanning. The paper will address the main advantages of this technique as well as its drawbacks, with quantitative analysis of the results achieved in this experiment.

  19. Panoramic radiography and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Yonoshin

    1971-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a term that is applied to the radiographic techniques which record is the dental arches and related structures on one or two extraoral films. It consists of two methods, one using the intraoral anode, and the other employing tomography. Because of an increase in practical application, about 10 kinds of panoramic dental X-ray units were commercially available in U.S.A.

  20. Image distortion in rotational panoramic radiography. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronje, G.; Welander, U.; McDavid, W.D.; Morris, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The projection system in rotational panoramic radiography is complex in the respect that there are two projections of the object working simultaneously, one in the horizontal and one in the vertical dimension, giving rise to distortion of three-dimensional objects in the image. A mathematical method is presented for transforming data from three-dimensional objects to image data. This method may be used when analysing different distortion effects inherent in panoramic films. (Auth.)

  1. Comparative study of radiation dose between digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingshan; Duan Tao; Wang Xiaoyun; Zhao Li; Dong Jian; Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the actual dose of patients who receive the same medical practice by either digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit and give evidence for better selection of oral X-ray examination method. Methods: Round sheet lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used. The experiment was divided into natural background contrast group, general panoramic X-ray children group, general panoramic X-ray adults group, digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group. The dosimeter of natural background radiation was placed at the office of the doctor, the dosimeters of general panoramic X-ray children group and general panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of panoramic X-ray to children and adults, the dosimeters of digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of digital panoramic X-ray to children and adults. The thermoluminescent dosimeter was used to count and calculate the exposure doses in various groups. Results: The dose of children exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.28 times of that in digital panoramic X-ray unit, there was significant difference (t=6.904, P<0.01). The dose of adults exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.55 times of that in the digital panoramic X-ray unit, there also was significant difference (t=-11.514. P< 0.01). Conclusion: The digital panoramic X-ray unit can reduce the dose of patients, so the digital panoramic X-ray unit should be used as far as possible. (authors)

  2. Using Google Streetview Panoramic Imagery for Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Google Streetview is a feature of Google Maps and Google Earth that allows viewers to switch from map or satellite view to 360° panoramic imagery recorded close to the ground. Most panoramas are recorded by Google engineers using special cameras mounted on the roofs of cars. Bicycles, snowmobiles, and boats have also been used and sometimes the camera has been mounted on a backpack for off-road use by hikers and skiers or attached to scuba-diving gear for "Underwater Streetview (sic)." Streetview panoramas are linked together so that the viewer can change viewpoint by clicking forward and reverse buttons. They therefore create a 4-D touring effect. As part of the GEODE project ("Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education"), we are experimenting with the use of Streetview imagery for geoscience education. Our web-based test application allows instructors to select locations for students to study. Students are presented with a set of questions or tasks that they must address by studying the panoramic imagery. Questions include identification of rock types, structures such as faults, and general geological setting. The student view is locked into Streetview mode until they submit their answers, whereupon the map and satellite views become available, allowing students to zoom out and verify their location on Earth. Student learning is scaffolded by automatic computerized feedback. There are lots of existing Streetview panoramas with rich geological content. Additionally, instructors and members of the general public can create panoramas, including 360° Photo Spheres, by stitching images taken with their mobiles devices and submitting them to Google for evaluation and hosting. A multi-thousand-dollar, multi-directional camera and mount can be purchased from DIY-streetview.com. This allows power users to generate their own high-resolution panoramas. A cheaper, 360° video camera is soon to be released according to geonaute.com. Thus there are opportunities for

  3. MATCHING REAL AND SYNTHETIC PANORAMIC IMAGES USING A VARIANT OF GEOMETRIC HASHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li-Chee-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates an approach to automatically initialize a visual model-based tracker, and recover from lost tracking, without prior camera pose information. These approaches are commonly referred to as tracking-by-detection. Previous tracking-by-detection techniques used either fiducials (i.e. landmarks or markers or the object’s texture. The main contribution of this work is the development of a tracking-by-detection algorithm that is based solely on natural geometric features. A variant of geometric hashing, a model-to-image registration algorithm, is proposed that searches for a matching panoramic image from a database of synthetic panoramic images captured in a 3D virtual environment. The approach identifies corresponding features between the matched panoramic images. The corresponding features are to be used in a photogrammetric space resection to estimate the camera pose. The experiments apply this algorithm to initialize a model-based tracker in an indoor environment using the 3D CAD model of the building.

  4. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  5. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  6. Left ventricular function assessment using 123I/99mTc dual-isotope acquisition with two semi-conductor cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT cameras: a gated cardiac phantom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy Blaire

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of increased energy resolution of cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT cameras on the assessment of left ventricular function under dual-isotope conditions (99mTc and 123I remains unknown. The Amsterdam-gated dynamic cardiac phantom (AGATE, Vanderwilt techniques, Boxtel, The Netherlands was successively filled with a solution of 123I alone, 99mTc alone, and a mixture of 123I and 99mTc. A total of 12 datasets was acquired with each commercially available CZT camera (DNM 530c, GE Healthcare and DSPECT, Biosensors International using both energy windows (99mTc or 123I with ejection fraction set to 33, 45, and 60 %. End-diastolic (EDV and end-systolic (ESV volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF, and regional wall motion and thickening (17-segment model were assessed using Cedars-Sinai QGS Software. Concordance between single- and dual-isotope acquisitions was tested using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and Bland–Altman plots. Results There was no significant difference between single- or simultaneous dual-isotope acquisition (123I and 99mTc for EDV, ESV, LVEF, or segmental wall motion and thickening. Myocardial volumes using single- (123I, 99mTc and dual-isotope (reconstructed using both 123I and 99mTc energy windows acquisitions were, respectively, the following: EDV (mL 88 ± 27 vs. 89 ± 27 vs. 92 ± 29 vs. 90 ± 26 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 82 ± 20 vs. 83 ± 22 vs. 79 ± 19 vs. 77 ± 20 for DSPECT (p = NS; ESV (mL 40 ± 1 vs. 41 ± 2 vs. 41 ± 2 vs. 42 ± 1 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 37 ± 5 vs. 37 ± 1 vs. 35 ± 3 vs. 34 ± 2 for DSPECT (p = NS; LVEF (% 52 ± 14 vs. 51 ± 13 vs. 53 ± 13 vs. 51 ± 13 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 52 ± 16 vs. 54 ± 13 vs. 54 ± 14 vs. 54 ± 13 for DSPECT (p = NS; regional motion (mm 6.72 ± 2.82 vs. 6.58 ± 2.52 vs. 6.86 ± 2.99 vs. 6.59 ± 2

  7. Image distortion in rotational panoramic radiography. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronje, G.; Welander, U.; McDavid, W.D.; Morris, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    On films exposed with rotational panoramic radiography, distortion effects are often apparent. The distortion of the outer contour of three-dimensional model objects has been analysed mathematically. The applied mathematical expressions for coordinate transformation between object and film were confirmed experimentally. The distortion of the outer contour is dependent on the basic form of the object; the more rounded the object is, the less marked is the distortion. It is concluded that for practical clinical purposes the correctly exposed panoramic film is reliable when the form of rounded objects is assessed. (Auth.)

  8. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  9. Reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnan National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To measure dose-width product (DWP) values used for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang city, Korea. Thirty-six panoramic dental radiographic sets (17 analogue panoramic sets and 19 digital panoramic sets) in 36 dental clinics in Anyang city were included in the study. Each patient's panoramic exposure parameters were simulated and the panoramic radiation doses were measured at the secondary collimator using a Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billdal, Sweden) at each dental clinic during 2006. The third quartile DWP was determined from 310 surface dose measurements on adult. The third quartile DWP for adult panoramic radiograph was 106.7 mGy mm. For analogue and digital panoramic radiograph, 3/4 DWP were 116.8 mGy mm and 72 mGy mm respectively. The overall third quartile DWP of panoramic radiography was 106.7 mGy mm. The measured 3/4 DWPs were higher than the 3/4 DWP of 65 mGy mm recommended by NRPB. Dentists who are operating above the reference dose should lower their panoramic exposure doses below the recommended reference value by changing the exposure parameters and/or their panoramic equipment.

  10. Reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee

    2009-01-01

    To measure dose-width product (DWP) values used for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang city, Korea. Thirty-six panoramic dental radiographic sets (17 analogue panoramic sets and 19 digital panoramic sets) in 36 dental clinics in Anyang city were included in the study. Each patient's panoramic exposure parameters were simulated and the panoramic radiation doses were measured at the secondary collimator using a Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billdal, Sweden) at each dental clinic during 2006. The third quartile DWP was determined from 310 surface dose measurements on adult. The third quartile DWP for adult panoramic radiograph was 106.7 mGy mm. For analogue and digital panoramic radiograph, 3/4 DWP were 116.8 mGy mm and 72 mGy mm respectively. The overall third quartile DWP of panoramic radiography was 106.7 mGy mm. The measured 3/4 DWPs were higher than the 3/4 DWP of 65 mGy mm recommended by NRPB. Dentists who are operating above the reference dose should lower their panoramic exposure doses below the recommended reference value by changing the exposure parameters and/or their panoramic equipment.

  11. The value of panoramic radiography in assessing maxillary sinus inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate the value of panoramic radiography in diagnosing maxillary sinus inflammation. A total of 214 maxillary sinuses from 114 panoramic radiographs were assessed in this study. Two independent experienced oral radiologists evaluated the images in random order for sinus inflammation. Using Cone beam CT images as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of panoramic radiography were calculated, and inter- and intraobserver agreement for panoramic interpretation were obtained. The mean sensitivity and specificity of panoramic radiography were 81.0% and 85.6%, respectively. The weighted kappas for inter- and intraobserver agreement of panoramic radiography were 0.56 and 0.60, respectively. Panoramic radiography is a reasonably accurate method for diagnosing maxillary sinus inflammation and can be used for screening. However, additional examinations should be considered in patients with potentially significant pathology.

  12. The value of panoramic radiography in assessing maxillary sinus inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the value of panoramic radiography in diagnosing maxillary sinus inflammation. A total of 214 maxillary sinuses from 114 panoramic radiographs were assessed in this study. Two independent experienced oral radiologists evaluated the images in random order for sinus inflammation. Using Cone beam CT images as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of panoramic radiography were calculated, and inter- and intraobserver agreement for panoramic interpretation were obtained. The mean sensitivity and specificity of panoramic radiography were 81.0% and 85.6%, respectively. The weighted kappas for inter- and intraobserver agreement of panoramic radiography were 0.56 and 0.60, respectively. Panoramic radiography is a reasonably accurate method for diagnosing maxillary sinus inflammation and can be used for screening. However, additional examinations should be considered in patients with potentially significant pathology.

  13. Analysis digital panoramic radiograph about positions root of maxillary posterior teeth with maxillary sinus floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Dian Pertiwi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary sinus floor is a part of the alveolar bone adjacent to the apex of the posterior maxillary teeth that often causes complications in dentistry. Anatomical relationship between the maxillary posterior tooth root and the maxillary sinus floor can be obtained by panoramic radiograph.  The purpose of this study is to analysis digital panoramic radiograph about positions root of maxillary posterior teeth’s with  maxillary sinus floor by age and gender using. Methods: Research method is descriptive with purposive sampling technique. Study population was taken from archives of patient’s digital panoramic radiograph in Radiography Installation from January to March 2016. 88 samples were obtained from 207 digital panoramic radiographs archives. Results: The result showed that type 3 was dominated by P1 (86.8% right, 88.2% left, type 2 is dominated by P2 (24.7% right, 21% left, type 1 is dominated by M2 in the right (31.2% and M1 in the left (38.1%. Conclusion: This study concludes that overall, the most commonly found was type 3. Based on the age, type 1 majority occurs in age group of above 49 years old; type 2 in age group of 40-49 years old; and type 3 in age group 30-39 years old, 40-49 years old, and above 49 years old. By gender, type 1 and type 2 are more common in males, while type 3 is more common in female.

  14. Reliability of panoramic radiography in assessing gonial angle compared to lateral cephalogram in adult patients with Class I malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Katti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gonial angle is an important angle of the craniofacial complex. Lateral cephalogram and orthopantomogram (OPG can be used to determine this angle. Objectives: To investigate whether OPGs can be used as an alternative to lateral cephalogram for measuring the gonial angle. Study Design: A total of 100 radiographs were collected from patients with Angle's Class I malocclusion (50 males and 50 females with age ranging from 15 to 30 years, with a mean age of 18.24 years. Materials and Methods: The radiographs were taken with digital panoramic system (Kodak 8000C under standard exposure factors, as recommended by the manufacturer. Gonial angle was determined by the tangent of the inferior border of the mandible and the most distal aspect of the ascending ramus and condyle on both panoramic and cephalometric radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Mean values were evaluated using z test. The statistical analysis was performed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 11.5. Results: The mean gonial angle was 121.13° and 122.22° on panoramic and cephalometric radiographs, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference between the measured gonial angles on panoramic and cephalometric radiographs (P > 0.005. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography can be used to determine the gonial angle as accurately as lateral cephalogram. In addition, we can determine the right and left gonial angles of a patient in an OPG without interferences due to superimposed images of anatomical structures in lateral cephalogram.

  15. The MVACS Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Hartwig, H.; Kramm, R.; Koschny, D.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Thomas, N.; Fernades, M.; Smith, P. H.; Reynolds, R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Weinberg, J.; Marcialis, R.; Tanner, R.; Boss, B. J.; Oquest, C.; Paige, D. A.

    2001-08-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is one of the key instruments newly developed for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor payload of the Mars Polar Lander. This lightweight instrument employs a front lens with variable focus range and takes images at distances from 11 mm (image scale 1:1) to infinity. Color images with a resolution of better than 50 μm can be obtained to characterize the Martian soil. Spectral information of nearby objects is retrieved through illumination with blue, green, and red lamp sets. The design and performance of the camera are described in relation to the science objectives and operation. The RAC uses the same CCD detector array as the Surface Stereo Imager and shares the readout electronics with this camera. The RAC is mounted at the wrist of the Robotic Arm and can characterize the contents of the scoop, the samples of soil fed to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer, the Martian surface in the vicinity of the lander, and the interior of trenches dug out by the Robotic Arm. It can also be used to take panoramic images and to retrieve stereo information with an effective baseline surpassing that of the Surface Stereo Imager by about a factor of 3.

  16. Tracking and graph-cut based approach for panoramic background construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaeieslam, Mohammad Javad; Soryani, Mohsen; Fathy, Mahmood

    2013-10-01

    An efficient method is presented for extracting motion behaviors and contours of moving objects in a wide view and for creating panoramic background. In the field of making panorama, the main goal of existing methods is to create a pleasing wide view. For this purpose, such methods do not track moving objects. They attempt to find optimal seams so that the result does not contain cut objects or blurring. Hence, moving objects are removed, repeated, or placed in an arbitrary location in the final panoramic image. We expand panorama applications from artistic views to surveillance usages. To investigate moving object behavior, the proposed method attempts to find correspondences between positions of a moving object in different selected frames by using SIFT features. It also presents a new approach to combine various types of information in order to extract the exact boundary of moving objects in moving cameras. The required information is obtained from the moving object's corresponding areas in other frames. Experiments were arranged to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of this method. The results show that this method, which uses fewer frames, is able to create better panoramic background compared with the existing methods.

  17. Image distortion in rotational panoramic radiography. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronje, G.; Welander, U.; McDavid, W.D.; Morris, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical model for calculating the form distortion in rotational panoramic radiographic systems with a sliding beam path and an elliptical form of the sharply depicted plane was developed. The distortion of a spherical model object was calculated for two different systems exemplifying properties of commercially available equipment. The spherical object was distorted toward an ovoid shape in the image. No marked deviations were found between this ovoid distortion and the ellipsoid distortion previously calculated for a theoretical system having a constant effective projection radius and a cylindrical form of the sharply depicted plane. Except for extremely displaced objects in the anterior region the form reproduction in sliding rotational panoramic systems seems to be satisfactory for clinical purposes. (Auth.)

  18. Quality metric for spherical panoramic video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, Vladyslav; Choi, Kwang Pyo; Park, Jeong Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR)/ augmented reality (AR) applications allow users to view artificial content of a surrounding space simulating presence effect with a help of special applications or devices. Synthetic contents production is well known process form computer graphics domain and pipeline has been already fixed in the industry. However emerging multimedia formats for immersive entertainment applications such as free-viewpoint television (FTV) or spherical panoramic video require different approaches in content management and quality assessment. The international standardization on FTV has been promoted by MPEG. This paper is dedicated to discussion of immersive media distribution format and quality estimation process. Accuracy and reliability of the proposed objective quality estimation method had been verified with spherical panoramic images demonstrating good correlation results with subjective quality estimation held by a group of experts.

  19. Panoramic view of the Mexican Pacific Coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In this scenic panoramic view, the orbiter tail points toward the Mexican Pacific coastline (18.0N, 103.0W) near the international resort of Acapulco on the nearly cloud free eastern Pacific Ocean. Almost all of southern Mexico can be seen from Puerto Vallarta in the north to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south. The cloud covered Gulf of Mexico at the horizon contrasts sharply with the blue Pacific.

  20. Creating Panoramic Images for Bladder Fluorescence Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behrens

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical diagnostic analysis and therapy of urinary bladder cancer based on endoscopes are state of the art in urological medicine. Due to the limited field of view of endoscopes, the physician can examine only a small part of the whole operating field at once. This constraint makes visual control and navigation difficult, especially in hollow organs. A panoramic image, covering a larger field of view, can overcome this difficulty. Directly motivated by a physician we developed an image mosaicing algorithm for endoscopic bladder fluorescence video sequences. In this paper, we present an approach which is capable of stitching single endoscopic video images to a combined panoramic image. Based on SIFT features we estimate a 2-D homography for each image pair, using an affine model and an iterative model-fitting algorithm. We then apply the stitching process and perform a mutual linear interpolation. Our panoramic image results show a correct stitching and lead to a better overview and understanding of the operation field. 

  1. Predicting lower third molar eruption on panoramic radiographs after cephalometric comparison of profile and panoramic radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begtrup, Anders; Grønastøð, Halldis Á; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2012-01-01

    and to find a simple and reliable method for predicting the eruption of the mandibular third molar by measurements on panoramic radiographs. The material consisted of profile and panoramic radiographs, taken before orthodontic treatment, of 30 males and 23 females (median age 22, range 18-48 years......Previous studies have suggested methods for predicting third molar tooth eruption radiographically. Still, this prediction is associated with uncertainty. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the association between cephalometric measurements on profile and panoramic radiographs...... the length from the ramus to the incisors (olr-id) showed a statistically significant correlation. By combining this length with the mesiodistal width of the lower second molar, the prediction of eruption of the lower third molar was strengthened. A new formula for calculating the probability of eruption...

  2. Accuracy of panoramic, panoramic with palpation and tube shift technique to localize maxillary impacted cuspid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GoodarziPour D.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Impaction of maxillary cuspids is the most common after third molars with 1% to 3% prevalence. Localization of these impacted teeth may affect orthodontic or surgical treatment plan. Therefore, different techniques have been introduced to localize impacted canines. The present study was conducted to compare the accuracy of panoramic, tube shift and panoramic plus palpation in determination of the position of maxillary impacted canine."nMaterials and Methods: 47 patients (20 females, 27 males with the age of more than 12 years (mean age of 25.4 years old whom referred to Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, with at least one impacted maxillary canine included. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist localized impacted canine first by using panoramic then tube shift technique blindly. After that, an oral and maxillofacial surgeon localized the canine by panoramic and palpation of the area before surgery. Data obtained from radiologist and surgeon were compared with true location of canine after surgery. Statistical analysis was done using sensitivity and specificity."nResults: Among total 47 impacted maxillary canines, 11 cases (23.4% showed buccal impactions and 36 cases (76.6% palatal impactions. Sensitivity (ability of technique to localize palatal impaction of all of the techniques were same (100% but specificity (ability of technique to localize buccal impaction of tube shift (100% was more than two others (0%."nConclusion: The tube shift technique was the most accurate technique to localize maxillary unerupted canines compared to the others. Due to the ability of panoramic and panoramic with palpation in prediction of palatal canine impactions and failure of these techniques to predict buccal impactions, both methods are not suitable in localization of impacted maxillary canines and they must be used as adjunctive techniques.

  3. Projection angles of mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the true projection angles of film-side mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs. 52 panoramic and transcranial radiographs of 4 condyles from two human dry mandibles with gradual horizontal and vertical angle changes were taken. The results were compared with the standard panoramic and transcranial radiographs and the identical pairs were selected. Panoramic radiography projected 10 degree to the film-sided condyles both horizontally and vertically. Transcranial radiography projected 15 degree to the film-sided condyles vertically. The medical and lateral poles were not forming the outline of condylar images in both projections when the horizontal angles of condyles were not sufficiently big enough

  4. Panoramic radiology. Seminars on maxillofacial imaging and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farman, Allan G. (ed.) [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Surgical and Hospital Dentistry

    2007-07-01

    Complete up-to-date collection of information on panoramic radiography usage. Up-to-date terminology validated by representatives of individual special disciplines within dentistry. Each chapter with educational objectives and review questions. Panoramic radiology systems are currently being used in more practices than at other any time in the past. The practitioner now has decisions to make regarding detector technology selection for image acquisition and must remain informed about appropriate usage. This book is applicable to all panoramic dental images and equipment. It approaches panoramic radiology usage in the context of general and specialty applications. (orig.)

  5. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  6. Visibility of the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seon Jin; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duk

    2001-01-01

    To determine the head position that the superior border of the mandibular canal as well as mental foramen can be more clearly visualized in panoramic radiography. Ten dry mandibles were radiography bilaterally using PM 2002 CC panoramic machine. A 20 mm thick aluminium filter was added to the slit collimator to obtain radiographs with acceptable density. The specimens were tilted by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 degrees downward with and without radiopaque markers. Radiopaque markers were inserted into the mandibular canals and the mental canals of each side of the specimens to serve as reference image when assessing the radiographs. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. Mandibular canals were significantly more clearly visible in the radiographs with 4 and 6 degree downward position on both sides (P<0.05). Mental foramen were significantly more clearly visible in the was not significant difference between right and left sides. Panoramic radiographs with 4 to 6 degree downward tilting could be valuable in locating the mandibular canal as well as the mental foramen

  7. Visibility of the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seon Jin; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duk [Chosun Univ. School of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    To determine the head position that the superior border of the mandibular canal as well as mental foramen can be more clearly visualized in panoramic radiography. Ten dry mandibles were radiography bilaterally using PM 2002 CC panoramic machine. A 20 mm thick aluminium filter was added to the slit collimator to obtain radiographs with acceptable density. The specimens were tilted by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 degrees downward with and without radiopaque markers. Radiopaque markers were inserted into the mandibular canals and the mental canals of each side of the specimens to serve as reference image when assessing the radiographs. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. Mandibular canals were significantly more clearly visible in the radiographs with 4 and 6 degree downward position on both sides (P<0.05). Mental foramen were significantly more clearly visible in the was not significant difference between right and left sides. Panoramic radiographs with 4 to 6 degree downward tilting could be valuable in locating the mandibular canal as well as the mental foramen.

  8. Can tongue shadow in panoramic radiographs be avoided by using the tongue repositioning maneuver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordesmeyer, Robert; Engelke, Wilfried; Sömmer, Christian; Kauffmann, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the tongue repositioning maneuver (TRM) during panoramic radiography so as to avoid the error of tongue shadow. A total of 300 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. One hundred and fifty orthopantomograms with conventional positioning technique were used as a control group, while other 150 were taken with the patient performing the TRM. The tongue shadow was measured in each radiograph in the first molar regions bilaterally and in the midsagittal plane. Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U-Test was used to test the significance difference between the groups. The tongue-palate distance in the study group was reduced from a mean value of 6.4 mm to 1 mm in the right first molar, 8.0 mm to 2.2 mm in the midsagittal region, and 6.6 mm to 1.2 mm in the left first molar position. Statistical evaluation exhibited significant differences of tongue shadow at all measuring sites between study and control group (P tongue position error in panoramic radiography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Digital Panoramic Radiographs in the Study of Styloid Process Elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cabral dos Santos Accioly Lins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the occurrence of suggestive images of styloid process elongation in panoramic radiographs, noting their frequency according to sex, age, and location, as well as measure and classify the types and patterns of calcification of elongated styloid processes. 2,500 panoramic radiographs were evaluated in a Radiology Clinic in Recife, PE, Brazil, performed between 2008 and 2010, with the age ranging from 25 to 80 years old. 560 of the radiographs analyzed fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of this total, 216 (38.57% presented suggestive images of the styloid process elongation, 45 (20.8% belonging to male and 171 (79.2% to female, and 84.7% were bilateral. After all measurements, mean values of 35.5 mm (left side and 37.6 mm (right side were obtained and these differences were statistically significant (p<0.001. The most common type of stretching found was elongated (type I with 73.1%, and the pattern of calcification was partially calcified (62.5%. It was found that the elongation of the styloid process is an anatomical variation, which must be taken into account by dentists, and because panoramic radiography is a technique of easy approach and low cost and routine, it can be used to aid in the diagnosis of elongated styloid process.

  10. Assessment of the visibility and characteristics of the mandibular incisive canal: cone beam computed tomography versus panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahman, Halil; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Sisman, Yildiray; Payveren, Mehtap

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the visibility, diameter, and course of the mandibular incisive canal (MIC) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiography. CBCT images and panoramic radiographs from 243 patients were used in this study. Standard exposure and patient positioning protocols were used for all the patients. Both types of images were assessed by two dentomaxillofacial radiologists. The diameter and the endpoint level of the MIC were measured using the CBCT images. Statistical analysis was performed using t tests in statistical software. Of the 486 hemimandibles examined, the MIC was visible in 249 (51.2%) radiographs and 459 (94.4%) CBCT images. The mean diameters of the MICs were 1.91±0.45 mm on the right side and 1.94±0.41 mm on the left side. The MICs on both the right and left sides of the mandible showed statistically significant differences in diameter in male versus female patients. The visibility of the MIC on the panoramic radiographs according to the increase in the diameter was not statistically significant for both sides. Twenty MICs reached to the midline of the mandible, and the majority of the MICs (n=114) terminated between the canine and the first premolar. The visibility of the MIC in CBCT is much better than that observed in conventional panoramic radiography. Even some large MICs could not be observed in panoramic radiographs. Detection of the MIC using CBCT may be crucial for surgical procedures involving the interforaminal region.

  11. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  12. Appearance of the mandibular incisive canal on panoramic radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, R.; Mraiwa, N.; van Steenberghe, D.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; Quirynen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs are routinely used in the dental office for various diagnostic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the visibility of neurovascular structures in the mandibular interforaminal region on such radiographs. Panoramic radiographs were obtained with a Cranex Tome (Soredex) from

  13. Panoramic and conventional radiographs in diagnosis of mandibular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, S.L. de; Antonini, R.; Souza, L.C.M. de.

    1988-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs of the mandibles are compared with conventional studies for the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. It is considered that panoramic radiographs are extremely useful in the diagnostic of mandibular fractures but also that conventional X ray must be used to detect the osseous shift in the fracture line. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Evaluation of panoramic radiographs taken from 1056 Turkish children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Panoramic radiographs (PRs) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment planning of a wide range of dental and maxillofacial diseases and conditions. To examine and to determine the status of oral lesions, dental anomalies and pathologies in panoramic radiographs, which were taken at the ...

  15. Evaluation of the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Emadi, Naghmeh [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Mohamad [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study assessed the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions in vitro. Two acrylic models were fabricated from a cast with normal occlusion. Straight and 75 degree mesially and lingually angulated pins were placed, and standardized panoramic radiographs were taken at standard position, at an 8 degree downward tilt of the occlusal plane compared to the standard position, at an 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior occlusal plane, and at a 10 degree downward tilt of the right and left sides of the model. On the radiographs, the length of the pins above (crown) and below (root) the occlusal plane, total pin length, crown-to-root ratio, and angulation of pins relative to the occlusal plane were calculated. The data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and LSD multiple comparisons tests. Significant differences were noted between the radiographic measurements and true values in different positions on both models with linear (P<0.001) and those with angulated pins (P<0.005). No statistically significant differences were observed between the angular measurements and baselines of the natural head posture at different positions for the linear and angulated pins. Angular measurements on panoramic radiographs were sufficiently accurate and changes in the position of the occlusal plane equal to or less than 10 degree had no significant effect on them. Some variations could exist in the pin positioning (head positioning), and they were tolerable while taking panoramic radiographs. Linear measurements showed the least errors in the standard position and 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior part of the occlusal plane compared to other positions.

  16. Usefulness of panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Do [Wankwang Univ. School of Dentistry, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-15

    To assess the possibility of using panoramic indices as an indicator of jaw osteoporosis. Mandibular cortical width (MCW), degree of mandibular alveolar bone resorption (ABR) and morphology of mandibular inferior cortex (MIC) on panoramic radiograph were used as panoramic indices. These panoramic indices were compared with bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar (L1-L4) and femoral neck measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We also compared MCW and ABR of young men with those of postmenopausal women. There was a significant correlation between ABR and BMD of lumbar and femoral neck. And also significant correlation between MIC and BMD of lumbar and femoral neck. ANOVA test of BMD of lumbar and femoral neck showed significant differences according to morphologic classification of inferior cortex. There was significant difference in MCW and ABR and MIC on panoramic radiograph could be reliable in screening of osteoporosis.

  17. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankvall, G.; Hakansson, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted

  18. Photogrammetric Processing of Apollo 15 Metric Camera Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, K. L.; Alexandrov, O.; Archinal, B. A.; Becker, K. J.; Becker, T. L.; Kirk, R. L.; Moratto, Z. M.; Nefian, A. V.; Richie, J. O.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The integrated photogrammetric mapping system flown on the last three Apollo lunar missions (15, 16, and 17) in the early 1970s incorporated a Metric (mapping) Camera, a high-resolution Panoramic Camera, and a star camera and laser altimeter to provide support data. In an ongoing collaboration, the U.S. Geological Survey's Astrogeology Science Center, the Intelligent Robotics Group of the NASA Ames Research Center, and Arizona State University are working to achieve the most complete cartographic development of Apollo mapping system data into versatile digital map products. These will enable a variety of scientific/engineering uses of the data including mission planning, geologic mapping, geophysical process modelling, slope dependent correction of spectral data, and change detection. Here we describe efforts to control the oblique images acquired from the Apollo 15 Metric Camera.

  19. Panoramic study of mandibular basal bone height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raviraj Jayam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To provide information regarding the changes of mandibular basal bone height using panoramic radiography, in relation to age, sex, and the state of dentulousness, which could be utilized in clinical practice, especially in implantology and pre-prosthetic surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 subjects, who were categorized according to age, sex, and state of dentulousness, were subjected to vertical measurements of mandibular basal bone in panoramic radiographs. Two measurements were made, D 1 and D 2 . The distance measured between the lower border of mental foramen to the lower border of the mandible was termed as D 1 . The distance between the lowest point of mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was termed as D 2 . These measurements were compared between males/females and dentulous/edentulous, which were further subjected to statistical analysis with Student′s t-test. Results: Males had higher D 1 and D 2 values compared to females and edentulous groups had higher D 1 and D 2 values compared to dentulous subjects. Conclusions: Men have higher values of mandibular basal bone height compared to females and also that there exists some potential for mandibular basal bone to increase in height as the age progresses.

  20. Quality control on dental panoramic radiography units

    OpenAIRE

    Νιώτης, Δημήτριος

    2010-01-01

    Quality control on panoramic radiography units, calculation of effective dose, principles of function of panoramic units, QC protocols, radio-protection issues. Έλεγχος ποιότητας οδοντιατρικών πανοραμικών συστημάτων ακτινογράφησης, υπολογισμός ενεργού δόσης, αρχές λειτουργίας πανοραμικών συστημάτων, πρωτόκολλα ποιοτικού ελέγχου, ζητήματα ακτινοπροστασίας....

  1. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  2. Imaging characteristics in rotational panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderink, G.C.H.

    1987-01-01

    This study is concerned with imaging quality in rotational panoramic radiography. This imaging technique records an image of a curved layer within the object radiographed. The shape of this layer normally corresponds with the average form of the dental arch. In the centre of the layer a plane can be found which is depicted with a minimum of unsharpness. Unsharpness increases and the horizontal magnification changes as distance increases from that central plane. The image quality of the layer has been analyzed with the use of mathematical models to estimate the performance of the radiographic diagnostic system. Despite the application of these increasingly sophisticated models the question remains: will the results of the calculations based on these models adequately predict the diagnostic effectiveness of this type of imaging system? In this study a comparison is made between the theoretically determined quality of the system and the diagnostic quality using the observer as a measuring instrument. Experiments were carried out to measure the total unsharpness occurring in rotational panoramic radiography. 116 refs.; 114 figs.; 54 tabs

  3. ONE-STEP AND TWO-STEP CALIBRATION OF A PORTABLE PANORAMIC IMAGE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-C. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS is proposed for rapid acquisition of three-dimensional spatial information. By considering the convenience of use, cost, weight of equipment, precision, and power supply, the designed PPIMS is equipped with 6 circularly arranged cameras to capture panoramic images and a GPS receiver for positioning. The motivation for this design is to develop a hand-held Mobile Mapping System (MMS for some difficult accessing areas by vehicle MMS, such as rugged terrains, forest areas, heavily damaged disaster areas, and crowed places etc. This PPIMS is in fact a GPS assisted close-range photogrammetric system. Compared with the traditional close-range photogrammetry, PPIMS can reduce the need of ground control points significantly. Under the condition of knowing the relative geometric relationships of the equipped sensors, the elements of exterior orientation of each captured image can be solved. However, the procedure of a system calibration should be done accurately to determine the relative geometric relationships of multi-cameras and the GPS antenna center, before the PPIMS can be applied for geo-referenced mapping. In this paper, both of one-step and two-step calibration procedures for PPIMS are performed to determine the lever-arm offsets and boresight angles among cameras and GPS. The performance of the one-step and two-step calibration is evaluated through the analysis of the experimental results. The comparison between these two calibration procedures was also conducted. The two-step calibration method outperforms the one-step calibration method in terms of calibration accuracy and operation convenience. We expect that the proposed two-step calibration procedure can also be applied to other platform-based MMSs.

  4. Detecting osteoporosis in elderly women with panoramic radiography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barunawaty Yunus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a systemic disease which characterized by a reduction in bone mass with deterioration microarchitecture of bone and degradation of bone tissue which can raise loss of bone. Osteoporosis is a problem related to the aging process. Osteoporosis process actually begin at the age 40-50 years. At this age, men and women will experience shrinkage process of bone mass. in women, this process faster after menopause and is more common in women than men. The technique can be used to detect osteoporosis by performing panoramic radiographic examination techniques. Panoramic radiography is a technique for generating photo of facial structures, including the maxillary bone, mandibular and other support structures. To detect the presence of osteoporosis in elderly women using Panoramic Radiography Techniques. The subjects of this study is image results of a panoramic radiography with vulnerable women aged 50-70> obtained from the Hospital Radiology section of Unhas, Mental Index measurement is then performed on image results of the panoramic radiographs. Overall regardless of age , the prevalence of osteoporosis reached 10 % per 100 population . ( P > 0.05. In detecting osteoporosis in elderly women, panoramic radiography can be applied. The index used is Mental Index, an index of panoramic radiography has been developed to detect osteoporosis.

  5. The relationship between panoramic indices and dental implant failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Jung; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Jin Koo; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; An, Chang Hyeon

    2004-01-01

    Several panoramic indices have been suggested to assess bone quality from the morphology and width of mandibular cortex on panoramic radiography. The purpose of this study was to compare dental implant failure group with control group in panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical index (MCI), and gonion index (GI) and to determine the effect of these panoramic indices on dental implant failure. A case-control study was designed. Test group (n = 42) consisted of the patients who had their implants extracted because of peri-implantitis. Control group (n = 139) consisted of the patients who retained their implants over one year without any pathologic changes and had been followed up periodically. They had dental implants installed in their mandibles without bone augmentation surgery from 1991 to 2001. The following measures were collected for each patients: 1) PMI, MCI, and GI were measured twice at one-week interval on preoperative panoramic views; and 2) age, sex, implant length, implant type, installed location, occluding dentition state, and complication were investigated from the chart record. The PMI showed moderate level of repeatability. The intra-observer agreement of MCI and GI were good. There was statistically significant difference in PMI between two groups. There were significant different patterns of distribution of MCI and GI between two groups. Among the panoramic indices, PMI and MCI showed significant correlation with dental implant failure. Panoramic indices can be used as reference data in estimating bone quality of edentulous patients who are to have implants installed in their mandibles.

  6. [Comparison of mesiodistal root angulation between panoramic radiography and reconstructed panoramic images from cone beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Wen, Fujia; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the difference of mesiodistal root angulation between panoramic radiograph and panoramic images reconstructed from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) by different methods. CBCT and panoramic radiograph of twenty patients were collected. The InvivoDental 5.0 was separately applied for maxillary or mandibular panoramic image reconstruction. The reconstruction method was combined by two head positions, the Frankfort plane horizontal position (P1) and the occlusal plane horizontal position (P2), and three central planes of focal trough (root apical plane, tooth center plane and crown marginal plane referring to the central incisor). Variation of tooth morphology in reconstructed panoramic images and panoramic radiograph was firstly observed. And then measurement for maxillary or mandibular anterior tooth intersection angle (contiguous angles among 321 123 were named as UA1-UA5; and those among 321 123 were named as LA1-LA5 ) was taken. The difference of intersection angles between reconstructed panoramic images and panoramic radiograph (ΔUA and ΔLA) were calculated. Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test was finally applied to compare the intersection angles' differences between P1 and P2 with the same central plane of focal trough. Panoramic images reconstructed from CBCT by tooth center plane with P1 for maxilla and P2 for mandible appeared to fulfill the clinically diagnostic demand through the observation. Among the 15 couples of comparison of intersection angles' differences between P1 and P2 by choosing the same central plane of focal trough for maxilla, 7 couples of ΔUA revealed a statistically smaller value in P1 while 1 couple of ΔUA showed an adverse result.In mandible with the same comparison method, 10 couples of comparison did not show statistical difference between P1 and P2, while 4 couples of ΔLA revealed a statistically smaller value in P2 and 1 couple ΔLA showed an opposite result. By choosing the tooth center plane, the panoramic images

  7. Analysis of edentulous maxillae using computed tomography and panoramic radiography in the surgical planning of dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahuinco, Humberto Lazaro Choquepuma; Souza, Ricardo Pires de

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to determine agreement of three observers on analysis of linear measurements of edentulous maxillae using computed tomography and panoramic radiography in the surgical planning of dental implants. Material and Method: the samples of 17 patients were analyzed with computed tomography and panoramic radiography. Linear measurements obtained from both methods were made at the following anatomical points: left tuberosity, left canine pillar, incisive foramen, right canine pillar and right tuberosity. Kendall's W test was applied to assess the level of agreement. Results: measured W-values from the samples of the anatomical points mentioned above, analyzed with panoramic radiography and computed tomography, were: 0.75 and 0.901; 0.916 and 0.956; 0.843 and 0.964; 0.963 and 0.931; 0.95 and 0.89 respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: agreement occurred in the measurements of variables.That means that if the three observers were to select an implant to be placed in each of the anatomical regions studied, there would be a good chance whey would choose the same type. (author)

  8. Panoramic Mosaics from Chang’E-3 PCAM Images at Point A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanlu Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a unique approach for panoramic mosaics based on Moon surface images from the Chang’E-3 (CE-3 mission, with consideration of the exposure time and external illumination changes in CE-3 Panoramic Camera (PCAM imaging. The engineering implementation involves algorithms of image feature points extraction by using Speed-Up Robust Features (SURF, and a newly defined measure is used to obtain the corresponding points in feature matching. Then, the transformation matrix is calculated and optimized between adjacent images by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. Finally, an image is reconstructed by using a fade-in-fade-out method based on linear interpolation to achieve a seamless mosaic. The developed algorithm has been tested with CE-3 PCAM images at Point A (one of the rover sites where the rover is separated from the lander. This approach has produced accurate mosaics from CE-3 PCAM images, as is indicated by the value of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, which is greater than 31 dB between the overlapped region of the images before and after fusion.

  9. Vertical Impact Tests of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Chris

    1998-01-01

    ...) subjected to simulated catapult dynamics while wearing the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG). A series of vertical impacts were conducted with the PNVG using the AFRL/HEPA Vertical Deceleration Tower...

  10. Diagnostic ability of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho Bong Hae; Hwang, Dae Seok [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiographs for detection of mandibular fractures. The sample was comprised of 65 patients (55 fractured, 10 non-fractured) with 92 fracture sites confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Panoramic radiographs were evaluated for mandibular fractures by six examiners; two oral and maxillofacial radiologists (observer A and B), two oral and maxillofacial surgeons (observer C and D), and two general dentists (observer E and F). Sensitivity of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures was 95.7% in observer A and B, 93.5% in observer C and D and 80.4% in observer E and F. The lowest sensitivity was shown in symphyseal/parasymphyseal areas, followed by subcondylar/condylar regions. Panoramic radiography is adequate for detection of mandibular fractures. However, additional multidetector CT is recommended to ascertain some indecisive fractures of symphysis and condyle, and in complicated fractures.

  11. Diagnostic ability of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho Bong Hae; Hwang, Dae Seok

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiographs for detection of mandibular fractures. The sample was comprised of 65 patients (55 fractured, 10 non-fractured) with 92 fracture sites confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Panoramic radiographs were evaluated for mandibular fractures by six examiners; two oral and maxillofacial radiologists (observer A and B), two oral and maxillofacial surgeons (observer C and D), and two general dentists (observer E and F). Sensitivity of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures was 95.7% in observer A and B, 93.5% in observer C and D and 80.4% in observer E and F. The lowest sensitivity was shown in symphyseal/parasymphyseal areas, followed by subcondylar/condylar regions. Panoramic radiography is adequate for detection of mandibular fractures. However, additional multidetector CT is recommended to ascertain some indecisive fractures of symphysis and condyle, and in complicated fractures.

  12. High-yield criteria for panoramic radiography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.C.; Forsythe, A.B.

    1982-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs should be obtained when the examination offers the prospect of providing information that will assist in patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-yield criteria could be developed for the use of panoramic radiographs in the treatment planning of patients seeking dental care. Clinicians were asked what signs or symptoms caused them to order a panoramic radiograph upon patient admission into the UCLA Dental Clinic. At the time the patient was radiographed, a variety of demographic and clinical measures were recorded. The most important high-yield criterion for the panoramic examination is whether the radiograph is ordered for 'general screening examination' (a negative predictor) and whether the radiograph was ordered for any specific examination (a positive predictor). The use of these (or any other) decision rules required clinical judgment of the costs (social and economic) of a missed positive finding relative to that of an unproductive examination

  13. Dosimetry in dental radiology. Dentascan spiral CT versus panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villari, N.; Stecco, A.; Zatelli, G.

    1999-01-01

    The study compares the doses absorbed by the dentomaxillary area in spiral CT and panoramic examinations. The dose measurements demonstrate that patients receive smaller doses with panoramic radiography than with spiral CT with Dentascan. After following for some variations from instrumental differences, they are in substantial agreement with literature data. Further investigations are needed considering the radiobiological risk related to the growing spread of Dentascan examinations [it

  14. Leaded apron for use in panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcher, B.L.; Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The leaded aprons currently available for use during dental radiography do not protect the thyroid gland from radiation. Conventional aprons may produce artifacts when used with panoramic dental x-ray units. This study measures the dose reduction obtained with an experimental leaded apron designed for use with panoramic dental x-ray units. Skin exposures measured at the thyroid and at the sternum were reduced with the use of the apron. Films produced during the study were free from apron artifacts

  15. Impact of malpositioning on panoramic radiography in implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Björn; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Schulze, Dirk; Loos, Clemens; Blessmann, Marco; Heiland, Max; Wikner, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    The widely used panoramic radiography as a special kind of tomography underlies intrinsic procedural restrictions such as poor definition, inconsistent magnification, geometric distortion and spatial depositioning of objects situated outside the focal trough. This results in a non-anatomic display of the radiographed anatomic structures. Individual mandibular angle and width of the jaws, adjustment of the focal trough, jaw incongruence as well as patient positioning increase the inconsistency in display of the radiographed objects. This study precisely evaluated the quantitative impact of object malpositioning on the display in panoramic radiography. A special dental implant model was highly accurate three dimensionally malpositioned and panoramic radiographs were taken. Automated image analysis was performed to exclude subjective assessment error. Precise and retraceable object deposition of up to 5 mm or 5° resulted in relevant deposition of objects and significant changes in object size and inter-object distances in the panoramic image. Unidirectional malpositioning lead to multiple errors in display. The extent of malpositioning-related display errors additionally to the known physicotechnical insufficiencies of the panoramic radiography demonstrates its limitations in precisely interpreting spatial relationships. Measurements within the panoramic radiography must not claim reliability. For a single object securely positioned in the focal trough and perpendicular to the central X-ray beam, measurements may be trustworthy on clinical scale. Once sterical relationships to other structures are evaluated, reliability must be questioned.

  16. Accuracy of digital panoramic regarding interproximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi Pour D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Conventional radiological equipments in our country are going to be converted to digital system using computed radiology (CR technology. If we know the accuracy of digital panoramic radiography for detection of small defects in tooth, it will be useful in cases with difficulty for taking the intraoral radiographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries compared with the bitewing radiography."nMaterials and Methods: One-hundred patients who had been ordered for taking both bitewing and panoramic radiography were included in this study. Panoramic and then bitewing radiographs were observed by a maxillofacial radiologist and interproximal caries were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography (CI=95% was calculated compared with the bitewing radiography as a gold standard."nResults: This study showed that the values for sensitivity and specificity were 62.7% (CI 95%=57.7%-67.5% and 91.0% (CI 95%=89.2%-92.5%, respectively."nConclusion: Sensitivity of digital panoramic is less than bitewing radiography even with processing before printing. Therefore, bitewing radiography is superior for detection of inter proximal caries.

  17. Evaluation of the overlapping of posterior teeth in two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic program and standard panoramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi pour D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Overlapping of the proximal surfaces of posterior teeth in the panoramic radiography is a major concern. Therefore, an option has been developed in the panoramic unit of Planmeca Promax, namely improved interproximal mode. This mode causes lower horizental angle with the teeth contact region during the unit rotation decreasing overlapping of the panoramic images of the posterior teeth especially premolar teeth. The present study was done to compare the overlapping of posterior teeth using two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic program and standard panoramic. "nMaterials and Methods: In this diagnostic study, 32 patients requiring panoramic radiographies at their posterior teeth during their routine diagnosis and treatment process with the mean age of 27.3 years were participated. No patients showed crowding of posterior teeth or missed and restored posterior teeth. The participants' panoramic radiographies were randomly taken by two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic and standard panoramic using Planmeca Promax device. The overlapping of the panoramic images was blindly assessed by an oral radiologist. The overlapping in both techniques was reported by frequency and percentage. The comparisons were done by Chi-square test between two techniques and the odds ratio of overlapping was estimated using regression analysis. "nResults: In standard panoramic techniques, 38.5% (148 contacts of 384 contacts of the proximal surfaces overlapped while the overlapping of the proximal surfaces was observed in 18.8% (72 contacts of 384 overall contacts in improved interproximal technique. Significant differences were noted between two techniques regarding overlapping (P<0.001. Also 66.4% and 39.1% of 4-5 teeth contacts overlapped in standard and improved techniques. The values were reported to be 39.1% and 12.5% in contacts of 5-6 teeth and 10.2% and 4.7% in the contacts of 6-7 teeth in both techniques

  18. Optimal Cable Tension Distribution of the High-Speed Redundant Driven Camera Robots Considering Cable Sag and Inertia Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Su; Yuanying Qiu; Peng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Camera robots are high-speed redundantly cable-driven parallel manipulators that realize the aerial panoramic photographing. When long-span cables and high maneuverability are involved, the effects of cable sags and inertias on the dynamics must be carefully dealt with. This paper is devoted to the optimal cable tension distribution (OCTD for short) of the camera robots. Firstly, each fast varying-length cable is discretized into some nodes for computing the cable inertias. Secondly, the dyna...

  19. Panoramic, Macro and Micro Multispectral Imaging: An Affordable System for Mapping Pigments on Artworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multispectral imaging systems are used in art examinations to map and identify pigments, binders and areas of retouching. A monochromatic camera is combined with an appropriate wavelength selection system and acquires a variable number of spectral images of a scene. These images are then stacked into a reflectance imaging cube to reconstruct reflectance spectra from each of the images’ pixels. This paper presents an affordable multispectral imaging system composed of a monochromatic CCD camera and a set of only 12 interference filters for mapping pigments on works of art and for the tentative identification of such pigments. This work demonstrates the versatility of this set-up, a versatility enabling it to be applied to different tasks, involving examination and documentation of objects of varying size. Use of this multispectral camera for both panoramic and macro photography is discussed, together with the possibilities facilitated from the coupling of the system to a stereomicroscope and a compound microscope. This system is of particular interest for the cultural heritage sector because of its hardware simplicity and acquisition speed, as well as its lightness and small dimensions.

  20. System Design, Calibration and Performance Analysis of a Novel 360° Stereo Panoramic Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, S.; Nebiker, S.; Cavegn, S.

    2017-05-01

    Image-based mobile mapping systems enable the efficient acquisition of georeferenced image sequences, which can later be exploited in cloud-based 3D geoinformation services. In order to provide a 360° coverage with accurate 3D measuring capabilities, we present a novel 360° stereo panoramic camera configuration. By using two 360° panorama cameras tilted forward and backward in combination with conventional forward and backward looking stereo camera systems, we achieve a full 360° multi-stereo coverage. We furthermore developed a fully operational new mobile mapping system based on our proposed approach, which fulfils our high accuracy requirements. We successfully implemented a rigorous sensor and system calibration procedure, which allows calibrating all stereo systems with a superior accuracy compared to that of previous work. Our study delivered absolute 3D point accuracies in the range of 4 to 6 cm and relative accuracies of 3D distances in the range of 1 to 3 cm. These results were achieved in a challenging urban area. Furthermore, we automatically reconstructed a 3D city model of our study area by employing all captured and georeferenced mobile mapping imagery. The result is a very high detailed and almost complete 3D city model of the street environment.

  1. Assessment of effect of age, gender, and dentoalveolar changes on mandibular morphology: A digital panoramic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sairam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With progressive development in the growth and function of the jaws, changes are observed in size as well as shape of the mandible, which vary on the basis of age, gender, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate and assess the morphological changes of the mandible, with varying age, gender, and dental status, using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using digital panoramic radiographs taken by Kodak 8000c digital panoramic and cephalometric system on 150 patients, comprising fifty edentulous individuals (above 50 years of age, fifty old dentate individuals (above 50 years of age, and fifty young dentate individuals (below 25 years of age. All the mandibular measurements (gonial angle, ramus length, condylar length (CL, ramus notch depth, and cortical bone thickness were carried out using RadiAnt DICOM VIEWER 2.2.9 (32-bit software. The measurements were then subjected to paired t-test, Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Descriptive statistics for all the parameters on the right and left sides of the mandible in both males and females were analyzed. A statistical significance of P < 0.05 was observed for all the variables except one variable (CL. Conclusion: In the present study, all the variables showed increased measurements in males except gonial angle, which was found to be wider in females, indicating that women tend to get affected by varying dental statuses than men. Hence, the parameters used in this study may act as good indicators for the assessment of the effect of age, gender, and dental status on mandibular morphology.

  2. A clinico-radiographic analysis of sagittal condylar guidance determined by protrusive interocclusal registration and panoramic radiographic images in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Krishna Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between sagittal condylar guidance obtained by protrusive interocclusal records and panoramic radiograph tracing methods in human dentulous subjects. Materials and Methods: The sagittal condylar guidance was determined in 75 dentulous subjects by protrusive interocclusal records using Aluwax through a face bow transfer (HANAU™ Spring Bow, Whip Mix Corporation, USA to a semi-adjustable articulator (HANAU™ Wide-Vue Articulator, Whip Mix Corporation, USA. In the same subjects, the sagittal outline of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa was traced in panoramic radiographs. The sagittal condylar path inclination was constructed by joining the heights of curvature in the glenoid fossa and the corresponding articular eminence. This was then related to the constructed Frankfurt′s horizontal plane to determine the radiographic angle of sagittal condylar guidance. Results: A strong positive correlation existed between right and left condylar guidance by the protrusive interocclusal method (P 0.000 and similarly by the radiographic method (P 0.013. The mean difference between the condylar guidance obtained using both methods were 1.97° for the right side and 3.18° for the left side. This difference between the values by the two methods was found to be highly significant for the right (P 0.003 and left side (P 0.000, respectively. The sagittal condylar guidance obtained from both methods showed a significant positive correlation on right (P 0.000 and left side (P 0.015, respectively. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographic tracings of the sagittal condylar path guidance may be made relative to the Frankfurt′s horizontal reference plane and the resulting condylar guidance angles used to set the condylar guide settings of semi-adjustable articulators.

  3. Radiation dose reduction in direct digital panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavala, Sophia; Donta, Catherine; Tsiklakis, Kostas; Boziari, Argyro; Kamenopoulou, Vasiliki; Stamatakis, Harry C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: (a) To measure the absorbed radiation doses at 16 anatomical sites of a Rando phantom and (b) to calculate the effective doses including and excluding the salivary gland doses in panoramic radiography using a conventional and a digital panoramic device. Study design: Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were placed at 16 sites in a Rando phantom, using a conventional, Planmeca Promax and a digital, Planmeca PM2002CC Proline 2000 (Planmeca Oy, 00880 Helsinki, Finland) panoramic device for panoramic radiography. During conventional radiography the selected exposure settings were 66 kVp, 6 mA and 16 s, while during digital radiography two combinations were selected 60 kVp, 4 mA, 18 s and 66 kVp, 8 mA, 18 s with and without image processing function. The dosimeters were annealed in a PTW-TLDO Harshaw oven. TLD energy response was studied using RQN beam narrow series at GAEC's Secondary Standard Calibration Laboratory. The reader used was a Harshaw, 4500. Effective dose was estimated according to ICRP 60 report (E ICRP60 ). An additional estimation of the effective dose was accomplished including the doses of the salivary glands (E SAL ). A Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The effective dose, according to ICRP report (E ICRP60 ) in conventional panoramic radiography was 17 μSv and E SAL was 26 μSv. The respective values in digital panoramic radiography were E ICRP60 = 23 μSv and E SAL = 38 μSv; while using the lowest possible radiographic settings E ICRP60 was 8 μSv and E SAL was 12 μSv. Conclusions: The effective dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography can be achieved, if the lowest possible radiographic settings are used.

  4. Radiation dose reduction in direct digital panoramic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavala, Sophia; Donta, Catherine [Department of Oral Diagnosis and Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, University of Athens, 2 Thivon Street Goudi, 115 27 Athens (Greece); Tsiklakis, Kostas [Department of Oral Diagnosis and Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, University of Athens, 2 Thivon Street Goudi, 115 27 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: ktsiklak@dent.uoa.gr; Boziari, Argyro; Kamenopoulou, Vasiliki [Greek Atomic Energy Commission (Greece); Stamatakis, Harry C. [Department of Oral Diagnosis and Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, University of Athens, 2 Thivon Street Goudi, 115 27 Athens (Greece)

    2009-07-15

    Objectives: (a) To measure the absorbed radiation doses at 16 anatomical sites of a Rando phantom and (b) to calculate the effective doses including and excluding the salivary gland doses in panoramic radiography using a conventional and a digital panoramic device. Study design: Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were placed at 16 sites in a Rando phantom, using a conventional, Planmeca Promax and a digital, Planmeca PM2002CC Proline 2000 (Planmeca Oy, 00880 Helsinki, Finland) panoramic device for panoramic radiography. During conventional radiography the selected exposure settings were 66 kVp, 6 mA and 16 s, while during digital radiography two combinations were selected 60 kVp, 4 mA, 18 s and 66 kVp, 8 mA, 18 s with and without image processing function. The dosimeters were annealed in a PTW-TLDO Harshaw oven. TLD energy response was studied using RQN beam narrow series at GAEC's Secondary Standard Calibration Laboratory. The reader used was a Harshaw, 4500. Effective dose was estimated according to ICRP{sub 60} report (E{sub ICRP60}). An additional estimation of the effective dose was accomplished including the doses of the salivary glands (E{sub SAL}). A Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The effective dose, according to ICRP report (E{sub ICRP60}) in conventional panoramic radiography was 17 {mu}Sv and E{sub SAL} was 26 {mu}Sv. The respective values in digital panoramic radiography were E{sub ICRP60} = 23 {mu}Sv and E{sub SAL} = 38 {mu}Sv; while using the lowest possible radiographic settings E{sub ICRP60} was 8 {mu}Sv and E{sub SAL} was 12 {mu}Sv. Conclusions: The effective dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography can be achieved, if the lowest possible radiographic settings are used.

  5. Radiation dose reduction in direct digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Sophia; Donta, Catherine; Tsiklakis, Kostas; Boziari, Argyro; Kamenopoulou, Vasiliki; Stamatakis, Harry C

    2009-07-01

    (a) To measure the absorbed radiation doses at 16 anatomical sites of a Rando phantom and (b) to calculate the effective doses including and excluding the salivary gland doses in panoramic radiography using a conventional and a digital panoramic device. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were placed at 16 sites in a Rando phantom, using a conventional, Planmeca Promax and a digital, Planmeca PM2002CC Proline 2000 (Planmeca Oy, 00880 Helsinki, Finland) panoramic device for panoramic radiography. During conventional radiography the selected exposure settings were 66 kVp, 6 mA and 16s, while during digital radiography two combinations were selected 60 kVp, 4 mA, 18 s and 66 kVp, 8 mA, 18s with and without image processing function. The dosimeters were annealed in a PTW-TLDO Harshaw oven. TLD energy response was studied using RQN beam narrow series at GAEC's Secondary Standard Calibration Laboratory. The reader used was a Harshaw, 4500. Effective dose was estimated according to ICRP(60) report (E(ICRP60)). An additional estimation of the effective dose was accomplished including the doses of the salivary glands (E(SAL)). A Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for statistical analysis. The effective dose, according to ICRP report (E(ICRP60)) in conventional panoramic radiography was 17 microSv and E(SAL) was 26 microSv. The respective values in digital panoramic radiography were E(ICRP60)=23 microSv and E(SAL)=38 microSv; while using the lowest possible radiographic settings E(ICRP60) was 8 microSv and E(SAL) was 12 microSv. The effective dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography can be achieved, if the lowest possible radiographic settings are used.

  6. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  7. [Segmental wall movement of the left ventricle in healthy persons and myocardial infarct patients studied by a catheter-less nuclear medical method (camera-cinematography of the heart)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffers, H; Sigel, H; Bitter, F; Kampmann, H; Stauch, M; Adam, W E

    1976-08-01

    Camera-Kinematography is a nearly noninvasive method to investigate regional motion of the myocard, and allows evaluation of the function of the heart. About 20 min after injection of 15-20 mCi of 99mTC-Human-Serum-Albumin, when the tracer is distributed homogenously within the bloodpool, data acquisition starts. Myocardial wall motion is represented in an appropriate quasi three-dimensional form. In this representation scars can be revealed as "silent" (akinetic) regions, aneurysms by asynchronic motion. Time activity curves for arbitrarily chosen regions can be calculated and give an equivalent for regional volume changes. 16 patients with an old infarction have been investigated. In fourteen cases the location and extent of regions with abnormal motion could be evaluated. Only two cases of a small posterior wall infarction did not show deviations from normal contraction pattern.

  8. Comparison of conventional panoramic radiography and panoramic digital subtraction radiography in detection of simulated lesions of mandibular condyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjnoush M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and Aim: Digital subtraction Radiography (DSR is a method of accurate assessing condylar head changes. several studies have been carried out in applying DSR in dentistry, however there is a few number of studies in efficacy of DSR method in assesment of condylar head changes, The aim of this study was to compare panoramic radiography and DSR detecting simulated lesions of the mandibular condyl. "nMaterials and Methods: this was a process reaserch study, in which two dry human skulls with no obvious temporomandibular joint pathology were used. Osteophytic lesions were simulated using three sizes of bone chips that were placed on the medial portion of anterior and superolateral aspects of the condyle. Osteolytic lesions were simulated making 1 and 2 mm holes using round burr in the central portion of anterior aspect and Lateral pole of the condyle. Panoramic radiographs were prepared with and without the lesions in place. These paired radiographs were digitized and digital- subtraction images of the original panoramic images were obtained. Eight observers evaluated 155 images of each modality for the presence or absence and the type of simulated lesions of the mandibular condyle. Sensitivity, specificity, reliability and measure of agreement were analyzed using kappa test and crossed tables and qualitative variables were assess by chi-square and fisher's Exact test. "nResults: Specificity of panoramic and DSR methods were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. Sensitivity of panoramic and DSR methods were 61.1% and 80.6% for osteophytic lesions and 37.5% and 83.3% for Osteolytic lesions. The percentage of correct decisions made in DSR method was significantly more than conventional panoramic method (82.6% vs 41.9% (p<0.0001. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study digital subtraction technique was significantly more accurate than the panoramic radiographs in detection of simulated lesions of the mandibular condyle.

  9. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens using panoramic and periapical radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hang-Moon; Han, Jin-Woo; Park, In-Woo; Baik, Jee-Seon; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Park, Ho-Won

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new technique for localizing impacted mesiodens using its horizontal magnification ratio on panoramic radiographs. Location-magnification equation of a panoramic equipment was obtained from horizontal magnification ratio of a metal ball which was located variable positions from the center of image layer at interval of 2 mm. Panoramic radiographs were obtained from a skull phantom with a metal ball which was a substitute for impacted mesiodens and was embedded 10mm(Group 1), 15mm(Group 2), and 20mm(Group 3) posterior to the central incisor. Each group obtained 7 panoramic radiographs at variable positions and one periapical radiograph. Three methods were used to estimate the actual width of the incisors and the balls which were used to calculate the magnification ratio. The methods included using the actual incisor width and the calculated ball width (Method 1), using the actual incisor width and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 2), and using the incisor and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 3). The location of the metal ball was calculated by using the location-magnification equation. The smallest difference between the calculated and the actual distance was 0.1±0.7 mm in Group 1/Method 3. The largest difference was -4.2±1.6 mm in Group 3/Method 2. In all groups, method 3 was the most accurate. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens is possible by using panoramic radiograph.

  10. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens using panoramic and periapical radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon; Han, Jin Woo; Park, In Woo; Baik, Jee Seon; Seo, Hyun Woo; Lee, Joo Hyun; Park, Ho Won [College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new technique for localizing impacted mesiodens using its horizontal magnification ratio on panoramic radiographs. Location-magnification equation of a panoramic equipment was obtained from horizontal magnification ratio of a metal ball which was located variable positions from the center of image layer at interval of 2 mm. Panoramic radiographs were obtained from a skull phantom with a metal ball which was a substitute for impacted mesiodens and was embedded 10 mm (Group 1), 15 mm (Group 2), and 20 mm (Group 3) posterior to the central incisor. Each group obtained 7 panoramic radiographs at variable positions and one periapical radiograph. Three methods were used to estimate the actual width of the incisors and the balls which were used to calculate the magnification ratio. The methods included using the actual incisor width and the calculated ball width (Method 1), using the actual incisor width and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 2), and using the incisor and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 3). The location of the metal ball was calculated by using the location-magnification equation. The smallest difference between the calculated and the actual distance was 0.1{+-}0.7 mm in Group 1/Method 3. The largest difference was -4.2{+-}1.6 mm in Group 3/Method 2. In all groups, method 3 was the most accurate. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens is possible by using panoramic radiograph.

  11. Stenosis of calcified carotid artery detected on Panoramic Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, So Yang; Oh, Won Mann; Yoon, Suk Ja; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan M. [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with calcification detected on panoramic radiographs. This study used fifty carotid arteries of 36 dental patients whose panoramic radiograph and computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the presence of carotid artery calcification. A neuroradiologist interpreted CTA to determine the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. The degree of stenosis was stratified in four stages; normal (no stenosis), mild stenosis (1-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (70-99%). Among the fifty carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA, 20 carotid arteries (40%) were normal, 29 carotid arteries (18%) had mild stenosis, 1 carotid artery (2%) had moderate stenosis, and there was none with severe stenosis. Sixty percent of the carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA had internal luminal stenosis, and two percent had moderate stenosis. When carotid atheroma is detected on panoramic radiograph, it is possible that the dental patient has luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

  12. Stenosis of calcified carotid artery detected on Panoramic Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, So Yang; Oh, Won Mann; Yoon, Suk Ja; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol; Palomo, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with calcification detected on panoramic radiographs. This study used fifty carotid arteries of 36 dental patients whose panoramic radiograph and computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the presence of carotid artery calcification. A neuroradiologist interpreted CTA to determine the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. The degree of stenosis was stratified in four stages; normal (no stenosis), mild stenosis (1-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (70-99%). Among the fifty carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA, 20 carotid arteries (40%) were normal, 29 carotid arteries (18%) had mild stenosis, 1 carotid artery (2%) had moderate stenosis, and there was none with severe stenosis. Sixty percent of the carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA had internal luminal stenosis, and two percent had moderate stenosis. When carotid atheroma is detected on panoramic radiograph, it is possible that the dental patient has luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

  13. Localization of impacted maxillary canines using panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Archna; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Setty, Suhas; Sharma, Gaurav

    2009-03-01

    We aimed to establish a reliable method of localizing an impacted maxillary canine on the sole basis of assessment of a single panoramic radiograph, and to determine the validity and reproducibility of the method. Panoramic radiographs of 50 subjects with a total of 68 impacted canines were analysed. The Canine Incisor Index (CII), Canine Canine Index (CCI), control Canine Incisor Index (c-CII), Zone (apical, middle, coronal) and Sector (I, II, III, IV) were determined on digitized panoramic radiographs. Comparison of the CII and CCI values of labially or palatally impacted canines revealed a statistically significant difference (P 0.05). There was a significant difference between palatal and central canine impactions in relation to CII (P 0.05). Correct prediction of palatal canine impactions by differential magnification on a panoramic radiograph is possible in 77% of cases. Vertical and horizontal restrictions have no value in recognition of labiolingual position of impacted maxillary canines. The panoramic radiograph cannot be used as a sole radiograph for reliable localization of impacted maxillary canines.

  14. Effective dose for patient in multimode panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaki, Shiro; Daibo, Motoji

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, multimode panoramic radiography has had various functions, such as the auto exposure function, auto focus function (auto function), TMJ radiography and tomogram radiography functions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effective dose for patients in each mode of the new multimode panoramic radiography (J. MORITA MFG. CORP. Dental Panorama X-ray Apparatus: Veraview Scope X 600). The absorbed doses in important organs involved in the causation of stochastic effects were measured by a thermoluminescent dosimeter using RANDO phantom. The effective doses were calculated using modified tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1999. The mean field size over skin in typical panoramic and tomographic examinations was about 3% and 0.4% of the total body surface area of 15000 cm 2 . Assuming that the incidence of skin cancer is proportional to the area of skin exposed to ionizing radiation, the tissue weighting factor of skin can be estimated to be about 0.0003 and 0.00004. The estimate in effective dose was lower (5.3 μSv) in the panoramic auto function mode (an average exposure condition of 69 kV 7 mA) than that (6.5-13.8 μSv) in the linear tomogram modes. Since the linear tomogram mode requires a scout view, such as standard panoramic radiography, the dose in the linear tomogram mode becomes higher than other modes. A percentage of gonad doses in effective doses was negligible. (author)

  15. Assessment of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool. Materials and Methods This report was carried out by review of the literatures. Results Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography. Conclusion Panoramic radiography will improve the effi...

  16. Stereo Calibration and Rectification for Omnidirectional Multi-Camera Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchang Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stereo vision has been studied for decades as a fundamental problem in the field of computer vision. In recent years, computer vision and image processing with a large field of view, especially using omnidirectional vision and panoramic images, has been receiving increasing attention. An important problem for stereo vision is calibration. Although various kinds of calibration methods for omnidirectional cameras are proposed, most of them are limited to calibrate catadioptric cameras or fish-eye cameras and cannot be applied directly to multi-camera systems. In this work, we propose an easy calibration method with closed-form initialization and iterative optimization for omnidirectional multi-camera systems. The method only requires image pairs of the 2D target plane in a few different views. A method based on the spherical camera model is also proposed for rectifying omnidirectional stereo pairs. Using real data captured by Ladybug3, we carry out some experiments, including stereo calibration, rectification and 3D reconstruction. Statistical analyses and comparisons of the experimental results are also presented. As the experimental results show, the calibration results are precise and the effect of rectification is promising.

  17. Early diagnosis of atherosclerosis with panoramic radiographs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Landim Borba

    Full Text Available Abstract Carotid artery disease has been linked with cerebral vascular accident, also known as stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, or cerebral ischemia. It is caused by narrowing or obstruction of arteries in the neck (the carotid arteries that are responsible for transporting blood from the aorta to the brain. Panoramic radiographs are used in dentistry to show both dental arches as a supplement to the clinical dental examination. The objective of this study is to highlight the importance of panoramic radiographs for diagnosis of arterial disease, by means of a bibliographic review. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords “atherosclerosis” and “panoramic”, with the filters “last 5 years” and “humans”. Twenty articles were identified, six of which were chosen for this study because they were open access. The review concluded that panoramic radiographs enable early diagnosis of carotid artery calcification, resulting in earlier interventions, and offer an accessible cost.

  18. Optos Panoramic 200MA ultrawide-field imaging of peripheral RPE adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sumit P; Jain, Atul; Coffee, Robert E; McCannel, Tara A

    2009-01-01

    To illustrate the utility of ultrawide-angle fundus imaging in documenting a suspicous lesion in the far retinal periphery. Observational case report. A 48 year-old female with new onset floaters in the left eye was noted to have an elevated and heavily pigmented lesion in the far retinal periphery. Optos Panoramic200MA ultrawide-field photography and fluorescein angiography allowed for accurate serial documentaton of the lesion which was determined to be a retinal pigment epithelial adenoma. Over a four year period of observation, Optos ultrawide-field photography of the retinal pigment epithelial adenoma demonstrated stability of the lesion size and mild lesion depigmentation with overlying vitreous pigmentation. The Optos ultra-widefield system demonstrates the ability to rapidly and reproducibily obtain images to monitor a peripheral retinal pigment epithelial adenoma for objective and comparitive detection of change.

  19. Those Nifty Digital Cameras!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1996-01-01

    Describes digital photography--an electronic imaging technology that merges computer capabilities with traditional photography--and its uses in education. Discusses how a filmless camera works, types of filmless cameras, advantages and disadvantages, and educational applications of the consumer digital cameras. (AEF)

  20. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen...

  1. A study about the variation of styloid processes in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sook Hee; Kim, Chong Youl

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the length and shape of styloid processes and the relationships between the elongated styloid processes and the styloid process syndrome, using panoramic radiographs and questionaires. The subjects were 342 patients consisted of 170 males and 172 females aged from 11 to 78 years, not showing facial asymmetry, who visited infirmary of dental college of Yonsei University. Also, the accuracy was determined for measuring the length of styloid processes from panoramic radiographs, using dried skulls. The results were as follows: 1. The length of styloid processes was magnified approximately 1.1 times, but there was no statistically significant differences in the magnification rate of length between right and left side. 2. The mean radiographic length of styloid processes was 29.72 ± 7.92 mm in males, 27.93 ± 0.69 mm in the females, and 28.82 ± 7.37 mm in total. And elongated styloid process (>30 mm) was seen in 31.3% of total subjects. 3. The growth in the length of styloid processes was completed in the third decade. 4. The most common shape of styloid processes was straight followed by segmented and bent form. The incidence of segmentation was reduced with increasing age. 5. The 74% of subjects with elongated styloid process (>30 mm) showed symptoms of the styloid process syndrome. The most frequent symptom was headache followed by discomfort in the neck when turning the head from left to right, tinnitus or earache, vague facial pain, discomfort or pain when swallowing, feeling that an object is caught in throat.

  2. A study about the variation of styloid processes in panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sook Hee; Kim, Chong Youl [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the length and shape of styloid processes and the relationships between the elongated styloid processes and the styloid process syndrome, using panoramic radiographs and questionaires. The subjects were 342 patients consisted of 170 males and 172 females aged from 11 to 78 years, not showing facial asymmetry, who visited infirmary of dental college of Yonsei University. Also, the accuracy was determined for measuring the length of styloid processes from panoramic radiographs, using dried skulls. The results were as follows: 1. The length of styloid processes was magnified approximately 1.1 times, but there was no statistically significant differences in the magnification rate of length between right and left side. 2. The mean radiographic length of styloid processes was 29.72 {+-} 7.92 mm in males, 27.93 {+-} 0.69 mm in the females, and 28.82 {+-} 7.37 mm in total. And elongated styloid process (>30 mm) was seen in 31.3% of total subjects. 3. The growth in the length of styloid processes was completed in the third decade. 4. The most common shape of styloid processes was straight followed by segmented and bent form. The incidence of segmentation was reduced with increasing age. 5. The 74% of subjects with elongated styloid process (>30 mm) showed symptoms of the styloid process syndrome. The most frequent symptom was headache followed by discomfort in the neck when turning the head from left to right, tinnitus or earache, vague facial pain, discomfort or pain when swallowing, feeling that an object is caught in throat.

  3. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircos, L.T.; Eakle, W.S.; Smith, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography

  4. Measurement accuracy and reliability of tooth length on conventional and CBCT reconstructed panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Rosenblatt, Mark R; Major, Paul W.; Carey, Jason P.; Heo, Giseon

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This in vivo study assessed accuracy and reliability of tooth length measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs and CBCT panoramic reconstructions to that of a digital caliper (gold standard). METHODS: The sample consisted of subjects who had CBCT and conventional panoramic radiographic imaging and who required maxillary premolar extraction for routine orthodontic treatment. A total of 48 teeth extracted from 26 subjects were measured directly with digital calipers. Radiographic images were scanned and digitally measured in Dolphin 3D software. Accuracy of tooth length measurements made by CBCT panoramic reconstructions, conventional panoramic radiographs and digital caliper (gold standard) were compared to each other by repeated measures one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction and by single measures intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Repeated root length measures with digital calipers, panoramic radiographs and CBCT constructed panoramic-like images were all individually highly reliable. Compared to the caliper (gold standard), tooth measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs were on average 6.3 mm (SD = 2.0 mm) longer, while tooth measurements from CBCT panoramic reconstructions were an average of 1.7 mm (SD = 1.2 mm) shorter. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to actual tooth lengths, conventional panoramic radiographs were relatively inaccurate, overestimating the lengths by 29%, while CBCT panoramic reconstructions underestimated the lengths by 4%. PMID:25715716

  5. Manual on panoramic gamma irradiators (categories 2 and 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In addition to a basic guide to the principles of production of ionizing radiation and to the methods of radiation protection and dosimetry, this document considers the procedures that should be employed when using panoramic gamma irradiators. Applications for such irradiators are described and radiation protection procedures discussed

  6. Evaluation of knee meniscal injuries using panoramic MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Toru

    2004-01-01

    At many institutions, sagittal and coronal slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used for knee examinations. Recently, MRI diagnosis for knee meniscal injuries has spread remarkably, and the diagnostic value of the procedure is almost established. We made panoramic images by reconstructing 3D data images along the form of the meniscus using curved cuts and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). We assessed the usefulness of the panoramic images for evaluating meniscal injuries in 34 patients who had arthroscopic surgery after the MRI. MRI data were acquired in the axial plane using a double echo steady state (DESS). The presence of 30 meniscal tears, 5 anterior cruciate ligament tears, 2 posterior cruciate ligament tears, and 1 medial collateral ligament tear were confirmed by the arthroscopic surgery. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for medial meniscus was 100, 95 and 97% respectively, and for lateral meniscus was 93, 95 and 97% respectively. The meniscal tears were visible on the panoramic images, which showed the entire meniscus from the anterior to the posterior segment, so that the anatomical locations of the tear were indicated distinctly. Furthermore, the posterior segment was shown in detail on the panoramic images better than on the conventional plane images. (author)

  7. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Aguilar, Mauricio; Zeledon Mayorga, Rodolfo; Ramirez Mora, Tatiana; Monestel Umana, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author) [es

  8. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro do

    2014-01-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body.

  9. Positioning errors in digital panoramic radiographs: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cicilia Subbulakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Panoramic radiography is a unique and a very useful extraoral film technique that allows the dentist to view the entire dentition and related structures, from condyle to condyle, on one film. Capturing a wide range of structures on a single film grounds the odds of errors in the digital panoramic radiographs. Improper positioning of the patient complicates it more, reducing the diagnostic usefulness of these radiographs. Wide knowledge about the common positioning errors and the ways to rectify it benefits the dentists in interpretation and diagnosis. Aim: This study is aimed at analyzing the 10 common positional errors (anteriorly positioned, posteriorly positioned, head tilted upwards, head tilted downwards, head twisted to one side, head tipped, overlapping of spine in lower anterior region, tongue not placed close to palate, patient movement, and ghost images in 200 digital panoramic radiographs selected randomly. Materials and Methods: Two hundred digital panoramic radiographic images of the patients above 6 years of age were selected randomly from the stored data in the system, projected on the white screen, and studied. The radiographs were analyzed by two oral medicine and radiology specialists, by recording separately, and then the results were analyzed. Results: The most common error was failure to place the tongue close to the palate, which leads to the presence of radiolucent airspace obscuring the roots of the maxillary teeth.

  10. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randon, Rafael Henrique Nunes [Stomathology and Oral Diagnostic Program, School of Dentistry of Sao Paulo, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara [Biology Dental Buco Graduate Program, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil); Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro do [Psychobiology Graduate Program, School of Philosophy, Science and Literature of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body.

  11. Positioning errors and quality assessment in panoramic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Manu; Lakhanpal, Manisha; Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, ITS Centre for Dental Studies and Research, Ghaziabad (India); Raju, Srinivasa M [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Teerthanker Mahavir Dental College, Moradabad (India); Verma, Sankalp; Mohan, Raviprakash S [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Kothiwal Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad (India); Tomar, Divya [Dept. of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, IDST Dental College and Research Centre, Modinagar (India)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to determine the relative frequency of positioning errors, to identify those errors directly responsible for diagnostically inadequate images, and to assess the quality of panoramic radiographs in a sample of records collected from a dental college. This study consisted of 1,782 panoramic radiographs obtained from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. The positioning errors of the radiographs were assessed and categorized into nine groups: the chin tipped high, chin tipped low, a slumped position, the patient positioned forward, the patient positioned backward, failure to position the tongue against the palate, patient movement during exposure, the head tilted, and the head turned to one side. The quality of the radiographs was further judged as being 'excellent', 'diagnostically acceptable', or 'unacceptable'. Out of 1,782 radiographs, 196 (11%) were error free and 1,586 (89%) were present with positioning errors. The most common error observed was the failure to position the tongue against the palate (55.7%) and the least commonly experienced error was patient movement during exposure (1.6%). Only 11% of the radiographs were excellent, 64.1% were diagnostically acceptable, and 24.9% were unacceptable. The positioning errors found on panoramic radiographs were relatively common in our study. The quality of panoramic radiographs could be improved by careful attention to patient positioning.

  12. Efficacy of Panoramic Mandibular Index in Diagnosing Osteoporosis in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khojastehpour

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, the usefulness of Panoramic Mandibular Index (PMI on panoramic radiographs in diagnosis of osteoporosis was evaluated and its correlation with bone mineral density (BMD of the neck of femur and spine was determined.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 140 patients (all females were categorized as either normal, osteopenic or osteoporotic according to the WHO classification in relation to their spinal and femoral BMD determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.Regarding menstruation, they were also divided into menopausal, nonmenopausal,or oophorectomized groups. Panoramic radiographs were taken from all the women in the study. PMI was calculated. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis,Mann-Whitney, and Pearson tests.Results: Specificity and sensitivity of PMI in differentiating normal and osteopenic/osteoporotic cases were 88% and 44%, respectively. The mean PMI of nonmenopausal women was significantly different from those of menopausal and oophorectomized ones. There was a weak correlation between PMI and spinal BMD (r=0.23,P<0.05 and a moderate negative one between age and mean PMI (r=-0.45, P<0.0001.Conclusion: Dental panoramic radiographs can be used in clinical practice to assist identifying individuals with low bone mass.

  13. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara

    2014-01-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body. PMID:24701452

  14. Localization of impacted permanent maxillary canine using single panoramic radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : The objective in localization is selection of a suitable technique which has minimal radiation dose, cost and maximum details. Panoramic radiograph, being a screening radiograph, can satisfy the above needs. Taking this into consideration, the present study was done to evaluate the reliability of panoramic radiograph in localization of impacted permanent maxillary canines by applying the criteria suggested by Chaushu et al. and by comparing it with Clark′s rule. Materials and Methods : The study comprised of 114 subjects in the age group of 13-30 years of both the genders with 150 impacted canines visiting Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology during the study period. The study subjects were examined for clinically missing canine, and then confirmed with intra-oral peri-apical radiograph (IOPAR. Panoramic radiographs (for application of Chaushu et al. criteria and IOPAR′s (for application of Clark′s rule of the subjects were made and interpreted for parameters pertaining to the impacted canines. The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS software. Results : Determination of the bucco-palatal position from panoramic radiographs, by applying Chaushu, et al. criteria, showed that localization in bucco-palatal position was possible for 96 of the 102 impacted canines placed in the middle and coronal zones. The remaining six impacted canines, three each in the middle and coronal zones, could not be localized as they showed overlapping in their range. By excluding them, the overall agreement worked out to be 94.11%. Localization was not possible for 48 impacted canines that lied in the apical zone. Conclusion : A single panoramic radiograph can serve as a reliable indicator for determining the bucco-palatal position of the impacted canines when they lie in the middle and coronal zones. When they lie in the apical zone it is

  15. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  16. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  17. LSST Camera Optics Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N

    2012-05-24

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

  18. The effects of switching the camera module from BlackBerry Curve 9360 devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisolf, F.; Geradts, Z.; Verhoeven, D.; Klaver, C.

    A Photo-Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU) pattern is the 'fingerprint' of a digital camera, which is left in the images acquired with the camera. It can be used to identify the source of suspect images. For a case a BlackBerry phone with a camera was obtained and the question was if this phone was the

  19. Case study: limitations of panoramic radiography in the anterior mandible.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walker, Cameron

    2009-12-01

    Dental Panoramic Tomography (DPT) is a widely used and valuable examination in dentistry. One area prone to artefacts and therefore misinterpretation is the anterior region of the mandible. This case study discusses a periapical radiolucency related to lower anterior teeth that is discovered to be a radiographic artefact. Possible causes of the artefact include a pronounced depression in the mental region of the mandible or superimposition of intervertebral spaces. Additional limitations of the DPT image include superimposition of radio-opaque structures, reduced image detail compared to intra-oral views and uneven magnification. These problems often make the DPT inappropriate for imaging the anterior mandible. Clinical Relevance: Panoramic radiography is often unsuitable for radiographic examination of the anterior mandible.

  20. A panoramic imaging system based on fish-eye lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Hao, Chenyang

    2017-10-01

    Panoramic imaging has been closely watched as one of the major technologies of AR and VR. Mainstream panoramic imaging techniques lenses include fish-eye lenses, image splicing, and catadioptric imaging system. Meanwhile, fish-eyes are widely used in the big picture video surveillance. The advantage of fish-eye lenses is that they are easy to operate and cost less, but how to solve the image distortion of fish-eye lenses has always been a very important topic. In this paper, the image calibration algorithm of fish-eye lens is studied by comparing the method of interpolation, bilinear interpolation and double three interpolation, which are used to optimize the images.

  1. Dental anomalies in panoramic radiographs of pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsillac, Mirian de Waele Souchois de; Andrade, Marcia Rejane Thomas; Fonseca, Raquel de Oliveira; Marcal, Sonia Lucia Macedo; Santos, Vera Lucia Campos

    2013-01-01

    A panoramic radiograph is more likely utilized in children with high caries risk and mixed dentition, and it can be complemented by other X-rays (such as periapical and/or bitewings). This study analyzed 1359 panoramic radiographs taken over 33 years at the Pedodontics Clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro in order to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in mixed dentition children. The population evaluated had 670 (49.3%) boys and 689 (50.7%) girls, ranging in age from 5-12 years, with a median age of 8 years. The total prevalence of anomalies detected was 11.72%; anodontia and supernumerary teeth were the most reported (4.63% and 3.31%, respectively). Statistical differences noted were in the presence of supernumary teeth in males (4.9%, P dentition, as well as complement the clinical examination at the first dental visit of a pediatric patient with a high risk for caries.

  2. Evaluation of rare-earth imaging systems in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratt, B.M.; White, S.C.; Packard, F.L.; Petersson, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs were made of ninety-nine consenting adult patients who had image-analysis test devices placed within their oral cavities. Quantitative characteristics and perceived image quality of eight screen-film combinations were investigated. The quantitative characteristics of the images evaluated included contrast, resolution (in three regions), and bead detection (a measure of noise). Perceived image quality assessed similar characteristics. In addition, expert observers rated the resultant patient radiographs for both general and specific diagnostic tasks. Calcium tungstate screen-film systems were found to have the highest contrast but with resolution comparable to rare-earth screen-film systems under clinical test conditions. Calcium tungstate systems required up to twice the radiation exposure of the patient. It was found that some rare-earth screen-film combinations may produce clinically acceptable panoramic radiographs while reducing the patient's radiation exposure

  3. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...

  4. Panoramic radiography in dento-maxillo-facial medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottke, B.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of equipment for panoramic radiography represents a great advance in dento-maxillo-facial medicine, enabling large areas of the facial skeleton to be visualized with relatively little effort and significantly lower radiation exposure. It also provides valuable additional information in dental practice, particularly with respect to the bony structures of the jaw and the relationship between the root canal and the lower wisdom teeth. However, some improvement in quality is required before such equipment comes into widespread use. (Auth.)

  5. Identifying risk groups for osteoporosis by digital panoramic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Alapati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility, and enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Dental radiographs, especially panoramic images, have been used to predict bone mineral density. A number of indices, (mandibular cortical index [MCI], mandibular cortical width [MCW], and panoramic mandibular index [PMI] have been developed to assess and quantify the quality of mandibular bone mass and to observe the signs of resorption. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess mental index (MI, MCW index, and PMI with bone density in identifying risk group for osteoporosis and also to investigate influence of age and gender on MI, MCI, and PMI. Materials and Methods: After obtaining consent, details regarding age, gender, systemic health status, and oral parafunctional habits were recorded in each patient. Then a digital panoramic radiograph was taken. The image thus obtained was subjected to calibrations and morphometric analysis using Digora version 2.7. The obtained values of indices were compared with the mean values of indices, to evaluate subjects whether they are prone to osteoporosis or not. The obtained information was subjected to statistical analysis for the significance of the parameters. Results: Data analysis showed that calibration indices were highly significant in the assessment of risk group for osteoporosis than noncalibration index. The subjects at a higher risk for development of osteoporosis were old-aged adults with higher prevalence being reported in women compared to male subjects. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results suggest that higher percentage of subjects with undetected decreased bone mineral density may be identified based on trained general dental practitioners analyses of their panoramic radiographs using simple screening analytical calibration MI and MCI.

  6. Reliability of panoramic radiography in chronological age estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Makkad, Ramanpal Singh; Balani, Abhishek; Chaturvedi, Shailendra Singh; Tanwani, Tushar; Agrawal, Anil; Hamdani, Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There has been a strong relationship between the growth rate of bone and teeth, which can be utilized for the purpose of age identification of an individual. Aims and Objective: The present study was designed to determine the relationship between the dental age, the age from dental panoramic radiography, skeletal age, and chronological age. Materials and Methods: The study included 270 individuals, averaging between 17 years and 25 years of age from out-patient department of New...

  7. Identifying risk groups for osteoporosis by digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Satish; Reddy, Reddy Sudhakara; Tatapudi, Ramesh; Kotha, Ramya; Bodu, Naveen Kumar; Chennoju, Saikiran

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility, and enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Dental radiographs, especially panoramic images, have been used to predict bone mineral density. A number of indices, (mandibular cortical index [MCI], mandibular cortical width [MCW], and panoramic mandibular index [PMI]) have been developed to assess and quantify the quality of mandibular bone mass and to observe the signs of resorption. The objectives of the study were to assess mental index (MI), MCW index, and PMI with bone density in identifying risk group for osteoporosis and also to investigate influence of age and gender on MI, MCI, and PMI. After obtaining consent, details regarding age, gender, systemic health status, and oral parafunctional habits were recorded in each patient. Then a digital panoramic radiograph was taken. The image thus obtained was subjected to calibrations and morphometric analysis using Digora version 2.7. The obtained values of indices were compared with the mean values of indices, to evaluate subjects whether they are prone to osteoporosis or not. The obtained information was subjected to statistical analysis for the significance of the parameters. Data analysis showed that calibration indices were highly significant in the assessment of risk group for osteoporosis than noncalibration index. The subjects at a higher risk for development of osteoporosis were old-aged adults with higher prevalence being reported in women compared to male subjects. In conclusion, our results suggest that higher percentage of subjects with undetected decreased bone mineral density may be identified based on trained general dental practitioners analyses of their panoramic radiographs using simple screening analytical calibration MI and MCI.

  8. Maxillary sinus septa: comparison between panoramic radiography and CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To investigate and compare the prevalence, size, and location of maxillary sinus septa on panoramic and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.Two hundred patients who had taken both panoramic and CBCT images were included. The location of maxillary sinus septa on the panoramic radiographs were recorded and confirmed on the CBCT images. Also the size of septa was measured on the reformatted CBCT images. The prevalence of the patients who had maxillary sinus septa was 51.0% and they showed 179 septa totally. Among them 51.0% of the patients had one septum, 32.4% two septa, 13.7% three, and 2.9% four. The measured heights of the septa were 4.37 {+-} 2.87 mm, 3.51 {+-} 2.47 mm, and 3.04 {+-} 2.37 mm in the medial, middle, and lateral areas, respectively. It was revealed that 1.0% was located at canine region, 18.0% at first premolar, 25.0% at second premolar, 22.7% at first molar, 19.8% at second molar, and 14.0% at third molar region. Among 213 septa depicted by the panoramic radiographs, only 69.0% were confirmed at the CBCT images. Since various heights and courses of the septa can develop in all parts of the maxillary sinus, adequate assessment of the inner aspect of the maxillary sinus is essential to avoid complications during sinus augmentation procedures. CBCT scanning is the preferred radiographic method for detecting the presence of sinus septa.

  9. Reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Gwangju (South Korea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Kang, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Gwangju city (South Korea) based on the dose width product (DWP) and compared them with those already established elsewhere. A total of 44 panoramic dental radiographic sets (36 digital and 8 analogue panoramic sets) in 41 dental clinics in Gwangju city were chosen. The third quartile DWP was determined from 429 surface dose measurements of the adult surface dose in panoramic dental radiography. The third quartile DWP for panoramic radiography was 60.1 mGy mm. The proposed DWP reference levels of 60.1 mGy mm were less than or equal to those previously reported in other countries, such as Italy and UK, and acceptable for panoramic radiography in Gwangju (KR). (authors)

  10. Payload topography camera of Chang'e-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guo-Bin; Liu, En-Hai; Zhao, Ru-Jin; Zhong, Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Wu-Lin; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yuan-Pei; Hao, Yong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Chang'e-3 was China's first soft-landing lunar probe that achieved a successful roving exploration on the Moon. A topography camera functioning as the lander's “eye” was one of the main scientific payloads installed on the lander. It was composed of a camera probe, an electronic component that performed image compression, and a cable assembly. Its exploration mission was to obtain optical images of the lunar topography in the landing zone for investigation and research. It also observed rover movement on the lunar surface and finished taking pictures of the lander and rover. After starting up successfully, the topography camera obtained static images and video of rover movement from different directions, 360° panoramic pictures of the lunar surface around the lander from multiple angles, and numerous pictures of the Earth. All images of the rover, lunar surface, and the Earth were clear, and those of the Chinese national flag were recorded in true color. This paper describes the exploration mission, system design, working principle, quality assessment of image compression, and color correction of the topography camera. Finally, test results from the lunar surface are provided to serve as a reference for scientific data processing and application. (paper)

  11. Effective doses in panoramic images from conventional and CBCT equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, W. O. G.; Navarro, M. V. T.; Maia, A. F.

    2008-01-01

    Dental radiology is being extensively used especially after the consolidation of the dental implant technique. Although dental radiology has always been regarded as a low-dose technique, this scenario has changed with the introduction of volumetric techniques and consequent changes that have resulted from the use of the new technique. To compare dose values related to the use of different technologies used in the acquisition of dental panoramic images, the effective dose associated with this image technique was calculated using two different conversion factors for kerma-area product, P KA , in the effective dose. Twenty-four pieces of equipment were evaluated and distributed into three categories: (1) 19 units of conventional equipment, (2) 3-cone beam computed tomography equipment (CBCT) which has a specific sensor to obtain panoramic images and (3) 2 items of CBCT equipment which only have sensors for volumetric acquisition, and the obtainment of panoramic images is through software reconstruction. The results show values of P KA and effective dose are higher for devices using digital image receptors. It is concluded that optimisation procedures and critical analysis should always be applied when adopting new technologies. (authors)

  12. Parameters in panoramic radiography for differentiation of radiolucent lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Raitz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish parameters in panoramic radiography for interpretation of unilocular radiolucent lesions, and to compare the accuracy of diagnoses given by examiners before and after using these parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In Part I, 12 specialists analyzed 24 images and the diagnostic criteria used by each examiner to make correct diagnoses were used to build a list of basic radiographic parameters for each pathology (ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and idiopathic bone cavity. In Part II, this list was used by 6 undergraduate students (Un, 8 recently graduated dentists (D, 3 oral pathologists, 3 stomatologists, 3 oral radiologists, and 3 oral surgeons to diagnose the corresponding pathologies in the other set of 24 panoramic radiographs (T2. The same analysis occurred without using this list (T1. The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE was used in order to estimate the probability of making a correct diagnosis depending on the specialty of the examiner, type of lesion, and moment of the evaluation, T1 or T2 (before or after they had access to the list of parameters, respectively. RESULTS: Higher values were obtained for the probability (GEE of making a correct diagnosis on T2; the group Un presented the highest improvement (14.6 %; no differences between the probabilities were observed either between Un and D, or among the different groups of specialists. CONCLUSIONS: The use of panoramic radiographic parameters did allow improving the diagnostic accuracy for all groups of examiners.

  13. [Chronological age estimation based on dental panoramic radiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Zsuzsanna Olga; Udvar, Orsolya; Angyal, János

    2014-09-01

    Determination of the dental age is a valuable tool in planning of orthodontic treatment and could be used to estimate the chronological age of unidentified human beings. Among the various age estimation methods one of the most accepted one is the Demirjian method, which has already been modified to selected Hungarian population. In this study we have evaluated the association between the dental age determined by panoramic radiography and the chronological age. 199 panoramic radiographs taken from persons between the ages of 2,8 and 20,3 years were selected to the study. The dental ages of persons were estimated either with the Demirjian or the modified Demirjian method adapted to Hungarian population and the results were compared to the chronological ages in selected age groups. Furthermore the angle of the mandible was registered on both sides with an image analysing software. Statistical analysis of data was performed using SPSS software. Our results show that mean values of mandibular angles exhibited a decreasing trend with age. The two age determination methods resulted in different values. Between 3 and 9 years and the age group between 15 and 17,3 years the adapted Hungarian method proved to be more accurate than the Demirjian method. We have established a mathematical function between the two methods. We could conclude that the panoramic radiography based dental age calculation is a reliable method to estimate the chronological age, but the utility of gonial angle has not been proved.

  14. Parameters in panoramic radiography for differentiation of radiolucent lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitz, Ricardo; Assunção Júnior, José Narciso Rosa; Correa, Luciana; Fenyo-Pereira, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to establish parameters in panoramic radiography for interpretation of unilocular radiolucent lesions, and to compare the accuracy of diagnoses given by examiners before and after using these parameters. In Part I, 12 specialists analyzed 24 images and the diagnostic criteria used by each examiner to make correct diagnoses were used to build a list of basic radiographic parameters for each pathology (ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and idiopathic bone cavity). In Part II, this list was used by 6 undergraduate students (Un), 8 recently graduated dentists (D), 3 oral pathologists, 3 stomatologists, 3 oral radiologists, and 3 oral surgeons to diagnose the corresponding pathologies in the other set of 24 panoramic radiographs (T2). The same analysis occurred without using this list (T1). The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used in order to estimate the probability of making a correct diagnosis depending on the specialty of the examiner, type of lesion, and moment of the evaluation, T1 or T2 (before or after they had access to the list of parameters, respectively). Higher values were obtained for the probability (GEE) of making a correct diagnosis on T2; the group Un presented the highest improvement (14.6 %); no differences between the probabilities were observed either between Un and D, or among the different groups of specialists. The use of panoramic radiographic parameters did allow improving the diagnostic accuracy for all groups of examiners.

  15. Mesiodistal tooth angulation to segmental occlusal plane in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo; You, Choong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the stability of the segmental occlusal plane and anatomical line as the reference line for measuring the mesiodistal tooth angulation in panoramic radiography and to determine the mean angle and the range of the mesiodistal tooth angulation in Korean population with normal occlusions. Twenty nine subjects (15 men, 14 women) with normal occlusion were selected. A total of 29 panoramic radiograms were taken at normal head position and then 10 images of 5 subjects selected were repeatedly taken with repositioning 2 times at each of the head down (V-shaped occlusion) and up (horizontal occulsion) for evaluation of stability of adopted reference lines by using PM2002CC (Planmeca, Finland). The images were traced with adoption of two test reference lines and the long axes of the teeth. The mesial angles formed by each reference line and the long axes of the teeth were measured and analyzed. With anatomical reference line, the mesiodistal tooth angulations of the molars showed the significant difference by over 5 degree between the normal and each changed head position. With segmented occlusal reference line, deviations of mesiodistal tooth angulations by the two changed head positions were less than 1 degree. The means, standard deviations, and maximum and minimum values of mesiodistal tooth angulations to segmental occlusal reference line on panoramic radiography were determined. It would appear that mesiodistal tooth angulations to segmental occlusal plane as reference line in panograms are predictable as standards of normal occlusion and useful for evaluation of tooth arrangement between adjacent teeth.

  16. Mesiodistal tooth angulation to segmental occlusal plane in panoramic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo; You, Choong Hyun [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To evaluate the stability of the segmental occlusal plane and anatomical line as the reference line for measuring the mesiodistal tooth angulation in panoramic radiography and to determine the mean angle and the range of the mesiodistal tooth angulation in Korean population with normal occlusions. Twenty nine subjects (15 men, 14 women) with normal occlusion were selected. A total of 29 panoramic radiograms were taken at normal head position and then 10 images of 5 subjects selected were repeatedly taken with repositioning 2 times at each of the head down (V-shaped occlusion) and up (horizontal occulsion) for evaluation of stability of adopted reference lines by using PM2002CC (Planmeca, Finland). The images were traced with adoption of two test reference lines and the long axes of the teeth. The mesial angles formed by each reference line and the long axes of the teeth were measured and analyzed. With anatomical reference line, the mesiodistal tooth angulations of the molars showed the significant difference by over 5 degree between the normal and each changed head position. With segmented occlusal reference line, deviations of mesiodistal tooth angulations by the two changed head positions were less than 1 degree. The means, standard deviations, and maximum and minimum values of mesiodistal tooth angulations to segmental occlusal reference line on panoramic radiography were determined. It would appear that mesiodistal tooth angulations to segmental occlusal plane as reference line in panograms are predictable as standards of normal occlusion and useful for evaluation of tooth arrangement between adjacent teeth.

  17. Effects of Edentulism on Mandibular Morphology: Evaluation of Panoramic Radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Okşayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate morphological changes of the mandible in edentulous and dentate subjects using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods. Panoramic radiographs were divided into the following three groups: Group I (completely edentulous group, Group II (old dentate group and Group III (young dentate group. The research parameters of gonial angle, condylar height, ramus height, ramus notch depth, and antegonial notch depth were measured on panoramic radiographs. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test was used to determine significant differences in mandibular morphological parameters among the three groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the subgroups. Results. Significant differences were found only in ramus height between three groups. According to the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference was exhibited among Groups I and II in the ramus height parameter. No significant differences were found in the gonial angle, condylar height, ramus notch depth, or antegonial notch depth when comparing the young dentate, old dentate, and completely edentulous subjects. Conclusions. Significant differences were found only in ramus height between the groups. Ramus height may be an indicator that changed by years and tooth loss. It must be considered that ramus height can be decreased in edentulism.

  18. Panoramic zonography in evaluation of recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallikainen, D.; Toetterman, S.; Asko-Seljavaara, S.; Paukku, P.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1984-01-01

    Nine patients with recurrent, facial basal cell carcinoma were followed up both clinically and radiographically using a panoramic technique. A cylindrical image track was used for panoramic radiography. Five patients had bony destruction due to tumour re-occurence, four patients had bony defects caused by surgery. The confirmation of the results by surgery and/or follow-up shows that the spread of basal cell carcinoma into bone can be diagnosed using a panoramic technique. (orig.)

  19. Panoramic radiographic study of mental foramen in selected dravidians of south Indian population: A hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vaibhav; Pitti, Parag; Sholapurkar, Amar

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at documenting information on appearance, size, horizontal and vertical locations of Mental Foramen (MF) in Panoramic Radiograph. We also analyzed the age and gender differences with radiographic appearance and location of MF. We evaluated these findings in our population and co-relate with results of previous studies. 1662 panoramic radiographs were evaluated, of which 245 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each radiograph was traced to record the horizontal and vertical locations. The size of MF was recorded using digital caliper and its appearance was determined by visual examination. Chi-square and t-test were employed. The most common appearance of MF was continuous type and the tests showed significant difference with age and gender. The most frequent horizontal location of MF was "location c" with no statistical significant difference with age and gender. The MF was most commonly positioned mesially in relation to the apex of second premolar with no significant differences with gender. The vertical location of the foramen varied drastically with no statistical significant difference in both sides. The difference in dimensions on the left and right sides were not statistically significant. Determining the morphological appearance and positional variation of MF is important for isolation of mental nerves and vessels when administering local anesthesia and performing surgeries. We therefore stress the importance of accurate radiographic identification of MF and interpretation. Our research findings can be used as reference material by the dental practitioners of South India while performing clinical procedures that involve MF. Mental foramen, mental nerve, panoramic radiograph, mandible.

  20. Panoramic Stereoscopic Video System for Remote-Controlled Robotic Space Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of providing panoramic stereoscopic images for remote-controlled robotic space operations using three...

  1. The Accuracy of Panoramic Radiography in Assessing the Mesiodistal Angulations of Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Molayi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Dentists should act cautiously in making clinical decisions for requirements of angle adjustments, according to panoramic radiograph findings, with the knowledge of permanent distortion panaoramic image

  2. Panoramic Images Mapping Tools Integrated Within the ESRI ArcGIS Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jiao; Zhong, Ruofei; Zeng, Fanyang

    2014-01-01

    There is a general study on panoramic images which are presented along with appearance of the Google street map. Despite 360 degree viewing of street, we can realize more applications over panoramic images. This paper developed a toolkits plugged in ArcGIS, which can view panoramic photographs at street level directly from ArcMap and measure and capture all visible elements as frontages, trees and bridges. We use a series of panoramic images adjoined with absolute coordinate through GPS and IMU. There are two methods in this paper to measure object from these panoramic images: one is to intersect object position through a stereogram; the other one is multichip matching involved more than three images which all cover the object. While someone wants to measure objects from these panoramic images, each two panoramic images which both contain the object can be chosen to display on ArcMap. Then we calculate correlation coefficient of the two chosen panoramic images so as to calculate the coordinate of object. Our study test different patterns of panoramic pairs and compare the results of measurement to the real value of objects so as to offer the best choosing suggestion. The article has mainly elaborated the principles of calculating correlation coefficient and multichip matching

  3. Assessment of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool: review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool. Materials and Methods This report was carried out by review of the literatures. Results Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography. Conclusion Panoramic radiography will improve the efficacy of dental examination in national oral examination. However, more studies are required to evaluate the benefit, financial cost, and operation time and also to make selection criteria and quality management program. PMID:21977466

  4. Assessment of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool: review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool. This report was carried out by review of the literatures. Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography. Panoramic radiography will improve the efficacy of dental examination in national oral examination. However, more studies are required to evaluate the benefit, financial cost, and operation time and also to make selection criteria and quality management program.

  5. Assessment of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool: review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool. This report was carried out by review of the literatures. Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography. Panoramic radiography will improve the efficacy of dental examination in national oral examination. However, more studies are required to evaluate the benefit, financial cost, and operation time and also to make selection criteria and quality management program.

  6. Usefulness of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of periodic oral examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, MinJung; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and utility of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of the periodic oral examinations. Clinical examinations and panoramic examinations were done for the 242 subjects of oral examinations. The results of panoramic radiograph interpretation were compared with the clinical findings. Two questionnaires were created. One was carried out before the panoramic examination and the other done afterwards, to find out the subjects cognition and satisfaction for the clinical and panoramic examinations. Results : 1. Panoramic findings showed a higher detection rate of 31.9% for periodontal diseases, and 23.1% for dental caries than clinical findings. 2. The additional abnormalities detected through panoramic examinations were impacted tooth in 81 subjects (33.6%), maxillary sinus abnormalities in 28 subjects (11.6%), condylar abnormalities in 5 subjects (2.1%), congenital and acquired dental anormalies in 59 subjects (24.5%), and other miscellaneous abnormalities in 34 subjects (14.1%). 3. 164 subjects (67.8%) were satisfied with the current periodic oral examination, and 75 subjects (31.1%) hoped for better accuracy. 4. In the first and second questionnaire, 154 subjects (67.0%) and 163 subjects (70.6%) responded respectively that panoramic examination was necessary, and 193 subjects (83.2%) responded that it actually helped. The panoramic examination was revealed to improve the effectiveness of the periodic oral examination and to increase the satisfaction of the subjects of examination.

  7. Patient doses with panoramic radiography in general dental offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaino, Rie; Harata, Yasuo; Okano, Tomohiro; Sato, Kenji; Yosue, Takashi; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Sano, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    To promote optimization of radiation protection for patients in panoramic radiography, we surveyed dose-width products (DWPs) and dose-area products (DAPs) as standard patient dose metrics for adults at general dental offices in the Tokyo Bay area and compared the doses with the diagnostic reference level (DRL) recommended in the UK. We measured the DWP in panoramic radiography with an array of thermo-luminescent dosimeter (TLD) tips set at the secondary slit. Reading values of the TLD were converted to air kermas using a pencil ionization chamber and a dosimeter, which were calibrated by the Japan Quality Assurance Organization. The height of the beam, H, at the secondary slit was also measured with an X-ray film, and then the DAP was calculated by the product of H and DWP. The DWPs differed by a factor of 15 among 23 dental offices. As a whole, the DAPs showed good correlation with the DWPs. The DWPs for offices, at which adequate tube voltage and film/screen systems with a relative sensitivity higher than 400 were used, were less than 65 mGy mm of the DRL in the UK. The DWPs for offices using digital CCD systems were not necessarily less than the DRL. Offices with DWPs more than 65 mGy mm utilized film/screen systems with a sensitivity lower than 250 and old panoramic units with full-wave rectification. Offices with DWPs more than 100 mGy mm used X-ray beams wider than 10 mm at full width half maximum in dose profile. Offices with DWPs more than 200 mGy mm should check the slit alignment of the panoramic units as well as the developing process. Of the dental offices surveyed, 57% showed DWPs less than 65 mGy mm of the DRL in panoramic radiography. Other offices with higher DWPs should confirm that the dose level is commensurate with the diagnostic purpose of the X-ray examination. (author)

  8. Educational Applications for Digital Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Discusses uses of digital cameras in education. Highlights include advantages and disadvantages, digital photography assignments and activities, camera features and operation, applications for digital images, accessory equipment, and comparisons between digital cameras and other digitizers. (AEF)

  9. The laser scanning camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagger, M.

    The prototype development of a novel lenseless camera is reported which utilises a laser beam scanned in a raster by means of orthogonal vibrating mirrors to illuminate the field of view. Laser light reflected from the scene is picked up by a conveniently sited photosensitive device and used to modulate the brightness of a T.V. display scanned in synchronism with the moving laser beam, hence producing a T.V. image of the scene. The camera which needs no external lighting system can act in either a wide angle mode or by varying the size and position of the raster can be made to zoom in to view in detail any object within a 40 0 overall viewing angle. The resolution and performance of the camera are described and a comparison of these aspects is made with conventional T.V. cameras. (author)

  10. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  11. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.; Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  12. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used re...... such as the circular camera movement. Keywords: embodied perception, embodied style, explicit narration, interpretation, style pattern, television style...

  13. Neutron cameras for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Batistoni, P.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron cameras with horizontal and vertical views have been designed for ITER, based on systems used on JET and TFTR. The cameras consist of fan-shaped arrays of collimated flight tubes, with suitably chosen detectors situated outside the biological shield. The sight lines view the ITER plasma through slots in the shield blanket and penetrate the vacuum vessel, cryostat, and biological shield through stainless steel windows. This paper analyzes the expected performance of several neutron camera arrangements for ITER. In addition to the reference designs, the authors examine proposed compact cameras, in which neutron fluxes are inferred from 16 N decay gammas in dedicated flowing water loops, and conventional cameras with fewer sight lines and more limited fields of view than in the reference designs. It is shown that the spatial sampling provided by the reference designs is sufficient to satisfy target measurement requirements and that some reduction in field of view may be permissible. The accuracy of measurements with 16 N-based compact cameras is not yet established, and they fail to satisfy requirements for parameter range and time resolution by large margins

  14. Deployable Wireless Camera Penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Jones, Jack; Sherrit, Stewart; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power camera dart has been designed and tested for context imaging of sampling sites and ground surveys from an aerobot or an orbiting spacecraft in a microgravity environment. The camera penetrators also can be used to image any line-of-sight surface, such as cliff walls, that is difficult to access. Tethered cameras to inspect the surfaces of planetary bodies use both power and signal transmission lines to operate. A tether adds the possibility of inadvertently anchoring the aerobot, and requires some form of station-keeping capability of the aerobot if extended examination time is required. The new camera penetrators are deployed without a tether, weigh less than 30 grams, and are disposable. They are designed to drop from any altitude with the boost in transmitting power currently demonstrated at approximately 100-m line-of-sight. The penetrators also can be deployed to monitor lander or rover operations from a distance, and can be used for surface surveys or for context information gathering from a touch-and-go sampling site. Thanks to wireless operation, the complexity of the sampling or survey mechanisms may be reduced. The penetrators may be battery powered for short-duration missions, or have solar panels for longer or intermittent duration missions. The imaging device is embedded in the penetrator, which is dropped or projected at the surface of a study site at 90 to the surface. Mirrors can be used in the design to image the ground or the horizon. Some of the camera features were tested using commercial "nanny" or "spy" camera components with the charge-coupled device (CCD) looking at a direction parallel to the ground. Figure 1 shows components of one camera that weighs less than 8 g and occupies a volume of 11 cm3. This camera could transmit a standard television signal, including sound, up to 100 m. Figure 2 shows the CAD models of a version of the penetrator. A low-volume array of such penetrator cameras could be deployed from an

  15. Strut analysis for osteoporosis detection model using dental panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Han, Sang-Sun; Kim, Young Hyun; Jeong, Ho-Gul; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Park, Wonse

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that can be used for osteoporosis detection using strut analysis, fractal dimension (FD) and the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) using multiple regions of interest and to develop an osteoporosis detection model based on panoramic radiography. A total of 454 panoramic radiographs from oral examinations in our dental hospital from 2012 to 2015 were randomly selected, equally distributed among osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic patients (n = 227 in each group). The radiographs were classified by bone mineral density (T-score). After 3 marrow regions and the endosteal margin area were selected, strut features, FD and GLCM were analysed using a customized image processing program. Image upsampling was used to obtain the optimal binarization for calculating strut features and FD. The independent-samples t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the 2 groups. A decision tree and support vector machine were used to create and verify an osteoporosis detection model. The endosteal margin area showed statistically significant differences in FD, GLCM and strut variables between the osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic patients, whereas the medullary portions showed few distinguishing features. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the strut variables in the endosteal margin area were 97.1%, 95.7 and 96.25 using the decision tree and 97.2%, 97.1 and 96.9% using support vector machine, and these were the best results obtained among the 3 methods. Strut variables with FD and/or GLCM did not increase the diagnostic accuracy. The analysis of strut features in the endosteal margin area showed potential for the development of an osteoporosis detection model based on panoramic radiography.

  16. Panoramic Search: The Interaction of Memory and Vision in Search through a Familiar Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Aude; Wolfe, Jeremy M. Arsenio, Helga C.

    2004-01-01

    How do observers search through familiar scenes? A novel panoramic search method is used to study the interaction of memory and vision in natural search behavior. In panoramic search, observers see part of an unchanging scene larger than their current field of view. A target object can be visible, present in the display but hidden from view, or…

  17. The assessment of impacted maxillary canine position with panoramic radiography and cone beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y H; Liang, H; Benson, B W; Flint, D J; Cho, B H

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the position of impacted maxillary canines on panoramic radiography with cone beam CT (CBCT) and analyse the labiopalatal position of canines and root resorption of permanent incisors in CBCT according to the mesiodistal position of canines on panoramic radiographs. This study was a retrospective radiographic review of 63 patients with 73 impacted maxillary canines. The mesiodistal position of the canine cusp tip was classified by sector location and analysed on 73 impacted canines from 63 panoramic radiographs. The labiopalatal position of the impacted canines and root resorption of permanent incisors were evaluated with CBCT. The sector location on panoramic radiographs was compared with the labiopalatal position of impacted maxillary canines on CBCT. The statistical correlation between panoramic and CBCT findings was examined using the χ(2) test and the Fisher's exact test. Labially impacted canines in CBCT were more frequent in Panoramic Sectors 1, 2 and 3, mid-alveolus impacted canines were more frequent in Sector 4 and palatally impacted canines were more frequent in Sector 5. There was a statistically significant association between the panoramic sectors of the impacted canines and the labiopalatal position of the canines (p panoramic radiography.

  18. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITION AND ABNORMALITY FOUND ON PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION BEFORE ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Barunawaty Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Radiography is very useful as diagnostic aids and is widely used in dentistry. Panoramic radiography, as an inherent part of orthodontic examination, is a very useful in evaluating the condition of the jaw. This paper will discuss the role of panoramic radiography examination in pathologic condition and abnormalities of teeth and jaw to support the treatment planning of orthodontic treatment.

  19. Depression of the maxillary sinus anterior wall and its influence on panoramic radiography appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuhito; Fukuda, Motoki; Gotoh, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the depression aspect of the maxillary sinus anterior wall and to investigate its relationship with the panoramic image appearance of a diagonal line from the inferior part of the so-called panoramic innominate line to the medial portion of the orbital floor line. Based on CT data, panoramic images were simulated for two typical cases with and without anterior wall depression. Next, on axial CT images of 1689 subjects (3378 sinuses) stored in our image database, the wall depths were measured and analyzed for their relationships with the panoramic appearances of the diagonal line, classified into invisible, obscure and clear patterns. Based on the simulation study, visualization of the diagonal line was verified to alter depending on the morphology of the anterior wall and the position of the panoramic image layer. In 408 (12.1%) sinuses, the diagonal line (clear and obscure patterns) could be seen on the panoramic image. The incidences of the obscure and clear patterns increased with increasing age groups. The mean wall depths were 2.91, 4.80 and 7.28 mm for the invisible, obscure and clear patterns, respectively. The clear pattern showed the highest value for the wall depth, followed by the obscure pattern. The diagonal line on a panoramic image was verified to be related to depression of the maxillary sinus anterior wall, and its panoramic image appearance can be altered depending on the position of the tomographic image layer.

  20. A new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients: A technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woong; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Symkhampha, Khanthaly [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)

    2015-06-15

    Panoramic radiographs taken using conventional chin-support devices have often presented problems with positioning accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this report was to propose a new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients that better addresses these two issues. A new panoramic radiography bite block similar to the bite block for dentulous patients was developed to enable proper positioning stability for edentulous patients. The new bite block was designed and implemented in light of previous studies. The height of the new bite block was 18 mm and to compensate for the horizontal edentulous space, its horizontal width was 7 mm. The panoramic radiographs using the new bite block were compared with those using the conventional chin-support device. Panoramic radiographs taken with the new bite block showed better stability and bilateral symmetry than those taken with the conventional chin-support device. Patients also showed less movement and more stable positioning during panoramic radiography with the new bite block. Conventional errors in panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients could be caused by unreliability of the chin-support device. The newly proposed bite block for panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients showed better reliability. Further study is required to evaluate the image quality and reproducibility of images with the new bite block.

  1. A new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients: A technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Woong; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2015-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs taken using conventional chin-support devices have often presented problems with positioning accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this report was to propose a new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients that better addresses these two issues. A new panoramic radiography bite block similar to the bite block for dentulous patients was developed to enable proper positioning stability for edentulous patients. The new bite block was designed and implemented in light of previous studies. The height of the new bite block was 18 mm and to compensate for the horizontal edentulous space, its horizontal width was 7 mm. The panoramic radiographs using the new bite block were compared with those using the conventional chin-support device. Panoramic radiographs taken with the new bite block showed better stability and bilateral symmetry than those taken with the conventional chin-support device. Patients also showed less movement and more stable positioning during panoramic radiography with the new bite block. Conventional errors in panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients could be caused by unreliability of the chin-support device. The newly proposed bite block for panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients showed better reliability. Further study is required to evaluate the image quality and reproducibility of images with the new bite block.

  2. 75 FR 76444 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... potential environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of the proposed Panoramic Survey... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) at the Summit...

  3. Detection of unmanned aerial vehicles using a visible camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuowen; Goldman, Geoffrey H; Borel-Donohue, Christoph C

    2017-01-20

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flown by adversaries are an emerging asymmetric threat to homeland security and the military. To help address this threat, we developed and tested a computationally efficient UAV detection algorithm consisting of horizon finding, motion feature extraction, blob analysis, and coherence analysis. We compare the performance of this algorithm against two variants, one using the difference image intensity as the motion features and another using higher-order moments. The proposed algorithm and its variants are tested using field test data of a group 3 UAV acquired with a panoramic video camera in the visible spectrum. The performance of the algorithms was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. The results show that the proposed approach had the best performance compared to the two algorithmic variants.

  4. Shielding effect of thyroid collar for digital panoramic radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, G-S; Cheng, J-G; Li, G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the shielding effect of thyroid collar for digital panoramic radiography. Methods: 4 machines [Orthopantomograph® OP200 (Instrumentarium Dental, Tuusula, Finland), Orthophos CD (Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim, Germany), Orthophos XG Plus (Sirona Dental Systems GmbH) and ProMax® (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland)] were used in this study. Average tissue-absorbed doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosemeter chips in an anthropomorphic phantom. Effective organ and total effective doses were derived according to the International Commission of Radiological Protection 2007 recommendations. The shielding effect of one collar in front and two collars both in front and at the back of the neck was measured. Results: The effective organ doses of the thyroid gland obtained from the 4 panoramic machines were 1.12 μSv for OP200, 2.71 μSv for Orthophos CD, 2.18 μSv for Orthophos XG plus and 2.20 μSv for ProMax, when no thyroid collar was used. When 1 collar was used in front of the neck, the effective organ doses of the thyroid gland were 1.01 μSv (9.8% reduction), 2.45 μSv (9.6% reduction), 1.76 μSv (19.3% reduction) and 1.70 μSv (22.7% reduction), respectively. Significant differences in dose reduction were found for Orthophos XG Plus and ProMax. When two collars were used, the effective organ doses of the thyroid gland were also significantly reduced for the two machines Orthophos XG Plus and ProMax. The same trend was observed in the total effective doses for the four machines. Conclusions: Wearing a thyroid collar was helpful when the direct digital panoramic imaging systems were in use, whereas for the indirect digital panoramic imaging systems, the thyroid collar did not have an extra protective effect on the thyroid gland and whole body. PMID:24005060

  5. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and panoramic and periapical radiography for detection of apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Bueno, Mike Reis; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Azevedo, Bruno; Azevedo, José Ribamar

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of imaging methods for detection of apical periodontitis (AP). Imaging records from a consecutive sample of 888 imaging exams of patients with endodontic infection (1508 teeth), including cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic and periapical radiographs, were selected. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of periapical and panoramic radiographs were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the panoramic and periapical images. Prevalence of AP was significantly higher with CBCT. Overall sensitivity was 0.55 and 0.28 for periapical and panoramic radiographs, respectively. ROC curves and area under curve (AUC) with periapical radiography showed a high accuracy for the cutoff value of 5 for both periapical (AUC, 0.90) and panoramic (AUC, 0.84) radiographs. AP was correctly identified with conventional methods when showed advanced status. CBCT was proved to be accurate to identify AP.

  6. A posteriori registration and subtraction of panoramic compared with intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Thomas M; Rangarajan, Janaki Raman; Hoffmann, Jens; Brägger, Urs; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Enkling, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of panoramic image subtraction for implant assessment. Three titanium implants were inserted into a fresh pig mandible. One intraoral and 2 panoramic images were obtained at baseline and after each of 6 incremental (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mm) removals of bone. For each incremental removal of bone, the mandible was removed from and replaced in the holding device. Images representing incremental bone removals were registered by computer with the baseline images and subtracted. Assessment of the subtraction images was based on visual inspection and analysis of structured noise. Incremental bone removals were more visible in intraoral than in panoramic subtraction images; however, computer-based registration of panoramic images reduced the structured noise and enhanced the visibility of incremental removals. The feasibility of panoramic image subtraction for implant assessment was demonstrated.

  7. Accuracy of linear vertical measurements in posterior mandible on panoramic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolaziz Haghnegahdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most frequent concerns encountered in dental implant treatments is inadequate pre-operative planning. Panoramic radiographs are readily accessible and cost efficient. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of vertical measurements in mandibular molar and premolar region on panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods : Panoramic radiographs were made of a partially edentulous sheep mandible mounted in acryl. Measurements collected from the computer-generated images were compared to measurements made directly on the cross-sectioned hemi-mandibles using t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results show that panoramic image is overestimated in predicting the linear measurements in posterior mandible. By applying the magnification factor of 1.29 the difference became insignificant. Conclusion: It seems rational to use panoramic radiography for pre-surgical implant assessment of posterior mandible if a true magnification factor is applied.

  8. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  9. The Dark Energy Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugher, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Honscheid, K.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Alvarez, O.; Angstadt, R.; Annis, J. T.; Antonik, M.; Ballester, O.; Beaufore, L.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bigelow, B.; Bonati, M.; Boprie, D.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Campa, J.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Castander, F. J.; Castilla, J.; Cease, H.; Cela-Ruiz, J. M.; Chappa, S.; Chi, E.; Cooper, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Dede, E.; Derylo, G.; DePoy, D. L.; de Vicente, J.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eiting, J.; Elliott, A. E.; Emes, J.; Estrada, J.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flores, R.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D.; Gladders, M. D.; Gregory, B.; Gutierrez, G. R.; Hao, J.; Holland, S. E.; Holm, S.; Huffman, D.; Jackson, C.; James, D. J.; Jonas, M.; Karcher, A.; Karliner, I.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kron, R. G.; Kubik, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuk, K.; Lahav, O.; Lathrop, A.; Lee, J.; Levi, M. E.; Lewis, P.; Li, T. S.; Mandrichenko, I.; Marshall, J. L.; Martinez, G.; Merritt, K. W.; Miquel, R.; Muñoz, F.; Neilsen, E. H.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Olsen, J.; Palaio, N.; Patton, K.; Peoples, J.; Plazas, A. A.; Rauch, J.; Reil, K.; Rheault, J.-P.; Roe, N. A.; Rogers, H.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R. H.; Schmidt, R.; Schmitt, R.; Schubnell, M.; Schultz, K.; Schurter, P.; Scott, L.; Serrano, S.; Shaw, T. M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Stefanik, A.; Stuermer, W.; Suchyta, E.; Sypniewski, A.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tighe, R.; Tran, C.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wang, G.; Watson, M.; Weaverdyck, C.; Wester, W.; Woods, R.; Yanny, B.; DES Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.°2 diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4 m telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five-element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane of 250 μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 megapixel focal plane comprises 62 2k × 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k × 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 μm × 15 μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.″263 pixel-1. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 s with 6-9 electron readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  10. THE DARK ENERGY CAMERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Alvarez, O.; Angstadt, R.; Annis, J. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Honscheid, K. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Abbott, T. M. C.; Bonati, M. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Antonik, M.; Brooks, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ballester, O.; Cardiel-Sas, L. [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Beaufore, L. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bernstein, G. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bernstein, R. A. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bigelow, B.; Boprie, D. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Campa, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energèticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Castander, F. J., E-mail: diehl@fnal.gov [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, IEEC-CSIC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5 par-2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2015-11-15

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.°2 diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4 m telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five-element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane of 250 μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 megapixel focal plane comprises 62 2k × 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k × 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 μm × 15 μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.″263 pixel{sup −1}. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 s with 6–9 electron readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  11. Design and Implementation of a Novel Portable 360° Stereo Camera System with Low-Cost Action Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, D.; Nebiker, S.; Blaser, S.

    2017-11-01

    The demand for capturing indoor spaces is rising with the digitalization trend in the construction industry. An efficient solution for measuring challenging indoor environments is mobile mapping. Image-based systems with 360° panoramic coverage allow a rapid data acquisition and can be processed to georeferenced 3D images hosted in cloud-based 3D geoinformation services. For the multiview stereo camera system presented in this paper, a 360° coverage is achieved with a layout consisting of five horizontal stereo image pairs in a circular arrangement. The design is implemented as a low-cost solution based on a 3D printed camera rig and action cameras with fisheye lenses. The fisheye stereo system is successfully calibrated with accuracies sufficient for the applied measurement task. A comparison of 3D distances with reference data delivers maximal deviations of 3 cm on typical distances in indoor space of 2-8 m. Also the automatic computation of coloured point clouds from the stereo pairs is demonstrated.

  12. Panoramic Image of Mandibular Condyle According to Head Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Soon Chul

    1990-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is convenient in clinic and visualizes those areas which other technique do not give. But the technique has limitation of image distortion which results from the relationship of the ramus to the focal trough and from the direction of the central ray. This study is, using 7 dry skulls, to determine the effect of rotation of patient's head on reducing those distortion and determine the magnification ratio of images of mandibular condyle in rotated patient head position. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Generally, in panoramic radiography the anterolateral portion of the mandibular condyle was best to be visualized. 2. There are no significant difference between the image readability of anteromedial portion and that of antercentral portion of the mandibular condyle. 3. Anterolateral portion of the mandibular condyle was better visualized in rotated head position by 20 degree or horizontal condylar inclination than in conventional position or in rotated head position by 10 degree. 4. The magnification ratio of the anteroposterior diameter in the image of mandibular condyle was least in the rotated head position by horizontal inclination of the mandibular condyle and was largest by 20 degree.

  13. Detection and recognition of road markings in panoramic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Creusen, Ivo; Hazelhoff, Lykele; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Detection of road lane markings is attractive for practical applications such as advanced driver assistance systems and road maintenance. This paper proposes a system to detect and recognize road lane markings in panoramic images. The system can be divided into four stages. First, an inverse perspective mapping is applied to the original panoramic image to generate a top-view road view, in which the potential road markings are segmented based on their intensity difference compared to the surrounding pixels. Second, a feature vector of each potential road marking segment is extracted by calculating the Euclidean distance between the center and the boundary at regular angular steps. Third, the shape of each segment is classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). Finally, by modeling the lane markings, previous falsely detected segments can be rejected based on their orientation and position relative to the lane markings. Our experiments show that the system is promising and is capable of recognizing 93%, 95% and 91% of striped line segments, blocks and arrows respectively, as well as 94% of the lane markings.

  14. Dental Patterns in Peruvians: A Panoramic Radiography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ivan E

    2015-12-01

    The dental pattern is defined as the combination of distinct codes assigned to describe specific tooth conditions including virgin, missing, and restored teeth that comprise the complete dentition or from discrete groups of teeth. This pattern can be then compared to the dentition of individual/s in an attempt to determine positive identification. The aims of the present investigation were to study and determine the diversity of dental patterns in Peruvian citizens based on a sample of panoramic radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of 900 adult Peruvian patients (450 female and 450 male) were evaluated to determine the dental patterns. The most frequent dental patterns found in the complete dentition, maxillae, upper-anterior and lower-anterior sextants were all-virgin-teeth (0.3%), all-extracted teeth (1.9%), all-virgin teeth (1%) and all-virgin-teeth (34.2% and 72.3%) respectively. The diversity was calculated by the use of the Simpson's diversity index, the resulting values for the full-dentition, maxilla and mandible were over the 99.8% value and were similar to those previously reported in the scientific literature. This study demonstrates the positive benefit of dental patterns in the process of identification. Additionally a combination of codes is proposed that could prove useful in cases where a better radiographic description is required.

  15. Location of mental foramen using digital panoramic Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ajmal; Nataraj, Kannan; Mathew, Vinod B; Varma, Beena; Mohamed, Shamil; Valappila, Nidhin J; Meena, Aravind S

    2016-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of the location of mental foramen in different age groups. Determine the variation in position of mental foramen with gender using digital panoramic radiography. Digital panoramic radiographs of 250 patients were reviewed. The study population was divided into five age groups with 50 patients each. Radiographic position of mental foramen was evaluated in each radiograph based on three parameters. Measurements were taken in each radiograph using Planmeca Dimaxis pro version 4.4.0 (Helsinki, Finland). The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis using paired Student's t-test. The mean distance of position of mental foramen showed a significant variation within the five age groups. In the first group, female patients showed an increase in mean distance of mental foramen position in relation to three parameters. From the second to fifth groups, male patient showed an increase in the mean distance of mental foramen position. The first and fifth group showed a reduced mean distance of mental foramen position when compared to other age groups. This study concluded that the position of mental foramen varies with age. There was a gender-related variation in position of mental foramen within the population too.

  16. Panoramic optical-servoing for industrial inspection and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinger, Christian; O'Leary, Paul; Retschnig, Alexander; Kammerhofer, Martin

    2004-05-01

    Recently specialized robots were introduced to perform the task of inspection and repair in large cylindrical structures such as ladles, melting furnaces and converters. This paper reports on the image processing system and optical servoing for one such a robot. A panoramic image of the vessels inner surface is produced by performing a coordinated robot motion and image acquisition. The level of projective distortion is minimized by acquiring a high density of images. Normalized phase correlation calculated via the 2D Fourier transform is used to calculate the shift between the single images. The narrow strips from the dense image map are then stitched together to build the panorama. The mapping between the panoramic image and the positioning of the robot is established during the stitching of the images. This enables optical feedback. The robots operator can locate a defect on the surface by selecting the area of the image. Calculation of the forward and inverse kinematics enable the robot to automatically move to the location on the surface requiring repair. Experimental results using a standard 6R industrial robot have shown the full functionality of the system concept. Finally, were test measurements carried out successfully, in a ladle at a temperature of 1100° C.

  17. High-resolution panoramic images with megapixel MWIR FPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboucher, Vincent; Aubry, Gilles

    2014-06-01

    In the continuity of its current strategy, HGH maintains a deep effort in developing its most recent product family: the infrared (IR) panoramic 360-degree surveillance sensors. During the last two years, HGH optimized its prototype Middle Wave IR (MWIR) panoramic sensor IR Revolution 360 HD that gave birth to Spynel-S product. Various test campaigns proved its excellent image quality. Cyclope, the software associated with Spynel, benefitted from recent image processing improvements and new functionalities such as target geolocalization, long range sensor slue to cue and facilitated forensics analysis. In the frame of the PANORAMIR project sustained by the DGA (Délégation Générale de l'Armement), HGH designed a new extra large resolution sensor including a MWIR megapixel Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector (1280×1024 pixels). This new sensor is called Spynel-X. It provides outstanding resolution 360-degree images (with more than 100 Mpixels). The mechanical frame of Spynel (-S and -X) was designed with the collaboration of an industrial design agency. Spynel got the "Observeur du Design 2013" label.

  18. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  19. Mars Observer camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Masursky, H.; Veverka, J.; Ravine, M. A.; Soulanille, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Mars Observer camera (MOC) is a three-component system (one narrow-angle and two wide-angle cameras) designed to take high spatial resolution pictures of the surface of Mars and to obtain lower spatial resolution, synoptic coverage of the planet's surface and atmosphere. The cameras are based on the 'push broom' technique; that is, they do not take 'frames' but rather build pictures, one line at a time, as the spacecraft moves around the planet in its orbit. MOC is primarily a telescope for taking extremely high resolution pictures of selected locations on Mars. Using the narrow-angle camera, areas ranging from 2.8 km x 2.8 km to 2.8 km x 25.2 km (depending on available internal digital buffer memory) can be photographed at about 1.4 m/pixel. Additionally, lower-resolution pictures (to a lowest resolution of about 11 m/pixel) can be acquired by pixel averaging; these images can be much longer, ranging up to 2.8 x 500 km at 11 m/pixel. High-resolution data will be used to study sediments and sedimentary processes, polar processes and deposits, volcanism, and other geologic/geomorphic processes.

  20. The world's fastest camera

    CERN Multimedia

    Piquepaille, Roland

    2006-01-01

    This image processor is not your typical digital camera. It took 6 years to 20 people and $6 million to build the "Regional Calorimeter Trigger"(RCT) which will be a component of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, one of the detectors on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland (1 page)

  1. Camera as Cultural Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    researchers, cameras, and filmed subjects already inherently comprise analytical decisions. It is these ethnographic qualities inherent in audiovisual and photographic imagery that make it of particular value to a participatory anthropological enterprise that seeks to resist analytic closure and seeks instead...

  2. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  3. The PAU Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, R.; Ballester, O.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Castilla, J.; Crocce, M.; de Vicente, J.; Delfino, M.; Fernández, E.; Fosalba, P.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztañaga, E.; Grañena, F.; Jiménez, J.; Madrid, F.; Maiorino, M.; Martí, P.; Miquel, R.; Neissner, C.; Ponce, R.; Sánchez, E.; Serrano, S.; Sevilla, I.; Tonello, N.; Troyano, I.

    2011-11-01

    The PAU Camera (PAUCam) is a wide-field camera designed to be mounted at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) prime focus, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in the island of La Palma (Canary Islands).Its primary function is to carry out a cosmological survey, the PAU Survey, covering an area of several hundred square degrees of sky. Its purpose is to determine positions and distances using photometric redshift techniques. To achieve accurate photo-z's, PAUCam will be equipped with 40 narrow-band filters covering the range from 450 to850 nm, and six broad-band filters, those of the SDSS system plus the Y band. To fully cover the focal plane delivered by the telescope optics, 18 CCDs 2k x 4k are needed. The pixels are square of 15 μ m size. The optical characteristics of the prime focus corrector deliver a field-of-view where eight of these CCDs will have an illumination of more than 95% covering a field of 40 arc minutes. The rest of the CCDs will occupy the vignetted region extending the field diameter to one degree. Two of the CCDs will be devoted to auto-guiding.This camera have some innovative features. Firstly, both the broad-band and the narrow-band filters will be placed in mobile trays, hosting 16 such filters at most. Those are located inside the cryostat at few millimeters in front of the CCDs when observing. Secondly, a pressurized liquid nitrogen tank outside the camera will feed a boiler inside the cryostat with a controlled massflow. The read-out electronics will use the Monsoon architecture, originally developed by NOAO, modified and manufactured by our team in the frame of the DECam project (the camera used in the DES Survey).PAUCam will also be available to the astronomical community of the WHT.

  4. Screening panoramic radiographs in a group of patient visiting a health promotion center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    To report the incidence of radiological findings from screening panoramic radiograph and verify the validity of the panoramic radiography for screening purposes. Six thousand one hundred and sixty panoramic radiographs taken from the patients visiting the Health Promotion Center of CNUH were selected for this retrospective study. Panoramic radiographs were examined into the following pathologic conditions : the presence of periodontal bone loss, dental caries, peri apical radiolucencies, retained roots, impacted supernumerary teeth, impacted third molars, odontoma, cystic lesions other than radicular cyst, sialoliths, and mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions. Number of pathologic conditions and Prevalence values were recorded. The prevalence of pathologic conditions were 72.9% of periodontal bone loss, 32.2% of dental caries, 11.9% of peri apical radiolucencies, 10.8% of retained roots, 0.4% of root fracture, 1.0% of impacted supernumerary teeth, 1.0% of impacted third molars, 0.06% of odontoma, 0.08% of cystic lesion other than radicular cyst, 0.2% of prolonged retention of deciduous tooth, 0.1% of sialolith, and 0.04% of mixed radiopaque and radiolucent lesion. Although the panoramic radiograph should not be used to replace intraoral radiographic and clinical examinations, this study showed that many dental pathologic conditions could be detected on panoramic radiographs. The panoramic radiograph might serve as a diagnostic aid in dental health evaluation programs.

  5. A radiographic study of the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Karp Shik; Kim, Dong Youn; Sohn, Jeong Ick; Bae, Yong Chul

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. For this study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from the 200 adults and evaluated the position and shape of mental foramen. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, the author also obtained panoramic radiographs from the 100 adults and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained : 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (43.3%), round or oval (42.5%), unidentified (7.5%) and diffuse (6.7%) type in descending order of frequency. 2. Horizontal position of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (54.2%), and area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (43.1%), area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (2.7%), and at apex (9.7%), overlap with apex (1.9%), superior of apex (0.2%) in descending order of frequency. 4. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, shape changes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the forward 10 mm and chin down 10 degree positioned panoramic radiographs, And changes of horizontal and vertical position were observed in similar to compared with normal positioned panoramic radiographs.

  6. Evaluation of the distortion rate of panoramic and peri apical radiographs in erupted third molar inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoddini Ardakani, F.; Zangouie Booshehri, M.; Behniafar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic and peri apical radiographs are normally used in impacted third molar teeth surgeries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the distortion of the erupted third molar teeth on panoramic and peri apical radiographs. Patients and Methods: A total of 44 radiographs were obtained of 22 patients (age range, 18-24 years) referred to the faculty of dentistry for orthodontic treatment. A plaster cast was prepared and panoramic radiography was taken for all patients to plan the orthodontic treatment and peri apical radiography was taken for investigation of tooth structure details. Therefore, a total of 66 views and samples were studied by two methods: 1) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of the third molar and occlusal plane. 2) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of second and third molar. Finally, 132 records were evaluated by one individual. Results: There was no significant statistical difference between the mean position of the third molar on panoramic, peri apical radiographs and the casts. However, measurements of the third molars on peri apical radiographs were slightly closer to the measurements of the casts compared to the panoramic radiographs. Conclusion: Distortion does not have a specific effect on the diagnosis of the position of the third erupted molars by peri apical or panoramic radiographs, though various studies have shown that these radiographs have an amount of distortion and peri apical radiographical distortion is less than that in panoramic radiography.

  7. A radiographic study of the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Karp Shik; Kim, Dong Youn; Sohn, Jeong Ick [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Chul [Dept. of Oral Anatomy, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. For this study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from the 200 adults and evaluated the position and shape of mental foramen. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, the author also obtained panoramic radiographs from the 100 adults and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained : 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (43.3%), round or oval (42.5%), unidentified (7.5%) and diffuse (6.7%) type in descending order of frequency. 2. Horizontal position of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (54.2%), and area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (43.1%), area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (2.7%), and at apex (9.7%), overlap with apex (1.9%), superior of apex (0.2%) in descending order of frequency. 4. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, shape changes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the forward 10 mm and chin down 10 degree positioned panoramic radiographs, And changes of horizontal and vertical position were observed in similar to compared with normal positioned panoramic radiographs.

  8. Observer performance based on marginal bone tissue visibility in Scanora panoramic radiography and posterior bitewing radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanauskaite, Deimante; Lindh, Christina; Rohlin, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate image quality for marginal bone tissue assessment on panoramic radiographs taken with the Scanora dental programme and on posterior bitewing radiographs. Panoramic and bitewing radiographs were taken of 96 patients. Six observers rated marginal bone level visibility as excellent, acceptable, or unacceptable. Five observers assessed image quality for detection of vertical bone defects and furcation involvements as acceptable or unacceptable. Observer agreement was calculated as overall agreement and kappa values. Image quality of 36% of the panoramic and 6% of the bitewing sites was rated unacceptable for marginal bone loss assessment in the maxillae while 8% of the panoramic and bitewing sites in the mandible were unacceptable. For detecting vertical bone defects, image quality was unacceptable at one-third of the maxillary sites and 5% of the mandibular sites on the panoramic radiographs. Detection of furcation involvement was acceptable at most sites on both types of radiographs. Kappa values for intra- and inter-observer agreement were higher for panoramic than for bitewing radiographs. The kappa value for marginal bone loss assessment by several observers was moderate (0.45) for panorama and fair (0.28) for bitewing radiography. Corresponding kappa values for detection of vertical bone defects were substantial (0.62) and fair (0.25). Image quality as evaluated by visual grading analysis is adequate for marginal bone tissue assessment in mandibular molar and premolar regions and unacceptable in maxillary molar and premolar regions on panoramic radiographs taken with the Scanora technique compared to bitewing radiography.

  9. Image quality assessment in panoramic dental radiography: a comparative study between conventional and digital systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiau, Yu Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to compare and evaluate the diagnostic image quality of dental panoramic radiography between conventional and digital systems. Fifty-four panoramic images were collected and divided into three groups consisting of conventional, digital with and without post processing image. Each image was printed out and scored subjectively by two experienced dentists who were blinded to the exposure parameters and system protocols. The evaluation covers of anatomical coverage and structures, density and image contrast. The overall image quality score revealed that digital panoramic with post-processing scored the highest of 3.45±0.19, followed by digital panoramic system without post-processing and conventional panoramic system with corresponding scores of 3.33±0.33 and 2.06±0.40. In conclusion, images produced by digital panoramic system are better in diagnostic image quality than that from conventional panoramic system. Digital post-processing visualization can improve diagnostic quality significantly in terms of radiographic density and contrast. PMID:23483085

  10. Lingual tonsillolith: prevalence and imaging characteristics evaluated on 2244 pairs of panoramic radiographs and CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akira; Sugawara, Chieko; Kudoh, Keiko; Yamamura, Yoshiko; Ohe, Go; Tamatani, Tetsuya; Miyamoto, Youji

    2018-01-01

    Lingual tonsilloliths are not as well-known to radiologists than palatine tonsilloliths, although they might be common in clinical practice. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the prevalence and imaging characteristics of lingual tonsilloliths using panoramic radiographs and CT images. This study included 2244 patients without pathology at the base of tongue who had undergone panoramic radiography and CT of the maxillofacial region. The size, number and position of lingual tonsilloliths relative to the mandible and tongue were evaluated. Lingual tonsilloliths were observed in 33 (1.5%) and 108 (4.8%) of all patients on panoramic radiographs and CT images, respectively. The prevalence was higher in patients aged ≥40 years than in those aged panoramic radiographs. Lingual tonsilloliths were superimposed over the surrounding soft tissue inferior to the body of the mandible, posteroinferior to the angle of the mandible and posterior to the mandible in 16 (48.5%), 15 (45.5%) and 1 (3.0%) individual, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the detectability on panoramic radiographs and size (Spearman's r = 0.961, p panoramic radiography and may superimpose the surrounding soft tissue of the mandible. Although lingual tonsilloliths may resemble other pathological calcifications including submandibular sialoliths and lingual osseous cholistoma, they can be differentiated by carefully observing panoramic radiographs. When clinicians detect calcified bodies near the base of tongue, lingual tonsilloliths should be included in the differential diagnoses.

  11. Screening panoramic radiographs in a group of patient visiting a health promotion center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To report the incidence of radiological findings from screening panoramic radiograph and verify the validity of the panoramic radiography for screening purposes. Six thousand one hundred and sixty panoramic radiographs taken from the patients visiting the Health Promotion Center of CNUH were selected for this retrospective study. Panoramic radiographs were examined into the following pathologic conditions : the presence of periodontal bone loss, dental caries, peri apical radiolucencies, retained roots, impacted supernumerary teeth, impacted third molars, odontoma, cystic lesions other than radicular cyst, sialoliths, and mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions. Number of pathologic conditions and Prevalence values were recorded. The prevalence of pathologic conditions were 72.9% of periodontal bone loss, 32.2% of dental caries, 11.9% of peri apical radiolucencies, 10.8% of retained roots, 0.4% of root fracture, 1.0% of impacted supernumerary teeth, 1.0% of impacted third molars, 0.06% of odontoma, 0.08% of cystic lesion other than radicular cyst, 0.2% of prolonged retention of deciduous tooth, 0.1% of sialolith, and 0.04% of mixed radiopaque and radiolucent lesion. Although the panoramic radiograph should not be used to replace intraoral radiographic and clinical examinations, this study showed that many dental pathologic conditions could be detected on panoramic radiographs. The panoramic radiograph might serve as a diagnostic aid in dental health evaluation programs.

  12. Panoramic radiological study to identify locally displaced maxillary canines in Bangladeshi population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alif, Sheikh Mohammad [Northern University, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haque, Sejuty [Bangladesh Dental College, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nimmi, Naima; Ashraf, Ali [AIKO Dental Clinic and Implant Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Khan, Saeed Hossain; Khan, Mahfujul Haq [WHO Collaborating Centre and Ibrahim Medical College, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2011-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction on a basis of a single panoramic radiograph in Bangladeshi population. A random sample of seven hundred panoramic radiographs was collected from the patient record of a dental clinic. All the selected panoramic radiographs were taken from January 2009 to August 2010 by a single panoramic radiograph machine with the same exposure time (19 seconds) for all radiographs. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs were excluded to minimize the selection bias. In a dim lit room, an observer assessed the radiographs on a standard radiographic light box. The position of the impacted maxillary canine was recorded in line with the longitudinal axis of a tooth using the edge of a metal ruler. Data were subsequently put on SPSS 11.5 software and chi-square (x{sup 2}) tests were applied to find out the association. Among 580 panoramic radiographs it was found that impacted maxillary canines were present in only 7 (1.2%) radiographs. A statistical significant difference was found between the age of the patients and the vertical position of the impacted canines (p=0.000) and between the age of the patients and the horizontal position of the impacted canines (p=0.003). The prevalence was found to be low compared with the present study from the limitation of panoramic image. Further study needs to include three-dimensional imaging modality.

  13. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of X-rays on oral mucosa during panoramic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Sandhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: X-rays are potent mutagenic agents capable of inducing both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. They act directly on the DNA molecule or indirectly through the formation of reactive compounds that interact with this molecule. In spite of their mutagenic potential, this kind of radiation is an important tool for diagnosis. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the genotoxic effects on oral mucosa during conventional and digital panoramic radiography. Objectives: 1. To assess the nuclear abnormalities, mainly micronuclei in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells, before X-ray exposure and 10 days after exposure using conventional and digital panoramic radiography. 2. Comparison of micronuclei count obtained during conventional and digital panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods: One hundred healthy individuals were chosen who were free of all deleterious habits. Epithelial buccal cells were obtained with an exfoliative cytobrush immediately before exposure and 10 days after exposure. The smears were stained using Giemsa stain and analyzed under low-power and high-power microscope. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean values obtained pre- and post-exposure to conventional panoramic radiography, as the mean value of micronuclei before exposure was 0.025 ± 0.01 which increased to 0.064 ± 0.02 post-exposure. Similarly, there was a significant difference in the mean values obtained pre- and post-exposure to digital panoramic radiography, as the mean value of micronuclei before exposure was 0.022 ± 0.01 which increased to 0.041 ± 0.01 post-exposure. In the present study, there was a highly significant increase in the number of micronuclei post-exposure in conventional panoramic radiography when compared to digital panoramic radiography. Conclusion: This results show that panoramic radiography does induce genotoxic effects in buccal epithelial cells and should be used only when indicated, and that digital

  14. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  15. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  16. MISR radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or cloudy. A new parameter has...

  17. Automatic Texture and Orthophoto Generation from Registered Panoramic Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krispel, Ulrich; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    from range data only. In order to detect these elements, we developed a method that utilizes range data and color information from high-resolution panoramic images of indoor scenes, taken at the scanners position. A proxy geometry is derived from the point clouds; orthographic views of the scene......Recent trends in 3D scanning are aimed at the fusion of range data and color information from images. The combination of these two outputs allows to extract novel semantic information. The workflow presented in this paper allows to detect objects, such as light switches, that are hard to identify...... are automatically identified from the geometry and an image per view is created via projection. We combine methods of computer vision to train a classifier to detect the objects of interest from these orthographic views. Furthermore, these views can be used for automatic texturing of the proxy geometry....

  18. Body worn camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishwariya, A.; Pallavi Sudhir, Gulavani; Garg, Nemesa; Karthikeyan, B.

    2017-11-01

    A body worn camera is small video camera worn on the body, typically used by police officers to record arrests, evidence from crime scenes. It helps preventing and resolving complaints brought by members of the public; and strengthening police transparency, performance, and accountability. The main constants of this type of the system are video format, resolution, frames rate, and audio quality. This system records the video in .mp4 format with 1080p resolution and 30 frames per second. One more important aspect to while designing this system is amount of power the system requires as battery management becomes very critical. The main design challenges are Size of the Video, Audio for the video. Combining both audio and video and saving it in .mp4 format, Battery, size that is required for 8 hours of continuous recording, Security. For prototyping this system is implemented using Raspberry Pi model B.

  19. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each ring contains a plurality of scintillation detectors which are positioned around an inner circumference with a septum ring extending inwardly from the inner circumference along each outer edge of each ring. An additional septum ring is positioned in the middle of each ring of detectors and parallel to the other septa rings, whereby the inward extent of all the septa rings may be reduced by one-half and the number of detectors required in each ring is reduced. The additional septa reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  20. The NEAT Camera Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr., Ray L. Newburn

    1995-01-01

    The NEAT (Near Earth Asteroid Tracking) camera system consists of a camera head with a 6.3 cm square 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD, fast electronics, and a Sun Sparc 20 data and control computer with dual CPUs, 256 Mbytes of memory, and 36 Gbytes of hard disk. The system was designed for optimum use with an Air Force GEODSS (Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance) telescope. The GEODSS telescopes have 1 m f/2.15 objectives of the Ritchey-Chretian type, designed originally for satellite tracking. Installation of NEAT began July 25 at the Air Force Facility on Haleakala, a 3000 m peak on Maui in Hawaii.

  1. Is the panoramic mandibular index useful for bone quality evaluation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ah Young; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Heo, Min Suk [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the panoramic mandibular index (PMI) is useful for assessing bone mineral density. We also analyzed the potential correlations between PMI parameters and patient age. Four observers measured the PMI of both sides of the mental foramen using a picture archiving and communication system and images in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format. They studied 300 panoramic radiographic images of patients belonging to the following age groups: 40–49 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and 80–89 years. The observers were allowed to zoom in or out and to adjust the contrast of the images. Further, they were instructed to record the reasons for any measurements that could not be made. Then, we conducted a reliability analysis of the measured PMI and assessed the correlations between different patient age groups and the 3 parameters used for determining the PMI from the available data. Among the 600 data items collected, 23 items were considered unmeasurable by at least 1 observer for the following 4 reasons: postoperative state, lesion, unidentified mental foramen, and alveolar bone loss. The intraobserver reproducibility of the measurable data was 0.611-0.752. The mandibular cortical width (MCW) decreased significantly as patient age increased. PMI had limited usability when the margin of the mental foramen was not clear. In contrast, MCW, a parameter used for determining the PMI, had fewer drawbacks than the PMI with respect to bone mineral density measurements and exhibited a significant correlation with patient age.

  2. Is the panoramic mandibular index useful for bone quality evaluation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ah Young; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Heo, Min Suk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the panoramic mandibular index (PMI) is useful for assessing bone mineral density. We also analyzed the potential correlations between PMI parameters and patient age. Four observers measured the PMI of both sides of the mental foramen using a picture archiving and communication system and images in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format. They studied 300 panoramic radiographic images of patients belonging to the following age groups: 40–49 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and 80–89 years. The observers were allowed to zoom in or out and to adjust the contrast of the images. Further, they were instructed to record the reasons for any measurements that could not be made. Then, we conducted a reliability analysis of the measured PMI and assessed the correlations between different patient age groups and the 3 parameters used for determining the PMI from the available data. Among the 600 data items collected, 23 items were considered unmeasurable by at least 1 observer for the following 4 reasons: postoperative state, lesion, unidentified mental foramen, and alveolar bone loss. The intraobserver reproducibility of the measurable data was 0.611-0.752. The mandibular cortical width (MCW) decreased significantly as patient age increased. PMI had limited usability when the margin of the mental foramen was not clear. In contrast, MCW, a parameter used for determining the PMI, had fewer drawbacks than the PMI with respect to bone mineral density measurements and exhibited a significant correlation with patient age

  3. Dosimetric evaluation in panoramic and tele-radiography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Georgge Gomes

    2004-01-01

    The present work had as an objective to evaluate the skin surface entrance dose in panoramic and tele radiography procedures in three clinics in Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil, and to contribute with data for the determination of reference levels for super cited extra oral procedures, for this purpose, operational conditions in 3 clinics were evaluated in Recife, aiming to evaluate the existence and integrity of the radioprotection equipment, manner and conditions of image processing; and radiographic equipment parameters such as the dimension of the irradiation filed, the total filtration, the exposure time and the potential applied to the X ray tube. For an estimation of the skin entrance dose of the patient, the phantom Randon Alderson and thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. From these values and the conversion factors determined by the Monte Carlo technique, with the phantom MAX it was possible to estimate the dose absorbed in the organ due to the tele radiography procedures. Regarding panoramic radiography the study showed that the more elevated doses occurred in the parotid gland region which is near rotational venters. In the case of tele radiography the highest dose value occurred in the regions corresponding to the temporal lobe of the brain, followed by linfonodes, ears and parotid glands. The doses absorbed in the eyes and the thyroid gland were, 0.037 mGy and 0.002 mGy in Clinic A and 0.062 mGy and 0.003 mGy in Clinic C, respectively. Regarding equipment test, inadequacy was found in the beam collimation in Clinic A and in the reproducibility of the X ray exposure in Clinic C. The total filtration in both clinics was inadequate.(author)

  4. Panoramic radiography in the examination of edetulous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je Woon; Choi, Soon Chul

    1992-01-01

    The author has examined the abnormalities in panoramic radiographs of 668 edentulous patients. The distribution, type, incidence, and location of all abnormalities were analyzed, and the distances between alveolar crest and anatomical structures were measures. (Maxillary measurements were performed between alveolar crest and lower margin of the maxillary sinus and mandibular measurements between alveolar crest and upper edge of the mental foramen.) The obtained results were as follows: 1. Of the 668 panoramic radiographs examined, 10 3(15.4%) showed one or more abnormalities. 2. The incidence of abnormalities was decreased by years, which was 22.0% in 1970's and 16.8% in 1980's and 12.1% in 1990's. 3. The distribution of abnormalities as follows: 43( 40.2%) superficial root fragments, 24 (22.4%) impacted teeth, imbedded root fragments, 7 (6.5%) cysts, 7 (6.5%) fractures, 5 (4.7%) foreign bodies, 5 (4.7%) abnormal radiolucencies, 4 (3.7%) abnormal radiopacities, 2 (1.9%) bony defects, 1 (0.9%) tumor. 4. In the location of abnormalities, 42 cases (35.5%) were in the maxillary posterior region, 26 cases (21.8%) were in the maxillary anterior region, 20 cases (24.4%) were in the mandibular posterior region and 18 cases (15.1%) were in the mandibular anterior region. 5. In the distance between alveolar crest and maxillary sinus, 109 cases (9.7%) were below 0.5 mm, 757 cases (67.6%) were between 0.5 mm and 10 mm, 254 cases (22.7%) were above 10 mm. In the distance between alveolar crest and mental foramen, 73 cases (8.8%) were below 0.5 mm, 501 cases (60.7%) were between 0.5 mm and 10 mm and 252 cases (30.5%) were above 100 mm

  5. Panoramic radiography in the examination of edetulous patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Je Woon; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    The author has examined the abnormalities in panoramic radiographs of 668 edentulous patients. The distribution, type, incidence, and location of all abnormalities were analyzed, and the distances between alveolar crest and anatomical structures were measures. (Maxillary measurements were performed between alveolar crest and lower margin of the maxillary sinus and mandibular measurements between alveolar crest and upper edge of the mental foramen.) The obtained results were as follows: 1. Of the 668 panoramic radiographs examined, 10 3(15.4%) showed one or more abnormalities. 2. The incidence of abnormalities was decreased by years, which was 22.0% in 1970's and 16.8% in 1980's and 12.1% in 1990's. 3. The distribution of abnormalities as follows: 43(40.2%) superficial root fragments, 24 (22.4%) impacted teeth, imbedded root fragments, 7 (6.5%) cysts, 7 (6.5%) fractures, 5 (4.7%) foreign bodies, 5 (4.7%) abnormal radiolucencies, 4 (3.7%) abnormal radiopacities, 2 (1.9%) bony defects, 1 (0.9%) tumor. 4. In the location of abnormalities, 42 cases (35.5%) were in the maxillary posterior region, 26 cases (21.8%) were in the maxillary anterior region, 20 cases (24.4%) were in the mandibular posterior region and 18 cases (15.1%) were in the mandibular anterior region. 5. In the distance between alveolar crest and maxillary sinus, 109 cases (9.7%) were below 0.5 mm, 757 cases (67.6%) were between 0.5 mm and 10 mm, 254 cases (22.7%) were above 10 mm. In the distance between alveolar crest and mental foramen, 73 cases (8.8%) were below 0.5 mm, 501 cases (60.7%) were between 0.5 mm and 10 mm and 252 cases (30.5%) were above 100 mm

  6. Obstacles in spatial evaluation of CBCT-reformatted panoramic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, Johannes; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Rashad, Ashkan; Schulze, Dirk; Hanken, Henning; Heiland, Max; Gröbe, Alexander; Riecke, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Conventional panoramic radiography (cPR) underlines procedure-related limitations in the display of objects. CBCT is presumed to overcome these constraints. To virtualize a cPR view, reformatted panoramic images (rPIs) can be generated. This study evaluated the rPI with regard to its susceptibility to sterical object deposition in comparison with cPR. A specially developed implant model with dental implants each of 4.0-mm diameter and 11.0-mm length was depositioned by shift, rotation and tilt of 5.00 mm (±0.01 mm) of horizontal shift and 5.0° (±0.167°), respectively, on a highly precise goniometer rotation table, and cPRs and rPIs were generated. Automated evaluation of the cPRs was carried out using a specially developed software. rPIs were processed and analyzed by a semi-automated image analysis. Object deposition lead to distortive effects in the rPI analogue to cPR, but they appear in display only. Objects illustrated in the rPI were dimensionally correct, but sterical relations are elusive. Results are obtained for the horizontal shift, declination and reclination, lateral tilt and rotation. Distortions within the rPI represent the illustration of the hyperbolic-shaped layer out of the three-dimensional data set. With this study, we demonstrated these procedure-related inherent but practically underestimated consequences. Effects of sterical object malpositioning must be compensated by the observer by adequate virtual adjustment of the processed layer. Accurate virtual adjustment leads to vertical dimensions. Sterical relations, e.g. angulation of two objects, are irretraceable unless precisely referenced.

  7. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  8. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  9. Analysis of edentulous maxillae using computed tomography and panoramic radiography in the surgical planning of dental implants; Analise da maxila edentula por meio da tomografia computadorizada e radiografia panoramica no planejamento cirurgico de implantes dentarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahuinco, Humberto Lazaro Choquepuma; Souza, Ricardo Pires de [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis (HOSPHEL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: humbertchs@hotmail.com

    2006-04-15

    Objective: to determine agreement of three observers on analysis of linear measurements of edentulous maxillae using computed tomography and panoramic radiography in the surgical planning of dental implants. Material and Method: the samples of 17 patients were analyzed with computed tomography and panoramic radiography. Linear measurements obtained from both methods were made at the following anatomical points: left tuberosity, left canine pillar, incisive foramen, right canine pillar and right tuberosity. Kendall's W test was applied to assess the level of agreement. Results: measured W-values from the samples of the anatomical points mentioned above, analyzed with panoramic radiography and computed tomography, were: 0.75 and 0.901; 0.916 and 0.956; 0.843 and 0.964; 0.963 and 0.931; 0.95 and 0.89 respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: agreement occurred in the measurements of variables.That means that if the three observers were to select an implant to be placed in each of the anatomical regions studied, there would be a good chance whey would choose the same type. (author)

  10. Astronauts Cooper and Conrad prepare cameras during visual acuity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles Conrad Jr., pilot, the prime crew of the Gemini 5 space flight, prepare their cameras while aboard a C-130 aircraft flying near Laredo. The two astronauts are taking part in a series of visual acuity experiments to aid them in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

  11. Accuracy and head positioning effects on measurements of anterior tooth length using 3-dimensional and conventional dental panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Noriyuki; Murabayashi, Manabu; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Tome, Wakako; Katsumata, Akitoshi

    2017-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the accuracy and the head positioning effects on measurements of anterior tooth length using 3-dimensional (3D) and conventional dental panoramic radiography and to investigate whether 3D panoramic radiography is suitable for the evaluation of anterior tooth length. A simulated human head was radiographed at 4, 8, and 12 mm displaced positions, and at 5°, 10°, and 15° tilted positions from the standard head position using 3D and conventional panoramic radiography, and also using cone-beam computed tomography. Anterior tooth lengths were measured on the panoramic and cone-beam computed tomography images. The values for the standard head position in the panoramic radiographs were defined as the standard values. Measurement error was defined as the standard value minus the cone-beam computed tomography value on each panoramic radiograph. The head position ratio of the measurement value to the standard value at each head position was calculated. Measurement errors for the 3D panoramic radiographs were significantly smaller than those for the conventional panoramic radiographs. In the 3D panoramic radiographs, the head position ratios at the 4, 8, and 12 mm displaced positions and at the 5° tilted position were within ±5% of the standard value. Three-dimensional panoramic radiography is suitable for the quantitative evaluation of anterior tooth length with high accuracy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reconstruction of pseudo three-dimensional dental image from dental panoramic radiograph and tooth surface shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Masataka; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kagiyama, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Masakazu; Takada, Kenji; Azuma, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional volume data set is useful for diagnosis in dental treatments. However, to obtain three-dimensional images of a dental arch in general dental clinics is difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to reconstruct pseudo three-dimensional dental images from a dental panoramic radiograph and a tooth surface shape which can be obtained from three dimensional shape measurement of a dental impression. The proposed method finds an appropriate curved surface on which the dental panoramic radiograph is mapped by comparing a virtual panoramic image made from a tooth surface shape to a real panoramic radiograph. The developed pseudo three-dimensional dental images give clear impression of patient's dental condition. (author)

  13. The relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness by using panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Suk; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine the relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness on panoramic radiograph. Panoramic radiographs of 360 patients (180 men and 180 women) over 20 years old, who visited the Chonbuk National University Hospital from January to December in 2007, were assessed. The subjects were divided into 5 age groups. Five indices such as cortical bone thickness at the gonion (GI), antegonion (AI), and below the mental foramen (MI), the panoramic mandibular index (PMI), the mandibular cortical index (MCI) were measured on panoramic radiographs. All five indices including GI, AI, MI, PMI, and MCI showed significant differences between third decade and over 8 decade groups (p,0.05). PMI, MI and GI showed significant differences with gender statistically (p<0.05). The mandibular cortical bone thickness showed negative correlation with age, and the value of the thickness (PMI, MI, and GI) was greater in men than in women.

  14. Panoramic Stereoscopic Video System for Remote-Controlled Robotic Space Operations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project, the development of a novel panoramic, stereoscopic video system was proposed. The proposed system, which contains no moving parts, uses three-fixed...

  15. The relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness by using panoramic radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Suk; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, and Institute of Oral Bio Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    This study was to determine the relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness on panoramic radiograph. Panoramic radiographs of 360 patients (180 men and 180 women) over 20 years old, who visited the Chonbuk National University Hospital from January to December in 2007, were assessed. The subjects were divided into 5 age groups. Five indices such as cortical bone thickness at the gonion (GI), antegonion (AI), and below the mental foramen (MI), the panoramic mandibular index (PMI), the mandibular cortical index (MCI) were measured on panoramic radiographs. All five indices including GI, AI, MI, PMI, and MCI showed significant differences between third decade and over 8 decade groups (p,0.05). PMI, MI and GI showed significant differences with gender statistically (p<0.05). The mandibular cortical bone thickness showed negative correlation with age, and the value of the thickness (PMI, MI, and GI) was greater in men than in women.

  16. Adaptive panoramic tomography with a circular rotational movement for the formation of multifocal image layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. S.; Cho, H. S.; Park, Y. O.; Je, U. K.; Hong, D. K.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Panoramic radiography with which only structures within a certain image layer are in focus and others out of focus on the panoramic image has become a popular imaging technique especially in dentistry. However, the major drawback to the technique is a mismatch between the structures to be focused and the predefined image layer mainly due to the various shapes and sizes of dental arches and/or to malpositioning of the patient. These result in image quality typically inferior to that obtained using intraoral radiographic techniques. In this paper, to overcome these difficulties, we suggest a new panoramic reconstruction algorithm, the so-called adaptive panoramic tomography (APT), capable of reconstructing multifocal image layers with no additional exposure. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we performed systematic simulation studies with a circular rotational movement and investigated the image performance.

  17. Assessment and Comparison of Impacted Maxillary Canine Position in Panoramic Radiography with CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddiniardakani

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The study findings revealed that the angulation and magnification methods were not reliable in order to assess the impacted maxillary canines in panoramic radiography, though Angulation proved to be more successful than magnification method.

  18. Adaptive panoramic tomography with a circular rotational movement for the formation of multifocal image layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. S.; Cho, H. S.; Park, Y. O.; Je, U. K.; Hong, D. K.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Panoramic radiography with which only structures within a certain image layer are in focus and others out of focus on the panoramic image has become a popular imaging technique especially in dentistry. However, the major drawback to the technique is a mismatch between the structures to be focused and the predefined image layer mainly due to the various shapes and sizes of dental arches and/or to malpositioning of the patient. These result in image quality typically inferior to that obtained using intraoral radiographic techniques. In this paper, to overcome these difficulties, we suggest a new panoramic reconstruction algorithm, the so-called adaptive panoramic tomography (APT), capable of reconstructing multifocal image layers with no additional exposure. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we performed systematic simulation studies with a circular rotational movement and investigated the image performance.

  19. Adaptive panoramic tomography with a circular rotational movement for the formation of multifocal image layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. S.; Cho, H. S.; Park, Y. O.; Je, U. K.; Hong, D. K.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S.

    2012-02-01

    Panoramic radiography with which only structures within a certain image layer are in focus and others out of focus on the panoramic image has become a popular imaging technique especially in dentistry. However, the major drawback to the technique is a mismatch between the structures to be focused and the predefined image layer mainly due to the various shapes and sizes of dental arches and/or to malpositioning of the patient. These result in image quality typically inferior to that obtained using intraoral radiographic techniques. In this paper, to overcome these difficulties, we suggest a new panoramic reconstruction algorithm, the so-called adaptive panoramic tomography ( APT), capable of reconstructing multifocal image layers with no additional exposure. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we performed systematic simulation studies with a circular rotational movement and investigated the image performance.

  20. Proximal caries detection accuracy using intraoral bitewing radiography, extraoral bitewing radiography and panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburoglu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Yüksel, S; Ozen, T

    2012-09-01

    To compare proximal caries detection using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography. 80 extracted human premolar and molar teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intraoral radiographs were taken with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) using the bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing and panoramic images were obtained using a Planmeca Promax Digital Panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland). Images were evaluated by three observers twice. In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed. Intra- and interobserver kappa coefficients were calculated. Scores obtained from the three techniques were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Az values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of α = 0.05. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.883 to 0.963 for the intraoral bitewing, from 0.715 to 0.893 for the extraoral bitewing, and from 0.659 to 0.884 for the panoramic radiography. Interobserver agreements for the first and second readings for the intraoral bitewing images were between 0.717 and 0.780, the extraoral bitewing readings were between 0.569 and 0.707, and the panoramic images were between 0.477 and 0.740. The Az values for both readings of all three observers were highest for the intraoral bitewing. Az values for the extraoral bitewing images were higher than those of the panoramic images without statistical significance (p > 0.05). Intraoral bitewing radiography was superior to extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography in diagnosing proximal caries of premolar and molar teeth ex vivo. Similar intra- and interobserver coefficients were calculated for extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography.

  1. Imaging characteristics of a Stafne bone cavity--panoramic radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Florian Andreas; Probst, Monika; Maistreli, Ira-Zacharoula; Otto, Sven; Troeltzsch, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    A rare case of Stafne bone cavity (SBC) with salivary gland herniation confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. It was diagnosed in a 72-year-old male patient. Surgical intervention was avoided. The report highlights imaging findings of panoramic radiography, computed tomography, and especially magnetic resonance tomography. It is demonstrated that employment of MRI for further evaluation of suspicion of SBC on panoramic radiographs can be a helpful diagnostic tool.

  2. Relationship Between Carotid Artery Calcification Detected in Dental Panoramic Images and Hypertension and Myocardial Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshfeghi, Mahkameh; Taheri, Jamileh Beigom; Bahemmat, Nika; Evazzadeh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Hadian, Hoora

    2014-01-01

    Carotid artery calcification may be related to cerebrovascular accident, which may result in death or physical and mental disabilities in survivors. Our purpose is to study the association of carotid artery calcification (CAC) on dental panoramic radiographs and two risk factors of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) including hypertension and myocardial infarction (MI). Panoramic images of 200 patients that were all women above 50 years of age (a population suffering from vascular diseases) were investigated. All panoramic images were provided under similar conditions in terms of the type of panoramic radiograph equipment, type of applied films and the automatic film processor. Then, the patients answered questions about MI history and taking antihypertensive drugs. We also measured the blood pressure of patients in two separate surveys. Data analysis was performed by SPSS statistical program. We used Exact Fisher test and Chi-Square test at a significant level of less than 0.05 to study the effect of these variables on the occurrence of carotid artery calcification. Among 200 studied samples, 22 of the patients (11%) had carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiograph. In total, 52 patients (26%) had hypertension and four people (2%) had a history of MI. Eleven individuals among patients suffering from hypertension (21.2%) and three individuals among patients with a history of MI (75%) demonstrated CAC on dental panoramic images . The relationship between CAC found on dental panoramic radiographs and two CVA risk factors--hypertension and MI-- was significant. Therefore, it seems that detection of CAC on panoramic images of dental patients must be considered by dentists

  3. Panoramic Image Communication for Mobile Application Using Content-Aware Image Resizing Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaejoon

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an image resizing application for mobile communication to evaluate content-aware image resizing method for panoramic image. In many applications, we can take account into aspect ratio changing, removal or pan and zoom in the image. However, the implemented application in this work is more focus on image downsizing due to mobile application that is limited for image capacity. The generated panoramic image will be distorted if simply scaling by factors and the image will los...

  4. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  5. Real-time multi-camera video acquisition and processing platform for ADAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the design of a real-time and low-cost embedded system for image acquisition and processing in Advanced Driver Assisted Systems (ADAS). The system adopts a multi-camera architecture to provide a panoramic view of the objects surrounding the vehicle. Fish-eye lenses are used to achieve a large Field of View (FOV). Since they introduce radial distortion of the images projected on the sensors, a real-time algorithm for their correction is also implemented in a pre-processor. An FPGA-based hardware implementation, re-using IP macrocells for several ADAS algorithms, allows for real-time processing of input streams from VGA automotive CMOS cameras.

  6. Prediction of osteoporosis using fractal analysis on periapical and panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fractal analysis of periapical and panoramic radiographs was useful in predicting osteoporosis risk. 37 postmenoposal women between the age of 42 and 79 were classified as normal and osteoporosis group according to the bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae and periapical and panoramic radiographs were taken. Fractal dimensions at periapical areas of mandibular first molars were calculated to differentiate the two groups. The mean fractal dimensions of normal group on periapical and panoramic radiographs were 1.413 {+-} 0.079, 1.517 {+-} 0.071 each. The mean fractal dimensions of osteoporotic group on periapical and panoramic radiographs were 1.498 {+-} 0.086, 1.388 {+-} 0.083 each. The mean fractal dimension from peripaical radiographs of osteoporotic group was statistically significantly higher than that of normal group. The mean fractal dimension from panoramic radiographs of osteoporotic group was statistically significantly lower than that of normal group. Fractal analysis using periapical and panoramic radiographs was useful in predicting osteoporosis.

  7. Computer-Aided Panoramic Images Enriched by Shadow Construction on a Prism and Pyramid Polyhedral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzwierzynska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and practical method of a direct mapping of a panoramic projection on an unfolded prism and pyramid polyhedral projection surface with the aid of a computer. Due to the fact that straight lines very often appear in any architectural form we formulate algorithms which utilize data about lines and draw panoramas as plots of functions in Mathcad software. The ability to draw panoramic images of lines enables drawing a wireframe image of an architectural object. The application of the multicenter projection, as well as the idea of shadow construction in the panoramic representation, aims at achieving a panoramic image close to human perception. The algorithms are universal as the application of changeable base elements of panoramic projection—horizon height, station point location, number of polyhedral walls—enables drawing panoramic images from various viewing positions. However, for more efficient and easier drawing, the algorithms should be implemented in some graphical package. The representation presented in the paper and the method of its direct mapping on a flat unfolded projection surface can find application in the presentation of architectural spaces in advertising and art when drawings are displayed on polyhedral surfaces and can be observed from multiple viewing positions.

  8. Comparative assessment of panoramic radiography and CBCT imaging for radiodiagnostics in the posterior maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazian, Maryam; Vandewoude, Charlotte; Wyatt, Jan; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether and how the information obtained by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) on maxillary posterior teeth differs from that obtained by panoramic radiography. From 157 subjects (mean age 48 years, range 19-84 years; 89 females) referred to the oral imaging center, a pair of panoramic and CBCT images was selected for further analysis. Both imaging modalities were analyzed to determine the topographic relationship of maxillary teeth to the sinus floor. Pathologic conditions, apical periodontitis, and presence of soft tissue thickening were also examined with both techniques. CBCT showed an intimate relationship of the first and second molar with the maxillary sinus in 54 and 38%, respectively. Thirty-nine apical periodontitis lesions causing reactive changes in the maxillary sinus were detected by CBCT, while just six of them were diagnosed with panoramic imaging. A total of 26 teeth with apical extension to the maxillary sinus were detected with CBCT, from which two could be identified with panoramic radiography. This study emphasizes that anatomical and pathological involvement of the maxillary sinus in relation to posterior teeth is considerably high. It is of clinical importance that the 3D nature of CBCT imaging allowed a better assessment of the relationship between the maxillary sinus and posterior root apices compared to the low detection on panoramic radiographs. CBCT imaging can be a valuable adjunct in radioanatomical and radiodiagnostic observations in the posterior maxilla. It may better visualize maxillary sinus involvement for posterior upper teeth than panoramic radiography.

  9. Comparison of panoramic radiography and CBCT to identify maxillary posterior roots invading the maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luciana J; Gamba, Thiago O; Bertinato, João V J; Freitas, Deborah Q

    Given the limitations of panoramic radiography for assessing topographic relationship of maxillary teeth with sinus floor, the purpose of this study was to assess signs on panoramic radiography that could predict root protrusion into the sinus. A total of 46 individuals (330 maxillary posterior teeth) who underwent panoramic radiography and CBCT were enrolled. The relationship between the posterior teeth and the maxillary sinus and panoramic radiography signs (projection of the root apices, interruption of the maxillary sinus floor, lamina dura, darkening in the root apices, and superiorly curving sinus floor enveloping the associated tooth root) associated with protrusion of root apices into the sinus were evaluated. There were differences between the imaging modalities about the positioning of the root apices regarding the sinus (p panoramic radiography were predictors for the root protrusion (p panoramic radiography signs (p > 0.05). The root projection into the sinus and the interruption of the sinus floor are indicative signs of root protrusion into the sinus on CBCT.

  10. Utilization of computer-aided detection system in diagnosing unilateral maxillary sinusitis on panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yasufumi; Ariji, Yoshiko; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Miwa; Fukuda, Motoki; Nozawa, Michihito; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether computer-aided detection (CAD) systems for panoramic radiography can help inexperienced dentists to diagnose maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether a CAD system for panoramic radiography can contribute to improved diagnostic performance for maxillary sinusitis by inexperienced dentists. The panoramic radiographs of 49 patients with maxillary sinusitis and 49 patients with healthy sinuses were evaluated in this study. The diagnostic performance of the CAD system was determined. 12 inexperienced dentists and 4 expert oral and maxillofacial radiologists observed the total of 98 panoramic radiographs and judged the presence or absence of maxillary sinusitis, under conditions with and without the support of the CAD system. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the two groups were compared. The CAD system provided sensitivity of 77.6%, specificity of 69.4% and accuracy of 73.5%. The diagnostic performance of the inexperienced dentists increased with the support of the CAD system. When the inexperienced dentists diagnosed maxillary sinusitis with CAD support, the area under the curve (AUC) was significantly higher than that without CAD support. When the focus was only on panoramic radiographs in which CAD support led to a correct diagnosis, the AUC of the inexperienced dentists increased to an equivalent level to that of the experienced radiologists. The CAD system supported the inexperienced dentists in diagnosing maxillary sinusitis on the panoramic radiographs. If the accuracy of the CAD system can be increased, the benefits of CAD support will be further enhanced.

  11. The PLATO camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubier, D.; Bodin, P.; Pasquier, H.; Fredon, S.; Levacher, P.; Vola, P.; Buey, T.; Bernardi, P.

    2017-11-01

    PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillation of stars) is a candidate for the M3 Medium-size mission of the ESA Cosmic Vision programme (2015-2025 period). It is aimed at Earth-size and Earth-mass planet detection in the habitable zone of bright stars and their characterisation using the transit method and the asterosismology of their host star. That means observing more than 100 000 stars brighter than magnitude 11, and more than 1 000 000 brighter than magnitude 13, with a long continuous observing time for 20 % of them (2 to 3 years). This yields a need for an unusually long term signal stability. For the brighter stars, the noise requirement is less than 34 ppm.hr-1/2, from a frequency of 40 mHz down to 20 μHz, including all sources of noise like for instance the motion of the star images on the detectors and frequency beatings. Those extremely tight requirements result in a payload consisting of 32 synchronised, high aperture, wide field of view cameras thermally regulated down to -80°C, whose data are combined to increase the signal to noise performances. They are split into 4 different subsets pointing at 4 directions to widen the total field of view; stars in the centre of that field of view are observed by all 32 cameras. 2 extra cameras are used with color filters and provide pointing measurement to the spacecraft Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) loop. The satellite is orbiting the Sun at the L2 Lagrange point. This paper presents the optical, electronic and electrical, thermal and mechanical designs devised to achieve those requirements, and the results from breadboards developed for the optics, the focal plane, the power supply and video electronics.

  12. Stereoscopic camera design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David J.; Jones, Christopher K.; Stewart, James N.; Smith, Alan

    2002-05-01

    It is clear from the literature that the majority of work in stereoscopic imaging is directed towards the development of modern stereoscopic displays. As costs come down, wider public interest in this technology is expected to increase. This new technology would require new methods of image formation. Advances in stereo computer graphics will of course lead to the creation of new stereo computer games, graphics in films etc. However, the consumer would also like to see real-world stereoscopic images, pictures of family, holiday snaps etc. Such scenery would have wide ranges of depth to accommodate and would need also to cope with moving objects, such as cars, and in particular other people. Thus, the consumer acceptance of auto/stereoscopic displays and 3D in general would be greatly enhanced by the existence of a quality stereoscopic camera. This paper will cover an analysis of existing stereoscopic camera designs and show that they can be categorized into four different types, with inherent advantages and disadvantages. A recommendation is then made with regard to 3D consumer still and video photography. The paper will go on to discuss this recommendation and describe its advantages and how it can be realized in practice.

  13. Doppler Sonography Confirmation in Patients Showing Calcified Carotid Artery Atheroma in Panoramic Radiography and Evaluation of Related Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rah Rooh, Mohammad; Mahmoudi Hashemi, Elahe; Javadzade Blouri, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to identify patients at the risk of cerebrovascular attack (CVA) by detecting calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiography and evaluating their risk factors. Materials and methods. A total of 960 panoramic radiographs of patients above 40 years old were evaluated. Doppler Sonography (DS) was performed for patients who showed calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiography in order to determin...

  14. A study on secondary images in panoramic radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dai Hee; Kim, Han Pyong [Department of Dental Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-11-15

    This study was performed to observe the secondary images and to analyse the relationships between the primary and secondary images in panoramic radiograph. Using the Morita's Panex-EC panoramic x-ray machine and the human dry skull, the author analysed 17 radiographs which were selected from 65 radiographs of the dry skull that attached the radiopaque materials, and the attached regions of the radiopaque materials were the normal anatomical structures which were important and selected as a region for the evaluation of the secondary images effectively. The results were as follows; 1. The cervical vertebrae showed three images. The midline image was the most distorted and less clear, and bilateral images were slightly superimposed over the posterior border of the mandibular ramus. 2. In mandible, the secondary image of the posterior border of the ramus was superimposed on the opposite ramus region, and this image was elongated from the anterior border of the ramus to the lateral side of the posterior border of the ramus. The secondary image of the condyle was observed on the upper area of the coronoid process, the sigmoid notch and the condyle in opposite side. 3. In maxilla, the posterior region of the hard palate showed the secondary image on the lower part of the nasal cavity and the medial wall of the maxillary sinus. 4. The primary images of the occipital condyle and the mastoid process appeared on the same region, and only the secondary image of the occipital condyle was observed symmetrically on the opposite side with similar shape to the primary one. 5. In the cranial base, the anatomical structures of the midsagittal portions like a inferior border of the frontal sinus, sella turcica, inferior border of the sphenoid sinus and inferior border of the posterior part of the occipital bone showed the similar shape between the primary and secondary images symmetrically. 6. The petrous portion of the temporal bone showed the secondary image of the lateral side

  15. Comparison of mesiodistal root angulation with posttreatment panoramic radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Daniel G; Cevidanes, Lucia; Ludlow, John B; Phillips, Ceib

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontists assess mesiodistal root angulations before, during, and after orthodontic treatment as an aid in establishing proper root position. Panoramic imaging has been useful for this purpose and is a valuable screening tool in diagnosis and planning treatment of orthodontic patients. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for imaging of the craniofacial complex creates the opportunity to evaluate 3-dimensional images compared with traditional 2-dimensional images. The purpose of this project was to compare mesiodistal root angulations by using posttreatment panoramic radiographic images and CBCT scans. Mesiodistal root angulations from panoramic images and CBCT scans of 35 orthognathic surgery patients after orthodontic treatment were compared. The panoramic images were measured by using VixWin (Gendex Dental Systems, Des Plaines, Ill), and the CBCT scans by using InvivoDental 3D (version 4.1, Anatomage, San Jose, Calif). The mesiodistal root angulation of each maxillary and mandibular tooth was measured by using the occlusal plane as the reference line. With an intercept-only linear regression for correlated data (with an unstructured covariance structure), the global test of whether the mean vector of all differences for the teeth is zero was performed separately for the 2 arches. The global test for both arches was statistically significant (P <0.001), indicating an overall difference in root angulation between measurements from panoramic and CBCT images. There was no discernible pattern in the average differences between panoramic and CBCT measurements. The assessment of mesiodistal tooth angulation with panoramic radiography should be approached with caution and reinforced by a thorough clinical examination of the dentition. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The ability of panoramic radiography in assessing maxillary sinus inflammatory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate the relative diagnostic accuracy of panoramic radiography and Water's projection in maxillary sinus inflammatory diseases by comparing the radiodensities of the images with those of CT. Panoramic radiographs, Waters' projection, and CT images from 55 subjects (110 sinuses) were included in this retrospective study. The radiodensity of each maxillary sinus in panoramic radiography was recorded separately as upper and lower divided horizontally by hard palate. In Waters' projection, the overall sinus radiodensity was recorded. The CT images were considered as gold standard. In panoramic radiography, 83 sinuses had same upper and lower radiodensity and 72 of these were consistent with those of CT, 26 sinuses had different upper and lower radiodensity and 15 of these, upper radiodensity was consistent with CT, the remaining 11, lower radiodensity was consistent with CT. One sinus had upper radiolucency with lower radiopacity and both were consistent with those of CT. Altogether 73 (66.4%) among 110 sinuses in panoramic radiography showed full agreement with CT, 26 (23.6%) showed partial agreement with CT. 9 sinuses had no lower image under the hard palate in panoramic radiography due to the smaller size of sinus. In Waters' projection, the radiodensity of 105 sinuses (95.5%) were consistent with that of CT. The panoramic radiography showed 90.0% of the sinus conditions fully or partially which may appear less accurate than that of Water's view (95.5%) but with more detailed information of the inferior part of sinuses.

  17. Prevalence of supernumerary teeth based on panoramic radiographs revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify, within the literature, reports on the prevalence of supernumerary teeth that have used panoramic radiographs (PRs) as a diagnostic tool; and (2) reanalyze the prevalence data based on the current sensitivity figures for PRs in identifying supernumerary teeth. A comprehensive literature search in three databases identified 16 potential studies, of which seven were included in the final analysis. Based on the recent sensitivity data for PRs in identifying supernumerary teeth, the equation "P=r/q" was derived to reanalyze the prevalence data. Multiple regression analysis and paired t test were employed for the statistical analysis. The prevalence figure ranged from 1.2 percent to three percent, and, subsequent to the application of the adjustment factor, it increased to range from 2.4 percent to six percent. The prevalence figures for males was significantly higher than for females (RR=1.37). Furthermore, due to insufficient studies, statistical analysis was unable to elicit ethnical differences in the prevalence figures. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth is higher than indicated in the published reports and ranges from 2.4 percent to six percent or possibly even higher.

  18. Clinical validity of panoramic radiographs with Digora PCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yukiko; Araki, Kazuyuki; Hanazawa, Tomomi; Seki, Kenji; Okano, Tomohiro

    2006-01-01

    The quality of panoramic radiographs with a digital imaging system, Digora PCT, was compared with that of a Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) system. The exposure settings that would produce the appropriate density for observation of the images were determined. The images of the Digora PCT and the FCR system were observed on a 17-inch CRT monitor and printed films respectively. Thirty images of patients were obtained with each system. Six oral radiologists observed the images and evaluated the visibility of pathologic conditions based on outline of mandible, mandibular canal and bone trabecula, shape of the tooth and periodontal hard tissue of the mandible, shape of the tooth and periodontal hard tissue of the maxilla, and outline of the bony structure of the maxillary sinus, using the following three categories: good, fair, and unacceptable. The images of each system were evaluated separately at an interval of 3 months. Mann-Whitney test with p=0.05 was used to analyze differences between the two systems. There were no images of either system rated as ''unacceptable''. The visibility of the shape of the tooth, periodontal hard tissue, and the outline of the bony structure of the maxillary sinus with the Digora PCT was inferior to that with the FCR system. However, it can be concluded that the image quality of the Digora PCT is adequate for dental purposes because there were no unacceptable images. (author)

  19. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector planes positioned side-by-side around a patient area to detect radiation. Each plane includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and at least two rows of scintillation crystals on each photomultiplier tube extend across to adjacent photomultiplier tubes for detecting radiation from the patient area. Each row of crystals on each photomultiplier tube is offset from the other rows of crystals, and the area of each crystal on each tube in each row is different than the area of the crystals on the tube in other rows for detecting which crystal is actuated and allowing the detector to detect more inter-plane slides. The crystals are offset by an amount equal to the length of the crystal divided by the number of rows. The rows of crystals on opposite sides of the patient may be rotated 90 degrees relative to each other

  20. Junocam: Juno's Outreach Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ingersoll, A.; Ravine, M. A.; Jensen, E.; Bolton, S.; Orton, G.

    2017-11-01

    Junocam is a wide-angle camera designed to capture the unique polar perspective of Jupiter offered by Juno's polar orbit. Junocam's four-color images include the best spatial resolution ever acquired of Jupiter's cloudtops. Junocam will look for convective clouds and lightning in thunderstorms and derive the heights of the clouds. Junocam will support Juno's radiometer experiment by identifying any unusual atmospheric conditions such as hotspots. Junocam is on the spacecraft explicitly to reach out to the public and share the excitement of space exploration. The public is an essential part of our virtual team: amateur astronomers will supply ground-based images for use in planning, the public will weigh in on which images to acquire, and the amateur image processing community will help process the data.

  1. Automatic locking radioisotope camera lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The lock of the present invention secures the isotope source in a stored shielded condition in the camera until a positive effort has been made to open the lock and take the source outside of the camera and prevents disconnection of the source pigtail unless the source is locked in a shielded condition in the camera. It also gives a visual indication of the locked or possible exposed condition of the isotope source and prevents the source pigtail from being completely pushed out of the camera, even when the lock is released. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the maxillary sinus in panoramic radiography-a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina-Altzinger, Johann; Damerau, Georg; Grätz, Klaus W; Stadlinger, P D Bernd

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of panoramic-radiograph-driven findings of different maxillary sinus anatomic variations and pathologies, which had initially been prediagnosed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). After pairs of two-dimensional (2D) panoramic and three-dimensional (3D) CBCT images of patients having received treatment at the outpatient department had been screened, the predefinition of 54 selected maxillary sinus conditions was initially performed on CBCT images by two blinded consultants individually using a questionnaire that defined ten different clinically relevant findings. Using the identic questionnaire, these consultants performed the evaluation of the panoramic radiographs at a later time point. The results were analyzed for inter-imaging differences in the evaluation of the maxillary sinus between 2D and 3D imaging methods. Additionally, two resident groups (first year and last year of training) performed two diagnostic runs of the panoramic radiographs and results were analyzed for inter- and intra-observer reliability. There is a moderate risk for false diagnosis of findings of the maxillary sinus if only panoramic radiography is used. Based on the ten predefined conditions, solely maxillary bone cysts penetrating into the sinus were frequently detected differently comparing 2D to 3D diagnostics. Additionally, on panoramic radiographs, the inter-observer comparison demonstrated that basal septa were significantly often rated differently and the intra-observer comparison showed a significant lack in reliability in detecting maxillary bone cysts penetrating into the sinus. Panoramic radiography provides the most information on the maxillary sinus, and it may be an adequate imaging method. However, particular findings of the maxillary sinus in panoramic imaging may be based on a rather examiner-dependent assessment. Therefore, a persistent and precise evaluation of

  3. A clinico-radiographic study to compare and co-relate sagittal condylar guidance determined by intraoral gothic arch tracing method and panoramic radiograph in completely edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sanath; Kunta, Mythili; Shenoy, Kamalakanth

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and correlate sagittal condylar guidance determined by intraoral gothic arch tracing method and panoramic radiograph in edentulous patients. Twelve completely edentulous patients were selected by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conventional steps in the fabrication of complete denture till jaw relation were carried out. Intraoral gothic arch tracing and protrusive interocclusal records were obtained for each patient. Protrusive interocclusal record was used to program the Hanau Wide-Vue semi-adjustable articulator, thus obtaining the sagittal condylar guidance angle. Using RadiAnt DICOM software, on the orthopantomogram obtained for each patient in the study, two reference lines were drawn. The Frankfort's horizontal plane and the mean curvature line (joining the most superior and the inferior points on the glenoid fossa curvature) were drawn. The mean curvature line was extended to intersect the Frankfort's horizontal plane, thus obtaining the radiographic sagittal condylar guidance angle. The condylar guidance angles obtained by these two methods were compared and subjected to paired t -test. There was no statistically significant difference between the sagittal condylar guidance angles obtained between right and left sides with intraoral gothic arch tracing and radiographic methods ( P = 0.107 and 0.07, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the protrusive condylar guidance angles obtained by panoramic radiograph may be used for programming semi-adjustable articulators.

  4. A comparative diagnostic assessment of anterior tooth and bone status using panoramic and periapical radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tina; Nassery, Khash; Kahlert, Bill; Heithersay, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare diagnostic assessments of anterior tooth and bone status in a randomised cohort of pre-orthodontic patients using panoramic and periapical radiographs. Four hundred and forty-four cases with matched periapical and panoramic radiographs were examined by three observers. Two were final-year postgraduate endodontic students and the other, a final-year Honours degree dental student. Multi-rater Kappa values were used to assess the reliability of the observers, with a value of 1 equating to complete agreement. With the exception of endodontic Class 1 and 2 palatal invaginations, reliability exceeded 0.95 for all three observers. An assessment of the graduate endodontic students revealed only a marginal increase in the kappa values. Statistical analysis (p periapical radiographs compared with panoramic films. This finding has relevance given the likelihood of anterior dental trauma among young children. While there have been considerable improvements in the quality of dental panoramic radiography, the present study indicated that a reliable pre-orthodontic or post-trauma diagnostic assessment should include both panoramic and intra-oral radiographs.

  5. The study of radiographic technique with low exposure using computed panoramic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yasuhiro

    1987-01-01

    A new imaging system for the dental field that combines recent advances in both the electronics and computer technologies was developed. This new imaging system is a computed panoramic tomography process based on the newly developed laser-scan system. In this study a quantitative image evaluation was performed comparing anatomical landmark in computed panoramic tomography at a low exposure (LPT) and in conventional panoramic tomography at a routin (CPT), and the following results were obtained: 1. The diagnostic value of the CPT decreased with decreasing exposure, paticularly with regard to the normal anatomical landmarks of such microstructural parts as the periodontal space, lamina dura and the enamel-dentin border. 2. The LPT was highly diagnostic value for all normal anatomical landmark, averaging about twice as valuable diagnostically as CPT. 3. The visually diagnostic value of the periodontal space, lamina dura, enamel-dentin border and the anatomical morphology of the teeth on the LPT beeing slightly dependent on the spatial frequency enhancement rank. 4. The LPT formed images with almost the same range of density as the CPT. 5. Computed panoramic tomographs taken at a low exposure revealed more information of the trabecular bone pattern on the image than conventional panoramic tomographs taken under routine condition in the visual spatial frequency range (0.1 - 5.0 cycle/mm). (author) 67 refs

  6. A study of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiographic images of a selected Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo

    2007-01-01

    To determine the more valuable information to detect the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiographs of a selected Korean population for the implant. This study analysed 288 panoramic radiographic images of patients taken at the Dental hospital of Chosun University retrospectively. Indirect digital panoramic X-ray machine (ProlineXC, PLANMECA, Finland) with processing by using Directview CR950 (Kodak, U.S.A.) and Direct digital panoramic X-ray machine (Promax, PLANMECA, Finland) were used for all exposures. All images were converted into Dicom format. The common position of the mental foramen was in line with the longitudinal axis of the second premolar (68.1%). The mental foramen was lower symmetrical in 81.8% of cases. The mandibular canal was not identified at anterior portion and discontinued with the mental foramen in 27.8% of all cases, in 42.4% identified with lower border line continued with the mental foramen, in 14.6% with both upper and lower border lines, and in 15.3% unilaterally identified with lower border line. Clinicians can estimate the upper border line of the mandibular canal from the confirmation of the mental foramen and the lower border line of the mandibular canal symmetrically on the panoramic radiography taken in adjusted midsaggital plane of patient's head

  7. A study of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiographic images of a selected Korean population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To determine the more valuable information to detect the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiographs of a selected Korean population for the implant. This study analysed 288 panoramic radiographic images of patients taken at the Dental hospital of Chosun University retrospectively. Indirect digital panoramic X-ray machine (ProlineXC, PLANMECA, Finland) with processing by using Directview CR950 (Kodak, U.S.A.) and Direct digital panoramic X-ray machine (Promax, PLANMECA, Finland) were used for all exposures. All images were converted into Dicom format. The common position of the mental foramen was in line with the longitudinal axis of the second premolar (68.1%). The mental foramen was lower symmetrical in 81.8% of cases. The mandibular canal was not identified at anterior portion and discontinued with the mental foramen in 27.8% of all cases, in 42.4% identified with lower border line continued with the mental foramen, in 14.6% with both upper and lower border lines, and in 15.3% unilaterally identified with lower border line. Clinicians can estimate the upper border line of the mandibular canal from the confirmation of the mental foramen and the lower border line of the mandibular canal symmetrically on the panoramic radiography taken in adjusted midsaggital plane of patient's head.

  8. Evaluation of the accuracy of panoramic radiograph in determining the location of the lingula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Moudi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of panoramic radiograph in locating the position of lingula as an index to estimate the location of mandibular foramen. Methods: The distance measurement in this study was carried out on 30 dry mandibles, composed of at least 2 first molars and one canine. Photography and panoramic radiography of the mandible was performed in a steady reproducible position. 10 lines (including 2 horizontal and 8 vertical were drawn from the lingula to the anterior and posterior borders of ramus, the coronoid process and the lower border of the mandible. These lines were measured and compared in photographs and panoramic radiographs. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software, paired t-test, Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis. Results: Considering all different distances, there was no significant difference between the findings of panoramic radiographs and photographs with regard to 3 indices as follows: cd (posteroinferiormostpoint of mandibular foramen to the posterior border of the mandible; ln (5 mm behind the postero inferior most point of mandibular foramen to the lower border of mandible gh( 5 mm ahead of superior most point of mandibular foramen to the coronoid notch. Whereas, a significant difference was observed in other indices. Conclusions: It seems that the Panoramic radiograph is an inaccurate guide to display the precise location of the lingula.

  9. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bo Ram; Choi, Da Hye; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Bae, Kwang Hak; Lee, Sam Sun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the panoramic radiographs and evaluated the causes of imaging errors. A total of 297 panoramic radiographs were collected from 99 dental hospitals and clinics. The mean of the scores according to the Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart was 79.9. In the classification of the overall image quality, 17 images were deemed 'optimal for obtaining diagnostic information,' 153 were 'adequate for diagnosis,' 109 were 'poor but diagnosable,' and nine were 'unrecognizable and too poor for diagnosis'. The results of the analysis of the causes of the errors in all the images are as follows: 139 errors in the positioning, 135 in the processing, 50 from the radiographic unit, and 13 due to anatomic abnormality. Panoramic radiographs taken at local dental clinics generally have a normal or higher-level image quality. Principal factors affecting image quality were positioning of the patient and image density, sharpness, and contrast. Therefore, when images are taken, the patient position should be adjusted with great care. Also, standardizing objective criteria of image density, sharpness, and contrast is required to evaluate image quality effectively.

  10. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Ram; Choi, Da-Hye; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Sam-Sun

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the panoramic radiographs and evaluated the causes of imaging errors. A total of 297 panoramic radiographs were collected from 99 dental hospitals and clinics. The mean of the scores according to the Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart was 79.9. In the classification of the overall image quality, 17 images were deemed 'optimal for obtaining diagnostic information,' 153 were 'adequate for diagnosis,' 109 were 'poor but diagnosable,' and nine were 'unrecognizable and too poor for diagnosis'. The results of the analysis of the causes of the errors in all the images are as follows: 139 errors in the positioning, 135 in the processing, 50 from the radiographic unit, and 13 due to anatomic abnormality. Panoramic radiographs taken at local dental clinics generally have a normal or higher-level image quality. Principal factors affecting image quality were positioning of the patient and image density, sharpness, and contrast. Therefore, when images are taken, the patient position should be adjusted with great care. Also, standardizing objective criteria of image density, sharpness, and contrast is required to evaluate image quality effectively.

  11. Absorbed and effective dose in direct and indirect digital panoramic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gun Sun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk [Department of Oral and Maxilloficial Radiology School of Dentistry, Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    We evaluated the absorbed doses to the organs and calculated the effective doses when using the digital panoramic radiography. The absorbed dose averages in major organs of oral and maxillofacial region were measured using the Dental head phantom (CIRS Co., USA), nLi2B4O7 TLD chip and UD-716AGL dosimeter (Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., JPN) when performing indirect and direct digital panoramic radiography. Effective doses were calculated from correspond to ICRP 2007 recommendations for two panoramic radiography. The absorbed dose average on indirect and direct digital panoramic radiography was highest in parotid glands as measured 1259.6 mGy and 680.7 mGy respectively. Absorbed dose average in another organs were high in order of esophagus, submandibular gland, tongue and thyroid gland on both types of digital panoramic radiography. The absorbed dose average was higher on indirect type than direct one (p?0.05). The effective dose was higher on indirect type than direct one as measured 13.28 mSv and 8.70 mSv respectively. The absorbed doses in salivary gland and oral mucosa were high. However, thyroid gland also demands the attention on radiography due to high tissue weighting factor in spite of the low absorbed dose.

  12. Absorbed and effective dose in direct and indirect digital panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gun Sun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the absorbed doses to the organs and calculated the effective doses when using the digital panoramic radiography. The absorbed dose averages in major organs of oral and maxillofacial region were measured using the Dental head phantom (CIRS Co., USA), nLi2B4O7 TLD chip and UD-716AGL dosimeter (Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., JPN) when performing indirect and direct digital panoramic radiography. Effective doses were calculated from correspond to ICRP 2007 recommendations for two panoramic radiography. The absorbed dose average on indirect and direct digital panoramic radiography was highest in parotid glands as measured 1259.6 mGy and 680.7 mGy respectively. Absorbed dose average in another organs were high in order of esophagus, submandibular gland, tongue and thyroid gland on both types of digital panoramic radiography. The absorbed dose average was higher on indirect type than direct one (p?0.05). The effective dose was higher on indirect type than direct one as measured 13.28 mSv and 8.70 mSv respectively. The absorbed doses in salivary gland and oral mucosa were high. However, thyroid gland also demands the attention on radiography due to high tissue weighting factor in spite of the low absorbed dose.

  13. COMPARSION BETWEEN PANORAMIC PERIAPICAL AND VERTICAL BITEWING RADIOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PERIODONTAL BONE LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SHEIKHI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For diagnosis and treatment planing and detection the quality of remaining Alveolar bone the radiography is very useful so the type of radiography is very important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panoramic, periapical (bisecting technique and vertical bitewing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods. Twelve patients (3 male and 9 female with a mean age of 35, with a moderate to advanced periodontitis were evaluated. At the time of periodontal surgery, in the posterior site of two jaws (in 6 and 7 teeth, the bone loss was measured from CEJ to the base of alveolar bone, and compared with the radiographic findings of proximal bone loss. Results. The average of distance between CEJ and alveolar bone in 48 surfaces were 4.27 in clinic, 4.80 in panoramic, 2.62 in periapical (bisecting technique, 2.98 in vertical bitewing and 4.05 in panoramic without magnification. Discussion. In this research we cancluded that both techniques (periapical and vertical bitewing are not accurate in detection of proximal bone loss and there was significant difference between quantity of proximal bone in clinical measurment than radiographic measurment and this study showed that the panoramic (specially panoramic without magnification is more careful than other radiographic techniques in detection of proximal bone loss.

  14. Thyroid radiation dose during panoramic and cephalometric dental x-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, A.J.; Goepp, R.A.; Mason, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation exposure from panoramic equipment can be reduced significantly by use of smaller film, adjustment of the beam height to the height of the smaller film, and careful positioning of patients. These techniques have no adverse effect on the quality of the diagnostic information needed in dentistry. In addition to describing methods of reducing exposures from panoramic machines, this study demonstrates that the use of a barrier collar during static, cephalometric examinations can appreciably reduce thyroid exposure. Since the objective is to obtain diagnostic information from the film without irradiating the thyroid, the application of a lead-impregnated collar is a minor inconvenience, easily borne by the patient and operator. It should be noted that the use of the collar during panoramic examinations affords little or no protection since the relative motion of the panoramic machine places the axis of movement inside the head and neck of the patient. While the evolution of diagnostic radiology may have reached a high level of technical refinement of equipment and film, the clinician still must avoid unnecessary exposure for x-ray examinations and must carefully select the best type of examination to be used for each patient. For example, a complete panoramic examination to determine the position of a known unerupted third molar tooth is probably not an exercise of good judgment since other examinations, such as periapical, could yield the same information with less exposure. Decisions must be made with good judgment, value being placed on relative risks versus the benefits of diagnostic yield.

  15. Thyroid radiation dose during panoramic and cephalometric dental x-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, A.J.; Goepp, R.A.; Mason, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation exposure from panoramic equipment can be reduced significantly by use of smaller film, adjustment of the beam height to the height of the smaller film, and careful positioning of patients. These techniques have no adverse effect on the quality of the diagnostic information needed in dentistry. In addition to describing methods of reducing exposures from panoramic machines, this study demonstrates that the use of a barrier collar during static, cephalometric examinations can appreciably reduce thyroid exposure. Since the objective is to obtain diagnostic information from the film without irradiating the thyroid, the application of a lead-impregnated collar is a minor inconvenience, easily borne by the patient and operator. It should be noted that the use of the collar during panoramic examinations affords little or no protection since the relative motion of the panoramic machine places the axis of movement inside the head and neck of the patient. While the evolution of diagnostic radiology may have reached a high level of technical refinement of equipment and film, the clinician still must avoid unnecessary exposure for x-ray examinations and must carefully select the best type of examination to be used for each patient. For example, a complete panoramic examination to determine the position of a known unerupted third molar tooth is probably not an exercise of good judgment since other examinations, such as periapical, could yield the same information with less exposure. Decisions must be made with good judgment, value being placed on relative risks versus the benefits of diagnostic yield

  16. A study of panoramic focal trough for the six-year-old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yeon; Choi, Hang Moon; Han, Jin Woo; Lee, Sul Mi

    2004-01-01

    To make a focal trough (image layer) for an average maxillary dental arch of 6-year-old Korean in panoramic radiography. Phantom for the maxillary dental arch was designed using intercanine width, intermolar width, tooth size, and interdental spacing to record the data of 6-year-old child. The characteristics of pre-corrected panoramic machine (for adult) was evaluated using the phantom, resolution test pattern for margin of the image layer, and metal ball for the center of the image layer. Panoramic image layer of the child was developed by means of decreasing the speed of film-cassette and positioning the phantom backwards, and then the characteristics of post-corrected panoramic machine (for child) were reevaluated. At post-corrected panoramic image layer, beam projection angles at all interdental areas increased for about 2.6 - 3.8 .deg., the position of the image layer was shifted toward the rotation center for about 2.5 mm at the deciduous central incisior area. The width of image layer decreased at all areas. Increased beam projection angle will reduce the disadvantage of tooth overlap, and the same form between the center of the image layer and dental arch will improve image resolution.

  17. Panoramic and skull imaging may aid in the identification of multiple myeloma lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Karina-Morais; Brandão, Thais-Bianca; Silva, Wagner-Gomes; Pereira, Juliana; Neves, Frederico-Sampaio; Alves, Marcelo-Corrêa; Shintaku, Werner-Harumiti; Lopes, Marcio-Ajudarte; Ribeiro, Carolina-Prado; Migliorati, Cesar-Augusto; Santos-Silva, Alan-Roger

    2018-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of punched-out lesions in craniofacial bones using three different radiographic protocols in a large cohort of patients. Material and Methods One hundred fifty-five MM patients were evaluated using panoramic and skull (frontal and lateral) radiographs, which were performed in all patients at the time of MM diagnosis. The diagnostic potential for detecting punched-out lesions was compared among the radiographic techniques. Results MM punched-out lesions were identified in 135 (87%) panoramic radiographs, 141 (91%) frontal and 144 (93%) lateral skull radiographs. Punched out-lesions were synchronously present in skull and jawbones in 129 (83.23 %) cases. The lesions were detected exclusively in skull in 18 (11.61%) cases and exclusively in jawbones in 6 (3.87%) cases. Punched out-lesion mainly affected the skull and the jawbones in a synchronous way (p<0.001) rather than separately. Conclusions All investigated radiographic techniques (panoramic, frontal and lateral skull approaches) demonstrated high detection rates for MM punched-out lesions in craniofacial bones. Panoramic radiography may aid to the radiographic protocols to identify multiple myeloma bone lesions. Key words:Multiple myeloma, osteolytic lesions, panoramic radiography. PMID:29274154

  18. Underwater television camera for monitoring inner side of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Kazuhiko.

    1997-01-01

    An underwater television support device equipped with a rotatable and vertically movable underwater television camera and an underwater television camera controlling device for monitoring images of the inside of the reactor core photographed by the underwater television camera to control the position of the underwater television camera and the underwater light are disposed on an upper lattice plate of a reactor pressure vessel. Both of them are electrically connected with each other by way of a cable to rapidly observe the inside of the reactor core by the underwater television camera. The reproducibility is extremely satisfactory by efficiently concentrating the position of the camera and image information upon inspection and observation. As a result, the steps for periodical inspection can be reduced to shorten the days for the periodical inspection. Since there is no requirement to withdraw fuel assemblies over a wide reactor core region, and the device can be used with the fuel assemblies being left as they are in the reactor, it is suitable for inspection of detectors for nuclear instrumentation. (N.H.)

  19. The Eye of the Camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Vonk, Dorette J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of security cameras on prosocial behavior. Results from previous studies indicate that the presence of others can trigger helping behavior, arising from the need for approval of others. Extending these findings, the authors propose that security cameras can likewise

  20. The Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System: Scientific Objectives and Design Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, A.; Coates, A.; Josset, J.; Paar, G.; Sims, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Stereo Camera System (SCS) will provide wide-angle (48 degree) multi-spectral stereo imaging of the Beagle 2 landing site in Isidis Planitia with an angular resolution of 0.75 milliradians. Based on the SpaceX Modular Micro-Imager, the SCS is composed of twin cameras (with 1024 by 1024 pixel frame transfer CCD) and twin filter wheel units (with a combined total of 24 filters). The primary mission objective is to construct a digital elevation model of the area in reach of the lander’s robot arm. The SCS specifications and following baseline studies are described: Panoramic RGB colour imaging of the landing site and panoramic multi-spectral imaging at 12 distinct wavelengths to study the mineralogy of landing site. Solar observations to measure water vapour absorption and the atmospheric dust optical density. Also envisaged are multi-spectral observations of Phobos &Deimos (observations of the moons relative to background stars will be used to determine the lander’s location and orientation relative to the Martian surface), monitoring of the landing site to detect temporal changes, observation of the actions and effects of the other PAW experiments (including rock texture studies with a close-up-lens) and collaborative observations with the Mars Express orbiter instrument teams. Due to be launched in May of this year, the total system mass is 360 g, the required volume envelope is 747 cm^3 and the average power consumption is 1.8 W. A 10Mbit/s RS422 bus connects each camera to the lander common electronics.

  1. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The invention provides a composite solid state detector for use in deriving a display, by spatial coordinate information, of the distribution or radiation emanating from a source within a region of interest, comprising several solid state detector components, each having a given surface arranged for exposure to impinging radiation and exhibiting discrete interactions therewith at given spatially definable locations. The surface of each component and the surface disposed opposite and substantially parallel thereto are associated with impedence means configured to provide for each opposed surface outputs for signals relating the given location of the interactions with one spatial coordinate parameter of one select directional sense. The detector components are arranged to provide groupings of adjacently disposed surfaces mutually linearly oriented to exhibit a common directional sense of the spatial coordinate parameter. Means interconnect at least two of the outputs associated with each of the surfaces within a given grouping for collecting the signals deriving therefrom. The invention also provides a camera system for imaging the distribution of a source of gamma radiation situated within a region of interest

  2. Demonstration of the accessory mental foramen using rotational panoramic radiography compared with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitoh, Munetaka; Yoshida, Kazuhito; Nakahara, Kino; Gotoh, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2011-12-01

    Rotational panoramic radiography is routinely used in dental practice. It has not been clarified, however, whether an accessory mental foramen can be demonstrated using this technique. The visibility of accessory mental foramina on rotational panoramic radiographs was compared with those on para-panoramic images reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images. A total of 365 patients (130 males and 235 females) were retrospectively analyzed. Para-panoramic images were reconstructed from CBCT images with the accessory mental foramen/foramina using three-dimensional visualization and measurement software, and then the accessory mental foramen on rotational panoramic images was compared with that on para-panoramic images. A total of 37 accessory mental foramina were observed in 28 patients on CBCT images. The rate of being able to visualize the accessory mental foramen or bony canal between the point of bifurcation from the mandibular canal and the accessory mental foramen on rotational panoramic radiographs was 48.6% (18 of 37 accessory mental foramina). Approximately half of the accessory mental foramina-positive CBCT images demonstrated the accessory mental foramen, or bony canal between the point of bifurcation from the mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen on rotational panoramic radiographs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Correlation of darkening of impacted mandibular third molar root on digital panoramic images with cone beam computed tomography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantanapornkul, W; Okochi, K; Bhakdinaronk, A; Ohbayashi, N; Kurabayashi, T

    2009-01-01

    Darkening of the lower third molar root on panoramic images is known to indicate an intimate relationship between the root and mandibular canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomical relationship between the third molar root and its surrounding structures that leads to this panoramic finding. Imaging findings of 253 impacted lower third molars examined by both digital panoramic radiography and cone beam CT were reviewed. Panoramic images were evaluated to detect the presence or absence of darkening of the root where the mandibular canal was superimposed. Cone beam CT images were evaluated for the presence or absence of the following two findings: (1) grooving of the root and (2) thinning or perforation of the cortical plate by the root. The correlation between the panoramic and cone beam CT findings was examined using logistic regression analysis. 80 (32%) third molars showed a panoramic finding of darkening of the root. Between cone beam CT findings, cortical thinning or perforation alone was significantly correlated with this panoramic finding (80%, P panoramic finding of mandibular third molar root darkening was considered to reflect cortical thinning or perforation rather than grooving of the root.

  4. The limit values for brightness and contrast adjustment in digital panoramic radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, A. T.; Syahraini, S. I.; Kiswanjaya, B.; Ustriyana, P.

    2017-08-01

    There is an overall lack of studies about digital panoramic radiography. The application of image enhancement techniques is still being done based on the operator’s preferences, since there is no objective limitation. The aim is to evaluate the limit values of the brightness and contrast adjustment in digital panoramic radiography. Digital panoramic radiographs were divided into three groups (dark, medium, and light), and the contrast and brightness adjustments were done using Digora for Windows. The static evaluations were done using three criteria: 1 if the image had lower quality, 2 if there was no difference and 3 if the image had better quality. The radiographic changes differed in each group depending on the initial imaging conditions. The brightness adjustment limit values in the dark and medium groups were -10 and +20, respectively, and -20 and +10 in the light group. The contrast adjustment limit values in all of the groups were -10 and +10.

  5. Bone height measurements of implant sites: Comparison of panoramic radiography and spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2002-01-01

    To compare the bone height of implant sites measured using panoramic radiography and spiral CT. The available bone height was determined for 263 maxillary and mandibular implant sites in 59 patients. Distortion was calculated using the metal bar for the panoramic radiographs. Significant differences in mean bone height between the two imaging modalities were found in maxillary and mandibular anterior regions (p<0.05). The mean difference in bone height recorded by the two techniques was smallest in the maxillary and mandibular molar areas (0.8 mm), and greatest in the mandibular anterior region (1.3 mm). With the exception of the mandibular anterior region, ninety percent of all the sites showed measurement differences within 2 mm. A safety margin of 2 to 3 mm is called for when utilizing panoramic radiography, otherwise additional imaging modality such as computed tomography is necessary to obtain accurate measurements.

  6. Pre-surgical treatment planning of maxillary canine impactions using panoramic vs cone beam CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqerban, A; Hedesiu, M; Baciut, M; Nackaerts, O; Jacobs, R; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to compare the impact of using two-dimensional (2D) panoramic radiographs and three-dimensional (3D) cone beam CT for the surgical treatment planning of impacted maxillary canines. This study consisted of 32 subjects (19 females, 13 males) with a mean age of 25 years, referred for surgical intervention of 39 maxillary impacted canines. Initial 2D panoramic radiography was available, and 3D cone beam CT imaging was obtained upon clinical indication. Both 2D and 3D pre-operative radiographic diagnostic sets were subsequently analysed by six observers. Perioperative evaluations were conducted by the treating surgeon. McNemar tests, hierarchical logistic regression and linear mixed models were used to explore the differences in evaluations between imaging modalities. Significantly higher confidence levels were observed for 3D image-based treatment plans than for 2D image-based plans (p panoramic and cone beam CT images.

  7. Accuracy of mandibular vertical linear measurement in panoramic and tomography images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Moudi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The measurement precision of jaw is important for surgery or installing implants. Preimplant radiographs are important part of clinical evaluations before implant surgery. For choosing location, we should consider the important anatomical structures like mental foramen, inferior alveolar canal, nasal cavity and maxillary sinus.It is important to know the measurement accuracy of radiographic techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare mandibular vertical linear measurement in panoramic and tomography images. Methods: Three forms of mandible from dry adult human skulls were used in this study (triangle, square and ellipse. For each mandible, surgical stent was made using transparent with gold standard.acryl. A thin tube was placed in the stents in three regions (incisors, premolars and molars to set gutta-percha. Then, the panoramic view and conventional tomography were obtained. Four oral and maxillofacial radiologists measured the vertical dimension in panoramic and conventional tomography. Finally, each mandible was sectioned in the marked sections and was measured by a digital caliper (gold standard and compared with conventional tomography and panoramic view .The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS18 software and student t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and non parametric Mann-Whitney Test. Results: The mean difference between the panoramic and gold standard linear vertical dimension values in premolar and molar regions was above 1mm and above 2mm in incisor region. The mean difference between conventional tomography and gold standard measurements in all three regions was 1mm. Conclusions: The linear measurement of vertical dimension in conventional tomography was more precise than panoramic. The use of a 2.0 mm safety margin in the evaluation of implant sites was recommended.In incisor area, the other radiography methods like CBCT was suggested.

  8. Automatic Synthesis of Panoramic Radiographs from Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Luo

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an automatic method of synthesizing panoramic radiographs from dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT data for directly observing the whole dentition without the superimposition of other structures. This method consists of three major steps. First, the dental arch curve is generated from the maximum intensity projection (MIP of 3D CBCT data. Then, based on this curve, the long axial curves of the upper and lower teeth are extracted to create a 3D panoramic curved surface describing the whole dentition. Finally, the panoramic radiograph is synthesized by developing this 3D surface. Both open-bite shaped and closed-bite shaped dental CBCT datasets were applied in this study, and the resulting images were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. With the proposed method, a single-slice panoramic radiograph can clearly and completely show the whole dentition without the blur and superimposition of other dental structures. Moreover, thickened panoramic radiographs can also be synthesized with increased slice thickness to show more features, such as the mandibular nerve canal. One feature of the proposed method is that it is automatically performed without human intervention. Another feature of the proposed method is that it requires thinner panoramic radiographs to show the whole dentition than those produced by other existing methods, which contributes to the clarity of the anatomical structures, including the enamel, dentine and pulp. In addition, this method can rapidly process common dental CBCT data. The speed and image quality of this method make it an attractive option for observing the whole dentition in a clinical setting.

  9. Digital panoramic radiography: An aid in the early detection of osteoporotic signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Udaya Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a worldwide problem demanding attention in the modern world. In the last four decades, numerous research teams have reported oral radiographic findings associated with osteoporosis. The preponderance of the evidence shows that the jaws of subjects with osteoporosis show reduced bone mass and altered morphology. A number of mandibular cortical indices (MCIs have also been developed to allow quantification of mandibular bone mass and identification of osteoporosis. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to measure various radiomorphometric indices and/or, mandibular cortical indices (MCIs on digital panoramic radiographs (Orthopantomographs [OPGs] of postmenopausal females; to assess the bone mineral density (BMD of postmenopausal females using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; and to compare the radiomorphometric indices on digital panoramic radiographs with BMD values and thereby assessing the efficacy of digital panoramic radiographs in detecting mandibular osteoporotic changes so as to screen osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred postmenopausal females were randomly selected from the outpatient department. All the patients were explained about the need for the study. Informed consent was taken, and a detailed case history was obtained. After subjecting the patients to digital panoramic radiography, the patients were taken for BMD evaluation using DEXA scans. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 14. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's test, Chi-square test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results: Klemetti index showed that a patient with C3 cortical appearance had a low BMD. Among the quantitative indices, mental index, panoramic mandibular index, antegonial index, and gonial index, showed significantly lower

  10. Dosimetry analysis of panoramic-imaging devices in different-sized phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Muizz A; Choi, Ella; MacDonald, David S; Ford, Nancy L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the radiographic dose in adult, adolescent, and child head-sized PMMA phantoms for three panoramic-imaging devices: the panoramic mode on two CBCT machines (Carestream 9300 and i-CAT NG) and the Planmeca ProMax 2D. A SEDENTEXCT dose index adult phantom and custom-built adolescent and pediatric PMMA dosimetry phantoms were used. Panoramic radiographs were performed using a Planmeca ProMax 2D and the panoramic mode on a Carestream 9300 CBCT and an i-CAT NG using the protocols used clinically. Point dose measurements were performed at the center, around the periphery and on the surface of each phantom using a thimble ionization chamber. Five repeat measurements were taken at each location. For each machine, single-factor ANOVA was conducted to determine dose differences between protocols in each phantom, as well as determine the differences in absorbed dose when the same protocol was used for different-sized phantoms. For any individual phantom, using protocols with lower kVp, mA, or acquisition times resulted in statistically significant dose savings, as expected. When the same protocol was used for different-sized phantoms, the smaller phantom had a higher radiation dose due to less attenuation of x-rays by the smaller phantom and differences in the positioning of the ion chamber relative to the focal trough. The panoramic-mode on the CBCT machines produce images suitable for clinical use with similar dose levels to the stand-alone panoramic device. Significant dose savings may result by selecting age- and size- appropriate protocols for pediatric patients, but a wider range of protocols for children and adolescents may be beneficial. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Classifying degenerative joint disease by the RDC/TMD and by panoramic imaging: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, E; Reiter, S; Krichmer, M; Kaffe, I

    2010-03-01

    The purposes of the study were to evaluate the utility of diagnosing degenerative joint disease (DJD) by the clinical finding of coarse crepitus alone, without supporting imaging studies, as defined by the RDC/TMD, and to evaluate the contribution of panoramic radiography as an aid in the diagnosis of DJD. A retrospective analysis of 372 consecutive patients with TMD was conducted. Their panoramic radiographs were evaluated for the extent of their contribution to the final diagnosis. Panoramic radiography was of no diagnostic value in 94.4% of the cases when the group was considered as a whole. When patients diagnosed with DJD were considered separately, panoramic radiography was completely sufficient for reaching the final diagnosis in 20.0% of the cases. In almost 90% of these patients, however, the clinical examination did not support the diagnosis of DJD (no coarse crepitus was found). This raises some doubts about the effectiveness of the clinical examination according to the RDC/TMD and about the utility of panoramic radiography in the definitive diagnosis of DJD, because both techniques have low accuracy (11.1% and 20%, respectively). The present study supports the current recommendations that panoramic radiography should not be ordered routinely to assess DJD, but still it is first choice when any dental problem is suspected. Further additional imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) should be considered only if there is reason to expect that the findings might affect diagnosis and management. This study adds to recent criticisms of the clinical validity of the RDC/TMD, with regard to DJD.

  12. Efficacy of panoramic radiography as a screening procedure in dental examination compared with clinical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [Kyungpook National Univ. School of Dentistry, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of panoramic radiography by comparing the results of clinical examination with radiographic findings. We studied 190 patients (20 men and 170 women; mean age, 40 years; range, 22 to 68 years) who visited the health promotion center of Korea Medical Science Institute and were examined both clinically and by panoramic radiography. We compared results from both examinations. Treatment options by clinical examination were described as 'no treatment indicated', 'treatment of dental caries', 'removal of calculus', 'treatment of periodontal disease'. 'prothodonic treatment' and 'extraction of the third molar'. Findings taken from the panoramic radiography were: dental caries, peroapical lesion, alveolar bone loss, calculus deposition, retained root, impaction of the third molar, disease of maxillary sinus, bony change of mandibular condyle, etc. The prevalence of panoramic findings were: 37.9% of dental caries, 17.4% of periapical lesions, 44.7% of alveolar bone losses, 62.6% of calculi deposition. 7.9% of retained roots, 26.8% of third molar impactions, 6.3% of disease of maxillary sinus, 2.1% of bony changes of mandibular condlye and 35.8% of miscellaneous lesions. Abnormal conditions revealed by panoramic radiography which had not been discovered on clinical examination were: 24.2% of the patients had dental caries, 17.4% had periapical lesions, 7.4% had calculi deposition, 5.3% had retained roots, 15.3% had third molar impactions. The opposite cases were: 5.2% had dental caries, 12.6% had calculi deposition, and 9.5% had third molar impactions. The use of panoramic radiography as a supplement to the clinical examination might be a valuable screening technique.

  13. Efficacy of panoramic radiography as a screening procedure in dental examination compared with clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of panoramic radiography by comparing the results of clinical examination with radiographic findings. We studied 190 patients (20 men and 170 women; mean age, 40 years; range, 22 to 68 years) who visited the health promotion center of Korea Medical Science Institute and were examined both clinically and by panoramic radiography. We compared results from both examinations. Treatment options by clinical examination were described as 'no treatment indicated', 'treatment of dental caries', 'removal of calculus', 'treatment of periodontal disease'. 'prothodonic treatment' and 'extraction of the third molar'. Findings taken from the panoramic radiography were: dental caries, peroapical lesion, alveolar bone loss, calculus deposition, retained root, impaction of the third molar, disease of maxillary sinus, bony change of mandibular condyle, etc. The prevalence of panoramic findings were: 37.9% of dental caries, 17.4% of periapical lesions, 44.7% of alveolar bone losses, 62.6% of calculi deposition. 7.9% of retained roots, 26.8% of third molar impactions, 6.3% of disease of maxillary sinus, 2.1% of bony changes of mandibular condlye and 35.8% of miscellaneous lesions. Abnormal conditions revealed by panoramic radiography which had not been discovered on clinical examination were: 24.2% of the patients had dental caries, 17.4% had periapical lesions, 7.4% had calculi deposition, 5.3% had retained roots, 15.3% had third molar impactions. The opposite cases were: 5.2% had dental caries, 12.6% had calculi deposition, and 9.5% had third molar impactions. The use of panoramic radiography as a supplement to the clinical examination might be a valuable screening technique

  14. A study of the panoramic radiographic images of the buccolingual dilacerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ho; Jeong, Hwang Seok; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    We want to identify the appearance of the buccolingual root dilaceration teeth in the panoramic views and specify the characteristics of these teeth. One thousand-six patients were examined on the basis of both panoramic and CT image criteria. We diagnosed and excluded certain teeth from the samples; both prosthodontic or pathologic lesion appearing teeth and mesiodistally dilacerated ones. We meticulously discerned buccolingually dilacerated teeth in the CT images and total 48 samples were selected. The degree of severity in dilaceration was standardized by 2 types of criteria. The samples were differentiated into 3 groups and again categorized into six types showing from the panoramic views: irregular view on the root apex area, clear blunt on the root tip, stepping on root tip, double lamina dura or double tip, arrow-target shaped root, bull's eye, normal view. The types of teeth selected from total 48 buccolingual root dilaceration samples were mandibular first and second molar, premolars, canines, and lateral incisors. The direction of dilaceration was an even percentage to each buccal and lingual side for most selected teeth, however, that of both canines and lateral incisors were directed in almost a buccal side. In the panoramic views, the root types of the buccolingually dilacerated teeth were irregular view on the root apex area, clear blunt on the root tip, stepping on root tip and normal types were almost always normal view. The more severity in dilareated degree, the more chances of observation in the panoramic views were clear blunt on the root tip and stepping on root tip. As observed in the shape of stepping on root tip or double lamina dura in the panoramic views, there can be much more probability to diagnose as a buccolingually dilacerated root.

  15. OPERA goes on camera

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    OPERA, the experiment which uses the neutrino beam of CERN’s CNGS facility, has delivered its first neutrino "photos". The core of the detector has been commissioned and has produced images of events resulting from neutrino collisions. The reconstruction of the core (a few cubic millimetres!) of a neutrino interaction at OPERA. The neutrino arriving from the left of the image has interacted with the lead of a brick, producing various particles identifiable by their tracks visible in the emulsion.The snapshot is tiny but it was greeted with enthusiasm by the physicists of OPERA. On 2 October, for the first time, the experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy "photographed" an event produced by the beam of neutrinos sent from CERN, 732 kilometres away. One of the 60,000 photosensitive bricks already installed at the heart of the experiment had produced its first particle track. The commissioning of the OPERA experiment began la...

  16. Zygomatic air cell defect: A panoramic radiographic study of a south Indian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hs, Srikanth; Patil, Karthikeya; Vg, Mahima

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, patterns of occurrence and variations of zygomatic air cell defects (ZACDs) using panoramic radiographs. Dental panoramic radiographs of 600 outpatients were examined to evaluate the variations and characteristics of ZACDs. ZACDs were identified in 15 subjects out of 600, giving an overall prevalence of 2.5%. Seven ZACDs were seen in males and eight in females. Among the 15 ZACDs, nine were unilateral and six were bilateral. The overall prevalence of ZACD is relatively low in south Indian population and careful radiographic evaluation is needed to detect these entities

  17. CCD TV camera, TM1300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Mitsuo; Endou, Yukio; Nakayama, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    Development has been made of a black-and-white TV camera TM 1300 using an interline-transfer CCD, which excels in performance frame-transfer CCDs marketed since 1980: it has a greater number of horizontal picture elements and far smaller input power (less than 2 W at 9 V), uses hybrid ICs for the CCD driver unit to reduce the size of the camera, has no picture distortion, no burn-in; in addition, it has peripheral equipment, such as the camera housing and the pan and till head miniaturized as well. It is also expected to be widened in application to industrial TV. (author)

  18. High Quality Camera Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Helaakoski, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Oulu University of Applied Sciences Information Technology Author: Ari Helaakoski Title of the master’s thesis: High Quality Camera Surveillance System Supervisor: Kari Jyrkkä Term and year of completion: Spring 2015 Number of pages: 31 This master’s thesis was commissioned by iProtoXi Oy and it was done to one iProtoXi customer. The aim of the thesis was to make a camera surveillance system which is using a High Quality camera with pan and tilt possibility. It should b...

  19. Control system for gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    An improved gamma camera arrangement is described which utilizing a solid state detector, formed of high purity germanium. the central arrangement of the camera operates to effect the carrying out of a trapezoidal filtering operation over antisymmetrically summed spatial signals through gated integration procedures utilizing idealized integrating intervals. By simultaneously carrying out peak energy evaluation of the input signals, a desirable control over pulse pile-up phenomena is achieved. Additionally, through the use of the time derivative of incoming pulse or signal energy information to initially enable the control system, a low level information evaluation is provided serving to enhance the signal processing efficiency of the camera

  20. Evaluation of the relationship of mandibular cortical index and panoramic mandibular index with bone mineral density using panoramic radiography in postmenopausal women: A short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargi Saran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The problems associated with age-related skeletal osteopenia have received attention since the human skeleton undergoes a continuous physiologic decrease in bone mass with advancing age. Bone status at various sites can be assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or quantitative computed tomography. It would be useful to answer whether radiographic changes in the mandible indicate skeletal osteopenia. Aims and Objectives: The aim and objective of the study was to examine the mandibular cortical index (MCI and panoramic mandibular index (PMI on panoramic radiograph and to establish a relationship between the two indices (MCI and PMI with the bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 15 postmenopausal women within the age group of 45-75 years. BMD was performed by DXA and measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck and values were recorded. Panoramic radiographs of the same women were obtained for measuring MCI and PMI. There were two groups taken as C1 and C2 for determination of MCI and PMI. Results: The Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between age and T-score (r = −0.59, P < 0.05, i.e., as age increased the T-score decreased. Comparing the T-score of two MCI groups, t-test revealed MCI was 69.1% lower in C2 as compared to C1. The value of P < 0.001 and t-test revealed significantly different and lowered (32.4% inferior cortex level in C2 as compared to C1 (t = 4.76, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Results suggest that in this study panoramic radiography could be a reliable tool in screening for BMD.

  1. An Analysis of Visibility and Anatomic Variations of Mandibular Canal in Digital Panoramic Radiographs of Dentulous and Edentulous Patients in Northern Iran Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Somayeh; Ashouri Moghadam, Anahita; Dalili Kajan, Zahra; Mohtavipour, Seyedeh Tahereh; Amouzad, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Insufficient information about the anatomical positions and structure of mandibular canal provokes unwanted damage to this important structure of mandible. The aim of this study was to determine the visibility and anatomical variations of mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiographs of dentulous and edentulous patients in a sample of Iranian population. In this retrospective-analytical research, 249 digital panoramic radiographs in dentulous group and 126 in edentulous group were studied by an expert oral and maxillofacial radiologist. In both groups, the visibility of canal borders in anterior, middle, and posterior areas were examined. In dentulous group, the distance between the canal and apex of the first and second molars were measured. Canal-to-alveolar crest distance and lower mandibular border was measured in three different points for both groups. Finally, the upper-lower positions of canals were determined. In both groups, most visibility occurred in 1/3 of posterior and the least visibility was detected in 1/3 of anterior, with the intermediate being the most visible part (Type 2). There was no significant difference between the left and right sides in all cases. In dentulous group, no correlation was found between the visibility, age, and gender (p> 0.05); however, canal position was related to gender (p= 0.03 and p= 0.04 in right and left sides, respectively). High position was more frequent in females and intermediate position was more common in males. In edentulous group, no correlation was found between age, gender, and canal position (p> 0.05). The most visibility of mandibular canal was in its third posterior and the least was in its third anterior part. Although the middle position of canal was more frequently visible than the high position in this study, it does not refute the possibility of damaging the mandibular canal in critical surgeries.

  2. Spectral Skyline Separation: Extended Landmark Databases and Panoramic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Differt

    2016-09-01

    in the skyline databases, increasing, due to the increased variety of ground objects, the validity of our findings for novel environments. Third, we collected omnidirectional images, as often used for visual navigation tasks, of skylines using an UV-reflective hyperbolic mirror. We could show that “local” separation techniques can be adapted to the use of panoramic images by splitting the image into segments and finding individual thresholds for each segment. Contrarily, this is not possible for ‘global’ separation techniques.

  3. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  4. New generation of meteorology cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janout, Petr; Blažek, Martin; Páta, Petr

    2017-12-01

    A new generation of the WILLIAM (WIde-field aLL-sky Image Analyzing Monitoring system) camera includes new features such as monitoring of rain and storm clouds during the day observation. Development of the new generation of weather monitoring cameras responds to the demand for monitoring of sudden weather changes. However, new WILLIAM cameras are ready to process acquired image data immediately, release warning against sudden torrential rains, and send it to user's cell phone and email. Actual weather conditions are determined from image data, and results of image processing are complemented by data from sensors of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure. In this paper, we present the architecture, image data processing algorithms of mentioned monitoring camera and spatially-variant model of imaging system aberrations based on Zernike polynomials.

  5. Astronomy and the camera obscura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, M.

    2000-02-01

    The camera obscura (from Latin meaning darkened chamber) is a simple optical device with a long history. In the form considered here, it can be traced back to 1550. It had its heyday during the Victorian era when it was to be found at the seaside as a tourist attraction or sideshow. It was also used as an artist's drawing aid and, in 1620, the famous astronomer-mathematician, Johannes Kepler used a small tent camera obscura to trace the scenery.

  6. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  7. Bone height measurements on panoramic radiographs - The effect of shape and position of edentulous mandibles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, RHK; Stellingsma, K; Raghoebar, GM; Vissink, A

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of mandibular angulation, position, and shape of an edentulous mandible on the distortion of its image in panoramic radiographs. Study design. Five edentulous dry mandibles varying in size from small to wide and equipped with metal bars in

  8. Absorbed doses in salivary and thyroid glands from panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography

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    Katia Regina Heiden

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT are very important in the diagnosis of oral diseases, however patients are exposed to the risk of ionizing radiation. This paper describes our study aimed at comparing absorbed doses in the salivary glands and thyroid due to panoramic radiography and CBCT and estimating radiation induced cancer risk associated with those methods. Methods Absorbed doses of two CBCT equipment (i-CAT® Next Generation and SCANORA® 3D and a digital panoramic device (ORTHOPANTOMOGRAPH® OP200D were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters loaded in an anthropomorphic phantom on sublingual, submandibular, parotid and thyroid glands. Results Absorbed doses in the i-CAT® device ranged between 0.02 (+/-0.01 and 2.23 mGy (+/-0.03, in the SCANORA™ device ranged from 0.01 (+/-0.01 to 2.96 mGy (+/-0.29 and in the ORTHOPANTOMOGRAPH® OP200D ranged between 0.04 mGy and 0.78 mGy. The radiation induced cancer risk was highlighted in the salivary glands, which received higher doses. The protocols that offer the highest risk of cancer are the high resolution protocols of CBCT equipment. Conclusion CBCT exposes patients to higher levels of radiation than panoramic radiography, so the risks and benefits of each method should be considered. The doses in CBCT were dependent on equipment and exposure parameters, therefore adequate selection minimizes the radiation dose.

  9. Influence of the intergonial distance on image distortion in panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, D B S; Cruz, A D; Almeida, S M; Bóscolo, F N

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the intergonial distance during the formation of panoramic radiographic images by means of horizontal and vertical measurements. 30 macerated mandibles were categorized into 3 different groups (n = 10) according to their intergonial distances as follows: G1, mean distance 8.2 cm, G2, mean distance 9.0 cm and G3, mean distance 9.6 cm. Three metal spheres 0.198 cm in diameter and placed at an incline using an isosceles triangle were separately placed over the internal and external surfaces of the mandibles before radiographic exposure for the purpose of taking the horizontal and vertical measurements. The occlusal planes of the mandibles were horizontally placed on the chin rest of the panoramic machine Orthopantomograph® OP 100 (Instrumentarium Imaging, Tuusula, Finland) and were then radiographed. In the panoramic radiographs, an expert radiologist measured the distances between the metal spheres in the horizontal and vertical directions using a digital caliper. The data were tabled and statistically analysed by Student's t-test and analysis of variance with Tukey post-test (α = 0.05). In all three groups magnification of the distances between spheres was observed when compared with the real distance in both horizontal and vertical measurements (p 0.05). Differences between horizontal and vertical measurements were observed in different regions in all evaluated groups (p image formation in the panoramic radiograph.

  10. Panoramic Radio Astronomy : Wide-field 1-2 GHz research on galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, G.; Serra, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we give a brief overview of the Panoramic Radio Astronomy (PRA) conference held on 2-5 June 2009 in Groningen, the Netherlands. The conference was motivated by the on-going development of a large number of new radio telescopes and instruments which, within a few years, will

  11. An evaluation of image quality for the assessment of the marginal bone level in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, L.; Rohlin, M.

    1993-01-01

    A diagnostic image quality of panoramic radiographs originating from different clinics was examined. Two samples of 98 and 100 radiographs, respectively, were from a department of oral radiology. The radiographs of one of these samples were checked using immediate subjective analysis of the image quality before inclusion in the study whereas the radiographs of the other sample were randomly selected. A third sample consisted of radiographs from 20 randomly selected dental clinics. The subjective overall image quality of the whole panoramic radiograph was classified as adequate, marginal or inadequate. The three observers also assessed the reason for inferior image quality. The overall image quality of the radiographs was better for the checked sample from the department of oral radiology compared to the sample from the 20 dental clinics. The main reason for unacceptable image quality of the radiographs was too low density and/or contrast irrespective of sample. Other faults were incorrect positioning of the patient but in the sample from the 20 clinics improper film handling was also frequent. We conclude that image quality in panoramic radiography can be improved. Improvement of the image quality is a prerequisite if panoramic radiography in the future is to replace the full-mouth examination. 22 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  12. Diagnostic reference levels for panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography of Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hee; Yang, Byoung-Eun; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Kang, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Seo

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric patients are considered to be more radiosensitive than adults; thus, radiation dose evaluations based on radiologic examinations are particularly important in this population. However, no national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are available for pediatric patients in the Republic of Korea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the usage of panoramic and cephalometric radiography under the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme and to investigate the current DRLs for child panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography using dose area product (DAP). DAP values were obtained for standard child exposure settings used routinely by dentists. Analysis was performed on data obtained from 28 panoramic and 20 cephalometric x-ray units for the DAP investigation. DRLs for child panoramic and cephalometric radiography were found to be 95.9 mGy cm and 121.3 mGy cm, respectively. These DRLs are higher than those recommended in the UK and Germany, which indicates that further effort is required to reduce pediatric doses in the Republic of Korea.

  13. Study of the localization of radiopacities similar to calcified carotid atheroma by means of panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Rosangela Saga; Pereira, Marlene Fenyo; Fernandes, Angela; Meurer, Maria Inês

    2006-03-01

    To determine the location in soft tissues of the calcifications, similar to calcified carotid atheromas, that can be observed radiographically in the cervical region in panoramic radiographs. In each anatomic cadaver specimen preserved in formol, consisting of the head and neck, radiopaque spheres (made from gutta-percha) were positioned in anatomic structures of the cervical region that can be sites of calcification. For each anatomic structure marked in this way, panoramic radiography was performed, consisting of 17 radiographs. The images obtained were analyzed by 24 examiners who indicated which radiographs, in their opinion, presented the radiopaque reference projected in the region of bifurcation of the carotid artery. Analysis of 2 proportions from agreement and disagreement was used to determine radiopacities that could be confused in panoramic radiographs with calcified atheromas in the carotid artery. The results showed that 75% (18) of the examiners correctly indicated the reference in the bifurcation of the carotid artery and 79.2% (19) indicated a triticeous cartilage as calcified atheroma of the carotid artery. Calcified atheromas of the carotid artery are not the only features that can produce radiopaque images lateral to the panoramic radiograph; the presence of calcification in the triticeous cartilage also can induce an erroneous diagnosis of calcified carotid atheroma.

  14. Comparative dosimetry of dental cone beam computed tomography, panoramic radiography, and multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgin, O.S.; Kayipmaz, S.; Yasar, D.; Yilmaz, A.B.; Ozturk, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effective organ doses from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), multislice computed tomography (MSCT), and panoramic radiography. The tissue-absorbed doses for the Kodak 9500 CBCT system, NewTom FP CBCT system, Morita Veraviewepocs panoramic X-ray device, and Somatom Sensation 16 MSCT system were calculated using thermoluminescent dosimeter chips placed at selected locations on a radiation analog dosimetry phantom. The tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 2007 were used to obtain effective doses. The effective doses from the CBCT systems were 118.65, 84.45, and 75.43 μSv for the Kodak 9500 large field of view (FOV), NewTom FP, and Kodak 9500 medium FOV, respectively. The effective doses were 11.37 μSv for the panoramic X-ray examination, 583.73 μSv for the MSCT ''Dental'' protocol, and 1983.89 μSv for the MSCT ''NeckThinSlice'' protocol. The doses from CBCT are not sufficiently low to allow its use as a routine imaging technique instead of panoramic radiography. The FOV size should be chosen carefully to prevent excessive exposure of the patient to radiation. The use of MSCT in dentistry is associated with much radiation and should be avoided in cases where CBCT is adequate for 3D evaluation. (author)

  15. Absorbed doses for patients undergoing panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesień, Małgorzata; Olszewski, Jerzy

    2017-07-17

    Contemporary dental radiology offers a wide spectrum of imaging methods but it also contributes to an increase in the participation of dental radiological diagnosis in the patient's exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the absorbed doses of the brain, spinal column, thyroid and eye lens for patients during panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The thermoluminescent dosimetry and anthropomorphic phantom was used for measuring the doses. The 15 panoramic, 4 cephalometric and 4 CBCT exposures were performed by placing high-sensitivity thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) in 18 anatomical points of the phantom. The maximum absorbed dose recorded during performed measurements corresponds to the point representing the brainstem and it is 10 mGy. The dose value recorded by the TLD placed in the thyroid during CBCT imaging in relation to the panoramic radiography differs by a factor of 13.5. Cone beam computed tomography, in comparison with panoramic or cephalometric imaging technique, provides higher radiation doses to the patients. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):705-713. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Absorbed doses for patients undergoing panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and CBCT

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    Małgorzata Wrzesień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Contemporary dental radiology offers a wide spectrum of imaging methods but it also contributes to an increase in the participation of dental radiological diagnosis in the patient’s exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the absorbed doses of the brain, spinal column, thyroid and eye lens for patients during panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Material and Methods: The thermoluminescent dosimetry and anthropomorphic phantom was used for measuring the doses. The 15 panoramic, 4 cephalometric and 4 CBCT exposures were performed by placing high-sensitivity thermoluminescent detectors (TLD in 18 anatomical points of the phantom. Results: The maximum absorbed dose recorded during performed measurements corresponds to the point representing the brainstem and it is 10 mGy. The dose value recorded by the TLD placed in the thyroid during CBCT imaging in relation to the panoramic radiography differs by a factor of 13.5. Conclusions: Cone beam computed tomography, in comparison with panoramic or cephalometric imaging technique, provides higher radiation doses to the patients. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:705–713

  17. Biomonitoring of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of gingival epithelial cells exposed to digital panoramic radiography

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    Anuradha Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of low level ionizing radiation used in digital panoramic radiography on gingival epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: We included 50 healthy individuals advised for digital panoramic radiography for diagnostic purpose were included in this study. Demographic data and personal history of all subjects were recorded in a proforma before the examination. Gingival epithelial cells were obtained by gentle scraping with a modified cytobrush immediately before X-ray exposure and 10 ± 2 days later. Cytological preparations were stained according to the Feulgen/fast green method and analyzed under a light microscope. Micronuclei and degenerative nuclear alterations (pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis and condensed chromatin were scored. Results: The frequency of formation of micronuclei was not significant with regard to age, gender and after exposure to digital panoramic radiography ( P = 0.276. However this study showed significant increase in the frequencies of nuclear alterations like karyorrhexis, pyknosis, condensed chromatin, karyolysis and indicative of cell death ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographic examination does not induce genotoxic effect like micronuclei, but it does induce cytotoxic effects leading to cell death.

  18. Common Positioning Errors in Digital Panoramic Radiographies Taken In Mashhad Dental School

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    Ali Bagherpour

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was aimed at evaluating common positioning errors on panoramic radiographs taken in the Radiology Department of Mashhad Dental School. Materials and methods: The study sample included 1,990 digital panoramic radiographs taken in the Radiology Department of Mashhad Dental School by a Planmeca Promax (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland, during a 2-year period (2010–2012. All radiographs, according to dentition and sex, were evaluated for positioning errors. Results: There were 1,927 (96.8% panoramic radiographs with one or more errors. While the number of errors in each image varied between one and five, most images had one error (48.4%. The most common error was that the tongue was not in contact with the hard palate (94.8%. "Open lips" was an error not seen in any patients. Conclusions:positioning errors are common in panoramic radiographies. The most common error observed in this study was a failure to place the tongue on the palate. This error and the other errors reported in this study can be reduced by training the technicians and spending little more time for patient positioning and more effective communication with the patients.

  19. Diagnostic agreement between panoramic radiographs and color doppler images of carotid atheroma

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    Claudia Maria Romano-Sousa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between diagnoses of calcified atheroma seen on panoramic radiographs and color Doppler images. Our interest stems from the fact that panoramic images can show the presence of atheroma regardless of the level of obstruction detected by color Doppler images. Panoramic and color Doppler images of 16 patients obtained from the archives of the Health Department of the city of Valença, RJ, Brazil, were analyzed in this study. Both sides of each patient were observed on the images, with a total of 32 analyzed cervical regions. The level of agreement between diagnoses was analyzed using the Kappa statistics. There was a high level of agreement, with a Kappa value of 0.78. In conclusion, panoramic radiographs can help detecting calcifications in the cervical region of patients susceptible to vascular diseases predisposing to myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. If properly trained and informed, dentists can refer their patients to a physician for a cardiovascular evaluation in order to receive proper and timely medical treatment.

  20. Influence of patient head positioning on measured axial tooth inclination in panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Timothy C; Suri, Lokesh; Stark, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs are routinely used to assess the mesiodistal axial inclination of teeth (MDAI) in orthodontic treatment. These radiographs are sensitive to minor deviations from standard head position that result in image distortions. The aim of this study is to measure and quantify the changes in MDAI on panoramic radiograph resulting from changes in patient head position. The testing devise was a human skull with guide wires placed on the facial surface of the teeth and alveolar process along the long axis of each tooth. Panoramic radiographs were captured digitally with the orientation of the skull in Frankfurt horizontal plane parallel to the floor and with 1 degrees , 2 degrees , 5 degrees , 7 degrees , and 10 degrees both superior and inferior rotations. The mesiodistal tooth angulations were determined using MIPAC software (DentalEye and LEAD Technologies, Inc. 2005). The more distal the position of the tooth in the arch the greater the change in MDAI with a change in vertical head position. A maximum change of approximately 10 degrees was observed in MDAI of both the maxillary and mandibular molars with a corresponding superior head tilt of 10 degrees. The Mandibular anteriors displayed significant inconsistencies in MDAI with both superior and inferior head tilt. A superior head tilt produced a greater change in mesiodistal angulation than did an inferior head tilt. Accurately taken panoramic radiographs can serve as a convenient tool for evaluating the MDAI before, during and after orthodontic treatment. Additional radiographs are recommended for the mandibular anteriors.

  1. [Correlation between periodontal disease and osteoporosis using panoramic radiographic parameters for diagnosed osteoporosis in dental clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otogoto, Jun-ichi; Ota, Norio

    2003-05-01

    The correlation between periodontal disease and osteoporosis was evaluated by comparing age, panoramic radiographic and clinical parameters of periodontal disease. Diagnosis of osteoporosis in periodontal diseased patients was evaluated by panoramic radiographic parameters (mandibular cortical width:MCW). Subjects which had more than 20 teeth and examined by panoramic radiography were untreated adults with periodontal disease who were free of other systemic disease. The following parameters were examined on panoramic X-ray film:alveolar bone loss (ABL), mandibular bone mass with the use of mandibular cortical width (MCW). ABL was significantly higher and MCW significantly lower in the postmenopausal group (>6 years after menopause). The number of teeth was significantly lower and CAL significantly higher in the postmenopausal group (>11 years after menopause). Age and ABL correlated positively in men and women. Years after menopause and ABL and MCW and CAL in the postmenopausal group were correlated positively. Women whose MCW was less than mean - 2 SD should be diagnosed with osteoporosis. Our results demonstrated that periodontal disease correlates with osteoporosis, and MCW could be useful in detecting of osteoporosis in women with periodontal disease.

  2. Comparison of the inclination of unerupted mandibular third molars on panoramic radiography and casts made after surgical incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Yazdani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Panoramic radiographs are used for surgical planning of unerupted third molars. The major problems associated with panoramic radiography include unequal magnification and geometric distortion of the image. The purpose of this study was the clinical evaluation of the effect of radiographic distortion on the position and classification of unerpted mandibular third molars. Materials and methods. Panoramic radiographs of 20 patients with indication for extraction of lower third molars were included in this study. On the day of surgery, a silicon impression was taken from the second and third molar region and poured with type IV gypsum to provide a study cast. The inclination of the lower third molar to the second molar on panoramic radiography was compared with this angulation on the study casts. Results. There was a mean difference of 5.75° ± 1.65 between the position of the lower third molar on panoramic radiographs and on study casts. Student’s t-test indicated a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusion. Panoramic radiography tends to exhibit a more mesial position of the third molars; however, panoramic radiography can still be used as the main tool for surgical planning of lower third molars.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of the detection of bone change using panoramic TMJ projection. Comparative study with limited cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro; Kataoka, Ryuta; Honda, Kazuya; Endo, Atsushi; Kaneko, Norikazu; Funahashi, Itsuo

    2008-01-01

    Panoramic temporoman joint (TMJ) projection is one of the alternative methods of conventional radiography, such as transcranial projection, for diagnosing temporomandibular joint disorder. There have been a few reports describing the diagnostic ability of this method. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of detecting bone change with panoramic TMJ projection. Fifty TMJs in 25 patients were examined. All TMJs were examined by panoramic TMJ projection (Hyper XF) and limited cone-beam CT (3D Accuitomo FPD; 3DX). Two observers evaluated the presence of bone change in the TMJ region using panoramic TMJ projection. One other observer evaluated the limited cone-beam CT for the presence and the pattern of bone changes in the TMJ region as the gold standard. Panoramic TMJ findings were evaluated with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the panoramic TMJ projection were 0.86, 0.76, and 0.82, respectively. These results and those of previous reports on other radiographic methods for TMJ suggest that panoramic TMJ projection is a useful method of screening for bone change due to TMJ disorder. (author)

  4. Comparison of panoramic radiograph with cone-beam computed tomography in assessment of maxillary sinus floor and nasal floor

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    Vijay Kumar Bokkasam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Panoramic radiograph is frequently prescribed by dentists for implant planning and, hence, accurate assessment of anatomical structures in panoramic radiograph is of utmost importance. Aims: The aim of the present study is to know the accuracy of panoramic radiograph in assessment of relationship between maxillary sinus floor and posterior teeth roots, and the distance from alveolar crest to nasal floor by comparing it with that of cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT image. Materials and Methods: Panoramic and CBCT images of 30 patients were analyzed. The topographic relationship of each root of posterior teeth to the maxillary sinus floor was evaluated and classified into three classes. The distance from the peak point on maxillary alveolar crest to nasal floor was measured in panoramic radiograph as well as in CBCT image. All the measurements were made by built-in measurement tools. Results: Class 1 roots in panoramic radiograph showed high agreement (86% with CBCT image, followed by class 0 (76%. There was a significant difference in the measurements of alveolar bone height (ABH in the nasal floor region with a P value of 0.018. Conclusion: Panoramic radiograph is reliable in assessment of nasal floor and maxillary sinus, provided position of the patient, distortion, and the inherent magnification factor are taken into consideration.

  5. The usefulness of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler for dental implant planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Seong Geun; Kim, Sung Min; Oh, Kyong Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    2000-01-01

    If damage to the neurovascular bundle of the mandibular canal during dental implant surgery of the mandible is to be prevented, accurate measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and the mandibular canal, as seen on panoramic radiographs, is important. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler with that of computed tomography for the measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and superior border of the mandibular canal and to evaluate the usefulness of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler. For control study, panoramic radiography of the dry mandible was undertaken using a lead ruler, and computed tomography was added. The distances between the alveolar crest and the superior border of the mandibular canal and between the alveolar crest and the lowest border of the body of the mandible were measured at the level of the 2nd premolar to the 3rd molar. These measurements were compared with actual measurements of the dry mandible in the same areas. The cases of 87 patients (49 men, 38 women; age range, 20-84 (mean, 42) years) who had undergone panoramic radiography using a lead ruler were reviewed. They were categorized according to sex, the presence of teeth, and whether under or over 50 years of age. All measurements were compared and analyzed using the Student t-test. Measured values obtained from a panoramic radiograph using a lead ruler (magnification:100.32% ± 5.92) and from a computed tomograph (magnification:100.22 ± 5.55) deviated less from actual measurements on the dry mandible (p greater than 0.05). The distance from the 2nd premolar to the 3rd molar was greater in male adults (19.62 mm ± 3.95) than in female (17.54 mm ± 4.04) (p less than 0.05), except the 3rd molar. In addition, the distance was greater in dentulous patients (18.81 mm ± 3.33) than in edentulous (16.23 mm ± 1.75) (p less than 0.05), except the 3rd molar. There was, however, no significant difference

  6. Accuracy of panoramic radiography and linear tomography in mandibular canal localization

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    Bashizadeh Fakhar H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Accurate bone measurements are essential to determine the optimal size and length of dental implants. The magnification factor of radiographic images may vary with the imaging technique used. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of linear tomography and panoramic radiography in vertical measurements, as well as the accuracy of linear tomography in mandibular width estimation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this test evaluation study, the vertical distances between the crest and the superior border of the inferior alveolar canal, marked with a metal ball, was measured by linear tomography and panoramic radiography in 23 sites of four dry mandible bones. Also the mandibular width was measured at the same sites. Then, the bones were sectioned through the marked spots and the radiographic measurements were compared with actual values. "nResults: The vertical magnification factor in tomograms and panoramic radiographs was 1.79 (SD=0.17 and 1.69 (SD=0.23, respectively. The horizontal magnification of tomograms was 1.47 (SD=0.17. A significant correlation was found between the linear tomographic and actual values, regarding vertical dimensions (p<0.001, r=0.968 and width (p<0.001, r=0.813. The correlation was significant but lower in panoramic radiographs (p<0.001, r=0.795. Applying the magnification values suggested by the manufacturer, the mean difference of vertical measurements between the tomographic sections was 2.5 mm (SD=3.4 but 3.8 mm (SD=1.65 in panoramic radiographs. The mean of absolute difference in mandibular width between the tomographic sections and reality was 0.3mm (SD=1.13. In the linear tomograms, 4.3% of vertical and 56.5% of the width measurements were in the ±1mm error limit. Only 4.3% of the vertical measurements were within this range in the panthomographs. The linear regression equation between the actual values and those obtained by radiography in vertical dimensions showed that 87.5% of

  7. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  8. Diagnostic Value of Panoramic Radiography, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and Clinical Measurement in Determining Bone Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Babaloo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calculation of the bone dimensions is of great importance for implant treatment. Several radiographic modalities have been used for this purpose. This study compared the accuracy of mesiodistal measurements of bone using panoramic radiography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, and the clinical methods. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, panoramic and CBCT images were obtained from 100 implant patients. Mesiodistal bone dimensions (distance between tooth CEJ in the mesial of edentulous region and CEJ of the tooth in distal of edentulous region were calculated using a scaled ruler on the orthopantomograms and the system software in the CBCT images. During the implant insertions, a mucoperiosteal flap was raised and clinical dimensions of the bone were measured by a periodontal probe and bone gauge. The differences of bone height and thickness measurements between gold standard and CBCT or panoramic modalities were analyzed using Student’s t- test. Results: The mean bone height was 10.64±1.55, 11.44±1.51, and 10.68±1.6 mm in the clinical, panoramic and CBCT modalities, respectively. Statistically significant difference was noted between the clinical and panoramic techniques (P0.05. During the bone height calculations, 79%, 62% and 78% of the images were ranked in the normal range using CBCT, panoramic and gold standard measurements, respectively. The mean areas under the ROC curve were 0.92 and 0.83 in CBCT and panoramic techniques, respectively. Conclusion: Accuracy of the CBCT images was higher than panoramic technique in measuring the bone dimensions and this technique can be confidently used to calculate the bone dimensions for the implant surgeries.   Keywords: Partially edentulous jaw; panoramic radiography; cone-beam computed tomography; bone dimensions

  9. Prediction of age-related osteoporosis using fractal analysis on panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kwang Joon; Park, Ha Na; Kim, Kyung A [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, and Institute of Oral Bio Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the trabecular pattern on panoramic radiographs to predict age-related osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Thirty-one postmenopausal osteoporotic women and 25 postmenopausal healthy women between the ages of 50 and 88 were enrolled in this study. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae and femur were calculated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and panoramic radiographs were obtained. Fractal dimension (FD) was measured using the box counting method from 560 regions of interest (51X51 pixels) in 6 sites on the panoramic radiographs. The relationships between age and BMD and between FD and BMD were assessed, and the intraobserver agreement was determined. There was a significant difference in the FD values between the osteoporotic and normal groups (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in the FD values at three sites in the jaws (p<0.05). Age was significantly correlated with the BMD measurements, with an odds ratio of 1.25. However, the FD values were not significantly correlated with the BMD measurements, with an odds ratio of 0.000. The intraobserver agreement showed relatively higher correlation coefficients at the upper premolar, lower premolar, and lower anterior regions than the other sites. Age was an important risk factor for predicting the presence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The lower premolar region was the most appropriate site for evaluating the FD value on panoramic radiographs. However, further investigation might be needed to predict osteoporosis using an FD value on panoramic radiographs.

  10. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Ram; Choi, Da Hye; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Bae, Kwang Hak; Lee, Sam Sun [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the panoramic radiographs and evaluated the causes of imaging errors. A total of 297 panoramic radiographs were collected from 99 dental hospitals and clinics. The mean of the scores according to the Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart was 79.9. In the classification of the overall image quality, 17 images were deemed 'optimal for obtaining diagnostic information,' 153 were 'adequate for diagnosis,' 109 were 'poor but diagnosable,' and nine were 'unrecognizable and too poor for diagnosis'. The results of the analysis of the causes of the errors in all the images are as follows: 139 errors in the positioning, 135 in the processing, 50 from the radiographic unit, and 13 due to anatomic abnormality. Panoramic radiographs taken at local dental clinics generally have a normal or higher-level image quality. Principal factors affecting image quality were positioning of the patient and image density, sharpness, and contrast. Therefore, when images are taken, the patient position should be adjusted with great care. Also, standardizing objective criteria of image density, sharpness, and contrast is required to evaluate image quality effectively.

  11. Analysis of micronuclei in buccal epithelial cells in patients subjected to panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waingade, Manjushri; Medikeri, Raghavendra S

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen in humans. Chromosomal aberrations and formation of micronuclei in cell cytoplasm are early biological evidence of carcinogenesis. This study was undertaken to assess the genotoxic effect of panoramic radiography in the buccal epithelial cells. The study included 60 healthy individuals (median age 23.5 years; age range 12-65 years) who underwent panoramic radiographic examination. Exfoliated buccal epithelial cells were obtained immediately before and 10 days after radiation exposure. The cells were stained with Giemsa and evaluated for micronuclei by scoring 1000 cells per sample. The paired 't ' test was used to find out the significance of difference in the number of micronuclei before and after x-ray exposure. The Karl Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find out the correlation between age and micronucleated cell frequencies and number of micronucleus per 1000 cells. The ANOVA test was used to find out if there were significant differences in micronucleated cell frequencies between different age-groups. Student's unpaired 't' test was used to find out the significance of difference in micronucleated cell frequencies and number of micronucleus per 1000 cells between genders. The paired 't' test showed that micronucleated cell frequencies (P = 0.02) and number of micronucleus per 1000 cells (P = 0.047) were significantly higher after radiographic exposure. The mean number of micronucleated cells before and after radiation exposure were 0.48 ± 0.14 and 0.51 ± 0.15, respectively. There was statistically significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in buccal epithelial cells after exposure to panoramic radiography. The correlation of micronucleus frequency with age and gender was statistically nonsignificant. The results indicate that panoramic radiography may induce genotoxic effects in buccal epithelial cells. Considering this risk, panoramic radiography should be used cautiously.

  12. Predictors of root resorption associated with maxillary canine impaction in panoramic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqerban, Ali; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to identify a prediction model for root resorption (RR) caused by impacted canines based on radiographic variables assessed on 2D panoramic radiographs with the intention to reduce the need for additional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Three hundred and six patients (188 female, 118 male; mean age, 14.7 years; standard deviation, 5.6; range, 8.4-47.2 years) were included in the study. In total, 406 impacted maxillary canines were studied, from 206 patients with unilateral impaction and from 100 patients with bilateral impaction. Initial 2D panoramic radiography was available, and 3D CBCT imaging was obtained upon clinical indication. The generated radiographic variables and specific features investigated were collected on 2D panoramic imaging and were correlated to the presence/absence of RR detected on CBCT. A validation sample consisting of 55 canines from 45 patients with maxillary canine impactions was collected to validate the outcome of the present study. The incidence of RR of the adjacent teeth was 33.8%. A prediction model using panoramic images for the possible presence of RR was established [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.79] and validated by applying leave-one-out cross-validation (AUC = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.66-0.77). For the subgroup of presence of severe RR the discriminative ability increased to 0.80. In this prediction model, patient gender, canine apex, vertical canine crown position, and canine magnification were the strongest predictors for RR. The final prediction model for RR based on available panoramic radiographs could be a helpful tool in justifying the need of additional CBCT examination. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Study of the inferior alveolar canal and mental foramen on digital panoramic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pria, Carlos M; Masood, Farah; Beckerley, Joy M; Carson, Robert E

    2011-07-01

    To study the radiographic location of the mental foramen and appearance of the inferior alveolar canal and the relationship between image gray values and the clarity of inferior alveolar canal on the digital panoramic images and to evaluate if the histogram equalization of the digital image would improve the visualization of the inferior alveolar canal outline on the digital panoramic images in the mandible. Five hundred digital panoramic images were evaluated by two examiners using a specific inclusion criteria. Only the right side of the mandible was studied. Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons of distributions. Mean and median pixel values were analyzed separately with a one-way analysis of variance. Also, percentages were calculated to report the usefulness of the histogram equalization for visualization of canal. RESULTS show variation in location of mental foramen. Most frequent location of the mental foramen was reported as first and second premolar region. Chi-square analysis showed that the frequency of occurrence of the mental foramen was equally probable for any of the three locations. The study did not find significant usefulness of the gray values obtained from the histogram equalization in predicting the clarity of inferior alveolar canal outlines. Knowing the normal relationship and the anatomical variation of the maxillofacial structures for each patient is important for surgical implant treatment planning to avoid future complications. It is also important to be familiar with the advantages and limitations of diagnostic aids available before making treatment planning decisions based on such findings. Digital imaging, Panoramic, Inferior alveolar canal, Mental foramen. How to cite this article: Pria CM, Masood F, Beckerley JM, Carson RE. Study of the Inferior Alveolar Canal and Mental Foramen on Digital Panoramic Images. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(4):265-271. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  14. Sub-Camera Calibration of a Penta-Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.; Gerke, M.

    2016-03-01

    Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test) of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors for corresponding

  15. SUB-CAMERA CALIBRATION OF A PENTA-CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors

  16. Usefulness of an energy-binned photon-counting x-ray detector for dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Tatsumasa; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Ogawa, Koichi; Fujiwara, Shuu

    2015-03-01

    A newly developed dental panoramic radiography system is equipped with a photon-counting semiconductor detector. This photon-counting detector acquires transparent X-ray beams by dividing them into several energy bands. We developed a method to identify dental materials in the patient's teeth by means of the X-ray energy analysis of panoramic radiographs. We tested various dental materials including gold alloy, dental amalgam, dental cement, and titanium. The results of this study suggest that X-ray energy scattergram analysis could be used to identify a range of dental materials in a patient's panoramic radiograph.

  17. Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan train with Airiflex camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Two women in training at JSC as part of the Teacher-in-Space Project and a position on NASA's STS 51-L mission learn handling of the Airiflex motion picture camera used on Shuttle flights. Sharon Christa McAuliffe (left) was named as prime crewmember for the 51-L flight; and Barbara R. Morgan, here lending help with camera's lens, will serve as backup.

  18. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  19. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  20. EDICAM (Event Detection Intelligent Camera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP RMI, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Szabolics, T., E-mail: szabolics.tamas@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP RMI, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Kocsis, G.; Szepesi, T.; Dunai, D. [Wigner RCP RMI, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We present EDICAM's hardware modules. ► We present EDICAM's main design concepts. ► This paper will describe EDICAM firmware architecture. ► Operation principles description. ► Further developments. -- Abstract: A new type of fast framing camera has been developed for fusion applications by the Wigner Research Centre for Physics during the last few years. A new concept was designed for intelligent event driven imaging which is capable of focusing image readout to Regions of Interests (ROIs) where and when predefined events occur. At present these events mean intensity changes and external triggers but in the future more sophisticated methods might also be defined. The camera provides 444 Hz frame rate at full resolution of 1280 × 1024 pixels, but monitoring of smaller ROIs can be done in the 1–116 kHz range even during exposure of the full image. Keeping space limitations and the harsh environment in mind the camera is divided into a small Sensor Module and a processing card interconnected by a fast 10 Gbit optical link. This camera hardware has been used for passive monitoring of the plasma in different devices for example at ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS with the first version of its firmware. The new firmware and software package is now available and ready for testing the new event processing features. This paper will present the operation principle and features of the Event Detection Intelligent Camera (EDICAM). The device is intended to be the central element in the 10-camera monitoring system of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator.

  1. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  2. Streak cameras and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, J.M.; Imhoff, C.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last several years, development of various measurement techniques in the nanosecond and pico-second range has led to increased reliance on streak cameras. This paper will present the main electronic and optoelectronic performances of the Thomson-CSF TSN 506 cameras and their associated devices used to build an automatic image acquisition and processing system (NORMA). A brief survey of the diversity and the spread of the use of high speed electronic cinematography will be illustrated by a few typical applications [fr

  3. Comparison of the visibility of the anatomical structures of the facial skeleton in panoramic zonography and linear tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paukku, P.; Toetterman, S.; Hallikainen, D.; Kinnunen, J.; Goethlin, J.

    1983-08-01

    The value of cylindrical panoramic radiography (using one rotational axis), a modification of orthopantomography (using three rotational axes), in radiographic examination of maxillo-facial skeleton was estimated by evaluating the visualization of anatomical structures of the facial skeleton on crylindrical panoramic and linear tomographic radiographs of 51 patients examined with both methods. The radiographs were independently reviewed by four radiologists. The visualization of the lateral wall of the orbit and maxillary sinus, nasal septum, alveolar process and zygomatic corpus was better on cylindrical panoramic radiographs. Linear tomography visualized the medial wall of the orbit better. In visualizing the frontal sinus, orbital floor, medial wall of maxillary sinus and hard palate there were no significant differences between linear tomography and panoramic zonography.

  4. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Faghihian, Reyhaneh; Samety, Amir Abbas; Faghihian, Elham

    2015-04-01

    Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and conventional panoramic radiographs. In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extraoral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (Ppanoramic and extraoral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intraoral radiographs.

  5. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Samety, Amir Abbas; Faghihian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and conventional panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extraoral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (Ppanoramic and extraoral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intraoral radiographs. PMID:26622284

  6. Panoramic measures for oral bone mass in detecting osteoporosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calciolari, E; Donos, N; Park, J C; Petrie, A; Mardas, N

    2015-03-01

    Different quantitative and qualitative indices calculated on oral panoramic radiographs have been proposed as useful tools to screen for reduced skeletal bone mineral density (BMD). Our aim was to systematically review the literature on linear and qualitative panoramic measures and to assess the accuracy of these indices by performing a meta-analysis of their sensitivity and specificity. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was followed. Fifty studies were included in the qualitative appraisal and 19 were considered for meta-analysis. The methodological quality of the retrieved studies, assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool, was on average low. Three indices were reported by most of the studies: mandibular cortical width, panoramic mandibular index, and the Klemetti index. Mandibular cortical width presented with a better accuracy in excluding osteopenia/osteoporosis (specificity), since patients with a cortical width more than 4 mm had a normal BMD in 90% of the cases. Almost all studies used a cutoff of 0.3 for the panoramic mandibular index, resulting in an estimated sensitivity and specificity in detecting reduced BMD, respectively, of 0.723 (SE 0.160; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.352-0.926) and 0.733 (SE 0.066; 95% CI, 0.587-0.841). The presence of any kind of mandibular cortical erosion gave an estimated sensitivity and specificity in detecting reduced BMD, respectively, of 0.789 (SE 0.031; 95% CI, 0.721-0.843) and 0.562 (SE 0.047; 95% CI, 0.47-0.651) and a sensitivity and specificity in detecting osteoporosis, respectively, of 0.806 (SE 0.105; 95% CI, 0.528-0.9200) and 0.643 (SE 0.109; 95% CI, 0.417-0.820). The mandibular cortical width, panoramic mandibular index, and Klemetti index are overall useful tools that potentially could be used by dentists to screen for low BMD. Their limitations are mainly related to the experience/agreement between different operators and the different image quality and

  7. Evaluating the Accuracy of Tempromandibular Joint Panoramic Radiography in Condylar Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hoseini Zarch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Panoramic radiography is a diagnostic tool, which has a widespread application in the assessment of tempromandibular joint (TMJ by the dentists as well as ear, nose, and throat specialists. Regarding this, the present study aimed to compare the accuracy of this method in the evaluation of the condylar position and osseous changes with that of the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT as the gold standard method. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 28 patients with both TMJ panoramic imaging and bilateral CBCT imaging of TMJs. The condylar position was determined in closed-mouth and maximum intercuspation positions based on the measurement of superior, posterior, and anterior joint spaces and osseous changes of condyle, including erosions, osteophytes, resorbtion, Ely’s cyst, flattening, and sclerosis. The images were evaluated by two expert maxillofacial radiologists. Finally, the accuracy of TMJ panoramic radiography was compared with that of CBCT in terms of the sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values. Results: According to the results, there was a significant difference between the two techniques regarding the diagnosis of anterior and posterior condylar positions in horizontal dimension (P=0.012, P=0.007. The sensitivity rates in the anterior and posterior positions were 50% and 51%, and the specificity rates were 55% and 55%, respectively. Regarding the identification of condylar position in vertical dimension, the two methods showed a significant difference only in the narrowing of superior joint space (P=0.004. The sensitivity and specificity in the narrowing of superior joint space in the vertical dimension were 100% and 79%, respectively. Regarding the osseous changes, the TMJ panoramic method had a poorer performance in the diagnosis of erosion (sensitivity: 29%, specificity: 95%, compared to the CBCT. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed between the two

  8. Diagnostic value of cone beam computed tomography and panoramic radiography in predicting mandibular nerve exposure during third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, A; Ahmadi Moshtaghin, F; Roohi, P; Rakhshan, V

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracies of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic techniques in predicting inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) exposure. The sample size was determined based on a pilot study. This prospective clinical series study included 59 third molar extraction sites with any of seven previously suggested panoramic signs of IAN exposure. The diagnosis of nerve exposure was done on panoramic and CBCT images. Molars were extracted and nerve exposure was evaluated clinically. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of CBCT method, and sensitivity and PPV of panoramic method were estimated). The panoramic and CBCT methods correctly classified 67.7% and 93.3%, respectively, of 60 cases. This difference was statistically significant (χ 2 =13.333, P=0.000). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for CBCT were 97.4%, 85.7%, 92.7%, and 94.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of panoramic radiography were 67.8% and 97.6%, respectively. The signs with the highest sensitivity were interruption of the mandibular canal border and abrupt canal narrowing. None of the Pell and Gregory criteria, molar angulations, or three-dimensional canal-apex relationships was significantly associated with clinically confirmed IAN exposure. Panoramic radiography may miss about one-third of exposure cases, but a positive panoramic diagnosis is most likely to be a real exposure and should be taken seriously. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of Proximity of Mandibular Third Molar to Mandibular Canal Using Panoramic Radiography and Cone-beam Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Darshana S Nayak; Shubhasini A Raghavan; Praveen Birur; Shubha Gurudath; Gurushanth Keerthi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Position of inferior alveolar canal with respect to an impacted third molar reveals certain radiographic signs, but three-dimensional relationship to the canal can be provided with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The purpose of this study was to determine which radiographic signs on panoramic radiography indicate a true relationship on CBCT. Materials and Methods: Forty samples with signs or symptoms of impacted mandibular third molar and panoramic radiograph showing signs o...

  10. A clinical comparison of extraoral panoramic and intraoral radiographic modalities for detecting proximal caries and visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Glenn L; Noujeim, Marcel; Langlais, Robert P; Moore, William S; Prihoda, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare extraoral panoramic bitewings (BWs) to intraoral photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate BWs for the detection of proximal surface caries and to establish if there was any difference between extraoral BWs, intraoral BWs and panoramic radiographs in visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts. Extraoral panoramic and intraoral BW images were acquired on each of 20 patients, resulting in 489 total non-restored, readable surfaces that were evaluated by 4 observers. The ANOVA analysis to determine diagnostic variability between and within each subject was utilized. The surfaces included in the study extended from the distal of each canine to the last posterior contact in each arch with non-readable proximal surfaces excluded (i.e.surfaces where over half the enamel layer was overlapped or where those surfaces were not visible in one or both modalities). The statistical analysis indicated that the overall mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curves across all observers for the intraoral BWs and extraoral panoramic BWs were 0.832 and 0.827, respectively, and the difference of 0.005 was not significant at p = 0.7781. The percentage of non-readable proximal surfaces across the three modalities was 4.1% for intraoral BWs, 18.3% for extraoral panoramic BWs and 51.5% for the standard panoramic images. The investigators concluded there was no significant difference in posterior proximal surface caries detection between the modalities. Extraoral panoramic BWs were much better than panoramic radiographs in visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts, 81.7% vs 48.5%, but below the 95.9% value for intraoral BWs.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of panoramic radiography, stereo-scanography and cone beam CT for assessment of mandibular third molars before surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge Matzen, Louise; Christensen, Jennifer; Hintze, Hanne; Schou, Søren; Wenzel, Ann

    2013-11-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of panoramic imaging, stereo-scanography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for assessment of mandibular third molars. One hundred and twelve patients (147 third molars) underwent radiographic examination by panoramic imaging, stereo-scanography and CBCT. Tooth angulation, root morphology, number of roots and relation to the mandibular canal were assessed. The same variables were assessed intra- and post-operatively and served as reference for the radiographic assessments. The diagnostic accuracy for each variable was compared between the three modalities and accuracy was further expressed as sensitivity and specificity and tested between the modalities for identifying the relation to the mandibular canal. There were no significant differences between the modalities regarding tooth angulation, root morphology and number of roots. However, CBCT was more accurate than stereo-scanography for determining root bending in the bucco-lingual plane (p = 0.02). Moreover, sensitivity for direct contact to the mandibular canal (panoramic imaging: 0.29, stereo-scanography: 0.57, CBCT: 0.67) was higher for CBCT than for panoramic images (p = 0.05) and specificity for no direct contact to the mandibular canal (panoramic imaging: 0.78, stereo-scanography: 0.53, CBCT: 0.68) was higher for panoramic images and CBCT than for scanograms (p Panoramic imaging, stereo-scanography and CBCT seem equally valuable for examination of tooth angulation, number and morphology of roots of mandibular third molars. However, CBCT was more accurate for assessment of root bending in the bucco-lingual plane and more accurate than panoramic images to identify direct contact to the mandibular canal.

  12. Radiographic features of enostosis determined with limited cone-beam computed tomography in comparison with rotational panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Masao; Hashimoto, Koji; Kawashima, Shoji; Matsumoto, Kunihumi; Akiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Radiographic findings of enostosis often resemble those of focal condensing osteomyelitis of inflammatory origin, and the location and state of these lesions cannot be precisely diagnosed using rotational panoramic radiography. Consequently, a differential diagnosis approach is required. This study examined the situation and characteristics of mandibular enostosis using limited cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in comparison with rotational panoramic radiography. Forty-four radiopaque lesions were examined on rotational panoramic radiography and CBCT. The lesions were diagnosed as enostosis from radiographic features on CBCT that had been performed for other clinical diagnoses or dental treatments. For each lesion, the site, margin, density, and relationship to tooth roots were determined on rotational panoramic radiography, and the shape of the cortical bone was determined on CBCT. Enostosis occurred in the premolar region of the mandible in 25 cases (57%) and displayed numerous patterns of relationships to adjacent teeth on rotational panoramic radiography. All lesions displayed an ovoid external form on rotational panoramic radiography. On CBCT, enostosis arose from buccal cortical bone in 13 cases and from lingual cortical bone in 25 cases; a lingual origin was suspected in the remaining six cases. The periodontal ligament space of adjacent teeth near the lesion was clearly apparent on both rotational panoramic radiography and CBCT. Rotational panoramic radiography and occlusal radiography cannot diagnose exactly the location and state of enostosis. The diagnosis of enostosis can be difficult for lesions influenced by secondary infection in the roots of surrounding teeth; diagnosis in these cases may be facilitated by clarifying the manifestation involving the periodontal ligament space of adjacent teeth and confirming bone thickening arising from the inner surface of cortical bone. (author)

  13. Prevalence and imaging characteristics of palatine tonsilloliths evaluated on 2244 pairs of panoramic radiographs and CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akira; Sugawara, Chieko; Kudoh, Takaharu; Ohe, Go; Takamaru, Natsumi; Tamatani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Hirokazu; Miyamoto, Youji

    2017-01-01

    Palatine tonsilloliths incidentally detected on diagnostic imaging should be differentiated from pathologic calcifications to enable correct diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study is to clarify the prevalence and imaging characteristics of palatine tonsilloliths on panoramic radiographs. We retrospectively reviewed 2244 individuals who underwent pairs of consecutive panoramic radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the head and neck region. The imaging characteristics of palatine tonsilloliths on panoramic radiography were compared with the findings from CT, which was considered the gold standard. Tonsilloliths were detected in 300 (13.4 %) and 914 (40.7 %) of the 2244 individuals on panoramic radiographs and CT, respectively. On panoramic radiographs, tonsilloliths were superimposed over the ramus of the mandible at the level coincident with and inferior to the soft palate in 176 (7.8 %) and 90 (4.0 %) individuals, respectively. Tonsilloliths were also superimposed over the surrounding soft tissue inferior to the body of the mandible, postero-inferior to the angle of the mandible, and posterior to the ramus of the mandible in 33 (1.5 %), 26 (1.2 %), and 28 (1.3 %) individuals, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the detectability on panoramic radiographs and the size (Spearman r = 1.000) and number (Spearman r = 0.991) of tonsilloliths, as revealed by CT images. The present results suggest that tonsilloliths are commonly detected on panoramic radiographs. Furthermore, they can be superimposed on both the mandible and the surrounding soft tissue. Clinicians should include tonsilloliths among the differential diagnoses when calcified bodies are detected on panoramic radiographs.

  14. Assessment of periapical status : a comparative study using film-based periapical radiographs and digital panoramic images

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Santos, José Vicente; Ridao Sacie, Cristina; Bullón, Pedro; Fernández Palacín, Ana; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the use of film-based periapical radiographs and digital panoramic images displayed on monitor and glossy paper in the assessment of the periapical status of the teeth. Methodology: A total of 86 subjects were examined. All participants underwent a full-mouth radiographic survey (14 periapical radiographs) and a digital panoramic radiography. The periapical status of all appraised teeth was assessed. Results: Periapical radiographs allowed the assessment of the periapical ...

  15. The Camera Comes to Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Leola

    After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…

  16. High-speed holographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, Marc

    The high-speed holographic camera is a disgnostic instrument using holography as an information storing support. It allows us to take 10 holograms, of an object, with exposures times of 1,5ns, separated in time by 1 or 2ns. In order to get these results easily, no mobile part is used in the set-up [fr

  17. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    Just like art historians have focused on e.g. composition or lighting, this dissertation takes a single stylistic parameter as its object of study: camera movement. Within film studies this localized avenue of middle-level research has become increasingly viable under the aegis of a perspective k...

  18. The LSST camera system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Kirk; Kahn, Steven; Nordby, Martin; Burke, David; O'Connor, Paul; Oliver, John; Radeka, Veljko; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe

    2006-06-01

    The LSST camera is a wide-field optical (0.35-1um) imager designed to provide a 3.5 degree FOV with better than 0.2 arcsecond sampling. The detector format will be a circular mosaic providing approximately 3.2 Gigapixels per image. The camera includes a filter mechanism and, shuttering capability. It is positioned in the middle of the telescope where cross-sectional area is constrained by optical vignetting and heat dissipation must be controlled to limit thermal gradients in the optical beam. The fast, f/1.2 beam will require tight tolerances on the focal plane mechanical assembly. The focal plane array operates at a temperature of approximately -100°C to achieve desired detector performance. The focal plane array is contained within an evacuated cryostat, which incorporates detector front-end electronics and thermal control. The cryostat lens serves as an entrance window and vacuum seal for the cryostat. Similarly, the camera body lens serves as an entrance window and gas seal for the camera housing, which is filled with a suitable gas to provide the operating environment for the shutter and filter change mechanisms. The filter carousel can accommodate 5 filters, each 75 cm in diameter, for rapid exchange without external intervention.

  19. Toy Cameras and Color Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    The technique of using toy cameras for both black-and-white and color photography in the art class is described. The author suggests that expensive equipment can limit the growth of a beginning photographer by emphasizing technique and equipment instead of in-depth experience with composition fundamentals and ideas. (KC)

  20. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  1. Diagnosis of simulated condylar bone defects using panoramic radiography, spiral tomography and cone-beam computed tomography: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Fatemeh; Shokri, Abbas; Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam

    2015-02-01

    Radiographic examination is one of the most important parts of the clinical assessment routine for temporomandibular disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography(CBCT) with panoramic radiography and spiral computed tomography for the detection of the simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. The sample consisted of 10 TMJs from 5 dried human skulls. Simulated erosive and osteophytic lesions were created in 3 different sizes using round diamond bur and bone chips, respectively. Panoramic radiography, spiral tomography and cone-beam computed tomography were used in defect detection. Data were statistically analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. The reliability and degrees of agreement between two observers were also determined by the mean of Cohen's Kappa analysis. CBCT had a statistically significant superiority than other studied techniques in detection of both erosive and osteophytic lesions with different sizes. There were significant differences between tomography and panoramic in correct detection of both erosive and osteophytic lesions with 1mm and 1.5 mm in size. However, there were no significant differences between Tomography and Panoramic in correct detection of both erosive and osteophytic lesions with 0.5 mm in size. CBCT images provide a greater diagnostic accuracy than spiral tomography and panoramic radiography in the detection of condylar bone erosions and osteophytes. Key words:Bone defect, Condyle, CBCT, Panoramic, radiography.

  2. Screening panoramic radiography of new adult patients: diagnostic yield when combined with bitewing radiography and identification of selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, V E; Horner, K; Worthington, H V

    2002-03-09

    To measure the radiological diagnostic yield on screening panoramic radiographs taken of new adult patients and to identify selection criteria for panoramic radiography of new adult patients. Survey of 1,817 consecutive panoramic radiographs taken as 'routine' on new patients with statistical analysis of clinical and radiological findings. All radiographs were obtained from 41 general dental practitioners (GDPs). The GDPs provided the clinical information about the patient obtained by history and examination. Collection of material occurred in 1998/1999. Two dental radiologists recorded the radiological findings on each of 1,817 panoramic radiographs by consensus. Those findings that would have been identified from bilateral posterior bitewing radiographs of each patient were then excluded to give modified figures for radiological findings. Indices of diagnostic yield were devised and calculated for each radiograph from the data on radiological findings. Total diagnostic yield (DY) and modified diagnostic yield (MDY), after exclusion of findings identifiable on bitewing radiographs, were both calculated. Clinical indicators of a high MDY were identified using stepwise multiple regression analysis. MDY was 0 for 17% of the radiographs (all patients) and 23% of the radiographs when the asymptomatic group were considered. The clinical variables for which the significance was high (p panoramic radiography. Using clinical factors derived from the history and examination as radiographic selection criteria modestly improves the odds of achieving a high diagnostic yield from panoramic radiography.

  3. Magnification rate of digital panoramic radiographs and its effectiveness for pre-operative assessment of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-K; Park, J-Y; Kim, S-G; Kim, J-S; Kim, J-D

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and effectiveness of digital panoramic radiographs for pre-operative assessment of dental implants. Methods We selected 86 patients (221 implants) and calculated the length of the planned implant based on the distance between a selection of critical anatomical structures and the alveolar crest using the scaling tools provided in the digital panoramic system. We analysed the magnification rate and the difference between the actual inserted implant length and planned implant length according to the location of the implant placement and the clarity of anatomical structures seen in the panoramic radiographs. Results There was no significant difference between the planned implant length and actual inserted implant length (P > 0.05). The magnification rate of the width and length of the inserted implants, seen in the digital panoramic radiographs, was 127.28 ± 13.47% and 128.22 ± 4.17%, respectively. The magnification rate of the implant width was largest in the mandibular anterior part and there was a significant difference in the magnification rate of the length of implants between the maxilla and the mandible (P panoramic radiographs is low, the magnification rate of the width of the inserted implants is significantly higher (P panoramic radiography can be considered a simple, readily available and considerably accurate pre-operative assessment tool in the vertical dimension for dental implant therapy. PMID:21239569

  4. Identifying dental panoramic radiograph features for the screening of low bone mass in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, S; Selvi, F; Chuang, S-K; August, M

    2015-03-01

    A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the use of panoramic radiographs as a screening tool for low bone mass in postmenopausal women. Female subjects aged ≥50 years were included. The predictor variables were gonial angle, antegonial angle, mandibular cortical bone integrity, periodontal disease status, and number of remaining teeth. The primary outcome variable was bone mineral density status. Descriptive and logistic regression statistics were computed; Panalysis with age, body mass index, and number of remaining teeth (P=0.6). A visual estimation of the mandibular cortical bone integrity from panoramic radiographs may be useful for identifying postmenopausal women at high risk for osteoporosis. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Zygomatic Air Cell Defect in adults—A retrospective panoramic radiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Karthikeya; Mahima, V.G.; Malleshi, Suchetha N.; Srikanth, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This research involved retrospectively evaluating panoramic radiographs of patients from India with the intention of assessing the prevalence of Zygomatic Air Cell Defect (ZACD) and establishing its dominant location and type. Methods: Seven thousand seven hundred and fifty-five panoramic radiographs of routine outpatients aged between 19 and 91 years were concomitantly evaluated by four investigators for estimating the prevalence and characteristics of the Zygomatic Air Cell Defect. Results: The prevalence of ZACD was noted to be 1.82%, with male preponderance. Unilateralality and multilocular appearance of ZACD were the dominant patterns observed. Conclusion: The frequency of ZACD amongst Indian population is in harmony with most of the similar studies conducted on various geographic populations.

  6. From Panoramic Photos to a Low-Cost Photogrammetric Workflow for Cultural Heritage 3d Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Annibale, E.; Tassetti, A. N.; Malinverni, E. S.

    2013-07-01

    The research aims to optimize a workflow of architecture documentation: starting from panoramic photos, tackling available instruments and technologies to propose an integrated, quick and low-cost solution of Virtual Architecture. The broader research background shows how to use spherical panoramic images for the architectural metric survey. The input data (oriented panoramic photos), the level of reliability and Image-based Modeling methods constitute an integrated and flexible 3D reconstruction approach: from the professional survey of cultural heritage to its communication in virtual museum. The proposed work results from the integration and implementation of different techniques (Multi-Image Spherical Photogrammetry, Structure from Motion, Imagebased Modeling) with the aim to achieve high metric accuracy and photorealistic performance. Different documentation chances are possible within the proposed workflow: from the virtual navigation of spherical panoramas to complex solutions of simulation and virtual reconstruction. VR tools make for the integration of different technologies and the development of new solutions for virtual navigation. Image-based Modeling techniques allow 3D model reconstruction with photo realistic and high-resolution texture. High resolution of panoramic photo and algorithms of panorama orientation and photogrammetric restitution vouch high accuracy and high-resolution texture. Automated techniques and their following integration are subject of this research. Data, advisably processed and integrated, provide different levels of analysis and virtual reconstruction joining the photogrammetric accuracy to the photorealistic performance of the shaped surfaces. Lastly, a new solution of virtual navigation is tested. Inside the same environment, it proposes the chance to interact with high resolution oriented spherical panorama and 3D reconstructed model at once.

  7. COMPARSION BETWEEN PANORAMIC PERIAPICAL AND VERTICAL BITEWING RADIOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PERIODONTAL BONE LOSS

    OpenAIRE

    M SHEIKHI; V DAVOODI; P ZIAIE MOGHADDAM

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. For diagnosis and treatment planing and detection the quality of remaining Alveolar bone the radiography is very useful so the type of radiography is very important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panoramic, periapical (bisecting technique) and vertical bitewing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods. Twelve patients (3 male and 9 female) with a mean age of 35, with a moderate to advanced periodontitis were evaluated. At the time of periodon...

  8. The relationship between panoramic radiomorphometric indices of the mandible and calcaneus bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagelaviciene, Egle; Kubilius, Ricardas; Krasauskiene, Aurelija

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between bone mineral density in the calcaneus measured using the dual x-ray and laser osteodensitometry technique and bone mineral density in the mandible calculated using the panoramic radiomorphometric indices obtained by applying linear measurements in panoramic radiograms of postmenopausal women. The participants of this study were postmenopausal women (n=129) aged 50 and more. The subjects underwent panoramic radiography of the mandibles, followed by the calculation of the panoramic radiomorphometric indices indicating bone mineral density of the mandible. The dual x-ray and laser osteodensitometer DXL Calscan were used for the measurements of bone mineral density in the calcaneus. Statistical analysis was preformed to find the relationship between bone mineral density measurements in the two anatomically different bones. Following the diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis recommended by the World Health Organization (1994), the subjects were distributed according to the calcaneus bone mineral density T-score into the normal bone mineral density (group 1), osteopenia (group 2), and osteoporosis (group 3) groups. Mean bone mineral density in the calcaneus in the general studied population was 0.38+/-0.07; the mean value of bone mineral density of the calcaneus in the group 1 (n=34) was 0.47+/-0.04 (g/cm(2)), in the group 2 (n=65) was 0.37+/-0.03 (g/cm(2)), and in the group 2 (n=30) was 0.29+/-0.03 (g/cm(2)). Differences in bone mineral density between the groups were determined using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) F=285.31; df=2; Ppanoramic mandibular index and bone mineral density in the calcaneus (r=0.397, Ppanoramic radiography reflect general changes in the mineralization of these bones, characteristic of the postmenopausal period.

  9. Absorbed doses for patients undergoing panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and CBCT.

    OpenAIRE

    Wrzesien, Małgorzata; Olszewski, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Contemporary dental radiology offers a wide spectrum of imaging methods but it also contributes to an increase in the participation of dental radiological diagnosis in the patient’s exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the absorbed doses of the brain, spinal column, thyroid and eye lens for patients during panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods: The thermoluminescent dosimetry...

  10. Parotid-Absorbed Doses: A Comparison Between Spiral Tomography and Panoramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Hekmatian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Jaws spiral tomography and panoramic radiography have wide applications in dentistry, and the parotid gland is one of the most sensitive organs of the head and neck. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the parotid-absorbed dose in spiral tomography and panoramic radiographs using a thermoluminescent dosimeter. Materials and Methods A radiation analog dosimetry phantom was placed in a Cranex Tome radiograph device, and a parotid absorbed dose was measured in both techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed bilaterally in the parotid region (on the tube side and the opposite side. Spiral tomography dosimetry was done for the upper and lower jaws in the anterior and posterior regions. Each region contained four slices of 2 mm and four slices of 4 mm in thickness. The results were analyzed by a Wilcoxon test. Results For the tube side parotid, the average absorbed doses in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.70/1.40 and 1.65/1.60 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.65/1.70 and 1.75/1.57 mGy, respectively. For the opposite parotid, the average absorbed dose in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.40/1.30 and 1.40/1.67 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.50/1.66 and 1.40/1.50 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed dose of the panoramic radiograph was 1.40 mGy. Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference in the parotid absorbed dose between spiral tomography and a panoramic radiograph (P value = 0.18. The overall results of this study were similar to other studies.

  11. Digital panoramic radiography as a useful tool for detection of bone loss: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher; Hesami, Samaneh; Hosseini, Pouran

    2013-03-16

    This study was aimed to investigate the use of panoramic radiography in patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) in order to diagnose and prevent osteoporotic fractures. Panoramic radiographs of 60 patients  (20 men and 40 women) aged from 40 to 70 years with cortical thicknesses of less than 3 mm in the mandibular angle were selected from patients referred to a dentomaxillofacial radiology clinic and were then examined for mandibular cortical angles. These were measured using Computed Radiography (CR) software. The bone densitometry was carried out using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Cortical thicknesses at the lower border of the mandibles were also measured by panoramic radiographs. Statistics analyses were then undertaken using Fisher's exact test, Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In most cases, no significant difference in mandibular angle cortical thickness was found between those patients with a normal BMD and those patients with a lowered BMD (P=0.621). There was a relationship between the cortical thicknesses of the mandibular lower border, and vertebral and femoral BMD (P<0.0001), and there was a significant difference between the thickness of the mandibular lower border and BMD. The results of this study also revealed a new marker of osteoporosis on the mandibular lower border under the third molar. A thickness of 2.80 mm of the mandibular lower border was detected as a threshold for the measurement of bone densitometry in the chosen Iranian population. Panoramic radiography is effective for screening patients who are at risk of having decreased bone mineral density. Patients with a threshold of 2.80 mm thickness of the mandibular lower border should be considered as individuals likely to have osteoporosis associated low bone density.

  12. USE OF PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHS FOR EVALUATION OF MAXILLARY AND MANDIBULAR RESIDUAL RIDGE RESORPTION: IN VITRO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka; Vikas; Patel; Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    : INTRODUCTION: Progressive ridge resorption is one of the main causes of loss of stability and retention of mandibular complete dentures. The location of the mental foramen can be identified easily on panoramic radiographs, and radiographic examinations are considered an important component of Prosthodontics diagnostic and treatment planning. Also the location of maxillary landmark is important to known how much resorption is there. Aim: To determine the average ratio of ...

  13. The effect of dose reduction on the detection of anatomical structures on panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeppler, G; Dietz, K; Reinert, S

    2006-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of dose reduction on diagnostic accuracy using different screen-film combinations and digital techniques for panoramic radiography. Five observers assessed 201 pairs of panoramic radiographs (a total of 402 panoramic radiographs) taken with the Orthophos Plus (Sirona, Bensheim, Germany), for visualization of 11 anatomical structures on each side, using a 3-point scale -1, 0 and 1. Two radiographs of each patient were taken at two different times (conventional setting and setting with decreased dose, done by increasing tube potential settings or halving tube current). To compare the dose at different tube potential settings dose-length product was measured at the secondary collimator. Films with medium and regular intensifying screens (high and low tube potential settings) and storage phosphor plates (low tube potential setting, tube current setting equivalent to regular intensifying screen and halved) were compared. The five observers made 27 610 assessments. Intrarater agreement was expressed by Cohen's kappa coefficient. The results demonstrated an equivalence of regular screens (low tube potential setting) and medium screens (high and low tube potential settings). A significant difference existed between medium screens (low tube potential setting, mean score 0.92) and the group of regular film-screen combinations at high tube potential settings (mean score 0.89) and between all film-screen combinations and the digital system irrespective of exposure (mean score below 0.82). There were no significant differences between medium and regular screens (mean score 0.88 to 0.92) for assessment of the periodontal ligament space, but there was a significant difference compared with the digital system (mean score below 0.76). The kappa coefficient for intrarater agreement was moderate (0.55). New regular intensifying screens can replace medium screens at low tube potential settings. Digital panoramic radiographs should be taken at low

  14. The comparison of subjective image quality in conventional and digital panoramic radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Peker Ilkay; Toraman Alkurt; Usalan G; Altunkaynak B

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the subjective image quality of (1) regular intensifying screens with medium intensifying screens, (2) regular intensifying screens with digital radiography, and (3) medium intensifying screens with digital radiography for panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients participated and a total of 90 radiographs were obtained in the study. The patients were divided into three groups (regular-medium intensifying screen, r...

  15. A comparative study of cone-beam computed tomography and conventional panoramic radiography in assessing the topographic relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantanapornkul, Weeraya; Okouchi, Kiyoshi; Fujiwara, Yoshikuni; Yamashiro, Masashi; Maruoka, Yutaka; Ohbayashi, Naoto; Kurabayashi, Tohru

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam CT compared with panoramic images in predicting neurovascular bundle exposure during extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. Cone-beam CT and panoramic images of 142 impacted mandibular third molars were prospectively evaluated to assess tooth relationship to the mandibular canal. These interpretations were then correlated with intraoperative findings. The sensitivity and specificity of the 2 modalities in predicting neurovascular bundle exposure at extraction were calculated and compared. The diagnostic criterion for panoramic images was defined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. In predicting the exposure, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 77% for cone-beam CT, and 70% and 63% for panoramic images, respectively. Cone-beam CT was significantly superior to panoramic images in both sensitivity and specificity. Cone-beam CT was significantly superior to panoramic images in predicting neurovascular bundle exposure during extraction of impacted mandibular third molar teeth.

  16. Age assessment at the time of death based on panoramic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Marija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The determination of age at the time of death is an important method in forensic anthropology and paleodemography. The possible postmortem investigation of the teeth and jaws enables the determination of age at the time of death, as the bones and teeth are both resistant to degradation in soil and characterized by age-related morphological changes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the age-related changes visible on panoramic radiography correlated with age, and enabled the assessment of individual age. Methods. Seven radiographic parameters were used in the study: tooth loss, occlusal tooth wear, pulp stones, carious teeth, periapical disease, tooth restoration, and alveolar bone loss associated with periodontal disease. Results. The material comprised 314 dental panoramic tomograms of living patients of both sexes with documented age (18 to 77 years. Multiple regression equations were constructed for the age estimation, including four parameters (the number of missing teeth, the number of intact teeth, the distance of cement-enamel junction from the alveolar ridge, the number of abraded teeth. The nature of data treated by regression analysis required the careful choice of parameters, appropriate functional model for each parameter, and the experience of the investigator. With the four parameters included in equations, the error was ± 2.55 years. Conclusion. This preliminary analysis showed that the conventional regression technique could be appropriate for the age estimation based on panoramic radiography, and that an additional study with a larger sample and on wider population was required.

  17. Panoramic radiographs underestimate extensions of the anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Brito, Ana Caroline Ramos; Nejaim, Yuri; De Freitas, Deborah Queiroz [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Division of Oral Radiology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); De Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Public Oral Health and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT. The anterior/mesial extension of these structures was compared between PAN and both cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT reconstructions. In CBCT, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were observed in 7.7% and 24.4% of the hemimandibles, respectively. In PAN, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were detected in 15% and 5.5% of cases, respectively. PAN presented more difficulties in the visualization of structures. The anterior/mesial extensions ranged from 0.0 mm to 19.0 mm on CBCT. PAN underestimated the measurements by approximately 2.0 mm. CBCT appears to be a more reliable imaging modality than PAN for preoperative workups of the anterior mandible. Individual variations in the anterior/mesial extensions of the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal mean that is not prudent to rely on a general safe zone for implant placement or bone surgery in the interforaminal region.

  18. Prediction of osteoporosis using fractal analysis et cetera on panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether panoramic radiographs were useful in predicting osteoporosis. 50 postmenopausal women between the age of 41.8 and 78.5 were classified as normal and osteoporosis groups according to the bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae. Panoramic radiographs were taken. Age, body mass index, remaining mandibular teeth, mandibular cortical thickness and morphology, and fractal dimensions at periapical areas of mandibular first molars were evaluated to differentiate the two groups. The age of osteoporotic group was statistically significantly higher than that of normal group (p<0.05), but not the body mass index or number of remaining mandibular teeth. The mean fractal dimension of osteoporotic group was 1.391{+-}0.085, and was significantly lower than that of the normal group, which was 1.523{+-}0.725 (p<0.01). Thick mandibular cortical thickness was common in normal group, whereas thin or very thin mandibular cortical thickness was common in osteoporotic group and the difference was significant (p<0.05). C2 pattern was difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). Age, mandibular cortical thickness and shape, fractal dimension on panoramic radiographs were useful in predicting osteoporosis.

  19. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  20. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Stephen J. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla [University of Louisville, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Louisville, KY (United States); Farman, Allan G. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-03-15

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson {chi}{sup 2} were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of linear dimensions and angular measurements on panoramic images taken with two machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Razi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Panoramic radiography is a method widely used because of low absorbed dose in patients (approximately 10 times less than that in the full mouth survey, reasonable cost and time. Disadvantages of this radiography technique are magnification and distortion as a result of unequal magnification, which can influence dimensional and angular measurements used in clinical dentistry to determine root length, dental arch space, relative angulations of teeth, and implant site assessment. The aim of this study was comparison of linear dimensions and angular measurements on panoramic images taken with two machines (Planmeca and Panoura. Materials and methods. Twenty radiographs taken with each apparatus from a human dry skull were scanned. Horizontal, vertical and angular dimensions were measured on the skull, which were compared along with the images using Corel DRAW Software, V13. Results. Independent t-test analysis showed that horizontal magnification assessed on images from Panoura was more than that from Planmeca (P < 0.00025. There were no significant differences between the two groups in vertical dimensions (P = 0.66. Mean magnification of angular measurements assessed on images from Panoura was less than that from Planmeca (P < 0.00025. Independent t-test analysis showed that distortion of Planmeca images were more than that of Panoura. One sample t-test showed that angular measurements were more reliable than linear dimensions. Conclusion. Panoramic radiography technique can be used for evaluation of angles but it is better to use other radiography techniques for vertical and horizontal measurements.

  2. Dosimetric study of the effective doses resulting during dental X-ray and panoramic radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Abd-El Hafez, A. I.; Ahmad, Fawzia

    2011-01-01

    The panoramic image is one of the most commonly used radiographic examinations in dentistry, owing to its low dose and large area for evaluation, including bone and teeth in the same image. Although digital images are usually reported to deliver a lower radiation dose to the patient, conventional images are still available, especially in countries where digital systems are not widely economically available. Dentists should weigh the benefits of dental radiographs against the consequences of increasing a patient's exposure to radiation, the effects of which accumulate from multiple sources over time. The "as low as reasonably achievable" principle should be followed to minimize the exposure to radiation. The purpose of this investigation is to measure the absorbed radiation doses at 12 anatomical sites of a Rando-phantom and calculate the effective doses result from a full-mouth survey and panoramic radiography. Organ-absorbed doses are measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD 100) and effective organ doses (μ Sv) are estimated according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 2007. The total effective dose results from the panoramic imaging system have so far been below those obtained using the full-mouth survey technique used in intra-oral radiographic examination.

  3. Bone density relationship of mandible and cervical vertebrae in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2000-01-01

    Upper cervical vertebrae are commonly imaged together with the jaw bones in panoramic radiography. There have been many studies investigating the possible role of mandible as an indicator of osteoporosis. But the result doesn't show unanimity. This study measured bone densities of mandible and second and third cervical vertebrae to find out any relationship between these two areas. These results may contribute in panorama being used as a screening method in detecting possible osteoporotic patient. Randomly selected 226 digitized panoramic images with cervical vertebrae shadows from 156 dental patients between 5 to 80 years of age were used. And the bone densities of second and third cervical vertebrae, apical areas of first and second mandibular molars and interdental areas were measured. The bone density measurements were restricted to the cancellous bone and the average and standard deviations and paired t-tests were done to each measurements. All the measurements were statistically significantly related. The best relationship was found between the third cervical vertebrae and first and second mandibular apical areas. The average and standard deviations of the measured bone density ratios of these areas were 1.20 ± 0.45 and 1.34 ± 0.48 each. Patients whose panoramic bone density of the third cervical vertebrae are much below those of mandibular first or second molar apical areas may have osteoporosis.

  4. Panoramic radiography for screening postmenopausal osteoporosis in India: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodade, Pankaj R; Mody, Rajendra N

    2013-06-01

    The overall aim of this pilot study was to establish the role of dental practitioners in identifying patients at risk of osteoporosis from panoramic radiographs. The pilot study evaluated 32 randomly selected postmenopausal women with no known secondary cause of bone loss. A panoramic radiograph of each patient was taken and qualitative and quantitative radiomorphometric indices were determined. Bone mineral densities of the mandible and lumbar vertebrae were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Using World Health Organization criteria, patients were divided into normal, osteopoenic and osteoporotic categories. The relationship of qualitative and quantitative indices with bone mineral densities of the mandible and lumbar area was analysed statistically. Significant positive correlation (Pearson coefficient) was observed between bone mineral densities of the mandible and bone mineral densities of lumbar vertebrae. There was significant (Ppanoramic radiograph, is useful tool for the screening of postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. Quantitative indices (mental index, inferior and superior panoramic mandibular indices, antegonion index and gonion index), although well correlated with skeletal bone loss, were not useful because of their poor reproducibility. A study with a larger sample is needed to confirm the results from this pilot.

  5. Assessment of maxillary third molars with panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept.of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated maxillary third molars and their relation to the maxillary sinus using panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 395 maxillary third molars in 234 patients were examined using panoramic radiographs and CBCT images. We examined the eruption level of the maxillary third molars, the available retromolar space, the angulation, the relationship to the second molars, the number of roots, and the relationship between the roots and the sinus. Females had a higher frequency of maxillary third molars with occlusal planes apical to the cervical line of the second molar (Level C) than males. All third molars with insufficient retromolar space were Level C. The most common angulation was vertical, followed by buccoangular. Almost all of the Level C molars were in contact with the roots of the second molar. Erupted teeth most commonly had three roots, and completely impacted teeth most commonly had one root. The superimposition of one third of the root and the sinus floor was most commonly associated with the sinus floor being located on the buccal side of the root. Eruption levels were differently distributed according to gender. A statistically significant association was found between the eruption level and the available retromolar space. When panoramic radiographs showed a superimposition of the roots and the sinus floor, expansion of the sinus to the buccal side of the root was generally observed in CBCT images.

  6. Studies on the Fuji computed radiography depended on the panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Shiota, Satoru; Takazawa, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Toru; Takagi, Yoshiko; Funamoto, Choichiro

    1986-01-01

    The Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) developed recently involves the following procedures; photography in the same way as the hitherto radiography, printing auto imaging plate of photostimulable phospher, conversion to electric signals, and recording reproduced images by computerization. Highly valuable images for diagnoses in the medical field have already been obtained by the FCR. Then, we attempted to study FCR images panoramically radiographed for jaw lesions in the field of oral surgery. Method for study: As the samples to be studied, the selected subjects were cases of periodontal diseases, fracture of the jaw, odontogenic cyst and tumor, etc. In the present study the FCR images of panoramic radiography were compared with hitherto panoramic flat radiograms. Result of study: Although the images of the FCR vary depending on the methods of treatment, that is, on how gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement are, the method of purpose-fitting treatment provided diagnostically significant images for grasping bone lesions. The images obtained from this FCR permitted us to grasp more distinctly condition of alveolar bone resorption in periodontal diseases, running of minute fracture lines in fracture of the jaw, and characteristic images of bone resorption in odontogenic cysts and tumor, etc. Thus the images of the FCR are highly useful in diagnosing bone lesions, but granularity of the images themselves have still been questioned, and additionally the images vary depending on the methods of gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement. Therefore further repeat studies are probably needed for these questions. (author)

  7. Radiographic findings in the maxillary sinus: comparison of panoramic radiography with computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Galán-Gil, Sónnica; Carrillo-García, Celia; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of radiographic signs of maxillary sinus pathology in patients undergoing dental implant treatment and to compare the efficacy of panoramic radiography, computed tomography (CT), and three-dimensional (3D) CT with Implametric software in the diagnosis of sinus pathology. Thirty patients were selected at random from those being treatment-planned to receive implant-supported restorations in the maxilla and who had a panoramic radiograph, a conventional CT scan in acetate, and a 3D CT scan in digital format. The radiographic maxillary sinus findings were categorized as: (1) no sign of pathology, (2) mucosal thickening, (3) mucous cyst, or (4) occupation of the entire sinus. Seventeen women and 13 men were included, with a mean age of 50.9 years. There was a 38.3% prevalence of radiographic abnormalities (23.3% mucosal thickenings, 10% mucous cysts, and 5% occupation of the entire sinus). Of the 23 sinuses that displayed radiographic signs of pathology, only 1 (4.3%) was correctly diagnosed by the panoramic radiograph. The most common radiographic maxillary sinus finding was mucosal thickening, followed by mucous cysts and occupation of the whole sinus. Conventional CT can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology.

  8. Panoramic radiography measurements, osteoporosis diagnoses and fractures in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Uchida, K; Iwamoto, Y; Sugino, N; Yoshinari, N; Kagami, H; Taguchi, A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of the shape of the mandibular cortex on panoramic radiographs with the risk of an osteoporosis diagnosis without prevalent fractures and with the risk of osteoporotic fractures in Japanese men and women. One thousand and twenty-one subjects aged 40-89 years, who visited our university hospital and underwent panoramic radiography between 2007 and 2013, participated in this study. Eighty-eight patients received a diagnosis of osteoporosis without prevalent fractures, and 55 were diagnosed with osteoporotic fractures. Blinded to the groupings, we classified the shape of the mandibular cortex on panoramic radiographs as normal, moderately eroded or severely eroded. After adjustment for confounding factors, the odds ratios for an osteoporosis diagnosis associated with moderately eroded and severely eroded mandibular cortices were 1.4 (95% CI, 0.8-2.6) and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4-5.0), respectively. The odds ratios for an osteoporotic fracture associated with moderately eroded and severely eroded cortices were 0.8 (95% CI, 0.4-1.7) and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.5-2.5), respectively. Subjects in Japan with eroded mandibular cortices tended to be at increased risk of osteoporosis diagnoses but not of fractures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparison of Waters' radiography, panoramic radiography, and computed tomography in the diagnosis of antral mucosal thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Young Min; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    1998-01-01

    With the CT findings as gold standard, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the diagnostic accuracy of Waters' radiography and Waters' radiography with panoramic radiography were compared in the diagnosis of antral mucosal thickening of 16 patients. Three oral radiologists and three non-oral radiologists interpreted the Waters' radiographs and after 4 weeks, interpreted the Waters' radiographs and panoramic radiographs simultaneously. The interpretation was the existence or the non-existence of the mucosal thickening on the medial, the posterolateral, the floor, and the roof of maxillary sinus. The obtained results were as followed ; 1. In oral radiologist group, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of Waters' film were 0.7250, 0.8489 and 0.7578 respectively. 2. The sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy in oral radiologist group were higher than those of non-oral radiologist group (P 0.05). 3. There was no significant difference of the diagnostic abilities except the specificity in oral radiologist group between Waters' radiography and Waters' radiography with panoramic radiography (P>0.05). 4. The sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy were the highest in the case of medial wall interpretation, the specificity was the highest in the posterolateral wall. 5. In the posterolateral wall and the floor, the sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy of oral radiologist group were higher than those of non-oral radiologist group (P<0.05)

  10. Accuracy of linear measurements before and after digitizing periapical and panoramic radiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Caroline de Oliveira; Sampaio, Maria Carméli Correia; Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Costa, Nilza Pereira da; Rockenbach, Maria Ivete Bolzan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of linear measurements made on conventional and digitized periapical and panoramic radiographic images of dry human hemi-mandibles. Images from the posterior region of 22 dry human hemi-mandibles were obtained by conventional panoramic and periapical radiography technique. Using a digital caliper, 3 vertical measurements were marked directly on the dry hemi-mandibles (reference measurements) as well as on the tracing from the conventional radiographic images of the specimens made onto acetate paper sheet: Distance 1: between the upper limit of the alveolar ridge and the lower limit at the mandible base; Distance 2: between the upper limit of the alveolar ridge and the upper limit of the mandibular canal; Distance 3: between the lower limit of the mandibular canal and the lower limit of the mandible base. Next, the radiographs were digitized and the three measurements were made on the digital images using UTHSCSA Image Tool software. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA (α=0.05). There was no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between periapical and panoramic radiographs or between the measurements recorded using the digital caliper and UTHSCSA software compared with dry mandible specimens for Distances 1 (p=0.783), 2 (p=0.986) and 3 (p=0.129). In conclusion, the radiographic techniques evaluated in this study are reliable for vertical bone measurements on selected areas and the UTHSCA Image Tool software is an appropriate measurement method.

  11. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Stephen J.; Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla; Farman, Allan G.; Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson χ 2 were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  12. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa [Dept. of Diagnosis and Health Promotion, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States); Soroushian, Sheila [Dept. of Orthodontics, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC(United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  13. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa; Soroushian, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  14. The comparison of subjective image quality in conventional and digital panoramic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peker Ilkay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the subjective image quality of (1 regular intensifying screens with medium intensifying screens, (2 regular intensifying screens with digital radiography, and (3 medium intensifying screens with digital radiography for panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients participated and a total of 90 radiographs were obtained in the study. The patients were divided into three groups (regular-medium intensifying screen, regular intensifying screen-digital radiography, and medium intensifying screen-digital radiography that consisted of 15 people each. All radiographs were assessed by three oral radiologists independently. The observers evaluated the images using a 3-point scale (1=well visible, 0=partly visible, -1=not or hardly visible for anatomical structures and pathological findings that are commonly found on panoramic radiographs. Subjective image quality of the groups and comparison of the observers were assessed by using non parametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: For all groups and observers, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was found for both anatomical structures and pathologies and between anatomical structures and pathologies according to the Mann Whitney U test. In comparison with observers, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was found for both anatomical structures and pathologies and between anatomical structures and pathologies for all groups according to the Kruskal Wallis test. Conclusion: The subjective image quality of medium and regular intensifying screens and conventional and digital panoramic radiographs were found statistically equal in this study.

  15. The comparison of subjective image quality in conventional and digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Ilkay; Toraman, Alkurt M; Usalan, G; Altunkaynak, B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the subjective image quality of (1) regular intensifying screens with medium intensifying screens, (2) regular intensifying screens with digital radiography, and (3) medium intensifying screens with digital radiography for panoramic radiographs. Forty-five patients participated and a total of 90 radiographs were obtained in the study. The patients were divided into three groups (regular-medium intensifying screen, regular intensifying screen-digital radiography, and medium intensifying screen-digital radiography) that consisted of 15 people each. All radiographs were assessed by three oral radiologists independently. The observers evaluated the images using a 3-point scale (1=well visible, 0=partly visible, -1=not or hardly visible) for anatomical structures and pathological findings that are commonly found on panoramic radiographs. Subjective image quality of the groups and comparison of the observers were assessed by using non parametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. For all groups and observers, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was found for both anatomical structures and pathologies and between anatomical structures and pathologies according to the Mann Whitney U test. In comparison with observers, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was found for both anatomical structures and pathologies and between anatomical structures and pathologies for all groups according to the Kruskal Wallis test. The subjective image quality of medium and regular intensifying screens and conventional and digital panoramic radiographs were found statistically equal in this study.

  16. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  17. Architectural Design Document for Camera Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study.......Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study....

  18. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  19. Graphic design of pinhole cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. B.; Chu, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a graphic technique for the analysis and optimization of pinhole size and focal length. The technique is based on the use of the transfer function of optical elements described by Scott (1959) to construct the transfer function of a circular pinhole camera. This transfer function is the response of a component or system to a pattern of lines having a sinusoidally varying radiance at varying spatial frequencies. Some specific examples of graphic design are presented.

  20. Influence of central panoramic curve deviation of the mandibular image reconstruction in the implant CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Jeong; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an influence of the change of central panoramic curves on the image reconstruction in the dental implant CT. The author designed three experimental groups according to the location of central panoramic curve. In group A, central panoramic curve was determined as the curve connecting the center of roots from the first premolar to the first molar. In group B, central panoramic curve was determined as the line connecting the lingual cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first premolar with the buccal cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first molar. In group C, central panoramic curve was determined as the line connecting the buccal cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first molar. Twenty four reformatted CT images was acquired from four mandibles embedded in the resin block and twenty four contact radiographs of dog specimens were acquired. Each image was processed under Adobe Photoshop program analysed by MSPA (mandible/maxilla shape pattern analysis) variables such as MXVD, MXHD, UHD, MHD, and LHD. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The mean of MXVD variable was 19.9, 20.2, and 20.0 in group A, B, and C, respectively, which were smaller than actual value 20.5. But, there was no significant difference among 3 groups (p>0.05). 2. The mean of MXHD, UHD, MHD, and LHD variables in group A, B, and C was 11.9, 12.2, and 12.3; 9.3, 9.5, and 9.6; 10.0, 10.3,and 10.3; 9.2, 9.3, and 9.4 respectively which were equal to or greater than the actual value 11.8, 9.3, 10.0. But, there was no significant difference among 3 groups (p>0.05). 3. The number of noneffective observations with difference over or under 1 mm with comparison to the actual value was 24 (20%), 58 (48.3%), and 52 (43.3%), respectively, in group A, B, and C. 4. In group A, the number of observations over 1mm and under 1 mm was 9 and 15, respectively, but in group B and C, the number of observations over 1

  1. Influence of central panoramic curve deviation of the mandibular image reconstruction in the implant CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Jeong; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, College of Dentistry, Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an influence of the change of central panoramic curves on the image reconstruction in the dental implant CT. The author designed three experimental groups according to the location of central panoramic curve. In group A, central panoramic curve was determined as the curve connecting the center of roots from the first premolar to the first molar. In group B, central panoramic curve was determined as the line connecting the lingual cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first premolar with the buccal cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first molar. In group C, central panoramic curve was determined as the line connecting the buccal cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first molar. Twenty four reformatted CT images was acquired from four mandibles embedded in the resin block and twenty four contact radiographs of dog specimens were acquired. Each image was processed under Adobe Photoshop program analysed by MSPA (mandible/maxilla shape pattern analysis) variables such as MXVD, MXHD, UHD, MHD, and LHD. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The mean of MXVD variable was 19.9, 20.2, and 20.0 in group A, B, and C, respectively, which were smaller than actual value 20.5. But, there was no significant difference among 3 groups (p>0.05). 2. The mean of MXHD, UHD, MHD, and LHD variables in group A, B, and C was 11.9, 12.2, and 12.3; 9.3, 9.5, and 9.6; 10.0, 10.3,and 10.3; 9.2, 9.3, and 9.4 respectively which were equal to or greater than the actual value 11.8, 9.3, 10.0. But, there was no significant difference among 3 groups (p>0.05). 3. The number of noneffective observations with difference over or under 1 mm with comparison to the actual value was 24 (20%), 58 (48.3%), and 52 (43.3%), respectively, in group A, B, and C. 4. In group A, the number of observations over 1mm and under 1 mm was 9 and 15, respectively, but in group B and C, the number of observations over 1 mm

  2. The Use of Camera Traps in Wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin Uçarlı; Bülent Sağlam

    2013-01-01

    Camera traps are increasingly used in the abundance and density estimates of wildlife species. Camera traps are very good alternative for direct observation in case, particularly, steep terrain, dense vegetation covered areas or nocturnal species. The main reason for the use of camera traps is eliminated that the economic, personnel and time loss in a continuous manner at the same time in different points. Camera traps, motion and heat sensitive, can take a photo or video according to the mod...

  3. Stereo Pinhole Camera: Assembly and experimental activities

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Gilmário Barbosa; Departamento de Ciência da Computação, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Joinville; Cunha, Sidney Pinto; Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Campinas

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the assembling of a stereo pinhole camera for capturing stereo-pairs of images and proposes experimental activities with it. A pinhole camera can be as sophisticated as you want, or so simple that it could be handcrafted with practically recyclable materials. This paper describes the practical use of the pinhole camera throughout history and currently. Aspects of optics and geometry involved in the building of the stereo pinhole camera are presented with illustrations. Fur...

  4. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  5. A representative study of pediatric panoramic and cephalometric radiation exposure to organs of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peikidis E

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure juvenile patient radiation dose to organs of the head and neck during digital panoramic and cephalometric radiography using anthropomorphic CIRS phantoms at 5 and 10-years-old with nanoDot optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs. OSLDs were placed at 21 head and neck organ sites of the phantom heads. Phantom heads were subjected to panoramic and cephalometric imaging protocols using manufacturers’ predefined exposure settings. Radiation dose fractions to various organ sites were determined using reference values from the ICRP-89 document. Organ equivalent doses and overall effective doses were based on ICRP-103 tissue weighting factors. Overall measured organ doses were higher for the 5-year-old than for the 10-year-old for both the panoramic and the cephalometric imaging protocols. The highest doses seen were in the salivary glands, extrathoracic airway, and the oral mucosa. The organ equivalent dose in microsieverts (µSv also yielded similar results. The effective dose for the 5-year-old was 27.8 µSv for the panoramic and 6.5 µSv for the cephalometric, while the 10-year-old results were 26.3 µSv for the panoramic and 3.8 µSv for the cephalometric. The effective doses estimated for this study for the 5-year-old and 10-year-old during cephalometric procedures are lower than the US natural background reading of 8.5 µSv per day and lower than the US average exposure per day of 17 µSv. The effective doses estimated in this study for the panoramic procedure for both phantoms were above the natural background and above the national average per day. These data support the notion that child-appropriate technique factors and geometry factors should be used for panoramic and cephalometric imaging protocols.

  6. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrester, Tavis; O'Brien, Tim; Fegraus, Eric; Jansen, P.A.; Palmer, Jonathan; Kays, Roland; Ahumada, Jorge; Stern, Beth; McShea, William

    2016-01-01

    Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an

  7. A camera specification for tendering purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, M.J.; Davies, M.D.; Kenyon, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    A standardized document is described which is suitable for sending to companies which are being invited to tender for the supply of a gamma camera. The document refers to various features of the camera, the performance specification of the camera, maintenance details, price quotations for various options and delivery, installation and warranty details. (U.K.)

  8. Validation of 3D surface imaging in breath-hold radiotherapy for breast cancer: one central camera unit versus three camera units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Betgen, Anja; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Remeijer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    In this work we investigated the benefit of the use of two lateral camera units additional to a central camera unit for 3D surface imaging for image guidance in deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy by comparison with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Ten patients who received DIBH radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included. The performance of surface imaging using one and three camera units was compared to using CBCT for setup verification. Breast-surface registrations were performed for CBCT as well as for 3D surfaces, captured concurrently with CBCT, to planning CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis. For the differences between setup errors an assessment of the group mean, systematic error, random error, and 95% limits of agreement was made. Correlations between derived surface-imaging [one camera unit;three camera units] and CBCT setup errors were: R2=[0.67;0.75], [0.76;0.87], [0.88;0.91] in left-right, cranio-caudal, and anterior-posterior direction, respectively. Group mean, systematic and random errors were slightly smaller (sub-millimeter differences) and the limits of agreement were 0.10 to 0.25cm tighter when using three camera units compared with one. For the majority of the data, the use of three camera units compared with one resulted in setup errors more similar to the CBCT derived setup errors for the craniocaudal and anterior-posterior directions (p<0.01, Wilcoxon-signed-ranks test). This study shows a better correlation and agreement between 3D surface imaging and CBCT when three camera units are used instead of one and further outlines the conditions under which the benefit of using three camera units is significant.

  9. Camera Embedded Single Lumen Tube as a Rescue Device for Airway Handling during Lung Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg Holm, Jimmy; Andersen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    endotracheal tube (SLT, ID 7.0 mm, OD 10.0 mm) with embedded camera (VivaSight-SLTM, ET-View Ltd, Misgav, Israel) (Figure 1), and with this secured in the trachea, lung isolation was obtained with the use of an bronchial blocker (VivaSight-EB, 9 Fr) on the left side, resulting in total lung collapse, allowing...

  10. Relative camera localisation in non-overlapping camera networks using multiple trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John, V.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present an automatic camera calibration algorithm using multiple trajectories in a multiple camera network with non-overlapping field-of-views (FOV). Visible trajectories within a camera FOV are assumed to be measured with respect to the camera local co-ordinate system.

  11. Appearance based key-shot selection for a hand held camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alefs, Bram; Dijk, Judith

    2009-05-01

    Automatic selection of key-shots is an important step for video data processing. Depending on the purpose, key-shot selection provides user feed back on recorded data, storage reduction and viewpoint selection and it can be used for panoramic image stitching and 3D-reconstruction. In particular, investigating scenes of crime or accidental investigations involves large amount of data, containing information on physical arrangement of objects, details on surface geometry and appearances. This paper proposes an efficient method for automatic selection of key-shot, providing onsite feedback on recorded segments and automatic selection of view-points for 3D-reconstruction. It uses appearance based object and scene modeling for a freely moving, hand held camera. The camera motion is determined on two levels, comparing appearances of local image regions and full 3D reconstruction. On the lower level, the 2D-warp between subsequent video frames is used to determine local change of image appearance and derive a set of motion key frames. These keyframes than are used to determine full 3D motion and to reconstruct objects. Furthermore, key-frames are used for fast indexation and detection of loop closures. Examples for automatic key-frame selection are given for an re-enacted crime scene, and compared to manual selection.

  12. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...... be efficiently profiled in dissimilar clusters according to camera control as part of their game- play behaviour....

  13. Stereo Pinhole Camera: Assembly and experimental activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmário Barbosa Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the assembling of a stereo pinhole camera for capturing stereo-pairs of images and proposes experimental activities with it. A pinhole camera can be as sophisticated as you want, or so simple that it could be handcrafted with practically recyclable materials. This paper describes the practical use of the pinhole camera throughout history and currently. Aspects of optics and geometry involved in the building of the stereo pinhole camera are presented with illustrations. Furthermore, experiments are proposed by using the images obtained by the camera for 3D visualization through a pair of anaglyph glasses, and the estimation of relative depth by triangulation is discussed.

  14. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...... a novel approach to virtual camera control, which builds upon camera control and player modelling to provide the user with an adaptive point-of-view. To achieve this goal, we propose a methodology to model the player’s preferences on virtual camera movements and we employ the resulting models to tailor...

  15. Absolute phase unwrapping for dual-camera system without embedding statistical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chufan; Zhang, Song

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes an absolute phase unwrapping method for three-dimensional measurement that uses two cameras and one projector. On the left camera image, each pixel has one wrapped phase value, which corresponds to multiple projector candidates with different absolute phase values. We use the geometric relationship of the system to map projector candidates into the right camera candidates. By applying a series of candidate rejection criteria, a unique correspondence pair between two camera images can be determined. Then, the absolute phase is obtained by tracing the correspondence point back to the projector space. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed absolute phase unwrapping algorithm can successfully work on both complex geometry and multiple isolated objects measurement.

  16. Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, P L

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than identify an intruder. Monochrome cameras are adequate for that application and were selected over color cameras because of their greater sensitivity and resolution. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Color information is useful for identification purposes, and color camera technology is rapidly changing. Thus, Sandia National Laboratories established an ongoing program to evaluate color solid-state cameras. Phase one resulted in the publishing of a report titled, Initial Laboratory Evaluation of Color Video Cameras (SAND--91-2579).'' It gave a brief discussion of imager chips and color cameras and monitors, described the camera selection, detailed traditional test parameters and procedures, and gave the results of the evaluation of twelve cameras. In phase two six additional cameras were tested by the traditional methods and all eighteen cameras were tested by newly developed methods. This report details both the traditional and newly developed test parameters and procedures, and gives the results of both evaluations.

  17. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  18. Calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic radiographs of head and neck cancer patients before and after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, R-L; Conceição-Vasconcelos, K-G; Brandão, T-B; Prado-Ribeiro, A-C; Santos-Silva, A-R; Lopes, M-A

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to verify if head and neck radiotherapy (RT) is able to induce calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in a large head and neck cancer (HNC) population and also to compare the socio-demographic and clinical findings of patients with and without CCAA detected on panoramic radiographs. Panoramic radiographs taken before and after head and neck radiotherapy (RT) of 180 HNC patients were selected and analyzed in order to identify the presence of CCAA. In addition, CCAA presence or absence on panoramic radiographs were compared and correlated with clinicopathological findings. A high overall prevalence of CCAA was found on panoramic radiographs (63 out of 180 = 35%) of HNC patients. No significant difference of CCAA before and after RT was observed. There were also no differences between groups (with and without CCAA) regarding age, gender, tobacco and alcohol use, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction, hypercholesterolemia, tumor location, clinical stage of disease and RT dose. However, there was a greater prevalence of strokes in patients with CCAA (p<0.05). Although CCAA were frequently found in panoramic radiographs of patients with HNC, RT seems not to alter the prevalence of these calcifications.

  19. Determination of Proximity of Mandibular Third Molar to Mandibular Canal Using Panoramic Radiography and Cone-beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana S Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Position of inferior alveolar canal with respect to an impacted third molar reveals certain radiographic signs, but three-dimensional relationship to the canal can be provided with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. The purpose of this study was to determine which radiographic signs on panoramic radiography indicate a true relationship on CBCT. Materials and Methods: Forty samples with signs or symptoms of impacted mandibular third molar and panoramic radiograph showing signs of a close relationship with the mandibular canal as described by Félez-Gutiérrez et al. were included in the study and subjected to CBCT. Radiographic signs on panoramic radiography were compared with the relationship on CBCT. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: Twenty-one samples (52.5% showed darkening of the apex, which was the most frequent type of radiographic sign of a close relationship on panoramic radiography. Twenty-three samples (57.5% revealed a true relationship on CBCT. Darkening of the apex and narrowing of the canal were the signs most frequently associated with a true relationship. On CBCT, coronal and axial sections better predicted a true relationship. Conclusion: This study showed that the presence of any of the radiographic signs cannot definitely predict a true relationship; however, the presence of a close sign on panoramic radiography is often associated with a true relationship to the canal.

  20. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intra oral bitewing, extra oral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and digital con- ventional panoramic radiographs.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extra oral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis (P<0.05.Results: Microscopic evaluation of proximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the sur- faces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths. The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value among the five techniques were not statisti- cally significant.Conclusion: Improved interproximal panoramic and extra oral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intra oral radi- ographs.

  1. Relationship between CBCT and panoramic images of the morphology and angulation of the posterior mandibular jaw bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Aktan, Ali Murat; İşman, Özlem; Yıldırım, Eren

    2016-04-01

    We determined actual bucco-lingual angulation values and morphological variations of residual bone in the mandibular posterior edentulous region using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiography. A second aim was to investigate whether it was possible to predict bone morphology from panoramic radiographs. Data were collected from 77 consecutive patients referred for both CBCT and panoramic radiography in our department. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the probable implant placement region were investigated. The bucco-lingual angulation values and crest type were determined directly from the cross-sectional images of the posterior edentulous region. The edentulous region was divided into three groups: second premolar, first molar, or second molar region. The observations were evaluated by the computer software, SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA). The crest type was classified into three groups: type U, type C, or type P. Kappa statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in statistical analyses. The significance level was set at p panoramic radiographs. These results demonstrate predicting high-risk areas in the posterior mandible for implant therapy from panoramic radiography.

  2. Comparative Study of the Diagnostic Value of Panoramic and Conventional Radiography of the Wrist in Scaphoid Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Zangoie Booshehri, Maryam; Banadaki, Seyed Hossein Saeed; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Scaphoid fractures are the most common type of carpal fractures. Objectives The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic value of panoramic and conventional radiographs of the wrist in scaphoid fractures. Patients and Methods The panoramic and conventional radiographs of 122 patients with acute and chronic wrist trauma were studied. The radiographs were analyzed and examined by two independent radiologist observers; one physician radiologist and one maxillofacial radiologist. The final diagnosis was made by an orthopedic specialist. Kappa test was used for statistical calculations, inter- and intra-observer agreement and correlation between the two techniques. Results Wrist panoramic radiography was more accurate than conventional radiography for ruling out scaphoid fractures. There was an agreement in 85% or more of the cases. Agreement values were higher with better inter and intra observer agreement for panoramic examinations than conventional radiographic examinations. Conclusion The panoramic examination of the wrist is a useful technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of scaphoid fractures. Its use is recommended as a complement to conventional radiography in cases with inconclusive findings. PMID:23599708

  3. Risk assessment of osteoporosis in pre- and postmenopausal periodontally healthy and chronic periodontitis women with digital panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Rajashri Abhay; Kolte, Abhay Pandurang; Potey, Anushree Manohar

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is particularly high in females, the early identification of which remains a challenge. Panoramic radiographs are routinely advised to detect periodontal diseases and can be used to predict low bone mineral density (BMD). Hence, this investigation was aimed to identify the risk of osteoporosis in pre- and postmenopausal periodontally healthy and chronic periodontitis women with digital panoramic radiographs. The study population consisted of 120 patients equally divided as Group I - Premenopausal periodontally healthy, Group II - Premenopausal periodontitis, Group III - Postmenopausal periodontally healthy, and Group IV - Postmenopausal periodontitis. Clinical parameters were recorded, and digital panoramic radiographs were used to record the mental index (MI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI), and mandibular cortical index (MCI) scores. MI was found to be varied, and the differences were highly significant among Group III and IV ( P = 0.0003) and Group II and IV ( P = 0.0007), and significant difference was found between Group I and Group II ( P = 0.0113). MCI evaluation showed a greater prevalence of C2 and C3 patterns among postmenopausal women. MCI correlation with MI ( P periodontitis in postmenopausal women confirms the high risk of osteoporosis in them. Furthermore, an increased percentage of patients with undetected decrease in BMD may be identified by screening with digital panoramic radiographs which are done on a routine basis for periodontal and other dental diseases and thus could be used as an effective aid to quantify bone density in future.

  4. Reliability and validity of mandibular posterior vertical asymmetry index in panoramic radiography compared with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Sub; Chung, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Jin-Woo; Lee, Sang-Min

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the asymmetry index using panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography for detecting mandibular posterior asymmetry and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the asymmetry index on panoramic radiography. A total of 43 patients were included in this study. Ten mandibular posterior distances were measured using panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography, and 10 asymmetry index values were calculated. The reliability of each asymmetry index was assessed. For evaluating validity of each asymmetry index using panoramic radiography, the paired t test and the Bland-Altman analysis were used. The accuracy of the asymmetry index and the area under the curve of receiver operator characteristic were calculated. The asymmetry index of total ramal height showed good reliability (ICC, >0.888). In condylar height 1, specificity and negative predictive value were low (0.08 and 0.17, respectively), 95% limits of agreement were ±17.9%, and area under the curve was 0.484. In total, ramal height accuracy was 0.86, and areas under the curve were 0.926 to 0.957. For detecting asymmetry of the condyle region, the asymmetry index using panoramic radiography had little diagnostic value, and we recommend using cone-beam computed tomography images. However, the asymmetry index for total ramal height showed good reliability and relatively higher validity, and its diagnostic value was excellent. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Front Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The left front wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's front hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  6. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  7. Automatic Texture Mapping with AN Omnidirectional Camera Mounted on a Vehicle Towards Large Scale 3d City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F.; Li, D.; Yan, L.; Fan, H.

    2012-07-01

    Today high resolution panoramic images with competitive quality have been widely used for rendering in some commercial systems. However the potential applications such as mapping, augmented reality and modelling which need accurate orientation information are still poorly studied. Urban models can be quickly obtained from aerial images or LIDAR, however with limited quality or efficiency due to low resolution textures and manual texture mapping work flow. We combine an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with the traditional Structure from Motion (SFM) method without any prior information based on a general camera model which can handle various kinds of omnidirectional and other kind of single perspective image sequences even with unconnected or weakly connected frames. The orientation results is then applied to mapping the textures from panoramas to the existing building models obtained from aerial photogrammetry. It turns out to largely improve the quality of the models and the efficiency of the modelling procedure.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of panoramic radiography in determining relationship between inferior alveolar nerve and mandibular third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atieh, Momen A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of panoramic radiographic markers in the detection of the relationship between the mandibular canal and third molar roots. A literature search of electronic databases, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, National Research Register, conference proceedings, and abstracts was performed to identify studies that had investigated the diagnostic accuracy of the 3 panoramic radiographic markers (ie, darkening of the root, interruption of the radiopaque borders, and diversion of the mandibular canal). RevMan, version 5.0, and Meta-DiSc software programs were used for the pooled analyses and the construction of a summary receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 5 studies were included, involving 894 observations. The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity for darkening of the root was calculated as 51.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 42% to 60%) and 89% (95% CI 87% to 90%), respectively. The interruption of radiopaque borders showed a pooled sensitivity of 53.5% (95% CI 78.1% to 81.8%) and a pooled specificity of 80% (95% CI 78.1% to 81.8%). The diversion of the canal criterion had a pooled sensitivity of 29.4% (95% CI 21.8% to 38.1%) and a pooled specificity of 94.7% (95% CI 93.6% to 95.7%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 70% to 77%. The results of this meta-analysis suggest a reasonable diagnostic accuracy for panoramic radiography in the preoperative evaluation of the relationship between third molars and the canal. Additional studies are needed to examine a more accurate, accessible, and cost-effective initial radiographic technique before third molar surgery.

  9. Optimization of exposure in panoramic radiography while maintaining image quality using adaptive filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Björn; Larsson, Lars; Båth, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of using advanced external adaptive image processing for maintaining image quality while reducing exposure in dental panoramic storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiography. Materials and methods Thirty-seven SPP radiographs of a skull phantom were acquired using a Scanora panoramic X-ray machine with various tube load, tube voltage, SPP sensitivity and filtration settings. The radiographs were processed using General Operator Processor (GOP) technology. Fifteen dentists, all within the dental radiology field, compared the structural image quality of each radiograph with a reference image on a 5-point rating scale in a visual grading characteristics (VGC) study. The reference image was acquired with the acquisition parameters commonly used in daily operation (70 kVp, 150 mAs and sensitivity class 200) and processed using the standard process parameters supplied by the modality vendor. Results All GOP-processed images with similar (or higher) dose as the reference image resulted in higher image quality than the reference. All GOP-processed images with similar image quality as the reference image were acquired at a lower dose than the reference. This indicates that the external image processing improved the image quality compared with the standard processing. Regarding acquisition parameters, no strong dependency of the image quality on the radiation quality was seen and the image quality was mainly affected by the dose. Conclusions The present study indicates that advanced external adaptive image processing may be beneficial in panoramic radiography for increasing the image quality of SPP radiographs or for reducing the exposure while maintaining image quality.

  10. Segmentation of teeth in CT volumetric dataset by panoramic projection and variational level set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosntalab, Mohammad; Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Reza; Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard, Ali; Shirani, Gholamreza

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of teeth is of clinical importance for various computer assisted procedures such as dental implant, orthodontic planning, face, jaw and cosmetic surgeries. In this regard, segmentation is a major step. In this paper, we propose a method for segmentation of teeth in volumetric computed tomography (CT) data using panoramic re-sampling of the dataset in the coronal view and variational level set. The proposed method consists of five steps as follows: first, we extract a mask in a CT images using Otsu thresholding. Second, the teeth are segmented from other bony tissues by utilizing anatomical knowledge of teeth in the jaws. Third, the proposed method is followed by estimating the arc of the upper and lower jaws and panoramic re-sampling of the dataset. Separation of upper and lower jaws and initial segmentation of teeth are performed by employing the horizontal and vertical projections of the panoramic dataset, respectively. Based the above mentioned procedures an initial mask for each tooth is obtained. Finally, we utilize the initial mask of teeth and apply a Variational level set to refine initial teeth boundaries to final contours. The proposed algorithm was evaluated in the presence of 30 multi-slice CT datasets including 3,600 images. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the proposed algorithm, the variational level set technique was utilized to trace the contour of the teeth. In view of the fact that, this technique is based on the characteristic of the overall region of the teeth image, it is possible to extract a very smooth and accurate tooth contour using this technique. In the presence of the available datasets, the proposed technique was successful in teeth segmentation compared to previous techniques. (orig.)

  11. Segmentation of teeth in CT volumetric dataset by panoramic projection and variational level set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosntalab, Mohammad [Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran); Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Reza [University of Tehran, Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard, Ali [Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran); Sharif University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Shirani, Gholamreza [Faculty of Dentistry Medical Science of Tehran University, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-09-15

    Quantification of teeth is of clinical importance for various computer assisted procedures such as dental implant, orthodontic planning, face, jaw and cosmetic surgeries. In this regard, segmentation is a major step. In this paper, we propose a method for segmentation of teeth in volumetric computed tomography (CT) data using panoramic re-sampling of the dataset in the coronal view and variational level set. The proposed method consists of five steps as follows: first, we extract a mask in a CT images using Otsu thresholding. Second, the teeth are segmented from other bony tissues by utilizing anatomical knowledge of teeth in the jaws. Third, the proposed method is followed by estimating the arc of the upper and lower jaws and panoramic re-sampling of the dataset. Separation of upper and lower jaws and initial segmentation of teeth are performed by employing the horizontal and vertical projections of the panoramic dataset, respectively. Based the above mentioned procedures an initial mask for each tooth is obtained. Finally, we utilize the initial mask of teeth and apply a Variational level set to refine initial teeth boundaries to final contours. The proposed algorithm was evaluated in the presence of 30 multi-slice CT datasets including 3,600 images. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the proposed algorithm, the variational level set technique was utilized to trace the contour of the teeth. In view of the fact that, this technique is based on the characteristic of the overall region of the teeth image, it is possible to extract a very smooth and accurate tooth contour using this technique. In the presence of the available datasets, the proposed technique was successful in teeth segmentation compared to previous techniques. (orig.)

  12. Application of segmented dental panoramic tomography among children: positive effect of continuing education in radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Laatikainen, Tuula; Haukka, Jari; Ekholm, Marja

    2016-05-23

    Dental panoramic tomography is the most frequent examination among 7-12-year olds, according to the Radiation Safety and Nuclear Authority of Finland. At those ages, dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) are mostly obtained for orthodontic reasons. Children's dose reduction by trimming the field size to the area of interest is important because of their high radiosensitivity. Yet, the majority of DPTs in this age group are still taken by using an adult programme and never by using a segmented programme. The purpose of the present study was to raise the awareness of dental staff with respect to children's radiation safety, to increase the application of segmented and child DPT programmes by further educating the whole dental team and to evaluate the outcome of the educational intervention. A five-step intervention programme, focusing on DPT field limitation possibilities, was carried out in community-based dental care as a part of mandatory continuing education in radiation protection. Application of segmented and child DPT programmes was thereafter prospectively followed up during a 1-year period and compared with our similar data from 2010 using a logistic regression analysis. Application of the child programme increased by 9% and the segmented programme by 2%, reaching statistical significance (odds ratios 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.23-2.30; p-value < 0.001). The number of repeated exposures remained at an acceptable level. The segmented DPTs were most frequently taken from the maxillary lateral incisor-canine area. The educational intervention resulted in improvement of radiological practice in respect to radiation safety of children during dental panoramic tomography. Segmented and child DPT programmes can be applied successfully in dental practice for children.

  13. Assessment of digital panoramic radiography's diagnostic value in angular bony lesions with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Vadiati Saberi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study, bone probing is a reliable method in vertical alveolar bone defect measurements. While the information obtained from digital panoramic radiographs should be used with caution and the ability of digital panoramic radiography in the determination of defect depth is limited.

  14. Human tracking over camera networks: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Wan, Wanggen; Hwang, Jenq-Neng; Muhammad, Rizwan; Yang, Mingyang; Han, Kang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, automated human tracking over camera networks is getting essential for video surveillance. The tasks of tracking human over camera networks are not only inherently challenging due to changing human appearance, but also have enormous potentials for a wide range of practical applications, ranging from security surveillance to retail and health care. This review paper surveys the most widely used techniques and recent advances for human tracking over camera networks. Two important functional modules for the human tracking over camera networks are addressed, including human tracking within a camera and human tracking across non-overlapping cameras. The core techniques of human tracking within a camera are discussed based on two aspects, i.e., generative trackers and discriminative trackers. The core techniques of human tracking across non-overlapping cameras are then discussed based on the aspects of human re-identification, camera-link model-based tracking and graph model-based tracking. Our survey aims to address existing problems, challenges, and future research directions based on the analyses of the current progress made toward human tracking techniques over camera networks.

  15. Image compensation for camera and lighting variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Wayne D.; Britton, Douglas F.

    1996-12-01

    With the current trend of integrating machine vision systems in industrial manufacturing and inspection applications comes the issue of camera and illumination stabilization. Unless each application is built around a particular camera and highly controlled lighting environment, the interchangeability of cameras of fluctuations in lighting become a problem as each camera usually has a different response. An empirical approach is proposed where color tile data is acquired using the camera of interest, and a mapping is developed to some predetermined reference image using neural networks. A similar analytical approach based on a rough analysis of the imaging systems is also considered for deriving a mapping between cameras. Once a mapping has been determined, all data from one camera is mapped to correspond to the images of the other prior to performing any processing on the data. Instead of writing separate image processing algorithms for the particular image data being received, the image data is adjusted based on each particular camera and lighting situation. All that is required when swapping cameras is the new mapping for the camera being inserted. The image processing algorithms can remain the same as the input data has been adjusted appropriately. The results of utilizing this technique are presented for an inspection application.

  16. Using DSLR cameras in digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Zuluaga, Diego; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge; García-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    In Digital Holography (DH), the size of the bidimensional image sensor to record the digital hologram, plays a key role on the performance of this imaging technique; the larger the size of the camera sensor, the better the quality of the final reconstructed image. Scientific cameras with large formats are offered in the market, but their cost and availability limit their use as a first option when implementing DH. Nowadays, DSLR cameras provide an easy-access alternative that is worthwhile to be explored. The DSLR cameras are a wide, commercial, and available option that in comparison with traditional scientific cameras, offer a much lower cost per effective pixel over a large sensing area. However, in the DSLR cameras, with their RGB pixel distribution, the sampling of information is different to the sampling in monochrome cameras usually employed in DH. This fact has implications in their performance. In this work, we discuss why DSLR cameras are not extensively used for DH, taking into account the problem reported by different authors of object replication. Simulations of DH using monochromatic and DSLR cameras are presented and a theoretical deduction for the replication problem using the Fourier theory is also shown. Experimental results of DH implementation using a DSLR camera show the replication problem.

  17. Panoramic radiography: effects of head alignment on the vertical dimension of the mandibular ramus and condyle region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Khonsari, Reza; Fenske, Christian; Behfar, Leyli; Bauss, Oskar

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether it is possible to derive accurate vertical measurements of the mandibular ramus and condyle from panoramic radiographs. A human dry skull was positioned in a panoramic machine. The skull was displaced along the sagittal and transverse plane and rotated around the vertical and transverse axes. A set of 252 digital radiographs with defined positioning errors was compared with a set of 42 radiographs in the 'ideal' position. The distances between the metal markers that had been attached at the angle of the mandible at a distance of 60 mm in the condyle region to produce fixed reference points on the radiographs were measured. Statistical differences were investigated using Friedman repeated measures analysis of variance on ranks followed by the Dunnett's test for the comparison against the control group in the ideal position (α = 0.05). Vertical measurements were significantly affected when the skull was rotated around the vertical (P panoramic machine.

  18. Comparison between DICOM-calibrated and uncalibrated consumer grade and 6-MP displays under different lighting conditions in panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio-Pulkkinen, S; Haapea, M; Liukkonen, E; Huumonen, S; Tervonen, O; Nieminen, M T

    2015-01-01

    To compare observer performance in the detection of anatomical structures and pathology in panoramic radiographs using consumer grade with and without digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM)-calibration and 6-megapixel (6-MP) displays under different lighting conditions. 30 panoramic radiographs were randomly evaluated on three displays under bright (510 lx) and dim (16 lx) ambient lighting by two observers with different years of experience. Dentinoenamel junction, dentinal caries and periapical inflammatory lesions, visibility of cortical border of the floor and pathological lesions in maxillary sinus were evaluated. Consensus between the observers was considered as reference. Intraobserver agreement was determined. Proportion of equivalent ratings and weighted kappa were used to assess reliability. The level of significance was set to p panoramic radiography in different lighting conditions. Therefore, a DICOM-calibrated consumer grade display can be used instead of a medical display in dental practice without compromising the diagnostic quality.

  19. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  20. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  1. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Alistair S; Cockburn, Stuart; Nichols, Margaret; Ekanayake, Jagath; Warburton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1) trigger speed, 2) passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3) white vs. infrared flash, and 4) still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea), feral cats (Felis catus) and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus). Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  2. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.M.; Saez, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp(10) and H*(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-802) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With these data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  3. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A. M.; Saez, J. C

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp (10) and H(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-002) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With those data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  4. Predictive Value of Panoramic Radiography for Injury of Inferior Alveolar Nerve After Mandibular Third Molar Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Naichuan; van Wijk, Arjen; Berkhout, Erwin; Sanderink, Gerard; De Lange, Jan; Wang, Hang; van der Heijden, Geert J M G

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present systematic review was to assess the added value of panoramic radiography in predicting postoperative injury of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) in the decision-making before mandibular third molar (MM3) surgery. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched electronically to identify the diagnostic accuracy of studies that had assessed the predictive value of 7 panoramic radiographic signs, including root-related signs (darkening of the root, deflection of the root, narrowing of the root, and dark and bifid apex of the root) and canal-related signs (interruption of the white line of the canal, diversion of the canal, and narrowing of the canal) for IAN injury after MM3 surgery. A total of 8 studies qualified for the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the 7 signs ranged from 0.06 to 0.49 and 0.81 to 0.97, respectively. The area under the summary area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.42 to 0.89. The pooled positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 7.5 to 26.6% and 95.9 to 97.7%, respectively. The added value of a positive sign for ruling in an IAN injury (PPV minus the prior probability) ranged from 3.4 to 22.2%. The added value of a negative sign for ruling out an IAN injury (NPV minus [1 minus the prior probability]) ranged from 0.1 to 2.2%. For all 7 signs, the added value of panoramic radiography is too low to consider it appropriate for ruling out postoperative IAN in the decision-making before MM3 surgery. The added value of panoramic radiography for determining the presence of diversion of the canal, interruption of the white line of the canal, and darkening of the root can be considered sufficient for ruling in the risk of postoperative IAN injury in the decision-making before MM3 surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Usefulness of Panoramic Radiography in the Detection of Maxillary Sinus Pathosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sook; Paek, Chang Seo

    1999-01-01

    to evaluate the usefulness of the panoramic radiography, generally used in dental clinic, for the detection of the maxillary sinus pathosis due to the inflammation and tumor, through the comparison with CT findings as the absolute standard. 150 maxillary sinuses of 75 patients with or without particular signs and symptoms and showing soft tissue lesions or destruction of maxillary sinus walls in at least one sinus in CT, were selected as subject samples, and the panoramic radiography of the same patients were interpretated by 3 dental radiologists and 3 non dental radiologist given no previous information. Using the CT findings as the absolute standard, the diagnostic ability of panoraimc radiography in the mucosal thickening, maxillary sinus haziness, inferior wall destruction, medial wall destruction, posterolateral wall destruction and the superior wall destruction was evaluated using the ROC curve and the difference between dental radiologist group and non dental radiologist group was also evaluated. 1. When dental radiologist group interpretated the destruction of inferior wall and posterolateral wall, the kappa value which shows interobserver's coincidence was above 0.75.2. The diagnostic ability according to site of interpretation was the highest when the inferior wall was interpretated in both observer groups and there was a statistically significant difference between the dental radiologist group and non dental radiologist group in interpretating the mucosal thickening, haziness, destruction of the inferior and medial wall (p<0.05).3. The diagnostic ability in detecting the destruction of the sinus walls was better than in soft tissue lesions in both groups and between the groups there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). When detecting the destruction of inferior and posterolateral wall of the maxillary sinus there was coincident with that of CT findings, and so it is considered that diagnostic ability of panoramic radiography is high in

  6. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  7. A Comparison of Panoramic, Periapical and Bite Wing Radiographies in Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodiontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haerian Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The height of the alveolar bone, is normally maintained by equilibrium between bone formation and bone resorption, but in periodontal disease more destruction or lack of bone formation will reduce the alveolar bone height. However the radiography is important in diagnosis, treatment plan and detection of quality and quantity of the alveolar bone; although the type of radiography is more important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panaromic, P.A (Parallel, Bite Wing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods: This study was descriptive cross-Sectional study Periapical (PA, Bitewing (B.W & Panoramic radiographic images in 32 pationent 13 male and 19 female with moderate to advanced periodontitis (mean age 38 year were taken before surgical treatment. Actual hight of defect were measured by a William's probe during surgery, the distance between cemento enamel junction (CEJ and alveolar crest were measured on radiographs using a digital vernie scale as will as. Actual measurements were compared with values taken from panoramic PA, B.W radiographs. For Data analysis Paired t test was used. Results: A total of 314 linear distances from the panoramic PA , B.W, and CEJ/BL were measured. The mean difference between panoramic and actual Measurements (0.115 and 0.28 P=(0.24-0.07, were not satistically significant (P> 0.05. The mean difference between P.A and actual measurements (0.279-0.498 P=(0.0001-0.004 showed a satistically significant difference (P< 0.05. The mean deference between BW and actual Measurements (0.576-0.613 P=(0.24-0.07 were satistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Although, all forms of radiographic images showed agreement in detection of periodontal bone loss, the accuracy of panoramic radiographs was more than PA & BW radiographs'. Specially when the magnification was adjusted in panoramic radiography.

  8. The comparison of mandibular radiomorphometric indices in panoramic radiography between patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeintaghavi, Amir; Hosseinizarch, Hossein; Tabassi, Sara Mohammadzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are two separate diseases with different origins and manifestations. It is believed that these diseases linked together, because they both lead to bone damage, some risk factors are similar, they both have the highest prevalence in middle-aged and older women. Some studies showed that the use of panoramic radiography and special indices could be reliable tools for osteoporosis screening. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and jaw osteoporotic indices. Eighty-two patients with chronic periodontitis and 80 healthy individuals were selected, they had been referred to a private oral and maxillofacial radiology clinic to take a panoramic radiograph. Then panoramic indicators; including the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), and panoramic mandible index (PMI) in both groups were measured, recorded and analyzed. The mean age of investigated individuals was 39/8 ± 9/33. 58.6% of participants were females and 41.4% were males. MI and PMI levels in the periodontal group were more than the periodontally healthy group, but the differences between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.808 and p = 0.102 respectively). The MCI level was significantly different between two groups (p = 0.028). The results of this study showed that there is significant relationship between MCI in panoramic radiography and chronic periodontitis. It is suggested to perform more studies to confrm if this index could be used for screening and indicating of bone status in high risk individuals. This study did not show a strong evidence of a relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis. Since panoramic radiographs are routinely used for screening in dental practice, any association between radiomorphometric indices of mandible in periodontitis patients might be useful in prediction of osteoporosis in patients referring to dental clinics.

  9. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The first of three images of ESO's GigaGalaxy Zoom project - a new magnificent 800-million-pixel panorama of the entire sky as seen from ESO's observing sites in Chile - has just been released online. The project allows stargazers to explore and experience the Universe as it is seen with the unaided eye from the darkest and best viewing locations in the world. This 360-degree panoramic image, covering the entire celestial sphere, reveals the cosmic landscape that surrounds our tiny blue planet. This gorgeous starscape serves as the first of three extremely high-resolution images featured in the GigaGalaxy Zoom project, launched by ESO within the framework of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). GigaGalaxy Zoom features a web tool that allows users to take a breathtaking dive into our Milky Way. With this tool users can learn more about many different and exciting objects in the image, such as multicoloured nebulae and exploding stars, just by clicking on them. In this way, the project seeks to link the sky we can all see with the deep, "hidden" cosmos that astronomers study on a daily basis. The wonderful quality of the images is a testament to the splendour of the night sky at ESO's sites in Chile, which are the most productive astronomical observatories in the world. The plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, which we see edge-on from our perspective on Earth, cuts a luminous swath across the image. The projection used in GigaGalaxy Zoom place the viewer in front of our Galaxy with the Galactic Plane running horizontally through the image - almost as if we were looking at the Milky Way from the outside. From this vantage point, the general components of our spiral galaxy come clearly into view, including its disc, marbled with both dark and glowing nebulae, which harbours bright, young stars, as well as the Galaxy's central bulge and its satellite galaxies. The painstaking production of this image came about as a collaboration between ESO, the renowned

  10. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to ov...

  11. Approximations to camera sensor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2013-02-01

    Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.

  12. Streak camera recording of interferometer fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.L.; Chau, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The use of an electronic high-speed camera in the streaking mode to record interference fringe motion from a velocity interferometer is discussed. Advantages of this method over the photomultiplier tube-oscilloscope approach are delineated. Performance testing and data for the electronic streak camera are discussed. The velocity profile of a mylar flyer accelerated by an electrically exploded bridge, and the jump-off velocity of metal targets struck by these mylar flyers are measured in the camera tests. Advantages of the streak camera include portability, low cost, ease of operation and maintenance, simplified interferometer optics, and rapid data analysis

  13. Decision about buying a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A large part of the referral to a nuclear medicine department is usually for imaging studies. Sooner or later, the nuclear medicine specialist will be called upon to make a decision about when and what type of gamma camera to buy. There is no longer an option of choosing between a rectilinear scanner and a gamma camera as the former is virtually out of the market. The decision that one has to make is when to invest in a gamma camera, and then on what basis to select the gamma camera

  14. A study on the central plane of image layer in panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon Bai; Park, Chang Seo

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to locate the plane of the image layer on the panoramic machine relative to a specific point on the machine. In the study of the central plane of the image layer of panoramic radiograph, using the Morrita Company PANEX-EC a series of 33 exposures were taken with the 4-5 experimental pins placed in the holes of the plastic model plate, then evaluated by human eye. The author analyzed the central plane of the image layer by Mitutoy-A-221 and calculated horizontal and vertical magnification ratio in central plane of the image layer determined experimentally. The results were as follows: 1. The location of the central plane of the image layer determined experimentally was to lateral compared with manufactural central plane. 2. Horizontal magnification ratio in the central plane of image layer determined experimentally was 9.25%. 3. Vertical magnification ratio in the central plane of the image layer determined experimentally was 9.17%.

  15. Radiation protection and quality assurance in dental radiology: II. Panoramic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodar-Porlan, S.; Alcaraz, M.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Saura-Iniesta, A.M.; Velasco-Hidalgo, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies 278 official reports on quality assurance in dental radiology in the context of the first revision of these dental clinics, as a result of the entry into force of the regulations establishing the duties for these types of facilities. In the results section we present a quantitative analysis of the facilities equipped with an panoramic radiology apparatus, making a special reference to the brands they have available, as well as their physical features (kV, mA, filtration) and the deviations detected in their operation. Some of their features in the process of obtaining radiological images at those facilities (film control, development time, liquid renewal) are determined, and the average dose of ionising radiation used in order to obtain the same tooth radiological image is presented. This paper shows, in a quantitative way, the characteristic features of panoramic radiology in our medium. The study is intended to be continued during the next years, which would allow the assessment of the prospective improvement in dental radiological performances as a result of the newly established regulations. (author)

  16. Small-scale anomaly detection in panoramic imaging using neural models of low-level vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Matthew C.; Hickman, Duncan L.; Pavlou, Athanasios; Sadler, James R. E.

    2011-06-01

    Our understanding of sensory processing in animals has reached the stage where we can exploit neurobiological principles in commercial systems. In human vision, one brain structure that offers insight into how we might detect anomalies in real-time imaging is the superior colliculus (SC). The SC is a small structure that rapidly orients our eyes to a movement, sound or touch that it detects, even when the stimulus may be on a small-scale; think of a camouflaged movement or the rustle of leaves. This automatic orientation allows us to prioritize the use of our eyes to raise awareness of a potential threat, such as a predator approaching stealthily. In this paper we describe the application of a neural network model of the SC to the detection of anomalies in panoramic imaging. The neural approach consists of a mosaic of topographic maps that are each trained using competitive Hebbian learning to rapidly detect image features of a pre-defined shape and scale. What makes this approach interesting is the ability of the competition between neurons to automatically filter noise, yet with the capability of generalizing the desired shape and scale. We will present the results of this technique applied to the real-time detection of obscured targets in visible-band panoramic CCTV images. Using background subtraction to highlight potential movement, the technique is able to correctly identify targets which span as little as 3 pixels wide while filtering small-scale noise.

  17. A study of angle of mandibular canal and mental foramen on the panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon

    2009-01-01

    To assessment the angle between mandibular canal and occlusal plane at each posterior tooth region and location of mental foramen on the panoramic radiographs. This study analysed 46 half-mandibles of panoramic radiographs. Inferior border of mandibular canal was traced. Occlusal plane was drawn from lingual cusp tip of the first premolar to distolingual cusp tip of the second molar. Perpendicular line from occlusal plane was drawn at each tooth region and then tangential lines were drawn from the crossing points at canal. The angle between occlusal plane and tangential line was measured. The location of mental foramen was also studied. According to the location of mental foramen, radiographs were divided into M (mesial) group and D (distal) group on the basis of the second premolar. and then inter-group analysis about mandibular canal angle was done. The angles of mandibular canals were -17.7 .deg. C, -9.5 .deg. C, 8.2 .deg. C, 22.3 .deg. C, and 39.2 .deg. C at first premolar, second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar, respectively. The commonest position of the mental foramen was distal to the second premolar. Inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference at the second premolar and the first molar (p<0.001). The acknowledgement of mandibular canal angulation and location of mental foramen can help understanding the course of mandibular canal.

  18. A study of angle of mandibular canal and mental foramen on the panoramic radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Science Institute, College of Dentistry, Kangnung-Wonju National University, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    To assessment the angle between mandibular canal and occlusal plane at each posterior tooth region and location of mental foramen on the panoramic radiographs. This study analysed 46 half-mandibles of panoramic radiographs. Inferior border of mandibular canal was traced. Occlusal plane was drawn from lingual cusp tip of the first premolar to distolingual cusp tip of the second molar. Perpendicular line from occlusal plane was drawn at each tooth region and then tangential lines were drawn from the crossing points at canal. The angle between occlusal plane and tangential line was measured. The location of mental foramen was also studied. According to the location of mental foramen, radiographs were divided into M (mesial) group and D (distal) group on the basis of the second premolar. and then inter-group analysis about mandibular canal angle was done. The angles of mandibular canals were -17.7 .deg. C, -9.5 .deg. C, 8.2 .deg. C, 22.3 .deg. C, and 39.2 .deg. C at first premolar, second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar, respectively. The commonest position of the mental foramen was distal to the second premolar. Inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference at the second premolar and the first molar (p<0.001). The acknowledgement of mandibular canal angulation and location of mental foramen can help understanding the course of mandibular canal.

  19. The Value of Panoramic Radiography in Gender Specification of Edentulous Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ghodousi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: gender specification among the forensic dentistry and human anthropology, is mainly based on anatomic variations. Due to racial differences and environmental factors such as time of tooth extraction, osteoporosis, dietary habits, usage of dental prosthetics and periodontal diseases, there will be different results achieved. The purpose of this study is to classify the gender specification in edentulous patient by using anatomical variations in panoramic radiography. Methods: Panoramic radiographs of a population including 45 men and 45 women which were aged between 51 to 79 years were assessed and statistically analyzed. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that the average of measured distances in male were significantly higher than female except for the distance between the two mental foramina. It should be signified that the accuracy of gender specification with this method was ranged between 78 to 84.5 percent in female and between 80 to 89 percent in male. Conclusion: The Method of this study can be used as a quantitative technique along with other methods of gender specification. Furthermore, this study has been illustrated as one of the most significant approvals for the existence of sexual dimorphism in Iranian population.

  20. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh-Haddad, Aida; Haddad, Denise Sabbagh; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. The patients were in the range of 6-17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS), which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (p<0.05). In this group, supernumerary deciduous teeth (2.83%), giroversion of permanent teeth (2.31%), and partial anodontia (1.82%) were the most frequent dental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (p<0.05). We conclude that knowledge of dental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals.

  1. Age estimation by canines' pulp/tooth ratio in an Iranian population using digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Shadkam, Elaheh; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Dehghani, Mahboobe

    2018-04-01

    Age estimation in adults is an important issue in forensic science. This study aimed to estimate the chronological age of Iranians by means of pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of canines in digital panoramic radiographs. The sample consisted of panoramic radiographs of 271 male and female subjects aged 16-64 years. The pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of upper and lower canines was calculated by AutoCAD software. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis. There was a significant and inverse correlation between age and pulp/tooth area ratio of upper and lower canines (r=-0.794 for upper canine and r=-0.282 for lower canine; p-value<0.001). Linear regression equations were derived separately for upper, lower and both canines. The mean difference between actual and estimated age using upper canine was 6.07±1.7. The results showed that the pulp/tooth area ratios of canines are a reliable method for age estimation in Iranians. The pulp/tooth area ratio of upper canine was better correlated with chronological age than that of lower canine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Image quality analysis vs dose to the patient in digital panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Diaz, M.; Borges-Garcia, T.; Leon-Santana, J.; Vanderley-Brasileiro, I.; Khoury, H.; Miranda-Cataneda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Digital panoramic radiography is a diagnostic image technique which is increasing its use today allo over the world. Nevertheless, there is a relative lack of knowledge about the best compromise relationship between image quality and dose to the patient for these studies. Twenty one panoramic images of an anthropomorphic phantom and 205 from patients were collected using a Kodak digital equipment. Tube current, beam energy and acquisitions time were changed among studies to look for the best acquisition conditions which permit good image quality al low doses for patients. Air Kerma-Length Product was measures as dose index. Image quality was graded using objective metrics as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR [dB]) and Contrast to Noise ratio (CNR), as well as visual evaluation with two expert observers. Reduction in dose was able, reducing mAs mainly, without affecting image quality in a sensitive way. An optimized protocol for this equipment was also obtained for standard height and weight patients. (Author)

  3. Dental panoramic image analysis for enhancement biomarker of mandibular condyle for osteoporosis early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprijanto; Azhari; Juliastuti, E.; Septyvergy, A.; Setyagar, N. P. P.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease characterized by low Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Currently, a BMD level is determined by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar vertebrae and femur. Previous studies reported that dental panoramic radiography image has potential information for early osteoporosis detection. This work reported alternative scheme, that consists of the determination of the Region of Interest (ROI) the condyle mandibular in the image as biomarker and feature extraction from ROI and classification of bone conditions. The minimum value of intensity in the cavity area is used to compensate an offset on the ROI. For feature extraction, the fraction of intensity values in the ROI that represent high bone density and the ROI total area is perfomed. The classification will be evaluated from the ability of each feature and its combinations for the BMD detection in 2 classes (normal and abnormal), with the artificial neural network method. The evaluation system used 105 panoramic image data from menopause women which consist of 36 training data and 69 test data that were divided into 2 classes. The 2 classes of classification obtained 88.0% accuracy rate and 88.0% sensitivity rate.

  4. Utility of panoramic radiography for identification of the pubertal growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luciana Jácome; de Oliveira Gamba, Thiago; Visconti, Maria Augusta Portella Guedes; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz

    2016-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the association between dental mineralization stages and the periods of the pubertal growth spurt (PGS). The sample included panoramic and hand-wrist radiographs from 491 subjects (222 boys, 269 girls) aged 7 to 17 years. Dental development was rated, and skeletal maturation was evaluated. The relevant associations were investigated by analysis of ordinal multinomial logistic regression. The second molar (odds ratio [OR] = 4.34) and the first premolar (OR = 2.45) were the best growth predictors for girls. For boys, the second molar (OR = 6.80), second premolar (OR = 2.41), and canine (OR = 3.21) proved to be the best predictors. Stages D and E of the second molar for girls, and stages E and F for boys, corresponded to the onset of the accelerated growth spurt. Stage F of the second molar for girls and stage G for boys corresponded to the peak of the PGS. At the end of the PGS, most teeth had already attained apical closure. In girls, however, most second molars were found at stage G. An association exists between the dental mineralization stages and the periods of the PGS, especially for second molars. Panoramic radiographs can be used as the first diagnostic tool to estimate the pubertal growth period. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dental panoramic indices and fractal dimension measurements in osteogenesis imperfecta children under pamidronate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, Ana C; Sindeaux, Rafael; de Souza Figueiredo, Paulo T; Guimarães, Ana T B; Acevedo, Ana C; Castro, Luiz C; de Paula, Ana P; de Paula, Lilian M; de Melo, Nilce S; Leite, André F

    2016-01-01

    To verify radiomorphometric indices and fractal dimension (FD) in dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) of children with different types of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and also to verify the effect of pamidronate (PAM) treatment in such panoramic analyses. In this retrospective study, 197 DPRs of 62 children with OI Types I, III and IV who were in treatment with a comparable dosage of intravenous PAM were selected. The mandibular cortical width (MCW), mandibular cortical index, visual estimation of the cortical width and FD of three standardized trabecular and cortical mandibular regions of interest were obtained from the radiographs. Factorial analysis of variance and Fisher test were used to compare FD and MCW measurements in children with different types of OI for different PAM cycles. Children with all types of OI have thinner and more porous mandibular cortices at the beginning of treatment. There were significant differences between MCW and FD of the cortical bone, regarding different types of OI and number of PAM cycles (p = 0.037 and p = 0.044, respectively). FD measurements of the trabecular bone were not statistically different among OI types nor were PAM cycles (p > 0.05). Children with OI presented cortical bone alterations after PAM treatment. Both MCW and the FD of the cortical bone were higher in children with OI after PAM treatment. It is argued that cortical bone should be considered for analyzing patients with OI, as well as to monitor the progress of PAM treatment.

  6. Digital panoramic radiography versus cone beam computed tomography in the delineation of maxillomandibular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Barros, Renata Quirino de; Abilio, Vanessa Maria Freire; Yamamoto, Angela Toshie Araki; Melo, Daniela Pita de; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Bento, Patricia Meira

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to compare the efficacy of digital panoramic radiography (DPR) with that of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for delineation of odontogenic and nonodontogenic tumors. From November 2009 through March 2011, 23 tumors in the maxillomandibular complex were diagnosed by histopathological examination. All DPRs and CBCTs were obtained and analyzed by a single previously calibrated radiologist, who considered the following radiographic aspects: clarity of the lesion edges, relation with dental elements, involvement of adjacent anatomical structures, cortical bone expansion and disruption, and, if present, type of involved anatomical structures and site of bone expansion and disruption. Of 23 patients, 15 (65.2%) were male and 8 (34.8%) were female. The tumor was classified as odontogenic in 73.9% of patients and nonodontogenic in 26.1% of patients. Analysis revealed that 56.5% of the tumors were located in the mandible, 34.8% in the maxilla, and 8.7% in both arches. For all analyzed variables, CBCTs offered more accurate details than did DPRs. Panoramic radiography should not be the examination of choice to visualize lesions in the maxillomandibular complex.

  7. Panorametry: suggestion of a method for mandibular measurements on panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puricelli Edela

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthopantomography (panoramic radiography has been used for the study of measurements involving particularly the prediction of the eruption of impacted lower third molars and analyses of measurements of the ramus and head of mandible. The discrepancies involved with the projection of this radiographic image has stimulated the search for further ways to use it, particularly in orthodontic treatments and oral and maxillofacial surgeries. The author proposes a graphimetric method for the mandible, based on panoramic radiography. The results are expressed in linear and angular measurements, aiming at bilateral comparisons as well as the determination of the proportion of skeletal and dental structures, individually and among themselves as a whole. The method has been named Panorametry, and allows measurement of the mandible (Mandibular Panorametry or the posterior mandibular teeth (Dental Panorametry. When combining mandible and maxilla, it should be referred to as Total Panorametry. It may also be used, in the future, with Cone Beam computed tomography (CT images, and in this case it may be mentioned as CT Panorametry.

  8. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental panoramic radiography in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaridis, G; Koukorava, C; Hourdakis, C J; Kamenopoulou, V; Yakoumakis, E; Tsiklakis, K

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) established for panoramic dental examinations in Greece. The establishment of DRL, as a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures, is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 90 panoramic systems have been used for the derivation of DRL values. DRL values have been proposed for exposure settings of different patient types (child, small adult and standard adult), both for film and digital imaging. The DRLs for different patient types are grouped in three categories: children, small adults (corresponding to female) and average adults (corresponding to male). Proposed DRLs for these groups are 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 mGy, respectively. In order to investigate the correlation of DRLs with the available imaging modalities (CR, DR and film), this parameter was taken into account. DR imaging DRL is the lowest at 3.5 mGy, CR imaging the highest at 4.2 mGy and film imaging at 3.7 mGy. In order to facilitate comparison with other studies, kerma-width product values were calculated from Ki, air and field size. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Use of panoramic radiography to predict postsurgical sensory impairment following extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan-Kuei; Lui, Man-Tin; Cheng, Dong-Hui

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use panoramic radiographic findings to predict postsurgical sensory impairment following the extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. There were 120 patients enrolled in this study (55 male and 65 female). A total of 120 impacted mandibular third molars were included due to the proximity between the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) canal and the roots of the impacted third molar on the panoramic radiograph. Seven radiographic signs were the predictor variables: (1) darkening of the root(s); (2) interruption of the radiopaque line of the inferior alveolar canal; (3) diversion of the inferior alveolar canal; (4) dark and bifid apex; (5) deflection of the root(s); (6) narrowing of the inferior alveolar canal; and (7) narrowing of the root(s). The outcome variable was the postoperative IAN sensory impairment. The retrospective cohort study model was used, and univariable and bivariable statistics was computed with the statistically significant level at p ≤ 0.05. Three of the radiographic signs were statistically associated with IAN sensory impairment (p0.05). There are three radiographic signs: (1) interruption of the radiopaque line; (2) diversion of the IAN canal; and (3) narrowing of the IAN canal. These signs are valuable in presurgical evaluation of the risk of postoperative sensory impairment after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. Comparison between Two Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques for Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shafagh Motlagh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations.

  11. The Comparison between Two Different Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques in the Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hoseini Zarch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations

  12. Evaluation of third molar development and its relation to chronological age: a panoramic radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Mohammad; Shokri, Abbas; Malekzadeh, Hamid; Amini, Payam; Shafiey, Parastu

    2015-06-01

    Third molar development, in comparison to other teeth in the dentition, has the greatest variation in morphology, anatomical position, and time of development and eruption, and its reliability for chronological age estimation is controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate third molar development and its relation to chronological age using panoramic radiography. A total of 2536 digital panoramic radiographs of individuals aged between 5 and 26 years were selected. The developmental status of the third molars was assessed using eight-stage developmental scoring proposed by Demirjian et al., with one modification: a stage 0 was added. The collected data were entered into a checklist and subjected to statistical analyses. The mean ages of the first appearance of third molar bud, complete crown formation, and root apex closure were around 9, 14, and 22 years, respectively. In both jaws, third molar development occurred symmetrically, and sexual dimorphism was observed at some developmental stages. Finally, two formulas were presented to estimate age of the juveniles and adolescents based on their gender and developmental stages of the third molars, and validated on a second sample consisting of 523 individuals aged between 8 and 22. Assessment of third molar development was found to be a reliable method for age estimation of individuals between 11 and 22 years. Because of possible ethnic and geographic differences in third molar development, population specific researches were recommended.

  13. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental panoramic radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manousaridis, G.; Koukorava, C.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Kamenopoulou, V.; Yakoumakis, E.; Tsiklakis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) established for panoramic dental examinations in Greece. The establishment of DRL, as a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures, is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 90 panoramic systems have been used for the derivation of DRL values. DRL values have been proposed for exposure settings of different patient types (child, small adult and standard adult), both for film and digital imaging. The DRLs for different patient types are grouped in three categories: children, small adults (corresponding to female) and average adults (corresponding to male). Proposed DRLs for these groups are 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 mGy, respectively. In order to investigate the correlation of DRLs with the available imaging modalities (CR, DR and film), this parameter was taken into account. DR imaging DRL is the lowest at 3.5 mGy, CR imaging the highest at 4.2 mGy and film imaging at 3.7 mGy. In order to facilitate comparison with other studies, kerma-width product values were calculated from K i , air and field size. (authors)

  14. Digital panoramic radiograph rejection index at a Dental Radiology Service in Paraná, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickus, J.; Barros, F.S.; Sato, G.Y.; Rosa, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is the most frequent extraoral examination in dentistry. This technique allows the visualization of adjacent maxillomandibular and anatomical structures. Although digital imaging systems are already the great majority of dental radiology services, there is still a shortage of works evaluating the quality of this type of image. The objective of this study was to identify the rejection index of digital panoramic radiographs of a dental radiology service of a university in Brazil, pointing out the main reasons. A survey was performed on the image files and, randomly selected, 2306 images, 10% of the examinations performed in the period between 2013 to 2015. The results indicated a total rejection rate of 5.1% over the three years, totaling 117 radiographs. The main reasons for rejection were: the patient's head tilted backwards in 2013 and the lack of tongue contact with the palate, for the years 2014 and 2015. The main reasons for repetition of exams are related to the positioning in the execution of the technique radiological factors, which may be related to the lack of professional training. Patient collaboration during the examination and professional-to-patient communication failures may result in poor diagnostic quality exams

  15. Effects of dose reduction on the detectability of standardized radiolucent lesions in digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, K; Sanderink, G; van der Stelt, P F; Mini, R; Buser, D

    1998-08-01

    Dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography was studied. Intentional underexposure was performed with the Orthophos DS while six different human mandibles were radiographed. Exposure settings were 69 kV/15 mA (standard), 64 kV/16 mA, and 60 kV/16 mA. Standardized spherical defects, each either 1 or 1.25 mm in diameter, were simulated in 288 of 432 images, and seven observers decided whether defects were present or not. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were calculated. They showed no significant differences in the detectability of the 1-mm defect at 69, 64, or 60 kV. For the 1.25-mm defect, no difference was found between the 69 and 60 kV images, but a statistically significant different detectability was found for 64 kV images in comparison with both 69 and 60 kV images. A dose reduction of up to 43% was ascertained with a Pedo-RT-Humanoid phantom when panoramic radiography was performed at 60 kV/16 mA. The conclusion is that with the Orthophos DS, it seems possible to reduce the dose rate of x-rays without loss of diagnostic quality in the case of radiolucent changes.

  16. Italian panoramic monochromator for the THEMIS telescope: the first results and instrument evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Fabio; Berrilli, Francesco; Caccin, Bruno; Cantarano, Sergio; Ceppatelli, Guido; Egidi, Alberto; Righini, Alberto

    1998-07-01

    We briefly describe the design and the characteristics of the Italian Panoramic Monochromator installed at the focal plane of the THEMIS telescope built in Izana by a joint venture of the French and Italian National Research Councils. The Panoramic Monochromator substantially is a narrow band filter (approximately equals 22 mAngstrom bandwidth) tunable on the visible spectrum for quasi simultaneous bidimensional spectrometry of the solar atmosphere. The narrow bandwidth is obtained by using a non standard birefringent filter and a Fabry Perot interferometer mounted in series. This assembly has the advantage of the spectral purity of one channel of the Fabry Perot interferometer and a very large free spectral range. Moreover the spectral stability depends on the interferometer, the environment of which may be carefully controlled. The design of this instrument is not really new, but, only now it has been possible to build it thanks to the development of servo controlled Fabry Perot interferometers, which are stable in time and may easily be tuned. The system seems to perform well. It is stable in wavelength and the spectral pass band and stray light are within the expected values, as it may be deduced by very preliminary tests performed at the THEMIS Telescope and in Arcetri (Firenze) at the 'G. B. Donati' solar tower.

  17. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  18. Left heart imaging following inhalation of 15O-carbon dioxide: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, P.J.; Watson, D.D.; Janowitz, W.R.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Accelerator-produced C 15 O 2 (t/sub 1 / 2 / = 124 sec) is a uniquely useful radiopharmaceutical because it can be introduced rapidly and selectively into the left side of the heart by the simple noninvasive process of inhalation and breath-holding. A standard scintillation camera system was used to obtain images of the left heart by this technique. The procedure involves minimal radiation dose to the patient and may be repeated within a few minutes if necessary

  19. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and intercamera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, R.J.M. den; Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Rest, J.H.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many

  20. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed