WorldWideScience

Sample records for left moving pedestrians

  1. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  2. Safety effectiveness of pavement design treatment at intersections: Left turning vehicles and pedestrians on crosswalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Iasmin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users as they are more exposed than other road users. Pedestrian safety at road intersections still remains the most vital and yet unsolved issue. One of the critical points in pedestrian safety is the occurrence of accidents between left-turning vehicle and pedestrians on crosswalks at signalized intersections. A crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians and cyclists to cross vehicular roads safely. Drivers are expected to give priority to pedestrians or cyclists during interactions between them on the crosswalk. If a driver exhibits non-yielding behavior, the interaction will turn into a collision. This study examined the safety effect of three crosswalks designed with different materials such as red-colored material or brick pavement based on a safety performance study. The safety performance study considered left-turning driver's gap acceptance behavior and the severity of traffic conflict events between left-turning vehicles and pedestrians. The results of the study indicates that using brick pavement on a crosswalk increases the safety level of the crosswalk. Drivers at such crosswalks are more acquiescent to the priority rule.

  3. Estimation of left-turning vehicle maneuvers for the assessment of pedestrian safety at intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving pedestrian safety at intersections remains a critical issue. Although several types of safety countermeasures, such as reforming intersection layouts, have been implemented, methods have not yet been established to quantitatively evaluate the effects of these countermeasures before installation. One of the main issues in pedestrian safety is conflicts with turning vehicles. This study aims to develop an integrated model to represent the variations in the maneuvers of left-turners (left-hand traffic at signalized intersections that dynamically considers the vehicle reaction to intersection geometry and crossing pedestrians. The proposed method consists of four empirically developed stochastic sub-models, including a path model, free-flow speed profile model, lag/gap acceptance model, and stopping/clearing speed profile model. Since safety assessment is the main objective driving the development of the proposed model, this study uses post-encroachment time (PET and vehicle speed at the crosswalk as validation parameters. Preliminary validation results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation show that the proposed integrated model can realistically represent the variations in vehicle maneuvers as well as the distribution of PET and vehicle speeds at the crosswalk.

  4. [The peculiar features of the sidewise collision involving a pedestrian and an automobile moving in the reverse gear along an arc of a circle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, S V; Pinchuk, P V; Shakir'janova, Ju P

    This article was designed to report the results of the analysis of the consequences of a real case of the sidewise collision and run-over involving a pedestrian and an automobile moving in the reverse gear along an arc of a circle. Special attention was given to the mechanism behind the collision, its peculiar features, and characteristic damages inflicted to the pedestrian's body and clothes.

  5. Situations of car-to-pedestrian contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Takahashi, Kunio; Doi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the severity of injuries and the number of pedestrian deaths in traffic accidents, active safety devices providing pedestrian detection are considered effective countermeasures. The features of car-to-pedestrian collisions need to be known in detail to develop such safety devices. Because information on real-world accidents is limited, this study investigated near-miss situations captured by drive recorders installed in passenger cars. We showed similarities of the contact situation between near-miss incidents and real-world fatal pedestrian accidents in Japan. We analyzed the near-miss incident data via video capturing pedestrians crossing the road in front of forward-moving cars. Using a video frame captured by a drive recorder, the time to collision (TTC) was calculated from the car velocity and the distance between the car and pedestrian at the moment that the pedestrian initially appeared. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians were not using a pedestrian crossing was shorter than that in the cases where pedestrians were using a pedestrian crossing. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians emerged from behind obstructions was shorter than that in the cases where drivers had unobstructed views of the pedestrians. We propose that the specifications of the safety device for pedestrian detection and automatic braking should reflect the severe approach situation for a pedestrian and car including the TTC observed for near-miss incidents.

  6. Pedestrian ascent and descent fundamental diagram on stairway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Lo, S. M.; Ma, Jian

    2017-08-01

    Due to the interaction among individuals, pedestrian walking speeds in relatively dense crowds when descending and ascending stairs may present different features from a single pedestrian moving freely. Thus, to obtain a large range of densities, a series of single-file pedestrian movement experiments under laboratory conditions were performed. The trends of the fundamental diagram in a wide pedestrian density range for staircase movement are captured. Detailed features of pedestrian speed with the increase of pedestrian density, headway, and the influence of pedestrians’ lateral sway are further discussed. It is found that with the increase of pedestrian density, the speed decrease rate varies. Meanwhile, the decrease of headway, leads to two speed regimes, i.e. free movement and linear constrained movement. We show that pedestrian speed can be described by counting the number of steps separating pedestrians in longitudinal direction. These enrichments can benefit pedestrian modelling and improve the evaluation of the evacuation performance of a staircase.

  7. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...

  8. Pedestrian Crashes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving pedestrians in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  9. Simultaneous measurement of arterial and left ventricular pressure in conscious freely moving rats by telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreti, Jason A; Polakowski, James S; Blomme, Eric A; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive cardiovascular assessment in conscious rodents by utilizing telemetry has been limited by the restriction of current devices to one pressure channel. The purpose of this study was to test and validate a dual pressure transmitter that allows the simultaneous measurement of arterial pressure (AP) and left ventricular pressure (LVP) in conscious freely moving rats. Six rats were surgically implanted with dual pressure transmitters. Baseline hemodynamics and circadian rhythm were observed to return within 7days. AP, heart rate (HR), LVP and indices of left ventricular contractility were stable and demonstrated a prominent circadian rhythm over a two-week period of uninterrupted recordings. Administration of the vasodilator nifedipine produced the anticipated dose-dependent decrease in AP which was accompanied by a baroreflex mediated increase in HR and cardiac contractility. The negative inotrope verapamil produced the expected dose-dependent decreases in AP and cardiac contractility. Finally, a terminal validation of the dual pressure transmitter was performed under anesthesia by measuring AP and LVP simultaneously via telemetry and from a fluid filled arterial catheter and an intraventricular Millar catheter, respectively. A range of pressures and cardiac contractility were studied by administering sequential intravenous infusions of the positive inotrope dobutamine followed by verapamil. Linear regression analysis revealed a high level of agreement between pressures measured by the dual pressure transmitter and the exteriorized catheters. Histopathologic analysis of the heart revealed mild peri-catheter fibrosis. In conclusion, the simultaneous measurement of AP and LVP offers the potential for more detailed cardiovascular assessment in conscious rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pedestrian safety action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    In 2005, Arizona ranked 5th among states in pedestrian fatalities per 100,000 residents, with 164 : pedestrian fatalities on Arizonas roadwaysa nearly 30 percent increase from 2003 levels. To reduce : the number of pedestrian crashes in Arizona...

  11. Cherenkov radiation by an electron bunch that moves in a vacuum above a left-handed material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averkov, Yu.O.; Yakovenko, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cherenkov radiation by a nonrelativistic electron bunch that moves above an interface of a vacuum-left-handed material has been investigated theoretically. The electron density of the bunch is described by a Gauss distribution. Cherenkov radiation for the frequency range where the refractive index is negative is shown to lead to simultaneous excitation of both bulk and surface electromagnetic waves over one and the same frequency range. In this case the wave vector magnitude in the plane of the interface of surface electromagnetic waves is larger than the corresponding wave vector magnitude of bulk electromagnetic waves. The energy flows in a left-handed material have been calculated. The spectral density and the radiation pattern have been investigated

  12. Reacting while moving: influence of right limb movement on left limb reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Deanna M; Wang, Chaoyi; Shea, Charles H

    2013-09-01

    An experiment was designed to determine whether the activation of a muscle group (flexors or extensors) used to produce an ongoing movement of one limb influenced the reaction time and associated initiation of elbow flexion or extension movements of the contralateral limb. Right-handed participants in the bimanual groups were asked to produce a pattern of flexion/extension movements defined by a sine wave (period = 2 s, amplitude = 16°) with the right limb. While performing the right limb movement, participants were instructed that they were to react as quickly as possible by making a flexion or extension movement with their left limb when the cursor they were using to track the sine wave changed color. Participants in the unimanual groups performed the left limb reaction time task but were not asked to make right limb movements. The reaction time stimulus occurred once in each trial and was presented at one of six locations on one of the six cycles comprising the sinusoidal waveform. Participants performed 7 blocks of 6 test trials. Reaction time was calculated as the time interval between the color change of the cursor and the initiation of the response with the left limb. Movement time was calculated as the interval of time between the initiation of the response and the left limb cursor crossing the upper or lower boundary line. Mean reaction of the left limb was significantly influenced by the concurrent type of movement (flexion/extension) of the right limb. Reaction times were shorter on trials in which both limbs were initiating movement with homologous muscles as compared to trials in which the limbs were initiating movement with non-homologous muscles. No differences were detected when the stimuli were presented during the ballistic phase of the right limb movement, and no differences at any position were detected for the unimanual groups. This result is consistent with the notion that neural crosstalk can influence the time required to react to a

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Telescopic Mechanism for Truss Structure Bridge Inspection Vehicle Under Pedestrian Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Sui

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear dynamic analysis of an axially moving telescopic mechanism for truss structure bridge inspection vehicle under pedestrian excitation is carried out. A biomechanically inspired inverted-pendulum model is utilized to simplify the pedestrian. The nonlinear equations of motion for the beam-pedestrian system are derived using the Hamilton's principle. The equations are transformed into two ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin's method at the first two orders. The solutions to the equations are acquired by using the Newmark-β method associated with the Newton-Raphson method. The time-dependent feature of the eigenfunctions for the two beams are taken into consideration in the solutions. Accordingly, the equations of motion for a simplified system, in which the pedestrian is regarded as moving cart, are given. In the numerical examples, dynamic responses of the telescopic mechanism in eight conditions of different beam-telescoping and pedestrian-moving directions are simulated. Comparisons between the vibrations of the beams under pedestrian excitation and corresponding moving cart are carried out to investigate the influence of the pedestrian excitation on the telescopic mechanism. The results show that the displacement of the telescopic mechanism under pedestrian excitation is smaller than that under moving cart especially when the pedestrian approaches the beams end. Additionally, compared with moving cart, the pedestrian excitation can effectively strengthen the vibration when the beam extension is small or when the pedestrian is close to the beams end.

  14. Sensorimotor control dynamics and cultural biases: learning to move in the right (or left) direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Amanda H; Giles, Oscar T; Havelka, Jelena; Ali, Sumaya; Culmer, Peter R; Wilkie, Richard M; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The nativist hypothesis suggests universal features of human behaviour can be explained by biologically determined cognitive substrates. This nativist account has been challenged recently by evolutionary models showing that the cultural transmission of knowledge can produce behavioural universals. Sensorimotor invariance is a canonical example of a behavioural universal, raising the issue of whether culture can influence not only which skills people acquire but also the development of the sensorimotor system. We tested this hypothesis by exploring whether culture influences the developing sensorimotor system in children. We took kinematic measures of motor control asymmetries in adults and children from differing cultures where writing follows opposite directions. British and Kuwaiti adults ( n  = 69) and first grade (5-6 year old) children ( n  = 140) completed novel rightward and leftward tracing tasks. The Kuwaitis were better when moving their arm leftward while the British showed the opposite bias. Bayesian analysis techniques showed that while children were worse than adults, they also showed asymmetries-with the asymmetry magnitude related to accuracy levels. Our findings support the idea that culture influences the sensorimotor system.

  15. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration of the unde......This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...... of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  16. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration of the unde......This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...... of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  17. Effect of psychological tension on pedestrian counter flow via an extended cost potential field cellular automaton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingli; Guo, Fang; Kuang, Hua; Zhou, Huaguo

    2017-12-01

    Psychology tells us that the different level of tension may lead to different behavior variation for individuals. In this paper, an extended cost potential field cellular automaton is proposed to simulate pedestrian counter flow under an emergency by considering behavior variation of pedestrian induced by psychological tension. A quantitative formula is introduced to describe behavioral changes caused by psychological tension, which also leads to the increasing cost of discomfort. The numerical simulations are performed under the periodic boundary condition and show that the presented model can capture some essential features of pedestrian counter flow, such as lane formation and segregation phenomenon for normal condition. Furthermore, an interesting feature is found that when pedestrians are in an extremely nervous state, a stable lane formation will be broken by a disordered mixture flow. The psychological nervousness under an emergency is not always negative to moving efficiency and a moderate level of tension will delay the occurrence of jamming phase. In addition, a larger asymmetrical ratio of left walkers to right walkers will improve the critical density related to the jamming phase and retard the occurrence of completely jammed phase. These findings will be helpful in pedestrian control and management under an emergency.

  18. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  19. Left behind or moving forward? Effects of possible selves and strategies to attain them among rural Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chongzeng; Oyserman, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Are possible selves and strategies to attain them universally helpful even among children with few resources? We test this question in rural China. Rural Chinese children are commonly "left behind" (LB) by parents seizing economic opportunities by migrating, hoping the family will "move forward" and their children will attain their predestined better future. Media, teachers, and peers negatively represent LB children as unruly and undisciplined, with negative fates, making LB a negative stereotype that includes the idea of destiny or fate. Indeed, making the idea of LB salient increases children's fatalism (Study 1 n = 144, Study 2 n = 124). However, having strategies to attain possible future selves predicts better in-class behavior, fewer depressive symptoms, and better exam performance even a year later and controlling for prior performance (Study 3 n = 176, Study 4 n = 145). Possible selves have mixed effects, not always predicting better grades and undermining LB children's self-control. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Creating pedestrian crash scenarios in a driving simulator environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysler, Susan T; Ahmad, Omar; Schwarz, Chris W

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 in the United States, pedestrian injuries accounted for 3.3% of all traffic injuries but, disproportionately, pedestrian fatalities accounted for roughly 14% of traffic-related deaths (NHTSA 2014 ). In many other countries, pedestrians make up more than 50% of those injured and killed in crashes. This research project examined driver response to crash-imminent situations involving pedestrians in a high-fidelity, full-motion driving simulator. This article presents a scenario development method and discusses experimental design and control issues in conducting pedestrian crash research in a simulation environment. Driving simulators offer a safe environment in which to test driver response and offer the advantage of having virtual pedestrian models that move realistically, unlike test track studies, which by nature must use pedestrian dummies on some moving track. An analysis of pedestrian crash trajectories, speeds, roadside features, and pedestrian behavior was used to create 18 unique crash scenarios representative of the most frequent and most costly crash types. For the study reported here, we only considered scenarios where the car is traveling straight because these represent the majority of fatalities. We manipulated driver expectation of a pedestrian both by presenting intersection and mid-block crossing as well as by using features in the scene to direct the driver's visual attention toward or away from the crossing pedestrian. Three visual environments for the scenarios were used to provide a variety of roadside environments and speed: a 20-30 mph residential area, a 55 mph rural undivided highway, and a 40 mph urban area. Many variables of crash situations were considered in selecting and developing the scenarios, including vehicle and pedestrian movements; roadway and roadside features; environmental conditions; and characteristics of the pedestrian, driver, and vehicle. The driving simulator scenarios were subjected to iterative testing to

  1. Difficulty in moving around in a wheelchair as a presenting symptom of left atrial myxoma in a chronic paraplegic patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovindha, A; Saeng-Xuto, W

    2014-08-01

    CASE REPORT. To present and discuss a case of a chronic paraplegic patient who presented with difficulty in moving around in a wheelchair. Rehabilitation Ward, Maharaj Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. A chronic complete paraplegic T4 man complained of difficulty in moving around in a wheelchair. He had experienced this difficulty for a week. He also complained of pain in the finger pads, and blackening had occurred in his little toes. Buerger's disease was suspected, but Doppler ultrasound showed no evidence of arterial occlusion. During admission, his vision suddenly dropped and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ischemic stroke in the posterior cerebral artery. Erythematous lesions in all toe pads and soles were actually embolic signs but painless due to his paraplegia. Echocardiography showed a large left atrial myxoma. Six weeks after removal of the left atrial myxoma, he was discharged when he could propel his wheelchair more than 100 m without difficulty or pain. Experiencing difficulty in moving around in a wheelchair in conjunction with painful finger pads can be presenting symptoms of a rare cardiac lesion--left atrial myxoma with arterial embolism. After surgical excision of the tumour, the arterial embolic symptoms and signs subsided and the patient regained basic wheelchair mobility skills within 6 weeks.

  2. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, Rita [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, Terry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  3. Update schemes of multi-velocity floor field cellular automaton for pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Fu, Zhijian; Cheng, Han; Yang, Lizhong

    2018-02-01

    Modeling pedestrian movement is an interesting problem both in statistical physics and in computational physics. Update schemes of cellular automaton (CA) models for pedestrian dynamics govern the schedule of pedestrian movement. Usually, different update schemes make the models behave in different ways, which should be carefully recalibrated. Thus, in this paper, we investigated the influence of four different update schemes, namely parallel/synchronous scheme, random scheme, order-sequential scheme and shuffled scheme, on pedestrian dynamics. The multi-velocity floor field cellular automaton (FFCA) considering the changes of pedestrians' moving properties along walking paths and heterogeneity of pedestrians' walking abilities was used. As for parallel scheme only, the collisions detection and resolution should be considered, resulting in a great difference from any other update schemes. For pedestrian evacuation, the evacuation time is enlarged, and the difference in pedestrians' walking abilities is better reflected, under parallel scheme. In face of a bottleneck, for example a exit, using a parallel scheme leads to a longer congestion period and a more dispersive density distribution. The exit flow and the space-time distribution of density and velocity have significant discrepancies under four different update schemes when we simulate pedestrian flow with high desired velocity. Update schemes may have no influence on pedestrians in simulation to create tendency to follow others, but sequential and shuffled update scheme may enhance the effect of pedestrians' familiarity with environments.

  4. Greenways Pedestrian & Cyclist Counters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Pedestrian and cyclist sensor data time stamped from sensors on the Bolin Creek Trail and Meadowmont Trail in Chapel Hill. Each sensor has four value points that...

  5. Fatigue effect on phase transition of pedestrian movement: experiment and simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Fu, Zhijian; Zhou, Xiaodong; Zhu, Kongjin; Yang, Hongtai; Yang, Lizhong

    2016-10-01

    How to model pedestrian movement is an intriguing problem in the area of statistical physics. As a common phenomenon of pedestrian movement, fatigue has a significant negative effect on pedestrian movement, especially when pedestrians move or run with heavy luggage, rescue the wounded in disaster, climb stairs and etc. According to the field observations and previous researches, fatigue coefficient is defined as the decrease of desired velocity in this study. However, previous researches lacked quantitative analysis of the effect of fatigue on pedestrian speed. It has been a great challenge to study the effect of fatigue on pedestrian flow, since pedestrians of heterogeneous walking abilities and the change of pedestrians’ moving properties need to be taken into consideration. Thus, at first, a series of pedestrian experiments, under three different conditions, were conducted to formulate the empirical relationship among fatigue, average free velocity, and walking distance. Then the empirical formulation of pedestrian fatigue was imported into the multi-velocity field floor cellular automata (FFCA) model for following pedestrian dynamics analysis. The velocity ratio was adjusted dynamically to adapt the change of pedestrians’ velocity due to fatigue. The fatigue, entrance flow rate and pedestrian’s initial desired velocity are found to have significant effects on the pedestrian flow. The space-time distributions of pedestrian density and velocity were explored in detail, with phase transition analyses from a free flow phase to a congestion phase. Additionally, the ‘density wave’ in the system can be observed if a certain ratio of burdened pedestrians lay in the high density region. The envelope of the ‘density wave’ reaches its maximum amplitude around the entrance position, and gradually diminishes away from the entrance.

  6. Step styles of pedestrians at different densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayue; Weng, Wenguo; Boltes, Maik; Zhang, Jun; Tordeux, Antoine; Ziemer, Verena

    2018-02-01

    Stepping locomotion is the basis of human movement. The investigation of stepping locomotion and its affecting factors is necessary for a more realistic knowledge of human movement, which is usually referred to as walking with equal step lengths for the right and left leg. To study pedestrians’ stepping locomotion, a set of single-file movement experiments involving 39 participants of the same age walking on a highly curved oval course is conducted. The microscopic characteristics of the pedestrians including 1D Voronoi density, speed, and step length are calculated based on a projected coordinate. The influence of the projection lines with different radii on the measurement of these quantities is investigated. The step lengths from the straight and curved parts are compared using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. During the experiments, six different step styles are observed and the proportions of different step styles change with the density. At low density, the main step style is the stable-large step style and the step lengths of one pedestrian are almost constant. At high density, some pedestrians adjust and decrease their step lengths. Some pedestrians take relatively smaller and larger steps alternately to adapt to limited space.

  7. Managing Pedestrian and Car Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-26

    In urban areas and especially in inner cities, pedestrians crossing the road considerably influence the road traffic flow. For political (environmental) reasons, priority could be given to pedestrians. A larger number of crossings reduces the pedestr...

  8. Second generation accessible pedestrian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 has had a great impact on the implementation of Accessible Pedestrian Systems that target accessible and safety : impediments faced by pedestrians with mobility and visual impairments. Intersection geometri...

  9. Study on bi-directional pedestrian movement using ant algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokce, Sibel; Kayacan, Ozhan

    2016-01-01

    A cellular automata model is proposed to simulate bi-directional pedestrian flow. Pedestrian movement is investigated by using ant algorithms. Ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called a pheromone, on the substrate while crawling forward. Similarly, it is considered that oppositely moving pedestrians drop ‘visual pheromones’ on their way and the visual pheromones might cause attractive or repulsive interactions. This pheromenon is introduced into modelling the pedestrians’ walking preference. In this way, the decision-making process of pedestrians will be based on ‘the instinct of following’. At some densities, the relationships of velocity–density and flux–density are analyzed for different evaporation rates of visual pheromones. Lane formation and phase transition are observed for certain evaporation rates of visual pheromones. (paper)

  10. How do children learn to cross the street? The process of pedestrian safety training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Shen, Jiabin; McClure, Leslie A

    2016-08-17

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of child death and may be reduced by training children to cross streets more safely. Such training is most effective when children receive repeated practice at the complex cognitive-perceptual task of judging moving traffic and selecting safe crossing gaps, but there is limited data on how much practice is required for children to reach adult levels of functioning. Using existing data, we examined how children's pedestrian skills changed over the course of 6 pedestrian safety training sessions, each composed of 45 crossings within a virtual pedestrian environment. As part of a randomized controlled trial on pedestrian safety training, 59 children ages 7-8 crossed the street within a semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment 270 times over a 3-week period (6 sessions of 45 crossings each). Feedback was provided after each crossing, and traffic speed and density were advanced as children's skill improved. Postintervention pedestrian behavior was assessed a week later in the virtual environment and compared to adult behavior with identical traffic patterns. Over the course of training, children entered traffic gaps more quickly and chose tighter gaps to cross within; their crossing efficiency appeared to increase. By the end of training, some aspects of children's pedestrian behavior was comparable to adult behavior but other aspects were not, indicating that the training was worthwhile but insufficient for most children to achieve adult levels of functioning. Repeated practice in a simulated pedestrian environment helps children learn aspects of safe and efficient pedestrian behavior. Six twice-weekly training sessions of 45 crossings each were insufficient for children to reach adult pedestrian functioning, however, and future research should continue to study the trajectory and quantity of child pedestrian safety training needed for children to become competent pedestrians.

  11. Pedestrian Dynamics - Footbridge Loads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš; Urushadze, Shota

    52 2007, č. 3 (2007), s. 269-283 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : Natural frequency * Striding velocity * Footfall force * Pedestrian dynamics Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  12. Pedestrians' performance and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the PQN project, assessments have been carried out to arrive at real figures on the pedestrians’ performance and satisfaction. The results regarding key figures are: • About 50% of the pedestrians have limited abilities and about 10% of the population has severe difficulties

  13. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  14. PEDESTRIAN DETECTION BY LASER SCANNING AND DEPTH IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian flow is much less regulated and controlled compared to vehicle traffic. Estimating flow parameters would support many safety, security or commercial applications. Current paper discusses a method that enables acquiring information on pedestrian movements without disturbing and changing their motion. Profile laser scanner and depth camera have been applied to capture the geometry of the moving people as time series. Procedures have been developed to derive complex flow parameters, such as count, volume, walking direction and velocity from laser scanned point clouds. Since no images are captured from the faces of pedestrians, no privacy issues raised. The paper includes accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters based on video footage as reference. Due to the dense point clouds, detailed geometry analysis has been conducted to obtain the height and shoulder width of pedestrians and to detect whether luggage has been carried or not. The derived parameters support safety (e.g. detecting critical pedestrian density in mass events, security (e.g. detecting prohibited baggage in endangered areas and commercial applications (e.g. counting pedestrians at all entrances/exits of a shopping mall.

  15. Visually Impaired Pedestrian Safety at Roundabout Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pedestrians are some of the most vulnerable road users. This becomes more apparent : at intersections, where pedestrians are unprotected and interacting with vehicles. While : pedestrian phases that are commonplace at most signalized intersections fa...

  16. Rapid detection and identification of pedestrian impacts using a distributed sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2005-05-01

    Pedestrian fatalities from automobile accidents often occur as a result of head injuries suffered from impacts with an automobile front end. Active pedestrian protection systems with proper pedestrian recognition algorithms can protect pedestrians from such head trauma. An investigation was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a network of piezoelectric sensors mounted on the front bumper beam of an automobile to discriminate between impacts with "pedestrian" and "non-pedestrian" objects. This information would be used to activate a safety device (e.g., external airbag or pop-up hood) to provide protection for the vulnerable pedestrian. An analytical foundation for the object-bumper impact problem will be presented, as well as the classical beam impact theory. The mechanical waves that propagate in the structure from an external impact contain a wealth of information about the specifics of a particular impact -- object mass, size, impact speed, etc. -- but most notably the object stiffness, which identifies the impacted object. Using the frequency content of the sensor signals, it can be shown that impacts with a "pedestrian" object of varying size, weight, and speed can be easily differentiated from impacts with other "non-pedestrian" objects. Simulation results will illustrate this phenomenon, and experimental tests will verify the results. A comprehensive series of impact tests were performed for validation, using both a stationary front bumper with a drop-pendulum impactor and a moving car with stationary impact objects. Results from both tests will be presented.

  17. Effect of prediction on the self-organization of pedestrian counter flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziyang; Zhao Hui; Ma Jian; Qin Yong; Jia Limin

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrians may predict the behavior of others and then adjust their movement accordingly to avoid potential conflicts in advance. Motivated by this fact, we propose a predictive control theory-based pedestrian counter flow model, which describes the predictive mechanism underlying pedestrian self-organization phenomena. In this model, a pedestrian will make in-advance-avoid behavior based on the estimation of future moving gain within a given predictive length to reduce potential conflicts. The future gain in the present model is affected by three factors, i.e. the predictive length, the smooth degree of entrance and the influential area of coming pedestrians. Simulation results of the model show that increasing predictive length has a remarkable effect on reducing conflicts, improving pedestrian velocity, smoothing pedestrian movement and stabilizing the self-organized lanes. When enlarging the influential area of coming pedestrians, pedestrians tend to aggregate to the formed self-organized lanes, which makes the lanes wider and the lane number reduced. Interestingly, moderate enlargement (of the influential area) will reduce conflicts significantly, while excessive enlargement will lead to an increase in conflicts. We also discuss the predictive effect toward the smooth degree of entrance. When there are some formed self-organized lanes in the system, the effect is significant, and it will make the lanes more regular and stable, while when the existing lanes are unstable, the effect has little impact on the system. (paper)

  18. Isolated and Single Pedestrians and Pedestrian Groups on Sidewalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pinna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian many factors are observed, such as gender, age, direction, distractions, transport of objects, etc., which could influence pedestrian behavior. Data processing allows the identification of mathematical models describing the average pedestrian’s behavior, subdivided for user type (isolated, single, group. In general, the mean walking pedestrian speed decreases depending on user type (in a linear manner if age class grows for isolated pedestrians, while with the square of age for other user types, of gender, and of facing type. Models obtained for the different pedestrian types were compared to understand the differences in speeds, underlining that pedestrian interferences play a significant role in defining behavior and, therefore, speed. The results support the idea that, to define a smooth pedestrian speed as an indicator of the “walkability” of a path, in addition to considering the path and user’s characteristics, it is also necessary to define the type of user for which the infrastructure is designed.

  19. Pedestrian dynamics via Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Ibrahim; Khader, Ahamad Tajudin; Subramanian, K. G.

    2014-06-01

    Studies on pedestrian dynamics have vital applications in crowd control management relevant to organizing safer large scale gatherings including pilgrimages. Reasoning pedestrian motion via computational intelligence techniques could be posed as a potential research problem within the realms of Artificial Intelligence. In this contribution, we propose a "Bayesian Network Model for Pedestrian Dynamics" (BNMPD) to reason the vast uncertainty imposed by pedestrian motion. With reference to key findings from literature which include simulation studies, we systematically identify: What are the various factors that could contribute to the prediction of crowd flow status? The proposed model unifies these factors in a cohesive manner using Bayesian Networks (BNs) and serves as a sophisticated probabilistic tool to simulate vital cause and effect relationships entailed in the pedestrian domain.

  20. Study on the Weaving Behavior of High Density Bidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weaving area may be the critical risk place in the subway transfer station. When improving service level of the weaving area, the characteristic of pedestrian weaving behavior should be systemically discussed. This paper described the mechanism of weaving behavior on high density pedestrian which was analyzed by the collection data of controlled experiment. Different weaving behaviors were contrasted due to different volumes in the bidirectional passageway. Video analysis was conducted to extract pedestrian moving behavior and calibrate the movement data with SIMI Motion. Influence of the high density weaving pedestrian was studied based on the statistical results (e.g., velocity, walking distance, and journey time. Furthermore, the quantitative method by speed analysis was announced to discriminate the conflict point. The scopes of weaving area and impact area at different pedestrian volumes were revealed to analyze the pedestrian turning angle. The paper concluded that walking pedestrians are significantly influenced by the weaving conflict and trend to turn the moving direction to avoid the conflict in weaving area; the ratio of stable weaving area and impact area is 2 to 3. The conclusions do provide a method to evaluate the transfer station safety and a facility layout guidance to improve the capacity.

  1. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  2. Effect of cell phone distraction on pediatric pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2009-02-01

    Early adolescents are using cell phones with increasing frequency. Cell phones are known to distract motor vehicle drivers to the point that their safety is jeopardized, but it is unclear if cell phones might also distract child pedestrians. This study was designed to examine the influence of talking on a cell phone for pediatric pedestrian injury risk. Seventy-seven children aged 10 to 11 years old completed simulated road crossings in an immersive, interactive virtual pedestrian environment. In a within-subjects design, children crossed the virtual street 6 times while undistracted and 6 times while distracted by a cell phone conversation with an unfamiliar research assistant. Participants also completed several other experimental tasks hypothesized to predict the impact of distraction while crossing the street and talking on a cell phone. Children's pedestrian safety was compromised when distracted by a cell phone conversation. While distracted, children were less attentive to traffic; left less safe time between their crossing and the next arriving vehicle; experienced more collisions and close calls with oncoming traffic; and waited longer before beginning to cross the street. Analyses testing experience using a cell phone and experience as a pedestrian yielded few significant results, suggesting that distraction on the cell phone might affect children's pedestrian safety no matter what their experience level. There was some indication that younger children and children who are less attentive and more oppositional may be slightly more susceptible to distraction while talking on the cell phone than older, more attentive, and less oppositional children. Our results suggest that cell phones distract preadolescent children while crossing streets.

  3. Zone guide for pedestrian safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Just as communities can efficiently mount crime prevention programs by focusing them in high-crime areas, they can also efficiently concentrate pedestrian safety improvements by carefully selecting where they are applied. To do this, they need to be ...

  4. Tracking Algorithm of Multiple Pedestrians Based on Particle Filters in Video Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Chuanxu; Zhang, Shujun; Cui, Xuehong

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian tracking is a critical problem in the field of computer vision. Particle filters have been proven to be very useful in pedestrian tracking for nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. However, pedestrian tracking in complex environment is still facing many problems due to changes of pedestrian postures and scale, moving background, mutual occlusion, and presence of pedestrian. To surmount these difficulties, this paper presents tracking algorithm of multiple pedestrians based on particle filters in video sequences. The algorithm acquires confidence value of the object and the background through extracting a priori knowledge thus to achieve multipedestrian detection; it adopts color and texture features into particle filter to get better observation results and then automatically adjusts weight value of each feature according to current tracking environment. During the process of tracking, the algorithm processes severe occlusion condition to prevent drift and loss phenomena caused by object occlusion and associates detection results with particle state to propose discriminated method for object disappearance and emergence thus to achieve robust tracking of multiple pedestrians. Experimental verification and analysis in video sequences demonstrate that proposed algorithm improves the tracking performance and has better tracking results. PMID:27847514

  5. New functional pavements for pedestrians and cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallqvist, V; Kjell, G; Cupina, E; Kraft, L; Deck, C; Willinger, R

    2017-08-01

    When many fields of pedestrian and cyclist safety have been extensively studied, the surfacing has long been left unquestioned, despite being developed for another mode of transport and being one of the main causes for falls and fall injuries. In this project new surfacing materials for pedestrian and cyclist safety have been produced. Focusing on augmenting previously largely disregarded parameters as impact absorption, comfort and visibility at the same time as avoiding deteriorating of crucial parameters as friction and wear resistance. Rubber content, binder type, and pigment addition have been varied and evaluated. The results demonstrate that by increasing rubber content of the mixtures the head injury criterion (HIC) value and injury risk can be decreased while maintaining frictional properties according to existing criteria. Assembly of test-lanes demonstrate that some developed materials experience lower flow and component separation than standard materials due to rubber addition, calling for further optimisation of construction procedure linked to content development. Initial trials on the test-lanes indicate that a polyurethane (PU) based material has high cycling comfort, visibility and can be modified with phosphorescence properties. For standard asphalt, impact absorption might be inflicted by modification of bitumen alone but is mostly augmented by rubber addition. The results also indicate that rubber content can decrease ice formation on the materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the interplay effect when using RapidArc to treat targets moving in the craniocaudal or right-left direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Reisner, Adam; Winey, Brian; Schofield, Debbie; Ionascu, Dan; Allen, Aaron M.; Popple, Richard; Lingos, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We have investigated the dosimetric errors caused by the interplay between the motions of the LINAC and the tumor during the delivery of a volume modulated arc therapy treatment. This includes the development of an IMRT QA technique, applied here to evaluate RapidArc plans of varying complexity. Methods: An IMRT QA technique was developed, which involves taking a movie of the delivered dose (0.2 s frames) using a 2D ion chamber array. Each frame of the movie is then moved according to a respiratory trace and the cumulative dose calculated. The advantage of this approach is that the impact of turning the beam on at different points in the respiratory trace, and of different types of motion, can be evaluated using data from a single irradiation. We evaluated this technique by comparing with the results when we actually moved the phantom during irradiation. RapidArc plans were created to treat a 62 cc spherical tumor in a lung phantom (16 plans) and a 454 cc irregular tumor in an actual patient (five plans). The complexity of each field was controlled by adjusting the MU (312-966 MU). Each plan was delivered to a phantom, and a movie of the delivered dose taken using a 2D ion chamber array. Patient motion was modeled by shifting each dose frame according to a respiratory trace, starting the motion at different phases. The expected dose distribution was calculated by blurring the static dose distribution with the target motion. The dose error due to the interplay effect was then calculated by comparing the delivered dose with the expected dose distribution. Peak-to-peak motion of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cm in the craniocaudal and right-left directions, with target periods of 3 and 5 s, were evaluated for each plan (252 different target motion/plan combinations). Results: The daily dose error due to the interplay effect was less than 10% for 98.4% of all pixels in the target for all plans investigated. The percentage of pixels for which the daily dose error could be

  7. Evaluation of the interplay effect when using RapidArc to treat targets moving in the craniocaudal or right-left direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Laurence; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Reisner, Adam; Winey, Brian; Schofield, Debbie; Ionascu, Dan; Allen, Aaron M; Popple, Richard; Lingos, Tania

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the dosimetric errors caused by the interplay between the motions of the LINAC and the tumor during the delivery of a volume modulated arc therapy treatment. This includes the development of an IMRT QA technique, applied here to evaluate RapidArc plans of varying complexity. An IMRT QA technique was developed, which involves taking a movie of the delivered dose (0.2 s frames) using a 2D ion chamber array. Each frame of the movie is then moved according to a respiratory trace and the cumulative dose calculated. The advantage of this approach is that the impact of turning the beam on at different points in the respiratory trace, and of different types of motion, can be evaluated using data from a single irradiation. We evaluated this technique by comparing with the results when we actually moved the phantom during irradiation. RapidArc plans were created to treat a 62 cc spherical tumor in a lung phantom (16 plans) and a 454 cc irregular tumor in an actual patient (five plans). The complexity of each field was controlled by adjusting the MU (312-966 MU). Each plan was delivered to a phantom, and a movie of the delivered dose taken using a 2D ion chamber array. Patient motion was modeled by shifting each dose frame according to a respiratory trace, starting the motion at different phases. The expected dose distribution was calculated by blurring the static dose distribution with the target motion. The dose error due to the interplay effect was then calculated by comparing the delivered dose with the expected dose distribution. Peak-to-peak motion of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cm in the craniocaudal and right-left directions, with target periods of 3 and 5 s, were evaluated for each plan (252 different target motion/plan combinations). The daily dose error due to the interplay effect was less than 10% for 98.4% of all pixels in the target for all plans investigated. The percentage of pixels for which the daily dose error could be larger than 5% increased

  8. Evaluation of the interplay effect when using RapidArc to treat targets moving in the craniocaudal or right-left direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, Laurence; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Reisner, Adam; Winey, Brian; Schofield, Debbie; Ionascu, Dan; Allen, Aaron M.; Popple, Richard; Lingos, Tania [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikvah (Israel); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35249 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: We have investigated the dosimetric errors caused by the interplay between the motions of the LINAC and the tumor during the delivery of a volume modulated arc therapy treatment. This includes the development of an IMRT QA technique, applied here to evaluate RapidArc plans of varying complexity. Methods: An IMRT QA technique was developed, which involves taking a movie of the delivered dose (0.2 s frames) using a 2D ion chamber array. Each frame of the movie is then moved according to a respiratory trace and the cumulative dose calculated. The advantage of this approach is that the impact of turning the beam on at different points in the respiratory trace, and of different types of motion, can be evaluated using data from a single irradiation. We evaluated this technique by comparing with the results when we actually moved the phantom during irradiation. RapidArc plans were created to treat a 62 cc spherical tumor in a lung phantom (16 plans) and a 454 cc irregular tumor in an actual patient (five plans). The complexity of each field was controlled by adjusting the MU (312-966 MU). Each plan was delivered to a phantom, and a movie of the delivered dose taken using a 2D ion chamber array. Patient motion was modeled by shifting each dose frame according to a respiratory trace, starting the motion at different phases. The expected dose distribution was calculated by blurring the static dose distribution with the target motion. The dose error due to the interplay effect was then calculated by comparing the delivered dose with the expected dose distribution. Peak-to-peak motion of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cm in the craniocaudal and right-left directions, with target periods of 3 and 5 s, were evaluated for each plan (252 different target motion/plan combinations). Results: The daily dose error due to the interplay effect was less than 10% for 98.4% of all pixels in the target for all plans investigated. The percentage of pixels for which the daily dose error could be

  9. Effects of mobile Internet use on college student pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2013-03-01

    College-age individuals have the highest incidence of pedestrian injuries of any age cohort. One factor that might contribute to elevated pedestrian injuries among this age group is injuries incurred while crossing streets distracted by mobile devices. Examine whether young adult pedestrian safety is compromised while crossing a virtual pedestrian street while distracted using the Internet on a mobile "smartphone." A within-subjects design was implemented with 92 young adults. Participants crossed a virtual pedestrian street 20 times, half the time while undistracted and half while completing an email-driven "scavenger hunt" to answer mundane questions using mobile Internet on their cell phones. Six measures of pedestrian behavior were assessed during crossings. Participants also reported typical patterns of street crossing and mobile Internet use. Participants reported using mobile Internet with great frequency in daily life, including while walking across streets. In the virtual street environment, pedestrian behavior was greatly altered and generally more risky when participants were distracted by Internet use. While distracted, participants waited longer to cross the street (F=42.37), missed more safe opportunities to cross (F=42.63), took longer to initiate crossing when a safe gap was available (F=53.03), looked left and right less often (F=124.68), spent more time looking away from the road (F=1959.78), and were more likely to be hit or almost hit by an oncoming vehicle (F=29.54; all psmobile Internet experience. Pedestrian behavior was influenced, and generally considerably riskier, when participants were simultaneously using mobile Internet and crossing the street than when crossing the street with no distraction. This finding reinforces the need for increased awareness concerning the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Pedestrian dragged under a truck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Czesław; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Kołowski, Janusz; Tezyk, Artur

    2011-01-01

    A traffic accident is described, involving a pedestrian who was at first hit and subsequently hooked up by his clothing by a suspension element of a low-floor truck trailer and dragged along a road for the distance of 3500 m. Autopsy demonstrated that the pedestrian died of cerebro-cranial injuries, inflicted while he had been hit by the truck. Additionally, the frontal surface of his body demonstrated external injuries typical for dragging of the body along the roadway. Before being dragged, the pedestrian was hit by the front of the vehicle, when he was in a sitting position, or was rising or else was in a recumbent position with an elevated head and trunk. Traffic accidents of the type were seldom described in the national and foreign literature.

  11. Traffic instabilities in self-organized pedestrian crowds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds.

  12. Kinematic responses and injuries of pedestrian in car-pedestrian collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, T. L.; Liang, C. C.; Hsu, C. Y.; Tai, S. F.

    2017-10-01

    How to protect pedestrians and reduce the collision injury has gradually become the new field of automotive safety research and focus in the world. Many engineering studies have appeared and their purpose is trying to reduce the pedestrian injuries caused by traffic accident. The physical model involving impactor model and full scale pedestrian model are costly when taking the impact test. This study constructs a vehicle-pedestrian collision model by using the MADYMO. To verify the accuracy of the proposed vehicle-pedestrian collision model, the experimental data are used in the pedestrian model test. The proposed model also will be applied to analyze the kinematic responses and injuries of pedestrian in collisions in this study. The modeled results can help assess the pedestrian friendliness of vehicles and assist in the future development of pedestrian friendliness vehicle technologies.

  13. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  14. Effect of Aspiration and Mean Gain on the Emergence of Cooperation in Unidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zi-Yang; Zhao Hui; Ma Jian; Qin Yong; Jia Li-Min; Zhu Wei

    2013-01-01

    When more than one pedestrian want to move to the same site, conflicts appear and thus the involved pedestrians play a motion game. In order to describe the emergence of cooperation during the conflict resolving process, an evolutionary cellular automation model is established considering the effect of aspiration and mean gain. In each game, pedestrian may be gentle cooperator or aggressive defector. We propose a set of win-stay-lose-shrift (WSLS) like rules for updating pedestrian's strategy. These rules prescribe that if the mean gain of current strategy between some given steps is larger than aspiration the strategy keeps, otherwise the strategy changes. The simulation results show that a high level aspiration will lead to more cooperation. With the increment of the statistic length, pedestrians will be more rational in decision making. It is also found that when the aspiration level is small enough and the statistic length is large enough all the pedestrian will turn to defectors. We use the prisoner's dilemma model to explain it. At last we discuss the effect of aspiration on fundamental diagram. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Qualitative comparison of north-american procedures for areawide pedestrian travel measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greene-Roesel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    left">There is no standard system for estimating area-wide pedestrian volumes in the United States. As a result, pedestrian volumes cannot be routinely used to guide transportation investments and monitoring measures performance. Vehicle volumes, by contrast, are measured systematically in each state and are reported to the Federal Highway Administration annually to be used in the allocation of federal funds. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three approaches to the creation of a standard system of pedestrian volume measurement: direct sampling, survey methods, and modeling. Examples of each method are given, and the potential of each to become a national standard is discussed. Of the three approaches, the modeling methods were judged to be most suitable for tracking pedestrian volumes at the national, state, and sub-state level. A standardized pedestrian volume modeling method could make use of existing data sources without generating the need for a new national pedestrian data collection effort.

  16. Temporal and Fine-Grained Pedestrian Action Recognition on Driving Recorder Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokatsu Kataoka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an emerging issue of fine-grained pedestrian action recognition that induces an advanced pre-crush safety to estimate a pedestrian intention in advance. The fine-grained pedestrian actions include visually slight differences (e.g., walking straight and crossing, which are difficult to distinguish from each other. It is believed that the fine-grained action recognition induces a pedestrian intention estimation for a helpful advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS. The following difficulties have been studied to achieve a fine-grained and accurate pedestrian action recognition: (i In order to analyze the fine-grained motion of a pedestrian appearance in the vehicle-mounted drive recorder, a method to describe subtle change of motion characteristics occurring in a short time is necessary; (ii even when the background moves greatly due to the driving of the vehicle, it is necessary to detect changes in subtle motion of the pedestrian; (iii the collection of large-scale fine-grained actions is very difficult, and therefore a relatively small database should be focused. We find out how to learn an effective recognition model with only a small-scale database. Here, we have thoroughly evaluated several types of configurations to explore an effective approach in fine-grained pedestrian action recognition without a large-scale database. Moreover, two different datasets have been collected in order to raise the issue. Finally, our proposal attained 91.01% on National Traffic Science and Environment Laboratory database (NTSEL and 53.23% on the near-miss driving recorder database (NDRDB. The paper has improved +8.28% and +6.53% from baseline two-stream fusion convnets.

  17. Temporal and Fine-Grained Pedestrian Action Recognition on Driving Recorder Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hirokatsu; Satoh, Yutaka; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Oikawa, Shoko; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2018-02-20

    The paper presents an emerging issue of fine-grained pedestrian action recognition that induces an advanced pre-crush safety to estimate a pedestrian intention in advance. The fine-grained pedestrian actions include visually slight differences (e.g., walking straight and crossing), which are difficult to distinguish from each other. It is believed that the fine-grained action recognition induces a pedestrian intention estimation for a helpful advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS). The following difficulties have been studied to achieve a fine-grained and accurate pedestrian action recognition: (i) In order to analyze the fine-grained motion of a pedestrian appearance in the vehicle-mounted drive recorder, a method to describe subtle change of motion characteristics occurring in a short time is necessary; (ii) even when the background moves greatly due to the driving of the vehicle, it is necessary to detect changes in subtle motion of the pedestrian; (iii) the collection of large-scale fine-grained actions is very difficult, and therefore a relatively small database should be focused. We find out how to learn an effective recognition model with only a small-scale database. Here, we have thoroughly evaluated several types of configurations to explore an effective approach in fine-grained pedestrian action recognition without a large-scale database. Moreover, two different datasets have been collected in order to raise the issue. Finally, our proposal attained 91.01% on National Traffic Science and Environment Laboratory database (NTSEL) and 53.23% on the near-miss driving recorder database (NDRDB). The paper has improved +8.28% and +6.53% from baseline two-stream fusion convnets.

  18. Block-based floor field model for pedestrian's walking through corner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengnan; Li, Xingang; Qu, Yunchao; Jia, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Floor field model, characterized by discretization in both time and space, is very popular in pedestrian modeling. In this paper, the pedestrian's moving behavior of walking through corner is described by a block-based floor field model. In this method, a complicated scenario with corners is divided into different types of blocks, the static floor field of each block is separately calculated, and a boundary rule is incorporated into the model to deal with the connected adjacent blocks. Two typical scenarios, L-type scenario and T-type scenario, are used to investigate the performance of the proposed model. The simulation results showed that the proposed model could well reproduce the empirical pedestrian's moving behavior through corner, i.e., pedestrian may transfer to the far corner instead of queuing up at the near corner when congestion happens. Pedestrians are more uniformly distributed in the whole evacuation process and the total evacuation time could be reduced due to the full utilization of scenarios for both channel and corner.

  19. Pedestrian hybrid beacon guide : recommendations and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A pedestrian hybrid beacon (PHB) is a traffic control : device similar to a European pedestrian signal : (PELICAN) that was imported to the US and adapted by : engineers in Arizona to increase motorists awareness of : pedestrian crossings at uncon...

  20. Comprehensive study to reduce pedestrian crashes in Florida : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Pedestrian crashes are a major safety : concern in Florida, with about one in : every ve traf c fatalities involving a : pedestrian. Recently, researchers at : Florida International University studied : ways to improve pedestrian safety on : F...

  1. Effects of mobile phone distraction on pedestrians' crossing behavior and visual attention allocation at a signalized intersection: An outdoor experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kang; Ling, Feiyang; Feng, Zhongxiang; Ma, Changxi; Kumfer, Wesley; Shao, Chen; Wang, Kun

    2018-03-28

    With the rapid growth in mobile phone use worldwide, traffic safety experts have begun to consider the impact of mobile phone distractions on pedestrian crossing safety. This study sought to investigate how mobile phone distractions (music distraction, phone conversation distraction and text distraction) affect the behavior of pedestrians while they are crossing the street. An outdoor-environment experiment was conducted among 28 college student pedestrians. Two HD videos and an eye tracker were employed to record and analyze crossing behavior and visual attention allocation. The results of the research showed that the three mobile phone distractions cause different levels of impairment to pedestrians' crossing performance, with the greatest effect from text distraction, followed by phone conversation distraction and music distraction. Pedestrians distracted by music initiate crossing later, have increased pupil diameter, and reduce their scanning frequency, fixation points and fixation times toward traffic signal area priorities. In addition to the above effects, pedestrians distracted by phone conversation cross the street more slowly, direct fewer fixation points to the right traffic area, and spend less fixation time and lower average fixation duration on the left traffic area. Moreover, pedestrians distracted by texting look left and right less often and switch, distribute and maintain less visual attention on the traffic environment. These findings may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On the Eikonal equation in the pedestrian flow problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felcman, J.; Kubera, P.

    2017-07-01

    We consider the Pedestrian Flow Equations (PFEs) as the coupled system formed by the Eikonal equation and the first order hyperbolic system with the source term. The hyperbolic system consists of the continuity equation and momentum equation of fluid dynamics. Specifying the social and pressure forces in the momentum equation we come to the assumption that each pedestrian is trying to move in a desired direction (e.g. to the exit in the panic situation) with a desired velocity, where his velocity and the direction of movement depend on the density of pedestrians in his neighborhood. In [1] we used the model, where the desired direction of movement is given by the solution of the Eikonal equation (more precisely by the gradient of the solution). Here we avoid the solution of the Eikonal equation, which is the novelty of the paper. Based on the fact that the solution of the Eikonal equation has the meaning of the shortest time to reach the exit, we define explicitly such a function in the framework of the Dijkstra's algorithm for the shortest path in the graph. This is done at the discrete level of the solution. As the graph we use the underlying triangulation, where the norm of each edge is density depending and has the dimension of the time. The numerical examples of the solution of the PFEs with and without the solution of the Eikonal equation are presented.

  3. The Crossing Speed of Elderly Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Trpković

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The population of elderly people is rapidly growing and in terms of safety, senior pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable group. The pedestrian crossing speed is a significant input parameter in traffic engineering, which can have effect on pedestrians’ safety, especially of older population. The objective of this study was to determine the value of the crossing speed of elderly pedestrians (65+ for different types of urban crossings. The research was conducted at ten intersections in the city of Belgrade, Serbia, using the method of direct observation and a questionnaire for collecting data. The data were analysed in the statistical software package IBM SPSS Statistics. The results showed that elderly pedestrians walk slower and the crossing type significantly influenced the speed of older population. The order of crossing types in relation to the measured speed is ranked as follows, from the lowest to the highest speed value: unsignalized, signalized, signalized with pedestrian countdown display, signalized with pedestrian island and pedestrian countdown display and finally signalized crossing with pedestrian island. According to the questionnaire results, the elderly recognize the importance of implementing pedestrian counters. This indicates the necessity to provide safe street crossing for the elderly using the corresponding engineering measures.

  4. Multiscale modeling of pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models and numerical simulations of crowd dynamics. The core topic is the development of a new multiscale paradigm, which bridges the microscopic and macroscopic scales taking the most from each of them for capturing the relevant clues of complexity of crowds. The background idea is indeed that most of the complex trends exhibited by crowds are due to an intrinsic interplay between individual and collective behaviors. The modeling approach promoted in this book pursues actively this intuition and profits from it for designing general mathematical structures susceptible of application also in fields different from the inspiring original one. The book considers also the two most traditional points of view: the microscopic one, in which pedestrians are tracked individually, and the macroscopic one, in which pedestrians are assimilated to a continuum. Selected existing models are critically analyzed. The work is addressed to researchers and graduate students.

  5. A stochastic load model for pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    to support their applicability. Recently, an extensive experimental campaign was carried out, in which the lateral forces generated by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill were determined for various combinations of lateral frequencies (0.33–1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5–48 mm......). It was shown that large amplitude vibrations are the result of correlated pedestrian forces in the form of “negative damping”, with magnitudes that depend on the relationship between the pacing frequency and the frequency of the lateral movement.Herewith, a novel stochastic load model for the frequency...

  6. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  7. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes 4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved seventy-one male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop also...... with the acceleration of the treadmill depends on the frequency of the movement, such that pedestrians (on average) add to the overall modal mass for low frequency motion and subtract from the overall modal mass at higher frequencies....

  8. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  9. FUNGSI DAN PERAN JALUR PEDESTRIAN BAGI PEJALAN KAKI Sebuah Studi Banding Terhadap Fungsi Pedestrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Mauliani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Jalur pedestrian pada sebuah kota adalah bagian yang sangat penting, baik sebagai kelengkapan (amenity kota maupun sebagai tempat orang berjalan kaki dengan aman dan nyaman. Namun untuk kota Jakarta, dan mungkin juga kota-kota lainnya di Indonesia, pedestrian seringkali mengalami perubahan fungsi tidak hanya sekedar sebagai jalur pejalan kaki namun juga bisa menjadi jalur kendaraan bermotor, area berjualan para pedagang kaki lima yang bersifat mobile, tetapi bisa juga menjadi “ruko” alias rumah toko. Permasalahannya adalah bagaimana nasib para pejalan kaki, dimana mereka dapat berjalan kaki dengan aman, tanpa takut tertabrak pengendara sepeda motor, tersenggol bajay, mikrolet atau mobil pribadi? Pembahasan tentang pedestrian ini dilakukan dengan cara mengamati dan membandingkan antara pedestrian yang ada di Jakarta dan di Singapura, dilihat dari segi fungsi dan penataannya.   Kata kunci : pedestrian, fungsi, pejalan kaki   ABSTRACT. Pedestrian path within the city has been regarded as an important element, either as a city amenity which contribute an aesthetic of city space or as a space for people or pedestrian to walk safely and comfort. Jakarta as one of a big city in Indonesia, has many pedestrian paths within it, but there are many pedestrian paths which have been changed in function. The pedestrian paths are not as a space for people to walk but have been accommodated as motorcycle lines as well as mobile shop or shop-house which has been known as RUKO or rumah toko. The main problem is how people could walk safely and comfort. This discussion of pedestrian paths will be explored in this paper by comparing the function and the design as well as the plan of pedestrian paths in Jakarta and Singapore.   Keywords : pedestrian path, function, pedestrian.

  10. Agent Based Modeling and Simulation of Pedestrian Crowds In Panic Situations

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    The increasing occurrence of panic stampedes during mass events has motivated studying the impact of panic on crowd dynamics and the simulation of pedestrian flows in panic situations. The lack of understanding of panic stampedes still causes hundreds of fatalities each year, not to mention the scarce methodical studies of panic behavior capable of envisaging such crowd dynamics. Under those circumstances, there are thousands of fatalities and twice that many of injuries every year caused be crowd stampede worldwide, despite the tremendous efforts of crowd control and massive numbers of safekeeping forces. Pedestrian crowd dynamics are generally predictable in high-density crowds where pedestrians cannot move freely and thus gives rise to self-propelling interactions between pedestrians. Although every pedestrian has personal preferences, the motion dynamics can be modeled as a social force in such crowds. These forces are representations of internal preferences and objectives to perform certain actions or movements. The corresponding forces can be controlled for each individual to represent a different variety of behaviors that can be associated with panic situations such as escaping danger, clustering, and pushing. In this thesis, we use an agent-based model of pedestrian behavior in panic situations to predict the collective human behavior in such crowd dynamics. The proposed simulations suggests a practical way to alleviate fatalities and minimize the evacuation time in panic situations. Moreover, we introduce contagious panic and pushing behavior, resulting in a more realistic crowd dynamics model. The proposed methodology describes the intensity and spread of panic for each individual as a function of distances between pedestrians.

  11. Blind's Eye: Employing Google Directions API for Outdoor Navigation of Visually Impaired Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABA FEROZMEMON

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vision plays a paramount role in our everyday life and assists human in almost every walk of life. The people lacking vision sense require assistance to move freely. The inability of unassisted navigation and orientation in outdoor environments is one of the most important constraints for people with visual impairment. Motivated by this problem, we developed a simplified and user friendly navigation system that allows visually impaired pedestrians to reach their desired outdoor location. We designed a Braille keyboard to allow the blind user to input their destination. The proposed system makes use of Google Directions API (Application Program Interface to generate the right path to a destination. The visually impaired pedestrians have to wear a vibration belt to keep them on the track. The evaluation exposes shortcomings of Google Directions API when used for navigating the visually impaired pedestrians in an outdoor environment.

  12. Probabilistic assessment of the dynamic interaction between multiple pedestrians and vertical vibrations of footbridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubino, Federica

    2018-03-01

    The effect of human-structure interaction in the vertical direction for footbridges is studied based on a probabilistic approach. The bridge is modeled as a continuous dynamic system, while pedestrians are schematized as moving single-degree-of-freedom systems with random dynamic properties. The non-dimensional form of the equations of motion allows us to obtain results that can be applied in a very wide set of cases. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation campaign is performed, varying the main non-dimensional parameters identified, and the mean values and coefficients of variation of the damping ratio and of the non-dimensional natural frequency of the coupled system are reported. The results obtained can be interpreted from two different points of view. If the characterization of pedestrians' equivalent dynamic parameters is assumed as uncertain, as revealed from a current literature review, then the paper provides a range of possible variations of the coupled system damping ratio and natural frequency as a function of pedestrians' parameters. Assuming that a reliable characterization of pedestrians' dynamic parameters is available (which is not the case at present, but could be in the future), the results presented can be adopted to estimate the damping ratio and natural frequency of the coupled footbridge-pedestrian system for a very wide range of real structures.

  13. A framework for experimental determination of localised vertical pedestrian forces on full-scale structures using wireless attitude and heading reference systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, M.; Brownjohn, J. M. W.; Racic, V.; Hester, D.; Quattrone, A.; Monnickendam, R.

    2016-08-01

    A major weakness among loading models for pedestrians walking on flexible structures proposed in recent years is the various uncorroborated assumptions made in their development. This applies to spatio-temporal characteristics of pedestrian loading and the nature of multi-object interactions. To alleviate this problem, a framework for the determination of localised pedestrian forces on full-scale structures is presented using a wireless attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS). An AHRS comprises a triad of tri-axial accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers managed by a dedicated data processing unit, allowing motion in three-dimensional space to be reconstructed. A pedestrian loading model based on a single point inertial measurement from an AHRS is derived and shown to perform well against benchmark data collected on an instrumented treadmill. Unlike other models, the current model does not take any predefined form nor does it require any extrapolations as to the timing and amplitude of pedestrian loading. In order to assess correctly the influence of the moving pedestrian on behaviour of a structure, an algorithm for tracking the point of application of pedestrian force is developed based on data from a single AHRS attached to a foot. A set of controlled walking tests with a single pedestrian is conducted on a real footbridge for validation purposes. A remarkably good match between the measured and simulated bridge response is found, indeed confirming applicability of the proposed framework.

  14. Body Parts Features-Based Pedestrian Detection for Active Pedestrian Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel pedestrian detection system based on vision in urban traffic situations is presented to help the driver perceive the pedestrian ahead of the vehicle. To enhance the accuracy and to decrease the time spent on pedestrian detection in such complicated situations, the pedestrian is detected by dividing their body into several parts according to their corresponding features in the image. The candidate pedestrian leg is segmented based on the gentle AdaBoost algorithm by training the optimized histogram of gradient features. The candidate pedestrian head is located by matching the pedestrian head and shoulder model above the region of the candidate leg. Then the candidate leg, head and shoulder are combined by parts constraint and threshold adjustment to verify the existence of the pedestrian. Finally, the experiments in real urban traffic circumstances were conducted. The results show that the proposed pedestrian detection method can achieve pedestrian detection rate of 92.1% with the average detection time of 0.2257 s.

  15. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Time-to-collision analysis of pedestrian and pedal-cycle accidents for the development of autonomous emergency braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, James; Welsh, Ruth; Danton, Russell

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the position of pedestrians and pedal cyclists relative to the striking vehicle in the 3 s before impact. This information is essential for the development of effective autonomous emergency braking systems and relevant test conditions for consumer ratings. The UK RAIDS-OTS study provided 175 pedestrian and 127 pedal-cycle cases based on in-depth, at-scene investigations of a representative sample of accidents in 2000-2010. Pedal cyclists were scattered laterally more widely than pedestrians (90% of cyclists within around ±80° compared to ±20° for pedestrians), however their distance from the striking vehicle in the seconds before impact was no greater (90% of cyclists within 42 m at 3 s compared to 50 m for pedestrians). This data is consistent with a greater involvement of slow moving vehicles in cycle accidents. The implication of the results is that AEB systems for cyclists require almost complete 180° side-to-side vision but do not need a longer distance range than for pedestrians. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Field based model for pedestrian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhang, Michael; Wang, Zhongren

    2018-03-01

    A pedestrian’s physical movement is simulated as a response to the pedestrian subjective evaluation of the objective environment. The objective environment is modeled by presumed fields statically or dynamically superposed. Regulation functions, which consider not only force caused by presumed fields but also local crowd densities around pedestrians, are introduced for consideration of pedestrians’ intelligence. Numerical experiments indicate that the model can be calibrated to reproduce a fundamental diagram that matches an empirical one proposed by Weidmann. Such experiments prove the model to be a useful tool for study of pedestrian dynamics.

  18. An on-board pedestrian detection and warning system with features of side pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruzhong; Zhao, Yong; Wong, ChupChung; Chan, KwokPo; Xu, Jiayao; Wang, Xin'an

    2012-01-01

    Automotive Active Safety(AAS) is the main branch of intelligence automobile study and pedestrian detection is the key problem of AAS, because it is related with the casualties of most vehicle accidents. For on-board pedestrian detection algorithms, the main problem is to balance efficiency and accuracy to make the on-board system available in real scenes, so an on-board pedestrian detection and warning system with the algorithm considered the features of side pedestrian is proposed. The system includes two modules, pedestrian detecting and warning module. Haar feature and a cascade of stage classifiers trained by Adaboost are first applied, and then HOG feature and SVM classifier are used to refine false positives. To make these time-consuming algorithms available in real-time use, a divide-window method together with operator context scanning(OCS) method are applied to increase efficiency. To merge the velocity information of the automotive, the distance of the detected pedestrian is also obtained, so the system could judge if there is a potential danger for the pedestrian in the front. With a new dataset captured in urban environment with side pedestrians on zebra, the embedded system and its algorithm perform an on-board available result on side pedestrian detection.

  19. Bayesian Estimation-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Microcells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Taniguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a pedestrian tracking system where sensor nodes are placed only at specific points so that the monitoring region is divided into multiple smaller regions referred to as microcells. In the proposed pedestrian tracking system, sensor nodes composed of pairs of binary sensors can detect pedestrian arrival and departure events. In this paper, we focus on pedestrian tracking in microcells. First, we investigate actual pedestrian trajectories in a microcell on the basis of observations using video sequences, after which we prepare a pedestrian mobility model. Next, we propose a method for pedestrian tracking in microcells based on the developed pedestrian mobility model. In the proposed method, we extend the Bayesian estimation to account for time-series information to estimate the correspondence between pedestrian arrival and departure events. Through simulations, we show that the tracking success ratio of the proposed method is increased by 35.8% compared to a combinatorial optimization-based tracking method.

  20. Literature review on the preschool pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...

  1. Classification and checking model of pedestrian crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Delgado Méndez

    2012-11-01

    After realizing this investigation it can be confirmed that the functionality of a pedestrian crossing depends on almost a hundred parameters which must be checked or measured, in turn proving that this design and construction process is indeed complex.

  2. Evaluation of LED vehicular and pedestrian modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to verify the compliance of vehicular and pedestrian LED traffic signal modules with the Institute : of Transportation Engineers specifications; and to assess drivers preferences of the LED modules. Four vehicular modules ...

  3. Literature review on the preschool pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...

  4. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    on the part of engineers and architects of the need to evaluate the potential for footbridge vibrations that can be attributed to pedestrians. Within the scientific community, the closures have also led to the initiation of a new tract of research, focused on the understanding of pedestrian loading, bridge...... the synchronised lateral movement of pedestrians. This excitation mechanism is often characterised as Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE). Reports from a limited number of controlled pedestrian crowd tests have verified the existence of a transition point at which a rapid increase in the lateral bridge response...... in the experimental data, a novel stochastic load model for the frequency and amplitude dependent lateral forces is presented. The parameters in the model are based directly on the measured lateral forces from the experimental campaign. Thereby, the model is currently the most statistically reliable analytical tool...

  5. Statewide pedestrian and bicycle planning handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This handbook is designed to help State departments of transportation (DOTs) develop or update State pedestrian and bicycle plans. Based on research including interviews with nine State DOTs and critical evaluations of documents from 15 States, this ...

  6. Injury severity analysis in taxi-pedestrian crashes: An application of reconstructed crash data using a vehicle black box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Younshik

    2018-02-01

    In-vehicle recording devices have enabled recent changes in methodological paradigms for traffic safety research. Such devices include event data recorders (EDRs), vehicle black boxes (VBBs), and various sensors used in naturalistic driving studies (NDSs). These technologies may help improve the validity of models used to assess impacts on traffic safety. The objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity in taxi-pedestrian crashes using the accurate crash data from VBBs, such as the time-to-collision (TTC), speed, angle, and region of the crash. VBB data from a two-year period (2010-2011) were collected from taxis operating in Incheon, South Korea. An ordered probit model was then applied to analyze the injury severity in crashes. Five variables were found to have a greater effect on injury severity: crash speed, crashes in no-median sections, crashes where the secondary impact object of pedestrians was the crash vehicle, crashes where the third impact object of pedestrians was another moving vehicle, and crashes where the third impact region of pedestrians was their head. However, injuries were less severe in crashes where the first impact region on the pedestrian was their leg, crashes with the car moving in a straight line, and crashes involving junior high school students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of pedestrian age and gender on spatial and temporal distribution of pedestrian crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2018-01-02

    Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes worldwide and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become a significant traffic safety issue worldwide. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location- and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrian age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot times. Data for all vehicle-pedestrian crashes on public roadways in the Melbourne metropolitan area from 2004 to 2013 are used in this research. Spatial autocorrelation is applied in examining the vehicle-pedestrian crashes in geographic information systems (GIS) to identify any dependency between time and location of these crashes. Spider plots and kernel density estimation (KDE) are then used to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle-pedestrian crashes for different age groups and genders. Temporal analysis shows that pedestrian age has a significant influence on the temporal distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, men and women have different crash patterns. In addition, results of the spatial analysis shows that areas with high risk of vehicle-pedestrian crashes can vary during different times of the day for different age groups and genders. For example, for those between ages 18 and 65, most vehicle-pedestrian crashes occur in the central business district (CBD) during the day, but between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., crashes among this age group occur mostly around hotels, clubs, and bars. This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrian age groups and genders. Therefore, specific safety measures should be in place during high crash times at different locations for different age groups and genders to

  8. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Gattermann, Peter; Knoflacher, Hermann; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Due to an increasing number of reported catastrophes all over the world, the safety especially of pedestrians today, is a dramatically growing field of interest, both for practitioners as well as scientists from various disciplines. The questions arising mainly address the dynamics of evacuating people and possible optimisations of the process by changing the architecture and /or the procedure. This concerns not only the case of ships, stadiums or buildings, all with restricted geometries, but also the evacuation of complete geographical regions due to natural disasters. Furthermore, also ‘simple’ crowd motion in ‘relaxed’ situations poses new questions with respect to higher comfort and efficiency since the number of involved persons at large events is as high as never before. In addition, as a new research topic in this field, collective animal behaviour is attracting increasing attention. All this was in the scope of the conference held in Vienna, September 28–30, 2005, the third one in a series ...

  9. Towards an integrated approach of pedestrian behaviour and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated methodology for the analysis of pedestrian behaviour and exposure is proposed, allowing to identify and quantify the effect of pedestrian behaviour, road and traffic characteristics on pedestrian risk exposure, for each pedestrian and for populations of pedestrians. The paper builds on existing research on pedestrian exposure, namely the Routledge microscopic indicator, proposes adjustments to take into account road, traffic and human factors and extends the use of this indicator on area-wide level. Moreover, this paper uses integrated choice and latent variables (ICLV) models of pedestrian behaviour, taking into account road, traffic and human factors. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the integrated estimation of pedestrian behaviour and exposure on the basis of road, traffic and human factors. The method is tested with data from a field survey in Athens, Greece, which used pedestrian behaviour observations as well as a questionnaire on human factors of pedestrian behaviour. The data were used (i) to develop ICLV models of pedestrian behaviour and (ii) to estimate the behaviour and exposure of pedestrians for different road, traffic and behavioural scenarios. The results suggest that both pedestrian behaviour and exposure are largely defined by a small number of factors: road type, traffic volume and pedestrian risk-taking. The probability for risk-taking behaviour and the related exposure decrease in less demanding road and traffic environments. A synthesis of the results allows to enhance the understanding of the interactions between behaviour and exposure of pedestrians and to identify conditions of increased risk exposure. These conditions include principal urban arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is low but the related exposure is very high) and minor arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is more frequent, and the related exposure is still high). A "paradox" of increased risk-taking behaviour of pedestrians with low

  10. On the hazard of quiet vehicles to pedestrians and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogalter, Michael S; Lim, Raymond W; Nyeste, Patrick G

    2014-09-01

    The need to produce more efficient and less polluting vehicles has encouraged mass production of alternative energy vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Many of these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation. While reducing noise pollution is desirable, quieter vehicles could negatively affect pedestrian safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder internal combustion engines. Three studies were performed to investigate people's concern about this issue. In Study 1, a questionnaire completed by 378 people showed substantial positive interest in quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, they also indicated concern about the reduced auditory cues of quiet vehicles. In Study 2, 316 participants rated 14 sounds that could be potentially added to quiet alternative-energy vehicles. The data showed that participants did not want annoying sounds, but preferred adding "engine" and "hum" sounds relative to other types of sounds. In Study 3, 24 persons heard and rated 18 actual sounds within 6 categories that were added to a video of a hybrid vehicle driving by. The sounds most preferred were "engine" followed by "white noise" and "hum". Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying and tracking pedestrians based on sensor fusion and motion stability predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musleh, Basam; García, Fernando; Otamendi, Javier; Armingol, José Maria; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately measures the position of obstacles using a two-sensor hybrid fusion approach: a stereo camera vision system and a laser scanner. Second, it correctly identifies pedestrians using intelligent algorithms based on polylines and pattern recognition related to leg positions (laser subsystem) and dense disparity maps and u-v disparity (vision subsystem). Third, it uses statistical validation gates and confidence regions to track the pedestrian within the detection zones of the sensors and predict their position in the upcoming frames. The intelligent sensor application has been experimentally tested with success while tracking pedestrians that cross and move in zigzag fashion in front of a vehicle.

  12. Identifying and Tracking Pedestrians Based on Sensor Fusion and Motion Stability Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Escalera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately measures the position of obstacles using a two-sensor hybrid fusion approach: a stereo camera vision system and a laser scanner. Second, it correctly identifies pedestrians using intelligent algorithms based on polylines and pattern recognition related to leg positions (laser subsystem and dense disparity maps and u-v disparity (vision subsystem. Third, it uses statistical validation gates and confidence regions to track the pedestrian within the detection zones of the sensors and predict their position in the upcoming frames. The intelligent sensor application has been experimentally tested with success while tracking pedestrians that cross and move in zigzag fashion in front of a vehicle.

  13. Recognizing pedestrian's unsafe behaviors in far-infrared imagery at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian behavior recognition is important work for early accident prevention in advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). In particular, because most pedestrian-vehicle crashes are occurred from late of night to early of dawn, our study focus on recognizing unsafe behavior of pedestrians using thermal image captured from moving vehicle at night. For recognizing unsafe behavior, this study uses convolutional neural network (CNN) which shows high quality of recognition performance. However, because traditional CNN requires the very expensive training time and memory, we design the light CNN consisted of two convolutional layers and two subsampling layers for real-time processing of vehicle applications. In addition, we combine light CNN with boosted random forest (Boosted RF) classifier so that the output of CNN is not fully connected with the classifier but randomly connected with Boosted random forest. We named this CNN as randomly connected CNN (RC-CNN). The proposed method was successfully applied to the pedestrian unsafe behavior (PUB) dataset captured from far-infrared camera at night and its behavior recognition accuracy is confirmed to be higher than that of some algorithms related to CNNs, with a shorter processing time.

  14. Identifying and Tracking Pedestrians Based on Sensor Fusion and Motion Stability Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musleh, Basam; García, Fernando; Otamendi, Javier; Armingol, José Mª; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The lack of trustworthy sensors makes development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications a tough task. It is necessary to develop intelligent systems by combining reliable sensors and real-time algorithms to send the proper, accurate messages to the drivers. In this article, an application to detect and predict the movement of pedestrians in order to prevent an imminent collision has been developed and tested under real conditions. The proposed application, first, accurately measures the position of obstacles using a two-sensor hybrid fusion approach: a stereo camera vision system and a laser scanner. Second, it correctly identifies pedestrians using intelligent algorithms based on polylines and pattern recognition related to leg positions (laser subsystem) and dense disparity maps and u-v disparity (vision subsystem). Third, it uses statistical validation gates and confidence regions to track the pedestrian within the detection zones of the sensors and predict their position in the upcoming frames. The intelligent sensor application has been experimentally tested with success while tracking pedestrians that cross and move in zigzag fashion in front of a vehicle. PMID:22163639

  15. Program evaluation of FHWA pedestrian and bicycle safety activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    "Introduction : FHWAs Office of Highway Safety (HSA) initiated a program evaluation by Booz Allen Hamilton to assess the overall effectiveness of the Agencys Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Program. The evaluation covers pedestrian and bicycle sa...

  16. Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between vehicle travel speeds and resulting pedestrian injury was reviewed in the literature and in existing data sets. Results indicated that higher vehicle speeds are strongly associated with both a greater likelihood of pedestrian...

  17. Pedestrian and bicycle crash data analysis : 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    The safety of pedestrians and bicyclists using the roadway is an increasing concern for the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). This report summarizes data for motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists in Michigan from 2005...

  18. Application of demographic analysis to pedestrian safety : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, many departments of transportation in the US have invested additional resources to enhance : pedestrian safety. However, there is still a need to effectively and systematically address the pedestrian experience : in low-income areas....

  19. In pedestrian crashes, it's vehicle speed that matters the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-13

    A recently prepared report on pedestrian injuries provides these two main findings: 1) regardless of age, pedestrians involved in crashes are more likely to be killed as vehicle speeds increase; and 2) in crashes at any speed, older pedestrians are m...

  20. A FORM ANALYSIS OF JAPANESE PEDESTRIAN DECKS AND EUROPEAN PLAZAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDO Naomi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares Japanese pedestrian decks and European plazas as public pedestrian spaces. The characteristics of both types of spaces will be clarified through a schematic analysis. The connections of these spaces with their surroundings will also be analyzed. Further, the spatial image of these spaces are discussed. Pedestrian spaces in Romania will be discussed as well.

  1. Pedestrian traffic injuries among school children in Kawempe, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traffic injuries are an important problem in low income countries. In Uganda road traffic is the largest single cause of injury in Kampala; pedestrians, and children are most affected. Pedestrian injury affects school children in Uganda. Objective: To determine the overall risk of pedestrian traffic injury among ...

  2. Effect of group walking traffic on dynamic properties of pedestrian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, E.; Pavic, A.; Racic, V.; Zivanovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of reported vibration serviceability problems in newly built pedestrian structures, such as footbridges and floors, under walking load has attracted considerable attention in the civil engineering community over the past two decades. The key design challenges are: the inter- and intra-subject variability of walking people, the unknown mechanisms of their interaction with the vibrating walking surfaces and the synchronisation between individuals in a group. Ignoring all or some of these factors makes the current design methods an inconsistent approximation of reality. This often leads to considerable over- or under-estimation of the structural response, yielding an unreliable assessment of vibration performance. Changes to the dynamic properties of an empty structure due to the presence of stationary people have been studied extensively over the past two decades. The understanding of the similar effect of walking people on laterally swaying bridges has improved tremendously in the past decade, due to considerable research prompted by the Millennium Bridge problem. However, there is currently a gap in knowledge about how moving pedestrians affect the dynamic properties of vertically vibrating structures. The key reason for this gap is the scarcity of credible experimental data pertinent to moving pedestrians on vertically vibrating structures, especially for multi-pedestrian traffic. This paper addresses this problem by studying the dynamic properties of the combined human-structure system, i.e. occupied structure damping ratio, natural frequency and modal mass. This was achieved using a comprehensive set of frequency response function records, measured on a full-scale test structure, which was occupied by various numbers of moving pedestrians under different walking scenarios. Contrary to expectations, it was found that the natural frequency of the joint moving human-structure system was higher than that of the empty structure, while it was

  3. An Improved Map-Matching Technique Based on the Fréchet Distance Approach for Pedestrian Navigation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsik Bang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wearable and smartphone technology innovations have propelled the growth of Pedestrian Navigation Services (PNS. PNS need a map-matching process to project a user’s locations onto maps. Many map-matching techniques have been developed for vehicle navigation services. These techniques are inappropriate for PNS because pedestrians move, stop, and turn in different ways compared to vehicles. In addition, the base map data for pedestrians are more complicated than for vehicles. This article proposes a new map-matching method for locating Global Positioning System (GPS trajectories of pedestrians onto road network datasets. The theory underlying this approach is based on the Fréchet distance, one of the measures of geometric similarity between two curves. The Fréchet distance approach can provide reasonable matching results because two linear trajectories are parameterized with the time variable. Then we improved the method to be adaptive to the positional error of the GPS signal. We used an adaptation coefficient to adjust the search range for every input signal, based on the assumption of auto-correlation between consecutive GPS points. To reduce errors in matching, the reliability index was evaluated in real time for each match. To test the proposed map-matching method, we applied it to GPS trajectories of pedestrians and the road network data. We then assessed the performance by comparing the results with reference datasets. Our proposed method performed better with test data when compared to a conventional map-matching technique for vehicles.

  4. The flashing right turn signal with pedestrian indication : human factors studies to understand the potential of a new signal to increase awareness of and attention to crossing pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The flashing pedestrian indicator (FPI) is intended to alert turning drivers to the potential presence of : pedestrians in the roadway, facilitate scanning in the likely direction of pedestrians, and encourage caution and : yielding behavior in respo...

  5. Fast Pedestrian Recognition Based on Multisensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast pedestrian recognition algorithm based on multisensor fusion is presented in this paper. Firstly, potential pedestrian locations are estimated by laser radar scanning in the world coordinates, and then their corresponding candidate regions in the image are located by camera calibration and the perspective mapping model. For avoiding time consuming in the training and recognition process caused by large numbers of feature vector dimensions, region of interest-based integral histograms of oriented gradients (ROI-IHOG feature extraction method is proposed later. A support vector machine (SVM classifier is trained by a novel pedestrian sample dataset which adapt to the urban road environment for online recognition. Finally, we test the validity of the proposed approach with several video sequences from realistic urban road scenarios. Reliable and timewise performances are shown based on our multisensor fusing method.

  6. Panic evacuation of single pedestrians and couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, G. A.; Dorso, C. O.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the timing requirements for evacuation of people has focused primarily on independent pedestrians rather than pedestrians emotionally connected. However, the main statistical effects observed in crowds, the so-called “faster is slower”, “clever is not always better” and the “low visibility enhancement”, cannot explain the overall behavior of a crowd during an evacuation process when correlated pedestrians due to, for example feelings, are present. Our research addresses this issue and examines the statistical behavior of a mixture of individuals and couples during a (panic) escaping process. We found that the attractive feeling among couples plays an important role in the time delays during the evacuation of a single exit room.

  7. Pedestrian headways - Reflection of territorial social forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbálek, Milan; Hrabák, Pavel; Bukáček, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the article is to give a more detailed insight into territorial social forces acting between pedestrians by means of headway distribution and spectral rigidity. Probabilistic distribution of time headways between consecutive pedestrians is studied theoretically and experimentally. Several original experiments/empirical observations are presented and compared to data obtained from previously published experiments. The study is restricted to an unidirectional one-lane motion where overtaking is forbidden. The main stress is put on natural choices of mutual interaction represented by logarithmic and hyperbolic potentials leading to gamma and generalized inverse Gaussian distribution respectively. We show that the time headway distribution does not sufficiently reflect the differences between such distributions. The tools related to spectral rigidity and compressibility are chosen instead so as to predict the territorial social forces more accurately. Surprisingly, pedestrian flow seems to show a higher level of synchronization (lower compressibility) than vehicular flow.

  8. Psychological distance of pedestrian at the bus terminal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Mohamad Ali, Mohd; Salleh Abustan, Muhamad; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Abustan, Ismail; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd; Gotoh, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Walking is a part of transportation modes that is effective for pedestrian in either short or long trips. All people are classified as pedestrian because people do walk every day and the higher number of people walking will lead to crowd conditions and that is the reason of the importance to study about the behaviour of pedestrian specifically the psychological distance in both indoor and outdoor. Nowadays, the number of studies of crowd dynamics among pedestrian have increased due to the concern about the safety issues primarily related to the emergency cases such as fire, earthquake, festival and etc. An observation of pedestrian was conducted at one of the main bus terminals in Kuala Lumpur with the main objective to obtain pedestrian psychological distance and it took place for 45 minutes by using a camcorder that was set up by using a tripod on the upper floor from the area of observation at the main lobby and the trapped area was approximately 100 m2. The analysis was focused on obtaining the gap between pedestrian based on two different categories, which are; (a) Pedestrian with relationship, and (b) Pedestrian without relationship. In total, 1,766 data were obtained during the analysis in which 561 data were obtained for `Pedestrian with relationship' and 1,205 data were obtained for "Pedestrian without relationship". Based on the obtained results, "Pedestrian without relationship" had shown a slightly higher average value of psychological distance between them compare to "Pedestrian with relationship" with the results of 1.6360m and 1.5909m respectively. In gender case, "Pedestrian without relationship" had higher mean of psychological distance in all three categories as well. Therefore, it can be concluded that pedestrian without relationship tend to have longer distance when walking in crowds.

  9. Biomechanically Excited SMD Model of a Walking Pedestrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengshi; Georgakis, Christos T.; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    of biomechanical forces, was used to model a pedestrian for application in vertical human-structure interaction (HSI). Tests were undertaken in a gait laboratory, where a three-dimensional motion-capture system was used to record a pedestrian's walking motions at various frequencies. The motion-capture system...... produced the pedestrian's center of mass (COM) trajectories from the captured motion markers. The vertical COM trajectory was approximated to be the pedestrian SMD dynamic responses under the excitation of biomechanical forces. SMD model parameters of a pedestrian for a specific walking frequency were...

  10. From Ant Trails to Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schadschneider

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the simulation of pedestrian dynamics inspired by the behaviour of ants in ant trails. Ants communicate by producing a pheromone that can be smelled by other ants. In this model, pedestrians produce a virtual pheromone that influences the motion of others. In this way all interactions are strictly local, and so even large crowds can be simulated very efficiently. Nevertheless, the model is able to reproduce the collective effects observed empirically, eg the formation of lanes in counterflow. As an application, we reproduce a surprising result found in experiments of evacuation from an aircraft.

  11. A Review on Macroscopic Pedestrian Flow Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kormanová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews several various approaches to macroscopic pedestrian modelling. It describes hydrodynamic models based on similarity of pedestrian flow with fluids and gases; first-order flow models that use fundamental diagrams and conservation equation; and a model similar to LWR vehicular traffic model, which allows non-classical shocks. At the end of the paper there is stated a comparison of described models, intended to find appropriate macroscopic model to eventually be a part of a hybrid model. The future work of the author is outlined.

  12. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    -year period between 2003 and 2006. Results show the existence of five pedestrian accident patterns: (i) elderly pedestrians crossing on crosswalks far from intersection in metropolitan areas; (ii) pedestrians crossing suddenly or from hidden places and colliding with two-wheel vehicles on urban road sections......This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identifiable problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four......; (iii) male pedestrians crossing at night and being hit by four-wheel vehicles on rural road sections; (iv) young male pedestrians crossing at night wide road sections in both urban and rural areas; (v) children and teenagers crossing road sections in small rural communities. From the policy perspective...

  13. Trajectory Analysis and Prediction for Improved Pedestrian Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a monocular and purely vision based pedestrian trajectory tracking and prediction framework with integrated map-based hazard inference. In Advanced Driver Assistance systems research, a lot of effort has been put into pedestrian detection over the last decade, and several....... The tracking system is combined with a module which, based on the car's GPS position acquires a map and uses the road information in the map to know where the car can drive. Then the system warns the driver about pedestrians at risk, by combining the information about hazardous areas for pedestrians...... pedestrian detection systems are indeed showing impressive results. Considerably less effort has been put into processing the detections further. We present a tracking system for pedestrians, which based on detection bounding boxes tracks pedestrians and is able to predict their positions in the near future...

  14. Development of Mobile Accessible Pedestrian Signals (MAPS) for Blind Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    People with vision impairment have different perception and spatial cognition as compared to the sighted people. Blind pedestrians primarily rely on auditory, olfactory, or tactile feedback to determine spatial location and find their way. They gener...

  15. Development, implementation and evaluation of a pedestrian safety zone for elderly pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and apply procedures for defining pedestrian safety zones for the older (age 65+) adult and to develop, implement and evaluate a countermeasure program in the defined zones. Zone definition procedures were...

  16. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  17. Comparison of US metropolitan region pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Robert J; Vargo, Jason; Sanatizadeh, Aida

    2017-09-01

    Annual US pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities involving motor vehicles have each increased by 30% in just six years, reaching their highest levels in two decades. To provide information to reverse this trend, we quantified pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates in 46 of the largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during two five-year time periods: 1999-2003 and 2007-2011. We divided the annual average number of pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities during 1999-2003 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System by the annual estimates of pedestrian and bicycle trips, kilometers traveled, and minutes traveled from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and the annual average number of fatalities from 2007 to 2011 by similar estimates from the 2009 NHTS. The five most dangerous regions for walking during 2007-2011 averaged 262 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 49 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips. The five most dangerous regions for bicycling averaged 458 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 75 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips. Random-effects meta-analysis identified eight metropolitan regions as outliers with low pedestrian fatality rates, six with high pedestrian fatality rates, one with a low bicyclist fatality rate, and five with high bicyclist fatality rates. MSAs with low pedestrian and bicycle fatality rates tended to have central cities recognized as Walk Friendly Communities and Bicycle Friendly Communities for investing in pedestrian and bicycle projects and programs. Random-effects meta-regression showed that certain socioeconomic characteristics and high pedestrian and bicyclist mode shares were associated with lower MSA fatality rates. Results suggest that pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure and safety programs should be complemented with strategies to increase walking and bicycling. In particular, safety initiatives should be honed to reduce pedestrian and

  18. New Hampshire statewide bicycle and pedestrian plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-25

    In January 1977, the NHDOT prepared the "Shared Roadway Bike Lane Study" as a proposed plan for rural bicycle routes in New Hampshire. With the enactment of the ISTEA in 1991, each state was required to develop a bicycle and pedestrian plan or revise...

  19. Monocular pedestrian detection: Survey and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pedestrian detection is a rapidly evolving area in computer vision with key applications in intelligent vehicles, surveillance, and advanced robotics. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of the art from both methodological and experimental perspectives. The

  20. Outdoor comfort of pedestrians in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Arens; Donald Ballanti

    1977-01-01

    The outdoor comfort of pedestrians has been neglected by architects and planners because of difficulties in determining comfortable and uncomfortable climatic conditions and predicting the climatic characteristics of a planned urban site. Available information on comfort in a cold environment is summarized. The mechanical effects of wind on comfort are better...

  1. Pedestrian and bicycling survey (PABS) : user's manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Are you interested in finding out how much walking and cycling is happening in your : neighborhood or city? This manual presents a survey designed to find out who is doing how : much walking and cycling in your area: the PABS (Pedestrian and Bicyclin...

  2. Jamming transitions induced by an attraction in pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2017-08-01

    We numerically study jamming transitions in pedestrian flow interacting with an attraction, mostly based on the social force model for pedestrians who can join the attraction. We formulate the joining probability as a function of social influence from others, reflecting that individual choice behavior is likely influenced by others. By controlling pedestrian influx and the social influence parameter, we identify various pedestrian flow patterns. For the bidirectional flow scenario, we observe a transition from the free flow phase to the freezing phase, in which oppositely walking pedestrians reach a complete stop and block each other. On the other hand, a different transition behavior appears in the unidirectional flow scenario, i.e., from the free flow phase to the localized jam phase and then to the extended jam phase. It is also observed that the extended jam phase can end up in freezing phenomena with a certain probability when pedestrian flux is high with strong social influence. This study highlights that attractive interactions between pedestrians and an attraction can trigger jamming transitions by increasing the number of conflicts among pedestrians near the attraction. In order to avoid excessive pedestrian jams, we suggest suppressing the number of conflicts under a certain level by moderating pedestrian influx especially when the social influence is strong.

  3. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide.

  4. Increase in Efficiency of Use of Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovev, D. B.; Merkusheva, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    Most international airports in the world use radiation portal monitors (RPM) for primary radiation control organization. During the exploitation pedestrian radiation portal monitors operators (in the Russian Federation it is a special subdivision of customs officials) have certain problems related to the search of an ionizing radiation source causing the alarm signal of a radiation monitor. Radiation portal monitors at standard (factory) settings have to find out the illegal moving of the radioisotopes moved by physical persons passing through a controlled zone and having a steady radiation by the gamma or neutron channel. The problem is that recently the number of the ownerships who underwent treatment or medical diagnostics with the use of radio pharmaceuticals considerably increased, i.e,. ownerships represent such an ionizing radiation source. The operator of the radiation portal monitor has to define very quickly whether the ownership is a violator (takes unsolved radioisotopes illegally) or is just a patient of the clinic who underwent treatment/diagnostics with the use of radio pharmaceuticals. The research showing the radioisotopes which are most often used in the medical purposes are given in article, it is offered to use the new software developed by the authors allowing the operator of the radiation portal monitor to define the location of the ownership which has such ionizing radiation source by the activity of radiation similar to the radiation from radio pharmaceuticals.

  5. Investigation of Pedestrian Comfort with Wind Chill during Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkeun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of methods are used to evaluate pedestrian comfort: pedestrian wind comfort and outdoor thermal comfort. To accurately ascertain the outdoor wind environment, wind speed is the only parameter considered. However, pedestrians may still feel discomfort when the perceived temperature is low, even though the wind comfort criterion has been satisfactorily fulfilled. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to investigate pedestrian comfort when the perceived temperature is low, especially in winter conditions. To achieve this, a pedestrian survey was conducted, and 588 respondents completed a questionnaire. The results show that pedestrians feel discomfort when the WCET (Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature is low, with almost 40 percent of respondents answering that they feel discomfort in these conditions. In conclusion, the threshold wind speed of the winter season could be determined to be lower than that of the existing comfort criteria by applying the WCET.

  6. Enhancing the Driver Awareness of Pedestrian using Augmented Reality Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Phan , Minh Tien; Thouvenin , Indira; Frémont , Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Pedestrian accident is a serious problem for the society. Pedestrian Collision Warning Systems (PCWS) are proposed to detect the presence of pedestrians and to warn the driver about the potential dangers. However, their interfaces associated with ambiguous alerts can distract drivers and create more dangers. On the other hand, Augmented Reality (AR) with Head-Up Display (HUD) interfaces have recently attracted the attention in the field of automotive research as they c...

  7. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its "non-aerodynamic" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.

  8. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  9. Pedestrian Flow in the Mean Field Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef

    2012-11-01

    We study the mean-field limit of a particle-based system modeling the behavior of many indistinguishable pedestrians as their number increases. The base model is a modified version of Helbing\\'s social force model. In the mean-field limit, the time-dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank-Nicholson method. The advection part is solved using a Lax-Wendroff-Leveque method or an upwind Backward Euler method depending on the advection speed. Moreover, we use multilevel Monte Carlo to estimate observables from the particle-based system. We discuss these numerical methods, and present numerical results showing the convergence of observables that were calculated using the particle-based model as the number of pedestrians increases to those calculated using the probability density function satisfying the Fokker-Planck equation.

  10. GPS in Pedestrian and Spatial Behaviour Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    The planning of the environment for pedestrians can be improved by using the newest gps tools for monitoring changes in human activity patterns in time and space. Using a personal GPS device, the locations and movements of respondents can be followed over a longer period of time. It will then be ......The planning of the environment for pedestrians can be improved by using the newest gps tools for monitoring changes in human activity patterns in time and space. Using a personal GPS device, the locations and movements of respondents can be followed over a longer period of time....... It will then be possible to analyse how the use of urban spaces are embedded in the wider context of activity patterns (work, school etc.). The general pattern of everyday itineraries, including route choice and time spent at different locations ?on the way? can also be analysed.    If the personal GPS device is combined...... position in the urban area. Thus a new form of integration between research into activity patterns and urban places will be possible.    The paper presents the possibilities in spatial behaviour and pedestrian surveys with GPS and electronic questionnaires. Demonstrative mapping of test data from passive...

  11. A Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-03-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena. Work at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at the University of Minnesota is supported by MnDRIVE Initiative on Robotics, Sensors, and Advanced Manufacturing.

  12. Pedestrian-driver communication and decision strategies at marked crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucha, Matus; Dostal, Daniel; Risser, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians' and drivers' behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians' wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers' yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians

  13. Concept of an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system with a cost function-based pedestrian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Jens; Schmeichel, Carsten; Zlocki, Adrian; Gathmann, Hauke; Eckstein, Lutz

    2017-05-29

    State-of-the-art collision avoidance and collision mitigation systems predict the behavior of pedestrians based on trivial models that assume a constant acceleration or velocity. New sources of sensor information-for example, smart devices such as smartphones, tablets, smartwatches, etc.-can support enhanced pedestrian behavior models. The objective of this article is the development and implementation of a V2Xpedestrian collision avoidance system that uses new information sources. A literature review of existing state-of-the-art pedestrian collision avoidance systems, pedestrian behavior models in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), and traffic simulations is conducted together with an analysis of existing studies on typical pedestrian patterns in traffic. Based on this analysis, possible parameters for predicting pedestrian behavior were investigated. The results led to new requirements from which a concept was developed and implemented. The analysis of typical pedestrian behavior patterns in traffic situations showed the complexity of predicting pedestrian behavior. Requirements for an improved behavior prediction were derived. A concept for a V2X collision avoidance system, based on a cost function that predicts pedestrian near future presence, and its implementation is presented. The concept presented considers several challenges such as information privacy, inaccuracies of the localization, and inaccuracies of the prediction. A concept for an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system was developed and introduced. The concept uses new information sources such as smart devices to improve the prediction of the pedestrian's presence in the near future and considers challenges that come along with the usage of these information sources.

  14. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  15. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  16. The effect of spatial planning patterns on distribution of pedestrians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study focuses on public spaces of residential neighbourhoods in the City of Nairobi. It establishes various spatial characteristics, hence patterns, that have a bearing on the distribution of pedestrians therein. A higher encounter rate of pedestrians is a desirable public space quality given that the higher degree ...

  17. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period...

  18. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Gade, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows...

  19. Complex Event Detection in Pedestrian Groups from Uavs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, F.; Butenuth, M.

    2012-07-01

    We present a new hierarchical event detection approach for highly complex scenarios in pedestrian groups on the basis of airborne image sequences from UAVs. Related work on event detection for pedestrians is capable of learning and analyzing recurring motion paths to detect abnormal paths and of analyzing the type of motion interaction between pairs of pedestrians. However, these approaches can only describe basic motion and fail at the analysis of pedestrian groups with complex behavior. We overcome the limitations of the related work by using a dynamic pedestrian graph of a scene which contains basic pairwise pedestrian motion interaction labels in the first layer. In the second layer, pedestrian groups are analyzed based on the dynamic pedestrian graph in order to get higher-level information about group behavior. This is done by a heuristic assignment of predefined scenarios out of a model library to the data. The assignment is based on the motion interaction labels, on dynamic group motion parameters and on a set of subgraph features. Experimental results are shown based on a new UAV dataset which contains group motion of different complexity levels.

  20. COMPLEX EVENT DETECTION IN PEDESTRIAN GROUPS FROM UAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Burkert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new hierarchical event detection approach for highly complex scenarios in pedestrian groups on the basis of airborne image sequences from UAVs. Related work on event detection for pedestrians is capable of learning and analyzing recurring motion paths to detect abnormal paths and of analyzing the type of motion interaction between pairs of pedestrians. However, these approaches can only describe basic motion and fail at the analysis of pedestrian groups with complex behavior. We overcome the limitations of the related work by using a dynamic pedestrian graph of a scene which contains basic pairwise pedestrian motion interaction labels in the first layer. In the second layer, pedestrian groups are analyzed based on the dynamic pedestrian graph in order to get higher-level information about group behavior. This is done by a heuristic assignment of predefined scenarios out of a model library to the data. The assignment is based on the motion interaction labels, on dynamic group motion parameters and on a set of subgraph features. Experimental results are shown based on a new UAV dataset which contains group motion of different complexity levels.

  1. Injured pedestrians in Cape Town - the role of alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcohol. Margaret M. Peden, John D. Knotlenbelt,. Johan van der Spuy, Ravi Oodit, Hendrik J. Scholtz,. J. Morris Stokol. Objective. To establish a profile of injured adult pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this regard. Design. Prospective survey of injured pedestrians who presented consecutively ...

  2. An Algorithm for Pedestrian Detection in Multispectral Image Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.; Fedorenko, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The growing interest for self-driving cars provides a demand for scene understanding and obstacle detection algorithms. One of the most challenging problems in this field is the problem of pedestrian detection. Main difficulties arise from a diverse appearances of pedestrians. Poor visibility conditions such as fog and low light conditions also significantly decrease the quality of pedestrian detection. This paper presents a new optical flow based algorithm BipedDetet that provides robust pedestrian detection on a single-borad computer. The algorithm is based on the idea of simplified Kalman filtering suitable for realization on modern single-board computers. To detect a pedestrian a synthetic optical flow of the scene without pedestrians is generated using slanted-plane model. The estimate of a real optical flow is generated using a multispectral image sequence. The difference of the synthetic optical flow and the real optical flow provides the optical flow induced by pedestrians. The final detection of pedestrians is done by the segmentation of the difference of optical flows. To evaluate the BipedDetect algorithm a multispectral dataset was collected using a mobile robot.

  3. Modeling the Perceptions and Preferences of Pedestrians on Crossing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian’s street-crossing behaviour has a significant effect on traffic performance and safety. The crossing behaviour is determined by human factors and environmental factors. Aiming at examining the pedestrian perceptions toward crossing facilities and preferences for crossing locations, an observational study of pedestrian crossing behaviour at urban street is conducted. The perceptions and preferences of pedestrians are collected using stated preference technique. A specific questionnaire is designed to conduct the stated preference survey. A multinomial logit model is proposed to describe the perceptions and preferences of pedestrians on crossing facilities and locations. The sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of various factors on crossing behaviour. Then the relationship between crossing locations and crossing distances is analyzed by a new proposed method. With the theoretical analysis, the engineering solutions considering pedestrian behaviour are suggested. The results are helpful to design human-centered crossing facilities in urban traffic.

  4. Childhood pedestrian deaths during Halloween -- United States, 1975-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-24

    During 1995, pedestrian deaths accounted for approximately 15% of all motor-vehicle-related deaths sustained by children aged 0-19 years in the United States. Because of the levels of participation in Halloween-related activities by elementary and middle school-aged children, these children might be more likely to sustain pedestrian injuries on that evening than on other evenings. To characterize the occurrence of fatal pedestrian injury among children on Halloween, CDC analyzed mortality data from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during 1975-1996. This report summarizes the results of the analysis and suggests measures to prevent Halloween-related pedestrian injuries and deaths among children. The findings indicate that the number of childhood pedestrian deaths increased fourfold among children on Halloween evenings when compared with all other evenings.

  5. Training strategy for convolutional neural networks in pedestrian gender classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choon-Boon; Tay, Yong-Haur; Goi, Bok-Min

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we studied a strategy for training a convolutional neural network in pedestrian gender classification with limited amount of labeled training data. Unsupervised learning by k-means clustering on pedestrian images was used to learn the filters to initialize the first layer of the network. As a form of pre-training, supervised learning for the related task of pedestrian classification was performed. Finally, the network was fine-tuned for gender classification. We found that this strategy improved the network's generalization ability in gender classification, achieving better test results when compared to random weights initialization and slightly more beneficial than merely initializing the first layer filters by unsupervised learning. This shows that unsupervised learning followed by pre-training with pedestrian images is an effective strategy to learn useful features for pedestrian gender classification.

  6. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas S. Kristoffersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences.

  7. The influence of the interaction characteristics on the movement dynamics of pedestrians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duives, D.C.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the fundamental properties of pedestrian simulation models is their capability to predict the future movement dynamics of pedestrians depending on the current state of the pedestrian traffic flow, more specically the walking behaviour of neighbouring pedestrians. This paper investigates the

  8. El regreso a la escuela, Sigamos adelante: Lo que significa para las familias americanas "No dejar atras a ningun nino" (Back to School, Moving Forward: What "No Child Left Behind" Means for America's Families).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    This pamphlet for parents Spanish presents the components of the "No Child Left Behind" policy of the George W. Bush administration. Prefaced with remarks by President Bush and Secretary of Education Rod Paige, the pamphlet discusses the importance of high academic standards and provides guidance for parents in interpreting test scores.…

  9. Applications guide to pedestrian SNM monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1986-02-01

    The applications guide introduces readers to the pedestrian special nuclear material (SNM) monitors that provide nuclear material control at DOE contractor facilities. It explains the principles of operation, the strong and weak points, and steps for calibration and maintenance of the monitors. Administrators and security specialists will find an overview of pedestrain monitor application and upkeep in Part 1 of the guide and a descriptive catalog of present-day monitors in Part 3. Technically oriented readers will be interested in the more detailed discussion of SNM monitoring physics and SNM monitor design principles found in Part 2. 18 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Safer passenger car front shapes for pedestrians: A computational approach to reduce overall pedestrian injury risk in realistic impact scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guibing; Yang, Jikuang; Simms, Ciaran

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle front shape has a significant influence on pedestrian injuries and the optimal design for overall pedestrian protection remains an elusive goal, especially considering the variability of vehicle-to-pedestrian accident scenarios. Therefore this study aims to develop and evaluate an efficient framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection accounting for the broad range of real world impact scenarios and their distributions in recent accident data. Firstly, a framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection was developed based on coupling of multi-body simulations and a genetic algorithm. This framework was then applied for optimizing passenger car front shape for pedestrian protection, and its predictions were evaluated using accident data and kinematic analyses. The results indicate that the optimization shows a good convergence and predictions of the optimization framework are corroborated when compared to the available accident data, and the optimization framework can distinguish 'good' and 'poor' vehicle front shapes for pedestrian safety. Thus, it is feasible and reliable to use the optimization framework for vehicle front shape optimization for reducing overall pedestrian injury risk. The results also show the importance of considering the broad range of impact scenarios in vehicle front shape optimization. A safe passenger car for overall pedestrian protection should have a wide and flat bumper (covering pedestrians' legs from the lower leg up to the shaft of the upper leg with generally even contacts), a bonnet leading edge height around 750mm, a short bonnet (17° or car front shape for head and leg protection are generally consistent, but partially conflict with pelvis protection. In particular, both head and leg injury risk increase with increasing bumper lower height and depth, and decrease with increasing bonnet leading edge height, while pelvis injury risk increases with increasing bonnet leading

  11. Pedestrian crowd dynamics in merging sections: Revisiting the ;faster-is-slower; phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhoseini, Zahra; Sarvi, Majid; Saberi, Meead

    2018-02-01

    The study of the discharge of active or self-driven matter in narrow passages has become of the growing interest in a variety of fields. The question has particularly important practical applications for the safety of pedestrian human flows notably in emergency scenarios. It has been suggested predominantly through simulation in some theoretical studies as well as through few experimentations that under certain circumstances, an elevated vigour to escape may exacerbate the outflow and cause further delay although the experimental evidence is rather mixed. The dimensions of this complex phenomenon known as the "faster-is slower" effect are of crucial importance to be understood owing to its potential practical implications for the emergency management. The contextual requirements of observing this phenomenon are yet to be identified. It is not clear whether a "do not speed up" policy is universally beneficial and advisable in an evacuation scenario. Here for the first time we experimentally examine this phenomenon in relation to the pedestrian flows at merging sections as a common geometric feature of crowd egress. Various merging angles and three different speed regimes were examined in high-density laboratory experiments. The measurements of flow interruptions and egress efficiency all indicated that the pedestrians were discharged faster when moving at elevated speed levels. We also observed clear dependencies between the discharge rate and the physical layout of the merging with certain designs clearly outperforming others. But regardless of the design, we observed faster throughput and greater avalanche sizes when we instructed pedestrians to run. Our results give the suggestion that observation of the faster-is-slower effect may necessitate certain critical conditions including passages being overly narrow relative to the size of participles (pedestrians) to create long-lasting blockages. The faster-is-slower assumption may not be universal and there may be

  12. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  13. Mind Your Step : Exploring aspects in the application of long accelerating moving walkways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningtyas, I.

    2009-01-01

    Accelerating Moving Walkways (AMWs) are conveyor systems that accelerate pedestrians from a low speed at the entrance to a higher speed at the middle section, and then decelerate them to a low speed again at the exit. It is envisaged they can be a potential transport mode to fill the gap between

  14. Fuzzy Pheromone Potential Fields for Virtual Pedestrian Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Mandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of collective movement of pedestrians is crucial in various situations, such as evacuation of buildings, stadiums, or external events like concerts or public events. In such situations and under panic conditions, several incidents and disasters may arise, resulting in loss of human lives. Hence, the study and modeling of the pedestrians behavior are imperative in both normal and panic situations. In a previous work, we developed a microscopic model for pedestrian movement based on the algorithm of Ant Colonies and the principles of cellular automata. We took advantage of a fuzzy model to better reflect the uncertainty and vagueness of the perception of space to pedestrians, especially to represent the desirability or blurred visibility of virtual pedestrians. This paper uses the mechanism of artificial potential fields. Said fields provide virtual pedestrians with better visibility of their surroundings and its various components (goals and obstacles. The predictions provided by the first-order traffic flow theory are confirmed by the results of the simulation. The advantage of this model lies in the combination of benefits provided by the model of ants and artificial potential fields in a fuzzy modeling, to better understand the perceptions of pedestrians.

  15. An experimental study on pedestrian classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munder, S; Gavrila, D M

    2006-11-01

    Detecting people in images is key for several important application domains in computer vision. This paper presents an in-depth experimental study on pedestrian classification; multiple feature-classifier combinations are examined with respect to their ROC performance and efficiency. We investigate global versus local and adaptive versus nonadaptive features, as exemplified by PCA coefficients, Haar wavelets, and local receptive fields (LRFs). In terms of classifiers, we consider the popular Support Vector Machines (SVMs), feed-forward neural networks, and k-nearest neighbor classifier. Experiments are performed on a large data set consisting of 4,000 pedestrian and more than 25,000 nonpedestrian (labeled) images captured in outdoor urban environments. Statistically meaningful results are obtained by analyzing performance variances caused by varying training and test sets. Furthermore, we investigate how classification performance and training sample size are correlated. Sample size is adjusted by increasing the number of manually labeled training data or by employing automatic bootstrapping or cascade techniques. Our experiments show that the novel combination of SVMs with LRF features performs best. A boosted cascade of Haar wavelets can, however, reach quite competitive results, at a fraction of computational cost. The data set used in this paper is made public, establishing a benchmark for this important problem.

  16. Novel Methods for Environmental Assessment of Pedestrian Injury: Creation and Validation of the Inventory for Pedestrian Safety Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D; Milam, Adam J; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C; Bowie, Janice V; Gielen, Andrea C; Furr-Holden, Debra M

    2018-02-13

    Nationally, 80% of pedestrian fatalities occur in urban environments, yet the distribution of injuries across urban areas is not uniform. Identifying street-level risk factors for pedestrian injury is essential for urban planning and improvement projects, as well as targeted injury prevention efforts. However, creating and maintaining a comprehensive database of a city's traffic safety infrastructure can be cumbersome and costly. The purpose of this study was to create and validate a neighborhood environmental observational assessment tool to capture evidence-based pedestrian safety infrastructure using Google Street View (GSV)-The Inventory for Pedestrian Safety Infrastructure (IPSI). We collected measures in-person at 172 liquor stores in Baltimore City from June to August 2015 to assess the tool's reliability; we then collected IPSI measures at the same 172 locations using GSV from February to March 2016 to assess IPSI reliability using GSV. The majority of items had good or excellent levels of inter-rater reliability (ICC ≥ 0.8), with intersection features showing the highest agreement across raters. Two scales were also developed using exploratory factor analysis, and both showed strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.6). The IPSI provides a valid, economically efficient tool for assessing pedestrian safety infrastructure that can be employed for a variety of research and urban planning needs. It can also be used for in-person or GSV observation. Reliable and valid measurement of pedestrian safety infrastructure is essential to effectively prevent future pedestrian injuries.

  17. Study design and analysis of automobile bumper for pedestrian safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Akash; Vora, Rushabh; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to design and analyse the bumper beam structure, in order to ensure the protection of the pedestrians along with the occupants inside the vehicle. The concern shown towards the pedestrian safety is because, each year about 2,70,000 pedestrians are killed in road accidents that accounts to 22% of the total deaths. From the literature review, it was inferred that the mounting position of bumper and material selection play a crucial role in maximising the pedestrian safety. Hence in this paper, the effects of bumper mounting position and the bumper beam material have been studied, with reference to an explicit dynamic collision involving with a dummy human lower leg set-up. The acceptance of a particular mounting position/material was based on the fact that the maximum stress and deformation induced were less than the yield limits of the human leg form structure (representing the skin, femur and tibia).

  18. Family characteristics and pedestrian injury risk in Mexican children

    OpenAIRE

    Celis, A; Gomez, Z; Martinez-Sotomayo..., A; Arcila, L; Villasenor, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: Family characteristics have been described as risk factors for child pedestrian and motor vehicle collision. Research results come mainly from developed countries, where family relationships could be different than in developing ones.

  19. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians: Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recognizes that quieter cars such as hybrid-electric vehicles in low-speed operation using their : electric motors, may introduce a safety issue for pedestrians who are blind. This study documents th...

  20. Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center vehicular and pedestrian traffic congestion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center of Tongass National Forest in Juneau, Alaska is experiencing vehicular and pedestrian congestion. This study was initiated by the United States Forest Service, Alaska Region, in cooperation with Western Federal L...

  1. Forecasting bicycle and pedestrian usage and research data collection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, community leaders and transportation professionals in the Austin area have increased their interest in pedestrian and bicycle travel. Advocacy groups, task forces, bicycling clubs, and volunteer organizations encourage government...

  2. Transit bus stop pedestrian warning application : concept of operations document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-04

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Transit Bus Stop Pedestrian Warning (TSPW) application. The ConOps describes the current state of operations with respect to the integration of connected vehicle technology in transit...

  3. Comprehensive guidance for pedestrian and bicycle safety improvements : Research Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Planners and designers at every level of government look for ways to make Michigan roads safer for pedestrians and bicyclists. A wide range of improvement options at intersections and along corridors offers the potential for safer streets. MDOT under...

  4. Application of demographic analysis to pedestrian safety : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    FDOT has been working diligently to improve its facilities for pedestrians and cyclists, including : initiatives like the Complete Streets Policy and Implementation Plan. However, one of the : challenges facing FDOT is targeting those areas of greate...

  5. Academic Training: String Theory for Pedestrians

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 29, 30, 31 January 2007, from 11:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 29 and 30 January, TH Auditorium, Bldg 4, 3-006, on 31 January String Theory for Pedestrians B. ZWIEBACH, MIT, Cambridge, USA In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.

  6. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowska Aleksandra; Jamroz Kazimierz; Kustra Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving...

  7. Dynamic Response to Pedestrian Loads with Statistical Frequency Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    on the magnitude of the resulting response. A frequency representation of vertical pedestrian load is developed, and a compact explicit formula is developed for the magnitude of the resulting response, in terms of the damping ratio of the structure, the bandwidth of the pedestrian load, and the mean footfall...... frequency. The accuracy of the formula is verified by a statistical moment analysis using the Lyapunov equations....

  8. Distracted walking: cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2011-04-01

    Distraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on distraction of college student pedestrians. In the first, we examined whether pedestrians would display riskier behavior when distracted by a naturalistic cell phone conversation than when undistracted. We also considered whether individual difference factors would moderate the effect of the distraction. In a second experiment, we examined the impact of three forms of distraction on pedestrian safety: (a) engaging in a cell phone conversation, (b) engaging in a cognitively challenging spatial task by phone, and (c) engaging in a cognitively challenging mental arithmetic task by phone. Results revealed that cell phone conversations distracted college pedestrians considerably across all pedestrian safety variables measured, with just one exception. Attention to traffic was not affected by the naturalistic phone conversation in Experiment 1, but was altered by the cognitively-demanding content of some types of conversation in Experiment 2. The content of the conversation did not play a major role in distraction across other variables; both mundane and cognitively complex conversations distracted participants. Moreover, no significant associations between individual difference factors and susceptibility to distraction emerged. Results may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians themselves. Educational campaigns might discourage telephone conversations in pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Virtual reality by mobile smartphone: improving child pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Severson, Joan; He, Yefei; McClure, Leslie A

    2017-10-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of paediatric injury. Effective, practical and cost-efficient behavioural interventions to teach young children street crossing skills are needed. They must be empirically supported and theoretically based. Virtual reality (VR) offers promise to fill this need and teach child pedestrian safety skills for several reasons, including: (A) repeated unsupervised practice without risk of injury, (B) automated feedback on crossing success or failure, (C) tailoring to child skill levels: (D) appealing and fun training environment, and (E) most recently given technological advances, potential for broad dissemination using mobile smartphone technology. Extending previous work, we will evaluate delivery of an immersive pedestrian VR using mobile smartphones and the Google Cardboard platform, technology enabling standard smartphones to function as immersive VR delivery systems. We will overcome limitations of previous research suggesting children learnt some pedestrian skills after six VR training sessions but did not master adult-level pedestrian skills by implementing a randomised non-inferiority trial with two equal-sized groups of children ages 7-8 years (total N=498). All children will complete baseline, postintervention and 6-month follow-up assessments of pedestrian safety and up to 25 30-min pedestrian safety training trials until they reach adult levels of functioning. Half the children will be randomly assigned to train in Google Cardboard and the other half in a semi-immersive kiosk VR. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) models will assess primary outcomes. If results are as hypothesised, mobile smartphones offer substantial potential to overcome barriers of dissemination and implementation and deliver pedestrian safety training to children worldwide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Sander, Ulrich

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the amount of violence tolerated by the human body is essential when developing and implementing pedestrian safety strategies. When estimating the potential benefits of new countermeasures, the pedestrian fatality risk as a function of impact speed is of particular importance. Although this function has been analysed previously, we state that a proper understanding does not exist. Based on the largest in-depth, pedestrian accident study undertaken to date, we derive an improved risk function for adult pedestrians hit by the front of passenger cars. Our results show far lower fatality risks than generally reported in the traffic safety literature. This discrepancy is primarily explained by sample bias towards severe injury accidents in earlier studies. Nevertheless, a strong dependence on impact speed is found, with the fatality risk at 50 km/h being more than twice as high as the risk at 40 km/h and more than five times higher than the risk at 30 km/h. Our findings should have important implications for the development of pedestrian accident countermeasures worldwide. In particular, the scope of future pedestrian safety policies and research should be broadened to include accidents with impact speeds exceeding 50 km/h.

  11. Dual effects of guide-based guidance on pedestrian evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Shi, Meng

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of guide-based guidance on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility via the simulations based on an extended social force model. The results show that the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are dual, and related to the neighbor density within the visual field. On the one hand, in many cases, the effects of guides are positive, particularly when the neighbor density within the visual field is moderate; in this case, a few guides can already assist the evacuation effectively and efficiently. However, when the neighbor density within the visual field is particularly small or large, the effects of guides may be adverse and make the evacuation time longer. Our results not only provide a new insight into the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility, but also give some practical suggestions as to how to assign guides to assist the evacuation under different evacuation conditions. - Highlights: • Extended social force model is used to simulate guided pedestrian evacuation. • Effects of guides on pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are dual. • Effects of guides on pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are related to neighbor density within visual field.

  12. Pedestrians have the right of way at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    At CERN, we are all pedestrians, often drivers, and occasionally cyclists. But our means of locomotion do not matter so long as we exercise caution and remember that a pedestrian has equal rights as a road user, except that he runs greater risks.   Whether we also travel by bike or car, irrrespective of our means of locomotion at CERN we are all pedestrians! Whether going on foot to our office, the cafeteria or a building where colleagues work, we are much more in harm's way than as a driver sitting in the shell of steel that is a car. There are some 8000 people working on the different sites of CERN. That means 8000 potential pedestrians and 8000 reasons for trying to keep the roads safe. Whether behind the steering wheel or on a bike, we sometimes forget that the roadway is not just for vehicles. Pedestrians are also fully fledged road users with equal rights. That is why drivers must remain alert and take care not to block pedestrian crossings, pavements or access ways, and why special caution...

  13. Ranking the types of intersections for assessing the safety of pedestrians using TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin ŞERBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more than 1500 accidents with pedestrian occur in the intersections in Romania. The number of accidents involving pedestrians in roundabouts intersections type increased approximately three times in 2013 compared to 2009 in Romania. This alarming increase led to the need of assessing the safety of pedestrians in intersections with or without safety systems. The safety systems for pedestrians and drivers include: the road marking, the pedestrian crossings marking, signal intersections with road signs, traffic lights or pedestrian safety barriers. We propose to assess the types of intersections with TOPSIS method.

  14. Features of microscopic pedestrian movement in a panic situation based on cellular automata model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Najihah; Hassan, Fadratul Hafinaz

    2017-10-01

    Pedestrian movement is the one of the subset for the crowd management under simulation objective. During panic situation, pedestrian usually will create a microscopic movement that lead towards the self-organization. During self-organizing, the behavioral and physical factors had caused the mass effect on the pedestrian movement. The basic CA model will create a movement path for each pedestrian over a time step. However, due to the factors immerge, the CA model needs some enhancement that will establish a real simulation state. Hence, this concept paper will discuss on the enhanced features of CA model for microscopic pedestrian movement during panic situation for a better pedestrian simulation.

  15. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  16. The Effect of Pedestrian Traffic on the Dynamic Behavior of Footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Studničková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of a footbridge depends namely on the natural frequencies of the structure in vertical, in horizontal and in torsion. If any of the frequencies in vertical is in the range 1.0 Hz to 3.0 Hz, the dynamic response from moving people can be significant. In this case it is necessary to calculate vibrations taking into account both serviceability and ultimate limit states. The same problem arises when any of the frequencies in horizontal (transversal or in torsion are in the range 0.5 Hz to 1.5 Hz. Such frequencies haveare found namely in footbridges with larger spans or cable-stayed and suspension footbridges.A unique cable-stayed footbridge with prestressed concrete was dynamically analyzed and the dynamic response to simulated pedestrian loading was calculated. The calculated effects were compared with the pedestrian comfort criteria for serviceability limit states. These criteria are defined in terms of maximum acceptable acceleration of the bridge deck.

  17. Constructal law: Pleasure, golden ratio, animal locomotion and the design of pedestrian evacuation. Comment on “The emergence of design in pedestrian dynamics: Locomotion, self-organization, walking paths and the constructal law” by A. Miguel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-06-01

    Pedestrian flow belongs to the design of animal movement, covered by the constructal law of design (animate, inanimate) in nature. Walking and running, like water waves, are forms of falling-forward movement, with speeds in accord with the constructal law. Travel on an area is a balanced combination of “long and fast and short and slow”. Bodies moving on an area are a balanced combination of “few large and many small”. Comfort, beauty (golden ratio) and pleasure guide human movement to greater access, in accord with the constructal law.

  18. Community-based pedestrian safety training in virtual reality : a pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States : and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to : safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers...

  19. A framework for improved safety and accessibility through pedestrian guidance and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    With the changes in America's demographics comes a need to provide improved accommodation of individuals : with reduced capabilities. To date, our research has focused upon assistive pedestrian signal technologies for : pedestrians with impaired visi...

  20. Development and evaluation of a pedestrian safety training program for elementary school bus riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a comprehensive pedestrian safety program for elementary (kindergarten through grade 6) school bus riders. Existing materials, crash data and state laws/regulations on school bus pedestrian safe...

  1. Pedestrian and bicycle bridges as examples of safe collision-free road crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miśkiewicz Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are most at risk when they are crossing the road. This represents a significant proportion of all fatalities among pedestrians, amounting respectively to 50% in non-built-up areas and 75% in built-up areas. The most frequent reason for this accident is failure to give way. What is most terrible is that 30% of pedestrian accidents occurred at marked pedestrian crossings. Therefore, an important part of pedestrian safety management is selecting the right type of crossings, which are suitable for the conditions. At certain speeds and traffic volume, the only safe option for pedestrian crossings is to apply multi-level solutions, that is footbridges or tunnels. The paper presents examples of infrastructure redesign by constructing footbridges and hence, separating pedestrians and vehicular traffic to improve pedestrian safety.

  2. Countermeasures in the field of human factors in relation, to pedestrian behaviour, regulations, and law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Existing measures and theoretical studies on pedestrian behavior, regulations, and enforcement are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to: types of crossings; traffic signal effectiveness; bridges and subways; traffic training areas for children; characteristic movements of pedestrian

  3. Sharing the road : optimizing pedestrian and bicycle safety and vehicle mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Reducing crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists continues to be a major concern in the design of Michigan roads. In seeking to improve the safety of pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists on Michigan roads, it is important to balance the needs ...

  4. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  5. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  6. The importance of rotational kinematics in pedestrian head to windshield impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mordaka, J.; Kleiven, S.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Lange, R. de; Casanova, L.J.G.; Carter, E.L.; Holst, H. von

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of angular kinematics on head injury in pedestrian head-to-windshield impacts. Three cases of pedestrian head impacts were simulated with FE head and windshield models. The initial impact conditions were obtained from pedestrian accident

  7. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.131 Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety... buses to improve the safety of pedestrians in the vicinity of stopped school buses. S2. Purpose. The...

  8. Identification of alcohol-pedestrian crash problems among selected racial/ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Pedestrians who had been drinking make up about half of all adult pedestrian crash fatalities. About one-third of all adult pedestrian victims were at BACs of 15% or more (NHTSA's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), 1984-1993). This study exam...

  9. How do attitudes, personality traits, and driver behaviors relate to pedestrian behaviors?: A Turkish case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşekoğlu, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of pedestrian attitudes and personality traits (social conformity and empathy) on pedestrian behaviors in a Turkish sample. An equally important aim of the study was to examine the association between pedestrian and driver behaviors. The sample included 289 road users including pedestrians and drivers (169 females and 120 males). The participants' age ranged from 15 to 78 years (M = 32.00, SD = 13.89). Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A regression analysis showed that increased age, high level of satisfaction with traffic infrastructure and environment, safer attitudes toward pedestrian violations, and empathy were negatively related to risky pedestrian behaviors, whereas social conformity was positively related. Attitudes were the strongest predictor of pedestrian behaviors. In addition, bivariate correlation analysis showed that all dimensions of pedestrian and driver behaviors were positively correlated with each other, which indicates that a tendency to take risks remains the same regardless of the road user role (i.e., driver vs. pedestrian). Attitudes are strong predictors of pedestrian behaviors. A tendency to take risks as a pedestrian and as a driver is correlated. Results are discussed for their implications to traffic safety campaigns targeting increased pedestrian safety.

  10. A heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiwei; Chen, Jianqiao; Zheng, Yaochen; Wei, Junhong

    2012-02-01

    Based on the cellular automata method (CA model) and the mobile lattice gas model (MLG model), we have developed a heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation processes in an emergency. A local population density concept is introduced first. The update rule in the new model depends on the local population density and the exit crowded degree factor. The drift D, which is one of the key parameters influencing the evacuation process, is allowed to change according to the local population density of the pedestrians. Interactions including attraction, repulsion, and friction between every two pedestrians and those between a pedestrian and the building wall are described by a nonlinear function of the corresponding distance, and the repulsion forces increase sharply as the distances get small. A critical force of injury is introduced into the model, and its effects on the evacuation process are investigated. The model proposed has heterogeneous features as compared to the MLG model or the basic CA model. Numerical examples show that the model proposed can capture the basic features of pedestrian evacuation, such as clogging and arching phenomena.

  11. Evacuation of Pedestrians with Two Motion Modes for Panic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, You; Xie, Jiarong; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I), the other is flustered (mode II). First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII). The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible) model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5∼10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation.

  12. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  13. Pedestrian detection from thermal images: A sparse representation based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  14. Evacuation of Pedestrians with Two Motion Modes for Panic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Zou

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I, the other is flustered (mode II. First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII. The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5∼10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation.

  15. Modeling detour behavior of pedestrian dynamics under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yunchao; Xiao, Yao; Wu, Jianjun; Tang, Tao; Gao, Ziyou

    2018-02-01

    Pedestrian simulation approach has been widely used to reveal the human behavior and evaluate the performance of crowd evacuation. In the existing pedestrian simulation models, the social force model is capable of predicting many collective phenomena. Detour behavior occurs in many cases, and the important behavior is a dominate factor of the crowd evacuation efficiency. However, limited attention has been attracted for analyzing and modeling the characteristics of detour behavior. In this paper, a modified social force model integrated by Voronoi diagram is proposed to calculate the detour direction and preferred velocity. Besides, with the consideration of locations and velocities of neighbor pedestrians, a Logit-based choice model is built to describe the detour direction choice. The proposed model is applied to analyze pedestrian dynamics in a corridor scenario with either unidirectional or bidirectional flow, and a building scenario in real-world. Simulation results show that the modified social force model including detour behavior could reduce the frequency of collision and deadlock, increase the average speed of the crowd, and predict more practical crowd dynamics with detour behavior. This model can also be potentially applied to understand the pedestrian dynamics and design emergent management strategies for crowd evacuations.

  16. Contribution to sidewalk pedestrian level of service analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija MALENKOVSKA TODOROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our main aim with this paper is to contribute towards the methodologies on the level of service which the pedestrians as vulnerable road users feel walking along the sidewalks, as well as contribution towards the process for modeling and simulation on pedestrian’s movement. Namely, microscopic simulation model SFStreetSIModel, version 1.0 has been developed which simulates movement of vehicles and pedestrians on two-lane two-way section on low speed urban street. Beside the remaining outer parameters, SFStreetSIModel, version 1.0 simulates 15 minutes intensity on pedestrians on directions, as a measure on the level of service for pedestrians under influence of side friction caused by static obstacles on the road and the sidewalk: on-street parking and street furniture. Here, the modal which refers on the modeling condition, parameters and attributes, as well as the process elements for determination of the level of service for pedestrians, will be shown.

  17. Neighborhood Influences on Vehicle-Pedestrian Crash Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic factors are known to be contributing factors for vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Although several studies have examined the socioeconomic factors related to the location of the crashes, limited studies have considered the socioeconomic factors of the neighborhood where the road users live in vehicle-pedestrian crash modelling. This research aims to identify the socioeconomic factors related to both the neighborhoods where the road users live and where crashes occur that have an influence on vehicle-pedestrian crash severity. Data on vehicle-pedestrian crashes that occurred at mid-blocks in Melbourne, Australia, was analyzed. Neighborhood factors associated with road users' residents and location of crash were investigated using boosted regression tree (BRT). Furthermore, partial dependence plots were applied to illustrate the interactions between these factors. We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 60% of the 20 top contributing factors to vehicle-pedestrian crashes. This research reveals that socioeconomic factors of the neighborhoods where the road users live and where the crashes occur are important in determining the severity of the crashes, with the former having a greater influence. Hence, road safety countermeasures, especially those focussing on the road users, should be targeted at these high-risk neighborhoods.

  18. Multinomial Logit Model of Pedestrian Crossing Behaviors at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Ping Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crashes, making up a large proportion of road casualties, are more likely to occur at signalized intersections in China. This paper aims to study the different pedestrian behaviors of regular users, late starters, sneakers, and partial sneakers. Behavior information was observed manually in the field study. After that, the survey team distributed a questionnaire to the same participant who has been observed, to acquire detailed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as attitude and preference indicators. Totally, 1878 pedestrians were surveyed at 16 signalized intersections in Nanjing. First, correlation analysis is performed to analyze each factor’s effect. Then, five latent variables including safety, conformity, comfort, flexibility, and fastness are obtained by structure equation modeling (SEM. Moreover, based on the results of SEM, a multinomial logit model with latent variables is developed to describe how the factors influence pedestrians’ behavior. Finally, some conclusions are drawn from the model: (1 for the choice of being late starters, arrival time, the presence of oncoming cars, and crosswalk length are the most important factors; (2 gender has the most significant effect on the pedestrians to be sneakers; and (3 age is the most important factor when pedestrians choose to be partial sneakers.

  19. PEDESTRIAN PATHFINDING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López-Pazos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.

  20. Pedestrian Pathfinding in Urban Environments: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pazos, G.; Balado, J.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Arias, P.; Scaioni, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.

  1. Kinematic Model-Based Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Heading Correction and Lower Body Motion Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Su Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for finding the enhanced heading and position of pedestrians by fusing the Zero velocity UPdaTe (ZUPT-based pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR and the kinematic constraints of the lower human body. ZUPT is a well known algorithm for PDR, and provides a sufficiently accurate position solution for short term periods, but it cannot guarantee a stable and reliable heading because it suffers from magnetic disturbance in determining heading angles, which degrades the overall position accuracy as time passes. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is integrating the left and right foot positions obtained by ZUPTs with the heading and position information from an IMU mounted on the waist. To integrate this information, a kinematic model of the lower human body, which is calculated by using orientation sensors mounted on both thighs and calves, is adopted. We note that the position of the left and right feet cannot be apart because of the kinematic constraints of the body, so the kinematic model generates new measurements for the waist position. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF on the waist data that estimates and corrects error states uses these measurements and magnetic heading measurements, which enhances the heading accuracy. The updated position information is fed into the foot mounted sensors, and reupdate processes are performed to correct the position error of each foot. The proposed update-reupdate technique consequently ensures improved observability of error states and position accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method provides all the information about the lower human body, so that it can be applied more effectively to motion tracking. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified via experimental results, which show that a 1.25% Return Position Error (RPE with respect to walking distance is achieved.

  2. Kinematic Model-Based Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Heading Correction and Lower Body Motion Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Su; Ju, Hojin; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2015-11-06

    In this paper, we present a method for finding the enhanced heading and position of pedestrians by fusing the Zero velocity UPdaTe (ZUPT)-based pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) and the kinematic constraints of the lower human body. ZUPT is a well known algorithm for PDR, and provides a sufficiently accurate position solution for short term periods, but it cannot guarantee a stable and reliable heading because it suffers from magnetic disturbance in determining heading angles, which degrades the overall position accuracy as time passes. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is integrating the left and right foot positions obtained by ZUPTs with the heading and position information from an IMU mounted on the waist. To integrate this information, a kinematic model of the lower human body, which is calculated by using orientation sensors mounted on both thighs and calves, is adopted. We note that the position of the left and right feet cannot be apart because of the kinematic constraints of the body, so the kinematic model generates new measurements for the waist position. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) on the waist data that estimates and corrects error states uses these measurements and magnetic heading measurements, which enhances the heading accuracy. The updated position information is fed into the foot mounted sensors, and reupdate processes are performed to correct the position error of each foot. The proposed update-reupdate technique consequently ensures improved observability of error states and position accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method provides all the information about the lower human body, so that it can be applied more effectively to motion tracking. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified via experimental results, which show that a 1.25% Return Position Error (RPE) with respect to walking distance is achieved.

  3. Spatial Analysis in Determining Physical Factors of Pedestrian Space Livability, Case Study: Pedestrian Space on Jalan Kemasan, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, A. F.; Aditianata, A.

    2018-02-01

    The existence of street as a place to perform various human activities becomes an important issue nowadays. In the last few decades, cars and motorcycles dominate streets in various cities in the world. On the other hand, human activity on the street is the determinant of the city livability. Previous research has pointed out that if there is lots of human activity in the street, then the city will be interesting. Otherwise, if the street has no activity, then the city will be boring. Learning from that statement, now various cities in the world are developing the concept of livable streets. Livable streets shown by diversity of human activities conducted in the streets’ pedestrian space. In Yogyakarta, one of the streets shown diversity of human activities is Jalan Kemasan. This study attempts to determine the physical factors of pedestrian space affecting the livability in Jalan Kemasan Yogyakarta through spatial analysis. Spatial analysis was performed by overlay technique between liveable point (activity diversity) distribution map and variable distribution map. Those physical pedestrian space research variable included element of shading, street vendors, building setback, seat location, divider between street and pedestrian way, and mixed use building function. More diverse the activity of one variable, then those variable are more affected then others. Overlay result then strengthened by field observation to qualitatively ensure the deduction. In the end, this research will provide valuable input for street and pedestrian space planning that is comfortable for human activities.

  4. Dual effects of guide-based guidance on pedestrian evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Shi, Meng

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of guide-based guidance on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility via the simulations based on an extended social force model. The results show that the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility are dual, and related to the neighbor density within the visual field. On the one hand, in many cases, the effects of guides are positive, particularly when the neighbor density within the visual field is moderate; in this case, a few guides can already assist the evacuation effectively and efficiently. However, when the neighbor density within the visual field is particularly small or large, the effects of guides may be adverse and make the evacuation time longer. Our results not only provide a new insight into the effects of guides on the pedestrian evacuation under limited visibility, but also give some practical suggestions as to how to assign guides to assist the evacuation under different evacuation conditions.

  5. Pedestrian dead reckoning for MARG navigation using a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zengshan; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Mu; Liu, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The demand for navigating pedestrian by using a hand-held mobile device increased remarkably over the past few years, especially in GPS-denied scenario. We propose a new pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR)-based navigation algorithm by using magnetic, angular rate, and gravity (MARG) sensors which are equipped in existing commercial smartphone. Our proposed navigation algorithm consists of step detection, stride length estimation, and heading estimation. To eliminate the gauge step errors of the random bouncing motions, we designed a reliable algorithm for step detection. We developed a BP neural network-based stride length estimation algorithm to apply to different users. In response to the challenge of magnetic disturbance, a quaternion-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) is introduced to determine the user's heading direction for each step. The performance of our proposed pedestrian navigation algorithm is verified by using a smartphone in providing accurate, reliable, and continuous location tracking services.

  6. Fall detection for multiple pedestrians using depth image processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Shir-Kuan

    2014-04-01

    A fall detection method based on depth image analysis is proposed in this paper. As different from the conventional methods, if the pedestrians are partially overlapped or partially occluded, the proposed method is still able to detect fall events and has the following advantages: (1) single or multiple pedestrian detection; (2) recognition of human and non-human objects; (3) compensation for illumination, which is applicable in scenarios using indoor light sources of different colors; (4) using the central line of a human silhouette to obtain the pedestrian tilt angle; and (5) avoiding misrecognition of a squat or stoop as a fall. According to the experimental results, the precision of the proposed fall detection method is 94.31% and the recall is 85.57%. The proposed method is verified to be robust and specifically suitable for applying in family homes, corridors and other public places. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mean field games with nonlinear mobilities in pedestrian dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. In particular we consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position, velocity, exit time and the overall density of people. This microscopic setup leads in the mean-field limit to a parabolic optimal control problem. We discuss the modeling of the macroscopic optimal control approach and show how the optimal conditions relate to the Hughes model for pedestrian flow. Furthermore we provide results on the existence and uniqueness of minimizers and illustrate the behavior of the model with various numerical results.

  8. Domain Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection Based on Prediction Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li-ping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection is an active area of research in computer vision. It remains a quite challenging problem in many applications where many factors cause a mismatch between source dataset used to train the pedestrian detector and samples in the target scene. In this paper, we propose a novel domain adaptation model for merging plentiful source domain samples with scared target domain samples to create a scene-specific pedestrian detector that performs as well as rich target domain simples are present. Our approach combines the boosting-based learning algorithm with an entropy-based transferability, which is derived from the prediction consistency with the source classifications, to selectively choose the samples showing positive transferability in source domains to the target domain. Experimental results show that our approach can improve the detection rate, especially with the insufficient labeled data in target scene.

  9. Robust Pedestrian Detection by Combining Visible and Thermal Infrared Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hoon Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of intelligent surveillance systems, the need for accurate detection of pedestrians by cameras has increased. However, most of the previous studies use a single camera system, either a visible light or thermal camera, and their performances are affected by various factors such as shadow, illumination change, occlusion, and higher background temperatures. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method of detecting pedestrians using a dual camera system that combines visible light and thermal cameras, which are robust in various outdoor environments such as mornings, afternoons, night and rainy days. Our research is novel, compared to previous works, in the following four ways: First, we implement the dual camera system where the axes of visible light and thermal cameras are parallel in the horizontal direction. We obtain a geometric transform matrix that represents the relationship between these two camera axes. Second, two background images for visible light and thermal cameras are adaptively updated based on the pixel difference between an input thermal and pre-stored thermal background images. Third, by background subtraction of thermal image considering the temperature characteristics of background and size filtering with morphological operation, the candidates from whole image (CWI in the thermal image is obtained. The positions of CWI (obtained by background subtraction and the procedures of shadow removal, morphological operation, size filtering, and filtering of the ratio of height to width in the visible light image are projected on those in the thermal image by using the geometric transform matrix, and the searching regions for pedestrians are defined in the thermal image. Fourth, within these searching regions, the candidates from the searching image region (CSI of pedestrians in the thermal image are detected. The final areas of pedestrians are located by combining the detected positions of the CWI and CSI of

  10. Crumple zone design for pedestrian protection using impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Il; Jeon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design process for an automobile crumple zone for pedestrian protection. The impact load and bending moments predicted by impact analysis were used to design a plastic structure that may help reduce pedestrian injuries to the thigh area. The fracture effect was incorporated into the model by calculating the damage to the plastic material during impact, and the analysis was conducted under the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) test conditions, using the upper legform developed by ESI Corporation. In addition, the values predicted by the analysis were validated by comparison with results of actual impact tests

  11. Taking the Temperature of Pedestrian Movement in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Cities require data on pedestrian movement to evaluate the use of public spaces. We propose a system using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) combined with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to track and assess pedestrian dynamics and behaviors in urban plazas. Thermal cameras operate...... independent of light and the technique is non-intrusive and preserves privacy. The approach extends the analysis to the GIS domain by capturing georeferenced tracks. We present a pilot study conducted in Copenhagen in 2013. The tracks retrieved by CV are compared to manually annotated ground truth tracks...

  12. The relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility usage based on user preferences (Case Study corridor of Sumbersari Street, Gajayana Street, MT. Haryono Street, Malang City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetrisno, D. P.

    2017-06-01

    Pedestrian crossing facilities are effective enough to avoid pedestrians with vehicles, but its utilization is still quite low. It indicated that safety is not the only factor that influences a person to utilize the pedestrian crossing facilities. In addition, the availability of supporting elements of the pedestrian is still not quite attention, which is also became a factor that causes the pedestrians doesn’t utilize the pedestrian crossing facilities. Therefore, this research was structured to examine the relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of the pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility usage based on user preferences. Data collection method used is primary survey consist of observation and the questionnaire. Sampling techniques used is purposive sampling with the number of respondents as many as 211 respondents by using questionnaire with ordinal scales to identify respondents’ consideration level of supporting elements pedestrian and crossing facility utilization factors. The survey is done on 15 crossing facilities area in 3 different locations with the same characteristics of land use in the form of higher education area (university area) and trades and services activities area. The analysis technique used is frequency distribution analysis in order to identify preference pedestrian on the availability of supporting elements of pedestrian and pedestrian crossing facility utilization factors, and chi square analysis is used to analyze the relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of the pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility utilization. Based on the chi square analysis results with significance 5 % obtained the result that there are six supporting elements of pedestrian having correlation to the factors of pedestrian crossing facility utilization consist of the availability of sidewalk, pedestrian lights, Street Lighting Lamps, Pedestrian Crossing Markings Facilities, Sign Crossings

  13. Important factors of perceiving and memorizing the city during the process of vehicle and pedestrian traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihodžić, Rifat; Butyrin, Andrey; Makhov, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    Moving within the city, both by vehicle and pedestrian, is a prerequisite of creating visual sequences. A variety of factors should be taken into consideration when planning cities, not only of functional nature, but also of the aesthetic one. A particular problem lies in complex cities having a compound identification matrix as a consequence of a boisterous development during long period of time. Considering that the city follows the needs of its user, inevitably moving along it, one of the most important factors required is easy orientation in the complex urban area. Some research has been carried out on the condition of easy orientation and moving in the city, and on appearance of urban elements that provide remembering of the city. This work deals with defining important factors effecting perceiving and memorizing, by inhabitants and also of those visiting it for the first time, regardless they are walking or using a vehicle. Physical structures, topography and a climate and a range of other elements are implied to create a clear idea of some urban area. Many elements were considered - not only being of fixed nature (streets, squares, topography and morphology), but also elements that make the essence of the urban image - elements that can also be some specific public transportation means, such as double-deckers in London, bicycles in Amsterdam or Beijing or gondolas in Venice. The purpose of this work is to notice the rules helping the urban planning process and contribute to reading and memorizing the image of the city.

  14. Proposing a Revised Pedestrian Walkway Level of Service Based on Characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours (PIBs in order to propose a revised pedestrian walkway Level of Service (LOS in China. Field data on overtaking and evasive behaviours were collected at a metro station walkway in Shanghai, China to calculate macro and micro indicators. Occurrence intensities of these two PIBs initially increased with moderate density and later decreased with high density that reduced available space. PIBs were also analysed in terms of sideways behaviours to account for the varying difficulties of PIBs at different densities. It was found that available space for PIBs was the main factor contributing to the intensity features. Moreover, the different space demands of the two PIBs resulted in different features between them. Finally, a revised pedestrian walkway LOS was proposed based on the macro and micro characteristics of PIBs in China.

  15. Evaluating the Safety In Numbers effect for pedestrians at urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brendan; Levinson, David M; Owen, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of collision risk between pedestrians and automobiles offers a powerful and informative tool in urban planning applications, and can be leveraged to inform proper placement of improvements and treatment projects to improve pedestrian safety. Such assessment can be performed using existing datasets of crashes, pedestrian counts, and automobile traffic flows to identify intersections or corridors characterized by elevated collision risks to pedestrians. The Safety In Numbers phenomenon, which refers to the observable effect that pedestrian safety is positively correlated with increased pedestrian traffic in a given area (i.e. that the individual per-pedestrian risk of a collision decreases with additional pedestrians), is a readily observed phenomenon that has been studied previously, though its directional causality is not yet known. A sample of 488 intersections in Minneapolis were analyzed, and statistically-significant log-linear relationships between pedestrian traffic flows and the per-pedestrian crash risk were found, indicating the Safety In Numbers effect. Potential planning applications of this analysis framework towards improving pedestrian safety in urban environments are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation of Pedestrian Crossing Behaviors at Unmarked Roadways Based on Social Force Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ningbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited pedestrian microcosmic simulation models focus on the interactions between pedestrians and vehicles at unmarked roadways. Pedestrians tend to head to the destinations directly through the shortest path. So, pedestrians have inclined trajectories pointing destinations. Few simulation models have been established to describe the mechanisms underlying the inclined trajectories when pedestrians cross unmarked roadways. To overcome these shortcomings, achieve solutions for optimal design features before implementation, and help to make the design more rational, the paper establishes a modified social force model for interactions between pedestrians and vehicles at unmarked roadways. To achieve this goal, stop/go decision-making model based on gap acceptance theory and conflict avoidance models were developed to make social force model more appropriate in simulating pedestrian crossing behaviors at unmarked roadways. The extended model enables the understanding and judgment ability of pedestrians about the traffic environment and guides pedestrians to take the best behavior to avoid conflict and keep themselves safe. The comparison results of observed pedestrians’ trajectories and simulated pedestrians’ trajectories at one unmarked roadway indicate that the proposed model can be used to simulate pedestrian crossing behaviors at unmarked roadways effectively. The proposed model can be used to explore pedestrians’ trajectories variation at unmarked roadways and improve pedestrian safety facilities.

  17. Modeling Left-Turn Driving Behavior at Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, mixed traffic is the most common type of urban transportation; traffic of this type faces many major problems in traffic engineering, such as conflicts, inefficiency, and security issues. This paper focuses on the traffic engineering concerns on the driving behavior of left-turning vehicles caused by different degrees of pedestrian violations. The traffic characteristics of left-turning vehicles and pedestrians in the affected region at a signalized intersection were analyzed and a cellular-automata-based “following-conflict” driving behavior model that mainly addresses four basic behavior modes was proposed to study the conflict and behavior mechanisms of left-turning vehicles by mathematic methodologies. Four basic driving behavior modes were reproduced in computer simulations, and a logit model of the behavior mode choice was also developed to analyze the relative share of each behavior mode. Finally, the microscopic characteristics of driving behaviors and the macroscopic parameters of traffic flow in the affected region were all determined. These data are important reference for geometry and capacity design for signalized intersections. The simulation results show that the proposed models are valid and can be used to represent the behavior of left-turning vehicles in the case of conflicts with illegally crossing pedestrians. These results will have potential applications on improving traffic safety and traffic capacity at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions.

  18. Using Cellular Automata to Investigate Pedestrian Conflicts with Vehicles in Crosswalk at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational efficiency and safety of pedestrian flows at intersections is an important aspect of urban traffic. Particularly, conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles in crosswalk are one of the most influential factors for intersection safety. This paper presents a cellular automata model that simulates pedestrian and vehicle crossing behaviors at signalized intersections. Through the simulation, we investigate the effects of different pedestrian signal timing and crosswalk widths on the crosswalk capacity, the number of traffic conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, and pedestrian delay due to the conflicts. The simulation results indicate that the cellular automata is an effective simulation platform for investigating complex pedestrian-related traffic phenomenon at signalized intersections.

  19. Landmark Orientation and Map Design for Pedestrians: Prototype of a Selcuk University Campus Area Pedestrian Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahit Selvi, Huseyin; Oztug Bildirici, I.; Ulugtekin, Necla

    2016-10-01

    Orientation software produced today is generally designed for the navigation of cars. However, the navigation needs of pedestrians are different from those of drivers. The aim of this study is the design of a cartographic interface that supports the navigation of pedestrians in unfamiliar areas using landmarks and evaluation of this geo-mobile application by usability testing. In this study, an approach to landmark orientation based on the Voronoi diagram is proposed. Furthermore, the developed mobile application that uses this approach is explained in detail. The results of user tests are also given.

  20. Aging road user, bicyclist, and pedestrian safety : effective bicycling signs and preventing left-turn crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Task 1 of this report drivers' knowledge of various bicycle warning signs and pavement markings were assessed. In general knowledge was high. Share the Road and Three Foot Minimum signs were generally more quickly understood and recognized in version...

  1. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of : pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 : deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was : nearly twice the national average. These deaths : occurred in all age groups, but compared to : other ...

  2. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was nearly twice the national average. These deaths occurred in all age groups, but compared to other age groups...

  3. Optimal Design of HGV Front Structure for Pedestrian Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Faiz Redza; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    This paper addresses a pedestrian safety design of front structure of Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) by two concepts; firstly by equipping a lower bumper stiffener structure under the front bumper and secondly by putting an airbag in front of the HGV front panel. In this study, HGV-pedestrian collision accident was simulated by the crash analysis solver MADYMO environment, where the HGV model with the speed of 20 km/h was collided with an adult male and with an adult female pedestrian, respectively. The bumper and lower bumper stiffener were varied their positions, while the airbag was adjusted the vent hole size and the position of airbag in front of front panel vertically. The pedestrian injuries that can be sustained during the simulation impact were limited at the critical body parts of head, chest, upper leg; an injury criteria of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Thorax Cumulative 3ms Acceleration (C3ms) and peak loads of femur, respectively. Because of various parameters and constraints of initial conditions and injury thresholds, a multi-objective optimization design problem considered these main injury criterion is solved in order to achieve the best solution for this study. The results of optimized design parameters for each cases and conditions were obtained and the possibilities of the proposed concept were discussed.

  4. Estimation of pedestrian level UV exposure under trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Grant; Gordon M. Heisler; Wei Gao

    2002-01-01

    Trees influence the amount of solar UV radiation that reaches pedestrians. A three-dimensional model was developed to predict the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance fields in open-tree canopies where the spacing between trees is equal to or greater than the width of individual tree crowns. The model predicted the relative irradiance (fraction of above-canopy irradiance)...

  5. Child pedestrian injuries in the Cape metropolitan area - final results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over a 12-month period 430 children under 14 years of age presented to Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town having been injured as pedestrians, and 106 children who died from such injuries were registered at the regional state mortuary. Information about the circumstances surrounding injury was ...

  6. An excess of pedestrian injuries in icy conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Ulrik; Bak, Soeren

    1983-01-01

    comprised women 50 and over, in contrast to the rest of the winter period where younger men prevailed. The investigation indicates that pedestrians have a need for prophylactic measures including (1) broadcast warnings of icy conditions both on the radio and T.V. on days of high risk, (2) more extensive...

  7. Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerónimo, David; López, Antonio M; Sappa, Angel D; Graf, Thorsten

    2010-07-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs), and particularly pedestrian protection systems (PPSs), have become an active research area aimed at improving traffic safety. The major challenge of PPSs is the development of reliable on-board pedestrian detection systems. Due to the varying appearance of pedestrians (e.g., different clothes, changing size, aspect ratio, and dynamic shape) and the unstructured environment, it is very difficult to cope with the demanded robustness of this kind of system. Two problems arising in this research area are the lack of public benchmarks and the difficulty in reproducing many of the proposed methods, which makes it difficult to compare the approaches. As a result, surveying the literature by enumerating the proposals one--after-another is not the most useful way to provide a comparative point of view. Accordingly, we present a more convenient strategy to survey the different approaches. We divide the problem of detecting pedestrians from images into different processing steps, each with attached responsibilities. Then, the different proposed methods are analyzed and classified with respect to each processing stage, favoring a comparative viewpoint. Finally, discussion of the important topics is presented, putting special emphasis on the future needs and challenges.

  8. Cost of pedestrian and bicycle accidents involving car front ends.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Huijbers, J.J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A cost study has been carried out, based on Dutch insurance data of payments to victims (pedestrians and cyclists) of collisions against car front ends. The results of this study will be used for a cost-benefit analysis of a proposed amendment (a series of car front end crash tests) to the existing

  9. Real-time Pedestrian Crossing Recognition for Assistive Outdoor Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, Simone; Frigerio, Alessandro; Fanucci, Luca; Li, William

    2015-01-01

    Navigation in urban environments can be difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired. In this project, we present a system and algorithms for recognizing pedestrian crossings in outdoor environments. Our goal is to provide navigation cues for crossing the street and reaching an island or sidewalk safely. Using a state-of-the-art Multisense S7S sensor, we collected 3D pointcloud data for real-time detection of pedestrian crossing and generation of directional guidance. We demonstrate improvements to a baseline, monocular-camera-based system by integrating 3D spatial prior information extracted from the pointcloud. Our system's parameters can be set to the actual dimensions of real-world settings, which enables robustness of occlusion and perspective transformation. The system works especially well in non-occlusion situations, and is reasonably accurate under different kind of conditions. As well, our large dataset of pedestrian crossings, organized by different types and situations of pedestrian crossings in order to reflect real-word environments, is publicly available in a commonly used format (ROS bagfiles) for further research.

  10. Prediction equation for vehicle-pedestrian crash and safety analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic flow characteristics, intersection features and socio- economic activities at the intersections were used as inputs to develop mathematical model for predicting pedestrian crashes. On the assumption that negative binomial errors control over dispersion characteristic of the crash data, a Generalized Linear Model was ...

  11. Evaluating public space pedestrian accessibility: a GIS approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morar, T.; Bertolini, L.; Radoslav, R.

    2013-01-01

    Public spaces are sources of quality of life in neighborhoods. Seeking to help professionals and municipalities assess how well a public space can be used by the community it serves, this paper presents a GIS-based methodology for evaluating its pedestrian accessibility. The Romanian city of

  12. Mapping of pedestrian characteristics and level of service for facilities at Universitas Negeri Malang using geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayuningsih, Titi; Pranoto, Nindyawati, Umniati, B. Sri; Mardhika, Moch Aqfa Syabahid

    2017-09-01

    Universitas Negeri Malang (UM) is a university with the second largest academic community in Malang. The activities of the academic community should be supported by adequate facilities, such as pedestrian facilities—crucial yet much neglected matters, so pedestrians to walk along the roadway. As a result, conflicts between pedestrians with motor vehicle users and accidents might occur at any time. This research aimed at: 1) investigating the geometric conditions of pedestrian facilities at UM; 2) identifying the characteristics of pedestrians and the pedestrian facilities at UM; and 3) determining the level of service for pedestrian facilities at UM using Geographic Information System (GIS). The research was conducted through survey of location, survey of geometric conditions, estimation of the number of pedestrians using sidewalk (data were recorded every 15 minutes), measurement of pedestrian speed, and questionnaire about pedestrians' identity, destination, as well as travel time and distance. Data analysis was carried out to identify the pedestrian characteristics, pedestrian flow characteristics, and pedestrian level of service. The research result showed that the percentage of road segments in campus without sidewalks was 52%. The average width of sidewalk was 1.33 m, which was less than the minimum standard of i.e. 2 m. In terms of pedestrian characteristics, the pedestrians consisted of more female (51%) who were mostly students of the Faculty of Letters whose destination was classroom building. The maximum pedestrian flow was at 10.00-13.30 i.e. 4.2018 p/m/min. The average speed of pedestrian was 63.49 m/min. The highest pedestrian density of 0.0609 p/m2 occurred at 10.00-13.30. The largest walking space was 28.0348 m2/p and occurred in the afternoon at 13.30-17.00. The level of service for pedestrian facilities belonged to category A in the morning and afternoon. The level of service at 10.00-13.30 decreased to category B.

  13. Design Issues for MEMS-Based Pedestrian Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Marinushkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design issues for MEMS-based pedestrian inertial navigation systems. By now the algorithms to estimate navigation parameters for strap-down inertial navigation systems on the basis of plural observations have been already well developed. At the same time mathematical and software processing of information in the case of pedestrian inertial navigation systems has its specificity, due to the peculiarities of their functioning and exploitation. Therefore, there is an urgent task to enhance existing fusion algorithms for use in pedestrian navigation systems. For this purpose the article analyzes the characteristics of the hardware composition and configuration of existing systems of this class. The paper shows advantages of various technical solutions. Relying on their main features it justifies a choice of the navigation system architecture and hardware composition enabling improvement of the estimation accuracy of user position as compared to the systems using only inertial sensors. The next point concerns the development of algorithms for complex processing of heterogeneous information. To increase an accuracy of the free running pedestrian inertial navigation system we propose an adaptive algorithm for joint processing of heterogeneous information based on the fusion of inertial info rmation with magnetometer measurements using EKF approach. Modeling of the algorithm was carried out using a specially developed functional prototype of pedestrian inertial navigation system, implemented as a hardware/software complex in Matlab environment. The functional prototype tests of the developed system demonstrated an improvement of the navigation parameters estimation compared to the systems based on inertial sensors only. It enables to draw a conclusion that the synthesized algorithm provides satisfactory accuracy for calculating the trajectory of motion even when using low-grade inertial MEMS sensors. The developed algorithm can be

  14. The correlation between pedestrian injury severity in real-life crashes and Euro NCAP pedestrian test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian rating scores and injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes, with special focus on long-term disability. Another aim was to determine whether brake assist (BA) systems affect the injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes and to estimate the combined effects in injury reduction of a high Euro NCAP ranking score and BA. In the current study, the Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with the real-life outcome in pedestrian crashes that occurred in Sweden during 2003 to 2010. The real-life crash data were obtained from the data acquisition system Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), which combines police records and hospital admission data. The medical data consisted of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnoses and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scoring. In all, approximately 500 pedestrians submitted to hospital were included in the study. Each car model was coded according to Euro NCAP pedestrian scores. In addition, the presence or absence of BA was coded for each car involved. Cars were grouped according to their scoring. Injury outcomes were analyzed with AIS and, at the victim level, with permanent medical impairment. This was done by translating the injury scores for each individual to the risk of serious consequences (RSC) at 1, 5, and 10 percent risk of disability level. This indicates the total risk of a medical disability for each victim, given the severity and location of injuries. The mean RSC (mRSC) was then calculated for each car group and t-tests were conducted to falsify the null hypothesis at p ≤ .05 that the mRSC within the groups was equal. The results showed a significant reduction of injury severity for cars with better pedestrian scoring, although cars with a high score could not be studied due to lack of cases. The reduction in RSC for medium-performing cars in comparison with low-performing cars

  15. Assessment methodologies for forward looking integrated pedestrian systems and further extension to cyclist safety: experimental and virtual testing for pedestrian protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer, A.; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Zander, O.; Fredriksson, R.; Schaub, S.; Nuss, F.; Caspar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrians and cyclists are the most unprotected road users and their injury risk in case of accidents is significantly higher than for other road users. The understanding of the influence and sensitivity between important variables describing a pedestrian crash is key for the development of more

  16. The lost pedestrian: Identifying determinant factors of no-pedestrian phenomenon in the area of Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The area of Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh has a deep meaning for people of Aceh because it is a historical site, which has many historical heritages. Recently, it is rarely seen people walk along the corridor of the town. People always drive to move along the road and stop right on their destination. Some are still walking, but only for 20-30 meter. On the other hand, a number of the vehicle significantly increase followed by the needs of parking space. The intensity of the traffic is high in day time; in the morning, at noon, and in the late afternoon. The research will be conducted using qualitative and quantitative methods; investigating the change of the environment caused by development, disaster, and conflict, interviewing government as the decision maker and public figure, questionnaires, and finding information from official documents and literature. It is necessary to identify the determinant factors of no-pedestrian phenomenon in the area of Banda Aceh because it is expected to create atmosphere, which encourage people to walk along the city center, revive walking habits to urban community, and strengthen the role of city center as a center of activities; praying, shopping, and engaging in recreation and leisure.

  17. Pedestrian and traffic safety in parking lots at SNL/NM : audit background report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Paul Ernest

    2009-03-01

    This report supplements audit 2008-E-0009, conducted by the ES&H, Quality, Safeguards & Security Audits Department, 12870, during fall and winter of FY 2008. The study evaluates slips, trips and falls, the leading cause of reportable injuries at Sandia. In 2007, almost half of over 100 of such incidents occurred in parking lots. During the course of the audit, over 5000 observations were collected in 10 parking lots across SNL/NM. Based on benchmarks and trends of pedestrian behavior, the report proposes pedestrian-friendly features and attributes to improve pedestrian safety in parking lots. Less safe pedestrian behavior is associated with older parking lots lacking pedestrian-friendly features and attributes, like those for buildings 823, 887 and 811. Conversely, safer pedestrian behavior is associated with newer parking lots that have designated walkways, intra-lot walkways and sidewalks. Observations also revealed that motorists are in widespread noncompliance with parking lot speed limits and stop signs and markers.

  18. Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury.

  19. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Mohamad Ali, Mohd; Salleh Abustan, Muhamad; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Abustan, Ismail; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd; Gotoh, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS) for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  20. Expanding pedestrian injury risk to the body region level: how to model passive safety systems in pedestrian injury risk functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the effectiveness of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) plays a crucial role in accident research. A common way to evaluate the effectiveness of new systems is to determine the potentials for injury severity reduction. Because injury risk functions describe the probability of an injury of a given severity conditional on a technical accident severity (closing speed, delta V, barrier equivalent speed, etc.), they are predestined for such evaluations. Recent work has stated an approach on how to model the pedestrian injury risk in pedestrian-to-passenger car accidents as a family of functions. This approach gave explicit and easily interpretable formulae for the injury risk conditional on the closing speed of the car. These results are extended to injury risk functions for pedestrian body regions. Starting with a double-checked German In-depth Accident Study (GIDAS) pedestrian-to-car accident data set (N = 444) and a functional-anatomical definition of the body regions, investigations on the influence of specific body regions on the overall injury severity will be presented. As the measure of injury severity, the ISSx, a rescaled version of the well-known Injury Severity Score (ISS), was used. Though traditional ISS is computed by summation of the squares of the 3 most severe injured body regions, ISSx is computed by the summation of the exponentials of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) severities of the 3 most severely injured body regions. The exponentials used are scaled to fit the ISS range of values between 0 and 75. Three body regions (head/face/neck, thorax, hip/legs) clearly dominated abdominal and upper extremity injuries; that is, the latter 2 body regions had no influence at all on the overall injury risk over the range of technical accident severities. Thus, the ISSx is well described by use of the injury codes from the same body regions for any pedestrian injury severity. As a mathematical consequence, the ISSx becomes explicitly

  1. Community-based pedestrian safety training in virtual reality: A pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Combs, Tabitha; Rodriguez, Daniel; Severson, Joan; Sisiopiku, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the United States and the world. Repeated practice at the cognitive-perceptual task of crossing a street may lead to safer pedestrian behavior. Virtual reality offers a unique opportunity for repeated practice without the risk of actual injury. This study conducted a pre-post within-subjects trial of training children in pedestrian safety using a semi-mobile, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian environment placed at schools and community centers. Pedestrian safety skills among a group of 44 seven- and eight-year-old children were assessed in a laboratory, and then children completed six 15-minute training sessions in the virtual pedestrian environment at their school or community center following pragmatic trial strategies over the course of three weeks. Following training, pedestrian safety skills were re-assessed. Results indicate improvement in delay entering traffic following training. Safe crossings did not demonstrate change. Attention to traffic and time to contact with oncoming vehicles both decreased somewhat, perhaps an indication that training was incomplete and children were in the process of actively learning to be safer pedestrians. The findings suggest virtual reality environments placed in community centers hold promise for teaching children to be safer pedestrians, but future research is needed to determine the optimal training dosage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving pedestrian facilities in congested urban areas: a case study of Chennai city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.

    2017-07-01

    Traffic congestion and lack of public pedestrian space are some problems faced by most urban metropolises. Conventionally walking has been a mode of transportation in Indian cities. The percentage of pedestrians may vary from 16 to 57 depending upon the city. Encounters between vehicular traffic and pedestrian traffic are at its rise currently. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in India has resulted in neglecting of pedestrian facilities. Consequently pedestrian are at greater risk for their safety more especially in the commercial zones of large cities. A change in perspective spotlight will create a sense of awareness that the pedestrian traffic is also vital as the vehicular traffic. Soothing the traffic would moderately cut the driving expediency but the pedestrians will get a much safer and peaceful route to their terminuses. Safety and comfort are the two pans of a balance while considering the pedestrian traffic. Considering these aspects, this study deals a study in improving pedestrian facilities by analysing the existing skeleton of the selected locations. The adequacy of facility is checked based on IRC latest guidelines and counteractive measures are postulated.

  3. Planets Move in Circles !

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The orbits of planets, or any other bodies moving under an inverse square law force, can be understood with fresh insight using the idea of velocity space. Surprisingly, a particle moving on an ellipse or even a hyperbola still moves on a circle in this space. Other aspects of orbits such as conservation laws are discussed.

  4. Smartphone-based integrated PDR/GPS/Bluetooth pedestrian location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianghong; Wei, Dongyan; Lai, Qifeng; Xu, Ying; Yuan, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Typical indoor location method is fingerprint and traditional outdoor location system is GPS. Both of them are of poor accuracy and limited only for indoor or outdoor environments. As the smartphones are equipped with MEMS sensors, it means PDR can be widely used. In this paper, an algorithm of smartphone-based integrated PDR/GPS/Bluetooth for pedestrian location in the indoor/outdoor is proposed, which can be highly expected to realize seamless indoor/outdoor localization of the pedestrian. In addition, we also provide technologies to estimate orientation with Magnetometer and Gyroscope and detect context with output of sensors. The extensive experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can realize seamless indoor/outdoor localization.

  5. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  6. Prediction of the behavior of pedestrian bridges using computer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan José Cala Monroy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present article is aimed to present a brief introduction of the issues related to the low-frequency vibrations, by indicating human walking as its relevant source which affecting structures of the footbridges and is turned into inconveniences to the pedestrian traffic. Objective: The main objective of this research paper is to explain the most common methods used by engineers for the evaluation of the vibrations and their effects as well as their limitations, furthermore a computer modeling technique was developed in order to approach it to the reality of the phenomenon of vibrations in pedestrian bridges. Methodology: The present work was divided into main phases: The first phase was a conceptual bibliographical review of the subject of floor vibrations by focusing on the use of the Design Guide No. 11 of the American Institute of Steel Constructions, with regard to the second phase, it had to do with the developing of a computer model which included a definition of variables, the elaboration of a dynamic model of the structure, the calibration of the model, the evaluation of the parameters under study and the analysis of results and conclusions. Results: Consequently, and according to the preliminary stages, the results of the acceleration were obtained to different frequencies and to different degrees of damping by observing that the chosen sample was potentially susceptible between four and eight Hz ranges, hence when resonances took place the mentioned structure presented a peak acceleration above the threshold recommended by human beings comfort related to pedestrian bridges. Conclusions: To conclude it can be said that through the appropriate modeling techniques and finite elements convenient and reliable results should be accomplished that leading the design process of structures as pedestrian bridges.

  7. FIBER REINFORCED SAND BACKFILL FOR UNDERGROUND PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei B. Ponomarev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crosswalk is an essential element of the transport system of any city. A priority assignment in any such crossing is to ensure the safety of pedestrians. Underground pedestrian crossings are much safer than crossings at another level, but they lose in attraction when it comes to cost. The cost of the construction of an underground pedestrian crossing often leads to project abandonment. The cost of construction can be reduced through the use of flexible corrugated metal structures instead of ordinary concrete structures. The stress-strain state of the structural shells need to be known to facilitate their rational design. The stress-strain state of flexible corrugated metal shells largely depends on the strength and deformation characteristics of the surrounding soil. Therefore, improving the characteristics of backfill soil is an urgent task in reducing the cost of construction for such tunnels. One way to improve the strength and deformation characteristics of soils is the use of reinforcement. Currently, there are a large number of reinforcement schemes and also associated reinforcing materials. One of the most prospective methods of soil reinforcement is the use of fibre filaments. Fibre reinforced soils have significantly higher strength and deformation characteristics in comparison with unreinforced soils. Numerical modelling of a tunnel shell made out of a corrugated metal structure was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of using fibre reinforced sand. Ordinary sand and sand reinforced with polypropylene fibres have been used as soil backfill. The calculation results for a pedestrian tunnel structure involving different strength and deformation characteristics of the backfill soil are presented in this article.

  8. Pedestrian road crossing behavior (PEROB): Development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemiparast, Mina; Montazeri, Ali; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Negarandeh, Reza; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza

    2017-04-03

    The aim of this study was to develop a theory-based questionnaire to measure road crossing attitudes and potentially risky pedestrian behavior. A cross-sectional validation study was carried out on a total sample of 380 young adults aged 18 to 25 years who live in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected from January 27 to May 20, 2015, using a self-administered structured pool of 76 items that was developed from research on the theory of planned behavior. A panel of subject-matter experts evaluated the items for content validity index and content validity ratio, and the questionnaire was pretested. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to test construct validity. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses were done to assess internal consistency and stability of the scale. From the initial 76 items, 38 items were found to be appropriate for assessing the pedestrian road crossing behavior (PEROB) of young adults in Tehran. A 9-factor solution revealed an exploratory factor analysis that jointly accounted for 63.8% of the variance observed. Additional analyses also indicated acceptable results for the internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha value ranging from 0.67 to 0.88 and ICC values ranging from 0.64 to 0.96. This psychometric evaluation of a self-administered instrument resulted in a reliable and valid instrument to assess young adult pedestrians' self-reported road crossing attitudes and behaviors in Tehran. Further development of the instrument is needed to assess its applicability to other road users, particularly older pedestrians.

  9. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Bulíček; Pavlína Brožová; Ivo Hruban; Matúš Šucha

    2014-01-01

    Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to ma...

  10. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Jiuchao; Pei, Ling; Ma, Jiabin; Ying, Rendong; Liu, Peilin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimat...

  11. Optimizing aspects of pedestrian traffic in building designs

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we investigate aspects of building design that can be optimized. Architectural features that we explore include pillar placement in simple corridors, doorway placement in buildings, and agent placement for information dispersement in an evacuation. The metrics utilized are tuned to the specific scenarios we study, which include continuous flow pedestrian movement and building evacuation. We use Multidimensional Direct Search (MDS) optimization with an extreme barrier criteria to find optimal placements while enforcing building constraints. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Modeling Stop-and-Go Waves in Pedestrian Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Portz, Andrea; Seyfried, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Several spatially continuous pedestrian dynamics models have been validated against empirical data. We try to reproduce the experimental fundamental diagram (velocity versus density) with simulations. In addition to this quantitative criterion, we tried to reproduce stop-and-go waves as a qualitative criterion. Stop-and-go waves are a characteristic phenomenon for the single file movement. Only one of three investigated models satisfies both criteria.

  13. Effect of a perfume on prosocial behavior of pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, N

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have shown that perfumes encourage prosocial behavior of people from whom help is requested in the street. Implicit requests for help were studied. On a pedestrian walk, a woman confederate, with or without a heavy perfume, walked by the subject while dropping a packet of paper handkerchiefs or a glove apparently without noticing. Results show that the confederate was warned more often when wearing a perfume.

  14. The flashing right turn signal with pedestrian indication : human factors studies to understand the potential of a new signal to increase awareness of and attention to crossing pedestrians, [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has placed a high priority on understanding : the nature of pedestrian injury and fatality incidents and on developing interventions that will : make Floridas roads safer for pedestrians.

  15. Real-time pedestrian counting by active linear cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudour, Louahdi; Duvieubourg, Luc; Deparis, Jean-Pierre

    1996-10-01

    Real-time counting of pedestrians traveling through a transport system are increasingly required for traffic control and management by the companies operating such systems. One of the most widely used systems for counting passengers consists of a mechanical gate equipped with a counter. Such simple systems, however, are not able to count passengers jumping above the gates. Moreover, passengers carrying large luggage or bags may meet some difficulties when going through such gates. The ideal solution is a contact-free counting system that would bring more comfort of use for the passengers. For these reasons, we propose to use a video processing system instead of these mechanical gates. The optical sensors discussed offer several advantages, including well-defined detection areas, fast response time, and reliable counting capability. A new technology is developed and tested, based on linear cameras. For the algorithms, thanks to the principle of our system, no assumption is made about the scene being analyzed and the nature of pedestrian movements to enable the system to run in real time. We also consider the problems presented by crowded scenes, when a high incidence of pedestrians occlusions occurs. Preliminary results have shown that this system is very efficient when the passengers crossing the optical gate are well separated. In other cases, such as in compact crowd conditions, good accuracy in terms of counting in real time is demonstrated. These results are illustrated by means of a number of sequences shot in field conditions.

  16. Flow of pedestrians through narrow doors with different competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcimartín, A; Pastor, J M; Zuriguel, I; Parisi, D R; Martín-Gómez, C

    2016-01-01

    We report a thorough analysis of the intermittent flow of pedestrians through a narrow door. The observations include five different sets of evacuation drills with which we have investigated the effect of door size and competitiveness on the flow dynamics. Although the outcomes are in general compatible with the existence of the faster-is-slower effect, the temporal evolution of the instantaneous flow rate provides evidence of new features. These stress the crucial role of the number of people performing the tests, which has an influence on the obtained results. Once the transients at the beginning and end of the evacuation are removed, we have found that the time lapses between the passage of two consecutive pedestrians display heavy-tailed distributions in all the scenarios studied. Meanwhile, the distribution of burst sizes decays exponentially; this can be linked to a constant probability of finding a long-lasting clog during the evacuation process. Based on these results, a discussion is presented on the caution that should be exercised when measuring or describing the intermittent flow of pedestrians through narrow doors. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  17. Modeling and simulating for congestion pedestrian evacuation with panic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Qiongyu; Yang, Peng; Hu, Xiaoming

    2015-06-01

    A new multi-agent based congestion evacuation model incorporating panic behavior is proposed in this paper for simulating pedestrian evacuation in public places such as a stadium. Different from the existing results, pedestrians in this model are divided into four classes and each pedestrian's status can be either normal, being overtaken, or casualty. The direction of action for each individual is affected by competitive ability, distance to the exits as well as number and density of occupants within the view field of the agent. Our simulations exhibit that during the evacuation process: (1) The agents gather in front of the exits spontaneously and present arched shapes close to the exits. (2) Under the panic state the agents cohere closely and almost do not change the target exit. So other alternative exits are ignored. (3) For the case without obstacle, the casualties under panic increase greatly. But if there are obstacles (chairs), the congestion can be alleviated. Thus the casualties are reduced. (4) If certain exit is partly clogged, the evacuation becomes more efficient when adding a virtual leader. The overall simulation results show that the proposed model can reproduce the real evacuation process in a stadium quite well.

  18. Video Pedestrian Detection Based on Orthogonal Scene Motion Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In fixed video scenes, scene motion patterns can be a very useful prior knowledge for pedestrian detection which is still a challenge at present. A new approach of cascade pedestrian detection using an orthogonal scene motion pattern model in a general density video is developed in this paper. To statistically model the pedestrian motion pattern, a probability grid overlaying the whole scene is set up to partition the scene into paths and holding areas. Features extracted from different pattern areas are classified by a group of specific strategies. Instead of using a unitary classifier, the employed classifier is composed of two directional subclassifiers trained, respectively, with different samples which are selected by two orthogonal directions. Considering that the negative images from the detection window scanning are much more than the positive ones, the cascade AdaBoost technique is adopted by the subclassifiers to reduce the negative image computations. The proposed approach is proved effectively by static classification experiments and surveillance video experiments.

  19. Pedestrian-motorcycle collisions: associated risks and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariffin Aqbal Hafeez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the statistics, there are serious concerns over the relatively high number of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrianmotorcycle in Malaysia. The high number of motorcycle registration on road, compounded by its popularity as the major mode of transportation in the nation, imposes safety risk to pedestrians, as well as to other road users. Data from 1,626 related road crashes of Royal Malaysia Police (RMP for the 2009-2013 period were retrospectively collected via MIROS Road Accident Analysis and Database System (M-ROADS. The data were then analyzed via logistic regression method to determine associations between risks and injury severity in pedestrian-motorcycle collisions. The results indicate that five factors were significantly related to injury severity, which include age, location of body injury, as well as speed limit, road geometry and lighting condition of collision site. Subsequently, focus group discussions with stakeholders were also conducted to gather relevant data to identify related issues and suggestions on motorcycle safety technology with regards to collision with pedestrian.

  20. Efficacy of virtual reality in pedestrian safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Shuchisnigdha; Carruth, Daniel W; Sween, Richard; Strawderman, Lesley; Garrison, Teena M

    2017-11-01

    Advances in virtual reality technology present new opportunities for human factors research in areas that are dangerous, difficult, or expensive to study in the real world. The authors developed a new pedestrian simulator using the HTC Vive head mounted display and Unity software. Pedestrian head position and orientation were tracked as participants attempted to safely cross a virtual signalized intersection (5.5 m). In 10% of 60 trials, a vehicle violated the traffic signal and in 10.84% of these trials, a collision between the vehicle and the pedestrian was observed. Approximately 11% of the participants experienced simulator sickness and withdrew from the study. Objective measures, including the average walking speed, indicate that participant behavior in VR matches published real world norms. Subjective responses indicate that the virtual environment was realistic and engaging. Overall, the study results confirm the effectiveness of the new virtual reality technology for research on full motion tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of Cognitive Pedestrian Agents Crowds in Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lyell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In crisis situations in an urban environment, first responder teams often must deal with crowds of people. Consider the case of a building fire in a dense city environment. People may be injured; walkways may be blocked, with fire equipment attempting to reach the scene. Crowd behavior can become an issue when trying to reach the injured, ensure safety and restore conditions to normal. The motivations of pedestrians that form the crowd can vary. Some are there because they are curious about the crisis situation. Others, attending to their individual concerns, may have found themselves in the 'wrong' location. They may be trying to leave the area, but the density of people as well as the spatial layout of the walkways may be impeding their progress. Other individuals, unaware of the fire, may be attempting to reach their intended destinations that happen to be near the crisis area, thus adding to crowd congestion. With a model of crowd behavior, effective strategies for resource usage in managing crowd behavior can be developed. Our approach to this problem is that of agent-based modeling and simulation. We develop a cognitive pedestrian agent model. Utilizing this model, we simulate crowd behavior in a 'city fire' scenario. Characteristics of crowd behavior with different pedestrian personality mixes and a strategy for crowd management are investigated

  2. Pedestrian deaths in children--potential for prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hamilton, K

    2015-01-01

    The National Paediatric Mortality Database was reviewed for the six year period 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2011 and all pedestrian deaths extracted, after review of available data the deaths were categorized as either traffic or non-traffic related. There were 45 child pedestrian fatalities in the period examined. Traffic related deaths accounted for 26 (58%) vs. 19 (42%) non-traffic related. Analysis of the deaths showed there was a male preponderance 28 (62%), weekend trend 22 (49%) with an evening 16 (35%) and summer peak 20 (44%). The highest proportion of deaths occurred in the 1-4 year age group 24 (53%), with 13 (28%) due to low speed vehicle rollovers, mainly occurring in residential driveways 8 (61%). Child pedestrian fatalities are highly preventable through the modification of risk factors including behavioural, social and environmental. Preventative action needs to be addressed, particularly in relation to non-traffic related deaths i.e, low speed vehicle rollovers.

  3. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Risk Factors for Road Transport-Related Injury among Pedestrians in Rural Ghana: Implications for Road Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye-Kwadjo, Enoch

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Injuries and mortality resulting from pedestrian road traffic crashes are a major public health problem in Ghana. This study investigated risk factors for road transport-related injury among pedestrians in rural Ghana. Design: Case study design using qualitative data. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with pedestrians.…

  5. Potential of pedestrian protection systems--a parameter study using finite element models of pedestrian dummy and generic passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Shin, Jaeho; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2011-08-01

    To study the potential of active, passive, and integrated (combined active and passive) safety systems in reducing pedestrian upper body loading in typical impact configurations. Finite element simulations using models of generic sedan car fronts and the Polar II pedestrian dummy were performed for 3 impact configurations at 2 impact speeds. Chest contact force, head injury criterion (HIC(15)), head angular acceleration, and the cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM(0.25)) were employed as injury parameters. Further, 3 countermeasures were modeled: an active autonomous braking system, a passive deployable countermeasure, and an integrated system combining the active and passive systems. The auto-brake system was modeled by reducing impact speed by 10 km/h (equivalent to ideal full braking over 0.3 s) and introducing a pitch of 1 degree and in-crash deceleration of 1 g. The deployable system consisted of a deployable hood, lifting 100 mm in the rear, and a lower windshield air bag. All 3 countermeasures showed benefit in a majority of impact configurations in terms of injury prevention. The auto-brake system reduced chest force in a majority of the configurations and decreased HIC(15), head angular acceleration, and CSDM in all configurations. Averaging all impact configurations, the auto-brake system showed reductions of injury predictors from 20 percent (chest force) to 82 percent (HIC). The passive deployable countermeasure reduced chest force and HIC(15) in a majority of configurations and head angular acceleration and CSDM in all configurations, although the CSDM decrease in 2 configurations was minimal. On average a reduction from 20 percent (CSDM) to 58 percent (HIC) was recorded in the passive deployable countermeasures. Finally, the integrated system evaluated in this study reduced all injury assessment parameters in all configurations compared to the reference situations. The average reductions achieved by the integrated system ranged from 56 percent

  6. Pedestrian Dynamics Feedback Control of Crowd Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kachroo, Pushkin P.E; Al-nasur, Sadeq J; Shende, Apoorva

    2008-01-01

    Effective evacuation of people from closed spaces is an extremely important topic, since it can save real lives in emergency situations that can be brought about by natural and human made disasters. Usually there are static maps posted at various places at buildings that illustrate routes that should be taken during emergencies. However, when disasters happen, some of these routes might not be valid because of structural problems due to the disaster itself and more importantly because of the distribution of congestion of people spread over the area. The average flow of traffic depends on the traffic density. Therefore, if all the people follow the same route, or follow a route without knowing the congestion situation, they can end up being part of the congestion which results in very low flow rate or worse a traffic jam. Hence it becomes extremely important to design evacuations that inform people how fast and in which direction to move based on real-time information obtained about the people distribution usi...

  7. Situational Factors of Influencing Drivers to Give Precedence to Jaywalking Pedestrians at Signalized Crosswalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobei Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of fatalities are caused by the vehicle-pedestrian accidents. Under a potential conflict between the vehicle and jaywalking pedestrian, giving precedence to the pedestrian will be a proper decision taken by the driver to avoid collision. Field traffic data has been collected by video recording and image processing at two signalized crosswalks. Vehicle speed performance in the single vehicle-pedestrian encounter and platoon vehicle-pedestrian encounter were analyzed for understanding the driver behavior in the conflict process. Binary logic model was proposed to estimate the drivers' giving precedence influenced by the situational factors and the model was validated to predict the drivers' choices accurately. The vehicle speed, pedestrian speed, pedestrian lateral distance and the vehicle longitudinal distance to the conflict point were proved to affect the drivers' choices in platoon driving. The research results would hopefully be helpful to the design of intelligent vehicles and pedestrian protection systems by the knowledge-based decision making process.

  8. Red light crossing, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlæger, Rasmus; Tønning, Charlotte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2018-01-01

    In order to increase mobility and promote modal shift to walking, intersections in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, have been equipped with intelligent management of green light for pedestrians. This allows adjustment of green time based on radar detection of pedestrians in the crossing and prolongat...

  9. The two-dimensional Godunov scheme and what it means for macroscopic pedestrian flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient simulation method for two-dimensional continuum pedestrian flow models is introduced. It is a two-dimensional and multi-class extension of the Go-dunov scheme for one-dimensional road traffic flow models introduced in the mid 1990’s. The method can be applied to continuum pedestrian

  10. Drivers' judgments of the effect of headlight glare on their ability to see pedestrians at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie A; Stafford Sewall, Ashley A; Rosopa, Patrick J; Tyrrell, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have concluded that pedestrians typically overestimate their own conspicuity to approaching drivers at night. The present experiments extended this research by exploring the accuracy of drivers' judgments of pedestrian conspicuity while facing varying degrees of headlight glare. In Experiment 1, participants on an open road estimated their ability to see a roadside pedestrian in each of two clothing configurations and with each of three different glare intensities present. In Experiment 2, participants responded to a roadside pedestrian under the same open road conditions; the participants were naïve with regard to both the position of the pedestrian and to the clothing and glare manipulations. Consistent with earlier research, estimates of response distance were, on the average, over three times greater than actual recognition distance. The extent to which participants overestimated conspicuity was greater when the pedestrian wore a retroreflective vest, and participants incorrectly judged that headlight glare would not degrade drivers' ability to see a pedestrian wearing a retroreflective vest. These results confirm that road users' understanding of issues involving drivers' night vision is limited. These misunderstandings may result in road users behaving in ways that increase the risk of nighttime collisions with pedestrians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Albers, PN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian...

  12. Analysis and Modelling of Pedestrian Movement Dynamics at Large-scale Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duives, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    To what extent can we model the movements of pedestrians who walk across a large-scale event terrain? This dissertation answers this question by analysing the operational movement dynamics of pedestrians in crowds at several large music and sport events in the Netherlands and extracting the key

  13. Acoustic characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and the safety of pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  14. Auditory detectability of hybrid electric vehicles by pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  15. Evaluating the impact of connectivity, continuity, and topography of sidewalk network on pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osama, Ahmed; Sayed, Tarek

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing demand for sustainability, walking is being encouraged as one of the main active modes of transportation. However, pedestrians are vulnerable to severe injuries when involved in crashes which can discourage road users from walking. Therefore, studying factors that affect the safety of pedestrians is important. This paper investigates the relationship between pedestrian-motorist crashes and various sidewalk network indicators in the city of Vancouver. The goal is to assess the impact of network connectivity, directness, and topography on pedestrian safety using macro-level collision prediction models. The models were developed using generalized linear regression and full Bayesian techniques. Both walking trips and vehicle kilometers travelled were used as the main traffic exposure variables in the models. The safety models supported the safety in numbers hypothesis showing a non-linear positive association between pedestrian-motorist crashes and the increase in walking trips and vehicle traffic. The model results also suggested that higher continuity, linearity, coverage, and slope of sidewalk networks were associated with lower crash occurrence. However, network connectivity was associated with higher crash occurrence. The spatial effects were accounted for in the full Bayes models and were found significant. The models provide insights about the factors that influence pedestrian safety and the spatial variability of pedestrian crashes within a city, which can be useful for the planning of pedestrian networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. TINGKAT KENYAMANAN JALUR PEDESTRIAN DI KAWASAN SIMPANG LIMA KOTA SEMARANG BERDASARKAN PERSEPSI PENGGUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Purnomo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The comfortability of access from each region in big cities has led to the rapid increasing of regional mobility.The mobility incude the motorists and also pedestrians. Pedestrian path is a container or space for pedestrian activities and activities to provide services to pedestrians so as to improve the smoothness, safety, and comfort for pedestrians. Convenience is one of the vital values that should be enjoyed by people when doing activities. Pedestrian path in Semarang in Simpang Lima area itself is fairly crowded, and has been laid out in such a way for vendors. Crowd arising from the existence of street vendors sometimes make some people feel less comfortable to pass through. Problems that occur will be observed and analyzed, namely the level of comfort in the pedestrian path in Simpang Lima area based on user perception. The method used is descriptive qualitative theory describing the pedestrian path and direct observation to the object observed coupled with interviewing some respondents.

  17. Young drivers' perception of adult and child pedestrians in potential street-crossing situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Despite overall improvements in road traffic safety, pedestrian accidents continue to be a serious public health problem. Due to lack of experience, limited cognitive and motoric skills, and smaller size, children have a higher injury risk as pedestrians than adults. To what extent drivers adjust...... that appropriately accounts for the limitations of a child pedestrian. A better understanding of how drivers respond to different types of pedestrians and why could contribute to the development of pedestrian detection and emergency braking systems....... their driving behaviour to children's higher vulnerability is largely unknown. To determine whether young male drivers' behaviour and scanning pattern differs when approaching a child and an adult pedestrian in a potential street-crossing situation, sixty-five young (18-24) male drivers' speed, lateral position...... and eye movements were recorded in a driving simulator. Results showed that fewer drivers responded by slowing down and that drivers had a higher driving speed when approaching a child pedestrian, although the time of the first fixation on both types of pedestrians was the same. However, drivers drove...

  18. A Model for Assessing Pedestrian Corridors. Application to Vitoria-Gasteiz City (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Delso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From a mobility perspective, walking is considered to be the most sustainable transport mode. One of the consequences of motor-oriented urban configuration on pedestrian mobility is urban fragmentation, which affects sustainability in cities. In this paper, we use a natural-based approach to landscape fragmentation and connectivity (inherited from landscape ecology for pedestrian mobility planning. Our aim is to design a useful methodology to identify priority pedestrian corridors, and to assess the effects of implementing barrier-free pedestrian corridors in the city. For this purpose, we developed a method that integrates Geographical Information Systems (GIS network analysis with kernel density methods, which are commonly used for designating habitat corridors. It was applied to Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain. Pedestrian mobility was assessed by comparison of travel times between different scenarios. Results show that the implementation of pedestrian corridors reduces travel time by approximately 6%. Thus, an intervention in a small percentage of the city’s street network could considerably reduce pedestrian travel times. The proposed methodology is a useful tool for urban and transport planners to improve pedestrian mobility and manage motorised traffic.

  19. Automatic Pedestrian Crossing Detection and Impairment Analysis Based on Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Pedestrian crossing, as an important part of transportation infrastructures, serves to secure pedestrians' lives and possessions and keep traffic flow in order. As a prominent feature in the street scene, detection of pedestrian crossing contributes to 3D road marking reconstruction and diminishing the adverse impact of outliers in 3D street scene reconstruction. Since pedestrian crossing is subject to wearing and tearing from heavy traffic flow, it is of great imperative to monitor its status quo. On this account, an approach of automatic pedestrian crossing detection using images from vehicle-based Mobile Mapping System is put forward and its defilement and impairment are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, pedestrian crossing classifier is trained with low recall rate. Then initial detections are refined by utilizing projection filtering, contour information analysis, and monocular vision. Finally, a pedestrian crossing detection and analysis system with high recall rate, precision and robustness will be achieved. This system works for pedestrian crossing detection under different situations and light conditions. It can recognize defiled and impaired crossings automatically in the meanwhile, which facilitates monitoring and maintenance of traffic facilities, so as to reduce potential traffic safety problems and secure lives and property.

  20. Velocity correlations and spatial dependencies between neighbors in a unidirectional flow of pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzycki, Jakub; WÄ s, Jarosław; Hedayatifar, Leila; Hassanibesheli, Forough; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the paper is an analysis of self-organization patterns observed in the unidirectional flow of pedestrians. On the basis of experimental data from Zhang et al. [J. Zhang et al., J. Stat. Mech. (2011) P06004, 10.1088/1742-5468/2011/06/P06004], we analyze the mutual positions and velocity correlations between pedestrians when walking along a corridor. The angular and spatial dependencies of the mutual positions reveal a spatial structure that remains stable during the crowd motion. This structure differs depending on the value of n , for the consecutive n th -nearest-neighbor position set. The preferred position for the first-nearest neighbor is on the side of the pedestrian, while for further neighbors, this preference shifts to the axis of movement. The velocity correlations vary with the angle formed by the pair of neighboring pedestrians and the direction of motion and with the time delay between pedestrians' movements. The delay dependence of the correlations shows characteristic oscillations, produced by the velocity oscillations when striding; however, a filtering of the main frequency of individual striding out reduces the oscillations only partially. We conclude that pedestrians select their path directions so as to evade the necessity of continuously adjusting their speed to their neighbors'. They try to keep a given distance, but follow the person in front of them, as well as accepting and observing pedestrians on their sides. Additionally, we show an empirical example that illustrates the shape of a pedestrian's personal space during movement.

  1. Pedestrian safety engineering and intelligent transportation system-based countermeasures program for reduced pedestrian fatalities, injuries, conflicts and other surrogate measures : Miami-Dade site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-25

    This report presents the methods and key findings from the Miami-Dade comprehensive pedestrian safety planning and engineering project. It is one of three such projects in the nation funded by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to evaluate: In...

  2. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  3. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  4. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Escalera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  5. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-09-04

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  6. Pedestrian Zones As Important Urban Strategies in Redeveloping the Community - Case Study: Alba Iulia Borough Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Elena BLAGA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The pedestrian zone issue is by far an important matter in the context of urban regeneration. Cities which adopted this strategy – the pedestrian zones – have recorded better urban attitudes regarding the urban environment, a continuous growth of the urban quality, an improved urban ecosystem  and continuous attractiveness for investment and  tourism. This article explores the evolution of the pedestrian zones as ideas in utopian urban models in the early 1900 and later as efficient environmental friendly strategies adopted by cities. After identifying the path this concept followed, from a simple idea to an important strategy of urban development, the paper focuses on the major characteristics and benefits of the pedestrian precincts. Next, the article focuses on the newest pedestrian zone in one of the Romanian cities, Alba Iulia and it tries to identify the types of impact this area has so far on the community and entire city.

  7. Real-time pedestrian detection with the videos of car camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunling Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians in the vehicle path are in danger of being hit, thus causing severe injury to pedestrians and vehicle occupants. Therefore, real-time pedestrian detection with the video of vehicle-mounted camera is of great significance to vehicle–pedestrian collision warning and traffic safety of self-driving car. In this article, a real-time scheme was proposed based on integral channel features and graphics processing unit. The proposed method does not need to resize the input image. Moreover, the computationally expensive convolution of the detectors and the input image was converted into the dot product of two larger matrixes, which can be computed effectively using a graphics processing unit. The experiments showed that the proposed method could be employed to detect pedestrians in the video of car camera at 20+ frames per second with acceptable error rates. Thus, it can be applied in real-time detection tasks with the videos of car camera.

  8. MULTIPLE HUMAN TRACKING IN COMPLEX SITUATION BY DATA ASSIMILATION WITH PEDESTRIAN BEHAVIOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nakanishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method of multiple human tracking is proposed. The key concept is that to assume a tracking process as a data assimilation process. Despite the importance of understanding pedestrian behavior in public space with regard to achieving more sophisticated space design and flow control, automatic human tracking in complex situation is still challenging when people move close to each other or are occluded by others. For this difficulty, we stochastically combine existing tracking method by image processing with simulation models of walking behavior. We describe a system in a form of general state space model and define the components of the model according to the review on related works. Then we apply the proposed method to the data acquired at the ticket gate of the railway station. We show the high performance of the method, as well as compare the result with other model to present the advantage of integrating the behavior model to the tracking method. We also show the method's ability to acquire passenger flow information such as ticket gate choice and OD data automatically from the tracking result.

  9. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness.

  11. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-03-26

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness.

  12. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  13. Pedestrian injuries in children: who is most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xun Yi Jasmine; Nah, Shireen Anne; Lee, York Tien; Lin, Yea-Chyi; Chiang, Li Wei

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the demographics of paediatric pedestrian injuries with the aim of identifying the group of children who is most vulnerable and the risk factors for major trauma (MT). Data was extracted from the integrated trauma system of a regional paediatric referral hospital. All paediatric cases involving road traffic accidents from January 2011 to December 2013 were studied. Demographics, injury mechanism, treatment and outcome were evaluated. Patients were categorised as MT or non-MT (NMT) based on their Injury Severity Score, admission to the intensive care unit, type of surgery (e.g. life/limb-saving) and death. Data analysis was done using nonparametric tests and Fisher's exact test. A total of 261 children were admitted for pedestrian injuries during the study period. The median age was ten years (range 14 months-16 years) and the median weight was 42.4 (range 8.6-93.7) kg. Half (i.e. 50.2%) of the children were primary-schoolers. The majority of the accidents occurred on roads (i.e. 83.1%), between 12 pm and 6 pm (i.e. 52.8%). Among the 261 children, 177 (67.8%) were unaccompanied by an adult at the time of the accident; 17 (6.5%) children sustained MT, while 244 (93.5%) suffered NMT. MT patients were more likely to have lost consciousness (p injuries involved primary-schoolers walking home from school unaccompanied by adults. This information should inform future road safety campaigns. Being flung and loss of consciousness predicted MT in children who sustained pedestrian injuries.

  14. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  15. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  16. Vision-based pedestrian protection systems for intelligent vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Geronimo, David

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian Protection Systems (PPSs) are on-board systems aimed at detecting and tracking people in the surroundings of a vehicle in order to avoid potentially dangerous situations. These systems, together with other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as lane departure warning or adaptive cruise control, are one of the most promising ways to improve traffic safety. By the use of computer vision, cameras working either in the visible or infra-red spectra have been demonstrated as a reliable sensor to perform this task. Nevertheless, the variability of human's appearance, not only in

  17. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  18. Two-Stage Part-Based Pedestrian Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Prioletti, Antonio; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision system due the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusions, and high speed vehicle motion. A lot of research has been focused on this problem in the last 10 years and detectors based on classifiers has...... classifier with the aim of lowering the number of false positives. The surviving candidates are then filtered with a feature-based tracking to enhance the recognition robustness and improve the results' stability. The system has been implemented on a prototype vehicle and offers high performance in terms...

  19. Pedestrian navigation based on a waist-worn inertial sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications.

  20. Prévessin site: Pedestrian and cycle entrance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The entrance to the Prévessin site for pedestrians and cyclists on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: from 7 April to 30 October 2015, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  1. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Document Server

    GS-DI

    2014-01-01

    Entrances for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc and on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts, in Prévessin, will be re-opened:   from 7 April to 31 October 2014, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  2. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-IS

    2013-01-01

      A second entrance for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc will be opened and the existing entrance on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: - for the period 2 April to 31 October 2013, - from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday). IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  3. Analyzing fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun

    2014-12-01

    The number of pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents and pedestrian deaths in China surged in recent years. However, a large scale empirical research on pedestrian traffic crashes in China is lacking. In this study, we identify significant risk factors associated with fault and severity in pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including pedestrian, driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze 6967 pedestrian traffic accident reports for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report. Pedestrian traffic crashes have a unique inevitability and particular high risk, due to pedestrians' fragility, slow movement and lack of lighting equipment. The empirical analysis of the present study has the following policy implications. First, traffic crashes in which pedestrians are at fault are more likely to cause serious injuries or death, suggesting that relevant agencies should pay attention to measures that prevent pedestrians from violating traffic rules. Second, both the attention to elderly pedestrians, male and experienced drivers, the penalty to drunk driving, speeding, driving without a driver's license and other violation behaviors should be strengthened. Third, vehicle safety inspections and safety training sessions for truck drivers should be reinforced. Fourth, improving the road conditions and road lighting at night are important measures in reducing the probability of accident casualties. Fifth, specific road safety campaigns in rural areas, and education programs especially for young children and teens should be developed and promoted. Moreover, we reveal a country-specific factor, hukou, which has significant effect on the severity in pedestrian accidents due to the discrepancy in the level of social insurance/security, suggesting

  4. AUTOMATIC PEDESTRIAN CROSSING DETECTION AND IMPAIRMENT ANALYSIS BASED ON MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crossing, as an important part of transportation infrastructures, serves to secure pedestrians’ lives and possessions and keep traffic flow in order. As a prominent feature in the street scene, detection of pedestrian crossing contributes to 3D road marking reconstruction and diminishing the adverse impact of outliers in 3D street scene reconstruction. Since pedestrian crossing is subject to wearing and tearing from heavy traffic flow, it is of great imperative to monitor its status quo. On this account, an approach of automatic pedestrian crossing detection using images from vehicle-based Mobile Mapping System is put forward and its defilement and impairment are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, pedestrian crossing classifier is trained with low recall rate. Then initial detections are refined by utilizing projection filtering, contour information analysis, and monocular vision. Finally, a pedestrian crossing detection and analysis system with high recall rate, precision and robustness will be achieved. This system works for pedestrian crossing detection under different situations and light conditions. It can recognize defiled and impaired crossings automatically in the meanwhile, which facilitates monitoring and maintenance of traffic facilities, so as to reduce potential traffic safety problems and secure lives and property.

  5. Increasing of visibility on the pedestrian crossing by the additional lighting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleja, Richard; Bos, Petr; Novak, Tomas; Sokansky, Karel; Hanusek, Tomas

    2017-09-01

    Pedestrian crossings are critical places for road accidents between pedestrians and motor vehicles. For this reason, it is very important to increase attention when the pedestrian crossings are designed and it is necessary to take into account all factors that may contribute to higher safety. Additional lighting systems for pedestrian crossings are one of them and the lighting systems must fulfil the requirements for higher visibility from the point of view of car drivers from both directions. This paper describes the criteria for the suitable additional lighting system on pedestrian crossings. Generally, it means vertical illuminance on the pedestrian crossing from the driver’s view, horizontal illuminance on the crossing and horizontal illuminance both in front of and behind the crossing placed on the road and their acceptable ratios. The article also describes the choice of the colours of the light (correlated colour temperature) and its influence on visibility. As a part of the article, there are case designs of additional lighting systems for pedestrian crossings and measurements from realized additional lighting systems by luxmeters and luminance cameras and their evaluation.

  6. Effects of Crosswalk Location and Pedestrian Volume on Entry Capacity of Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Duran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available At roundabout approaches, vehicles must yield to pedestrians who are using crosswalks. The presence of pedestrians using the crosswalk at a roundabout approach thus decreases the entry capacity of the approach. This research used a calibrated microscopic traffic simulation model to study the effect of crosswalk location and pedestrian volume on the capacity of a two-lane approach entering a two-lane roundabout. The simulation results show that (i at the same pedestrian volume, the crosswalk located further upstream from the yield line causes a smaller magnitude of reduction in the entry capacity, but there is no significant change in the entry capacity when the crosswalk is beyond three car-length upstream from the yield line; (ii for the same crosswalk location and conflicting volume, the entry capacity reduces with increasing pedestrian volume, but the marginal reduction diminishes with increasing pedestrian volume. Linear regression equations for entry capacity adjustment factor for pedestrians as a function of conflicting volume have been developed. The adjustment factors are found to be lower than the values provided by the Highway Capacity Manual 2010 which are based on research conducted in Germany.

  7. How young pedestrians do explain their risky road crossing behaviors? A qualitative study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemiparast, Mina; Negarandeh, Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although pedestrian-vehicle accidents are often the results of risky behaviors during road crossings, there is limited evidence concerning the risky road crossing behaviors of pedestrians. This study was aimed at eliciting and exploring the reasons that can help explain why young pedestrians take risky road crossing behaviors. Methods: A qualitative content analysis approach was conducted on purposefully selected young individuals who had the experience of vehicle-collision accident. Data collected by in depth, semi-structured interviews until data saturation and concurrently analyzed, assisted by MAXQDA 10. Results: Three main categories emerged as social reasons for risky road crossing behaviors of the young pedestrians including 'conformity with the masses/crowds', 'lack of social cohesion and sense of belonging in social relations' and 'bypassing the law/ law evasion'. Conclusion: The risky road crossing behaviors of young pedestrians are found influenced by the pedestrian attitudes towards the political, social, cultural and economic condition of the society.Moreover, popular culture and collective behaviors in crossing the roads influenced the risky behaviors. Hence, personal, cultural and social interventions could be effective in promoting the young pedestrians' behavior.

  8. Coarse-to-fine deep neural network for fast pedestrian detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaobin; Yang, Xinmei; Cao, Lijun

    2017-11-01

    Pedestrian detection belongs to a category of object detection is a key issue in the field of video surveillance and automatic driving. Although recent object detection methods, such as Fast/Faster RCNN, have achieved excellent performance, it is difficult to meet real-time requirements and limits the application in real scenarios. A coarse-to-fine deep neural network for fast pedestrian detection is proposed in this paper. Two-stage approach is presented to realize fine trade-off between accuracy and speed. In the coarse stage, we train a fast deep convolution neural network to generate most pedestrian candidates at the cost of a number of false positives. The detector can cover the majority of scales, sizes, and occlusions of pedestrians. After that, a classification network is introduced to refine the pedestrian candidates generated from the previous stage. Refining through classification network, most of false detections will be excluded easily and the final pedestrian predictions with bounding box and confidence score are produced. Competitive results have been achieved on INRIA dataset in terms of accuracy, especially the method can achieve real-time detection that is faster than the previous leading methods. The effectiveness of coarse-to-fine approach to detect pedestrians is verified, and the accuracy and stability are also improved.

  9. Numerical analysis of a pedestrian to car collision: Effect of variations in walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špička J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the modelling of car to pedestrian crash scenario. Virtual hybrid human body model VIRTHUMAN as well as a simplified model of car chassis is modelled under Virtual Performance Solution software. The main idea of the work is the investigation and sensitivity analysis of various initial conditions of the pedestrian during frontal car crash scenario, such as position of the extremities due to different step phases or turning of the pedestrian around his own axis. The experimental data of human gait measurement are used so that one human step is divided into 9 phases to capture the effect of walk when the pedestrian crosses a road. Consequently, the influence of different initial conditions on the kinematics, dynamics of the collision together with injury prediction of pedestrian is discussed. Moreover, the effect of walk is taken into account within translational velocities of the full human body and rotational velocities of the extremities. The trend of the injury prediction for varying initial conditions is monitored. The configurations with zero and non-zero initial velocities are compared with each other, in order to study the effect of walking speed of the pedestrian. Note that only the average walking speed is considered. On the basis of the achieved results, the importance or redundancy of modelling the walking motion and the consideration of different step phases in the car-pedestrian accident can be examined.

  10. Deciphering the Crowd: Modeling and Identification of Pedestrian Group Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Hagita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.

  11. Pedestrian detection in infrared image using HOG and Autoencoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianbiao; Zhang, Hao; Shi, Wenjie; Zhang, Yu

    2017-11-01

    In order to guarantee the safety of driving at night, vehicle-mounted night vision system was used to detect pedestrian in front of cars and send alarm to prevent the potential dangerous. To decrease the false positive rate (FPR) and increase the true positive rate (TPR), a pedestrian detection method based on HOG and Autoencoder (HOG+Autoencoder) was presented. Firstly, the HOG features of input images were computed and encoded by Autoencoder. Then the encoded features were classified by Softmax. In the process of training, Autoencoder was trained unsupervised. Softmax was trained with supervision. Autoencoder and Softmax were stacked into a model and fine-tuned by labeled images. Experiment was conducted to compare the detection performance between HOG and HOG+Autoencoder, using images collected by vehicle-mounted infrared camera. There were 80000 images for training set and 20000 for the testing set, with a rate of 1:3 between positive and negative images. The result shows that when TPR is 95%, FPR of HOG+Autoencoder is 0.4%, while the FPR of HOG is 5% with the same TPR.

  12. Vector graph assisted pedestrian dead reckoning using an unconstrained smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiuchao; Pei, Ling; Ma, Jiabin; Ying, Rendong; Liu, Peilin

    2015-03-02

    The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA) of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.

  13. Wi-Fi/MARG Integration for Indoor Pedestrian Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zengshan; Jin, Yue; Zhou, Mu; Wu, Zipeng; Li, Ze

    2016-12-10

    With the wide deployment of Wi-Fi networks, Wi-Fi based indoor localization systems that are deployed without any special hardware have caught significant attention and have become a currently practical technology. At the same time, the Magnetic, Angular Rate, and Gravity (MARG) sensors installed in commercial mobile devices can achieve highly-accurate localization in short time. Based on this, we design a novel indoor localization system by using built-in MARG sensors and a Wi-Fi module. The innovative contributions of this paper include the enhanced Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) and Wi-Fi localization approaches, and an Extended Kalman Particle Filter (EKPF) based fusion algorithm. A new Wi-Fi/MARG indoor localization system, including an Android based mobile client, a Web page for remote control, and a location server, is developed for real-time indoor pedestrian localization. The extensive experimental results show that the proposed system is featured with better localization performance, with the average error 0.85 m, than the one achieved by using the Wi-Fi module or MARG sensors solely.

  14. Advanced Pedestrian Positioning System to Smartphones and Smartwatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Correa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the development of pedestrian navigation systems for satellite-denied scenarios. The popularization of smartphones and smartwatches is an interesting opportunity for reducing the infrastructure cost of the positioning systems. Nowadays, smartphones include inertial sensors that can be used in pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR algorithms for the estimation of the user’s position. Both smartphones and smartwatches include WiFi capabilities allowing the computation of the received signal strength (RSS. We develop a new method for the combination of RSS measurements from two different receivers using a Gaussian mixture model. We also analyze the implication of using a WiFi network designed for communication purposes in an indoor positioning system when the designer cannot control the network configuration. In this work, we design a hybrid positioning system that combines inertial measurements, from low-cost inertial sensors embedded in a smartphone, with RSS measurements through an extended Kalman filter. The system has been validated in a real scenario, and results show that our system improves the positioning accuracy of the PDR system thanks to the use of two WiFi receivers. The designed system obtains an accuracy up to 1.4 m in a scenario of 6000 m 2 .

  15. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuchao Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.

  16. Daily Living Movement Recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Martinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, activity recognition is a central topic in numerous applications such as patient and sport activity monitoring, surveillance, and navigation. By focusing on the latter, in particular Pedestrian Dead Reckoning navigation systems, activity recognition is generally exploited to get landmarks on the map of the buildings in order to permit the calibration of the navigation routines. The present work aims to provide a contribution to the definition of a more effective movement recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning applications. The signal acquired by a belt-mounted triaxial accelerometer is considered as the input to the movement segmentation procedure which exploits Continuous Wavelet Transform to detect and segment cyclic movements such as walking. Furthermore, the segmented movements are provided to a supervised learning classifier in order to distinguish between activities such as walking and walking downstairs and upstairs. In particular, four supervised learning classification families are tested: decision tree, Support Vector Machine, k-nearest neighbour, and Ensemble Learner. Finally, the accuracy of the considered classification models is evaluated and the relative confusion matrices are presented.

  17. Deciphering the crowd: modeling and identification of pedestrian group motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Zeynep; Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Miyashita, Takahiro; Hagita, Norihiro

    2013-01-14

    Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.

  18. A Multisource Heterogeneous Data Fusion Method for Pedestrian Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlian Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional visual pedestrian tracking methods perform poorly when faced with problems such as occlusion, illumination changes, and complex backgrounds. In principle, collecting more sensing information should resolve these issues. However, it is extremely challenging to properly fuse different sensing information to achieve accurate tracking results. In this study, we develop a pedestrian tracking method for fusing multisource heterogeneous sensing information, including video, RGB-D sequences, and inertial sensor data. In our method, a RGB-D sequence is used to position the target locally by fusing the texture and depth features. The local position is then used to eliminate the cumulative error resulting from the inertial sensor positioning. A camera calibration process is used to map the inertial sensor position onto the video image plane, where the visual tracking position and the mapped position are fused using a similarity feature to obtain accurate tracking results. Experiments using real scenarios show that the developed method outperforms the existing tracking method, which uses only a single sensing dataset, and is robust to target occlusion, illumination changes, and interference from similar textures or complex backgrounds.

  19. Advanced Pedestrian Positioning System to Smartphones and Smartwatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro; Munoz Diaz, Estefania; Bousdar Ahmed, Dina; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose

    2016-11-11

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the development of pedestrian navigation systems for satellite-denied scenarios. The popularization of smartphones and smartwatches is an interesting opportunity for reducing the infrastructure cost of the positioning systems. Nowadays, smartphones include inertial sensors that can be used in pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithms for the estimation of the user's position. Both smartphones and smartwatches include WiFi capabilities allowing the computation of the received signal strength (RSS). We develop a new method for the combination of RSS measurements from two different receivers using a Gaussian mixture model. We also analyze the implication of using a WiFi network designed for communication purposes in an indoor positioning system when the designer cannot control the network configuration. In this work, we design a hybrid positioning system that combines inertial measurements, from low-cost inertial sensors embedded in a smartphone, with RSS measurements through an extended Kalman filter. The system has been validated in a real scenario, and results show that our system improves the positioning accuracy of the PDR system thanks to the use of two WiFi receivers. The designed system obtains an accuracy up to 1.4 m in a scenario of 6000 m 2 .

  20. Wi-Fi/MARG Integration for Indoor Pedestrian Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengshan Tian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the wide deployment of Wi-Fi networks, Wi-Fi based indoor localization systems that are deployed without any special hardware have caught significant attention and have become a currently practical technology. At the same time, the Magnetic, Angular Rate, and Gravity (MARG sensors installed in commercial mobile devices can achieve highly-accurate localization in short time. Based on this, we design a novel indoor localization system by using built-in MARG sensors and a Wi-Fi module. The innovative contributions of this paper include the enhanced Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR and Wi-Fi localization approaches, and an Extended Kalman Particle Filter (EKPF based fusion algorithm. A new Wi-Fi/MARG indoor localization system, including an Android based mobile client, a Web page for remote control, and a location server, is developed for real-time indoor pedestrian localization. The extensive experimental results show that the proposed system is featured with better localization performance, with the average error 0.85 m, than the one achieved by using the Wi-Fi module or MARG sensors solely.

  1. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  2. Development Study of Pedestrian Bridge at Gramedia Bookstore Jalan Raden Intan Bandar Lampung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaditha, C. M.

    2018-03-01

    Bandar Lampung with high enough population densities has provides transportation facilities for pedestrian such as pedestrian bridge. This pedestrian bridges spread at Bandar Lampung’s traffic congested area, shopping centre nor education centre. Jl. Raden Intan as one of primary collector road with four lanes one direction at Bandar Lampung has high LHR (average daily traffic) movemenet pattern especially at morning, day and afternoon rush hour that make it difficult for pedestrian who want to cross the road. Therefore pedes trian bridge at this section Jl. Raden Intan highly needed especially at in front of Gramedia Bookstore with large amount of crossing pedestrian volume. From this research and analysis, found that number of LHR (average daily traffic) at Jl. Raden Intan shows large number traffic volume that is 4509 passenger car unit/hour at morning rush hour (07.00-08.30), with value of V/C Ratio or Degree of Saturation reach 0,92 (E category), while the amount of pedestrian who cross ahead from Gramedia Bookstore to Bank Muammalat is 29 people per 15 minutes. Other than that based on the calculation results of pedestrian volume and traffic volume at rush hour as follow: average pedestrian volume at rush hour is 146 people/hour between the range 100-1250 people/hour and traffic volume 7521 vehicles/hour over than 7000 vehicles/hour, and also the value PV2=1,682x1010 which is means the value of PV2 worth over 2x108, moreover the speed plan Jl. Raden Intan between 60-80 km/hour above 70 km/hour. Based on the calculation and analysis above, it can be concluded transportation facilities recommended for Jl. Raden Intan is pedestrian bridge.

  3. Injury pattern in lethal motorbikes-pedestrian collisions, in the area of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Soria, M Carmen; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Sánchez-Molina, David; Velázquez-Ameijide, Juan; Galtés, Ignasi

    2016-10-01

    There are several studies about M1 type vehicle-pedestrian collision injury pattern, and based on them, there has been several changes in automobiles for pedestrian protection. However, the lack of sufficient studies about injury pattern in motorbikes-pedestrian collisions leads to a lack of optimization design of these vehicles. The objective of this research is to study the injury pattern of pedestrians involved in collisions with motorized two-wheeled vehicles. A retrospective descriptive study of pedestrian's deaths after collisions with motorcycles in an urban area, like Barcelona was performed. The cases were collected from the Forensic Pathology Service database of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia. The selected cases were categorized as pedestrian-motorcycle collision, between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2014. Data were collected from the autopsy, medical, and police report. The collected information was then analyzed using Microsoft Excel statistical functions. Traumatic Brain Injury is the main cause of death in pedestrian hit by motorized two-wheeled vehicles (62.85%). The most frequent injury was the subarachnoid hemorrhage, in 71.4% of cases, followed by cerebral contusions and skull base fractures (65.7%). By contrast, pelvic fractures and tibia fractures only appeared in 28.6%. The study characterizes the injury pattern of pedestrians involved in a collision with motorized two-wheeled vehicles in an urban area, like Barcelona, which has been found to be different from other vehicle-pedestrian collisions, with a higher incidence of brain injuries and minor frequency of lower extremities fractures in pelvis, tibia and fibula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. PARALLEL MOVING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberius Petrescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Moving mechanical systems parallel structures are solid, fast, and accurate. Between parallel systems it is to be noticed Stewart platforms, as the oldest systems, fast, solid and precise. The work outlines a few main elements of Stewart platforms. Begin with the geometry platform, kinematic elements of it, and presented then and a few items of dynamics. Dynamic primary element on it means the determination mechanism kinetic energy of the entire Stewart platforms. It is then in a record tail cinematic mobile by a method dot matrix of rotation. If a structural mottoelement consists of two moving elements which translates relative, drive train and especially dynamic it is more convenient to represent the mottoelement as a single moving components. We have thus seven moving parts (the six motoelements or feet to which is added mobile platform 7 and one fixed.

  5. The Moving image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner.......Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner....

  6. Training children in pedestrian safety: distinguishing gains in knowledge from gains in safe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A

    2014-06-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children's street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7-8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used for training, tools like videos

  7. Dead reckoning navigation: supplementing pedestrian GPS with an accelerometer-based pedometer and an electronic compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, P.; Bujacz, M.; Strumillo, P.

    2009-06-01

    The article presents a prototype wearable device that corrects inaccurate GPS readouts during pedestrian travel. The electronic circuit consists of a microcontroller, an accelerometer and a digital compass. The accelerometer readouts are filtered to detect the steps of the pedestrian and are also used to estimate the stride length. The digital compass provides the direction of motion. When the GPS parameters warn of a high dilution of precision, the location of the pedestrian is corrected by data provided by the accelerometer and the digital compass.

  8. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  9. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  10. Effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literat...

  11. Complete intersections : a guide to reconstructing intersections and interchanges for bicyclists and pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Intersections and interchanges are major points of conflict for road users and are the frequent site of injuries and fatalities. In California, nearly 20 percent of pedestrian fatalities, and nearly a quarter of bicyclist fatalities occur at intersec...

  12. Active transportation measurement and benchmarking development : New Orleans pedestrian and bicycle count report, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a surge in bicycle and pedestrian use in communities that have invested in active transportation infrastructure and programming. While these increases show potentially promising trends, many of the cities that hav...

  13. Rules of conduct for pedestrians and motorists on or near zebra crossings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1971-01-01

    The different legislations concerning pedestrians on zebra crossings from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, England, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the U.S.A. and from the United Nations are summarized.

  14. Regulatory assessment of proposed accessibility guidelines for pedestrians in the public right-of-way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    This report assesses the potential costs and benefits of proposed accessibility guidelines issued by the Access Board for pedestrian facilities in the public right-of-way. The report also analyzes the potential impacts of the proposed guidelines on s...

  15. Failure Analysis of Network Based Accessible Pedestrian Signals in Closed-Loop Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The potential failure modes of a network based accessible pedestrian system were analyzed to determine the limitations and benefits of closed-loop operation. The vulnerabilities of the system are accessed using the industry standard process known as ...

  16. Evaluating Bicycle, Pedestrian, Transit and Economic Data Collection Needs and Measures of Effectiveness in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the current data collection procedures for bicycle and pedestrian projects utilized by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and Pennsylvania's Metropolitan Planning Organizations...

  17. Objective tests for forward looking pedestrian crash avoidance/mitigation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the work completed by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) Crash Imminent Braking : (CIB) Consortium during the project titled Objective Tests for Forward Looking Pedestrian Crash Avoidance/Mitigation : Systems. ...

  18. 2012 national survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior : volume 1 : summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The 2012 National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior is the second survey on this topic conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Data collection was conducted by Abt SRBI, Inc, a national resear...

  19. Safety and Guidelines for Marked and Unmarked Pedestrian Crosswalks at Unsignalized Intersections in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report examines two aspects of marked and unmarked crosswalks at unsignalized intersections. Firstly, the report assesses the safety performance of marked/unmarked crosswalks in Nevada through comparing pedestrian-related crash rates. In which, ...

  20. Workshop to review problem-behavior research programs : pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop on pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety. The purpose of this workshop was to develop specific recommendations for the planning and implementation of NHTSA research, development, and d...

  1. The emergence of design in pedestrian dynamics: Locomotion, self-organization, walking paths and constructal law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Antonio F.

    2013-06-01

    Gait is inherent to human life and hence its importance is often overlooked. But walking remains the most basic form of transportation and almost all journeys begin and end with a walk, regardless of the modes used in-between. Gaining a good understanding of pedestrian's dynamics is thus a crucial step in meeting the mobility and accessibility needs of people by providing safe and quick walking flows. This paper presents a critical and integrative review of research on pedestrian's dynamics and associated topics. The review focuses on comprehensive theories and models, with an emphasis on the advances made possible by the application of the constructal law. Constructal law points out that the emergence and evolution of design in pedestrian dynamics is analogous to that of animate flow systems. Most importantly, it also highlights that the basic features of pedestrian dynamics and supportive walking infrastructures can be optimally envisaged with the help of a few fundamental physics laws.

  2. The stepping behavior analysis of pedestrians from different age groups via a single-file experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Song, Weiguo; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2018-03-01

    The stepping behavior of pedestrians with different age compositions in single-file experiment is investigated in this paper. The relation between step length, step width and stepping time are analyzed by using the step measurement method based on the calculation of curvature of the trajectory. The relations of velocity-step width, velocity-step length and velocity-stepping time for different age groups are discussed and compared with previous studies. Finally effects of pedestrian gender and height on stepping laws and fundamental diagrams are analyzed. The study is helpful for understanding pedestrian dynamics of movement. Meanwhile, it offers experimental data to develop a microscopic model of pedestrian movement by considering stepping behavior.

  3. Development of a portable bicycle/pedestrian monitoring system for safety enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The objective of this project was to develop a portable automated system to collect continuous video data on pedestrian and cyclist behavior at midblock locations throughout the metro Atlanta area. The system analyzes the collected video data and aut...

  4. Constant-net-time headway as a key mechanism behind pedestrian flow dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders

    2009-08-01

    We show that keeping a constant lower limit on the net-time headway is the key mechanism behind the dynamics of pedestrian streams. There is a large variety in flow and speed as functions of density for empirical data of pedestrian streams obtained from studies in different countries. The net-time headway, however, stays approximately constant over all these different data sets. By using this fact, we demonstrate how the underlying dynamics of pedestrian crowds, naturally follows from local interactions. This means that there is no need to come up with an arbitrary fit function (with arbitrary fit parameters) as has traditionally been done. Further, by using not only the average density values but the variance as well, we show how the recently reported stop-and-go waves [Helbing, Phys. Rev. E 75, 046109 (2007)] emerge when local density variations take values exceeding a certain maximum global (average) density, which makes pedestrians stop.

  5. Fast pedestrian detection using deformable part model and pyramid layer location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lei; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Zhitao; Li, Yuelong; Zhang, Fang

    2017-05-01

    The majority of pedestrian detection approaches use multiscale detection and the sliding window search scheme with high computing complexity. We present a fast pedestrian detection method using the deformable part model and pyramid layer location (PLL). First, the object proposal method is used rather than the traditional sliding window to obtain pedestrian proposal regions. Then, a PLL method is proposed to select the optimal root level in the feature pyramid for each candidate window. On this basis, a single-point calculation scheme is designed to calculate the scores of candidate windows efficiently. Finally, pedestrians can be located from the images. The Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique dataset for human detection is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the number of feature maps and windows requiring calculation in the detection process. Consequently, the computing cost is significantly reduced, with fewer false positives.

  6. Review of Studies on Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety, 1991-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report reviews the pedestrian and bicyclist safety research literature in print as of 2007. It summarizes and synthesizes the key studies, evaluates existing knowledge and identifies research gaps and provides recommendations for future directio...

  7. An investigation of peer influences on risky child and adolescent pedestrian road crossing : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    One of the most important elements of vehicle-pedestrian collisions emanates from : distracted driving. Our mandate in the present project sub-element was to examine and : evaluate such distraction as it affects the latter collision configuration. : ...

  8. Impact of improving vehicle front design on the burden of pedestrian injuries in Germany, the United States, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dane; Bose, Dipan; Bhalla, Kavi

    2017-11-17

    European car design regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings have led to reductions in pedestrian injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of improving vehicle front design on mortality and morbidity due to pedestrian injuries in a European country (Germany) and 2 countries (the United States and India) that do not have pedestrian-focused NCAP testing or design regulations. We used data from the International Road Traffic and Accident Database and the Global Burden of Disease project to estimate baseline pedestrian deaths and nonfatal injuries in each country in 2013. The effect of improved passenger car star ratings on probability of pedestrian injury was based on recent evaluations of pedestrian crash data from Germany. The effect of improved heavy motor vehicle (HMV) front end design on pedestrian injuries was based on estimates reported by simulation studies. We used burden of disease methods to estimate population health loss by combining the burden of morbidity and mortality in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Extrapolating from evaluations in Germany suggests that improving front end design of cars can potentially reduce the burden of pedestrian injuries due to cars by up to 24% in the United States and 41% in India. In Germany, where cars comply with the United Nations regulation on pedestrian safety, additional improvements would have led to a 1% reduction. Similarly, improved HMV design would reduce DALYs lost by pedestrian victims hit by HMVs by 20% in each country. Overall, improved vehicle design would reduce DALYs lost to road traffic injuries (RTIs) by 0.8% in Germany, 4.1% in the United States, and 6.7% in India. Recent evaluations show a strong correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian scores and real-life pedestrian injuries, suggesting that improved car front end design in Europe has led to substantial reductions in pedestrian injuries. Although the United States has fewer pedestrian crashes, it would

  9. Contactless mass moving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for moving an article at a velocity in excess of 10 Kilometers per second. It comprises providing a contactless, mass transfer system comprised of a chamber formed by alternating sections of superconductive material and electromagnetic coils, and means for cooling the chamber; providing a magnetized object which has a weight of at least about 1 gram and a magnetic field strength of at least about 1 Gauss; disposing the magnetized object within the chamber; delivering asynchronous direct current pulses to the chamber while the magnetized object is disposed within the chamber; whereby the magnetized object is caused to move within the chamber

  10. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bulíček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to make planning user oriented one has to know which criteria are important for cyclists` route choice. Until now not many studies were conducted on this topic in Czech Republic. Theoretical background used states 5 basic requirements for cycle routes. These are: 1. Coherence (the cycling infrastructure forms a coherent unit and links with all departure points and destinations of cyclist, 2. Directness (the cycling infrastructure continually offers the cyclists as direct a route as possible, so detours are kept to a minimum, 3. attractiveness (the cycling infrastructure is designed and fitted to the surroundings in such a way that cycling is attractive, 4. safety (the cycling infrastructure guarantees the road safety of cyclists and other road users, 5. comfort (the cycling infrastructure enables a quick and comfortable flow of bicycle traffic.. Planners need a clear understanding of what influences bicycling behavior to develop effective strategies to increase use of those modes. Transportation practitioners have largely focused on infrastructure and the built environment, although researchers have found that attitudes are also very important. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985 - intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in

  11. CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K L →2π where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters ε and ε'. Today ε ∼ its 1964 value, ε' data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H ± → f ± . Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn't work and why

  12. Clustering as an EDA method: the case of pedestrian directional flow behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Teknomo, Kardi; Ateneo de Manila University; E. Estuar, Ma. Regina; Ateneo de Manila University

    2015-01-01

    Given the data of pedestrian trajectories in NTXY format, three clustering methods of K Means, Expectation Maximization (EM) and Affinity Propagation were utilized as Exploratory Data Analysis to find the pattern of pedestrian directional flow behavior. The analysis begins without a prior notion regarding the structure of the pattern and it consequentially infers the structure of directional flow pattern. Significant similarities in patterns for both individual and instantaneous walking angle...

  13. Macro-level safety analysis of pedestrian crashes in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Junguang; Lee, Chris; Ji, Zhuoran; You, Shikai

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrian safety has become one of the most important issues in the field of traffic safety. This study aims at investigating the association between pedestrian crash frequency and various predictor variables including roadway, socio-economic, and land-use features. The relationships were modeled using the data from 263 Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) within the urban area of Shanghai - the largest city in China. Since spatial correlation exists among the zonal-level data, Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models with seven different spatial weight features (i.e. (a) 0-1 first order, adjacency-based, (b) common boundary-length-based, (c) geometric centroid-distance-based, (d) crash-weighted centroid-distance-based, (e) land use type, adjacency-based, (f) land use intensity, adjacency-based, and (g) geometric centroid-distance-order) were developed to characterize the spatial correlations among TAZs. Model results indicated that the geometric centroid-distance-order spatial weight feature, which was introduced in macro-level safety analysis for the first time, outperformed all the other spatial weight features. Population was used as the surrogate for pedestrian exposure, and had a positive effect on pedestrian crashes. Other significant factors included length of major arterials, length of minor arterials, road density, average intersection spacing, percentage of 3-legged intersections, and area of TAZ. Pedestrian crashes were higher in TAZs with medium land use intensity than in TAZs with low and high land use intensity. Thus, higher priority should be given to TAZs with medium land use intensity to improve pedestrian safety. Overall, these findings can help transportation planners and managers understand the characteristics of pedestrian crashes and improve pedestrian safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Public open spaces and walking for recreation: moderation by attributes of pedestrian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether attributes of pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to public open spaces (POS) and adults' recreational walking. Data were collected from participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study in 2007. Recreational walking was determined using self-reported walking frequency. Measures of POS access (presence, count, and distance to the nearest POS) were assessed using a Geographic Information System. Pedestrian environmental attributes included aesthetics, walking infrastructure, barrier/traffic, crime concern, intersection density, and access to walking trails. Regression analyses examined whether associations between POS access and recreational walking were moderated by pedestrian environmental attributes. The sample included 1574 participants (45% men, mean age: 55). POS access measures were not associated with recreational walking. However, aesthetics, walking infrastructure, and access to walking trail were found to moderate the POS-walking relationships. The presence of POS was associated with walking among participants with aesthetically pleasing pedestrian environments. Counter-intuitively, better access to POS was associated with recreational walking for those with poorer walking infrastructure or no access to walking trails. Local pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to POS and recreational walking. Our findings suggest the presence of complex relationships between POS availability and pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of older pedestrians killed in traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, C A; Rodriguez, M; Sachdev, P; Duflou, J; Waite, P M E

    2006-01-01

    Older people are over-represented in pedestrian fatalities, and it has been suggested that the presence of cognitive impairment or dementia in these individuals may contribute to their accidents. Using neuropathological methods, we aimed to compare the prevalence of dementia pathology in fatally injured older pedestrians with similarly aged ambulatory subjects who died from other causes. The brains of 52 pedestrians (65-93 years) and 52 controls (65-92 years) were assessed for neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), neuritic plaques, Lewy bodies and vascular lesions using established neuropathological criteria. The examination for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology showed that 43% of the pedestrians had NFT scores of III-VI using Braak and Braak staging, compared with 23% of the controls (p vascular dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. These results suggest that cognitive decline associated with AD, even in the earliest stages of the disease, may be a factor in fatal traffic accidents for older pedestrians. Special measures for pedestrian safety are necessary in areas with high densities of older citizens and especially for those diagnosed as having a mild cognitive impairment or AD.

  16. Pedestrian detection in far-infrared daytime images using a hierarchical codebook of SURF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besbes, Bassem; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Rus, Adela-Maria; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Broggi, Alberto

    2015-04-13

    One of the main challenges in intelligent vehicles concerns pedestrian detection for driving assistance. Recent experiments have showed that state-of-the-art descriptors provide better performances on the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum than on the visible one, even in daytime conditions, for pedestrian classification. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detector with on-board FIR camera. Our main contribution is the exploitation of the specific characteristics of FIR images to design a fast, scale-invariant and robust pedestrian detector. Our system consists of three modules, each based on speeded-up robust feature (SURF) matching. The first module allows generating regions-of-interest (ROI), since in FIR images of the pedestrian shapes may vary in large scales, but heads appear usually as light regions. ROI are detected with a high recall rate with the hierarchical codebook of SURF features located in head regions. The second module consists of pedestrian full-body classification by using SVM. This module allows one to enhance the precision with low computational cost. In the third module, we combine the mean shift algorithm with inter-frame scale-invariant SURF feature tracking to enhance the robustness of our system. The experimental evaluation shows that our system outperforms, in the FIR domain, the state-of-the-art Haar-like Adaboost-cascade, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)/linear SVM (linSVM) and MultiFtrpedestrian detectors, trained on the FIR images.

  17. Moving in Circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Gunvor

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the development of African diaspora history during the last fifty years. It outlines the move from a focus on African survivals to a focus on deep rooted cultural principles and back again to a revived interest in concrete cultural transfers from Africa to the Americas. This ...

  18. Avoiding moving obstacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aivar, M.P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    To successfully move our hand to a target, we must consider how to get there without hitting surrounding objects. In a dynamic environment this involves being able to respond quickly when our relationship with surrounding objects changes. People adjust their hand movements with a latency of about

  19. And Still They Moved

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. And Still they Moved - An Important Statement about some Rock Masses. Ramesh Chander. General Article Volume 3 Issue 10 October 1998 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Making Images That Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The history of the moving image (the cinema) is well documented in books and on the Internet. This article offers a number of activities that can easily be carried out in a science class. They make use of the phenomenon of "Persistence of Vision." The activities presented herein demonstrate the functionality of the phenakistoscope, the…

  1. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  2. California's Endangered Belding's Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi: Tolerance of Pedestrian Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fernández-Juricic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt marshes constitute habitat islands for many endemic animal species, particularly along the California coast, where urban sprawl has fragmented this habitat. Recreational activities in salt marshes have increased recently, posing an interesting problem: how do endemic species lacking alternative habitat modify their tolerance to humans? We assessed seasonal and site variations in three tolerance parameters (distances at which animals became alert, fled, and moved after fleeing of California's endangered Belding's Savannah Sparrow ((Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi. We approached individuals on trails in three salt marshes with different levels of vehicle and pedestrian traffic. Belding's Savannah Sparrows became aware and fled at shorter distances in the salt marsh coincident with greater levels of recreational activity as a result of habituation or visual obstruction effects. Seasonal effects in tolerance varied between sites. Alert and flight initiation distances were higher in the pre-nesting than in the non-breeding season in the site with the highest levels of recreational use likely due to greater exposure of breeding individuals; however, the opposite seasonal trend was found in each of the two sites with relatively lower human use, probably because individuals were less spatially attached in the non-breeding season when they foraged in aggregations. Distance fled was greater in the non-breeding than in the breeding season. Our findings call for dynamic management of recreational activities in different salt marshes depending on the degree of exposure to humans and seasonal variations in tolerance. We recommend a minimum approaching distance of 63 m and buffer areas of 1.3 ha around Belding's Savannah Sparrows.

  3. Time-dependent spectral analysis of interactions within groups of walking pedestrians and vertical structural motion using wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, M.; Brownjohn, J. M. W.; Racic, V.; Hester, D.; Quattrone, A.; Gilbert, L.; Beasley, R.

    2018-05-01

    A multi-scale and multi-object interaction phenomena can arise when a group of walking pedestrians crosses a structure capable of exhibiting dynamic response. This is because each pedestrian is an autonomous dynamic system capable of displaying intricate behaviour affected by social, psychological, biomechanical and environmental factors, including adaptations to the structural motion. Despite a wealth of mathematical models attempting to describe and simulate coupled crowd-structure system, their applicability can generally be considered uncertain. This can be assigned to a number of assumptions made in their development and the scarcity or unavailability of data suitable for their validation, in particular those associated with pedestrian-pedestrian and pedestrian-structure interaction. To alleviate this problem, data on behaviour of individual pedestrians within groups of six walkers with different spatial arrangements are gathered simultaneously with data on dynamic structural response of a footbridge, from a series of measurements utilising wireless motion monitors. Unlike in previous studies on coordination of pedestrian behaviour, the collected data can serve as a proxy for pedestrian vertical force, which is of critical importance from the point of view of structural stability. A bivariate analysis framework is proposed and applied to these data, encompassing wavelet transform, synchronisation measures based on Shannon entropy and circular statistics. A topological pedestrian map is contrived showing the strength and directionality of between-subjects interactions. It is found that the coordination in pedestrians' vertical force depends on the spatial collocation within a group, but it is generally weak. The relationship between the bridge and pedestrian behaviour is also analysed, revealing stronger propensity for pedestrians to coordinate their force with the structural motion rather than with each other.

  4. Evaluation of pedestrian road traffic maxillofacial injuries in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladelusi, T O; Akinmoladun, I V; Olusanya, O O; Akadiri, O A; Fasola, A O

    2014-12-01

    Background: Walking is the most basic form of mobility and forms an important part of daily activities; however, walking could often be associated with risks. This is more so when pedestrians share a common space with motorized vehicles especially in developing countries. Despite the frequency of road traffic crashes (RTC) related pedestrian injuries in many developing countries, there is a dearth of documentation of maxillofacial injuries in victims of pedestrian road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the causes, frequency, pattern, severity, concomitant injuries and outcome of pedestrian maxillofacial injuries observed at a tertiary trauma centre in Nigeria. Pedestrian victims of RTC were prospectively recruited from among all maxillofacial trauma patients seen at the Accident and Emergency department and the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University College Hospital, Ibadan between April 2011 and November 2011. Ethical approval was obtained from the UI/UCH Joint Ethics Review Board before the commencement of the study and informed consent was obtained from participants. Patients' demography, the crash events, types of maxillofacial injuries, and concomitant injuries were recorded. Severity of maxillofacial injury was estimated based on the Maxillofacial Injury Severity Scale (MFISS). Forty-six participants (22.9% of all victims of road traffic crashes seen within the study period) were victims of pedestrian RTC. Pedestrian RTC occurred in all age groups with almost 40% of the victims in their 1st and 2nd decades of life. The most severe MFISS was observed in the 21 - 30 year age group while the least severe injury observed was in the 71 - 80 years age group. Thirty participants (65.2%) were hit by a car or minibus while fourteen (30.4%) were knocked down by a motorcycle. Two (4.4%) were hit by a truck. Soft tissue injury was the most common maxillofacial injury and head injury was the commonest concomitant injury

  5. Pedestrian crossing behavior, an observational study in the city of Ushuaia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poó, Fernando Martín; Ledesma, Ruben Daniel; Trujillo, Roberto

    2017-10-20

    Pedestrian crashes are a critical problem in Latin American countries. However, little research has been published about pedestrians and even less about their behaviors in a naturalistic context. The objective of the present research was to explore risky pedestrian crossing behaviors in traffic intersections in an argentine city (Ushuaia). It is focused in different stages of the crossing process, traffic code violations, and other potentially risky behaviors such as distractions. A high frequency of risky behaviors among pedestrians was expected. Moreover, according to previous findings, it was hypothesized that men and younger pedestrians would show riskier behaviors. Participants were 802 pedestrians (53.9% females) observed at several intersections (with and without traffic lights) in the city of Ushuaia. Behaviors were codified following a standardized observation protocol. Observers documented information on behavior previous to, during, and after crossing. Gender and age were also registered. Data were gathered through video recording. Frequency analyses of observed behaviors were conducted for the total sample, as well as by gender and by age group. A general crossing risk index was calculated to facilitate comparisons between the genders and age groups. We conducted an analysis of variance to evaluate gender and age differences for this index. A high proportion of risky behaviors were observed among pedestrians. The majority of pedestrian waited in the street (as opposed to on the sidewalk) before crossing, did not comply with traffic lights, or crossed outside the crosswalk. A large number of pedestrians were distracted while crossing. Men presented higher scores on risky behaviors than women. No differences were observed by age group. The high level of risk behaviors during the different stages of street crossing is worrisome and reinforces the idea that pedestrians are responsible for many of the conflicts with motorists. Many of the risky behaviors

  6. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  7. TCR moves to MCR

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Sollander, AB/OP/TI

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of CERN's technical infrastructure has moved from the Technical Control Room in building 212 to the Meyrin Control Room (MCR) in building 354 (see map) and from the TS/CSE group to AB/OP. The operation's team as well as the services provided remain the same as before and you can still reach the operator on shift by calling 72201. Peter Sollander, AB/OP/TI

  8. Luxury consumption moves East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage....

  9. Lecture - "Move! Eat better"

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    As part of the "Move! Eat better" campaign, Novae’s nutrition adviser, Irène Rolfo, will give a talk on the subject of everyday good nutrition. This will be held in the main building auditorium at 12:30 on Thursday, 20 September 2012. Don’t miss this informative event. For more information, go to http://cern.ch/bpmm            

  10. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices on the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund is now located in Offices 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the relocation.

  11. A moving experience !

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Transport Service pulled out all the stops and, more specifically, its fleet of moving and lifting equipment for the Discovery Monday on 6 June - a truly moving experience for all the visitors who took part ! Visitors could play at being machine operator, twiddling the controls of a lift truck fitted with a jib to lift a dummy magnet into a wooden mock-up of a beam-line.They had to show even greater dexterity for this game of lucky dip...CERN-style.Those with a head for heights took to the skies 20 m above ground in a telescopic boom lift.Children were allowed to climb up into the operator's cabin - this is one of the cranes used to move the LHC magnets around. Warm thanks to all members of the Transport Service for their participation, especially B. Goicoechea, T. Ilkei, R. Bihery, S. Prodon, S. Pelletier, Y. Bernard, A.  Sallot, B. Pigeard, S. Guinchard, B. Bulot, J. Berrez, Y. Grandjean, A. Bouakkaz, M. Bois, F. Stach, T. Mazzarino and S. Fumey.

  12. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  13. Explaining reduction of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

    2012-01-01

    To explain a reduction in pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005-2010. Retrospective ecological study. For 2005-2010, police data on pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes, traffic violations, and total motor vehicles (MVs) were combined with data on changes in national road traffic legislation and municipal road infrastructure. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate trends in monthly rates of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes per total MVs and estimate changes in these rates per unit changes in the safety measures. During the 6 years, the police registered 2,565 pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes: 1,597 (62%) outside crosswalks, 766 (30%) on non-signalized crosswalks, and 202 (8%) on signalized crosswalks. Crash rates outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks decreased on average by 1.1% per month, whereas the crash rate on non-signalized crosswalks remained unchanged. Numbers of signalized and non-signalized crosswalks increased by 14 and 19%, respectively. Also, 10% of non-signalized crosswalks were combined with speed humps, and 4% with light-reflecting vertical signs. Pedestrian penalties for traffic violations increased 4-fold. Driver penalties for ignoring prohibiting signal and failure to give way to pedestrian on non-signalized crosswalk increased 7- and 8-fold, respectively. The rate of total registered drivers' traffic violations per total MVs decreased on average by 0.3% per month. All studied infrastructure and legislative measures had inverse associations with the rate of crashes outside crosswalks. The rate of crashes on signalized crosswalks showed inverse associations with related monetary penalties. The introduction of infrastructure and legislative measures is the most probable explanation of the reduction of pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk. The overall reduction is due to decreases in rates of crashes outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks. No change was observed in the rate of

  14. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pedestrian-vehicle crashes and analytical techniques for stratified contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2002-03-01

    In 1999 there were 450 fatalities due to road crashes in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, of which 130 were pedestrians. Hence, every fourth person killed on the roads is a pedestrian. The aim of this study is to investigate pedestrian-vehicle crashes in this fast-growing city with two objectives in mind: to analyze pedestrian collisions with regard to their causes, characteristics, location of injury on the victim's body, and most common patterns and to determine the potential for use of the odds ratio technique in the analysis of stratified contingency tables. Data from 638 pedestrian-vehicle crashes reported by police, during the period 1997-1999, were used. A systematic sampling technique was followed in which every third record was used. The analysis showed that the pedestrian fatality rate per 10(5) population is 2.8. The rates were relatively high within the childhood (1-9 years) and young adult (10-19 years) groups, and the old-age groups (60 - > 80 years), which indicate that young as well as the elderly people in this city are more likely to be involved in fatal accidents of this type than are those in other age groups. The analysis revealed that 77.1% of pedestrians were probably struck while crossing a roadway either not in a crosswalk or where no crosswalk existed. In addition, the distribution of injuries on the victims' bodies was determined from hospital records. More than one-third of the fatal injuries were located on the head and chest. An attempt was made to conduct an association analysis between crash severity (i.e. injury or fatal) and some of the study variables using chi-square and odds ratio techniques. The categorical nature of the data helped in using these analytical techniques.

  16. Evaluating the effect of advance yield markings and symbolic signs on vehicle-pedestrian conflicts at marked midblock crosswalks across multilane roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has made walkable communities a priority. Pedestrian safety is key to the success of : this objective. Pedestrians are at high risk when traversing unsignalized, marked crosswalks located either midblock or at Tinter...

  17. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  18. Pedestrians, two-wheelers and road safety : a statistical comparison of pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider road-traffic fatalities in The Netherlands from 1968 to 1972.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Data were collected on pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider traffic fatalities from 1968 to 1972. Use is made only of statistics available. The variables that were considered were related to demographic factors (sex and age), locality characteristics, vicinity factors, other circumstances and the

  19. The Impact of Built Environment on Pedestrian Crashes and the Identification of Crash Clusters on an Urban University Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser, Sheryl

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Motor vehicle-pedestrian crash is a significant public health concern. The urban campus of Georgia State University poses unique challenges due to a large number of students and university employees. The objectives of this study are twofold: (1 to examine the correlation between specific features of the built environment on and around the University campus and pedestrian crashes; and (2 to identify crash clusters in the study area using network-based geospatial techniques.Methods: We obtained pedestrian crash data (n=119 from 2003 to 2007 from Georgia Department of Transportation and evaluated environmental features pertaining to the road infrastructure, pedestrian infrastructure and streetscape for each road segment and intersection. Prevalence rate of each feature with pedestrian crashes present was calculated. We used network-based Kernel Density Estimation to identify the high density road segments and intersections, then used network-based K-function to examine the clustering of pedestrian crashes.Results: Over 50% of the crosswalk signs, pedestrian signals, public transit, and location branding signs (more than three at intersections involved pedestrian crashes. More than half of wider streets (greater than 29 feet, two-way streets, and streets in good condition had pedestrian crashes present. Crashes occurred more frequently in road segments with strong street compactness and mixed land use present and were significantly (p<0.05 clustered in these high-density zones.Conclusions: Findings can be used to understand the correlation between built environment and pedestrian safety, to prioritize the high-density zones for intervention efforts, and to formulate research hypotheses for investigating pedestrian crashes. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 295-302.

  20. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  1. Mapping review of accessible pedestrian infrastructures for individuals with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamache, Stéphanie; Routhier, François; Morales, Ernesto; Vandersmissen, Marie-Hélène; Boucher, Normand

    2018-03-14

    Due to the ageing population and higher prevalence of individuals living with physical disabilities, there is a critical need for inclusive practices when designing accessible pedestrian infrastructures for ensuring social participation and equal opportunities. Summarize the physical characteristics of current pedestrian infrastructure design for individuals with physical disabilities (IPD - motor, visual and hearing) found in the scientific literature and assess its quality. A mapping review of the existing literature on pedestrian infrastructures specifically built for individuals with physical disabilities identifying measurable physical characteristics for their design was done using online databases (Urban Studies Abstracts, Geobase, PubMed, and Cairn and secondary research). Information about accessibility (physical characteristics) of existing pedestrian infrastructures was extracted. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the Guidelines for critical review form - Quantitative studies and Qualitative studies version 2.0 (SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA). Of the 1131 articles identified, forty-one articles examined access to bus stops, curb ramps, lighting, pedestrian crossings, ramps, shared spaces, sidewalks and steps. Six articles reported on more than one physical disability. Quality scores were generally low (quantitative: 2-11/15 and qualitative: 1-22/23). Recommended design features differed for the same infrastructure. While there were a fair number of articles (n = 41) documenting accessible design features of pedestrian infrastructures, the quality of the evidence was low. The review identified knowledge gaps. Although specific design solutions exist, they have not yet been tested among individuals with various or multiple types of physical disabilities to ensure access to pedestrian infrastructures by all. Implications for Rehabilitation Pedestrian infrastructures still pose problems to mobility, limiting social participation

  2. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Grünbaum, Thor

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can b...... be used to study the sense of movement activity, i.e., the part of SoA related to actual movement. The bulk of the chapter is an argument to the effect that standard paradigms are ill equipped to study the sense of movement activity....

  3. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices at the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund will henceforth receive you in the offices: 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the Removal.

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral interventions to improve child pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Barton, Benjamin K; Shen, Jiabin; Wells, Hayley L; Bogar, Ashley; Heath, Gretchen; McCullough, David

    2014-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries represent a pediatric public health challenge. This systematic review/meta-analysis evaluated behavioral interventions to teach children pedestrian safety. Multiple strategies derived eligible manuscripts (published before April 1, 2013, randomized design, evaluated behavioral child pedestrian safety interventions). Screening 1,951 abstracts yielded 125 full-text retrievals. 25 were retained for data extraction, and 6 were later omitted due to insufficient data. In all, 19 articles reporting 25 studies were included. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Behavioral interventions generally improve children's pedestrian safety, both immediately after training and at follow-up several months later. Quality of the evidence was low to moderate. Available evidence suggested interventions targeting dash-out prevention, crossing at parked cars, and selecting safe routes across intersections were effective. Individualized/small-group training for children was the most effective training strategy based on available evidence. Behaviorally based interventions improve children's pedestrian safety. Efforts should continue to develop creative, cost-efficient, and effective interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Modeling of pedestrian evacuation based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaochen; Chen, Jianqiao; Wei, Junhong; Guo, Xiwei

    2012-09-01

    By applying the evolutionary algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), we have developed a new pedestrian evacuation model. In the new model, we first introduce the local pedestrian’s density concept which is defined as the number of pedestrians distributed in a certain area divided by the area. Both the maximum velocity and the size of a particle (pedestrian) are supposed to be functions of the local density. An attempt to account for the impact consequence between pedestrians is also made by introducing a threshold of injury into the model. The updating rule of the model possesses heterogeneous spatial and temporal characteristics. Numerical examples demonstrate that the model is capable of simulating the typical features of evacuation captured by CA (Cellular Automata) based models. As contrast to CA-based simulations, in which the velocity (via step size) of a pedestrian in each time step is a constant value and limited in several directions, the new model is more flexible in describing pedestrians’ velocities since they are not limited in discrete values and directions according to the new updating rule.

  6. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  7. Fuzzy Logic-Based Model That Incorporates Personality Traits for Heterogeneous Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuxin Xue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most models designed to simulate pedestrian dynamical behavior are based on the assumption that human decision-making can be described using precise values. This study proposes a new pedestrian model that incorporates fuzzy logic theory into a multi-agent system to address cognitive behavior that introduces uncertainty and imprecision during decision-making. We present a concept of decision preferences to represent the intrinsic control factors of decision-making. To realize the different decision preferences of heterogeneous pedestrians, the Five-Factor (OCEAN personality model is introduced to model the psychological characteristics of individuals. Then, a fuzzy logic-based approach is adopted for mapping the relationships between the personality traits and the decision preferences. Finally, we have developed an application using our model to simulate pedestrian dynamical behavior in several normal or non-panic scenarios, including a single-exit room, a hallway with obstacles, and a narrowing passage. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated with a user study. The results show that the proposed model can generate more reasonable and heterogeneous behavior in the simulation and indicate that individual personality has a noticeable effect on pedestrian dynamical behavior.

  8. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  9. Using smartphone technology to deliver a virtual pedestrian environment: usability and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Severson, Joan; He, Yefei

    2017-09-01

    Various programs effectively teach children to cross streets more safely, but all are labor- and cost-intensive. Recent developments in mobile phone technology offer opportunity to deliver virtual reality pedestrian environments to mobile smartphone platforms. Such an environment may offer a cost- and labor-effective strategy to teach children to cross streets safely. This study evaluated usability, feasibility, and validity of a smartphone-based virtual pedestrian environment. A total of 68 adults completed 12 virtual crossings within each of two virtual pedestrian environments, one delivered by smartphone and the other a semi-immersive kiosk virtual environment. Participants completed self-report measures of perceived realism and simulator sickness experienced in each virtual environment, plus self-reported demographic and personality characteristics. All participants followed system instructions and used the smartphone-based virtual environment without difficulty. No significant simulator sickness was reported or observed. Users rated the smartphone virtual environment as highly realistic. Convergent validity was detected, with many aspects of pedestrian behavior in the smartphone-based virtual environment matching behavior in the kiosk virtual environment. Anticipated correlations between personality and kiosk virtual reality pedestrian behavior emerged for the smartphone-based system. A smartphone-based virtual environment can be usable and valid. Future research should develop and evaluate such a training system.

  10. Far-infrared pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems using scene context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong; Wu, Qingyao

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is one of the most critical but challenging components in advanced driver assistance systems. Far-infrared (FIR) images are well-suited for pedestrian detection even in a dark environment. However, most current detection approaches just focus on pedestrian patterns themselves, where robust and real-time detection cannot be well achieved. We propose a fast FIR pedestrian detection approach, called MAP-HOGLBP-T, to explicitly exploit the scene context for the driver assistance system. In MAP-HOGLBP-T, three algorithms are developed to exploit the scene contextual information from roads, vehicles, and background objects of high homogeneity, and we employ the Bayesian approach to build a classifier learner which respects the scene contextual information. We also develop a multiframe approval scheme to enhance the detection performance based on spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians. Our empirical study on real-world datasets has demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. The performance is shown to be better than that of state-of-the-art low-level feature-based approaches.

  11. Exit selection strategy in pedestrian evacuation simulation with multi-exits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Hao; Zhang Bin-Ya; Shao Chun-Fu; Xing Yan

    2014-01-01

    A mixed strategy of the exit selection in a pedestrian evacuation simulation with multi-exits is constructed by fusing the distance-based and time-based strategies through a cognitive coefficient, in order to reduce the evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of exits or pedestrian layout, to find a critical density to distinguish whether the strategy of exit selection takes effect or not, and to analyze the exit selection results with different cognitive coefficients. The strategy of exit selection is embedded in the computation of the shortest estimated distance in a dynamic parameter model, in which the concept of a jam area layer and the procedure of step-by-step expending are introduced. Simulation results indicate the characteristics of evacuation time gradually varying against cognitive coefficient and the effectiveness of reducing evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of pedestrian or exit layout. It is found that there is a critical density to distinguish whether a pedestrian jam occurs in the evacuation and whether an exit selection strategy is in effect. It is also shown that the strategy of exit selection has no effect on the evacuation process in the no-effect phase with a low density, and that evacuation time and exit selection are dependent on the cognitive coefficient and pedestrian initial density in the in-effect phase with a high density. (general)

  12. Simulating large-scale pedestrian movement using CA and event driven model: Methodology and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.

  13. Error analysis in a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for collision avoidance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Bergasa, Luis M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM) classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS) is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance.

  14. Prevalence of distracted pedestrians while crossing: a study of Malaysia’s situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Syazwan S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian’s crashes account for approximately 7% of road death in Malaysia. Even though the percentage is smaller compared to motorcycle-related crashes, amount of road crashes involving pedestrians in Malaysia is a serious concern. The objective of this study is to establish the common type of distraction for Malaysian. Crashes among pedestrians usually highly recorded at straight road followed by inter-section road type. For that, study focusing on the type of distraction among pedestrians while crossing the road by using video recording method. Two type of road were selected observational field survey – signalized and non-signalized intersection. A video recording method was used to analyse the behaviour of pedestrians crossing with or without distraction. Approximately 375 samples were observed while crossing with various type of distraction such as eating, texting, mobile phone talking and others. The study found the highest distraction type observed among pedestrians is usage of electronic equipment-mobile phone with 84.8% followed by other type of distraction – smoking and talking with more that 5%. Mobile phone distraction cause a significant effect in term of time to cross which average time to cross was 14.77 second. The overall results provide a prevalence information that is useful in the development of countermeasures aimed at improving pedestrians’ safety.

  15. Walking and child pedestrian injury: a systematic review of built environment correlates of safe walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; To, Teresa; Howard, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The child active transportation literature has focused on walking, with little attention to risk associated with increased traffic exposure. This paper reviews the literature related to built environment correlates of walking and pedestrian injury in children together, to broaden the current conceptualization of walkability to include injury prevention. Two independent searches were conducted focused on walking in children and child pedestrian injury within nine electronic databases until March, 2012. Studies were included which: 1) were quantitative 2) set in motorized countries 3) were either urban or suburban 4) investigated specific built environment risk factors 5) had outcomes of either walking in children and/or child pedestrian roadway collisions (ages 0-12). Built environment features were categorized according to those related to density, land use diversity or roadway design. Results were cross-tabulated to identify how built environment features associate with walking and injury. Fifty walking and 35 child pedestrian injury studies were identified. Only traffic calming and presence of playgrounds/recreation areas were consistently associated with more walking and less pedestrian injury. Several built environment features were associated with more walking, but with increased injury. Many features had inconsistent results or had not been investigated for either outcome. The findings emphasise the importance of incorporating safety into the conversation about creating more walkable cities.

  16. Continuum modelling of pedestrian flows - Part 2: Sensitivity analysis featuring crowd movement phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years numerous pedestrian simulation tools have been developed that can support crowd managers and government officials in their tasks. New technologies to monitor pedestrian flows are in dire need of models that allow for rapid state-estimation. Many contemporary pedestrian simulation tools model the movements of pedestrians at a microscopic level, which does not provide an exact solution. Macroscopic models capture the fundamental characteristics of the traffic state at a more aggregate level, and generally have a closed form solution which is necessary for rapid state estimation for traffic management purposes. This contribution presents a next step in the calibration and validation of the macroscopic continuum model detailed in Hoogendoorn et al. (2014). The influence of global and local route choice on the development of crowd movement phenomena, such as dissipation, lane-formation and stripe-formation, is studied. This study shows that most self-organization phenomena and behavioural trends only develop under very specific conditions, and as such can only be simulated using specific parameter sets. Moreover, all crowd movement phenomena can be reproduced by means of the continuum model using one parameter set. This study concludes that the incorporation of local route choice behaviour and the balancing of the aptitude of pedestrians with respect to their own class and other classes are both essential in the correct prediction of crowd movement dynamics.

  17. Methodology for assessing the lighting of pedestrian crossings based on light intensity parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczuk Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible preventive measures that could improve safety at crossings is to assess the state of illumination of the lighting installation located in the transition area for pedestrians. The City of Warsaw has undertaken to comprehensively assess the pedestrian crossings to determine the level of road safety and the condition of lighting. The lighting conditions related to pedestrian crossings without traffic lights in three central districts of the city were investigated. The conducted field research and the work of the team of experts lead to the development of tools to assess the level of risk due to the lighting conditions measured at night. The newly developed and used method of assessment and the experience gained should provide a valuable contribution to the development of uniform risk assessment rules for pedestrian crossings in Poland. The authors of this paper have attempted to systematize the description of the method of evaluation of the lighting installed in the area of pedestrian crossings.

  18. Multiscale model for pedestrian and infection dynamics during air travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namilae, Sirish; Derjany, Pierrot; Mubayi, Anuj; Scotch, Mathew; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we develop a multiscale model combining social-force-based pedestrian movement with a population level stochastic infection transmission dynamics framework. The model is then applied to study the infection transmission within airplanes and the transmission of the Ebola virus through casual contacts. Drastic limitations on air-travel during epidemics, such as during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, carry considerable economic and human costs. We use the computational model to evaluate the effects of passenger movement within airplanes and air-travel policies on the geospatial spread of infectious diseases. We find that boarding policy by an airline is more critical for infection propagation compared to deplaning policy. Enplaning in two sections resulted in fewer infections than the currently followed strategy with multiple zones. In addition, we found that small commercial airplanes are better than larger ones at reducing the number of new infections in a flight. Aggregated results indicate that passenger movement strategies and airplane size predicted through these network models can have significant impact on an event like the 2014 Ebola epidemic. The methodology developed here is generic and can be readily modified to incorporate the impact from the outbreak of other directly transmitted infectious diseases.

  19. Clogging arches in grains, colloids, and pedestrians flowing through constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriguel, Iker

    When a group of particles pass through a narrow orifice, the flow might become intermittent due to the development of clogs that obstruct the constriction. This effect has been observed in many different fields such as mining transport, microbial growing, crowd dynamics, colloids, granular and active matter. In this work we introduce a general framework in which research in some of such scenarios can be encompassed. In particular, we analyze the statistical properties of the bottleneck flow in different experiments and simulations: granular media within vibrated silos, colloids, a flock of sheep and pedestrian evacuations. We reveal a common phenomenology that allows us to rigorously define a transition to a clogged state. Using this definition we explore the main variables involved, which are then grouped into three generic parameters. In addition, we will present results of the geometrical characteristics that the clogging arches have which are related with their stability against perturbations. We experimentally analyse the temporal evolution of the arches evidencing important differences among the structures that are easily destroyed and those that seem to resist forever (longer than the temporal window employed in our measurements). Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Spanish Government). Project No. FIS2014-57325.

  20. An Accurate Framework for Arbitrary View Pedestrian Detection in Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Wen, G.; Qiu, S.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of detect pedestrian under from images collected under various viewpoints. This paper utilizes a novel framework called locality-constrained affine subspace coding (LASC). Firstly, the positive training samples are clustered into similar entities which represent similar viewpoint. Then Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to obtain the shared feature of each viewpoint. Finally, the samples that can be reconstructed by linear approximation using their top- k nearest shared feature with a small error are regarded as a correct detection. No negative samples are required for our method. Histograms of orientated gradient (HOG) features are used as the feature descriptors, and the sliding window scheme is adopted to detect humans in images. The proposed method exploits the sparse property of intrinsic information and the correlations among the multiple-views samples. Experimental results on the INRIA and SDL human datasets show that the proposed method achieves a higher performance than the state-of-the-art methods in form of effect and efficiency.

  1. Pedestrian visual recommendation in Kertanegara - Semeru corridor in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosalia, V. B.

    2017-06-01

    Streetscape could be the first impression to see an urban area. One of the streerscape that should be attended to it is corridor of Jl. Kertanegara - Semeru since at that corridor is the road corridor having the strong caracter also as the one of the main axes in Malang city. This research is aim knowing the visual quality also the exact structuring rcommendation for Jl. Kertanegara - Semeru based on pedestrian’s visual. The methode used to this research is Scenic Beauty Estimation (SBE) and used historic study. There is several variables used, they are scale space, visual flexibility, beauty, emphasis, balance and dominant. Based on those variable the pedestrians as a respondent doing the assessment. Based on the result of SBE have been done, it is showed that the visual quality in Corridor Kertanegara Semeru is well enough since the result showed that there are 10 photos in low visual quality in Jl. Semeru and 14 photos in high visual quality in Jl. Kertanegara, Jl. Tugu dan Jl. Kahuripan. By the historic study and based on high visual quality reference doing the structuring recommendation in part of landscape having the low visual quality.

  2. Assessing Pedestrian Accessibility to Green Space Using Gis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor MORAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at comparing the parameter of green space per capita currently requested by the Romanian legislation to accessible green space per capita. The comparison is undertaken through a Geographic Information System methodology that uses publicly available data to evaluate actual population numbers with pedestrian access to parks and green squares. Using the city of Timișoara as a case study, population is divided into three main groups according to neigh borhood type in order to investigate the urban planning implications of residential typologies in relation to green space. Two scenarios are compared, namely the existing situation which describes access to municipally-administered parks and squares and the possible situation where both existing and informal green spaces are considered. The main findings show that, at present, only a quarter of the city’s population benefits from proper access, yet by developing all residual green areas this proportion could be raised to over 40%. However, the current parameter of square meters per person requested by the Romanian legislation proves to be insufficient in indicating green space accessibility because of the uneven distribution of population and green areas across the city.

  3. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  4. Simulating bi-directional pedestrian flow in a cellular automaton model considering the body-turning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Yin, Jun-Lin; Dong, Li-Yun; Li, Dawei

    2017-09-01

    In the experiments of bi-directional pedestrian flow, it is often observed that pedestrians turn their bodies and change from walking straight to walking sideways, in order to mitigate or avoid the conflicts with opposite walking ones. When these conflicts disappear, pedestrians restore and walk straight again. In the turning states, the forward velocities of pedestrians are not affected. In order to simulate this body-turning behavior, we use a cellular automaton (CA) model named ITP model, which has been proposed before. But the occupied area of one pedestrian is set as 0.4 m∗0.2 m. After the introduction of new rules of turnings and restorations, the pedestrians become more intelligent and flexible during the lane formation process, and some improvements of the fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow can be found. The simulation results of two different scenarios under open boundary conditions are also presented, and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the new model performs much better than the original model in various tests, which further confirms the validity of the new rules. We think this approach is one useful contribution to the pedestrian flow modeling.

  5. San Francisco pedestrian injury surveillance: mapping, under-reporting, and injury severity in police and hospital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciortino, Stanley; Vassar, Mary; Radetsky, Michael; Knudson, M Margaret

    2005-11-01

    Police reports of severely injured pedestrians help identify hazardous traffic areas in San Francisco, but they under-report non-fatal collisions. We set out to: identify injured pedestrians who were missing from police collision reports, see what biases exist in injury reporting and assess the utility of broad categories of police severe injury (including fatal) for mapping and analysis. We linked data on injured pedestrians from police collision reports listed in the Statewide Integrated Traffic Reporting System (SWITRS, n = 1991) with records of pedestrians treated at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH, n = 1323) for 2000 and 2001. Data were analyzed using bivariate statistics, logistic regression and mapping. : We found that police collision reports underestimated the number of injured pedestrians by 21% (531/2442). Pedestrians treated at SFGH who were African-American were less likely then whites (odds ratio = 0.55, p-value report. Over 70% of pedestrians deemed by the police to have a severe injury received treatment at SFGH, regardless of the collision's distance from SFGH. The sensitivity of a police-designated severe injury (including fatal) was 69% and the specificity was 89% when compared with a known SFGH assessment. But, sensitivity declined when we included pedestrians without a SFGH record. Though collision reports have demonstrated limitations, broad categories of police severity may be sensitive enough to map locations where numerous severe injuries occur, for timely countermeasure selection.

  6. Factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings selected for safety inspections in the city of Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune; Sørensen, Michael W J; Nævestad, Tor-Olav

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports an analysis of factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings in the city of Oslo, Norway. The sample consists of 159 marked pedestrian crossings where a total of 316 accidents were recorded during a period of five years. The crossings were selected for inspection because of they were, for various reasons, regarded as sub-standard. The sample of crossings is therefore not representative of all pedestrian crossings in Oslo. Factors influencing the number of accidents were studied by means of negative binomial regression. Factors that were studied included the volume of pedestrians and vehicles, the number of traffic lanes at the crossing, the location of the crossing (midblock or junction), the type of traffic control, the share of pedestrians using the crossing and the speed of approaching vehicles. The analysis confirmed the presence of a "safety-in-numbers" effect, meaning that an increase in the number of pedestrians is associated with a lower risk of accident for each pedestrian. Crossings located in four-leg junctions or roundabouts had more accidents than crossings located in three-leg junctions or on sections between junctions. A high share of pedestrians crossing the road outside the marked crossing was associated with a high number of accidents. Increased speed was associated with an increased number of accidents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Street-level desires, Discovering the city on foot : Pedestrian mobility and the regeneration of the European city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, R.E.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Van der Spek, S.C.; Smit, M.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Pedestrian mobility and the regeneration of the European city centre. Cities can be chaotic and confusing places at the best of times – even for local people! Spatial Metro, a project largely funded by the EU, aims to make city visits more enjoyable for pedestrians by making cities easier to

  8. Effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort in the hot-humid area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohan; Shi, Yurong

    2017-08-01

    The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort. Street orientation has the largest contribution on SET at pedestrian level, followed by aspect ratio and greenery, while surface albedo and interactions between factors have small contributions. The street canyons oriented southeast-northwest or with a higher aspect ratio provide more shade, higher wind speed, and better thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians. Compared with the east-west-oriented street canyons, the north-south-oriented street canyons have higher MRTs and worse pedestrian thermal comfort due to their wider building spacing along the street. The effects of greenery change with the road width and the time of the day. Street canyon design is recommended to improve pedestrian thermal comfort. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort and is a useful guide on urban design for the hot-humid area of China.

  9. Aging road user, bicyclist, and pedestrian safety : effective bicycling signs and preventing left-turn crashes. [Technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is dedicated to engineering safer roadways, but safety requires engineers and planners to go beyond their usual scope to understand behavior of road users of all ages. Driving, for example, is a complex...

  10. Ready, set, move!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    This year, the CERN Medical Service is launching a new public health campaign. Advertised by the catchphrase “Move! & Eat Better”, the particular aim of the campaign is to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, of whatever kind.   The CERN annual relay race is scheduled on 24 May this year. The CERN Medical Service will officially launch its “Move! & Eat Better” campaign at this popular sporting event. “We shall be on hand on the day of the race to strongly advocate regular physical activity,” explains Rachid Belkheir, one of the Medical Service doctors. "We really want to pitch our campaign and answer any questions people may have. Above all we want to set an example. So we are going to walk the same circuit as the runners to underline to people that they can easily incorporate movement into their daily routine.” An underlying concern has prompted this campaign: during their first few year...

  11. MOVES Model Review Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FACA MOVES Review Work Group was formed under the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS), and is charged to provide input to EPA via the MSTRS and the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee on specific issues regarding MOVES development.

  12. Experiential exposure to texting and walking in virtual reality: A randomized trial to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Porter, Bryan E

    2017-05-01

    Distracted pedestrian behavior is a significant public health concern, as research suggests distracted pedestrians have significantly higher risk of injury compared to fully attentive pedestrians. Despite this, efforts to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior are scant. Using a repeated measures experimental research design, we implemented a behavioral intervention to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the high-risk environment of an urban college campus and simultaneously monitored behavior on a control urban college campus not exposed to the intervention. We had two primary aims: reduce perceived vulnerability to injury among individual pedestrians and reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the environment through a change in community-based norms. The hallmark of the behavioral intervention was a week-long opportunity for community members to experience personally the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior by attempting to cross a virtual pedestrian environment street while text-messaging. This was supplemented by traditional and social marketing and publicity through various campus partners. A sample of 219 individuals completed self-report surveys about perceived vulnerability to distracted pedestrian injury before experiencing the distracted virtual street-crossing and again after 2 weeks and 5 months. Observational assessment of distracted pedestrian behavior was conducted at a busy intersection on the campus as well as at a control campus not exposed to the intervention at baseline, post-intervention, 10 weeks, and 6 months. The intervention achieved mixed results. Individuals exposed to texting within a simulated pedestrian environment reported changes in their intentions to cross streets while distracted and in perceived vulnerability to risk while crossing streets, but we did not witness evidence of changed community norms based on observed rates of distracted pedestrian behavior before and after the intervention compared to a control campus not

  13. A BASIC STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION OF PEDESTRIAN SPACE NETWORK BY USING POINT CLOUD DATA AND DIGITAL MAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kanya; Imai, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Shigenori

    Healthy people, the realization of a service route guidance for pedestrians, including elderly and people with disabilities, needs to develop pedestrian space network data. But we need to measure a step in the pedestrian corridor. Therefore, if we are to develop the data, it takes enormous effort. On the other hand, with the advances in measurement technology, by using a 3D laser scanner, you can get wide area high-precision point cloud data. If you can generate a pedestrian space network by using point cloud data, which contribute to efficient data development. In this study devised a method for generating by combines a digital map and point cloud data, aimed at outdoor pedestrian space network data development.

  14. An M/M/c/K State-Dependent Model for Pedestrian Flow Control and Design of Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalidur Rahman

    Full Text Available Pedestrian overflow causes queuing delay and in turn, is controlled by the capacity of a facility. Flow control or blocking control takes action to avoid queues from building up to extreme values. Thus, in this paper, the problem of pedestrian flow control in open outdoor walking facilities in equilibrium condition is investigated using M/M/c/K queuing models. State dependent service rate based on speed and density relationship is utilized. The effective rate of the Poisson arrival process to the facility is determined so as there is no overflow of pedestrians. In addition, the use of the state dependent queuing models to the design of the facilities and the effect of pedestrian personal capacity on the design and the traffic congestion are discussed. The study does not validate the sustainability of adaptation of Western design codes for the pedestrian facilities in the countries like Bangladesh.

  15. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinglin; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Pan, Yun

    2015-12-05

    Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy.

  16. High pressures in room evacuation processes and a first approach to the dynamics around unconscious pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornes, F. E.; Frank, G. A.; Dorso, C. O.

    2017-10-01

    Clogging raises as the principal phenomenon during many evacuation processes of pedestrians in an emergency situation. As people push to escape from danger, compression forces may increase to harming levels. Many individuals might fall down, while others will try to dodge the fallen people, or, simply pass through them. We studied the dynamics of the crowd for these situations, in the context of the "social force model". We modeled the unconscious (fallen) pedestrians as inanimate bodies that can be dodged (or not) by the surrounding individuals. We found that new morphological structures appear along the evacuating crowd. Under specific conditions, these structures may enhance the evacuation performance. The pedestrian's willings for either dodging or passing through the unconscious individuals play a relevant role in the overall evacuation performance.

  17. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  18. What moves us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen på Museum Jorn - What moves us? Le Corbusier & Asger Jorn - 12. sept. - 13. dec. 2015. Kataloget undersøger Le Corbusiers skifte fra en rationelt funderet tilgang til arkitekturen til en poetisk, materialistisk tilgang i efterkrigstiden. Den viser hans indflydelse på den...... yngre Asger Jorn og beskriver danskerens første beundring, som sidenhen forvandledes til skarp kritik. Kataloget, som er rigt illustreret med billeder af Le Corbusiers og Asger Jorns kunst og arkitektur, indeholder også genoptryk af originale tekster, samt bidrag i ord og billeder fra fremtrædende...... eksperter. Kataloget indeholder en række artikler af internationale skribenter under flg. overskrifter: Le Corbusier - kunstnerarkitekten i efterkrigstidens Europa Le Corbusier og Asger Jorn - David mod Goliat Gensyn med Le Corbusier - spor i dansk arkitektur og byrum...

  19. Moving Beyond Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu

    In this article I discuss the Indian outsourcing phenomena and ask the question now what? Using data from the Euro-India project I demonstrate that a small but significant part of the Indian IT entities are moving beyond outsourcing, to co-creation where Innovation and the desire to create new...... markets is the key driver. This does not imply that outsourcing will disappear but it does mean that firms will engage in globalization using innovative mix of business models and technical platforms. We discuss the implication of this slow transformation to co-creation of innovation for the global...... outsourcing industry. The key thesis of this paper is to discuss co-creation as a form of innovation and how such a form of innovation is likely to bring Indian companies rich dividends....

  20. Move! Eat better: news

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Are you curious to know whether you’re doing enough daily exercise…? Test yourself with a pedometer!   Through the Move! Eat better campaign, launched in May 2012, the CERN medical service is aiming to improve the health of members of the personnel by encouraging them to prioritise physical activity in conjunction with a balanced diet. Various successful activities have already taken place: relay race/Nordic walk, Bike2work, Zumba and fitness workshops, two conferences (“Physical activity for health” and “Good nutrition every day”), events in the restaurants, as well as posters and a website. Although everyone has got the message from our various communications that physical activity is good for your health, there is still a relevant question being asked: “What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended?” 10,000 steps per day is the ideal figure, which has been demonstrated as beneficial by scientific studies ...

  1. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  2. Red light walking, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    registration, 72+53 interviewed persons, and what will be extracted from the literature review. Based on the collected data, it will be studied, if the share of red light walking will be reduced. Also, the transportation time including any waiting time will be calculated for the two periods. Furthermore......, the attitude and experiences with this traffic signals will be measured. It is the hypotheses that red light walking will be reduced and that the overall transportation time for pedestrians will be reduced due to a more applicable and dynamic traffic signal system. Likewise, it is expected that the pedestrian...

  3. Preferences and behaviour of pedestrians and cyclists by age and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Carstensen, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    Preferences and behaviour of older pedestrians and cyclists (women and men, 70 years and above) in cities were studied by means of a questionnaire, and was compared to a group of people aged 40–49. The older respondents appreciate pedestrian crossings, signalized intersections and cycle paths....... Differences in preferences and behaviour within the group of older respondents can be related to differences in health and physical abilities rather that to differences in age and gender. The older road users seem to be more influenced by the fact that an action is illegal than the younger road users are...

  4. Burden of traffic accidents among pedestrians of Fars province, southern Iran; estimate of years of life lost in a sample of Iranian population from 2009 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Sarikhani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Traffic injuries are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Pedestrians have been considered as a high-risk group among road users, especially in middle- or low-income communities. This study attempted to determine the burden of pedestrians' fatalities in Fars, the southern province of Iran using years of life lost (YLL approach. Methods: The data used in this study were retrieved from Fars Forensic Medicine Organization database on pedestrian traffic accidents. The YLL from 2009 to 2013 was estimated using the method presented by World Health organization. Some epidemiological characteristics of pedestrians' fatalities were analyzed by SPSS. Results: Although YLL among 1000 male pedestrians decreased from 2.5 in 2009 to 1.5 in 2013, it increased from 0.9 to 2.1 among 1000 females during the same period. Higher proportion of death was found in female, illiterate, and married pedestrians (p < 0.001. In addition, mortality was higher in pedestrians living the cities, during daytime, at home, and in hospitals (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Consistent with the global trends, burden of pedestrian accidents in Fars was also exceptionally high. Considering the national and cultural aspects of different countries, improving the safety of pedestrians demands a multi-dimensional approach with interventional factors concerning policies, rules, pedestrians, motor vehicles and environmental conditions taken into consideration. Keywords: Accidents, traffic, Pedestrians, Burden of disease, Years of potential life lost

  5. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-03-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  6. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  7. Move and eat better

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN has many traditions, but in a week that’s seen the launch of the Medical Service’s  ‘Move & eat better’ campaign, it’s refreshing to note that among the oldest is a sporting one.  The CERN relay race dates back to 15 October 1971 when 21 pioneering teams set off to pound the pavements of CERN. Back then, the Focus users group came in first with a time of 12 minutes and 42 seconds. Today’s route is slightly different, and the number of teams has risen to over 100, with a new category of Nordic Walking introduced, as part of the campaign, for the first time.   The relay has provided some memorable events, and perhaps one of the longest-standing records in the history of sport, with the UA1 strollers’ 10 minutes and 13 seconds unbeaten for thirty years. In the women’s category, the UN Gazelles set the fastest time of 13 minutes and 16 seconds in 1996, while in the veterans category, you wi...

  8. Exploring the mechanisms of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian head injuries caused by ground impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sha; Li, Jiani; Xu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In pedestrian-vehicle accidents, pedestrians typically suffer from secondary impact with the ground after the primary contact with vehicles. However, information about the fundamental mechanism of pedestrian head injury from ground impact remains minimal, thereby hindering further improvement in pedestrian safety. This study addresses this issue by using multi-body modeling and computation to investigate the influence of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian safety. Accordingly, a simulation matrix is constructed to vary bonnet leading-edge height, bonnet length, bonnet angle, and windshield angle. Subsequently, a set of 315 pedestrian-vehicle crash simulations are conducted using the multi-body simulation software MADYMO. Three vehicle velocities, i.e., 20, 30, and 40km/h, are set as the scenarios. Results show that the top governing factor is bonnet leading-edge height. The posture and head injury at the instant of head ground impact vary dramatically with increasing height because of the significant rise of the body bending point and the movement of the collision point. The bonnet angle is the second dominant factor that affects head-ground injury, followed by bonnet length and windshield angle. The results may elucidate one of the critical barriers to understanding head injury caused by ground impact and provide a solid theoretical guideline for considering pedestrian safety in vehicle design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  10. Hand Preference and Skill in 115 Children of Two Left-Handed Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Marian

    1983-01-01

    Studied hand skill and performance in children (N=115) of left-handed parents using peg moving tasks and soccer kicks. Concluded that being raised by two left-handed parents does little to hinder the expression of the rs plus gene. Correlations for handedness in families depend more on genetics than experience. (Author/JAC)

  11. Identification and Prediction of Large Pedestrian Flow in Urban Areas Based on a Hybrid Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, population density has grown quickly with the increasing acceleration of urbanization. At the same time, overcrowded situations are more likely to occur in populous urban areas, increasing the risk of accidents. This paper proposes a synthetic approach to recognize and identify the large pedestrian flow. In particular, a hybrid pedestrian flow detection model was constructed by analyzing real data from major mobile phone operators in China, including information from smartphones and base stations (BS. With the hybrid model, the Log Distance Path Loss (LDPL model was used to estimate the pedestrian density from raw network data, and retrieve information with the Gaussian Progress (GP through supervised learning. Temporal-spatial prediction of the pedestrian data was carried out with Machine Learning (ML approaches. Finally, a case study of a real Central Business District (CBD scenario in Shanghai, China using records of millions of cell phone users was conducted. The results showed that the new approach significantly increases the utility and capacity of the mobile network. A more reasonable overcrowding detection and alert system can be developed to improve safety in subway lines and other hotspot landmark areas, such as the Bundle, People’s Square or Disneyland, where a large passenger flow generally exists.

  12. The effect of traffic calming on pedestrian injuries and motor vehicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Motor vehicle collisions and pedestrian injuries in areas where schools are located are public health problems in Durban. Objective. To evaluate the effect of traffic calming humps on the number and severity of incidences of collisions and injuries in the Chatsworth and KwaMashu residential areas of the ...

  13. The impact of vehicle appearance and vehicle behavior on pedestrian interaction with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Martens, M.H.; Eggen, J.H.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study that aims to investigate the role of an approaching vehicle's behavior and outer appearance in determining pedestrians' decisions while crossing a street. Concerning appearance, some vehicles are designed to look more assertive than

  14. The Impact of Vehicle Appearance and Vehicle Behavior on Pedestrian Interaction with Autonomous Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, Debargha; Martens, Marieke; Eggen, Berry; Terken, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study that aims to investigate the role of an approaching vehicle's behavior and outer appearance in determining pedestrians' decisions while crossing a street. Concerning appearance, some vehicles are designed to look more assertive than

  15. Smart Pedestrian Crossing Management at Traffic Light Junctions through a Fuzzy-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, numerous research efforts have been conducted to merge the Internet of Things (IoT with smart city environments. The goal to make a city “smart” is arising as a possible solution to lessen the issues caused by the urban population growth and fast urbanization. Attention also has focused on the pedestrian crossings because they are one of the most dangerous places in the transport field. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT can undoubtedly be an excellent support in developing infrastructures that can best manage pedestrian crossing. For this reason, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic-based solution able to manage dynamically the traffic lights’ phases in signalized pedestrian crossings. The proposed approach provides the possibility to change the phases of the traffic light taking into account the time of the day and the number of pedestrians about to cross the road. The paper presents a thorough description of the fuzzy logic controller configuration, an in-depth analysis of the application scenario and simulative assessments obtained through Vissim simulations.

  16. Activity classification and dead reckoning for pedestrian navigation with wearable sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zuolei; Mao, Xuchu; Tian, Weifeng; Zhang, Xiangfen

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses an approach which integrates activity classification and dead reckoning techniques in step-based pedestrian navigation. In the proposed method, the pedestrian is equipped with a prototype wearable sensor module to record accelerations and determine the headings while walking. To improve the step detection accuracy, different types of activities are classified according to extracted features by means of a probabilistic neural network (PNN). The vertical acceleration data, which indicate the periodic vibration during gait cycle are filtered through a wavelet transform before being used to count the steps and assess the step length from which the distance traveled is estimated. By coupling the distance with the azimuth, navigation through pedestrian dead reckoning is implemented. This research provides a possible seamless pedestrian navigation solution which can be applied to a wide range of areas where the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal remains vulnerable. Results of two experiments in this paper reveal that the proposed approach is effective in reducing navigation errors and improving accuracy.

  17. A Novel Kalman Filter with State Constraint Approach for the Integration of Multiple Pedestrian Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Lan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous solutions/methods to solve the existing problems of pedestrian navigation/localization have been proposed in the last decade by both industrial and academic researchers. However, to date there are still major challenges for a single pedestrian navigation system (PNS to operate continuously, robustly, and seamlessly in all indoor and outdoor environments. In this paper, a novel method for pedestrian navigation approach to fuse the information from two separate PNSs is proposed. When both systems are used at the same time by a specific user, a nonlinear inequality constraint between the two systems’ navigation estimates always exists. Through exploring this constraint information, a novel filtering technique named Kalman filter with state constraint is used to diminish the positioning errors of both systems. The proposed method was tested by fusing the navigation information from two different PNSs, one is the foot-mounted inertial navigation system (INS mechanization-based system, the other PNS is a navigation device that is mounted on the user’s upper body, and adopting the pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR mechanization for navigation update. Monte Carlo simulations and real field experiments show that the proposed method for the integration of multiple PNSs could improve each PNS’ navigation performance.

  18. PedCut: an iterative framework for pedestrian segmentation combining shape models and multiple data cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohr, F.; Gavrila, D.M.; Burghardt, T.; Damen, D.; Mayol-Cuevas, W.; Mirmehdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative, EM-like framework for accurate pedestrian segmentation, combining generative shape models and multiple data cues. In the E-step, shape priors are introduced in the unary terms of a Conditional Random Field (CRF) formulation, joining other data terms derived from

  19. Influence of the Built Environment on Pedestrian Route Choices of Adolescent Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Merlin, Louis; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of the built environment on pedestrian route selection among adolescent girls. Portable global positioning system units, accelerometers, and travel diaries were used to identify the origin, destination, and walking routes of girls in San Diego, California, and Minneapoli...

  20. The impact of pedestrian activity on soil annelids in urban greens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Schlaghamerský, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, Suppl. 1 (2007), S68-S71 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * enchytraeids * pedestrian activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2007

  1. New pedestrian facilities : technique, observations and opinions : the Dutch experiment. DRIVE project V1061 : pussycats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.M.B.

    1993-01-01

    This report is the Dutch part of an international (French-British-Dutch) evaluation study of new pedestrian crossing facilities, summarized under the name 'PUSSYCATS' (See also IRRD 859331). 'PUSSYCATS' is a new system, characterized by technical improvements better adapted to the behaviour and

  2. The effect of an overpass on pedestrian injuries on a major highway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bigger proportion of females (49.1%) crossed on the overpass compared to males (29.2%). More children (79.7 %) than adults (27.3%) used the overpass. The majority of pedestrians (77.9%) were worried about their safety in traffic but only 6.6% thought of the overpass as an appropriate means to avoid traffic accidents.

  3. Improving cities for pedestrians : Making the historic city centre of Delft car-free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Spek, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    City centres are changing. More and more do they compete with suburban centres or other cities. Jan Gehl has proven that making historic cities car-free AND improving the conditions for pedestrians is a vital strategy (Hoeven et al, 2008). Since 2000 the City of Delft is implementing car-free zones

  4. EEVC test methods to evaluate pedestrian protection afforded by passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    In 1987 the European Experimental Vehicles Committee (EEVC) has set up a Working Group 10 with the task to improve an existing proposal for an EC Directive with respect to pedestrian protection and to coordinate the necessary research. This Working Group finalized its activities in 1994. This paper

  5. High-level fusion of depth and intensity for pedestrian classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrbach, M.; Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to pedestrian classification which involves a high-level fusion of depth and intensity cues. Instead of utilizing depth information only in a pre-processing step, we propose to extract discriminative spatial features (gradient orientation histograms and local

  6. Classroom Activities in School Bus and Pedestrian Safety Education. Bulletin No. 93138.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Transportation, Madison.

    School bus and related pedestrian safety education is prevention-oriented so that students will learn how to avoid bus-related accidents. This manual provides lesson plans emphasizing the school bus stop, loading and unloading zones, emergency evacuation drills, and appropriate behavior on the school bus. The guide also recognizes demographic…

  7. Evaluation of a "Smart" Pedestrian Counting System Based on Echo State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poigné Axel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have designed an inexpensive intelligent pedestrian counting system. The pedestrian counting system consists of several counters that can be connected together in a distributed fashion and communicate over the wireless channel. The motion pattern is recorded using a set of passive infrared (PIR sensors. Each counter has one wireless sensor node that processes the PIR sensor data and transmits it to a base station. Then echo state network, a special kind of recurrent neural network, is used to predict the pedestrian count from the input pattern. The evaluation of the performance of such networks in a novel kind of application is one focus of this work. The counter gave a performance of 80.4% which is better than the commercially available low-priced pedestrian counters. The article reports the experiments we did for analyzing the counterperformance and lists the strengths and limitations of the current implementation. It will also report the preliminary test results obtained by substituting the PIR sensors with low-cost active IR distance sensors which can improve the counter performance further.

  8. Traffic flow behavior at un-signalized intersection with crossings pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, A.; Echab, H.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Lakouari, N.

    2018-02-01

    Mixed traffic flux composed of crossing pedestrians and vehicles extensively exists in cities. To study the characteristics of the interference traffic flux, we develop a pedestrian-vehicle cellular automata model to present the interaction behaviors on a simple cross road. By realizing the fundamental parameters (i.e. injecting rates α1, α2, the extracting rate β and the pedestrian arrival rate αP), simulations are carried out. The vehicular traffic flux is calculated in terms of rates. The effect of the crosswalk can be regarded as a dynamic impurity. The system phase diagrams in the (α1 ,αP) plane are built. It is found that the phase diagrams consist essentially of four phases namely Free Flow, Congested, Maximal Current and Gridlock. The value of the Maximal current phase depends on the extracting rate β, while the Gridlock phase is achieved only when the pedestrians generating rate is higher than a critical value. Furthermore, the effect of vehicles changing lane (Pch1 ,Pch2) and the location of the crosswalk XP on the dynamic characteristics of vehicles flow are investigated. It is found that traffic situation in the system is slightly enhanced if the location of the crosswalks XP is far from the intersection. However, when Pch1, Pch2 increase, the traffic becomes congested and the Gridlock phase enlarges.

  9. Boundary Induced Phase Transition in Cellular Automata Models of Pedestrian Flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukáček, M.; Hrabák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2016), s. 327-338 ISSN 1557-5969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive time-span * Cellular automata model * Floor-field * Pedestrian flow * Phase transition * Principle of bonds Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2016

  10. Pedestrian-Vehicle Accidents Reconstruction with PC-Crash®: Sensibility Analysis of Factors Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Gala, F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the main findings of a study performed by INSIA-UPM about the improvement of the reconstruction process of real world vehicle-pedestrian accidents using PC-Crash® software, aimed to develop a software tool for the estimation of the variability of the collision speed due to the lack of real values of some parameters required during the reconstruction task. The methodology has been based on a sensibility analysis of the factors variation. A total of 9 factors have been analyzed with the objective of identifying which ones were significant. Four of them (pedestrian height, collision angle, hood height and pedestrian-road friction coefficient) were significant and were included in a full factorial experiment with the collision speed as an additional factor in order to obtain a regression model with up to third level interactions. Two different factorial experiments with the same structure have been performed because of pedestrian gender differences. The tool has been created as a collision speed predictor based on the regression models obtained, using the 4 significant factors and the projection distance measured or estimated in the accident site. The tool has been used on the analysis of real-world reconstructed accidents occurred in the city of Madrid (Spain). The results have been adequate in most cases with less than 10% of deviation between the predicted speed and the one estimated in the reconstructions. (Author)

  11. Pedestrian fatality and natural light: Evidence from South Africa using a Bayesian approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available the presence of any other lighting intervention. In South Africa, for a large proportion (60%) walking is a primary means of transport, with about 45% of all deaths on South African roads being pedestrian. Such reports call for attention to be devoted...

  12. Visualising pedestrian flow using PGS tracking to improve inner city quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langelaar, T.; Van der Spek, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Every environment has its own characteristics and people react individually to that structure; in an interactive, passive or avoiding way. This paper focuses on pedestrian movement in the city centre of Delft, the Netherlands. It is dedicated to find new and exciting ways of improving city centres

  13. [A spatially explicit analysis of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and cyclists in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Tobia

    2017-12-01

    In many German cities and counties, sustainable mobility concepts that strengthen pedestrian and cyclist traffic are promoted. From the perspectives of urban development, traffic planning and public healthcare, a spatially differentiated analysis of traffic accident data is decisive. 1) The identification of spatial and temporal patterns of the distribution of accidents involving cyclists and pedestrians, 2) the identification of hotspots and exploration of possible underlying causes and 3) the critical discussion of benefits and challenges of the results and the derivation of conclusions. Spatio-temporal distributions of data from accident statistics in Berlin involving pedestrians and cyclists from 2011 to 2015 were analysed with geographic information systems (GIS). While the total number of accidents remains relatively stable for pedestrian and cyclist accidents, the spatial distribution analysis shows, however, that there are significant spatial clusters (hotspots) of traffic accidents with a strong concentration in the inner city area. In a critical discussion, the benefits of geographic concepts are identified, such as spatially explicit health data (in this case traffic accident data), the importance of the integration of other data sources for the evaluation of the health impact of areas (traffic accident statistics of the police), and the possibilities and limitations of spatial-temporal data analysis (spatial point-density analyses) for the derivation of decision-supported recommendations and for the evaluation of policy measures of health prevention and of health-relevant urban development.

  14. The Usage and Perception of Pedestrian Zones in Lithuanian Cities: Multiple Criteria and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Dičiūnaitė-Rauktienė

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As pedestrian zones are public spaces in urban areas, they are important in terms of meeting people’s needs. However, it is worth noting that attention should be paid not only to the development of the physical infrastructure, but also to a sustainable balance between the socio-economic and environmental aspects. To guide urban planning and management initiatives towards more sustainable patterns, it is essential to re-examine the already existing characteristics of cities, establishing how they are used and perceived by inhabitants. The present research suggests environmental, economic and social criteria that determine a greater vitality of pedestrian zones in cities and better life quality for the inhabitants. A questionnaire survey was used to assess common attitudes regarding the research topic in major cities in Lithuania. The multiple criteria decision-making COPRAS (COmplex PRoportional ASsessment method was used for the formation of a priority queue. The research results showed the attitudes of inhabitants towards pedestrian zones in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The inhabitants of these three cities regarded social and environmental criteria groups as the most significant. Contrary to what was expected and anticipated, respondents do not consider economic criteria as playing a key role in the sustainable preservation and development of pedestrian zones.

  15. The effects of peer influence on adolescent pedestrian road-crossing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, K; Hunter, E

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a high-risk period for pedestrian injury. It is also a time of heightened susceptibility to peer influence. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of peer influence on the pedestrian road-crossing decisions of adolescents. Using 10 videos of road-crossing sites, 80 16- to 18-year-olds were asked to make pedestrian road-crossing decisions. Participants were assigned to one of 4 experimental conditions: negative peer (influencing unsafe decisions), positive peer (influencing cautious decisions), silent peer (who observed but did not comment), and no peer (the participant completed the task alone). Peers from the adolescent's own friendship group were recruited to influence either an unsafe or a cautious decision. Statistically significant differences were found between peer conditions. Participants least often identified safe road-crossing sites when accompanied by a negative peer and more frequently identified dangerous road-crossing sites when accompanied by a positive peer. Both cautious and unsafe comments from a peer influenced adolescent pedestrians' decisions. These findings showed that road-crossing decisions of adolescents were influenced by both unsafe and cautious comments from their peers. The discussion highlighted the role that peers can play in both increasing and reducing adolescent risk-taking.

  16. Posture estimation for improved photogrammetric localization of pedestrians in monocular infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundegorski, Mikolaj E.; Breckon, Toby P.

    2015-10-01

    Target tracking complexity within conventional video imagery can be fundamentally attributed to the ambiguity associated with actual 3D scene position of a given tracked object in relation to its observed position in 2D image space. Recent work, within thermal-band infrared imagery, has tackled this challenge head on by returning to classical photogrammetry as a means of recovering the true 3D position of pedestrian targets. A key limitation in such approaches is the assumption of posture - that the observed pedestrian is at full height stance within the scene. Whilst prior work has shown the effects of statistical height variation to be negligible, variations in the posture of the target may still pose a significant source of potential error. Here we present a method that addresses this issue via the use of Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression based pedestrian posture estimation operating on Histogram of Orientated Gradient (HOG) feature descriptors. Within an existing tracking framework, we demonstrate improved target localization that is independent of variations in target posture (i.e. behaviour) and within the statistical error bounds of prior work for pedestrian height posture varying from 0.4-2.4m over a distance to target range of 7-30m.

  17. Surrogate Safety Analysis of Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflict at Intersections Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures (SSMs has become an efficient approach to investigate safety issues. The state-of-the-art studies largely resort to video images taken from high buildings. However, it suffers from heavy labor work, high cost of maintenance, and even security restrictions. Data collection and processing remains a common challenge to traffic conflict analysis. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, known for easy maneuvering, outstanding flexibility, and low costs, are considered to be a novel aerial sensor. By taking full advantage of the bird’s eye view offered by UAV, this study, as a pioneer work, applied UAV videos for surrogate safety analysis of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at one urban intersection in Beijing, China. Aerial video sequences for a period of one hour were analyzed. The detection and tracking systems for vehicle and pedestrian trajectory data extraction were developed, respectively. Two SSMs, that is, Postencroachment Time (PET and Relative Time to Collision (RTTC, were employed to represent how spatially and temporally close the pedestrian-vehicle conflict is to a collision. The results of analysis showed a high exposure of pedestrians to traffic conflict both inside and outside the crosswalk and relatively risking behavior of right-turn vehicles around the corner. The findings demonstrate that UAV can support intersection safety analysis in an accurate and cost-effective way.

  18. 76 FR 44663 - Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... are: The Departments of Commerce, Defense, Education, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban... accessibility standards for military facilities; and the Department of Housing and Urban Development is... crossings at roundabouts, including requirements for detectable edge treatments where pedestrian crossing is...

  19. Efficient pedestrian detection from aerial vehicles with object proposals and deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems grow in numbers, pedestrian detection from aerial platforms is becoming a topic of increasing importance. By providing greater contextual information and a reduced potential for occlusion, the aerial vantage point provided by Unmanned Aerial Systems is highly advantageous for many surveillance applications, such as target detection, tracking, and action recognition. However, due to the greater distance between the camera and scene, targets of interest in aerial imagery are generally smaller and have less detail. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN's) have demonstrated excellent object classification performance and in this paper we adopt them to the problem of pedestrian detection from aerial platforms. We train a CNN with five layers consisting of three convolution-pooling layers and two fully connected layers. We also address the computational inefficiencies of the sliding window method for object detection. In the sliding window configuration, a very large number of candidate patches are generated from each frame, while only a small number of them contain pedestrians. We utilize the Edge Box object proposal generation method to screen candidate patches based on an "objectness" criterion, so that only regions that are likely to contain objects are processed. This method significantly reduces the number of image patches processed by the neural network and makes our classification method very efficient. The resulting two-stage system is a good candidate for real-time implementation onboard modern aerial vehicles. Furthermore, testing on three datasets confirmed that our system offers high detection accuracy for terrestrial pedestrian detection in aerial imagery.

  20. Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted IMU and Portable Ultrasound Range Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girard, G.; Cote, S.; Zlatanova, S.; Barette, Y.; St-Pierre, J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Many solutions have been proposed for indoor pedestrian navigation. Some rely on pre-installed sensor networks, which offer good accuracy but are limited to areas that have been prepared for that purpose, thus requiring an expensive and possibly time-consuming process. Such methods are therefore

  1. Determinants of pedestrian and bicyclist crash severity by party at fault in San Francisco, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salon, Deborah; McIntyre, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Pedestrian and bicyclist safety is of growing concern, especially given the increasing numbers of urban residents choosing to walk and bike. Sharing the roads with automobiles, these road users are particularly vulnerable. An intuitive conceptual model is proposed of the determinants of injury severity in crashes between vehicles and nonmotorized road users. Using 10 years of crash data from San Francisco, CA, we estimate logistic regression models to illuminate key determinants of crash severity for both pedestrian and bicyclist collisions. The analyses are separated by party at fault to test the novel hypothesis that environmental factors affecting driver speed and reaction time may be especially important when the driver is not at fault. Pedestrian results are broadly consistent with prior research, and offer considerable support for this hypothesis. The strongest predictors of injury severity include pedestrian advanced age, driver sobriety, vehicle type, and a set of variables that help determine driver speed and reaction time. Bicyclist results were weaker overall, and the distinction by party at fault was less important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and implementation of pedestrian and bicycle-specific data collection methods in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Although there is a growing need to access accurate and reliable pedestrian and bicycle data, there is no : statewide system to collect data or plan future data collection efforts in the state of Oregon. To address : these issues this research conduc...

  3. Using a bicycle-pedestrian count to assess active living in downtown Wilkes-Barre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schasberger, Michele G; Raczkowski, Jessica; Newman, Lawrence; Polgar, Michael F

    2012-11-01

    Downtown Wilkes-Barre, a town of 40,000 residents in Northeast Pennsylvania, and the hub of a planned urban, suburban, and rural trail network, was the site of a number of changes to improve walkability during the Active Living by Design (ALbD) grant period. The Wyoming Valley Wellness Trails Partnership and Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business and Industry initiated the Wilkes-Barre Downtown Bicycle and Pedestrian Count (Bike-Ped Count) in order to pilot bicycle and pedestrian counting methods and to evaluate downtown built environment and policy changes. The Bike-Ped Count was conducted during nine 2-hour counting periods over 4 days in September using screen-line count methods at seven locations downtown and at River Common Park. During 18 hours of counting, staff noted 15,347 pedestrians and 773 bicyclists. The largest average number of pedestrians (512) was observed during lunch hours, whereas the largest numbers of bicyclists were observed during evening and weekend hours. The Bike-Ped Count illustrates patterns of bicycling and walking downtown and allows comparisons of bicycling and walking among locations, including different cities. In the future, counts will help show how ongoing changes to the downtown environment affect walking and bicycling. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conservation laws with a non-local flow application to pedestrian traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lécureux-Mercier Magali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we introduce some models of pedestrian traffic and prove existence and uniqueness of solutions for these models. On présente ici différents modèles de trafic piéton et on prouve l’existence et l’unicité des solutions pour ces modèles.

  5. is the pedestrian an endagered group of road users? a descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with fractures and dislocations of the extremities and spine injuries were included. We excluded patients with isolated trauma to the head, chest and abdomen. We also ... data were excluded from the analysis. The study was ... There is need to educate pedestrians on essentials of safety on the roads. Motorists.

  6. Survey about pedestrian safety and attitudes toward automated traffic enforcement in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Wells, Joann K; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrians represent more than one third of all traffic deaths in Washington, D.C. The District plans to expand its long-standing automated traffic enforcement program in 2013 from speed and red light cameras to cameras to enforce pedestrian right-of-way laws at crosswalks and stop sign laws. This study collected information on the opinions, behaviors, and knowledge of D.C. residents related to camera enforcement and pedestrian safety issues. A telephone survey of 801 adult D.C. residents was conducted in November 2012 with approximately equal numbers of respondents in each of D.C.'s eight wards. Quotas were used to ensure that the sample was representative of the demographic characteristics of adults in each ward. For analyses combining responses across the wards, data were weighted to correspond with the demographic characteristics of adults in the city. Most respondents believed that drivers speeding, running red lights, running stop signs, and not stopping for pedestrians are serious threats to their safety. Respondents strongly supported the speed and red light camera programs, with 76 percent of respondents favoring speed cameras and 87 percent favoring red light cameras. Support was more limited for the camera enforcement that was not yet in place at the time of the survey, with 50 percent of respondents favoring stop sign cameras and 47 percent of respondents favoring crosswalk cameras. Twenty-four percent of respondents had not driven a car in D.C. in the past month, and higher proportions of these nondrivers favored speed cameras (90%), stop sign cameras (67%), and crosswalk cameras (59%) than respondents who drove in D.C. in the past month. Respondents who supported camera enforcement cited safety as their main reason. More than 9 in 10 respondents knew that D.C. law requires drivers to stop for pedestrians crossing the street in marked crosswalks at intersections without traffic signals and midblock, but only 54 percent knew that drivers must stop for

  7. Assessment of Integrated Pedestrian Protection Systems with Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) and Passive Safety Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mervyn; Nathanson, Andrew; Carroll, Jolyon; Wisch, Marcus; Zander, Oliver; Lubbe, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems fitted to cars for pedestrians have been predicted to offer substantial benefit. On this basis, consumer rating programs-for example, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP)-are developing rating schemes to encourage fitment of these systems. One of the questions that needs to be answered to do this fully is how the assessment of the speed reduction offered by the AEB is integrated with the current assessment of the passive safety for mitigation of pedestrian injury. Ideally, this should be done on a benefit-related basis. The objective of this research was to develop a benefit-based methodology for assessment of integrated pedestrian protection systems with AEB and passive safety components. The method should include weighting procedures to ensure that it represents injury patterns from accident data and replicates an independently estimated benefit of AEB. A methodology has been developed to calculate the expected societal cost of pedestrian injuries, assuming that all pedestrians in the target population (i.e., pedestrians impacted by the front of a passenger car) are impacted by the car being assessed, taking into account the impact speed reduction offered by the car's AEB (if fitted) and the passive safety protection offered by the car's frontal structure. For rating purposes, the cost for the assessed car is normalized by comparing it to the cost calculated for a reference car. The speed reductions measured in AEB tests are used to determine the speed at which each pedestrian in the target population will be impacted. Injury probabilities for each impact are then calculated using the results from Euro NCAP pedestrian impactor tests and injury risk curves. These injury probabilities are converted into cost using "harm"-type costs for the body regions tested. These costs are weighted and summed. Weighting factors were determined using accident data from Germany and Great Britain and an independently

  8. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-25

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  9. A pedestrian approach to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughn, Stephen; Reginatto, Marcel

    2013-09-01

    The quantum theory of measurement has been a matter of debate for over eighty years. Most of the discussion has focused on theoretical issues with the consequence that other aspects (such as the operational prescriptions that are an integral part of experimental physics) have been largely ignored. This has undoubtedly exacerbated attempts to find a solution to the "measurement problem". How the measurement problem is defined depends to some extent on how the theoretical concepts introduced by the theory are interpreted. In this paper, we fully embrace the minimalist statistical (ensemble) interpretation of quantum mechanics espoused by Einstein, Ballentine, and others. According to this interpretation, the quantum state description applies only to a statistical ensemble of similarly prepared systems rather than representing an individual system. Thus, the statistical interpretation obviates the need to entertain reduction of the state vector, one of the primary dilemmas of the measurement problem. The other major aspect of the measurement problem, the necessity of describing measurements in terms of classical concepts that lay outside of quantum theory, remains. A consistent formalism for interacting quantum and classical systems, like the one based on ensembles on configuration space that we refer to in this paper, might seem to eliminate this facet of the measurement problem; however, we argue that the ultimate interface with experiments is described by operational prescriptions and not in terms of the concepts of classical theory. There is no doubt that attempts to address the measurement problem have yielded important advances in fundamental physics; however, it is also very clear that the measurement problem is still far from being resolved. The pedestrian approach presented here suggests that this state of affairs is in part the result of searching for a theoretical/mathematical solution to what is fundamentally an experimental/observational question. It

  10. The advocacy for pedestrian safety study: cluster randomised trial evaluating a political advocacy approach to reduce pedestrian injuries in deprived communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan A Lyons

    Full Text Available To determine whether advocacy targeted at local politicians leads to action to reduce the risk of pedestrian injury in deprived areas.Cluster randomised controlled trial.239 electoral wards in 57 local authorities in England and Wales.617 elected local politicians.Intervention group politicians were provided with tailored information packs, including maps of casualty sites, numbers injured and a synopsis of effective interventions.25-30 months post intervention, primary outcomes included: electoral ward level: percentage of road traffic calmed; proportion with new interventions; school level: percentage with 20 mph zones, Safe Routes to School, pedestrian training or road safety education; politician level: percentage lobbying for safety measures. Secondary outcomes included politicians' interest and involvement in injury prevention, and facilitators and barriers to implementation.PRIMARY OUTCOMES DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFER: % difference in traffic calming (0.07, 95%CI: -0.07 to 0.20; proportion of schools with 20 mph zones (RR 1.47, 95%CI: 0.93 to 2.32, Safe Routes to School (RR 1.34, 95%CI: 0.83 to 2.17, pedestrian training (RR 1.23, 95%CI: 0.95 to 1.61 or other safety education (RR 1.16, 95%CI: 0.97 to 1.39. Intervention group politicians reported greater interest in child injury prevention (RR 1.09, 95%CI 1.03 to 1.16, belief in potential to help prevent injuries (RR 1.36, 95%CI 1.16 to 1.61, particularly pedestrian safety (RR 1.55, 95%CI 1.19 to 2.03. 63% of intervention politicians reported supporting new pedestrian safety schemes. The majority found the advocacy information surprising, interesting, effectively presented, and could identify suitable local interventions.This study demonstrates the feasibility of an innovative approach to translational public health by targeting local politicians in a randomised controlled trial. The intervention package was positively viewed and raised interest but changes in interventions were not

  11. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  12. Moving Object Detection in Heterogeneous Conditions in Embedded Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Alessandro; Quer, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a system for moving object exposure, focusing on pedestrian detection, in external, unfriendly, and heterogeneous environments. The system manipulates and accurately merges information coming from subsequent video frames, making small computational efforts in each single frame. Its main characterizing feature is to combine several well-known movement detection and tracking techniques, and to orchestrate them in a smart way to obtain good results in diversified scenarios. It uses dynamically adjusted thresholds to characterize different regions of interest, and it also adopts techniques to efficiently track movements, and detect and correct false positives. Accuracy and reliability mainly depend on the overall receipt, i.e., on how the software system is designed and implemented, on how the different algorithmic phases communicate information and collaborate with each other, and on how concurrency is organized. The application is specifically designed to work with inexpensive hardware devices, such as off-the-shelf video cameras and small embedded computational units, eventually forming an intelligent urban grid. As a matter of fact, the major contribution of the paper is the presentation of a tool for real-time applications in embedded devices with finite computational (time and memory) resources. We run experimental results on several video sequences (both home-made and publicly available), showing the robustness and accuracy of the overall detection strategy. Comparisons with state-of-the-art strategies show that our application has similar tracking accuracy but much higher frame-per-second rates.

  13. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  14. Image-Based Localization Aided Indoor Pedestrian Trajectory Estimation Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Xianwei; Chen, Ruizhi; Xiong, Hanjiang; Guo, Sheng

    2018-01-17

    Accurately determining pedestrian location in indoor environments using consumer smartphones is a significant step in the development of ubiquitous localization services. Many different map-matching methods have been combined with pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) to achieve low-cost and bias-free pedestrian tracking. However, this works only in areas with dense map constraints and the error accumulates in open areas. In order to achieve reliable localization without map constraints, an improved image-based localization aided pedestrian trajectory estimation method is proposed in this paper. The image-based localization recovers the pose of the camera from the 2D-3D correspondences between the 2D image positions and the 3D points of the scene model, previously reconstructed by a structure-from-motion (SfM) pipeline. This enables us to determine the initial location and eliminate the accumulative error of PDR when an image is successfully registered. However, the image is not always registered since the traditional 2D-to-3D matching rejects more and more correct matches when the scene becomes large. We thus adopt a robust image registration strategy that recovers initially unregistered images by integrating 3D-to-2D search. In the process, the visibility and co-visibility information is adopted to improve the efficiency when searching for the correspondences from both sides. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated through several experiments and the results demonstrate that it can offer highly acceptable pedestrian localization results in long-term tracking, with an error of only 0.56 m, without the need for dedicated infrastructures.

  15. Image-Based Localization Aided Indoor Pedestrian Trajectory Estimation Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately determining pedestrian location in indoor environments using consumer smartphones is a significant step in the development of ubiquitous localization services. Many different map-matching methods have been combined with pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR to achieve low-cost and bias-free pedestrian tracking. However, this works only in areas with dense map constraints and the error accumulates in open areas. In order to achieve reliable localization without map constraints, an improved image-based localization aided pedestrian trajectory estimation method is proposed in this paper. The image-based localization recovers the pose of the camera from the 2D-3D correspondences between the 2D image positions and the 3D points of the scene model, previously reconstructed by a structure-from-motion (SfM pipeline. This enables us to determine the initial location and eliminate the accumulative error of PDR when an image is successfully registered. However, the image is not always registered since the traditional 2D-to-3D matching rejects more and more correct matches when the scene becomes large. We thus adopt a robust image registration strategy that recovers initially unregistered images by integrating 3D-to-2D search. In the process, the visibility and co-visibility information is adopted to improve the efficiency when searching for the correspondences from both sides. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated through several experiments and the results demonstrate that it can offer highly acceptable pedestrian localization results in long-term tracking, with an error of only 0.56 m, without the need for dedicated infrastructures.

  16. Traffic signatures in suspended dust at pedestrian levels in semiarid zones: Implications for human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; González-Grijalva, Belem; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; Coimbra, Rute; Ochoa-Landin, Lucas; Moreno-Rodríguez, Verónica

    2016-08-01

    Deeper knowledge on dust suspension processes along semiarid zones is critical for understanding potential impacts on human health. Hermosillo city, located in the heart of the Sonoran Desert was chosen to evaluate such impacts. A one-year survey of Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) was conducted at two different heights (pedestrian and rooftop level). The minimum values of TSPM were reported during monsoon season and winter. Maximum values showed a bimodal distribution, with major peaks associated with increase and decrease of temperature, as well as decreasing humidity. Concentrations of TSPM were significantly exceeded at pedestrian level (∼44% of analyzed days) when compared to roof level (∼18% of analyzed days). Metal concentrations of As, Pb, Cu, Sb, Be, Mg, Ni, and Co were higher at pedestrian level than at roof level. Pixel counting and interpretations based on scanning electron microscopy of dust filters showed a higher percentage of fine particulate fractions at pedestrian level. These fractions occur mainly as metal-enriched agglomerates resembling coarser particles. According to worldwide guidelines, particulate matter sampling should be conducted by monitoring particle sizes equal and inferior to PM10. However, this work suggests that such procedures may compromise risk assessment in semiarid environments, where coarse particles act as main carriers for emergent contaminants related to traffic. This effect is especially concerning at pedestrian level, leading to an underestimation of potential impacts of human exposure. This study brings forward novel aspects that are of relevance for those concerned with dust suspension processes across semiarid regions and related impact on human health.

  17. Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Traffic Patterns Based on Pedestrian Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S.; Schindler, T.; Klinger, T.; Brenner, C.

    2016-06-01

    For driver assistance and autonomous driving systems, it is essential to predict the behaviour of other traffic participants. Usually, standard filter approaches are used to this end, however, in many cases, these are not sufficient. For example, pedestrians are able to change their speed or direction instantly. Also, there may be not enough observation data to determine the state of an object reliably, e.g. in case of occlusions. In those cases, it is very useful if a prior model exists, which suggests certain outcomes. For example, it is useful to know that pedestrians are usually crossing the road at a certain location and at certain times. This information can then be stored in a map which then can be used as a prior in scene analysis, or in practical terms to reduce the speed of a vehicle in advance in order to minimize critical situations. In this paper, we present an approach to derive such a spatio-temporal map automatically from the observed behaviour of traffic participants in everyday traffic situations. In our experiments, we use one stationary camera to observe a complex junction, where cars, public transportation and pedestrians interact. We concentrate on the pedestrians trajectories to map traffic patterns. In the first step, we extract trajectory segments from the video data. These segments are then clustered in order to derive a spatial model of the scene, in terms of a spatially embedded graph. In the second step, we analyse the temporal patterns of pedestrian movement on this graph. We are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as the timetables of nearby public transportation. To evaluate our approach, we used a 4 hour video sequence. We show that we are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as time tables of nearby public transportation.

  18. Evaluation of users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities using pair-wise comparison approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainol, R; Ahmad, F; Nordin, N A; Aripin, A W M

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities

  19. Are normally sighted, visually impaired, and blind pedestrians accurate and reliable at making street crossing decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Shirin E

    2012-05-04

    The purpose of this study is to measure the accuracy and reliability of normally sighted, visually impaired, and blind pedestrians at making street crossing decisions using visual and/or auditory information. Using a 5-point rating scale, safety ratings for vehicular gaps of different durations were measured along a two-lane street of one-way traffic without a traffic signal. Safety ratings were collected from 12 normally sighted, 10 visually impaired, and 10 blind subjects for eight different gap times under three sensory conditions: (1) visual plus auditory information, (2) visual information only, and (3) auditory information only. Accuracy and reliability in street crossing decision-making were calculated for each subject under each sensory condition. We found that normally sighted and visually impaired pedestrians were accurate and reliable in their street crossing decision-making ability when using either vision plus hearing or vision only (P > 0.05). Under the hearing only condition, all subjects were reliable (P > 0.05) but inaccurate with their street crossing decisions (P visually impaired subjects (P = 0.019), blind subjects were the least accurate with their street crossing decisions under the hearing only condition. Our data suggested that visually impaired pedestrians can make accurate and reliable street crossing decisions like those of normally sighted pedestrians. When using auditory information only, all subjects significantly overestimated the vehicular gap time. Our finding that blind pedestrians performed significantly worse than either the normally sighted or visually impaired subjects under the hearing only condition suggested that they may benefit from training to improve their detection ability and/or interpretation of vehicular gap times.

  20. ANALYSIS OF SPATIO-TEMPORAL TRAFFIC PATTERNS BASED ON PEDESTRIAN TRAJECTORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Busch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For driver assistance and autonomous driving systems, it is essential to predict the behaviour of other traffic participants. Usually, standard filter approaches are used to this end, however, in many cases, these are not sufficient. For example, pedestrians are able to change their speed or direction instantly. Also, there may be not enough observation data to determine the state of an object reliably, e.g. in case of occlusions. In those cases, it is very useful if a prior model exists, which suggests certain outcomes. For example, it is useful to know that pedestrians are usually crossing the road at a certain location and at certain times. This information can then be stored in a map which then can be used as a prior in scene analysis, or in practical terms to reduce the speed of a vehicle in advance in order to minimize critical situations. In this paper, we present an approach to derive such a spatio-temporal map automatically from the observed behaviour of traffic participants in everyday traffic situations. In our experiments, we use one stationary camera to observe a complex junction, where cars, public transportation and pedestrians interact. We concentrate on the pedestrians trajectories to map traffic patterns. In the first step, we extract trajectory segments from the video data. These segments are then clustered in order to derive a spatial model of the scene, in terms of a spatially embedded graph. In the second step, we analyse the temporal patterns of pedestrian movement on this graph. We are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as the timetables of nearby public transportation. To evaluate our approach, we used a 4 hour video sequence. We show that we are able to derive traffic light sequences as well as time tables of nearby public transportation.

  1. Collective phenomena in crowds—Where pedestrian dynamics need social psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This article is on collective phenomena in pedestrian dynamics during the assembling and dispersal of gatherings. To date pedestrian dynamics have been primarily studied in the natural and engineering sciences. Pedestrians are analyzed and modeled as driven particles revealing self-organizing phenomena and complex transport characteristics. However, pedestrians in crowds also behave as living beings according to stimulus-response mechanisms or act as human subjects on the basis of social norms, social identities or strategies. To show where pedestrian dynamics need social psychology in addition to the natural sciences we propose the application of three categories–phenomena, behavior and action. They permit a clear discrimination between situations in which minimal models from the natural sciences are appropriate and those in which sociological and psychological concepts are needed. To demonstrate the necessity of this framework, an experiment in which a large group of people (n = 270) enters a concert hall through two different spatial barrier structures is analyzed. These two structures correspond to everyday situations such as boarding trains and access to immigration desks. Methods from the natural and social sciences are applied. Firstly, physical measurements show the influence of the spatial structure on the dynamics of the entrance procedure. Density, waiting time and speed of progress show large variations. Secondly, a questionnaire study (n = 60) reveals how people perceive and evaluate these entrance situations. Markedly different expectations, social norms and strategies are associated with the two spatial structures. The results from the questionnaire study do not always conform to objective physical measures, indicating the limitations of models which are based on objective physical measures alone and which neglect subjective perspectives. PMID:28591142

  2. Collective phenomena in crowds-Where pedestrian dynamics need social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieben, Anna; Schumann, Jette; Seyfried, Armin

    2017-01-01

    This article is on collective phenomena in pedestrian dynamics during the assembling and dispersal of gatherings. To date pedestrian dynamics have been primarily studied in the natural and engineering sciences. Pedestrians are analyzed and modeled as driven particles revealing self-organizing phenomena and complex transport characteristics. However, pedestrians in crowds also behave as living beings according to stimulus-response mechanisms or act as human subjects on the basis of social norms, social identities or strategies. To show where pedestrian dynamics need social psychology in addition to the natural sciences we propose the application of three categories-phenomena, behavior and action. They permit a clear discrimination between situations in which minimal models from the natural sciences are appropriate and those in which sociological and psychological concepts are needed. To demonstrate the necessity of this framework, an experiment in which a large group of people (n = 270) enters a concert hall through two different spatial barrier structures is analyzed. These two structures correspond to everyday situations such as boarding trains and access to immigration desks. Methods from the natural and social sciences are applied. Firstly, physical measurements show the influence of the spatial structure on the dynamics of the entrance procedure. Density, waiting time and speed of progress show large variations. Secondly, a questionnaire study (n = 60) reveals how people perceive and evaluate these entrance situations. Markedly different expectations, social norms and strategies are associated with the two spatial structures. The results from the questionnaire study do not always conform to objective physical measures, indicating the limitations of models which are based on objective physical measures alone and which neglect subjective perspectives.

  3. Evaluating Smartphone-Based Virtual Reality to Improve Chinese Schoolchildren's Pedestrian Safety: A Nonrandomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Wu, Yue; Li, Peng; Severson, Joan; He, Yefei; Xiang, Henry; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-12-05

    This nonrandomized trial evaluated whether classroom-based training in a smartphone-based virtual reality (VR) pedestrian environment (a) teaches schoolchildren to cross streets safely, and (b) increases their self-efficacy for street-crossing. Fifty-six children, aged 8-10 years, attending primary school in Changsha, China participated. Baseline pedestrian safety assessment occurred in the VR environment and through unobtrusive observation of a subsample crossing a street for 11 days outside school. Self-efficacy was assessed through both self-report and observation. Following baseline, children engaged in the VR for 12 days in their classrooms, honing complex cognitive-perceptual skills required to engage safely in traffic. Follow-up assessment replicated baseline. Probability of crash in the VR decreased posttraining (0.40 vs. 0.09), and observational data found the odds of looking at oncoming traffic while crossing the first lane of traffic increased (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4). Self-efficacy increases occurred in self-report (proportional OR = 4.7 crossing busy streets) and observation of following crossing-guard signals (OR = 0.2, first lane). Pedestrian safety training via smartphone-based VR provides children the repeated practice needed to learn the complex skills required to cross streets safely, and also helps them improve self-efficacy to cross streets. Given rapid motorization and global smartphone penetration, plus epidemiological findings that about 75,000 children die annually worldwide in pedestrian crashes, smartphone-based VR could supplement existing policy and prevention efforts to improve global child pedestrian safety.

  4. Grasping and hitting moving objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, W.D.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Some experimental evidence suggests that grasping should be regarded as independent control of the thumb and the index finger (digit control hypothesis). To investigate this further, we compared how the tips of the thumb and the index finger moved in space when grasping spheres to how they moved

  5. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...

  6. Quantum strategies in moving frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jianchuan; Wang Anmin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate quantum strategies in moving frames by considering Prisoners' Dilemma and propose four thresholds of γ for two players to determine their Nash Equilibria. We find that the relativistic operations could enhance or diminish the quantum features of the game for different players who move in different directions relative to the arbiter

  7. Quantum strategies in moving frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Jianchuan [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: tanjc@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Wang Anmin [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: anmwang@ustc.edu.cn

    2009-02-16

    We investigate quantum strategies in moving frames by considering Prisoners' Dilemma and propose four thresholds of {gamma} for two players to determine their Nash Equilibria. We find that the relativistic operations could enhance or diminish the quantum features of the game for different players who move in different directions relative to the arbiter.

  8. Crowd of individuals walking in opposite directions. A toy model to study the segregation of the group into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsztein, Guillermo H.

    2017-08-01

    Consider a corridor, street or bridge crowded with pedestrians walking in both directions. The individuals do not walk in a completely straight line. They adjust their path to avoid colliding with incoming pedestrians. As a result of these adjustments, the whole group sometimes end up split into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction. While this formation of lanes facilitates the flow and benefits the whole group, it is believed that results from the actions of the individuals acting only on their behalf, without considering others. This phenomenon is an example of self-organization. We analyze a simple model. We assume that individuals move around a two-lane circular track. All of them at the same speed. Half of them in one direction and the rest in the opposite direction. Each time two individuals collide, one of them moves to the other lane. The individual changing lanes is selected randomly. The system self-organizes. Eventually each lane is occupied with individuals moving in only one direction. We show that the time required for the system to self-organize is bounded by a linear function on the number of individuals. This toy model provides an example where global self-organization occurs even though each member of the group acts without considering the rest.

  9. Radiation by moving charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2017-04-01

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between &apos

  10. Examining the design and developmental factors associated with crashes involving pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    "Using a parcel-level database of crash incidence and urban form developed for the San Antonio-Bexar : County metropolitan region, this study examined how urban form-related variables affect the incidence of : crashes involving pedestrians, bicyclist...

  11. Identifying Characteristics of High Risk Intersections for Pedestrians and Cyclists : A Case Study from Salt Lake County

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    While the transportation network is meant to accommodate a variety of transportation modes, the experience varies for the users of each mode. For example; an automobile, cyclist, transit rider, and pedestrian will all have a very different experience...

  12. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Crashes involving transit vehicles, bicyclists, and pedestrians are a concern in Texas, especially in urban areas. This research explored the potential of automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) technology to reduce or eliminate these crashes. The pr...

  13. Development of decision support tools to assess pedestrian and bicycle safety : focus on population, demographic and socio-economic spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Despite the increase of these non-motorized trips, bicyclists and pedestrians remain vulnerable road users that are often over represented in traffic crashes. While the currently used methods that identify hazardous locations serve their purpose well...

  14. Usability and Feasibility of an Internet-Based Virtual Pedestrian Environment to Teach Children to Cross Streets Safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Severson, Joan

    2014-03-01

    Child pedestrian injury is a preventable global health challenge. Successful training efforts focused on child behavior, including individualized streetside training and training in large virtual pedestrian environments, are laborious and expensive. This study considers the usability and feasibility of a virtual pedestrian environment "game" application to teach children safe street-crossing behavior via the internet, a medium that could be broadly disseminated at low cost. Ten 7- and 8-year-old children participated. They engaged in an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment and completed a brief assessment survey. Researchers rated children's behavior while engaged in the game. Both self-report and researcher observations indicated the internet-based system was readily used by the children without adult support. The youth understood how to engage in the system and used it independently and attentively. The program also was feasible. It provided multiple measures of pedestrian safety that could be used for research or training purposes. Finally, the program was rated by children as engaging and educational. Researcher ratings suggested children used the program with minimal fidgeting or boredom. The pilot test suggests an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment offers a usable, feasible, engaging, and educational environment for child pedestrian safety training. If future research finds children learn the cognitive and perceptual skills needed to cross streets safely within it, internet-based training may provide a low-cost medium to broadly disseminate child pedestrian safety training. The concept may be generalized to other domains of health-related functioning such as teen driving safety, adolescent sexual risk-taking, and adolescent substance use.

  15. Child pedestrian injury rates: the importance of "exposure to risk" relating to socioeconomic and ethnic differences, in Auckland, New Zealand.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, I; Norton, R; Taua, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine how child pedestrian exposure to risk, as measured by the mean number of streets crossed, varies according to indices of material disadvantage and ethnic group. DESIGN: A questionnaire on pedestrian exposure to risk was distributed to children for completion by parents and return to school. Children from 40 schools were selected using a probability cluster design. SETTING: The Auckland region of New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Questionnaires were distributed to 3388 pupils ...

  16. The advocacy in action study a cluster randomized controlled trial to reduce pedestrian injuries in deprived communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, R A; Towner, E; Christie, N; Kendrick, D; Jones, S J; Hayes, M; Kimberlee, R; Sarvotham, T; Macey, S; Brussoni, M; Sleney, J; Coupland, C; Phillips, C

    2008-04-01

    Road traffic-related injury is a major global public health problem. In most countries, pedestrian injuries occur predominantly to the poorest in society. A number of evaluated interventions are effective in reducing these injuries. Very little research has been carried out into the distribution and determinants of the uptake of these interventions. Previous research has shown an association between local political influence and the distribution of traffic calming after adjustment for historical crash patterns. This led to the hypothesis that advocacy could be used to increase local politicians knowledge of pedestrian injury risk and effective interventions, ultimately resulting in improved pedestrian safety. To design an intervention to improve the uptake of pedestrian safety measures in deprived communities. Electoral wards in deprived areas of England and Wales with a poor record of pedestrian safety for children and older adults. Design mixedmethods study, incorporating a cluster randomized controlled trial. Data mixture of Geographical Information Systems data collision locations, road safety interventions, telephone interviews, and questionnaires. Randomization 239 electoral wards clustered within 57 local authorities. Participants 615 politicians representing intervention and control wards. Intervention a package of tailored information including maps of pedestrian injuries was designed for intervention politicians, and a general information pack for controls. Primary outcome number of road safety interventions 25 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes politicians interest and involvement in injury prevention cost of interventions. Process evaluation use of advocacy pack, facilitators and barriers to involvement, and success.

  17. Impacts of Pedestrians on Capacity and Delay of Major Street Through Traffic at Two-Way Stop-Controlled Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to estimate the impacts of pedestrians on capacity and average control delay for the major street through traffic at two-way stop-controlled (TWSC intersections. A procedure was proposed to estimate the expected delay for major street through vehicles based on the pedestrian arrival time and motorist yielding behavior. Field data were collected to calibrate the crucial parameters in the established models. The proposed models were then validated against field measured data. It was found that the calibrated models provided reasonable delay estimates. Based on the established models, sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify the effects of pedestrian arrival rate and motorist yield rate on the capacity of the major street through lanes at TWSC intersections. The results suggested that the capacity of the through movement would decrease with an increase in the pedestrian arrival rate. It was also found that, with the same pedestrian arrival rate, the capacity would decrease as the motorist yield rate became higher, and the magnitude of the capacity reduction would increase with an increase in the pedestrian arrival rate.

  18. The effect of road network patterns on pedestrian safety: A zone-based Bayesian spatial modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Xu, Pengpeng; Pei, Xin; Wong, S C; Yao, Danya

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian safety is increasingly recognized as a major public health concern. Extensive safety studies have been conducted to examine the influence of multiple variables on the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle crashes. However, the explicit relationship between pedestrian safety and road network characteristics remains unknown. This study particularly focused on the role of different road network patterns on the occurrence of crashes involving pedestrians. A global integration index via space syntax was introduced to quantify the topological structures of road networks. The Bayesian Poisson-lognormal (PLN) models with conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior were then developed via three different proximity structures: contiguity, geometry-centroid distance, and road network connectivity. The models were also compared with the PLN counterpart without spatial correlation effects. The analysis was based on a comprehensive crash dataset from 131 selected traffic analysis zones in Hong Kong. The results indicated that higher global integration was associated with more pedestrian-vehicle crashes; the irregular pattern network was proved to be safest in terms of pedestrian crash occurrences, whereas the grid pattern was the least safe; the CAR model with a neighborhood structure based on road network connectivity was found to outperform in model goodness-of-fit, implying the importance of accurately accounting for spatial correlation when modeling spatially aggregated crash data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Train Schedule on Pedestrian Movement on Stairway at Suburban Rail Transit Station in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jiten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian flow takes place in confined environment on stairways under the influence of composition, direction of movement, and schedule of trains. During peak-period, alighting and boarding rate is quite high resulting in very high pedestrian movement from one platform to the other to catch the next train at interchange stations. The transfer of passengers from railway platforms through common undivided stairways becomes difficult, uncomfortable, and unsafe at times when pedestrian flow reaches the capacity level. Understanding of criteria defining quality of flow that affect the effectiveness of facilities like stairways in handling the pedestrian traffic is vital for planning and designing of such facilities to ensure the desired level of service as well as safety in case of emergency. The present paper is based on the study of pedestrian movement on stairways at busy suburban rail transit interchange station at Dadar in Mumbai, India. Pedestrian movements are captured through videography at two stairways and the effect of bidirectional movement on average walking speed is analyzed. The ascending flow in small proportion is found to be more influential in causing speed reduction on undivided stairways. The outcome of the study is useful for capacity and level of service analysis while planning and designing the transit station stairways.

  20. Underground pedestrian routes as an option for arranging the transfer from one type of public transport to another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, O.

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the issues of pedestrian movements within cities and focuses on the architectural and planning organization of transfer between two types of public transport. The amount of time citizens lose on the pedestrian sections of their way from home to work were analyzed. The article describes factors that influence the speed and the comfort of pedestrian movements as well as provides rationalization for connecting two types of transport in the underground space. The article also touches upon the issue of the negative cost impact caused by excessive time losses, including the ones that appear on the pedestrian sections of the route. Architectural methods that may ease a pedestrian’s psychological adaptation to the underground space are listed in the article. The results of experimental designing that prove the reduction of the travel time by forming underground pedestrian ways in cities were described. The article features the model of a multi-functional underground space under Serpukhovskaya Zastava square in Moscow. It is noted that pedestrian routes in the cities which do not allow easy movement on the above-the-surface space provide comfortable movement for the citizens.