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Sample records for left medial frontal

  1. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

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    Bin Gao

    Full Text Available Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  2. The Sport Expert's Attention Superiority on Skill-related Scene Dynamic by The Activation of Left Medial Frontal Gyrus: An ERP and LORETA Study.

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    He, Mengyang; Qi, Changzhu; Lu, Yang; Song, Amanda; Hayat, Saba Z; Xu, Xia

    2018-03-07

    Extensive studies have shown that a sports expert is superior to a sports novice in visually perceptual-cognitive processes of sports scene information, however the attentional and neural basis of it has not been thoroughly explored. The present study examined whether a sport expert has the attentional superiority on scene information relevant to his/her sport skill, and explored what factor drives this superiority. To address this problem, EEGs were recorded as participants passively viewed sport scenes (tennis vs. non-tennis) and negative emotional faces in the context of a visual attention task, where the pictures of sport scenes or of negative emotional faces randomly followed the pictures with overlapping sport scenes and negative emotional faces. ERP results showed that for experts, the evoked potential of attentional competition elicited by the overlap of tennis scene was significantly larger than that evoked by the overlap of non-tennis scene, while this effect was absent for novices. The LORETA showed that the experts' left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) cortex was significantly more active as compared to the right MFG when processing the overlap of tennis scene, but the lateralization effect was not significant in novices. Those results indicate that experts have attentional superiority on skill-related scene information, despite intruding the scene through negative emotional faces that are prone to cause negativity bias towards their visual field as a strong distractor. This superiority is actuated by the activation of left MFG cortex and probably due to self-reference. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

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    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  4. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

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    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  5. Reversed Procrastination by Focal Disruption of Medial Frontal Cortex.

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    Jha, Ashwani; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; McEvoy, Andrew W; Nachev, Parashkev

    2016-11-07

    An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]. Although the medial frontal cortex exhibits a sensitivity to reaction time on functional imaging that is consistent with such a mechanism [12-14], direct evidence from disruptive studies has hitherto been lacking. If movement-generating and movement-delaying neural substrates are closely co-localized here, a large-scale lesion will inevitably mask any acceleration, for the movement itself could be disrupted. Circumventing this problem, here we observed focal intracranial electrical disruption of the medial frontal wall in the context of the pre-surgical evaluation of two patients with epilepsy temporarily reversing such hypothesized procrastination. Effector-specific behavioral acceleration, time-locked to the period of electrical disruption, occurred exclusively at a specific locus at the ventral border of the pre-supplementary motor area. A cardinal prediction of race models of voluntary action is thereby substantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of chemical stimulation of the medial frontal lobe on the micturition reflex in rats.

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    Nishijima, Saori; Sugaya, Kimio; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the influence of the medial frontal lobe on micturition after chemical stimulation. We also examined the relation between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation, which has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition. A total of 35 female rats underwent continuous cystometry. Bladder activity changes were examined after physiological saline, glutamate, the glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801, noradrenaline or the adrenergic α-1 receptor antagonist naftopidil was injected in the medial frontal lobe. When glutamate was injected in the medial frontal lobe, MK-801 was also injected in the rostral pontine reticular formation. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe prolonged the interval between bladder contractions while injection of the glutamate antagonist MK-801 shortened the interval. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe just after MK-801 injection in the ipsilateral rostral pontine reticular formation also prolonged the interval between bladder contractions. However, after prior injection of MK-801 in the bilateral rostral pontine reticular formation glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe did not influence cystometric parameters. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened the interval between bladder contractions while injection of its antagonist naftopidil prolonged the interval. Medial frontal lobe neurons excited by glutamate inhibited the micturition reflex via activation of the rostral pontine reticular formation by glutamatergic projection while medial frontal lobe neurons excited by noradrenaline facilitated the micturition reflex. Thus, the medial frontal lobe may be an important integration center for the initiation of micturition and urine storage mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered Medial Frontal Feedback Learning Signals in Anorexia Nervosa.

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    Bernardoni, Fabio; Geisler, Daniel; King, Joseph A; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Ritschel, Franziska; Murr, Julia; Reiter, Andrea M F; Rössner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N; Kiebel, Stefan; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In their relentless pursuit of thinness, individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in maladaptive behaviors (restrictive food choices and overexercising) that may originate in altered decision making and learning. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we employed computational modeling to elucidate the neural correlates of feedback learning and value-based decision making in 36 female patients with AN and 36 age-matched healthy volunteers (12-24 years). Participants performed a decision task that required adaptation to changing reward contingencies. Data were analyzed within a hierarchical Gaussian filter model that captures interindividual variability in learning under uncertainty. Behaviorally, patients displayed an increased learning rate specifically after punishments. At the neural level, hemodynamic correlates for the learning rate, expected value, and prediction error did not differ between the groups. However, activity in the posterior medial frontal cortex was elevated in AN following punishment. Our findings suggest that the neural underpinning of feedback learning is selectively altered for punishment in AN. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human medial frontal cortex activity predicts learning from errors.

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    Hester, Robert; Barre, Natalie; Murphy, Kevin; Silk, Tim J; Mattingley, Jason B

    2008-08-01

    Learning from errors is a critical feature of human cognition. It underlies our ability to adapt to changing environmental demands and to tune behavior for optimal performance. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) has been implicated in the evaluation of errors to control behavior, although it has not previously been shown that activity in this region predicts learning from errors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activity in the pMFC during an associative learning task in which participants had to recall the spatial locations of 2-digit targets and were provided with immediate feedback regarding accuracy. Activity within the pMFC was significantly greater for errors that were subsequently corrected than for errors that were repeated. Moreover, pMFC activity during recall errors predicted future responses (correct vs. incorrect), despite a sizeable interval (on average 70 s) between an error and the next presentation of the same recall probe. Activity within the hippocampus also predicted future performance and correlated with error-feedback-related pMFC activity. A relationship between performance expectations and pMFC activity, in the absence of differing reinforcement value for errors, is consistent with the idea that error-related pMFC activity reflects the extent to which an outcome is "worse than expected."

  9. Verbal memory impairment in new onset bipolar disorder: Relationship with frontal and medial temporal morphology.

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    Chakrabarty, Trisha; Kozicky, Jan-Marie; Torres, Ivan J; Lam, Raymond W; Yatham, Lakshmi N

    2015-06-01

    Verbal memory (VM) impairment is a trait feature of bipolar I disorder (BDI) that is present at illness onset and associated with functional outcome. However, little is known about the morphological abnormalities underlying this deficit early in the disease course. This study examined the neurobiological correlates of VM impairment in euthymic newly diagnosed patients, with attention to frontal and medial temporal (MT) structures known to contribute to VM. Euthymic patients with BDI recently recovered from their first episode of mania (n = 42) were compared with healthy subjects (n = 37) using measures of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II) associated with frontal and MT functioning. A subset of participants had 3T MRI scan (n = 31 patient group, n = 30 healthy subject group). Hippocampal and prefrontal volumes were analyzed using FreeSurfer 5.1 and correlated with their corresponding CVLT-II subscores. Patients showed decreased performance in total learning as well as short and long delay verbal recall. Consistent with MT dysfunction, they also showed deficits in recognition discriminability and learning slope. In the patient group only, left hippocampal volumes were negatively correlated with these measures. These results suggest that anomalous MT functioning is involved with VM impairment early in the course of BDI.

  10. Asymmetry and sexual dimorphism of the medial frontal gyrus visible surface in humans

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    Spasojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Studies of visible (extrasulcal surface of the brain hemispheres are not feasible for measurements of the brain size, but are valuable for analysis and quantification of sexual dimorphism and/or asymmetries of the human brain. Morphological and morphometric investigations of the brain may contribute in genetic studies of the human nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine and to quantify sexual dimorphism and the right/left morphological asymmetry of the visible surface of medial frontal gyrus (gyrus frontalis medialis - GFM. Methods. Measurements and analysis of the visible surface of GFM were done on 84 hemispheres (42 brains from the persons of both sexes: 26 males and 16 females, 20-65 years of age. After fixation in 10% formalin and dissection, digital morphometric measurements were performed. We studied these in relation to the side of the hemisphere and the person's sex. Standardized digital AutoCAD planimetry of the visible surface of GFM was enabled by the use of coordinate system of intercommissural line. Results. In the whole sample, the visible surface of the right GFM (21.39 cm2 was statistically significantly greater (p < 0.05 than the left GFM (18.35 cm2 indicating the right/left asymmetry of the visible surface of GFM. Also, the visible surface of the right GFM in the males (22.66 cm2 was significantly greater (p < 0.05 than in the females (19.35 cm2, while the difference in size of the left GFM between the males and the females was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion. Morphological analysis of visible surface of GFM performed by digital planimetry showed sexual dimorphism of the visible surface and the presence of right/left asymmetry of GFM.

  11. Cognitive Functioning after Medial Frontal Lobe Damage Including the Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Preliminary Investigation

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    Baird, Amee; Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Critchley, Hugo; Gilbert, Sam J.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Two patients with medial frontal lobe damage involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) performed a range of cognitive tasks, including tests of executive function and anterior attention. Both patients lesions extended beyond the ACC, therefore caution needs to be exerted in ascribing observed deficits to the ACC alone. Patient performance was…

  12. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

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    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-05-24

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY OF BROCA’S AREA AND MEDIAL FRONTAL CORTEX

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    Ford, Anastasia; McGregor, Keith M.; Case, Kimberly; Crosson, Bruce; White, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite over 140 years of research on Broca’s area, the connections of this region to medial frontal cortex remain unclear. The current study investigates this structural connectivity using diffusion weighted MRI tractography in living humans. Our results show connections between Broca’s area and Brodmann’s areas (BA) 9, 8, and 6 (both supplementary motor area (SMA) in caudal BA 6, and Pre-SMA in rostral BA 6). Trajectories follow an anterior-to-posterior gradient, wherein the most anterior portions of Broca’s area connect to BA 9 and 8 while posterior Broca’s area connects to Pre-SMA and SMA. This anterior-posterior connectivity gradient is also present when connectivity-based parcellation of Broca’s area is performed. Previous studies of language organization suggest involvement of anterior Broca’s area in semantics and posterior Broca’s area in syntax/phonology. Given corresponding patterns of functional and structural organization of Broca’s area, it seems well warranted to investigate carefully how anterior vs. posterior medial frontal cortex differentially affect semantics, syntax and phonology. PMID:20488246

  14. The scarcity heuristic impacts reward processing within the medial-frontal cortex.

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    Williams, Chad C; Saffer, Boaz Y; McCulloch, Robert B; Krigolson, Olave E

    2016-05-04

    Objects that are rare are often perceived to be inherently more valuable than objects that are abundant - a bias brought about in part by the scarcity heuristic. In the present study, we sought to test whether perception of rarity impacted reward evaluation within the human medial-frontal cortex. Here, participants played a gambling game in which they flipped rare and abundant 'cards' on a computer screen to win financial rewards while electroencephalographic data were recorded. Unbeknownst to participants, reward outcome and frequency was random and equivalent for both rare and abundant cards; thus, only a perception of scarcity was true. Analysis of the electroencephalographic data indicated that the P300 component of the event-related brain potential differed in amplitude for wins and losses following the selection of rare cards, but not following the selection of abundant cards. Importantly, then, we found that the perception of card rarity impacted reward processing even though reward feedback was independent of and subsequent to card selection. Our data indicate a top-down influence of the scarcity heuristic on reward evaluation, and specifically the processing of reward magnitude, within the human medial-frontal cortex.

  15. Association of frontal plane knee alignment with foot posture in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

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    Ohi, Hiroshi; Iijima, Hirotaka; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kaneda, Eishi; Ohi, Kazuko; Abe, Kaoru

    2017-06-07

    To examine the association of radiographic frontal plane knee alignment with three-dimensional foot posture in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Participants in orthopedic clinics with Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade ≥1 (88 patients and 88 knees; age, 61-91 years; 65.9% female) were enrolled. An anteroposterior radiographic view was used to assess the anatomical axis angle (AAA) after subtracting a sex-specific correction factor. The three-dimensional foot posture was also evaluated. Multiple regression analyses showed that increased corrected AAA (i.e., valgus direction) was independently associated with a decrease in the hallux valgus angle (regression coefficient: -0.40 per degree, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.72, -0.09; P = 0.013) and increase in the pronation angle of the calcaneus relative to floor (regression coefficient: 0.33 per degree, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.56; P = 0.005) adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. The relationship between the corrected AAA and hallux valgus angle strengthened (regression coefficient: -0.60 per degree, 95% CI: -1.08, -0.13; P = 0.014) in varus-aligned knees examined separately (63 knees). The other foot postures (navicular height, navicular height/foot length, and rearfoot angle) were not significantly associated with corrected AAA. Radiographic frontal plane knee alignment was associated with hallux valgus angle and calcaneus angle relative to the floor in patients with medial knee OA, particularly in varus-aligned knees. These results indicate a connection between altered frontal knee alignment and foot posture, which may be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of altered foot posture observed in patients with knee OA.

  16. Maintaining the feelings of others in working memory is associated with activation of the left anterior insula and left frontal-parietal control network.

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    Smith, Ryan; Lane, Richard D; Alkozei, Anna; Bao, Jennifer; Smith, Courtney; Sanova, Anna; Nettles, Matthew; Killgore, William D S

    2017-05-01

    The maintenance of social/emotional information in working memory (SWM/EWM) has recently been the topic of multiple neuroimaging studies. However, some studies find that SWM/EWM involves a medial frontal-parietal network while others instead find lateral frontal-parietal activations similar to studies of verbal and visuospatial WM. In this study, we asked 26 healthy volunteers to complete an EWM task designed to examine whether different cognitive strategies- maintaining emotional images, words, or feelings- might account for these discrepant results. We also examined whether differences in EWM performance were related to general intelligence (IQ), emotional intelligence (EI), and emotional awareness (EA). We found that maintaining emotional feelings, even when accounting for neural activation attributable to maintaining emotional images/words, still activated a left lateral frontal-parietal network (including the anterior insula and posterior dorsomedial frontal cortex). We also found that individual differences in the ability to maintain feelings were positively associated with IQ and EA, but not with EI. These results suggest that maintaining the feelings of others (at least when perceived exteroceptively) involves similar frontal-parietal control networks to exteroceptive WM, and that it is similarly linked to IQ, but that it also may be an important component of EA. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Longitudinal Effects of Ketamine on Dendritic Architecture In Vivo in the Mouse Medial Frontal Cortex123

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    Phoumthipphavong, Victoria; Barthas, Florent; Hassett, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A single subanesthetic dose of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, leads to fast-acting antidepressant effects. In rodent models, systemic ketamine is associated with higher dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex, reflecting structural remodeling that may underlie the behavioral changes. However, turnover of dendritic spines is a dynamic process in vivo, and the longitudinal effects of ketamine on structural plasticity remain unclear. The purpose of the current study is to use subcellular resolution optical imaging to determine the time course of dendritic alterations in vivo following systemic ketamine administration in mice. We used two-photon microscopy to visualize repeatedly the same set of dendritic branches in the mouse medial frontal cortex (MFC) before and after a single injection of ketamine or saline. Compared to controls, ketamine-injected mice had higher dendritic spine density in MFC for up to 2 weeks. This prolonged increase in spine density was driven by an elevated spine formation rate, and not by changes in the spine elimination rate. A fraction of the new spines following ketamine injection was persistent, which is indicative of functional synapses. In a few cases, we also observed retraction of distal apical tuft branches on the day immediately after ketamine administration. These results indicate that following systemic ketamine administration, certain dendritic inputs in MFC are removed immediately, while others are added gradually. These dynamic structural modifications are consistent with a model of ketamine action in which the net effect is a rebalancing of synaptic inputs received by frontal cortical neurons. PMID:27066532

  18. Chronic Ritalin administration during adulthood increases serotonin pool in rat medial frontal cortex.

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    Daniali, Samira; Madjd, Zahra; Shahbazi, Ali; Niknazar, Somayeh; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2013-01-01

    Ritalin has high tendency to be abused. It has been the main indication to control attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The college students may seek for it to improve their memory, decrease the need for sleep (especially during exams), which at least partially, can be related to serotonergic system. Therefore, it seems worthy to evaluate the effect of Ritalin intake on mature brain. There are many studies on Ritalin effect on developing brain, but only few studies on adults are available. This study was undertaken to find Ritalin effect on serotonin transporter (SERT) density in medial frontal cortex (MFC) of mature rat. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. Rats were assigned into five groups (n = 6 per group): one control, two Ritalin and two vehicle groups. Twelve rats received Ritalin (20 mg/kg/twice a day) orally for eleven continuous days. After one week of withdrawal and another two weeks of rest, in order to evaluate short-term effects of Ritalin, six rats were sacrificed. Another six rats were studied to detect the long-term effects of Ritalin; therefore, they were sacrificed 12 weeks after the previous group. The immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the results. Immunohistochemistry studies showed a higher density of SERT in both 2 and 12 weeks after withdrawal from Ritalin intake in MFC of rat and there was no significant difference between these two groups. Our findings demonstrated both short- and long-term effects of Ritalin on frontal serotonergic system after withdrawal period.

  19. A causal role for posterior medial frontal cortex in choice-induced preference change.

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    Izuma, Keise; Akula, Shyam; Murayama, Kou; Wu, Daw-An; Iacoboni, Marco; Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-02-25

    After a person chooses between two items, preference for the chosen item will increase and preference for the unchosen item will decrease because of the choice made. In other words, we tend to justify or rationalize our past behavior by changing our attitude. This phenomenon of choice-induced preference change has been traditionally explained by cognitive dissonance theory. Choosing something that is disliked or not choosing something that is liked are both cognitively inconsistent and, to reduce this inconsistency, people tend to change their subsequently stated preference in accordance with their past choices. Previously, human neuroimaging studies identified posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) as a key brain region involved in cognitive dissonance. However, it remains unknown whether the pMFC plays a causal role in inducing preference change after cognitive dissonance. Here, we demonstrate that 25 min, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over the pMFC significantly reduces choice-induced preference change compared with sham stimulation or control stimulation over a different brain region, demonstrating a causal role for the pMFC. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353598-09$15.00/0.

  20. Reward expectation and prediction error in human medial frontal cortex: an EEG study.

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    Silvetti, Massimo; Nuñez Castellar, Elena; Roger, Clémence; Verguts, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian medial frontal cortex (MFC) is involved in reward-based decision making. In particular, in nonhuman primates this area constructs expectations about upcoming rewards, given an environmental state or a choice planned by the animal. At the same time, in both humans and nonhuman primates, the MFC computes the difference between such predictions and actual environmental outcomes (reward prediction errors). However, there is a paucity of evidence about the time course of MFC-related activity during reward prediction and prediction error in humans. Here we experimentally investigated this by recording the EEG during a reinforcement learning task. Our results support the hypothesis that human MFC codes for reward prediction during the cue period and for prediction error during the outcome period. Further, reward expectation (cue period) was positively correlated with prediction error (outcome period) in error trials but negatively in correct trials, consistent with updating of reward expectation by prediction error. This demonstrates in humans, like in nonhuman primates, a role of the MFC in the rapid updating of reward expectations through prediction errors. © 2013.

  1. Perceiving an opponent's loss: gender-related differences in the medial-frontal negativity.

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    Fukushima, Hirokata; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    Along with expanding the understanding of the human 'social brain', a new challenge for neuroscience is to elucidate the nature of individual differences in social competence. Here we report a neural index of gender difference in empathy-related processing in a complex social situation. Using electroencephalography, we measured the neural activity of perceptions to one's own and another's monetary gain or loss, while individuals played a 'competitive' two-person gambling game, in which one's monetary gain resulted in the other's loss. The medial-frontal negativity (MFN), a component within 300 ms latency reflecting an emotional categorization of the event, showed a significant gender difference in perceiving an opponent's, but not a self-performed outcome. When females perceive the opponent's outcomes, the MFN was elicited, indicating that another's loss was categorized as negative, even though it resulted in a benefit to them. On the contrary, the males did not elicit discernable MFN to the opponent's outcomes. Together with the fact that the affect score has a negative linear correlation with the MFN, this indicated that the MFN was sensitive to socio-emotional processing. These results suggest that individual differences in complex social behavior result from rapid neural activity in response to external stimuli.

  2. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal but not saggital plane motion during jump landing in highly trained women athletes

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    Michael F Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Joseph1, Craig R Denegar1, Elaine Horn1, Bradley MacDougall1, Michael Rahl1, Jessica Sheehan1, Thomas Trojian2, Jeffery M Anderson1, James E Clark1, William J Kraemer11Department of Kinesiology, 2Department of Sports Medicine, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: Lower extremity mechanics during landing have been linked to traumatic and nontraumatic knee injuries, particularly in women’s athletics. The effects of efforts to mitigate these risks have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that a 5° medial wedge reduced ankle eversion and knee valgus. In the present report we further investigated the effect of a 5° medial wedge inserted in the shoes of female athletes on frontal plane hip motion, as well as ankle, knee, hip, and trunk saggital plane motion during a jump landing task. Kinematic data were obtained from 10 intercollegiate female athletes during jump landings from a 31 cm platform with and without a 5° medial wedge. Hip adduction was reduced 1.98° (95% CI 0.97–2.99° by the medial wedge but saggital plane motions were unaffected. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal plane motion and takes the knee away from a position associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although frontal plane motion was not captured it is unlikely to have increased in a bilateral landing task. Thus, it is likely that greater muscle forces were generated in these highly trained athletes to dissipate ground reaction forces when a medial wedge was in place. Additional investigation in younger and lesser trained athletes is warranted to assess the impact of orthotic devices on knee joint mechanics.Keywords: jump landing, foot orthotic, lower extremity kinematics, knee biomechanics, knee injury

  3. Auditory conflict resolution correlates with medial-lateral frontal theta/alpha phase synchrony.

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    Huang, Samantha; Rossi, Stephanie; Hämäläinen, Matti; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right), sounding out either the letters "A" or "O". They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50%) or incongruent (50%) with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF) and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60-110 Hz) power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance.

  4. Auditory conflict resolution correlates with medial-lateral frontal theta/alpha phase synchrony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Huang

    Full Text Available When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC, work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right, sounding out either the letters "A" or "O". They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50% or incongruent (50% with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60-110 Hz power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance.

  5. Intravenous or local injections of flavoxate in the rostral pontine reticular formation inhibit urinary frequency induced by activation of medial frontal lobe neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimio; Nishijima, Saori; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Ueda, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2014-10-01

    The rostral pontine reticular formation has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition by facilitating lumbosacral glycinergic neurons. We assessed the influence of the rostral pontine reticular formation on the micturition reflex after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe. We also examined the relation between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation. Continuous cystometry was performed in 28 female rats. After the interval between bladder contractions was shortened by noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe we injected glutamate or flavoxate hydrochloride in the rostral pontine reticular formation or intravenously injected flavoxate or propiverine. The change in bladder activity was examined. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened the interval between bladder contractions. In contrast to the bladder contraction interval before and after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe, the interval was prolonged after noradrenaline injection when glutamate or flavoxate was injected in the rostral pontine reticular formation, or flavoxate was injected intravenously. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe plus intravenous propiverine injection also prolonged the interval compared to that after noradrenaline injection alone. However, the interval after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe plus intravenous injection of propiverine was shorter than that before noradrenaline injection only. Medial frontal lobe neurons excited by noradrenaline may facilitate the micturition reflex via activation of inhibitory interneurons, which inhibit descending rostral pontine reticular formation neurons that innervate the lumbosacral glycinergic inhibitory neurons. Therefore, the mechanism of micturition reflex facilitation by the activation of medial frontal lobe neurons involves the rostral pontine reticular formation. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education

  6. Role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering: a brain stimulation and tractographic study.

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    Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.

  7. Origin of human motor readiness field linked to left middle frontal gyrus by MEG and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jane Rygaard; Johannsen, P; Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1998-01-01

    Combined magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography identified a prior source of activity in the left middle frontal gyrus duping uncued movements of the right index finger Voluntary movements gave rise to a change in the cortical electrical potential known as the Bereitschaftspotent...

  8. Memory of music: roles of right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus.

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    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yagishita, Sho; Kikyo, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    We investigated neural correlates of retrieval success for music memory using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. To minimize the interference from MRI scan noise, we used sparse temporal sampling technique. Newly composed music materials were employed as stimuli, which enabled us to detect regions in absence of effects of experience with the music stimuli in this study. Whole brain analyses demonstrated significant retrieval success activities in the right hippocampus, bilateral lateral temporal regions, left inferior frontal gyrus and left precuneus. Anatomically defined region-of-interests analyses showed that the activity of the right hippocampus was stronger than that of the left, while the activities of the inferior frontal gyri showed the reverse pattern. Furthermore, performance-based analyses demonstrated that the retrieval success activity of the right hippocampus was positively correlated with the corrected recognition rate, suggesting that the right hippocampus contributes to the accuracy of music retrieval outcome.

  9. A functional MRI study of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aihong; Wang Xiaoyi; Xu Guoqing; Li Yongjie; Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng; Wang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using fMRI. Materials and methods: Eight patients with left MTLE and 15 healthy subjects were evaluated. An auditory semantic judgment (AJ) paradigm was used. The fMRI data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by AFNI (analysis of functional neuroimages) to generate the activation map. Results: Behavioral data showed that the reaction time of the left MTLE patients was significantly longer than that of controls on the AJ task (t = -3.396, P < 0.05). The left MTLE patients also exhibited diffusively decreased activation in the AJ task. Right hemisphere dominance of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was demonstrated in left MTLE patients. Conclusions: Long-term activation of spikes in left MTLE patients results in language impairment, which is associated with an abnormality of the brain neural network.

  10. Genes encoding heterotrimeric G-proteins are associated with gray matter volume variations in the medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría-Siles, Iván; Rijpkema, Mark; Lips, Esther; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Verhage, Matthijs; Franke, Barbara; Fernández, Guillén; Posthuma, Danielle

    2013-05-01

    G-protein-coupled signal transduction mediates most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters; this signaling system transduces a large variety of extracellular stimuli into neurons and is the most widely used mechanism for cell communication at the synaptic level. The heterotrimeric G-proteins have been well established as key regulators of neuronal growth, differentiation, and function. More recently, the heterotrimeric G-protein genes group was associated with general cognitive ability. Although heterotrimeric G-proteins are linked to both cognitive ability and neuron signaling, it is unknown whether heterotrimeric G-proteins are also important for brain structure. We tested for association between local cerebral gray matter volume and the heterotrimeric G-protein genes group in 294 subjects; a replication analysis was performed in an independent sample of 238 subjects. Voxel-based morphometry revealed a strong replicated association between 2 genes encoding heterotrimeric G-proteins with specific local increase in medial frontal cortex volume, an area known to be involved in cognitive control and negative affect. This finding suggests that heterotrimeric G-proteins might modulate medial frontal cortex gray matter volume. The differences in gray matter volume due to variations in genes encoding G-proteins may be explained by the role of G-proteins in prenatal and postnatal neocortex development.

  11. Maintaining the feelings of others in working memory is associated with activation of the left anterior insula and left frontal-parietal control network

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ryan; Lane, Richard D.; Alkozei, Anna; Bao, Jennifer; Smith, Courtney; Sanova, Anna; Nettles, Matthew; Killgore, William D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The maintenance of social/emotional information in working memory (SWM/EWM) has recently been the topic of multiple neuroimaging studies. However, some studies find that SWM/EWM involves a medial frontal-parietal network while others instead find lateral frontal-parietal activations similar to studies of verbal and visuospatial WM. In this study, we asked 26 healthy volunteers to complete an EWM task designed to examine whether different cognitive strategies? maintaining emotional im...

  12. Behavioral approach system sensitivity and risk taking interact to predict left-frontal EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Chelsea L; Goldstein, Kim E; LaBelle, Denise R; Brown, Christopher W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-09-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relative left-frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry. BAS sensitivity moderated the relationship between risk taking and EEG asymmetry. More specifically, individuals who were high in BAS sensitivity showed left-frontal EEG asymmetry regardless of their level of risk-taking behavior. However, among individuals who were moderate in BAS sensitivity, risk taking was positively associated with asymmetry. These findings suggest that cognitive and personality correlates of bipolar risk may evidence unique contributions to a neural measure of trait-approach motivation. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Functioning of medial olivocochlear bundle in right- and left-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipa, Ramesh; Kumar, U Ajith

    2017-07-01

    Functional symmetry of medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) as a function of handedness remains to be well investigated. The current study aimed to assess the functional symmetry of MOCB through contralateral inhibition of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in right- and left-handed individuals. Thirteen left-handed and 13 right-handed individuals in the age range of 19-25 years participated. Behavioural experiment involved measuring speech perception in noise and vocal reaction time. Physiological experiment involved measuring the contralateral inhibition of OAEs in both the ears of participants. Findings of the current study revealed lack of functional asymmetry in right- as well as left-handed individuals. Results of the current study suggest that right- as well as left-handed individuals do not demonstrate functional asymmetry at the level of descending auditory pathways unlike the higher cortical centres.

  14. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated left mid-frontal cortical activity prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.; Urosevic, Snezana; Goldstein, Kim; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues and a propensity to experience an excessive increase in approach-related affect, which may be reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between relative left-frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, a proposed neurophysiological index of approach-system sensitivity and approach/reward-related affect, and bipolar course and state-related variables. Fifty-eight individuals with cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder and 59 healthy control participants with no affective psychopathology completed resting EEG recordings. Alpha power was obtained and asymmetry indices computed for homologous electrodes. Bipolar spectrum participants were classified as being in a major/minor depressive episode, a hypomanic episode, or a euthymic/remitted state at EEG recording. Participants were then followed prospectively for an average 4.7 year follow-up period with diagnostic interview assessments every four-months. Sixteen bipolar spectrum participants converted to bipolar I disorder during follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, elevated relative left-frontal EEG activity at baseline 1) prospectively predicted a greater likelihood of converting from cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder over the 4.7 year follow-up period, 2) was associated with an earlier age-of-onset of first bipolar spectrum episode, and 3) was significantly elevated in bipolar spectrum individuals in a hypomanic episode at EEG recording. This is the first study to identify a neurophysiological marker that prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder. The fact that unipolar depression is characterized by decreased relative left-frontal EEG activity suggests that unipolar depression and vulnerability to hypo/mania may be characterized by different profiles of frontal EEG asymmetry. PMID:22775582

  16. Distinct roles of left inferior frontal regions that explain individual differences in second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kuniyoshi L; Nauchi, Arihito; Tatsuno, Yoshinori; Hirano, Kazuyoshi; Muraishi, Yukimasa; Kimura, Masakazu; Bostwick, Mike; Yusa, Noriaki

    2009-08-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition is more susceptible to environmental and idiosyncratic factors than first language acquisition. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging for L2 learners of different ages of first exposure (mean: 12.6 and 5.6 years) in a formal school environment, and compared the cortical activations involved in processing English sentences containing either syntactic or spelling errors, where the testing ages and task performances of both groups were matched. We found novel activation patterns in two regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) that correlated differentially with the performances of the late and early learners. Specifically, activations of the dorsal and ventral triangular part (F3t) of the left IFG correlated positively with the accuracy of the syntactic task for the late learners, whereas activations of the left ventral F3t correlated negatively with the accuracy for the early learners. In contrast, other cortical regions exhibited differential correlation patterns with the reaction times (RTs) of the syntactic task. Namely, activations of the orbital part (F3O) of the left IFG, as well as those of the left angular gyrus, correlated positively with the RTs for the late learners, whereas those activations correlated negatively with the RTs for the early learners. Moreover, the task-selective activation of the left F3O was maintained for both the late and early learners. These results explain individual differences in L2 acquisition, such that the acquisition of linguistic knowledge in L2 is subserved by at least two distinct inferior frontal regions of the left F3t and F3O. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The Modulation of Error Processing in the Medial Frontal Cortex by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Bellaïche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In order to prevent future errors, we constantly control our behavior for discrepancies between the expected (i.e., intended and the real action outcome and continuously adjust our behavior accordingly. Neurophysiological correlates of this action-monitoring process can be studied with event-related potentials (error-related negativity (ERN and error positivity (Pe originating from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Patients with neuropsychiatric diseases often show performance monitoring dysfunctions potentially caused by pathological changes of cortical excitability; therefore, a modulation of the underlying neuronal activity might be a valuable therapeutic tool. One technique which allows us to explore cortical modulation of neural networks is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Therefore, we tested the effect of medial-prefrontal tDCS on error-monitoring potentials in 48 healthy subjects randomly assigned to anodal, cathodal, or sham stimulation. Results. We found that cathodal stimulation attenuated Pe amplitudes compared to both anodal and sham stimulation, but no effect for the ERN. Conclusions. Our results indicate that cathodal tDCS over the mPFC results in an attenuated cortical excitability leading to decreased Pe amplitudes. We therefore conclude that tDCS has a neuromodulatory effect on error-monitoring systems suggesting a future approach to modify the sensitivity of corresponding neural networks in patients with action-monitoring deficits.

  18. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  19. Amygdala Contributions to Stimulus-Reward Encoding in the Macaque Medial and Orbital Frontal Cortex during Learning.

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    Rudebeck, Peter H; Ripple, Joshua A; Mitz, Andrew R; Averbeck, Bruno B; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2017-02-22

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus-reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus-reward associations. Further analyses indicated that this impairment was due, at least in part, to ineffective use of negative feedback to guide subsequent decisions. Second, the activity of neurons in OFC and MFC rapidly evolved to encode the amount of reward associated with each stimulus. Third, amygdalectomy reduced encoding of stimulus-reward associations during the evaluation of different stimuli. Reward encoding of anticipated and received reward after choices were made was not altered. Fourth, amygdala lesions led to an increase in the proportion of neurons in MFC, but not OFC, that encoded the instrumental response that monkeys made on each trial. These correlated changes in behavior and neural activity after amygdala lesions strongly suggest that the amygdala contributes to the ability to learn stimulus-reward associations rapidly by shaping encoding within OFC and MFC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altered functional interactions among orbital frontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala are thought to underlie several psychiatric conditions, many related to reward learning. Here, we investigated the causal contribution of the amygdala to the development of neuronal activity in macaque OFC and MFC related to rewards and the stimuli that predict them during learning. Without amygdala inputs, neurons in both OFC and MFC showed decreased encoding of stimulus-reward associations. MFC also showed

  20. Amygdala Contributions to Stimulus–Reward Encoding in the Macaque Medial and Orbital Frontal Cortex during Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2017-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus–reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus–reward associations. Further analyses indicated that this impairment was due, at least in part, to ineffective use of negative feedback to guide subsequent decisions. Second, the activity of neurons in OFC and MFC rapidly evolved to encode the amount of reward associated with each stimulus. Third, amygdalectomy reduced encoding of stimulus–reward associations during the evaluation of different stimuli. Reward encoding of anticipated and received reward after choices were made was not altered. Fourth, amygdala lesions led to an increase in the proportion of neurons in MFC, but not OFC, that encoded the instrumental response that monkeys made on each trial. These correlated changes in behavior and neural activity after amygdala lesions strongly suggest that the amygdala contributes to the ability to learn stimulus–reward associations rapidly by shaping encoding within OFC and MFC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altered functional interactions among orbital frontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala are thought to underlie several psychiatric conditions, many related to reward learning. Here, we investigated the causal contribution of the amygdala to the development of neuronal activity in macaque OFC and MFC related to rewards and the stimuli that predict them during learning. Without amygdala inputs, neurons in both OFC and MFC showed decreased encoding of stimulus–reward associations. MFC also

  1. Association of 5' end neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene variation with subcortical medial frontal microstructure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterer, Georg; Konrad, Andreas; Vucurevic, Goran; Musso, Francesco; Stoeter, Peter; Dahmen, Norbert

    2008-04-01

    ., Lemke, G., Sainz, J., Johannesson, G., Andresson, T., Gudbjartsson, D., Manolescu, A., Frigge, M.L., Gurney, M.E., Kong, A., Gulcher, J.R., Petursson, H., Stefansson, K. 2002. Neuregulin-1 and susceptibility to schizophrenia. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71, 877-892). As predicted, we found medial frontal FA to be significantly associated with this NRG1 gene variation. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we could largely exclude the possibility that this genotype effect is indirectly caused by genotype-dependent effects on brain volume. This is the first demonstration that SNP8NRG221533 of the NRG1 gene affects medial frontal white matter microstructure in humans. As the degree of neuronal myelination contributes to structural integrity, our finding further supports a potential role of NRG1 in neuronal myelination in the human brain. By extension, our findings suggest that SNP8NRG221533 may contribute to the risk for the complex polygenic illness schizophrenia via its impact on myelination in frontal lobe white matter.

  2. Reasoning by analogy requires the left frontal pole: lesion-deficit mapping and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Marika; Bréchemier, Marie-Laure; Garcin, Béatrice; Bendetowicz, David; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Foulon, Chris; Rosso, Charlotte; Clarençon, Frédéric; Dupont, Sophie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    SEE BURGESS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW092 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : Analogical reasoning is at the core of the generalization and abstraction processes that enable concept formation and creativity. The impact of neurological diseases on analogical reasoning is poorly known, despite its importance in everyday life and in society. Neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects and the few studies that have been performed on patients have highlighted the importance of the prefrontal cortex in analogical reasoning. However, the critical cerebral bases for analogical reasoning deficits remain elusive. In the current study, we examined analogical reasoning abilities in 27 patients with focal damage in the frontal lobes and performed voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping and tractography analyses to investigate the structures critical for analogical reasoning. The findings revealed that damage to the left rostrolateral prefrontal region (or some of its long-range connections) specifically impaired the ability to reason by analogies. A short version of the analogy task predicted the existence of a left rostrolateral prefrontal lesion with good accuracy. Experimental manipulations of the analogy tasks suggested that this region plays a role in relational matching or integration. The current lesion approach demonstrated that the left rostrolateral prefrontal region is a critical node in the analogy network. Our results also suggested that analogy tasks should be translated to clinical practice to refine the neuropsychological assessment of patients with frontal lobe lesions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The timing of associative memory formation: frontal lobe and anterior medial temporal lobe activity at associative binding predicts memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    The process of associating items encountered over time and across variable time delays is fundamental for creating memories in daily life, such as for stories and episodes. Forming associative memory for temporally discontiguous items involves medial temporal lobe structures and additional neocortical processing regions, including prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and lateral occipital regions. However, most prior memory studies, using concurrently presented stimuli, have failed to examine the temporal aspect of successful associative memory formation to identify when activity in these brain regions is predictive of associative memory formation. In the current study, functional MRI data were acquired while subjects were shown pairs of sequentially presented visual images with a fixed interitem delay within pairs. This design allowed the entire time course of the trial to be analyzed, starting from onset of the first item, across the 5.5-s delay period, and through offset of the second item. Subjects then completed a postscan recognition test for the items and associations they encoded during the scan and their confidence for each. After controlling for item-memory strength, we isolated brain regions selectively involved in associative encoding. Consistent with prior findings, increased regional activity predicting subsequent associative memory success was found in anterior medial temporal lobe regions of left perirhinal and entorhinal cortices and in left prefrontal cortex and lateral occipital regions. The temporal separation within each pair, however, allowed extension of these findings by isolating the timing of regional involvement, showing that increased response in these regions occurs during binding but not during maintenance. PMID:21248058

  4. Generating predictions: lesion evidence on the role of left inferior frontal cortex in rapid syntactic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakuszeit, Maria; Kotz, Sonja A; Hasting, Anna S

    2013-01-01

    A well-documented phenomenon in event-related electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies on language processing is that syntactic violations of different types elicit negativities as early as 100 msec after the violation point. Recently, these responses have been associated with activations in or very close to sensory cortices, suggesting the involvement of basic sensory mechanisms in the detection of syntactic violations. The present study investigated whether intact auditory cortices and adjacent temporal regions are sufficient to generate early syntactic negativities in the auditory event-related potential (ERP). We tested ten clinically non-aphasic patients with left inferior frontal lesions, but intact temporal cortices in a passive auditory ERP paradigm that had reliably elicited early negativities in response to violations of subject-verb agreement and word category in the past. Subject-verb agreement violations failed to elicit early grammaticality effects in these patients, whereas a group of ten age-matched controls showed a reliable early negativity. This finding supports the idea that sensory aspects of syntactic analysis as reflected in early syntactic negativities critically depend on top-down predictions generated by the left inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, word category violations elicited a small, marginally significant early negativity both in controls and patients, suggesting an additional involvement of temporal regions in early phrase structure processing. In an additional auditory oddball experiment patients showed a regular P300, but no N2b component in response to deviant tones, indicating that their deficit in generating sensory predictions extends beyond the language domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Lesion of extrahippocampal cortices of left medial temporal lobe: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, J A; Galíndez, C; Spada, A

    The cortex of medial temporal lobe is a group of different allocortical fields which included the hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, hippocampus proper, and subicular complex) and extrahippocampal cortices (entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal). It is widely accepted that both of them play an important role in memory process. In humans, several reports indicates that damage to the hippocampus alone would lead to a clinically significant amnesia; when the injuries are more extensive others cognitive disorders, as those related to visual sphere, make worse the clinic picture, and some of these cases were reported as associative visual agnosias. Nevertheless, although evidence from animal studies points to the importance of the extrahippocampal medial temporal lobe cortices in order to recognise visual stimuli, such involvement has not been demonstrated in humans. A 44 year-old male who consulted us because they had lost about of '80% of his vision' after a stroke. Ophthalmological examination was entirely within normal limits, but neuropsychological test put in evidence difficulties in the visuo-verbal naming, discrimination of superposed images, recognition of faces and, mainly, in the test of immediate and deferred visual memory. Anterograde memory impairment was also revealed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion of left entorhinal, perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. We suggest, in relation to anatomical evidences, that isolation of hippocampus is responsible for symptomatollogy of our patient.

  6. Left inferior frontal gyrus mediates morphosyntax: ERP evidence from verb processing in left-hemisphere damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Stefanie; Kotz, Sonja A; Henseler, Ilona; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Neurocognitive models of language comprehension have proposed different mechanisms with different neural substrates mediating human language processing. Whether the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is engaged in morpho-syntactic information processing is currently still controversially debated. The present study addresses this issue by examining the processing of irregular verb inflection in real words (e.g., swim > swum > swam) and pseudowords (e.g., frim > frum > fram) by using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in neurological patients with lesions in the LIFG involving Broca's area as well as healthy controls. Different ERP patterns in response to the grammatical violations were observed in both groups. Controls showed a biphasic negativity-P600 pattern in response to incorrect verb inflections whereas patients with LIFG lesions displayed a N400. For incorrect pseudoword inflections, a late positivity was found in controls, while no ERP effects were obtained in patients. These findings of different ERP patterns in the two groups strongly indicate an involvement of LIFG in morphosyntactic processing, thereby suggesting brain regions' specialization for different language functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Storage of Verbal Associations Is Sufficient to Activate the Left Medial Temporal Lobe

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    Andrew R. Mayes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory encoding activates the medial temporal lobe (MTL. Many believe that these activations are related to novelty but it remains unproven which is critical - novelty detection or the rich associative encoding it triggers. We examined MTL activation during verbal associative encoding using functional magnetic resonance imaging. First, associative encoding activated left posterior MTL more than single word encoding even though novelty detection was matched, indicating not only that associative encoding activates the MTL particularly strongly, but also that activation does not require novelty detection. Moreover, it remains to be convincingly shown that novelty detection alone does produce such activation. Second, repetitive associative encoding produced less MTL activation than initial associative encoding, indicating that priming of associative information reduces MTL activation. Third, re-encoding familiar associations in a well-established way had a minimal effect on both memory and MTL activation, indicating that MTL activation reflects storage of associations, not merely their initial representation.

  8. Frontal, Striatal, and Medial Temporal Sensitivity to Value Distinguishes Risk-Taking from Risk-Aversive Older Adults during Decision Making.

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    Goh, Joshua O S; Su, Yu-Shiang; Tang, Yong-Jheng; McCarrey, Anna C; Tereshchenko, Alexander; Elkins, Wendy; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-12-07

    Aging compromises the frontal, striatal, and medial temporal areas of the reward system, impeding accurate value representation and feedback processing critical for decision making. However, substantial variability characterizes age-related effects on the brain so that some older individuals evince clear neurocognitive declines whereas others are spared. Moreover, the functional correlates of normative individual differences in older-adult value-based decision making remain unclear. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in 173 human older adults during a lottery choice task in which costly to more desirable stakes were depicted using low to high expected values (EVs) of points. Across trials that varied in EVs, participants decided to accept or decline the offered stakes to maximize total accumulated points. We found that greater age was associated with less optimal decisions, accepting stakes when losses were likely and declining stakes when gains were likely, and was associated with increased frontal activity for costlier stakes. Critically, risk preferences varied substantially across older adults and neural sensitivity to EVs in the frontal, striatal, and medial temporal areas dissociated risk-aversive from risk-taking individuals. Specifically, risk-averters increased neural responses to increasing EVs as stakes became more desirable, whereas risk-takers increased neural responses with decreasing EV as stakes became more costly. Risk preference also modulated striatal responses during feedback with risk-takers showing more positive responses to gains compared with risk-averters. Our findings highlight the frontal, striatal, and medial temporal areas as key neural loci in which individual differences differentially affect value-based decision-making ability in older adults. Frontal, striatal, and medial temporal functions implicated in value-based decision processing of rewards and costs undergo substantial age-related changes. However, age

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters p35, CDK5 and GSK3β in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampus of adolescent mice

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    Samantha L. Goggin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs are the number one cause of preventable mental retardation. An estimated 2–5% of children are diagnosed as having a FASD. While it is known that children prenatally exposed to alcohol experience cognitive deficits and a higher incidence of psychiatric illness later in life, the pathways underlying these abnormalities remain uncertain. GSK3β and CDK5 are protein kinases that are converging points for a vast number of signaling cascades, including those controlling cellular processes critical to learning and memory. We investigated whether levels of GSK3β and CDK5 are affected by moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE, specifically in the hippocampus and medial frontal cortex of the adolescent mouse. In the present work we utilized immunoblotting techniques to demonstrate that moderate PAE increased hippocampal p35 and β-catenin, and decreased total levels of GSK3β, while increasing GSK3β Ser9 and Tyr216 phosphorylation. Interestingly, different alterations were seen in the medial frontal cortex where p35 and CDK5 were decreased and increased total GSK3β was accompanied by reduced Tyr216 of the enzyme. These results suggest that kinase dysregulation during adolescence might be an important contributing factor to the effects of PAE on hippocampal and medial frontal cortical functioning; and by extension, that global modulation of these kinases may produce differing effects depending on brain region.

  10. Early-latency categorical speech sound representations in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

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    Alho, Jussi; Green, Brannon M; May, Patrick J C; Sams, Mikko; Tiitinen, Hannu; Rauschecker, Josef P; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P

    2016-04-01

    Efficient speech perception requires the mapping of highly variable acoustic signals to distinct phonetic categories. How the brain overcomes this many-to-one mapping problem has remained unresolved. To infer the cortical location, latency, and dependency on attention of categorical speech sound representations in the human brain, we measured stimulus-specific adaptation of neuromagnetic responses to sounds from a phonetic continuum. The participants attended to the sounds while performing a non-phonetic listening task and, in a separate recording condition, ignored the sounds while watching a silent film. Neural adaptation indicative of phoneme category selectivity was found only during the attentive condition in the pars opercularis (POp) of the left inferior frontal gyrus, where the degree of selectivity correlated with the ability of the participants to categorize the phonetic stimuli. Importantly, these category-specific representations were activated at an early latency of 115-140 ms, which is compatible with the speed of perceptual phonetic categorization. Further, concurrent functional connectivity was observed between POp and posterior auditory cortical areas. These novel findings suggest that when humans attend to speech, the left POp mediates phonetic categorization through integration of auditory and motor information via the dorsal auditory stream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive association of video game playing with left frontal cortical thickness in adolescents.

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    Simone Kühn

    Full Text Available Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week. A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and left frontal eye fields (FEFs. No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations.

  12. The congruency effect in the posterior medial frontal cortex is more consistent with time on task than with response conflict.

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    Daniel H Weissman

    Full Text Available The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC is thought to play a pivotal role in enabling the control of attention during periods of distraction. In line with this view, pMFC activity is ubiquitously greater in incongruent trials of response-interference (e.g., Stroop tasks than in congruent trials. Nonetheless, the process underlying this congruency effect remains highly controversial. We therefore sought to distinguish between two competing accounts of the congruency effect. The conflict monitoring account posits the effect indexes a process that detects conflict between competing response alternatives, which is indexed by trial-specific reaction time (RT. The time on task account posits the effect indexes a process whose recruitment increases with time on task independent of response conflict (e.g., sustained attention, arousal, effort, etc.. To distinguish between these accounts, we used functional MRI to record brain activity in twenty-four healthy adults while they performed two tasks: a response-interference task and a simple RT task with only one possible response. We reasoned that demands on a process that detects response conflict should increase with RT in the response-interference task but not in the simple RT task. In contrast, demands on a process whose recruitment increases with time on task independent of response conflict should increase with RT in both tasks. Trial-by-trial analyses revealed that pMFC activity increased with RT in both tasks. Moreover, pMFC activity increased with RT in the simple RT task enough to fully account for the congruency effect in the response-interference task. These findings appear more consistent with the time on task account of the congruency effect than with the conflict monitoring account.

  13. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆

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    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  14. Chronic Underactivity of Medial Frontal Cortical β2-Containing Nicotinic Receptors Increases Clozapine-Induced Working Memory Impairment in Female Rats

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    Levin, Edward D.; Perkins, Abigail; Brotherton, Terrell; Qazi, Melissa; Berez, Chantal; Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza; Davis, Kasey; Williams, Paul; Christopher, N. Channelle

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic receptor decreases in the frontal cortex and hippocampus are important mediators of cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Drug treatments for these diseases should take into account the impacts of compromised brain function on drug response. This study investigated the impact of compromised nicotinic receptor activity in the frontal cortex in rats on memory function. Since both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia can involve psychosis, antipsychotic drugs are often given. The impacts of antipsychotic drugs on cognitive function have been found to be quite variable. It is the hypothesis of this and previous studies that the cognitive effects of antispychotic drugs on cognitive function depend on the integrity of brain systems involved in cognition. Previously in studies of the hippocampus, we found that chronic inhibition of β2-containing nicotinic receptors with dihydro-β-erythrodine (DHβE) impaired working memory and that this effect was attenuated by the antipsychotic drug clozapine. In contrast, chronic hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor blockade with methyllycaconitine (MLA) potentiated the clozapine-induced memory impairment which is seen in rats without compromised nicotinic receptor activity. The current study determined medial frontal cortical α7 and β2-containing nicotinic receptor involvement in memory and the interactions with antipsychotic drug therapy with clozapine. Chronic DHβE and MLA infusion effects and interactions with systemic clozapine were assessed in female rats tested for memory on the radial-arm maze. Antipsychotic drug interactions with chronic systemic nicotine were investigated because nicotinic procognitive treatment has been proposed. The same local infusion DHβE dose that impaired memory with hippocampal infusion did not impair memory when infused in the medial frontal cortex. Frontal DHβE infusion potentiated clozapine-induced memory impairment, whereas previously the memory

  15. Chronic underactivity of medial frontal cortical beta2-containing nicotinic receptors increases clozapine-induced working memory impairment in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D; Perkins, Abigail; Brotherton, Terrell; Qazi, Melissa; Berez, Chantal; Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza; Davis, Kasey; Williams, Paul; Christopher, N Channelle

    2009-03-17

    Nicotinic receptor decreases in the frontal cortex and hippocampus are important mediators of cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Drug treatments for these diseases should take into account the impacts of compromised brain function on drug response. This study investigated the impact of compromised nicotinic receptor activity in the frontal cortex in rats on memory function. Since both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia can involve psychosis, antipsychotic drugs are often given. The impacts of antipsychotic drugs on cognitive function have been found to be quite variable. It is the hypothesis of this and previous studies that the cognitive effects of antispychotic drugs on cognitive function depend on the integrity of brain systems involved in cognition. Previously in studies of the hippocampus, we found that chronic inhibition of beta2-containing nicotinic receptors with dihydro-beta-erythrodine (DHbetaE) impaired working memory and that this effect was attenuated by the antipsychotic drug clozapine. In contrast, chronic hippocampal alpha7 nicotinic receptor blockade with methyllycaconitine (MLA) potentiated the clozapine-induced memory impairment which is seen in rats without compromised nicotinic receptor activity. The current study determined medial frontal cortical alpha7 and beta2-containing nicotinic receptor involvement in memory and the interactions with antipsychotic drug therapy with clozapine. Chronic DHbetaE and MLA infusion effects and interactions with systemic clozapine were assessed in female rats tested for memory on the radial-arm maze. Antipsychotic drug interactions with chronic systemic nicotine were investigated because nicotinic procognitive treatment has been proposed. The same local infusion DHbetaE dose that impaired memory with hippocampal infusion did not impair memory when infused in the medial frontal cortex. Frontal DHbetaE infusion potentiated clozapine-induced memory impairment, whereas previously

  16. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over Left Inferior Frontal and Posterior Temporal Cortex Disrupts Gesture-Speech Integration.

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    Zhao, Wanying; Riggs, Kevin; Schindler, Igor; Holle, Henning

    2018-02-21

    Language and action naturally occur together in the form of cospeech gestures, and there is now convincing evidence that listeners display a strong tendency to integrate semantic information from both domains during comprehension. A contentious question, however, has been which brain areas are causally involved in this integration process. In previous neuroimaging studies, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) have emerged as candidate areas; however, it is currently not clear whether these areas are causally or merely epiphenomenally involved in gesture-speech integration. In the present series of experiments, we directly tested for a potential critical role of IFG and pMTG by observing the effect of disrupting activity in these areas using transcranial magnetic stimulation in a mixed gender sample of healthy human volunteers. The outcome measure was performance on a Stroop-like gesture task (Kelly et al., 2010a), which provides a behavioral index of gesture-speech integration. Our results provide clear evidence that disrupting activity in IFG and pMTG selectively impairs gesture-speech integration, suggesting that both areas are causally involved in the process. These findings are consistent with the idea that these areas play a joint role in gesture-speech integration, with IFG regulating strategic semantic access via top-down signals acting upon temporal storage areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous neuroimaging studies suggest an involvement of inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus in gesture-speech integration, but findings have been mixed and due to methodological constraints did not allow inferences of causality. By adopting a virtual lesion approach involving transcranial magnetic stimulation, the present study provides clear evidence that both areas are causally involved in combining semantic information arising from gesture and speech. These findings support the view that, rather than being

  17. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

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    Noriyuki Oka

    Full Text Available In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves, but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task. Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections.Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05, but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p < 0.05 in the right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p < 0.05 only in the right frontal eye field.Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  18. Left Frontal Hub Connectivity during Memory Performance Supports Reserve in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Hartmann, Julia C; Taylor, Alexander N W; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Buerger, Katharina; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Mueller, Claudia; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Stahl, Robert; Dichgans, Martin; Duering, Marco; Ewers, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reserve in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as maintaining cognition at a relatively high level in the presence of neurodegeneration, an ability often associated with higher education among other life factors. Recent evidence suggests that higher resting-state functional connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, specifically the left frontal cortex (LFC) hub, contributes to higher reserve. Following up these previous resting-state fMRI findings, we probed memory-task related functional connectivity of the LFC hub as a neural substrate of reserve. In elderly controls (CN, n = 37) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 17), we assessed global connectivity of the LFC hub during successful face-name association learning, using generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. Reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance, accounted for gender and proxies of neurodegeneration (age, hippocampus atrophy, and APOE genotype). We found that greater education was associated with higher LFC-connectivity in both CN and MCI during successful memory. Furthermore, higher LFC-connectivity predicted higher residualized memory (i.e., reserve). These results suggest that higher LFC-connectivity contributes to reserve in both healthy and pathological aging.

  19. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

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    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A.; Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H.; Roger, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  20. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

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    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  1. The left inferior frontal gyrus: A neural crossroads between abstract and concrete knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Canini, Matteo; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Cappa, Stefano F

    2018-04-12

    Evidence from both neuropsychology and neuroimaging suggests that different types of information are necessary for representing and processing concrete and abstract word meanings. Both abstract and concrete concepts, however, conjointly rely on perceptual, verbal and contextual knowledge, with abstract concepts characterized by low values of imageability (IMG) (low sensory-motor grounding) and low context availability (CA) (more difficult to contextualize). Imaging studies supporting differences between abstract and concrete concepts show a greater recruitment of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) for abstract concepts, which has been attributed either to the representation of abstract-specific semantic knowledge or to the request for more executive control than in the case of concrete concepts. We conducted an fMRI study on 27 participants, using a lexical decision task involving both abstract and concrete words, whose IMG and CA values were explicitly modelled in separate parametric analyses. The LIFG was significantly more activated for abstract than for concrete words, and a conjunction analysis showed a common activation for words with low IMG or low CA only in the LIFG, in the same area reported for abstract words. A regional template map of brain activations was then traced for words with low IMG or low CA, and BOLD regional time-series were extracted and correlated with the specific LIFG neural activity elicited for abstract words. The regions associated to low IMG, which were functionally correlated with LIFG, were mainly in the left hemisphere, while those associated with low CA were in the right hemisphere. Finally, in order to reveal which LIFG-related network increased its connectivity with decreases of IMG or CA, we conducted generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. The connectivity strength values extracted from each region connected with the LIFG were correlated with specific LIFG neural activity for abstract words, and a regression

  2. Enhancing verbal creativity: modulating creativity by altering the balance between right and left inferior frontal gyrus with tDCS.

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    Mayseless, N; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2015-04-16

    Creativity is the production of novel ideas that have value. Previous research indicated that while regions in the right hemisphere are implicated in the production of new ideas, damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is associated with increased creativity, indicating that the left IFG damage may have a "releasing" effect on creativity. To examine this, in the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate activity of the right and the left IFG. In the first experiment we show that whereas anodal tDCS over the right IFG coupled with cathodal tDCS over the left IFG increases creativity as measured by a verbal divergent thinking task, the reverse stimulation does not affect creative production. To further confirm that only altering the balance between the two hemispheres is crucial in modulating creativity, in the second experiment we show that stimulation targeting separately the left IFG (cathodal stimulation) or the right IFG (anodal stimulation) did not result in changes in creativity as measured by verbal divergent thinking. These findings support the balance hypothesis, according to which verbal creativity requires a balance of activation between the right and the left frontal lobes, and more specifically, between the right and the left IFG. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Left frontal cortical activation and spreading of alternatives: tests of the action-based model of dissonance.

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    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Fearn, Meghan; Sigelman, Jonathan D; Johnson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The action-based model of dissonance predicts that following decisional commitment, approach-oriented motivational processes occur to assist in translating the decision into effective and unconflicted behavior. Therefore, the modulation of these approach-oriented processes should affect the degree to which individuals change their attitudes to be more consistent with the decisional commitment (spreading of alternatives). Experiment 1 demonstrated that a neurofeedback-induced decrease in relative left frontal cortical activation, which has been implicated in approach motivational processes, caused a reduction in spreading of alternatives. Experiment 2 manipulated an action-oriented mindset following a decision and demonstrated that the action-oriented mindset caused increased activation in the left frontal cortical region as well as increased spreading of alternatives. Discussion focuses on how this integration of neuroscience and dissonance theory benefits both parent literatures. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The effect of commitment on relative left frontal cortical activity: tests of the action-based model of dissonance.

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    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Serra, Raymond; Gable, Philip A

    2011-03-01

    The action-based model of dissonance and recent advances in neuroscience suggest that commitment to action should cause greater relative left frontal cortical activity. Two experiments were conducted in which electroencephalographic activity was recorded following commitment to action, operationalized with a perceived choice manipulation. Perceived high as compared to low choice to engage in the action, regardless of whether it was counterattitudinal or proattitudinal, caused greater relative left frontal cortical activity. Moreover, perceived high as compared to low choice caused attitudes to be more consistent with the action. These results broaden the theoretical reach of the action-based model by suggesting that similar neural and motivational processes are involved in attitudinal responses to counterattitudinal and proattitudinal commitments.

  5. Correlations between measures of executive attention and cortical thickness of left posterior middle frontal gyrus - a dichotic listening study

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    Lundervold Arvid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frontal lobe has been associated to a wide range of cognitive control functions and is also vulnerable to degeneration in old age. A recent study by Thomsen and colleagues showed a difference between a young and old sample in grey matter density and activation in the left middle frontal cortex (MFC and performance on a dichotic listening task. The present study investigated this brain behaviour association within a sample of healthy older individuals, and predicted a positive correlation between performance in a condition requiring executive attention and measures of grey matter structure of the posterior left MFC. Methods A dichotic listening forced attention paradigm was used to measure attention control functions. Subjects were instructed to report only the left or the right ear syllable of a dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllable pair. A conflict situation appears when subjects are instructed to report the left ear stimulus, caused by the conflict with the bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Overcoming this processing conflict was used as a measure of executive attention. Thickness and volumes of frontal lobe regions were derived from automated segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance image acquisitions. Results The results revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between the thickness measure of the left posterior MFC and performance on the dichotic listening measures of executive attention. Follow-up analyses showed that this correlation was only statistically significant in the subgroup that showed the typical bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Conclusion The results suggest that the left MFC is a part of an executive attention network, and that the dichotic listening forced attention paradigm may be a feasible tool for assessing subtle attentional dysfunctions in older adults.

  6. Neural substrates of semantic relationships: common and distinct left-frontal activities for generation of synonyms vs. antonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeon-Ae; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2009-11-01

    Synonymous and antonymous relationships among words may reflect the organization and/or processing in the mental lexicon and its implementation in the brain. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is employed to compare brain activities during generation of synonyms (SYN) and antonyms (ANT) prompted by the same words. Both SYN and ANT, when compared with reading nonwords (NW), activated a region in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 46). Neighboring this region, there was a dissociation observed in that the ANT activation extended more anteriorly and laterally to the SYN activation. The activations in the left middle frontal gyrus may be related to mental processes that are shared in the SYN and ANT generations, such as engaging semantically related parts of mental lexicon for the word search, whereas the distinct activations unique for either SYN or ANT generation may reflect the additional component of antonym retrieval, namely, reversing the polarity of semantic relationship in one crucial dimension. These findings suggest that specific components in the semantic processing, such as the polarity reversal for antonym generation and the similarity assessment for synonyms, are separately and systematically laid out in the left-frontal cortex.

  7. The left frontal cortex supports reserve in aging by enhancing functional network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Hartmann, Julia; Taylor, Alexander N W; Araque-Caballero, Miguel Á; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana; Bürger, Katharina; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Müller, Claudia; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Stahl, Robert; Dichgans, Martin; Duering, Marco; Ewers, Michael

    2018-03-06

    Recent evidence derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggests that functional hubs (i.e., highly connected brain regions) are important for mental health. We found recently that global connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex (LFC connectivity) is associated with relatively preserved memory abilities and higher levels of protective factors (education, IQ) in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that LFC connectivity supports reserve capacity, alleviating memory decline. An open question, however, is why LFC connectivity is beneficial and supports memory function in the face of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that higher LFC connectivity is associated with enhanced efficiency in connected major networks involved in episodic memory. We further hypothesized that higher LFC-related network efficiency predicts higher memory abilities. We assessed fMRI during a face-name association learning task performed by 26 healthy, cognitively normal elderly participants. Using beta-series correlation analysis, we computed task-related LFC connectivity to key memory networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and dorsal attention network (DAN). Network efficiency within the DMN and DAN was estimated by the graph theoretical small-worldness statistic. We applied linear regression analyses to test the association between LFC connectivity with the DMN/DAN and small-worldness of these networks. Mediation analysis was applied to test LFC connectivity to the DMN and DAN as a mediator of the association between education and higher DMN and DAN small-worldness. Last, we tested network small-worldness as a predictor of memory performance. We found that higher LFC connectivity to the DMN and DAN during successful memory encoding and recognition was associated with higher small-worldness of those networks. Higher task-related LFC connectivity mediated the association between education and higher small-worldness in the DMN

  8. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex atrophy is associated with frontal lobe function in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Hashimoto, Akiko; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Takahashi, Masato; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Iida, Junzo; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-12-27

    Caregivers of patients with dementia experience physical and mental deterioration. We have previously reported a correlation between caregiver burden and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) total scores of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially regarding the dependency factor from the Zarit Burden Interview. The present study aimed to identify an objective biomarker for predicting caregiver burden. The participants were 26 pairs of caregivers and patients with AD and mild-to-moderate dementia. Correlations between regional gray matter volumes in the patients with AD and the FAB total scores were explored by using whole-brain voxel-based morphometric analysis. Path analysis was used to estimate the relationships between regional gray matter volumes, FAB total scores, and caregiver burden based on the Zarit Burden Interview. The voxel-based morphometric revealed a significant positive correlation between the FAB total scores and the volume of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This positive correlation persisted after controlling for the effect of general cognitive dysfunction, which was assessed by using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Path analysis revealed that decreases in FAB scores, caused by reduced frontal lobe volumes, negatively affected caregiver burden. The present study revealed that frontal lobe function, based on FAB scores, was affected by the volume of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Decreased scores were associated with greater caregiver burden, especially for the dependency factor. These findings may facilitate the development of an objective biomarker for predicting caregiver burden. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Norepinephrine in the Medial Pre-frontal Cortex Supports Accumbens Shell Responses to a Novel Palatable Food in Food-Restricted Mice Only

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    Emanuele Claudio Latagliata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1 that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell; (2 that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3 that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that only the high levels of frontal cortical NE elicited by the natural reward in food restricted mice stimulate mesoaccumbens DA transmission. To this aim we investigated the ability of a first experience with milk chocolate to increase DA outflow in the accumbens Shell and c-fos expression in striatal and limbic areas of food–restricted and ad-libitum fed mice. Moreover, we tested the effects of a selective depletion of frontal cortical NE on both responses in either feeding group. Only in food-restricted mice milk chocolate induced an increase of DA outflow beyond baseline in the accumbens Shell and a c-fos expression larger than that promoted by a novel inedible object in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, depletion of frontal cortical NE selectively prevented both the increase of DA outflow and the large expression of c-fos promoted by milk chocolate in the NAc Shell of food-restricted mice. These findings support the conclusion that in food-restricted mice a novel palatable food activates the motivational circuit engaged by addictive drugs and support the development of noradrenergic pharmacology of motivational disturbances.

  10. Norepinephrine in the Medial Pre-frontal Cortex Supports Accumbens Shell Responses to a Novel Palatable Food in Food-Restricted Mice Only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latagliata, Emanuele Claudio; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella; Cabib, Simona

    2018-01-01

    Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1) that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE) transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC) to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA) tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell); (2) that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3) that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that only the high levels of frontal cortical NE elicited by the natural reward in food restricted mice stimulate mesoaccumbens DA transmission. To this aim we investigated the ability of a first experience with milk chocolate to increase DA outflow in the accumbens Shell and c-fos expression in striatal and limbic areas of food-restricted and ad-libitum fed mice. Moreover, we tested the effects of a selective depletion of frontal cortical NE on both responses in either feeding group. Only in food-restricted mice milk chocolate induced an increase of DA outflow beyond baseline in the accumbens Shell and a c-fos expression larger than that promoted by a novel inedible object in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, depletion of frontal cortical NE selectively prevented both the increase of DA outflow and the large expression of c-fos promoted by milk chocolate in the NAc Shell of food-restricted mice. These findings support the conclusion that in food-restricted mice a novel palatable food activates the motivational circuit engaged by addictive drugs and support the development of noradrenergic pharmacology of motivational disturbances.

  11. Hostile Attribution Bias Mediates the Relationship Between Structural Variations in the Left Middle Frontal Gyrus and Trait Angry Rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyue Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angry rumination is a common mental phenomenon which may lead to negative social behaviors such as aggression. Although numerous neuroimaging studies have focused on brain area activation during angry rumination, to our knowledge no study has examined the neuroanatomical and cognitive mechanisms of this process. In this study, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry analysis, using a region of interest analysis to identify the structural and cognitive mechanisms underlying individual differences in trait angry rumination (as measured by the Angry Rumination Scale in a sample of 82 undergraduate students. We found that angry rumination was positively correlated with gray matter density in the left middle frontal gyrus (left-MFG, which is implicated in inhibition control, working memory, and emotional regulation. The mediation analysis further revealed that hostile attribution bias (as measured by the Social Information Processing–Attribution Bias Questionnaire acted as a cognitive mechanism underlying the positive association between the left-MFG gray matter density and trait angry rumination. These findings suggest that hostile attribution bias may contribute to trait angry rumination, while the left-MFG may play an important role in the development of hostile attribution bias and trait angry rumination. The study reveals the brain mechanisms of trait angry rumination and plays a role in revealing the cognitive mechanisms of the development of trait angry rumination.

  12. Bihemispheric stimulation over left and right inferior frontal region enhances recovery from apraxia of speech in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangolo, Paola; Fiori, Valentina; Cipollari, Susanna; Campana, Serena; Razzano, Carmelina; Di Paola, Margherita; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have already shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful tool for enhancing recovery in aphasia. However, all tDCS studies have previously investigated the effects using unihemisperic stimulation. No reports to date have examined the role of bihemispheric tDCS on aphasia recovery. Here, eight aphasic persons with apraxia of speech underwent intensive language therapy in two different conditions: real bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional stimulation over the left Broca's area and cathodic contralesional stimulation over the right homologue of Broca's area, and a sham condition. In both conditions, patients underwent concurrent language therapy for their apraxia of speech. The language treatment lasted 10 days (Monday to Friday, then weekend off, then Monday to Friday). There was a 14-day intersession interval between the real and the sham conditions. In all patients, language measures were collected before (T0), at the end of (T10) and 1 week after the end of (F/U) treatment. Results showed that after simultaneous excitatory stimulation to the left frontal hemisphere and inhibitory stimulation to the right frontal hemisphere regions, patients exhibited a significant recovery not only in terms of better accuracy and speed in articulating the treated stimuli but also in other language tasks (picture description, noun and verb naming, word repetition, word reading) which persisted in the follow-up session. Taken together, these data suggest that bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional and cathodic contralesional stimulation in chronic aphasia patients may affect the treated function, resulting in a positive influence on different language tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Left frontal meningioangiomatosis associated with type IIIc focal cortical dysplasia causing refractory epilepsy and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Alexandre; Mellerio, Charles; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Still, Megan; Zerah, Michel; Bourgeois, Marie; Pallud, Johan

    2018-03-29

    We report the surgical management of a lesional drug-resistant epilepsy caused by a meningioangiomatosis associated with a type IIIc focal cortical dysplasia located in the left supplementary motor area in a young male patient. A first anatomical-based partial surgical resection was performed at 11 years old under general anaesthesia without intraoperative mapping, which allowed for postoperative seizure control (Engel IA) for six years. The patient then presented with intractable right sensatory and aphasic focal onset seizures despite two appropriate antiepileptic drugs. A second functional-based surgical resection was performed using intraoperative cortico-subcortical functional mapping with direct electrical stimulation under awake conditions. A complete surgical resection was performed and a left partial supplementary motor area syndrome was observed. At six postoperative months, the patient is seizure free (Engel IA) with an ongoing decrease in antiepileptic drug therapy. Intraoperative functional brain mapping can be applied to preserve the brain function and networks around a meningioangiomatosis to facilitate the resection of potentially epileptogenic perilesional dysplastic cortex and to tailor the extent of resection to functional boundaries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Morphometry of Left Frontal and Temporal Poles Predicts Analogical Reasoning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichelburg, Clarisse; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Humbert, Frederic; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical for making inferences and adapting to novelty. It can be studied experimentally using tasks that require creating similarities between situations or concepts, i.e., when their constituent elements share a similar organization or structure. Brain correlates of analogical reasoning have mostly been explored using functional imaging that has highlighted the involvement of the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) in healthy subjects. However, whether inter-individual variability in analogical reasoning ability in a healthy adult population is related to differences in brain architecture is unknown. We investigated this question by employing linear regression models of performance in analogy tasks and voxel-based morphometry in 54 healthy subjects. Our results revealed that the ability to reason by analogy was associated with structural variability in the left rlPFC and the anterior part of the inferolateral temporal cortex. Tractography of diffusion-weighted images suggested that these 2 regions have a different set of connections but may exchange information via the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest that enhanced integrative and semantic abilities supported by structural variation in these areas (or their connectivity) may lead to more efficient analogical reasoning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The effect of left frontal transcranial direct-current stimulation on propranolol-induced fear memory acquisition and consolidation deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Khani-Abyaneh, Mozhgan; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-07-28

    Accumulating evidence supports the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in modulating numerous cognitive functions. Despite the fact that tDCS has been used for the enhancement of memory and cognition, very few animal studies have addressed its impact on the modulation of fear memory. This study was designed to determine whether pre/post-training frontal tDCS application would alter fear memory acquisition and/or consolidation deficits induced by propranolol in NMRI mice. Results indicated that administration of β1-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol (0.1mg/kg) impaired fear memory retrieval. Pre/post-training application of anodal tDCS when propranolol was administered prior to training reversed contextual memory retrieval whereas only the anodal application prior to training could induce the same result in the auditory test. Meanwhile, anodal stimulation had no effect on fear memories by itself. Moreover, regardless of when cathode was applied and propranolol administered, their combination restored contextual memory retrieval, while only cathodal stimulation prior to training facilitated the contextual memory retrieval. Also, auditory memory retrieval was restored when cathodal stimulation and propranolol occurred prior to training but it was abolished when stimulation occurred after training and propranolol was administered prior to training. Collectively, our findings show that tDCS applied on the left frontal cortex of mice affects fear memory performance. This alteration seems to be task-dependent and varies depending on the nature and timing of the stimulation. In certain conditions, tDCS reverses the effect of propranolol. These results provide initial evidence to support the timely use of tDCS for the modulation of fear-related memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Metabolite Concentrations in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, the Left Frontal White Matter, and the Left Hippocampus in Patients in Stable Schizophrenia Treated with Antipsychotics with or without Antidepressants. ¹H-NMR Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Grzelak, Piotr; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-10-15

    Managing affective, negative, and cognitive symptoms remains the most difficult therapeutic problem in stable phase of schizophrenia. Efforts include administration of antidepressants. Drugs effects on brain metabolic parameters can be evaluated by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy. We compared spectroscopic parameters in the left prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the left frontal white matter (WM) and the left hippocampus and assessed the relationship between treatment and the spectroscopic parameters in both groups. We recruited 25 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR), with dominant negative symptoms and in stable clinical condition, who were treated with antipsychotic and antidepressive medication for minimum of three months. A group of 25 patients with schizophrenia, who were taking antipsychotic drugs but not antidepressants, was matched. We compared metabolic parameters (N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), glutamatergic parameters (Glx), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr)) between the two groups. All patients were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). In patients receiving antidepressants we observed significantly higher NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios within the DLPFC, as well as significantly higher mI/Cr within the frontal WM. Moreover, we noted significantly lower values of parameters associated with the glutamatergic transmission--Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho in the hippocampus. Doses of antipsychotic drugs in the group treated with antidepressants were also significantly lower in the patients showing similar severity of psychopathology.

  17. Comparison of Metabolite Concentrations in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, the Left Frontal White Matter, and the Left Hippocampus in Patients in Stable Schizophrenia Treated with Antipsychotics with or without Antidepressants. 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Grzelak, Piotr; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Managing affective, negative, and cognitive symptoms remains the most difficult therapeutic problem in stable phase of schizophrenia. Efforts include administration of antidepressants. Drugs effects on brain metabolic parameters can be evaluated by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. We compared spectroscopic parameters in the left prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the left frontal white matter (WM) and the left hippocampus and assessed the relationship between treatment and the spectroscopic parameters in both groups. We recruited 25 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR), with dominant negative symptoms and in stable clinical condition, who were treated with antipsychotic and antidepressive medication for minimum of three months. A group of 25 patients with schizophrenia, who were taking antipsychotic drugs but not antidepressants, was matched. We compared metabolic parameters (N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), glutamatergic parameters (Glx), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr)) between the two groups. All patients were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). In patients receiving antidepressants we observed significantly higher NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios within the DLPFC, as well as significantly higher mI/Cr within the frontal WM. Moreover, we noted significantly lower values of parameters associated with the glutamatergic transmission—Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho in the hippocampus. Doses of antipsychotic drugs in the group treated with antidepressants were also significantly lower in the patients showing similar severity of psychopathology. PMID:26501256

  18. A Preliminary fMRI Study of a Novel Self-Paced Written Fluency Task: Observation of Left-Hemispheric Activation, and Increased Frontal Activation in Late vs. Early Task Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh eGolestanirad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is of significant interest - but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s. As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consisting with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05 than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s. Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among them, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9 and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32 likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources.

  19. A preliminary fMRI study of a novel self-paced written fluency task: observation of left-hemispheric activation, and increased frontal activation in late vs. early task phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Das, Sunit; Schweizer, Tom A; Graham, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of significant interest-but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s). As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consistent with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s) of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05) than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s). Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among these areas, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9) and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32) likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources. Consistent with previous pertinent fMRI literature involving overt and covert verbal responses, these findings highlight the

  20. Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Sensitivity to Phonetic Competition in Receptive Language Processing: A Comparison of Clear and Conversational Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Myers, Emily

    2018-03-01

    The speech signal is rife with variations in phonetic ambiguity. For instance, when talkers speak in a conversational register, they demonstrate less articulatory precision, leading to greater potential for confusability at the phonetic level compared with a clear speech register. Current psycholinguistic models assume that ambiguous speech sounds activate more than one phonological category and that competition at prelexical levels cascades to lexical levels of processing. Imaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is modulated by phonetic competition between simultaneously activated categories, with increases in activation for more ambiguous tokens. Yet, these studies have often used artificially manipulated speech and/or metalinguistic tasks, which arguably may recruit neural regions that are not critical for natural speech recognition. Indeed, a prominent model of speech processing, the dual-stream model, posits that the LIFG is not involved in prelexical processing in receptive language processing. In the current study, we exploited natural variation in phonetic competition in the speech signal to investigate the neural systems sensitive to phonetic competition as listeners engage in a receptive language task. Participants heard nonsense sentences spoken in either a clear or conversational register as neural activity was monitored using fMRI. Conversational sentences contained greater phonetic competition, as estimated by measures of vowel confusability, and these sentences also elicited greater activation in a region in the LIFG. Sentence-level phonetic competition metrics uniquely correlated with LIFG activity as well. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the LIFG responds to competition at multiple levels of language processing and that recruitment of this region does not require an explicit phonological judgment.

  1. Varus deformity of the left lower extremity causing degenerative lesion of the posterior horn of the left medial meniscus in a patient with Paget’s disease of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Kaissi, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] We report on a 42-year-old woman who presented with persistent pain in her left knee with no history of trauma. Sagittal T1-weighted MRI of the left knee showed discontinuity between the anterior and posterior horns of the left medial meniscus, causing effectively the development of degenerative lesion of the posterior horn. The latter was correlated to varus deformity of the left lower extremity associated with subsequent narrowing of the medial knee joint. The unusual craniofacial contour of the patient, the skeletal survey and the elevated serum alkaline phosphatase were compatible with the diagnosis of Paget’s disease of the bone. To alleviate the adverse effect of the mal-alignment of the left femur onto the left knee, corrective osteotomy of the left femoral diaphysis by means of fixators was performed. To the best of our knowledge this is the first clinical report describing the management and the pathological correlation of a unilateral varus deformity of the femoral shaft and degenerative lesions of the left knee in a patient with Paget’s disease of the bone.

  2. Bilateral inferior frontal language-related activation correlates with verbal recall in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and typical language distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Ana; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; García-Porcar, María; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Forn, Cristina; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campos, Anabel; Palau, Juan; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Villanueva, Vicente; Avila, César

    2013-03-01

    Language fMRI has been used in the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) patients with atypical language lateralization are at lower risk of postsurgical verbal memory decline, hypothesizing co-occurrence of verbal memory and language reorganization presurgically. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the recruitment of right frontal language-related areas is associated with the preservation of verbal memory performance in these patients. However, less is known about the correlation between these functions specifically in LTLE patients with left language dominance, although they are more prone to postsurgical verbal memory decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the relationship between verbal memory scores and frontal language activation is also observed in LTLE patients with typical language dominance. Eighteen healthy controls, 12 right temporal lobe epilepsy patients and 12 LTLE patients with typical language distribution as assessed by an fMRI verbal fluency task were selected. Verbal memory scores were obtained from the patients' neuropsychological presurgical evaluation. Our results showed a positive correlation between verbal recall and activation of bilateral inferior frontal areas in LTLE patients. These results support the hypothesis of a link between language representation in inferior frontal areas and hippocampal functioning, and indicate that both hemispheres are related to the preservation of verbal memory in patients with hippocampal damage and typical language dominance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor Speech Apraxia in a 70-Year-Old Man with Left Dorsolateral Frontal Arachnoid Cyst: A [18F]FDG PET-CT Study

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    Nicolaas I. Bohnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor speech apraxia is a speech disorder of impaired syllable sequencing which, when seen with advancing age, is suggestive of a neurodegenerative process affecting cortical structures in the left frontal lobe. Arachnoid cysts can be associated with neurologic symptoms due to compression of underlying brain structures though indications for surgical intervention are unclear. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a two-year history of speech changes along with decreased initiation and talkativeness, shorter utterances, and dysnomia. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG Positron Emission and Computed Tomography (PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed very focal left frontal cortical hypometabolism immediately adjacent to an arachnoid cyst but no specific evidence of a neurodegenerative process.

  4. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudo and real words: an event-related functional MRI study on auditory lexical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhuangwei; Xu Weixiong; Zhang Xuexin; Wang Xiaoyi; Weng Xuchu; Wu Renhua; Wu Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study lexical processing of pseudo words and real words by using a fast event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI) design. Methods: Participants did an auditory lexical decision task on a list of pseudo-randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. Pseudo words were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical codes properties. Results: The behavioral performance of fourteen participants indicated that response to pseudowords was significantly slower and less accurate than to real words (mean error rate: 9.9% versus 3.9%, mean reaction time: 1618 ms versus 1143 ms). Processing of pseudo words and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudo words than for real words. Conclusion: The results indicate that the processing of left inferior frontal gyrus in judging pseudo words and real words is not related to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, but rather to making positive versus negative responses in decision making. (authors)

  5. Chronic Underactivity of Medial Frontal Cortical β2-Containing Nicotinic Receptors Increases Clozapine-Induced Working Memory Impairment in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Edward D.; Perkins, Abigail; Brotherton, Terrell; Qazi, Melissa; Berez, Chantal; Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza; Davis, Kasey; Williams, Paul; Christopher, N. Channelle

    2008-01-01

    Nicotinic receptor decreases in the frontal cortex and hippocampus are important mediators of cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Drug treatments for these diseases should take into account the impacts of compromised brain function on drug response. This study investigated the impact of compromised nicotinic receptor activity in the frontal cortex in rats on memory function. Since both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia can involve psychosis, antipsychotic d...

  6. Perturbation of the left inferior frontal gyrus triggers adaptive plasticity in the right homologous area during speech production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Saur, Dorothee; Price, Cathy J

    2013-01-01

    The role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery after left hemisphere damage remains unclear. Increased activation of the right hemisphere has been observed after left hemisphere damage. This may simply reflect a release from transcallosal inhibition that does not contribute to language...... hemisphere lesion. Our findings lend further support to the notion that increased activation of homologous right hemisphere areas supports aphasia recovery after left hemisphere damage....

  7. Greater pre-stimulus effective connectivity from the left inferior frontal area to other areas is associated with better phonological decoding in dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Frye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that neural networks that subserve reading are organized differently in dyslexic readers (DRs and typical readers (TRs, yet the hierarchical structure of these networks has not been well studied. We used Granger Causality (GC to examine the effective connectivity of the preparatory network that occurs prior to viewing a non-word stimulus that requires phonological decoding in 7 DRs and 10 TRs who were young adults. The neuromagnetic activity that occurred 500 ms prior to each rhyme trial was analyzed from sensors overlying the left and right inferior frontal areas (IFA, temporoparietal areas (TPA, and ventral occipitotemporal areas (VOTA within the low, medium, and high beta and gamma sub-bands. A mixed-model analysis determined whether connectivity to or from the left and right IFAs differed across connectivity direction (into vs. out of the IFAs, brain areas, reading group, and/or performance. Results indicated that greater connectivity in the low beta sub-band from the left IFA to other cortical areas was significantly related to better non-word rhyme discrimination in DRs but not TRs. This suggests that the left IFA is an important cortical area involved in compensating for poor phonological function in DRs. We suggest that the left IFA activates a wider-than usual network prior to each trial in the service of supporting otherwise effortful phonological decoding in DRs. The fact that the left IFA provides top-down activation to both posterior left hemispheres areas used by typical readers for phonological decoding and homologous right hemisphere areas is discussed. In contrast, within the high gamma sub-band, better performance was associated with decreased connectivity between the left IFA and other brain areas, in both reading groups. Overly strong gamma connectivity during the pre-stimulus period may interfere with subsequent transient activation and deactivation of sub-networks once the non

  8. Changes in theta activities in the left posterior temporal region, left occipital region and right frontal region related to mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuetao; Zhang, Yuhu; Chen, Jieling; Xie, Chunge; Gan, Rong; Wang, Limin; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in brain activity associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a large sample of nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and its relationship with specific neuropsychological deficits. Electroencephalography (EEG) and neuropsychological assessment were performed in a sample of 135 nondemented PD patients and 44 healthy controls. All patients underwent a neuropsychological battery to assess global cognitive function. Patients were classified according to their cognitive status as PD patients with MCI (n = 61) and without MCI (n = 74). EEG data were used to analyze the relative band power parameters for the following frequency bands: delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz). In addition, relative band power parameters were compared between groups and examined for correlations with neuropsychological performance. The relative theta band powers in three regions (O1, T5 and F4) exhibited statistically significant increases in PD patients with MCI. Beta band powers also exhibited obvious decreases in five regions (T5, T6, P3, P4 and C3) in the PD-MCI group compared with the normal control group. Furthermore, correlation analyses revealed that attention, visuospatial and executive functions were associated with theta power in local regions, mainly in the frontal region (F4). The present study demonstrated that changes in brain activities limited to distinct cognitive domains, especially the theta power in the frontal region, could serve as an electrophysiological marker of cognitive impairment in nondemented PD patients.

  9. Differential Activation of Fast-Spiking and Regular-Firing Neuron Populations During Movement and Reward in the Dorsal Medial Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Nathan; Barnes, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex is thought to be important for guiding behavior according to an animal's expectations. Efforts to decode the region have focused not only on the question of what information it computes, but also how distinct circuit components become engaged during behavior. We find that the activity of regular-firing, putative projection neurons contains rich information about behavioral context and firing fields cluster around reward sites, while activity among putative inhibitory and fast-spiking neurons is most associated with movement and accompanying sensory stimulation. These dissociations were observed even between adjacent neurons with apparently reciprocal, inhibitory–excitatory connections. A smaller population of projection neurons with burst-firing patterns did not show clustered firing fields around rewards; these neurons, although heterogeneous, were generally less selective for behavioral context than regular-firing cells. The data suggest a network that tracks an animal's behavioral situation while, at the same time, regulating excitation levels to emphasize high valued positions. In this scenario, the function of fast-spiking inhibitory neurons is to constrain network output relative to incoming sensory flow. This scheme could serve as a bridge between abstract sensorimotor information and single-dimensional codes for value, providing a neural framework to generate expectations from behavioral state. PMID:24700585

  10. Left ventricular hypertrophy index based on a combination of frontal and transverse planes in the ECG and VCG: Diagnostic utility of cardiac vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, Maria Paula; Juan Ingallina, Fernando; Barone, Valeria; Antonucci, Ricardo; Valentinuzzi, Max; Arini, Pedro David

    2016-04-01

    The changes that left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) induces in depolarization and repolarization vectors are well known. We analyzed the performance of the electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic transverse planes (TP in the ECG and XZ in the VCG) and frontal planes (FP in the ECG and XY in the VCG) to discriminate LVH patients from control subjects. In an age-balanced set of 58 patients, the directions and amplitudes of QRS-complexes and T-wave vectors were studied. The repolarization vector significantly decreased in modulus from controls to LVH in the transverse plane (TP: 0.45±0.17mV vs. 0.24±0.13mV, p<0.0005 XZ: 0.43±0.16mV vs. 0.26±0.11mV, p<0.005) while the depolarization vector significantly changed in angle in the electrocardiographic frontal plane (Controls vs. LVH, FP: 48.24±33.66° vs. 46.84±35.44°, p<0.005, XY: 20.28±35.20° vs. 19.35±12.31°, NS). Several LVH indexes were proposed combining such information in both ECG and VCG spaces. A subset of all those indexes with AUC values greater than 0.7 was further studied. This subset comprised four indexes, with three of them belonging to the ECG space. Two out of the four indexes presented the best ROC curves (AUC values: 0.78 and 0.75, respectively). One index belonged to the ECG space and the other one to the VCG space. Both indexes showed a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. In conclusion, the proposed indexes can favorably complement LVH diagnosis

  11. A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-based Exposure Therapy in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans with PTSD: Altered Medial Frontal Cortex and Amygdala Responses in Social-Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony King

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combat-related PTSD is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused using a novel group therapy (Mindfulness-based Exposure Therapy in Afghanistan (OEF or Iraq (OIF combat veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD (N=23 were treated with MBET (N = 14 or a comparison group therapy (Present-centered group therapy [PCGT], N = 9. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-therapy with Clinician Administered PTSD scale (CAPS. Functional neuroimaging (3 Tesla fMRI before and after therapy examined responses to emotional faces (angry, fearful, and neutral faces. Patients treated with MBET had reduced PTSD symptoms (effect size d = .92 but effect was not significantly different from PCGT (d = .43. Improvement in PTSD symptoms from Pre- to Post treatment in both treatment groups was correlated with increased activity in rostral ACC, dorsal medial PFC, and left amygdala. The MBET group showed greater increases in amygdala and fusiform gyrus responses to Angry faces, as well as increased response in left medial PFC to Fearful faces. These preliminary findings provide intriguing evidence that MBET group therapy for PTSD may lead to changes in neural processing of social-emotional threat related to symptom reduction.

  12. Tell it to a child! A brain stimulation study of the role of left inferior frontal gyrus in emotion regulation during storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Mattiassi, Alan D A; Buiatti, Tania; Marini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    In everyday life we need to continuously regulate our emotional responses according to their social context. Strategies of emotion regulation allow individuals to control time, intensity, nature and expression of emotional responses to environmental stimuli. The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is involved in the cognitive control of the selection of semantic content. We hypothesized that it might also be involved in the regulation of emotional feelings and expressions. We applied continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over LIFG or a control site before a newly-developed ecological regulation task that required participants to produce storytelling of pictures with negative or neutral valence to either a peer (unregulated condition) or a child (regulated condition). Linguistic, expressive, and physiological responses were analyzed in order to assess the effects of LIFG-cTBS on emotion regulation. Results showed that the emotion regulation context modulated the emotional content of narrative productions, but not the physiologic orienting response or the early expressive behavior to negative stimuli. Furthermore, LIFG-cTBS disrupted the text-level structuring of negative picture storytelling and the early cardiac and muscular response to negative pictures; however, it did not affect the contextual emotional regulation of storytelling. These results may suggest that LIFG is involved in the initial detection of the affective arousal of emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. TMS interferes with lexical-semantic retrieval in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus: Evidence from cyclical picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    We used TMS to investigate the contribution of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) to lexical/semantic selection and retrieval processes using a cyclical naming paradigm. Participants named pictures that were presented repeatedly across six cycles, either in semantically related or unrelated sets. Previous research has suggested that selection demands are higher for related sets, especially after repetition, since participants experience competition from the activation of semantic neighbours. In contrast, retrieval demands are greater for unrelated sets in the absence of semantic priming, particularly on the first cycle when the target names have not been previously activated. Therefore, this paradigm can reveal independent effects of (i) retrieval demands (i.e., the ease of accessing picture names from visual input) and (ii) selection/competition. We found that rTMS to LIFG and pMTG produced similar behavioural effects: stimulation of both sites disrupted picture naming performance on early cycles (when participants were less practised at producing the picture names) and for semantically-related sets (when there was the potential for increased competition and yet also facilitation from semantic neighbours). There were no effects of TMS when either retrieval or selection requirements were maximal on their own. The data therefore support the view that both LIFG and pMTG contribute to picture name retrieval, with both sites playing a critical role in mediating the semantic facilitation of naming when retrieval demands are high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Context-dependent lexical ambiguity resolution: MEG evidence for the time-course of activity in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Giovanna; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Cornelissen, Piers; Gennari, Silvia P

    An MEG study investigated the role of context in semantic interpretation by examining the comprehension of ambiguous words in contexts leading to different interpretations. We compared high-ambiguity words in minimally different contexts (to bowl, the bowl) to low-ambiguity counterparts (the tray, to flog). Whole brain beamforming revealed the engagement of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMTG). Points of interest analyses showed that both these sites showed a stronger response to verb-contexts by 200 ms post-stimulus and displayed overlapping ambiguity effects that were sustained from 300 ms onwards. The effect of context was stronger for high-ambiguity words than for low-ambiguity words at several different time points, including within the first 100 ms post-stimulus. Unlike LIFG, LPMTG also showed stronger responses to verb than noun contexts in low-ambiguity trials. We argue that different functional roles previously attributed to LIFG and LPMTG are in fact played out at different periods during processing. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions. PMID:26696865

  16. Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Baker, Laura A.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa peduncularis, right superiomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and right medial temporal regions and reduced brain tissues volumes in the right middle frontal cortex, left superior parietal lobule, and left inferior parietal lobule. Post hoc analyses of parcellated regional volumes also showed putamen enlargements to correlate with increased psychopathic traits. Consistent with earlier studies, findings suggest poor decision-making and emotional dysregulation associated with psychopathy may be due, in part, to structural anomalies in frontal and temporal regions whereas striatal structural variations may contribute to sensation-seeking and reward-driven behavior in psychopathic individuals. Future studies will help clarify how disturbances in brain maturational processes might lead to the developmental trajectory from psychopathic tendencies in adolescents to adult psychopathy. PMID:25676553

  17. Resting-State Connectivity of the Left Frontal Cortex to the Default Mode and Dorsal Attention Network Supports Reserve in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Göttler, Jens; Grimmer, Timo; Drzezga, Alexander; Áraque-Caballero, Miguel A; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Taylor, Alexander N W; Bürger, Katharina; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Müller, Claudia; Duering, Marco; Sorg, Christian; Ewers, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reserve refers to the phenomenon of relatively preserved cognition in disproportion to the extent of neuropathology, e.g., in Alzheimer's disease. A putative functional neural substrate underlying reserve is global functional connectivity of the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC, Brodmann Area 6/44). Resting-state fMRI-assessed global LFC-connectivity is associated with protective factors (education) and better maintenance of memory in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the LFC is a hub of the fronto-parietal control network that regulates the activity of other networks, the question arises whether LFC-connectivity to specific networks rather than the whole-brain may underlie reserve. We assessed resting-state fMRI in 24 MCI and 16 healthy controls (HC) and in an independent validation sample (23 MCI/32 HC). Seed-based LFC-connectivity to seven major resting-state networks (i.e., fronto-parietal, limbic, dorsal-attention, somatomotor, default-mode, ventral-attention, visual) was computed, reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance after accounting for age and hippocampal atrophy. In both samples of MCI, LFC-activity was anti-correlated with the default-mode network (DMN), but positively correlated with the dorsal-attention network (DAN). Greater education predicted stronger LFC-DMN-connectivity (anti-correlation) and LFC-DAN-connectivity. Stronger LFC-DMN and LFC-DAN-connectivity each predicted higher reserve, consistently in both MCI samples. No associations were detected for LFC-connectivity to other networks. These novel results extend our previous findings on global functional connectivity of the LFC, showing that LFC-connectivity specifically to the DAN and DMN, two core memory networks, enhances reserve in the memory domain in MCI.

  18. Resting-State Connectivity of the Left Frontal Cortex to the Default Mode and Dorsal Attention Network Supports Reserve in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Franzmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reserve refers to the phenomenon of relatively preserved cognition in disproportion to the extent of neuropathology, e.g., in Alzheimer’s disease. A putative functional neural substrate underlying reserve is global functional connectivity of the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC, Brodmann Area 6/44. Resting-state fMRI-assessed global LFC-connectivity is associated with protective factors (education and better maintenance of memory in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Since the LFC is a hub of the fronto-parietal control network that regulates the activity of other networks, the question arises whether LFC-connectivity to specific networks rather than the whole-brain may underlie reserve. We assessed resting-state fMRI in 24 MCI and 16 healthy controls (HC and in an independent validation sample (23 MCI/32 HC. Seed-based LFC-connectivity to seven major resting-state networks (i.e., fronto-parietal, limbic, dorsal-attention, somatomotor, default-mode, ventral-attention, visual was computed, reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance after accounting for age and hippocampal atrophy. In both samples of MCI, LFC-activity was anti-correlated with the default-mode network (DMN, but positively correlated with the dorsal-attention network (DAN. Greater education predicted stronger LFC-DMN-connectivity (anti-correlation and LFC-DAN-connectivity. Stronger LFC-DMN and LFC-DAN-connectivity each predicted higher reserve, consistently in both MCI samples. No associations were detected for LFC-connectivity to other networks. These novel results extend our previous findings on global functional connectivity of the LFC, showing that LFC-connectivity specifically to the DAN and DMN, two core memory networks, enhances reserve in the memory domain in MCI.

  19. A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-Based Exposure Therapy in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans with PTSD: Altered Medial Frontal Cortex and Amygdala Responses in Social–Emotional Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P.; Block, Stefanie R.; Sripada, Rebecca K.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Porter, Katherine E.; Favorite, Todd K.; Giardino, Nicholas; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here, we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused) using a novel group therapy [mindfulness-based exposure therapy (MBET)] in Afghanistan (OEF) or Iraq (OIF) combat veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD (N = 23) were treated with MBET (N = 14) or a comparison group therapy [Present-centered group therapy (PCGT), N = 9]. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-therapy with Clinician Administered PTSD scale. Functional neuroimaging (3-T fMRI) before and after therapy examined responses to emotional faces (angry, fearful, and neutral faces). Patients treated with MBET had reduced PTSD symptoms (effect size d = 0.92) but effect was not significantly different from PCGT (d = 0.43). Improvement in PTSD symptoms from pre- to post-treatment in both treatment groups was correlated with increased activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and left amygdala. The MBET group showed greater increases in amygdala and fusiform gyrus responses to Angry faces, as well as increased response in left mPFC to Fearful faces. These preliminary findings provide intriguing evidence that MBET group therapy for PTSD may lead to changes in neural processing of social–emotional threat related to symptom reduction. PMID:27703434

  20. A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-Based Exposure Therapy in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans with PTSD: Altered Medial Frontal Cortex and Amygdala Responses in Social-Emotional Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P; Block, Stefanie R; Sripada, Rebecca K; Rauch, Sheila A M; Porter, Katherine E; Favorite, Todd K; Giardino, Nicholas; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here, we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused) using a novel group therapy [mindfulness-based exposure therapy (MBET)] in Afghanistan (OEF) or Iraq (OIF) combat veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD ( N  = 23) were treated with MBET ( N  = 14) or a comparison group therapy [Present-centered group therapy (PCGT), N  = 9]. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-therapy with Clinician Administered PTSD scale. Functional neuroimaging (3-T fMRI) before and after therapy examined responses to emotional faces (angry, fearful, and neutral faces). Patients treated with MBET had reduced PTSD symptoms (effect size d  = 0.92) but effect was not significantly different from PCGT ( d  = 0.43). Improvement in PTSD symptoms from pre- to post-treatment in both treatment groups was correlated with increased activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and left amygdala. The MBET group showed greater increases in amygdala and fusiform gyrus responses to Angry faces, as well as increased response in left mPFC to Fearful faces. These preliminary findings provide intriguing evidence that MBET group therapy for PTSD may lead to changes in neural processing of social-emotional threat related to symptom reduction.

  1. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  2. DETERMINATION OF CLINICALLY RELEVANT DIFFERENCES IN FRONTAL PLANE HOP TESTS IN WOMEN'S COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL AND SOCCER PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Kelly; Hegedus, Eric J.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh‐Dung

    2017-01-01

    Background ACL injury prevention programs are less successful in female basketball players than in soccer players. Previous authors have identified anthropometric and biomechanical differences between the athletes and different sport‐specific demands, including a higher frequency of frontal plane activities in basketball. Current injury risk screening and preventive training practices do not place a strong emphasis on frontal plane activities. The medial and lateral triple hop for distance tests may be beneficial for use in the basketball population. Hypothesis/Purpose To 1) establish normative values for the medial and lateral triple hop tests in healthy female collegiate athletes, and 2) analyze differences in test scores between female basketball and soccer players. It was hypothesized that due to the frequent frontal plane demands of their sport, basketball players would exhibit greater performance during these frontal plane performance tests. Study Design Cross‐sectional. Methods Thirty‐two NCAA Division‐1 female athletes (20 soccer, 12 basketball) performed three trials each of a medial and lateral triple hop for distance test. Distances were normalized to height and mass in order to account for anthropometric differences. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to identify statistically significant main effects of sport (basketball vs. soccer), and side (right vs. left), and sport x side interactions. Results After accounting for anthropometric differences, soccer players exhibited significantly better performance than basketball players in the medial and lateral triple hop tests (p jumped farther on their left (400.3 ± 41.5 cm) than right (387.9 ± 43.4 cm) limbs, but no side differences were identified in the lateral triple hop. No significant side x sport interactions were identified. Conclusions Women's basketball players exhibit decreased performance of frontal plane hop tests when compared to women's soccer players. Additionally

  3. An unusual association of headache, epilepsy, and late-onset Kleist's pseudodepression syndrome in frontal lobe cavernoma of the cerebral left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchiglia, Domenico; Della Torre, Attilio; Murrone, Domenico; Chirchiglia, Pasquale; Marotta, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors. Psychopathological syndrome can be depression-type, pseudodepression syndrome or maniac-type, pseudomaniac syndrome. Surgical treatment of lesions like this may not always be possible due to their location in eloquent areas. In this study, we describe an unusual association of migraine-like headache, epilepsy and frontal lobe pseudodepression late-onset syndrome in the same patient. We have considered this case interesting mainly for the rarity of both a headache with migraine features and for the late onset of pseudodepression syndrome. Pathophysiology underlying migraine-like headache and that concerning the late-onset pseudodepression frontal lobe syndrome seems to be unclear. This case leads to further hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for headache syndromes and psychopathological disorders, in the specific case when caused by a cerebral frontal lobe lesion.

  4. An unusual association of headache, epilepsy, and late-onset Kleist’s pseudodepression syndrome in frontal lobe cavernoma of the cerebral left hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirchiglia D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Domenico Chirchiglia,1 Attilio Della Torre,1 Domenico Murrone,2 Pasquale Chirchiglia,3 Rosa Marotta4 1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurophysiopathology Unit, University of Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 2Neurosurgery Department, Di Venere Hospital, Bari, 3School of Medicine, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 4Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors. Psychopathological syndrome can be depression-type, pseudodepression syndrome or maniac-type, pseudomaniac syndrome. Surgical treatment of lesions like this may not always be possible due to their location in eloquent areas. In this study, we describe an unusual association of migraine-like headache, epilepsy and frontal lobe pseudodepression late-onset syndrome in the same patient. We have considered this case interesting mainly for the rarity of both a headache with migraine features and for the late onset of pseudodepression syndrome. Pathophysiology underlying migraine-like headache and that concerning the late-onset pseudodepression frontal lobe syndrome seems to be unclear. This case leads to further hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for headache syndromes and psychopathological disorders, in the specific case when caused by a cerebral frontal lobe lesion. Keywords: cerebral cavernoma, cavernous angioma, headache, frontal syndrome, pseudodepression syndrome 

  5. Preoperative neuropsychological presentation of patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Siatouni, Anna; Angelopoulos, Elias; Konstantakopoulos, George; Takousi, Maria; Sakas, Damianos E; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated whether certain cognitive deficits are associated with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) aiming to contribute with localization data to the preoperative assessment of epilepsy surgery candidates. We evaluated 34 patients with refractory FLE, 37 patients with refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and 22 healthy individuals in attention, psychomotor speed, motor function, verbal memory span, verbal fluency, response inhibition/interference, concept formation and set shifting, anticipation and planning, global memory. Neuropsychological performances of FLE and MTLE were similar, with the only exception the WCST-number of categories index, measuring mental flexibility, in which MTLE patients performed significantly worse than FLE patients. Left-FLE patients presented more perseverative responding compared to both other patient groups and healthy controls (HCs), while left-MTLE patients showed worse sorting abilities than the other epilepsy groups. Our findings suggest a weak cognitive differentiation between FLE and MTLE, probably attributed to the intricate nature of fronto-temporal connectivity frequently resulting in overlapping deficits as well as the confounding effects of seizure-related variables. In clinical practice, a highly individualized (idiographic) neuropsychological approach along with the inclusion of concurrent EEG recordings (e.g., interictal coupling) may be of help for neuropsychologists in identifying FLE patients from those with medial temporal pathology presenting frontal dysfunction as a secondary cognitive symptom.

  6. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmayer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  7. Vulnerability of the frontal and parietal regions in hypertensive patients during working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Junying; Tao, Wuhai; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension is related with cognitive decline in the elderly. The frontal-parietal executive system plays an important role in cognitive aging and is also vulnerable to damage in elderly patients with hypertension. Examination of the brain's functional characteristics in frontal-parietal regions of hypertension is likely to be important for understanding the neural mechanisms of hypertension's effect on cognitive aging. We address this issue by comparing hypertension and control-performers in a functional MRI study. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients and 32 elderly controls were tested with n-back task with two load levels. The hypertensive patients exhibited worse executive and memory abilities than control subjects. The patterns of brain activation changed under different working memory loads in the hypertensive patients, who exhibited reduced activation only in the precentral gyrus under low loads and reduced activation in the middle frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus and right precuneus under high loads. Thus, more regions of diminished activation were observed in the frontal and parietal regions with increasing task difficulty. More importantly, we found that lower activation in changed frontal and parietal regions was associated with worse cognitive function in high loads. The results demonstrate the relationship between cognitive function and frontoparietal functional activation in hypertension and their relevance to cognitive aging risk. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cognitive decline in hypertension and highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension.

  8. Transfrontoethmoidal approach to medial intraconal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapiromsak, Pakrit; Deshmukh, Pushpa; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2009-12-01

    Object The standard superior craniotomy approach through the orbital roof is obstructed by numerous muscles, nerves, and vessels. Accessing the medial intraconal space also involves considerable brain retraction. The authors present a modified approach through the frontal sinus that overcomes these limitations. Methods Seven fixed silicone-injected cadaveric specimens were dissected bilaterally. In addition to the superior orbital wall, the ethmoidal sinuses and medial orbital wall were removed. The anatomical relationships between the major neurovascular complexes in the medial intraconal space and the optic nerve were observed. Results Intraconally, working space was created both in a "superior window" between the superior oblique and levator palpebrae muscle and in a "medial window" between the superior oblique and medial rectus muscle. The superior window mainly created an ipsilateral trajectory to the deep target. The medial window, which created a contralateral trajectory, provided a more inferior view of the medial intraconal space. Removal of the medial orbital wall further widened the exposure obtained from the superior window. The combination of these working windows makes the medial surface of the optic nerve available for exploration from multiple angles. Most of the major neurovascular complexes of the posterior orbit can be retracted safely without impinging on the optic nerve. Conclusions This novel extradural transfrontoethmoidal approach affords a direct view to the medial posterior orbit without major conflicts with intraconal neurovascular structures and requires minimal brain manipulation. The approach appears to offer advantages for medially located intraconal lesions.

  9. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Hypoperfusion in the medial temporal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yu; Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Shinohara, Masao; Nadaoka, Toshihide; Totsuka, Shiro; Komatani, Akio

    1995-01-01

    This study examined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium 99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamineoxime and correlated the results with neuropsychological findings in 30 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AT dementia). Ten healthy persons served as controls. The group of mild AT dementia exhibited a significant decrease in rCBF in the lower part of the right lateral frontal lobe and in the right parietal lobe. In the group of moderate AT dementia, the significant decrease in rCBF was noted in the lower part of the bilateral frontal lobes, the parietal part of the temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the medial temporal lobe. Factor analysis for neuropsychological test revealed three factors involved in rCBF. There was a significantly positive correlation between the factor responsible for memory and recall and rCBF in the left frontal lobe, the anterior part of the lateral temporal lobe, and the medial temporal lobe. These findings suggested that disturbance of the memory circuit may exist in the medial temporal lobe and others as pathophysiology of AT dementia. (N.K.)

  10. Single-staged resections and 3D reconstructions of the nasion, glabella, medial orbital wall, and frontal sinus and bone: Long-term outcome and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciporen, Jeremy; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Mendez, Gustavo; Chen, Anton; Banerjee, Amit; Akins, Paul T; Balough, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    Aesthetic facial appearance following neurosurgical ablation of frontal fossa tumors is a primary concern for patients and neurosurgeons alike. Craniofacial reconstruction procedures have drastically evolved since the development of three-dimensional computed tomography imaging and computer-assisted programming. Traditionally, two-stage approaches for resection and reconstruction were used; however, these two-stage approaches have many complications including cerebrospinal fluid leaks, necrosis, and pneumocephalus. We present two successful cases of single-stage osteoma resection and craniofacial reconstruction in a 26-year-old female and 65-year-old male. The biopolymer implants were preselected and contoured based on imaging prior to surgery. The ideal selection of appropriate flaps for reconstruction was imperative. The flaps were well vascularized and included a pedicle for easy translocation. Using a titanium mesh biopolymer implant for reconstruction in conjunction with a forehead flap proved advantageous, and the benefits of single-stage approaches were apparent. The patients recovered quickly after the surgery with complete resection of the osteoma and good aesthetic appearance. The flap adhered to the biopolymer implant, and the cosmetic appearance years after surgery remained decent. The gap between the bone and implant was less than 2 mm. The patients are highly satisfied with the symmetrical appearance of the reconstruction. Advances in technology are allowing neurosurgeons unprecedented opportunities to design complex yet feasible single-stage craniofacial reconstructions that improve a patient's quality of life by enhancing facial contours, aesthetics, and symmetry.

  11. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  12. Temporal Lobe and Frontal-Subcortical Dissociations in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease with Verbal Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Jared J; Mareci, Thomas H; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn; Libon, David J; Price, Catherine C

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation examined verbal memory in idiopathic non-dementia Parkinson's disease and the significance of the left entorhinal cortex and left entorhinal-retrosplenial region connections (via temporal cingulum) on memory impairment in Parkinson's disease. Forty non-demented Parkinson's disease patients and forty non-Parkinson's disease controls completed two verbal memory tests--a wordlist measure (Philadelphia repeatable Verbal Memory Test) and a story measure (Logical Memory). All participants received T1-weighted and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (3T; Siemens) sequences. Left entorhinal volume and left entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity (temporal cingulum edge weight) were the primary imaging variables of interest with frontal lobe thickness and subcortical structure volumes as dissociating variables. Individuals with Parkinson's disease showed worse verbal memory, smaller entorhinal volumes, but did not differ in entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity. For Parkinson's disease entorhinal-retrosplenial edge weight had the strongest associations with verbal memory. A subset of Parkinson's disease patients (23%) had deficits (z-scores frontal-subcortical gray or frontal white matter regions. These findings argue for additional investigation into medial temporal lobe gray and white matter connectivity for understanding memory in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Unilateral spatial neglect due to right frontal lobe haematoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Maeshima, S; Funahashi, K; Ogura, M; Itakura, T; Komai, N

    1994-01-01

    Two patients with unilateral spatial neglect caused by right frontal lobe lesions underwent cerebral blood flow studies. A 54-year-old, right-handed woman developed left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect associated with cerebral haemorrhage after surgical excision of a frontal tumour. A 66-year-old, right-handed woman developed a haemorrhage in the right frontal lobe caused by rupture of an aneurysm. This was followed by left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect. In both cases, 123I-iodoamph...

  14. Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.E.; Fox, P.T.; Snyder, A.Z.; Raichle, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions

  15. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Olulade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA, is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009. Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007. Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009. Building on these studies, we here (1 investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2 compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3 examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We

  16. Mind the movement: Frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral motivation, bilateral frontal activation for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Müller, Mathias; Mühlberger, Andreas; Hewig, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown. Wacker and colleagues formulated a theory related to the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory by Gray & McNaughton. Here, relative left frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral activation system and behavior, while relative right frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral inhibition system, representing the experience of conflict. These theories were investigated with a newly developed paradigm where participants were able to move around freely in a virtual T maze via joystick while having their EEG recorded. Analyzing the influence of frontal brain activation during this virtual reality task on observable behavior for 30 participants, we found more relative left frontal brain activation during approach behavior and more relative right brain activation for withdrawal behavior of any kind. Additionally, there was more bilateral frontal brain activation when participants were engaged in behavior compared to doing nothing. Hence, this study provides evidence for the idea that frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral approach or avoidance motivation, and bilateral frontal activation stands for behavior. Additionally, observable behavior is not only determined by frontal asymmetry, but also by relevant traits. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Damage to the medial motor system in stroke patients with motor neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella eMigliaccio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Motor neglect (MN is a clinically important condition whereby patients with unilateral brain lesions fail to move their contralateral limbs, despite normal muscle strength, reflexes, and sensation. MN has been associated with various lesion sites, including the parietal and frontal cortex, the internal capsule, the lenticulostriate nuclei, and the thalamus. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that MN depends on a dysfunction of the medial motor system by performing a detailed anatomical analysis in four patients with MN.Methods. Ten patients participated in the study: four with MN, four with left visual neglect but without MN, and three patients with left hemiplegia without MN. We used specific scales for clinical and neuropsychological assessment. We drew the lesion borders directly onto the original brain images of each patient, and plotted the lesions on anatomical atlases for grey and white matter. Results. Lesion locations were highly heterogeneous in our MN patients, and included frontal and parietal sites, basal ganglia and white matter. The only consistently damaged structure across all MN patients was the cingulum bundle, a major pathway of the medial motor system important for motor initiative, and a key connection with limbic structures crucial for motivational aspects of actions. Three MN patients with additional damage to lateral fronto-parietal networks had also signs of contralesional visual neglect. The cingulum bundle was intact in all the control patients with visual neglect or hemiplegia.Conclusions. Cingulum damage may induce MN through unilateral dysfunction of the medial motor system. Additional lateral fronto-parietal dysfunction can result in the association with visual neglect.

  19. Injerto libre braquial medial Free medial arm graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martos Díaz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Entre las reconstrucciones de defectos titulares de cabeza y cuello, el injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial no ha adquirido mucha popularidad debido a las variaciones anatómicas que se reflejan en la vascularización de éste. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una descripción de la anatomía y técnica quirúrgica, así como una revisión de la literatura describiendo las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de injerto. Material y método. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con carcinoma epidermoide de mucosa yugal izquierda con afectación ganglionar ipsilateral. Se procedió a su resección con márgenes más disección cervical funcional. La reconstrucción del defecto se llevó a cabo mediante un injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial de brazo izquierdo. Discusión. Pensamos que el injerto libre braquial medial de brazo se trata de una opción más segura a la hora de la reconstrucción de defectos cervicofaciales, aportando una serie de ventajas entre las que destacan: no sacrificio de una arteria terminal, cierre primario de la zona donante, mínimo defecto estético, y poseer una piel fina, elástica y sin vello.Introduction. Free medial microvascularized arm grafts have not become very popular for the reconstruction of head and neck defects due to anatomic variations in their vascularization. Our objective was to describe the anatomy and surgical technique and to review the literature on the advantages and disadvantages of free medial arm grafts. Material and methods. We report the case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the left jugal mucosa with same-side lymph node involvement. The tumor was resected with margins and a functional cervical dissection was performed. The defect was reconstructed using a free medial microvascularized graft from the left arm. Discussion. We believe that free medial arm grafts are a safer option for the reconstruction of cervicofacial defects and that they offer

  20. Altered medial frontal feedback learning signals in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardoni, Fabio; Geisler, Daniel; King, Joseph A.; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Ritschel, Franziska; Murr, Julia; Reiter, Andrea M.F.; Rössner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N.; Kiebel, Stefan; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud In their relentless pursuit of thinness, individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in maladaptive behaviors (restrictive food choices, over-exercising) which may originate in altered decision-making and learning.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud \\ud In this fMRI study we employed computational modelling to elucidate the neural correlates of feedback learning and value-based decision making in 36 female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy volunteers (12-24 years). Participants perfor...

  1. Occipital cortex of blind individuals is functionally coupled with executive control areas of frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In congenital blindness, the occipital cortex responds to a range of nonvisual inputs, including tactile, auditory, and linguistic stimuli. Are these changes in functional responses to stimuli accompanied by altered interactions with nonvisual functional networks? To answer this question, we introduce a data-driven method that searches across cortex for functional connectivity differences across groups. Replicating prior work, we find increased fronto-occipital functional connectivity in congenitally blind relative to blindfolded sighted participants. We demonstrate that this heightened connectivity extends over most of occipital cortex but is specific to a subset of regions in the inferior, dorsal, and medial frontal lobe. To assess the functional profile of these frontal areas, we used an n-back working memory task and a sentence comprehension task. We find that, among prefrontal areas with overconnectivity to occipital cortex, one left inferior frontal region responds to language over music. By contrast, the majority of these regions responded to working memory load but not language. These results suggest that in blindness occipital cortex interacts more with working memory systems and raise new questions about the function and mechanism of occipital plasticity.

  2. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de

    2007-01-01

    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  3. The role of frontal EEG asymmetry in post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, T.; Smeets, T.J.M.; Giesbrecht, T.; Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Meijer, E.H.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry, a biomarker derived from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, has often been associated with psychological adjustment, with more left-sided frontal activity predicting approach motivation and lower levels of depression and anxiety. This suggests high relevance to

  4. Fibrous dysplasia of the frontal sinus: an uncommon cause of frontal lobe abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, D; Sahin, H

    2004-11-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of the cranial air sinuses is rarely reported in the literature. This is the first report of frontal lobe abscess (FLA) associated with fibrous dysplasia of the frontal sinus (FDFS). A 29-year-old female presented with seizures and acute confusion. Cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed fibrous dysplasia of the left frontal sinus and associated FLA. She was referred to the neurosurgical service and the abscess and dysplastic tissue were removed. Histological examination confirmed fibrous dysplasia. We review the radiological appearance of FDFS with FLA. Clinicians should be aware of the association between these two conditions.

  5. Regulatory behavior and frontal activity: Considering the role of revised-BIS in relative right frontal asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Neal, Lauren B; Threadgill, A Hunter

    2018-01-01

    Essential to human behavior are three core personality systems: approach, avoidance, and a regulatory system governing the two motivational systems. Decades of research has linked approach motivation with greater relative left frontal-cortical asymmetry. Other research has linked avoidance motivation with greater relative right frontal-cortical asymmetry. However, past work linking withdrawal motivation with greater relative right frontal asymmetry has been mixed. The current article reviews evidence suggesting that activation of the regulatory system (revised Behavioral Inhibition System [r-BIS]) may be more strongly related to greater relative right frontal asymmetry than withdrawal motivation. Specifically, research suggests that greater activation of the r-BIS is associated with greater relative right frontal activity, and reduced r-BIS activation is associated with reduced right frontal activity (greater relative left frontal activity). We review evidence examining trait and state frontal activity using EEG, source localization, lesion studies, neuronal stimulation, and fMRI supporting the idea that r-BIS may be the core personality system related to greater relative right frontal activity. In addition, the current review seeks to disentangle avoidance motivation and r-BIS as substrates of relative right frontal asymmetry. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial ...

  7. Social exclusion modulates event-related frontal theta and tracks ostracism distress in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noordt, Stefon J R; White, Lars O; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Social exclusion is a potent elicitor of distress. Previous studies have shown that medial frontal theta oscillations are modulated by the experience of social exclusion. Using the Cyberball paradigm, we examined event-related dynamics of theta power in the EEG at medial frontal sites while children aged 8-12 years were exposed to conditions of fair play and social exclusion. Using an event-related design, we found that medial frontal theta oscillations (4-8Hz) increase during both early (i.e., 200-400ms) and late (i.e., 400-800ms) processing of rejection events during social exclusion relative to perceptually identical "not my turn" events during inclusion. Importantly, we show that only for the later time window (400-800ms) slow-wave theta power tracks self-reported ostracism distress. Specifically, greater theta power at medial frontal sites to "rejection" events predicted higher levels of ostracism distress. Alpha and beta oscillations for rejection events were unrelated to ostracism distress at either 200-400ms or 400-800ms time windows. Our findings extend previous studies by showing that medial frontal theta oscillations for rejection events are a neural signature of social exclusion, linked to experienced distress in middle childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. First Metatarsal Head and Medial Eminence Widths with and Without Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Robin C; Nagesh, Darshan; Park, Hannah K; Grady, John

    2016-09-02

    Resection of the medial eminence in hallux valgus surgery is common. True hypertrophy of the medial eminence in hallux valgus is debated. No studies have compared metatarsal head width in patients with hallux valgus and control patients. We reviewed 43 radiographs with hallux valgus and 27 without hallux valgus. We measured medial eminence width, first metatarsal head width, and first metatarsal shaft width in patients with and without radiographic hallux valgus. Medial eminence width was 1.12 mm larger in patients with hallux valgus (P hallux valgus (P hallux valgus. However, frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal likely accounts for this difference.

  9. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  10. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  11. Dissociable contribution of the parietal and frontal cortex to coding movement direction and amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDavare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To reach for an object, we must convert its spatial location into an appropriate motor command, merging movement direction and amplitude. In humans, it has been suggested that this visuo-motor transformation occurs in a dorsomedial parieto-frontal pathway, although the causal contribution of the areas constituting the reaching circuit remains unknown. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in healthy volunteers to disrupt the function of either the medial intraparietal area (mIPS or dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, in each hemisphere. The task consisted in performing step-tracking movements with the right wrist towards targets located in different directions and eccentricities; the targets were either visible for the whole trial (Target-ON or flashed for 200 ms (Target-OFF. Left and right mIPS disruption led to errors in the initial direction of movements performed towards contralateral targets. These errors were corrected online in the Target-ON condition but when the target was flashed for 200 ms, mIPS TMS manifested as a larger endpoint spreading. In contrast, left PMd virtual lesions led to higher acceleration and velocity peaks - two parameters typically used to probe the planned movement amplitude - irrespective of the target position, hemifield and presentation condition; in the Target-OFF condition, left PMd TMS induced overshooting and increased the endpoint dispersion along the axis of the target direction. These results indicate that left PMd intervenes in coding amplitude during movement preparation. The critical TMS timings leading to errors in direction and amplitude were different, namely 160-100 ms before movement onset for mIPS and 100-40 ms for left PMd. TMS applied over right PMd had no significant effect. These results indicate that, during motor preparation, direction and amplitude of goal-directed movements are processed by different cortical areas, at distinct timings, and according to a specific hemispheric

  12. Medial subtalar dislocation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr KODO

    A 27- year old female patient suffered from a closed medial subtalar dislocation treated by ... injury. She presented with pain, swelling of and internal rotation of the foot in relation to the knee joint. The talus was prominent dorsolaterally. Globally the clinical appearance was that ... frequently than the lateral ones and can be.

  13. Mesial frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2012-10-01

    Mesial frontal lobe epilepsies can be divided into epilepsies arising from the anterior cingulate gyrus and those of the supplementary sensorimotor area. They provide diagnostic challenges because they often lack lateralizing or localizing features on clinical semiology and interictal and ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A number of unique semiologic features have been described over the last decade in patients with mesial frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). There are few reports of applying advanced neurophysiologic techniques such as electrical source imaging, magnetoencephalography, EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging, or analysis of high-frequency oscillations in patients with mesial FLE. Despite these diagnostic challenges, it seems that patients with mesial FLE benefit from epilepsy surgery to the same extent or even better than patients with FLE do, as a whole.

  14. Frontal Lobe Decortication (Frontal Lobectomy with Ventricular Preservation) in Epilepsy-Part 1: Anatomic Landmarks and Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hung Tzu; Da Róz, Leila Maria; Rhoton, Albert L; Castro, Luiz Henrique Martins; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2017-02-01

    An extensive frontal resection is a frequently performed neurosurgical procedure, especially for treating brain tumor and refractory epilepsy. However, there is a paucity of reports available regarding its surgical anatomy and technique. We sought to present the anatomic landmarks and surgical technique of the frontal lobe decortication (FLD) in epilepsy. The goals were to maximize the gray matter removal, spare primary and supplementary motor areas, and preserve the frontal horn. The anatomic study was based on dissections performed in 15 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads. The clinical experience with 15 patients is summarized. FLD consists of 5 steps: 1) coagulation and section of arterial branches of lateral surface; 2) paramedian subpial resection 3 cm ahead of the precentral sulcus to reach the genu of corpus callosum; 3) resection of gray matter of lateral surface, preserving the frontal horn; 4) removal of gray matter of basal surface preserving olfactory tract; 5) removal of gray matter of the medial surface under the rostrum of corpus callosum. The frontal horn was preserved in all 15 patients; 12 patients (80%) had no complications; 2 patients presented temporary hemiparesis; and 1 Rasmussen syndrome patient developed postoperative fever. The best seizure control was in cases with focal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities limited to the frontal lobe. FLD is an anatomy-based surgical technique for extensive frontal lobe resection. It presents reliable anatomic landmarks, selective gray matter removal, preservation of frontal horn, and low complication rate in our series. It can be an alternative option to the classical frontal lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Posttraumatic frontal bone osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S Heredero; Aniceto, G Sánchez; Rodríguez, I Zubillaga; Diaz, R Gutiérrez; Recuero, I I García

    2009-05-01

    We present the clinical case of a patient with open bilateral frontal sinus fractures who developed a frontal osteomyelitis. A review of the problem and management ascending to the different alternatives for central anterior skull base defects and fronto-orbital reconstruction is also presented. After extensive radical debridement of the necrotic bone, final reconstruction of the skull base was performed by using a rectus abdominis free flap. A custom-made hard tissue replacement implant was used for the fronto-orbital reconstruction. Extensive debridement is required for the treatment of frontal osteomyelitis. An appropriate isolation of the skull base from the upper aerodigestive system must be obtained to prevent continuous infectious complications. Free flaps are especially useful for skull base reconstruction when traditional methods are not available or have failed because of the lack of available tissue for vascularized reconstruction. Custom-made alloplastic implants are a good reconstructive option for large fronto-orbital defects once the infection is gone and vascularized tissue has been transferred.

  16. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus

  17. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H215O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H 2 15 O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period

  18. Dorsolateral frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ricky W; Worrell, Greg A

    2012-10-01

    Dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures often present as a diagnostic challenge. The diverse semiologies may not produce lateralizing or localizing signs and can appear bizarre and suggest psychogenic events. Unfortunately, scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often unsatisfactory. It is not uncommon that these traditional diagnostic studies are either unhelpful or even misleading. In some cases, SPECT and positron emission tomography imaging can be an effective tool to identify the origin of seizures. However, these techniques and other emerging techniques all have limitations, and new approaches are needed to improve source localization.

  19. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and risk minimizing Rationalists dominated by dlPFC • R correlates both with your own level of education and that of your parents 3 Conclusion: Empirical verification of the first derivative of NeM uncovers four different coping patterns within the range of normal behaviors with an obvious analogue...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...... et al. Gender difference in neural response to psychological stress. SCAN 2 2007, 227–233...

  20. Athletes in a Slump: Neurophysiological Evidence from Frontal Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingu Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the neurophysiological differences in athletes who suffer from a slump and other athletes who do not. Eighteen high school student athletes participated in this experiment. A subjective questionnaire was conducted to identify athletes in a slump (i.e., the slump group and not in a slump (i.e., the no-slump group. EEG data was recorded at 4 regions (left prefrontal, right prefrontal, left frontal, and right frontal. A two-way (2 groups x 4 regions ANOVA was performed on the dependent variable (i.e., frontal theta power. The findings of this study demonstrated that participants in the no-slump group showed higher frontal theta activity than their counterparts in the slump group. From the findings of this study, it is suggested that mental fatigue may cause low frontal theta activity in athletes who experience a slump. The present study makes an important contribution to the current literature by being the first to report that EEG theta power over frontal regions can be used as a marker of athletes suffering from a slump.

  1. Rare giant frontal sinus osteoma mimicking fibrous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, R P; Markey, A; Rutherford, S; Bhalla, R K

    2015-03-01

    To present the first report of a giant frontal sinus osteoma treated by excision and single-stage reconstruction with custom-made titanium cranioplasty and left orbital roof prostheses. A 31-year-old man with a history of chronic frontal sinusitis presented with a deforming, painless, midline forehead swelling of 11 years' duration, which had been treated unsuccessfully in Nigeria. Differential diagnosis included both benign and malignant bony tumours. Computerised tomography revealed a giant bony frontal sinus tumour extending beyond the sinus roof and breaching the left orbit, consistent with fibrous dysplasia. Given the extent of the tumour, open craniectomy was performed for surgical extirpation. Histological analysis identified multiple osteomas. This surgical approach achieved excellent cosmesis, with no evidence of recurrence at 12-month follow up. Forehead swelling may pose diagnostic and management dilemmas for the ENT surgeon; however, effective management is facilitated by a multidisciplinary approach.

  2. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frontal Lobe Involvement in a Task of Time-Based Prospective Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Craig P.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (PM) has been found to be negatively affected by aging, possibly as a result of declining frontal lobe (FL) function. Despite a clear retrospective component to PM tasks, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are thought to play only a secondary role in successful task completion. The present study investigated the role of…

  4. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... with cosmetic deformity of fore head (Figure 1), and he claimed that he could not get job because of ... 1: Pre-operative forontal view of patient. Figure 2: Intra operative photography of defect (A) reconstructed defect (B) ... with a cosmetic deformity of forehead on left side. (4nA and B). He was a candidate for.

  5. Atraumatic medial collateral ligament oedema in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, D.; Keogh, C.; O'Connell, M.; Zoga, A.; Rowe, D.; Shah, B.; Eustace, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and determine the prevalence of atraumatic medial collateral oedema identified in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Design and patients: Sixty patients, 30 patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 to 4) and 30 age-matched patients with atraumatic knee pain without osteoarthritis, referred for MR imaging over a 2 year period were included in the study. In each case, severity of osteoarthritis was recorded on radiographs and correlated with the presence or absence of medial collateral ligament oedema at MR imaging. Results: Medial collateral oedema was identified in 27 of the 30 patients with osteoarthritis, of whom 14 had grade 1 oedema and 13 had grade 2 oedema compared with the presence of medial collateral ligament oedema (grade 1) in only two of the 30 control patients without osteoarthritis (P<<0.0001). Conclusion: Medial collateral oedema is common in patients with osteoarthritis in the absence of trauma. When identified, medial collateral ligament oedema should be considered to be a feature of osteoarthritis and should not be incorrectly attributed to an acute traumatic injury. (orig.)

  6. Fragmented medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Cs.; Juhasz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process: (FCP) is often considered to be part of the osteochondrosis dissecans complex, but trauma and growth discrepancies between the radius and ulna are proposed as causes. There is little to clinically differentiate FCP, from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow. Pain on, flexion-extension of the elbow and lateral rotation of the paw is a little more consistent in FCP. Radiographic examination of the elbow is important despite the, fact that radiographic signs of the FCP are often nonspecific. Excessive osteoarthrosis and superimposition of the radial head and coronoid process make identification of the FCP difficult. Craniocaudal, flexed mediolateral and 25 degree craniocaudal-lateromedial views are necessary for diagnosis. Osteophyte production is more dramatic with FCP than with OCD and suggests therefore the occurrence of OCP in many cases. Although the detached process may be seen on any view, the oblique projection offers the least obstructed view. Exposure of the joint is identical to that for OCD, that means a medial approach with osteotomy of the epicondyle. In most cases the process is loose enough to be readily apparent, but in some it is necessary to exert force on the process in order to find the cleavage plane. It is necessary to remove the osteophytes as well and to inspect and irrigate the joint carefully to remove cartilage fragments before closure. Confinement is advisable for 4 weeks before returning the dog to normal activity. The outlook for function is good if the FCP is removed before secondary degenerative joint disease is well established

  7. Origami by frontal photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeang; Wu, Jiangtao; Mu, Xiaoming; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2017-04-01

    Origami structures are of great interest in microelectronics, soft actuators, mechanical metamaterials, and biomedical devices. Current methods of fabricating origami structures still have several limitations, such as complex material systems or tedious processing steps. We present a simple approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) origami structures by the frontal photopolymerization method, which can be easily implemented by using a commercial projector. The concept of our method is based on the volume shrinkage during photopolymerization. By adding photoabsorbers into the polymer resin, an attenuated light field is created and leads to a nonuniform curing along the thickness direction. The layer directly exposed to light cures faster than the next layer; this nonuniform curing degree leads to nonuniform curing-induced volume shrinkage. This further introduces a nonuniform stress field, which drives the film to bend toward the newly formed side. The degree of bending can be controlled by adjusting the gray scale and the irradiation time, an easy approach for creating origami structures. The behavior is examined both experimentally and theoretically. Two methods are also proposed to create different types of 3D origami structures.

  8. Minimally invasive medial supraorbital, combined subfrontal-interhemispheric approach to the anterior communicating artery complex-a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessberger, Alexander; Baumann, F; Nevzati, E; Kothbauer, K F; Fandino, J; Muroi, C

    2017-06-01

    In selected cases, microsurgical clipping remains a valuable treatment alternative to endovascular occlusion of anterior communicating artery (AComA) aneurysms. Their clipping is challenging and carries a risk of postsurgical cognitive impairment. We evaluate the microsurgical anatomy of a new, minimally invasive combined interhemispheric-subfrontal approach to the AComA complex via a medial supraorbital craniotomy. In this descriptive anatomic study, four alcohol-embedded, silicon-injected human cadaver heads were used. In each of the two cadavers, the AComA complex was approached from either the right or left side. An operating microscope and standard microsurgical instruments were used. After a medial eyebrow incision, a medial supraorbital minicraniotomy was performed. The frontal sinus was opened and cranialized. Following the dural opening, a subfrontal arachnoid dissection was performed to identify the optico-carotid complex. By following the A1 segment, a low-lying AComA complex could be visualized. Shifting the corridor towards the midline enabled an interhemispheric dissection. This dissection resulted in a wide superior-inferior corridor. Higher-lying AComA complexes could also be visualized. The achieved exposure of the AComA complex would allow safe dissection and clipping of low- and high-lying AComA aneurysms, with minimal retraction and preservation of the surrounding anatomical structures, in particular the perforators. We demonstrate the anatomy of a novel approach for surgical clipping of AComA aneurysms. Our study suggests that this approach provides good exposure without concomitant structural and vascular injury and thus might reduce the risk of procedure-related morbidity.

  9. Reduced frontal cortex thickness and cortical volume associated with pathological narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Sang, Na; Wang, Yongchao; Hou, Xin; Huang, Hui; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Jinfu; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-07-22

    Pathological narcissism is often characterized by arrogant behavior, a lack of empathy, and willingness to exploit other individuals. Generally, individuals with high levels of narcissism are more likely to suffer mental disorders. However, the brain structural basis of individual pathological narcissism trait among healthy people has not yet been investigated with surface-based morphometry. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness (CT), cortical volume (CV), and individual pathological narcissism in a large healthy sample of 176 college students. Multiple regression was used to analyze the correlation between regional CT, CV, and the total Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) score, adjusting for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. The results showed that the PNI score was significantly negatively associated with CT and CV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, key region of the central executive network, CEN), which might be associated with impaired emotion regulation processes. Furthermore, the PNI score showed significant negative associations with CV in the right postcentral gyrus, left medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and the CT in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFG, overlap with social brain network), which may be related to impairments in social cognition. Together, these findings suggest a unique structural basis for individual differences in pathological narcissism, distributed across different gray matter regions of the social brain network and CEN. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Working memory and left medial temporal cortical thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Kubo, Tadeu Takao Almodovar; Regalla, Maria Angélica; Mesquita, Cíntia Machado; Coutinho, Gabriel; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Figueiredo, Otávio; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Alexandra Prüfer de Queiroz Campos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To perform a pilot study to investigate the association between working memory and cortical thickness in a sample of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods Seventeen children aged 7-10 years diagnosed with ADHD and 16 healthy children underwent a magnetic resonance scan for cortical thickness measurements. Data was correlated with working memory performance using the Backwards Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. ...

  12. Temporary Frontal Paralysis Secondary to Blunt Trauma Frontal Sinus Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stefan; Hearn, Matthew; Kherani, Safeena; Macdonald, Kristian I.

    2017-01-01

    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are relatively uncommon and can be challenging for trauma surgeons to manage. Patients with FSF typically present with facial swelling, pain, and nasofrontal ecchymosis. Here we present a rare case of a patient with FSF and anterior table fracture where the main presenting symptom was bilateral frontal paralysis. We outline our management strategy and review the current literature in regard to management of FSF. PMID:28573060

  13. Symptomatic Os Subtibiale Associated with Chronic Pain Around the Medial Malleolus in a Young Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliev Alexandar A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An os subtibiale is a rare accessory bone located below or behind the medial malleolus. Herein we present a rare case of a painful os subtibiale in a young triathlete who presented with pain, redness and swelling below his left medial malleolus. Plain radiographs and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed a well-defined oval bone distal to the left medial malleolus. After conservative treatment failed, the ossicle was excised in an open surgery with complete resolution of symptoms. This case report emphasizes the need for clinical awareness of different anatomical variations of the bones of the foot.

  14. Depression symptom dimensions and asymmetrical frontal cortical activity while anticipating reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D; Kessel, Ellen M; Klein, Daniel N; Shankman, Stewart A

    2018-01-01

    Unipolar depression has been characterized as involving diminished approach motivation and reward sensitivity. A psychophysiological indicator of approach motivation involves an asymmetry in frontal EEG activity, such that greater left relative to right frontal cortical activity indicates increased approach motivation. Consistent with the perspective of reduced approach motivation tendencies, depression has been associated with decreased relative left frontal cortical activity. To date, supporting research has primarily relied on categorical diagnoses or composite symptom counts. However, given the heterogeneity in depression, it is unclear what specific symptom dimensions relate to decreased relative left frontal cortical activity. The present study examined the association between multiple depression symptom dimensions and asymmetrical frontal cortical activity while anticipating reward in separate undergraduate (n = 75) and clinical samples (current major depressive disorder [n = 68] and never depressed controls [n = 67]). All participants completed the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms, a self-report measure of factor-analytically derived symptom dimensions. Frontal cortical activity was assessed during a computerized slot machine task while participants anticipated potential monetary reward or no incentive. In undergraduates with low depression symptoms and never depressed controls, reward trials relative to no-incentive trials elicited greater relative left frontal cortical activity. Furthermore, in both samples across all participants, increased dysphoria and lassitude symptoms were associated with decreased relative left frontal cortical activity while anticipating reward. The present study suggests that depression symptoms consistent with motivational disengagement are associated with decreased relative left frontal cortical activity. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. A comparative study of frontal bone morphology among Pleistocene hominin fossil groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athreya, Sheela

    2009-12-01

    Features of the frontal bone that are conventionally used to distinguish among fossil hominin groups were quantitatively examined. Fifty-five fossil crania dating from the early to the late Pleistocene were analyzed. Using a modified pantograph, outlines of the frontal bone were collected along the midsagittal and two parasagittal planes. The profile from nasion to bregma, as well as two profiles above the medial and lateral sections of the orbit, respectively, extending from the orbital margin to the coronal suture were traced. The outlines were measured using Elliptical Fourier Function Analysis (EFFA), which enabled a quantification of aspects of the frontal bone that have historically been described primarily in nonmetric or linear terms. Four measurements were obtained: 1) overall morphology as expressed in the Fourier harmonic amplitudes; 2) maximum projection of the supraorbital torus at three points along the browridge (glabella and the medial and lateral aspects of the torus above the orbit); 3) maximum distance of the frontal squama from the frontal chord, capturing forehead curvature; and 4) nasion-bregma chord length. The results indicate that the midsagittal profile is significantly different among all Pleistocene groups in analyses that include both size and shape, as well as size-adjusted data. Homo erectus is significantly different from the late Pleistocene groups (Neandertals and early modern H. sapiens) in glabellar projection. Anatomically modern humans are significantly different from all other groups in both raw and size-standardized analyses of all three outlines that captured overall morphology, as well as forehead curvature and lateral supraorbital torus prominence, and middle Pleistocene Homo are significantly different in both medial and lateral overall parasagittal form. However, for the majority of analyses there were no significant differences among the Pleistocene archaic groups in supraorbital torus projection, frontal squama

  16. Parallel pathways from whisker and visual sensory cortices to distinct frontal regions of mouse neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Varun; Kyriakatos, Alexandros; Mateo, Celine; Jaeger, Dieter; Petersen, Carl C H

    2017-07-01

    The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices. In addition, secondary hotspots in the frontal cortex were evoked by whisker and visual stimulation, with the frontal hotspot for whisker deflection being more anterior and lateral compared to the frontal hotspot evoked by visual stimulation. Investigating axonal projections, we found that the somatosensory whisker cortex and the visual cortex directly innervated frontal cortex, with visual cortex axons innervating a region medial and posterior to the innervation from somatosensory cortex, consistent with the location of sensory responses in frontal cortex. In turn, the axonal outputs of these two frontal cortical areas innervate distinct regions of striatum, superior colliculus, and brainstem. Sensory input, therefore, appears to map onto modality-specific regions of frontal cortex, perhaps participating in distinct sensorimotor transformations, and directing distinct motor outputs.

  17. Frontal brain asymmetry as a marker of depression and effectiveness of TMS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, D.; Lithgow, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Resting frontal brain electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry has been hypothesi sed as a diagnostic marker for depression. A number of studies have shown that depressed individuals are characterised by diminished left sided activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is indicated by greater left than right alpha-band power. Relative left frontal region activity is believed to be associated with positive approach related behaviour and relative right frontal activity is seen to be linked to negative withdrawal related behaviour. In this study, frontal brain EEG was recorded from 17 depressed and 19 control subjects, from which frontal brain asymmetry ratios were calculated. The results confirmed the trend of relative left anterior hypoaclivation for individuals with depression compared to the healthy controls. This study also looked at beta and theta band ratios and found theta for depressed is predominantly negative, while the control group dis played mainly positive values. Beta comparison showed little significant difference between control and depressed groups. In addition, there have been few studies that examined frontal brain asymmetry in depression soon after treatment to gauge its effectiv ness. In a very preliminary study, the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy on the alpha band frontal brain asymmetry ratio for 5 depl'essed subjects before and after treatment found a slight increase in FBA ratio for 4 subjects. Further research and a larger subject group is required to validate these results.

  18. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, phunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dysregulated left inferior parietal activity in schizophrenia and depression: functional connectivity and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika I. Müller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal cortex (IPC is a heterogeneous region that is known to be involved in a multitude of diverse different tasks and processes, though its contribution to these often-complex functions is yet poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that patients with depression failed to deactivate the left IPC during processing of congruent audiovisual information. We now found the same dysregulation (same region and condition in schizophrenia. By using task-independent (resting state and task-dependent (MACM analyses we aimed at characterizing this particular region with regard to its connectivity and function. Across both approaches, results revealed functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal seed region with bilateral IPC, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PrC/PCC, medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, left middle frontal (MFG as well as inferior frontal (IFG gyrus. Network-level functional characterization further revealed that on the one hand, all interconnected regions are part of a network involved in memory processes. On the other hand, sub-networks are formed when emotion, language, social cognition and reasoning processes are required. Thus, the IPC-region that is dysregulated in both depression and schizophrenia is functionally connected to a network of regions which, depending on task demands may form sub-networks. These results therefore indicate that dysregulation of left IPC in depression and schizophrenia might not only be connected to deficits in audiovisual integration, but is possibly also associated to impaired memory and deficits in emotion processing in these patient groups.

  20. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period.

  1. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao [Nishinomiya Municipal Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  2. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  3. Traumatic fragmented medial coronoid process in a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, H S; Wheeler, J L; Manley, P A

    2009-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) is a disease process that has not previously been reported in toy-breed dogs. This report describes a presumptive case of FMCP in a 14-month-old Chihuahua that was presented for evaluation approximately four weeks following acute onset of moderate lameness in the left forelimb. Definitive diagnosis of a fragmented medial coronoid process was based upon computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan also demonstrated moderate joint incongruity in the affected elbow. Surgical removal of the fragment and subtotal coronoidectomy were performed via a medial arthrotomy. An ulnar ostectomy was also performed to address joint incongruity. Histology of specimens removed at surgery did not demonstrate evidence of microdamage as characteristic of FMCP in large breed dogs, and instead, suggested that the fracture was acute and traumatic in nature. Rapid return to function was observed following surgery.

  4. Differences in the neural correlates of frontal lobe tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Kato, Yuka; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the brain regions correlated with the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB scores. Age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Statistical thresholds were set to uncorrected P-values of 0.001 at the voxel level and 0.05 at the cluster level. The EXIT25 score correlated inversely with the regional grey matter volume in the left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann areas 6, 9, 44, and 45). The CLOX1 score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11) and the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40). The FAB score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6). The left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 9) and the right lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 46) were identified as common brain regions that showed association with EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based only a voxel-level threshold. The results of this study suggest that the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB may be associated with the distinct neural correlates of the frontal cortex. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. Rostro-Caudal Organization of Connectivity between Cingulate Motor Areas and Lateral Frontal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary views, the lateral frontal cortex is organized along a rostro-caudal functional axis with increasingly complex cognitive/behavioral control implemented rostrally, and increasingly detailed motor control implemented caudally. Whether the medial frontal cortex follows the same organization remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the functional connectivity of the 3 cingulate motor areas (CMAs in the human brain with the lateral frontal cortex was investigated. First, the CMAs and their representations of hand, tongue, and eye movements were mapped via task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Second, using resting-state fMRI, their functional connectivity with lateral prefrontal and lateral motor cortical regions of interest (ROIs were examined. Importantly, the above analyses were conducted at the single-subject level to account for variability in individual cingulate morphology. The results demonstrated a rostro-caudal functional organization of the CMAs in the human brain that parallels that in the lateral frontal cortex: the rostral CMA has stronger functional connectivity with prefrontal regions and weaker connectivity with motor regions; conversely, the more caudal CMAs have weaker prefrontal and stronger motor connectivity. Connectivity patterns of the hand, tongue and eye representations within the CMAs are consistent with that of their parent CMAs. The parallel rostral-to-caudal functional organization observed in the medial and lateral frontal cortex could likely contribute to different hierarchies of cognitive-motor control.

  6. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract

  7. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  8. Medial collateral ligament healing one year after a concurrent medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament injury: an interdisciplinary study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, T; Levine, R E; Woo, S L; Niyibizi, C; Kavalkovich, K W; Weaver-Green, C M

    1996-03-01

    The optimal treatment for concurrent injuries to the medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments has not been determined, despite numerous clinical and laboratory studies. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of surgical repair of the medial collateral ligament on its biomechanical and biochemical properties 52 weeks after such injuries. In the left knee of 12 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, the medial collateral ligament was torn and the anterior cruciate ligament was transected and then reconstructed. This is an experimental model previously developed in our laboratory. In six rabbits, the torn ends of the medial collateral ligament were repaired, and in the remaining six rabbits, the ligament was not repaired. Fifty-two weeks after injury, we examined varus-valgus and anterior-posterior knee stability; structural properties of the femur-medial collateral ligament-tibia complex; and mechanical properties, collagen content, and mature collagen crosslinking of the medial collateral ligament. We could not detect significant differences between repair and nonrepair groups for any biomechanical or biochemical property. Our data support clinical findings that when the medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments are injured concurrently and the anterior cruciate ligament is reconstructed, conservative treatment of the ruptured medial collateral ligament can result in successful healing.

  9. [Brodmann Areas 8 and 9 Including the Frontal Eye Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning. The frontal eye field which occupies the most caudal region of area 8, is responsible for visual attention and control of eye movements. The lateral area 9 and area 9/46 are functionally similar to area 46 and play important roles in executive control. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) comprises the medial regions of areas 8 and 9 and is related to "Theory of Mind" and social cognition. The DMPFC is also known to show "default mode of brain activity" (i.e., more activity during rest than during cognitive task).

  10. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  11. Human Frontal-Subcortical Circuit and Asymmetric Belief Updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsiana, Christina; Charpentier, Caroline J; Garrett, Neil; Cohen, Michael X; Sharot, Tali

    2015-10-21

    How humans integrate information to form beliefs about reality is a question that has engaged scientists for centuries, yet the biological system supporting this process is not well understood. One of the most salient attributes of information is valence. Whether a piece of news is good or bad is critical in determining whether it will alter our beliefs. Here, we reveal a frontal-subcortical circuit in the left hemisphere that is simultaneously associated with enhanced integration of favorable information into beliefs and impaired integration of unfavorable information. Specifically, for favorable information, stronger white matter connectivity within this system, particularly between the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left subcortical regions (including the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, putamen, and pallidum), as well as insular cortex, is associated with greater change in belief. However, for unfavorable information, stronger connectivity within this system, particularly between the left IFG and left pallidum, putamen, and insular cortex, is associated with reduced change in beliefs. These novel results are consistent with models suggesting that partially separable processes govern learning from favorable and unfavorable information. Beliefs of what may happen in the future are important, because they guide decisions and actions. Here, we illuminate how structural brain connectivity is related to the generation of subjective beliefs. We focus on how the valence of information is related to people's tendency to alter their beliefs. By quantifying the extent to which participants update their beliefs in response to desirable and undesirable information and relating those measures to the strength of white matter connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging, we characterize a left frontal-subcortical system that is associated simultaneously with greater belief updating in response to favorable information and reduced belief updating in response to

  12. Timing of emotion representation in right and left occipital region: Evidence from combined TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Rosanova, Mario; Casali, Adenauer G; Papagno, Costanza; Romero Lauro, Leonor J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies provide evidence of hemispheric differences in processing faces and, in particular, emotional expressions. However, the timing of emotion representation in the right and left hemisphere is still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) was used to explore cortical responsiveness during behavioural tasks requiring processing of either identity or expression of faces. Single-pulse TMS was delivered 100ms after face onset over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier; right premotor cortex (rPMC) was also stimulated as control site. The same face stimuli with neutral, happy and fearful expressions were presented in separate blocks and participants were asked to complete either a facial identity or facial emotion matching task. Analyses performed on posterior face specific EEG components revealed that mPFC-TMS reduced the P1-N1 component. In particular, only when an explicit expression processing was required, mPFC-TMS interacted with emotion type in relation to hemispheric side at different timing; the first P1-N1 component was affected in the right hemisphere whereas the later N1-P2 component was modulated in the left hemisphere. These findings support the hypothesis that the frontal cortex exerts an early influence on the occipital cortex during face processing and suggest a different timing of the right and left hemisphere involvement in emotion discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative electroencephalographic and neuropsychological investigation of an alternative measure of frontal lobe executive functions: the Figure Trail Making Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S; Drago, Valeria; Ferguson, Brad J; Harrison, Patti Kelly; Harrison, David W

    2015-12-01

    The most frequently used measures of executive functioning are either sensitive to left frontal lobe functioning or bilateral frontal functioning. Relatively little is known about right frontal lobe contributions to executive functioning given the paucity of measures sensitive to right frontal functioning. The present investigation reports the development and initial validation of a new measure designed to be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, the Figure Trail Making Test (FTMT). The FTMT, the classic Trial Making Test, and the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) were administered to 42 right-handed men. The results indicated a significant relationship between the FTMT and both the TMT and the RFFT. Performance on the FTMT was also related to high beta EEG over the right frontal lobe. Thus, the FTMT appears to be an equivalent measure of executive functioning that may be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning. Applications for use in frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other patient populations are discussed.

  14. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. RESULTS: Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001. When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207. Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  15. The relationship between chondromalacia patella, medial meniscal tear and medial periarticular bursitis in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resorlu Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears.

  16. The regional neuronal activity in left posterior middle temporal gyrus is correlated with the severity of chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Dunren; Gao, Wei; Sun, Xichun; Xie, Haizhu; Zhang, Gang; Li, Jian; Li, Honglun; Li, Kefeng

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most disabling cognitive deficits affecting >2 million people in the USA. The neuroimaging characteristics of chronic aphasic patients (>6 months post onset) remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the regional signal changes of spontaneous neuronal activity of brain and the inter-regional connectivity in chronic aphasia. Resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to obtain fMRI data from 17 chronic aphasic patients and 20 healthy control subjects in a Siemens Verio 3.0T MR Scanner. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was determined, which directly reflects the regional neuronal activity. The functional connectivity (FC) of fMRI was assessed using a seed voxel linear correlation approach. The severity of aphasia was evaluated by aphasia quotient (AQ) scores obtained from Western Aphasia Battery test. Compared with normal subjects, aphasic patients showed decreased ALFF values in the regions of left posterior middle temporal gyrus (PMTG), left medial prefrontal gyrus, and right cerebellum. The ALFF values in left PMTG showed strong positive correlation with the AQ score (coefficient r =0.79, P temporal gyrus (BA20), fusiform gyrus (BA37), and inferior frontal gyrus (BA47\\45\\44). Left PMTG might play an important role in language dysfunction of chronic aphasia, and ALFF value might be a promising indicator to evaluate the severity of aphasia.

  17. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Frontal assessment battery and frontal atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Miyata, Jun; Obi, Tomokazu; Kubota, Manabu; Yoshizumi, Miho; Yamazaki, Kinya; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Murai, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the potential utility of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) in assessing cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the association between the FAB score and regional gray matter volume, and ascertained whether the regional brain alterations related to cognitive impairments occur in relatively mild stage of ALS. Materials and Methods Twenty?four ALS patients with a Mini?Mental State Examination score of >23, a normal score ...

  19. Case report 483: Discoid lateral meniscus (DLM), medially displaced, with complex tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, M.A.; Buckwalter, K.A.; Braunstein, E.M.; Wojtys, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    A case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with persistent pain in the left knee was demonstrated to have a discoid lateral meniscus (DLM). The sagittal MR images demonstrated the oval shape of the meniscus, consistent with the typical arthrographic appearance. The coronal images showed that the main substance of the meniscus was displaced medially, with overgrowth of the articular cartilage at the lateral aspect of the joint. The medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle was concave to accommodate the abnormal meniscus. These findings are consistent with long-standing, medial displacement of the torn meniscus. The literature concerning DLM, an uncommon variant, was reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  20. Frontal lobe seizures: from clinical semiology to localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; McGonigal, Aileen; Trébuchon, Agnès; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Giusiano, Bernard; Chauvel, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Frontal lobe seizures are difficult to characterize according to semiologic and electrical features. We wished to establish whether different semiologic subgroups can be identified and whether these relate to anatomic organization. We assessed all seizures from 54 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy that were explored with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during presurgical evaluation. Semiologic features and concomitant intracerebral EEG changes were documented and quantified. These variables were examined using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, and semiologic features correlated with anatomic localization. Four main groups of patients were identified according to semiologic features, and correlated with specific patterns of anatomic seizure localization. Group 1 was characterized clinically by elementary motor signs and involved precentral and premotor regions. Group 2 was characterized by a combination of elementary motor signs and nonintegrated gestural motor behavior, and involved both premotor and prefrontal regions. Group 3 was characterized by integrated gestural motor behavior with distal stereotypies and involved anterior lateral and medial prefrontal regions. Group 4 was characterized by seizures with fearful behavior and involved the paralimbic system (ventromedial prefrontal cortex ± anterior temporal structures). The groups were organized along a rostrocaudal axis, representing bands within a spectrum rather than rigid categories. The more anterior the seizure organization, the more likely was the occurrence of integrated behavior during seizures. Distal stereotypies were associated with the most anterior prefrontal localizations, whereas proximal stereotypies occurred in more posterior prefrontal regions. Meaningful categorization of frontal seizures in terms of semiology is possible and correlates with anatomic organization along a rostrocaudal axis, in keeping with current hypotheses of frontal lobe hierarchical organization

  1. Orbital cortical approach to lesions around the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle: indication and surgical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha; Ramdasi, Raghvendra; Patni, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    An orbital cortical approach to lesions in the region of the frontal horn is described on the basis of surgical experience with five cases and dissections of three cadaveric brain specimens. The approach involves cortical incision over the orbital surface of the frontal brain and directing the surgical trajectory superiorly. The possible indications of the approach and the critical surgical parameters are described. To assess the landmarks that could be used to employ the approach, three formalin-fixed frozen cadaveric brains were appropriately dissected. A number of parameters were analysed to identify the safe entry points and the trajectory to approach the frontal horn. Five lesions located in the region of the frontal horn were operated upon by employing the discussed approach. The frontal horn is located at the depth of approximately 18 mm (range, 17-20 mm) from the orbital surface of the frontal brain. In a lateral perspective, the tip of the frontal horn is in line with the tip of the temporal pole. Wide opening of the Sylvian fissure, relaxation of the brain and lateral basal frontal exposure can be used effectively to obtain a suitable angulation for conduct of surgery. Avoidance of olfactory tracts and Heubner's perforating artery at the site of medial orbital gyrus cortical incision and appropriately directing the corticectomy that avoids the association fibre tracts, caudate head and internal capsule can lead to a safe exposure of the frontal horn. The approach is suitable for lesions involving or in the vicinity of the inferior aspect of the frontal horn and in the region of the caudate head. Neuronavigation can be of assistance during surgery and avoid critical misdirection. All the five lesions were treated without consequence. For selected indications, an inferior frontal or orbital cortical approach can be used effectively and safely to approach lesions in relation to the frontal horn. The approach needs to be precise to avoid injury to vital

  2. Altered neuronal spontaneous activity correlates with glutamate concentration in medial prefrontal cortex of major depressed females: An fMRI-MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliu; Tang, Yingying; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Sheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Xuanhong; Zhu, Yajing; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Junjie; Tong, Shanbao; Wang, Jijun; Li, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is twice more prevalent in females than in males. Yet, there have only been a few studies on the functional brain activity in female MDD patients and the detailed mechanisms underlying their neurobiology merit further investigations. In the present work, we used combined fMRI-MRS methods to investigate the altered intrinsic neuronal activity and its association with neurotransmitter concentration in female MDD patients. The whole brain amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed to explore the alteration of intrinsic neuronal signals in MDD females (n=11) compared with female healthy controls (n=11). With a specific interest in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) area, we quantified the concentration of amino acid neurotransmitters including GABA ((r-aminobutyric acid)), Glu (Glutamate), and Glx (Glutamate + Glutamine) using (1)H-MRS technology. Moreover, we conducted Pearson correlation analysis between the ALFF value and neurotransmitter concentration to find out the functional-biochemical relation in mPFC area. The relationship between the metabolites concentration and MDD symptomatology was also examined through Spearman correlation analysis. We found that the female MDD patients showed increased neuronal spontaneous activity in left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left middle frontal cortex, with decreased ALFF level in right putamen and right middle temporal cortex (pconcentration in female MDD patients (r=0.67, p=0.023). The Glu concentration in mPFC was positively correlated with patients HAMA scores (r=0.641, p=0.033). The relatively small sample size, metabolite information acquired only in mPFC and not all patients were unmedicated are the major limitations of our study. Using combined fMRI-MRS methods, we found increased spontaneous neuronal activity was correlated with Glu concentration in mPFC of female MDD patients. Other

  3. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given in...... in this note. The data set is available in two versions: i) low resolution, given in the zip-file electronic version, ii) high, given in the publication link....

  4. The influence of sole wedges on frontal plane knee kinetics, in isolation and in combination with representative rigid and semi-rigid ankle-foot-orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Thomas; Blumentritt, Siegmar; Drewitz, Heiko; Freslier, Marie

    2006-07-01

    In earlier stages of knee osteoarthritis orthotic treatments with knee orthoses or modified footwear are often considered. Although the load reducing effects of knee orthoses have been well established, wearing modified footwear would be more comfortable for the patient and less encumbering. The effect of modified footwear on the frontal load of the knee is controversial. This article describes the effect of medial or lateral shoe wedges alone or together with two different types of ankle-stabilizing orthoses. The effect on frontal knee loading was measured during standing and walking with medially and laterally placed wedges under the sole of the shoe. The wedges were also combined with two types of orthotic devices - an Ankle-Foot-Orthosis that was rigid in the frontal plane but allowed unrestricted sagittal plane motion and an ankle support that was semi-rigid in the frontal plane. Joint loading of 10 healthy persons (mean (standard deviation): age 34 (9) years, height 178 (4)cm, mass 73 (9)kg) was investigated by means of a special measuring device that accurately determines static loads (Lasar Posture) and with instrumented gait analysis (Vicon/Kistler). Using a lateral wedge under the sole of the shoe (without orthotic support) showed no significant reduction in the mean maximal knee moment in the frontal plane. Adding an Ankle-Foot-Orthosis that is rigid in the frontal plane resulted in significant reduction in the maximal frontal moment from 0.54 Nm/kg to 0.38Nm/kg (p0.01). Using a medial wedge, without and with Ankle-Foot-Orthosis, produced a significant increase in the maximal frontal moment to 0.59 Nm/kg (p0.05) or 0.67 Nm/kg (p0.01), respectively. These results suggest that the application of a sole wedge significantly influences frontal knee loading when used in combination with an Ankle-Foot-Orthosis that is rigid in the frontal plane.

  5. Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, S.Q.; Chung, C.P.; Liao, Y.C.; Wang, P.N.; Lee, Y.C.; Liu, H.C.; Liu, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who

  6. Historical Evolution of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, W.A.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the frontal lobes and the related frontal lobe syndrome have not been described in detail until relatively late in history. Slowly, the combination of knowledge from animal models, the detailed examination of symptoms after traumatic frontal lobe injuries, and the rise and fall of

  7. NEURAL CORRELATES FOR APATHY: FRONTAL - PREFRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICAL - SUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional invovlement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in every day life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC and basal ganglia; emotional affective apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; cognitive apathy may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of autoactivation may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to grey matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies and a reduced speedness in action decsion, major resposnible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control.We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  8. Neural Correlates for Apathy: Frontal-Prefrontal and Parietal Cortical- Subcortical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Signori, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basal ganglia; “emotional affective” apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; “cognitive apathy” may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of “autoactivation” may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to gray matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies, and a reduced speedness in action decision, major responsible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control. We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  9. Gender moderates the association between dorsal medial prefrontal cortex volume and depressive symptoms in a subclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joshua M; Depetro, Emily; Maxwell, Joshua; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-30

    Major depressive disorder is associated with lower medial prefrontal cortex volumes. The role that gender might play in moderating this relationship and what particular medial prefrontal cortex subregion(s) might be implicated is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess dorsal, ventral, and anterior cingulate regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in a normative sample of male and female adults. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to measure these three variables. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for correlations between medial prefrontal gray matter volume and depressive traits. The dorsal medial frontal cortex was correlated with greater levels of depression, but not anxiety and stress. Gender moderates this effect: in males greater levels of depression were associated with lower dorsal medial prefrontal volumes, but in females no relationship was observed. The results indicate that even within a non-clinical sample, male participants with higher levels of depressive traits tend to have lower levels of gray matter volume in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Our finding is consistent with low dorsal medial prefrontal volume contributing to the development of depression in males. Future longitudinal work is needed to substantiate this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Medial tibial “spackling” to lessen chronic medial tibial soft tissue irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Martin, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, utilitarian reconstructive treatment option known as tibial “spackling” for chronic, localized medial joint line pain corresponding with progressive radiographic peripheral medial tibial bone loss beneath a well-fixed revision total knee arthroplasty tibial baseplate. It is believed that this localized pain is due to chronic irritation of the medial capsule and collateral ligament from the prominent medial edge of the tibial component. In the setting of failed nonoperative treatment, our experience with utilizing bone cement to reconstruct the medial tibial bone defect and create a smooth medial tibial surface has been successful in eliminating chronic medial soft tissue irritation.

  12. Chronic Ritalin Administration during Adulthood Increases Serotonin Pool in Rat Medial Frontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Daniali, Samira; Nahavandi, Arezo; Madjd, Zahra; Shahbazi, Ali; Niknazar, Somayeh; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ritalin has high tendency to be abused. It has been the main indication to control attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The college students may seek for it to improve their memory, decrease the need for sleep (especially during exams), which at least partially, can be related to serotonergic system. Therefore, it seems worthy to evaluate the effect of Ritalin intake on mature brain. There are many studies on Ritalin effect on developing brain, but only few studies on adults ...

  13. Visualization of the medial forebrain bundle using diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian eHana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique that enables physicians the portrayal of white matter tracts in vivo. We used this technique in order to depict the medial forebrain bundle in 15 consecutive patients between 2012 and 2015. Men and women of all ages were included. There were 6 women and 9 men. The mean age was 58,6 years (39-77. Nine patients were candidates for an eventual deep brain stimulation. Eight of them suffered from Parkinson`s disease and one had multiple sclerosis. The remaining 6 patients suffered from different lesions which were situated in the frontal lobe. These were 2 metastasis, 2 meningiomas, 1 cerebral bleeding and 1 glioblastoma. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI- sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 x 200 mm², slice thickness 2 mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 x 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 x 2 x 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-value was 800 s/mm². The maximal angle was 50°. Additional scanning time was less than 9 minutes. We were able to visualize the medial forebrain bundle in 12 of our patients bilaterally and in the remaining 3 patients we depicted the medial forebrain bundle on one side. It was the contralateral side of the lesion. These were 2 meningiomas and one metastasis. Portrayal of the medial forebrain bundle is possible for everyday routine for neurosurgical interventions. As part of the reward circuitry it might be of substantial importance for neurosurgeons during deep brain stimulation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore it might explain at a certain extent character changes in patients with lesions in the frontal lobe. Surgery in this part of the brain should always take the preservation of this white matter tract into account.

  14. Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, S; Eickhoff, S B; Mohlberg, H; Caspers, S; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K

    2014-06-01

    The frontal pole has more expanded than any other part in the human brain as compared to our ancestors. It plays an important role for specifically human behavior and cognitive abilities, e.g. action selection (Kovach et al., 2012). Evidence about divergent functions of its medial and lateral part has been provided, both in the healthy brain and in psychiatric disorders. The anatomical correlates of such functional segregation, however, are still unknown due to a lack of stereotaxic, microstructural maps obtained in a representative sample of brains. Here we show that the human frontopolar cortex consists of two cytoarchitectonically and functionally distinct areas: lateral frontopolar area 1 (Fp1) and medial frontopolar area 2 (Fp2). Based on observer-independent mapping in serial, cell-body stained sections of 10 brains, three-dimensional, probabilistic maps of areas Fp1 and Fp2 were created. They show, for each position of the reference space, the probability with which each area was found in a particular voxel. Applying these maps as seed regions for a meta-analysis revealed that Fp1 and Fp2 differentially contribute to functional networks: Fp1 was involved in cognition, working memory and perception, whereas Fp2 was part of brain networks underlying affective processing and social cognition. The present study thus disclosed cortical correlates of a functional segregation of the human frontopolar cortex. The probabilistic maps provide a sound anatomical basis for interpreting neuroimaging data in the living human brain, and open new perspectives for analyzing structure-function relationships in the prefrontal cortex. The new data will also serve as a starting point for further comparative studies between human and non-human primate brains. This allows finding similarities and differences in the organizational principles of the frontal lobe during evolution as neurobiological basis for our behavior and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Secondary adult encephalocele with abscess formation of calcified frontal sinus mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byeong Ho; Lee, Ok-Jun; Park, Young Seok

    2016-07-01

    Although encephalocele is a rare congenital abnormality, secondary encephalocele is extremely rare and can cause fatal complications. Here, we report a case of secondary encephalocele caused by frontal sinus wall defect due to chronic sinusitis, which was completely removed by cranialization with autologous bone graft. A 50-year-old man with a 10-year history of chronic sinusitis visited our hospital due to suddenly altered mentality characterized by stupor. Computerized tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged left frontal sinus with sinusitis. The frontal sinus cavity was calcified, and the left frontal lobe had herniated into the cavity accompanied by yellow pus. A large dural defect was also found around the frontal sinus area. After removal of the abscess and some of the frontal lobe, frontal skull base repair by cranialization was performed using autologous bone graft. Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), necessitating treatment with antibiotics. After the operation, the mental status of the patient improved and no CSF leakage was observed. In addition to correct diagnosis and early treatment including antibiotics, the surgical repair of defects is needed in patients with secondary encephalocele to prevent further episodes of meningitis. Surgical correction of frontal sinus encephalocele can be achieved through bifrontal craniotomy or endoscopic transnasal repair. If a patient has CSF leakage, open craniotomy may facilitate repair of the dural defect and allow for cranialization of the sinus. Removal of dysplastic herniated brain tissue and cranialization of the frontal sinus may be a good option for treating secondary encephalocele and its associated complications, including meningitis, abscess formation, and infarction of the herniated brain parenchyma.

  16. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  17. Timing Tasks Synchronize Cerebellar and Frontal Ramping Activity and Theta Oscillations: Implications for Cerebellar Stimulation in Diseases of Impaired Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Krystal L

    2015-01-01

    Timing is a fundamental and highly conserved mammalian capability, yet the underlying neural mechanisms are widely debated. Ramping activity of single neurons that gradually increase or decrease activity to encode the passage of time has been speculated to predict a behaviorally relevant temporal event. Cue-evoked low-frequency activity has also been implicated in temporal processing. Ramping activity and low-frequency oscillations occur throughout the brain and could indicate a network-based approach to timing. Temporal processing requires cognitive mechanisms of working memory, attention, and reasoning, which are dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disease. Therefore, timing tasks could be used to probe cognition in animals with disease phenotypes. The medial frontal cortex and cerebellum are involved in cognition. Cerebellar stimulation has been shown to influence medial frontal activity and improve cognition in schizophrenia. However, the mechanism underlying the efficacy of cerebellar stimulation is unknown. Here, we discuss how timing tasks can be used to probe cerebellar interactions with the frontal cortex and the therapeutic potential of cerebellar stimulation. The goal of this theory and hypothesis manuscript is threefold. First, we will summarize evidence indicating that in addition to motor learning, timing tasks involve cognitive processes that are present within both the cerebellum and medial frontal cortex. Second, we propose methodologies to investigate the connections between these areas in patients with Parkinson's disease, autism, and schizophrenia. Lastly, we hypothesize that cerebellar transcranial stimulation may rescue medial frontal ramping activity, theta oscillations, and timing abnormalities, thereby restoring executive function in diseases of impaired cognition. This hypothesis could inspire the use of timing tasks as biomarkers for neuronal and cognitive abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disease and promote the therapeutic potential of

  18. Timing tasks synchronize cerebellar and frontal ramping activity and theta oscillations: Implications for cerebellar stimulation in diseases of impaired cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Lynn Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing is a fundamental and highly conserved mammalian capability yet the underlying neural mechanisms are widely debated. Ramping activity of single neurons that gradually increase or decrease activity to encode the passage of time, has been speculated to predict a behaviorally relevant temporal event. Cue-evoked low-frequency activity has also been implicated in temporal processing. Ramping activity and low-frequency oscillations occur throughout the brain and could indicate a network-based approach to timing. Temporal processing requires cognitive mechanisms of working memory, attention, and reasoning which are dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disease. Therefore, timing tasks could be used to probe cognition in animals with disease phenotypes. The medial frontal cortex and cerebellum are involved in cognition. Cerebellar stimulation has been shown to influence medial frontal activity and improve cognition in schizophrenia. However, the mechanism underlying the efficacy of cerebellar stimulation is unknown. Here we discuss how timing tasks can be used to probe cerebellar interactions with the frontal cortex and the therapeutic potential of cerebellar stimulation. The goal of this theory and hypothesis manuscript is threefold. First, we will summarize evidence indicating that in addition to motor learning, timing tasks involve cognitive processes that are present within both the cerebellum and medial frontal cortex. Second, we propose methodologies to investigate the connections between these areas in patients with Parkinson’s disease, autism, and schizophrenia. We hypothesis that cerebellar transcranial stimulation may rescue medial frontal ramping activity, theta oscillations, and timing abnormalities, thereby restoring executive function in diseases of impaired cognition. These hypotheses could inspire the use of timing tasks as biomarkers for neuronal and cognitive abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disease and promote the therapeutic

  19. How can we explain the frontal presentation of insular lobe epilepsy? The impact of non-linear analysis of insular seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Koichi; Jung, Julien; Bouet, Romain; Abdallah, Chifaou; Guénot, Marc; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Mauguière, François; Rheims, Sylvain; Isnard, Jean

    2017-05-01

    For a decade it has been known that the insular lobe epilepsy can mimic frontal lobe epilepsy. We aimed to clarify the pattern of functional coupling occurring during the frontal presentation. We analyzed five insular lobe epilepsy patients. Frontal semiology was predominant for three of them, whereas insular semiology was predominant for the two others. We applied the non-linear regression analysis to stereoelectroencephalography-recorded seizures. A directed functional coupling index was calculated during clonic discharge periods that were accompanied either with frontal or insular semiology. We found significant functional coupling between the insula and mesial frontal/cingulate regions, with the former being a leader region for seizures propagation. Extra-insular regions showed significantly less or even no coupling with the mesial hemispheric regions. The three patients with frontal semiology showed strong couplings with the mesial frontal as well as cingulate regions, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex, pre-SMA/SMA, and the anterior to posterior cingulate. The two patients with the insular semiology only showed couplings between the insula and cingulate regions. The frontal semiology was expressed by strong functional couplings between the insula and mesial frontal regions. The insular origin of seizure should be considered in cryptogenic mesial frontal epilepsies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term results after external vocal fold medialization thyroplasty with titanium vocal fold medialization implant (TVFMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Stickler, Berit; Gaechter, Johannes; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Since its introduction in 1999 by Friedrich, the titanium vocal fold medialization implant (TVFMI) is widely used for medialization thyroplasty in glottal closure insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term functional outcome after medialization thyroplasty using TVFMI. Between 1999 and 2009 123 patients (mean age 55.3 years, 76 male and 47 female) underwent medialization thyroplasty with the TVFMI (96 left, 27 right). For purpose of long-term follow-up, 33 patients could be examined. Prior to surgery, about 8 weeks and at least 1 year after surgery perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic and videolaryngostroboscopic examinations have been performed. The interval between surgery and long-term follow-up was on average 57 (23-120) months. None of the 123 patients presented early major postoperative complications (e.g. implant dislocation, dyspnoea with need of tracheostomy, wound infection, postoperative bleeding). In three patients the TVFMI had to be removed 2-6 months after surgery due to granulation tissue formation. In one patient a subepithelial localization of the implant could be seen without necessity of removal. Perceptual and acoustic parameters were significantly improved after surgery with long-lasting effect even years after surgery. Airway resistance (R(aw)) showed an increase over time without a relevant negative impact on the peak expiratory flow (PEF). Medialization thyroplasty using TVFMI allows precise and save positioning of the implant with stable perceptual and acoustic improvement. The only postoperative complication was the development of endolaryngeal granulation tissue resulting in removal of the implant.

  1. Frontal alpha asymmetry in OCD patients and unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Rosa; Riesel, Anja; Klawohn, Julia; Heinzel, Stephan; Kaufmann, Christian; Bey, Katharina; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Kathmann, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    Frontal electroencephalographic alpha asymmetry as an indicator of trait approach and trait inhibition systems has previously been studied in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with mixed results. We explored frontal alpha asymmetry as a possible risk factor in OCD by investigating a large sample of OCD patients (n = 113), healthy control participants (n = 113), and unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients (n = 37). Additionally, the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and frontal alpha asymmetry was explored. OCD patients and healthy control participants did not differ in alpha asymmetry scores. Hence, the current results do not support the notion that OCD as a diagnostic entity is associated with a shift in frontal cortical activity. Furthermore, alpha asymmetry scores were not statistically related to specific OCD symptom dimensions. Reasons for inconsistent results in OCD are discussed and should be explored in future studies. Compared to OCD patients and healthy control participants, unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients showed increased left frontal activity. Such asymmetry has previously been found to be associated with positive affect and adaptive emotion regulation under stress. Because stressful life events play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of OCD, increased left frontal activity might serve as a resilience factor in unaffected 1st-degree relatives. Future studies should follow up on these results with longitudinal risk studies and pre- and posttherapy assessments to further explore causality of this putative factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Body frontal area in passerine birds

    OpenAIRE

    Hedenström, Anders; Rosén, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Projected body frontal area is used when estimating the parasite drag of bird flight. We investigated the relationship between projected frontal area and body mass among passerine birds, and compared it with an equation based on waterfowl and raptors, which is used as default procedure in a widespread software package for flight performance calculations. The allometric equation based on waterfowl/raptors underestimates the frontal area compared to the passerine equation presented here. Conseq...

  3. An Unusual Presentation of Frontal Bony Defect with Pneumocephalus and its Management in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Tong Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocephalus can be caused by neurosurgical procedures, endoscopic sinus surgery, craniofacial trauma, tumors of the skull base, frontal sinus cranialization, and can rarely occur spontaneously. The treatment options are conservative treatment, craniotomy, osteoplastic flap surgery of the frontal sinus, and endoscopic endonasal surgery. We herein present the case of a 61-year-old man with a frontal sinus bony defect with pneumocephalus caused by craniotomy who presented atypically with left facial cellulitis, followed by meningitis and seizures. This bony defect was successfully repaired with endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure (EMLP. At 18 months' follow-up after the surgery, neither obvious postoperative complications nor signs of pneumocephalus were noted. EMLP offered a less invasive, safer, and effective way to repair the frontal bony defect in our elderly patient.

  4. Medial Patella Subluxation: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Bollier, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Medial patella subluxation is a disabling condition typically associated with previous patellofemoral instability surgery. Patients often describe achy pain with painful popping episodes. They often report that the patella shifts laterally, which occurs as the medial subluxed patella dramatically shifts into the trochlear groove during early knee flexion. Physical examination is diagnostic with a positive medial subluxation test. Nonoperative treatment, such as focused physical therapy and pa...

  5. Event-related potential study of frontal activity during imagination of rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomori, Izumi; Uemura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Yoshiro; Hoshiyama, Minoru

    2011-12-01

    In 11 healthy volunteers, we used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the frontal activity associated with imagining a beat. In imagery sessions, subjects were asked to imagine a rhythm during a silent recording period following a series of guide sounds played at 1 Hz. In control sessions, subjects were asked to imagine a vowel sound ("a") continuously during the silent recording period. In eight subjects, relative negative potentials were recorded during imagery sessions (compared with potentials in control sessions), with timing that was similar to that of the guide sounds. Activity in the left frontal region was more significant than that in other areas during beat imagination. These data indicate that a semantic strategy for simple rhythm imagery might involve temporary phasic activation in the left frontal area, although rhythm production and perception might be generated in the right side, as reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rare case of pure medial subtalar dislocation in a basketball player ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 22 year old male was admitted to the emergency department with pain and ankle deformity following an inversion injury during a basketball game. In his physical examination, the left foot was displaced medially and talus was prominent dorso laterally (A). However, there was not any neurovascular compromise. The X-ray ...

  7. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  8. Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period.

  9. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H

    2007-02-02

    Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

  10. Dissociating Parieto-Frontal Networks for Phonological and Semantic Word Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weigel, Anni; Schuschan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are key regions for phonological decisions, whereas angular gyrus (ANG) and anterior IFG (aIFG) are associated with semantics. However, it is less clear whether the functional contribution of one area changes in the presen...

  11. Synchronous retinotopic frontal-temporal activity during long-term memory for spatial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2010-05-12

    Early visual areas in occipital cortex are known to be retinotopic. Recently, retinotopic maps have been reported in frontal and parietal cortex during spatial attention and working memory. The present event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study determined whether spatial long-term memory was associated with retinotopic activity in frontal and parietal regions, and assessed whether retinotopic activity in these higher level control regions was synchronous with retinotopic activity in lower level visual sensory regions. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as old and previously on the "left", old and previously on the "right", or "new". Retinotopic effects were manifested by accurate memory for items previously presented on the left producing activity in the right hemisphere and accurate memory for items previously presented on the right producing activity in the left hemisphere. Retinotopic ERP activity was observed in frontal regions and visual sensory (occipital and temporal) regions. In frontal cortex, retinotopic fMRI activity was localized to the frontal eye fields. There were no significant ERP or fMRI retinotopic memory effects in parietal regions. The present long-term memory retinotopic effects complement previous spatial attention and working memory findings (and suggest retinotopic activity in parietal cortex may require an external peripheral stimulus). Furthermore, ERP cross-correlogram analysis revealed that retinotopic activations in frontal and temporal regions were synchronous, indicating that these regions interact during retrieval of spatial information. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Arthroscopic one-piece reshaping for symptomatic discoid medial meniscus with anomalous amalgamating into anterior cruciate ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Suk

    2015-01-01

    Discoid shapes of lateral menisci are relatively common finding, whereas discoid medial menisci are less common. Discoid medial meniscus with associated anomalous variants has been reported. However, symptomatic complex tear of complete type discoid medial meniscus with anomalous blending with anterior cruciate ligament is an extremely rare pathology. A 35-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with left knee pain and loss of terminal extension for 2 years. On physical examination, the patient presented with clicking and restriction during the extension motion of the knee joint. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy indicated complex tear of complete discoid medial meniscus in association with anomalous connection between entire apical portion of discoid medial meniscus and tibial insertion portion of the anterior cruciate ligament. We obtained a successful outcome with arthroscopic resection and shaping in one-piece method using no. 11 scalpel blade. PMID:26015618

  13. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  14. Mucocele formation after frontal sinus obliteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, F. S.; van der Poel, N. A.; Freling, N. J. M.; Fokkens, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    A possible complication of frontal sinus obliteration with fat is the formation of mucoceles. We studied the prevalence of mucoceles as well as and the need for revision surgery. Retrospective case review of forty consecutive patients undergoing frontal sinus obliteration from September 1995 to

  15. Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Parental Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, R.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tops, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts

  16. Impaired Varus-Valgus Proprioception and Neuromuscular Stabilization in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alison H.; Lee, Song Joo; Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Impaired proprioception and poor muscular stabilization in the frontal plane may lead to knee instability during functional activities, a common complaint in persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Understanding these frontal plane neuromechanical properties in KOA will help elucidate the factors contributing to knee instability and aid in the development of targeted intervention strategies. The study objectives were to compare knee varus-valgus proprioception, isometric muscle strength, and active muscular contribution to stability between persons with medial KOA and healthy controls. We evaluated knee frontal plane neuromechanical parameters in 14 participants with medial KOA and 14 age- and gender-matched controls, using a joint driving device (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus proprioception acuity (1.08 ± 0.59° vs. 0.69 ± 0.49°, p varus muscle strength (1.31 ± 0.75% vs. 1.79 ± 0.84% body weight, p varus-valgus control deficits in both the afferent input (proprioceptive acuity) and muscular effectors (muscle strength and capacity to stabilize the joint). PMID:24321442

  17. Impaired varus-valgus proprioception and neuromuscular stabilization in medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alison H; Lee, Song Joo; Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-22

    Impaired proprioception and poor muscular stabilization in the frontal plane may lead to knee instability during functional activities, a common complaint in persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Understanding these frontal plane neuromechanical properties in KOA will help elucidate the factors contributing to knee instability and aid in the development of targeted intervention strategies. The objectives of the study were to compare knee varus-valgus proprioception, isometric muscle strength, and active muscular contribution to stability between persons with medial KOA and healthy controls. We evaluated knee frontal plane neuromechanical parameters in 14 participants with medial KOA and 14 age- and gender-matched controls, using a joint driving device (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus proprioception acuity (1.08±0.59° vs. 0.69±0.49°, pproprioceptive acuity) and muscular effectors (muscle strength and capacity to stabilize the joint). © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Medial subtalar dislocation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subtalar dislocation (SI is a term that refers to an injury in which there is dislocation of the talonavicular and talocalcanear joint, although the tibiotalar joint is intact. Case Outline. A case of medial subtalar dislocation as a result of basketball injury, so-called 'basketball foot', is presented. Closed reposition in i.v. anaesthesia was performed with the patient in supine position and a knee flexed at 90 degrees. Longitudinal manual traction in line of deformity was carried out in plantar flexion. The reposition continued with abduction and eversion simultaneously increasing dorsiflexion. It was made in the first attempt and completed instantly. Rehabilitation was initiated after 5 weeks of immobilization. One year after the injury, the functional outcome was excellent with full range of motion and the patient was symptom-free. For better interpretation of roentgenogram, bone model of subtalar dislocation was made using the cadaver bone. Conclusion. Although the treatment of such injury is usually successful, diagnosis can be difficult because it is a rare injury, and moreover, X-ray of the injury can be confusing due to superposition of bones. Radiograms revealed superposition of the calcaneus, tarsal and metatarsal bones which was radiographically visualized in the anterior-posterior projection as one osseous block inward from the talus, and on the lateral view as in an osteal block below the tibial bone. Prompt recognition of these injuries followed by proper, delicately closed reduction under anaesthesia is crucial for achieving a good functional result in case of medial subtalar dislocation.

  19. Ventrolateral and dorsomedial frontal cortex lesions impair mnemonic context retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapados, Catherine; Petrides, Michael

    2015-02-22

    The prefrontal cortex appears to contribute to the mnemonic retrieval of the context within which stimuli are experienced, but only under certain conditions that remain to be clarified. Patients with lesions to the frontal cortex, the temporal lobe and neurologically intact individuals were tested for context memory retrieval when verbal stimuli (words) had been experienced across multiple (unstable context condition) or unique (stable context condition) contexts; basic recognition memory of these words-in-contexts was also tested. Patients with lesions to the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were impaired on context retrieval only when the words had been seen in multiple contexts, demonstrating that this prefrontal region is critical for active retrieval processing necessary to disambiguate memory items embedded across multiple contexts. Patients with lesions to the left dorsomedial prefrontal region were impaired on both context retrieval conditions, regardless of the stability of the stimulus-to-context associations. Conversely, prefrontal lesions sparing the ventrolateral and dorsomedial regions did not impair context retrieval. Only patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired on basic recognition memory. The results demonstrate a basic contribution of the left dorsomedial frontal region to mnemonic context retrieval, with the VLPFC engaged, selectively, when contextual relations are unstable and require disambiguation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Resting frontal EEG asymmetry and shyness and sociability in schizophrenia: a pilot study of community-based outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Michelle K; Schmidt, Louis A; Goldberg, Joel O

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study to examine the relations among the patterns of resting regional electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha activity, trait shyness and sociability, and positive and negative symptoms scores in 20 adults with schizophrenia, attending a community-based treatment and rehabilitation center. As predicted, patients' positive symptoms were related to greater relative resting left frontal EEG activity, replicating earlier work. When only adults with low to no positive symptoms were considered, trait shyness was related to greater relative resting right frontal EEG activity, whereas trait sociability was related to greater relative resting left frontal EEG activity. This finding is similar to what is consistently noted in healthy adults. These pilot data suggest that positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia may obscure the relations between personality and frontal EEG asymmetry measures observed in healthy adults.

  1. GORE TEX MEDIALIZATION THYROPLASTY- A CASE SERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Karthikeyan Arjunan

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis classically presents with voice change, aspiration of ingested materials and cough. Medialization thyroplasty has become treatment of choice for un recovering vocal fold palsy. Still the ideal implant has not been defined in the surgical medialization of vocal folds. We present our experience of gore tex as the implant material.

  2. Frontal and transverse plane hip kinematics and gluteus maximus recruitment correlate with frontal plane knee kinematics during single-leg squat tests in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, John H; Galardi, Christy M; Lin, I-Hsuan; Voth, Brandon C; Whitmarsh, Crystal L

    2014-04-01

    Hip muscle dysfunction may be associated with knee valgus that contributes to problems like patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare knee and hip kinematics and hip muscle strength and recruitment between "good" and "poor" performers on a single-leg squat test developed to assess hip muscle dysfunction and (2) examine relationships between hip muscle strength, recruitment and frontal plane knee kinematics to see which variables correlated with knee valgus during the test. Forty-one active women classified via visual rating as "good" or "poor" performers on the test participated. Participants completed 5-repetition single-leg squat tests. Isometric hip extension and abduction strength, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius recruitment, and 3-dimensional hip and knee kinematics during the test were compared between groups and examined for their association with frontal plane knee motion. "Poor" performers completed the test with more hip adduction (mean difference=7.6°) and flexion (mean difference=6.3°) than "good" performers. No differences in knee kinematics, hip strength or hip muscle recruitment occurred. However, the secondary findings indicated that increased medial hip rotation (partial r=0.94) and adduction (partial r=0.42) and decreased gluteus maximus recruitment (partial r=0.35) correlated with increased knee valgus. Whereas hip muscle function and knee kinematics did not differ between groups as we'd hypothesized, frontal plane knee motion correlated with transverse and frontal plane hip motions and with gluteus maximus recruitment. Gluteus maximus recruitment may modulate frontal plane knee kinematics during single-leg squats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Higher dynamic medial knee load predicts greater cartilage loss over 12 months in medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cicuttini, Flavia; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Hinman, Rana S

    2011-10-01

    Mechanical factors, in particular increased medial knee joint load, are believed to be important in the structural progression of knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluated the relationship of medial knee load during walking to indices of structural disease progression, measured on MRI, in people with medial knee osteoarthritis. A longitudinal cohort design utilising a subset of participants (n=144, 72%) enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of lateral wedge insoles was employed. Medial knee load parameters including the peak knee adduction moment (KAM) and the KAM impulse were measured at baseline using three-dimensional gait analysis during walking. MRI at baseline and at 12 months was used to assess structural indices. Multiple regression with adjustment for covariates assessed the relationship between medial knee load parameters and the annual change in medial tibial cartilage volume. Binary logistic regression was used for the dichotomous variables of progression of medial tibiofemoral cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BML). A higher KAM impulse, but not peak KAM, at baseline was independently associated with greater loss of medial tibial cartilage volume over 12 months (β=29.9, 95% CI 6.3 to 53.5, p=0.01). No significant relationships were seen between medial knee load parameters and the progression of medial tibiofemoral cartilage defects or BML. This study suggests knee loading, in particular the KAM impulse, may be a risk factor for loss of medial tibial cartilage volume. As knee load is modifiable, load-modifying treatments may potentially slow disease progression.

  4. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  5. Intracranial EEG in predicting surgical outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Martin; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) has a worse prognosis regarding seizure freedom than anterior lobectomy in temporal lobe epilepsy. The current study aimed to assess whether intracranial interictal and ictal EEG findings in addition to clinical and scalp EEG data help to predict outcome in a series of patients who needed invasive recording for FLE surgery. Patients with FLE who had resective surgery after chronic intracranial EEG recording were included. Outcome predictors were compared in patients with seizure freedom (group 1) and those with recurrent seizures (group 2) at 19-24 months after surgery. Twenty-five patients (16 female) were included in this study. Mean age of patients at epilepsy surgery was 32.3 ± 15.6 years (range 12-70); mean duration of epilepsy was 16.9 ± 13.4 years (range 1-48). In each outcome group, magnetic resonance imaging revealed frontal lobe lesions in three patients. Fifteen patients (60%) were seizure-free (Engel class 1), 10 patients (40%) continued to have seizures (two were class II, three were class III, and five were class IV). Lack of seizure freedom was seen more often in patients with epilepsy surgery on the left frontal lobe (group 1, 13%; group 2, 70%; p = 0.009) and on the dominant (27%; 70%; p = 0.049) hemisphere as well as in patients without aura (29%; 80%; p = 0.036), whereas sex, age at surgery, duration of epilepsy, and presence of an MRI lesion in the frontal lobe or extrafrontal structures were not different between groups. Electroencephalographic characteristics associated with lack of seizure freedom included presence of interictal epileptiform discharges in scalp recordings (31%; 90%; p = 0.01). Detailed analysis of intracranial EEG revealed widespread (>2 cm) (13%; 70%; p = 0.01) in contrast to focal seizure onset as well as shorter latency to onset of seizure spread (5.8 ± 6.1 s; 1.5 ± 2.3 s; p = 0.016) and to ictal involvement of brain structures beyond the frontal lobe (23.5 ± 22.4 s; 5.8 ± 5.4 s

  6. The prevalence of frontal sinus aplasia in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are various reports of the prevalence of frontal sinus aplasia in different geographical areas and ethnic origins. The size and shape of frontal sinus is different among various populations. This study used CT scan images to investigate the frequency of absence of frontal sinuses in adults of northeastern Iran. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed retrospectively on the axial and coronal CT scans of the paranasal sinuses from a series of 588 patients who had referred to CT scan ward of Mashhad Imam Reza hospital without any other sinus pathology. Results: The mean age of patients was 44.39± 19.44 years. Unilateral and bilateral aplasia of frontal sinuses was seen in 36 and 51 patients, respectively. The dominant sinus was in the left side in 68.24% of cases. Conclusion: The lower incidence of frontal sinus aplasia in this particular ethnic and geographical area relative to other populations emphasizes the effect of environmental and genetic factors on the development of frontal sinuses.  

  7. Frontal alpha asymmetry predicts inhibitory processing in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alissa J; Kinzel, Chantelle; Salgari, Giulia C; Loo, Sandra K

    2017-07-28

    Atypical asymmetry in brain activity has been implicated in the behavioral and attentional dysregulation observed in ADHD. Specifically, asymmetry in neural activity in the right versus left frontal regions has been linked to ADHD, as well as to symptoms often associated with ADHD such as heightened approach behaviors, impulsivity and difficulties with inhibition. Clarifying the role of frontal asymmetry in ADHD-like traits, such as disinhibition, may provide information on the neurophysiological processes underlying these behaviors. ADHD youth (ADHD: n = 25) and healthy, typically developing controls (TD: n = 25) underwent an electroencephalography (EEG) recording while completing a go/no-go task-a commonly used test measuring behavioral inhibition. In addition, advanced signal processing for source localization estimated the location of signal generators underlying frontal alpha asymmetry (FA) during correct and incorrect trials. This is the first study in ADHD to demonstrate that the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may be responsible for generating frontal alpha. During failed inhibition trials, ADHD youth displayed greater FA than TD youth. In addition, within the ADHD group, frontal asymmetry during later processing stages (i.e., 400-800ms after stimulus) predicted a higher number of commission errors throughout the task. These results suggest that frontal alpha asymmetry may be a specific biomarker of cognitive disinhibition among youth with ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Representation of Behavioral Tactics and Tactics-Action Transformation in the Primate Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Yoshiya; Tanji, Jun; Mushiake, Hajime

    2016-06-01

    To expedite the selection of action under a structured behavioral context, we develop an expedient to promote its efficiency: tactics for action selection. Setting up a behavioral condition for subhuman primates (Macaca fuscata) that induced the development of a behavioral tactics, we explored neuronal representation of tactics in the medial frontal cortex. Here we show that neurons in the posterior medial prefrontal cortex, but not much in the medial premotor cortex, exhibit activity representing the behavioral tactics, in advance of action-selective activity. Such activity appeared during behavioral epochs of its retrieval from instruction cues, maintenance in short-term memory, and its implementation for the achievement of action selection. At a population level, posterior medial prefrontal cortex neurons take part in transforming the tactics information into the information representing action selection. The tactics representation revealed an aspect of neural mechanisms for an adaptive behavioral control, taking place in the medial prefrontal cortex. We studied behavioral significance of neuronal activity in the posterior medial prefrontal cortex (pmPFC) and found the representation of behavioral tactics defined as specific and efficient ways to achieve objectives of actions. Neuronal activity appeared during behavioral epochs of its retrieval from instruction cues, maintenance in short-term memory, and its use preceding the achievement of action selection. We found further that pmPFC neurons take part in transforming the tactics information into the information representing action selection. A majority of individual neurons was recruited during a limited period in each behavioral epoch, constituting, as a whole, a temporal cascade of activity. Such dynamics found in behavioral-tactics specific activity characterize the participation of pmPFC neurons in executive control of purposeful behavior. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/365974-14$15.00/0.

  9. Chronic frontal sinusitis presenting with complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Sunu Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A frontocutaneous fistula secondary to chronic frontal sinusitis can present with a fistulous opening in the forehead or in the eyelid. It may or may not be associated with Pott′s puffy tumor. In this article, we present 2 cases. A case of frontocutaenous fistula with opening in the upper eyelid at the lateral portion of floor of frontal sinus and another case of chronic frontal sinusitis with sub-periosteal abscess in the forehead on the right side near the eyebrow. Relevant literature has also been reviewed.

  10. A study on effective of increasing right frontal alpha and decreasing left frontal alpha on treatment of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Eskandari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown some relationship between brain wave abnormalies and depression. The current study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the real neurofeedback treatment compared with mock neurofeedback in decreasing major depression severity of symptoms and change on ? waves into a desirable pattern among some patients who suffer from major depression disorder. The study chooses six patients who were suffering from major depression sufferers and they were randomly placed in two groups called real neurofeedback and mock neurofeedback group (placebo. The two groups were treated for a twenty sessions twice a week. The two groups were examined before, during and after the treatment by Beck Depression Inventory II, Hamilton Depression Scale. The research data were examined through the analysis of the size effect, improvement percentage and charts. The data resulting from the size effect and the improvement percentage suggested that the real neurofeedback was more effective in regulating brain waves and in decreasing major depression disorder symptoms in comparison with the mock neuro-feedback and the groups were significantly different from the clinical point of view. The effectiveness of the real neurofeedback was not from the changes in placebo and it can be used as a complementary treatment in treating major depression disorder. The findings of the current research were congruent with those of the related studies.

  11. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E

    2007-01-01

    was visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95......HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...

  12. Microsurgical medial plantar flap banking: a method of choice for digital tip injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, T; Ohmori, K

    1998-11-01

    A tip injury of the left thumb was repaired via microsurgical medial plantar flap banking. The medial plantar flap was transferred temporarily to the lower abdominal wall and was anastomosed microsurgically to the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein as a banked flap. It was later grafted to the thumb in a manner similar to a pedicled flap. The flap was transferred successfully, and the tissue texture and bulk was sufficient, with considerable sensory recovery and minimal donor site deformity. This method may be worthwhile to consider as one of the options of digital tip reconstruction, and the concept of microsurgical flap banking may be promising in the field of reconstructive microsurgery.

  13. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  14. A frontal but not parietal neural correlate of auditory consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancucci, Alfredo; Lugli, Victor; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Tommasi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic correlates of consciousness were investigated in humans during the presentation of a dichotic sequence inducing illusory auditory percepts with features analogous to visual multistability. The sequence consisted of a variation of the original stimulation eliciting the Deutsch's octave illusion, created to maintain a stable illusory percept long enough to allow the detection of the underlying hemodynamic activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two specular 500 ms dichotic stimuli (400 and 800 Hz) presented in alternation by means of earphones cause an illusory segregation of pitch and ear of origin which can yield up to four different auditory percepts per dichotic stimulus. Such percepts are maintained stable when one of the two dichotic stimuli is presented repeatedly for 6 s, immediately after the alternation. We observed hemodynamic activity specifically accompanying conscious experience of pitch in a bilateral network including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG, BA9 and BA10), medial frontal gyrus (BA6 and BA9), insula (BA13), and posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus. Conscious experience of side (ear of origin) was instead specifically accompanied by bilateral activity in the MFG (BA6), STG (BA41), parahippocampal gyrus (BA28), and insula (BA13). These results suggest that the neural substrate of auditory consciousness, differently from that of visual consciousness, may rest upon a fronto-temporal rather than upon a fronto-parietal network. Moreover, they indicate that the neural correlates of consciousness depend on the specific features of the stimulus and suggest the SFG-MFG and the insula as important cortical nodes for auditory conscious experience.

  15. Necessary Contributions of Human Frontal Lobe Subregions to Reward Learning in a Dynamic, Multidimensional Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Avinash R; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-09-21

    Real-world decisions are typically made between options that vary along multiple dimensions, requiring prioritization of the important dimensions to support optimal choice. Learning in this setting depends on attributing decision outcomes to the dimensions with predictive relevance rather than to dimensions that are irrelevant and nonpredictive. This attribution problem is computationally challenging, and likely requires an interplay between selective attention and reward learning. Both these processes have been separately linked to the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about how they combine to support learning the reward value of multidimensional stimuli. Here, we examined the necessary contributions of frontal lobe subregions in attributing feedback to relevant and irrelevant dimensions on a trial-by-trial basis in humans. Patients with focal frontal lobe damage completed a demanding reward learning task where options varied on three dimensions, only one of which predicted reward. Participants with left lateral frontal lobe damage attributed rewards to irrelevant dimensions, rather than the relevant dimension. Damage to the ventromedial frontal lobe also impaired learning about the relevant dimension, but did not increase reward attribution to irrelevant dimensions. The results argue for distinct roles for these two regions in learning the value of multidimensional decision options under dynamic conditions, with the lateral frontal lobe required for selecting the relevant dimension to associate with reward, and the ventromedial frontal lobe required to learn the reward association itself. The real world is complex and multidimensional; how do we attribute rewards to predictive features when surrounded by competing cues? Here, we tested the critical involvement of human frontal lobe subregions in a probabilistic, multidimensional learning environment, asking whether focal lesions affected trial-by-trial attribution of feedback to relevant and irrelevant

  16. synthesis of microporous polymers by frontal polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    EGDM) copolymers of varying compositions were synthesized by free-radically triggered thermal frontal polymerization (FP) as well as by suspension polymerization (SP) using azobisisobutyronitrile [AIBN] as initiator. The two sets of copolymers.

  17. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  18. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarik, Ateeq; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-01-01

    To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. This was a qualitative review of the literature. Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood. When schizophrenia is studied as an essential topic in the field of neuropsychiatry, neuroscientists find that the frontal lobe is the most commonly involved area of the human brain. A clear picture of how this lobe is affected in schizophrenia is still lacking. We therefore recommend that further research be conducted to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of this psychiatric dilemma.

  19. Corpus callosum lipoma with frontal encephalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, V.R.K.; Ravi Mandalam, K.; Gupta, A.K.; Kumar, S.; Joseph, S.; Unni, M.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomographic and plain X-ray observations in a patient with corpus callosum lipoma associated with frontal encephalocele are reported. The rarity of the lesion and the specific diagnostic criteria on CT are emphasised. (orig.)

  20. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  1. Errors on the Trail Making Test Are Associated with Right Hemispheric Frontal Lobe Damage in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kopp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures of performance on the Trail Making Test (TMT are among the most popular neuropsychological assessment techniques. Completion time on TMT-A is considered to provide a measure of processing speed, whereas completion time on TMT-B is considered to constitute a behavioral measure of the ability to shift between cognitive sets (cognitive flexibility, commonly attributed to the frontal lobes. However, empirical evidence linking performance on the TMT-B to localized frontal lesions is mostly lacking. Here, we examined the association of frontal lesions following stroke with TMT-B performance measures (i.e., completion time and completion accuracy measures using voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping, with a focus on right hemispheric frontal lobe lesions. Our results suggest that the number of errors, but not completion time on the TMT-B, is associated with right hemispheric frontal lesions. This finding contradicts common clinical practice—the use of completion time on the TMT-B to measure cognitive flexibility, and it underscores the need for additional research on the association between cognitive flexibility and the frontal lobes. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether our observation is specific for right frontal lesions.

  2. Errors on the Trail Making Test Are Associated with Right Hemispheric Frontal Lobe Damage in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Measures of performance on the Trail Making Test (TMT) are among the most popular neuropsychological assessment techniques. Completion time on TMT-A is considered to provide a measure of processing speed, whereas completion time on TMT-B is considered to constitute a behavioral measure of the ability to shift between cognitive sets (cognitive flexibility), commonly attributed to the frontal lobes. However, empirical evidence linking performance on the TMT-B to localized frontal lesions is mostly lacking. Here, we examined the association of frontal lesions following stroke with TMT-B performance measures (i.e., completion time and completion accuracy measures) using voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping, with a focus on right hemispheric frontal lobe lesions. Our results suggest that the number of errors, but not completion time on the TMT-B, is associated with right hemispheric frontal lesions. This finding contradicts common clinical practice-the use of completion time on the TMT-B to measure cognitive flexibility, and it underscores the need for additional research on the association between cognitive flexibility and the frontal lobes. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether our observation is specific for right frontal lesions.

  3. New Perspectives on Southern Ocean Frontal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The frontal structure of the Southern Ocean is investigated using a the Wavelet/Higher Order Statistics Enhancement (WHOSE) frontal detection method, introduced in Chapman (2014). This methodology is applied to 21 years of daily gridded sea-surface height (SSH) data to obtain daily maps of the locations of the fronts. By forming frontal occurrence frequency maps and then approximating these occurrence-maps by a superposition of simple functions, the time-mean locations of the fronts, as well as a measure of their capacity to meander, are obtained and related to the frontal locations found by previous studies. The spatial and temporal variability of the frontal structure is then considered. The number of fronts is found to be highly variable throughout the Southern Ocean, increasing (`splitting') downstream of large bathymetric features and decreasing (`merging') in regions where the fronts are tightly controlled by the underlying topography. In contrast, frontal meandering remains relatively constant. Contrary to many previous studies, little no southward migration of the fronts over the 1993-2014 time period is found, and there is only weak sensitivity to atmospheric forcing related to SAM or ENSO. Finally, the implications of splitting and merging for the flux of tracers will be discussed.

  4. Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Problems Overview of Foot Problems Achilles Tendon Bursitis Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy Bunion Corns and Calluses Damage ... the Foot Freiberg Disease Hammer Toe Inferior Calcaneal Bursitis Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment Metatarsal Joint ...

  5. Gore tex medialization thyroplasty- A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Arjunan, Karthikeyan; Thiagarajan, Prof.T.Balasubramanian; Narasimman, Prof.N.Seethalakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis classically presents with voice change, aspiration of ingested materials and cough. Medialization thyroplasty has become treatment of choice for un recovering vocal fold palsy. Still the ideal implant has not been defined in the surgical medialization of vocal folds. We present our experience of gore tex as the implant material. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

  6. Frontal lobe regulation of blood glucose levels: support for the limited capacity model in hostile violence-prone men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Robert P; Harrison, Patti Kelly; Campbell, Ransom W; Harrison, David W

    2016-12-01

    Hostile men have reliably displayed an exaggerated sympathetic stress response across multiple experimental settings, with cardiovascular reactivity for blood pressure and heart rate concurrent with lateralized right frontal lobe stress (Trajanoski et al., in Diabetes Care 19(12):1412-1415, 1996; see Heilman et al., in J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38(1):69-72, 1975). The current experiment examined frontal lobe regulatory control of glucose in high and low hostile men with concurrent left frontal lobe (Control Oral Word Association Test [verbal]) or right frontal lobe (Ruff Figural Fluency Test [nonverbal]) stress. A significant interaction was found for Group × Condition, F (1,22) = 4.16, p ≤ .05 with glucose levels (mg/dl) of high hostile men significantly elevated as a function of the right frontal stressor (M = 101.37, SD = 13.75) when compared to the verbal stressor (M = 95.79, SD = 11.20). Glucose levels in the low hostile group remained stable for both types of stress. High hostile men made significantly more errors on the right frontal but not the left frontal stressor (M = 17.18, SD = 19.88) when compared to the low hostile men (M = 5.81, SD = 4.33). These findings support our existing frontal capacity model of hostility (Iribarren et al., in J Am Med Assoc 17(19):2546-2551, 2000; McCrimmon et al., in Physiol Behav 67(1):35-39, 1999; Brunner et al., in Diabetes Care 21(4):585-590, 1998), extending the role of the right frontal lobe to regulatory control over glucose mobilization.

  7. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed al...

  8. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  9. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.

  10. How isometric are the medial patellofemoral, superficial medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments of the knee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Jan; Wong, Pius; Witvrouw, Eric; Sloten, Jos Vander; Bellemans, Johan

    2009-10-01

    Ligament isometry is a cornerstone in the description of normal knee function and thorough knowledge is mandatory for successful repair of torn ligaments. This study was undertaken to validate a novel experimental model for the study of ligament strains and to determine the length changes in the superficial medial collateral, lateral collateral, and medial patellofemoral ligaments. Descriptive laboratory study. Passive motions and loaded squats of 12 cadaveric specimens were performed while controlling ankle load and optically tracking the motion of the bones. Preexperiment and postexperiment computed axial tomography scans allow the transformation of rigid body motion to relative motion of relevant anatomic landmarks on the femur, tibia, and patella. The superficial medial collateral ligament is a near-isometric ligament with a strain of less than 2%. The ligament is a little more slack in midflexion (30 degrees to 50 degrees ) and in deep flexion, but length changes are not significant (P > .05). The lateral collateral ligament behaves near isometric (tension from the collateral ligaments (P superficial medial collateral ligament is a near-isometric ligament with no significant length changes. The medial patellofemoral ligament behaves differently in its cranial and caudal parts. In knees with chronic medial collateral ligament insufficiency, isometric repair of the superficial medial collateral ligament can be attempted. A medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with a double fixation on the medial patellar border is supported. The cranial bundle should be tightened at full extension and the caudal bundle at 30 degrees of knee flexion.

  11. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  12. Feasible stability region in the frontal plane during human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Espy, Debbie; Pai, Yi-Chung

    2009-12-01

    The inability to adequately control the motion of the center of mass (COM) in the frontal plane may result in a loss of balance causing a sideways fall during human gait. The primary purposes of this study were (1) to derive the feasible stability region (FSR) in the mediolateral direction, and (2) to compare the FSR with the COM motion state taken from 193 trials among 39 young subjects at liftoff during walking at different speeds. The lower boundary of the FSR was derived, at a given initial COM location, as the minimum rightward COM velocity, at liftoff of the left foot, required to bring the COM into the base of support (BOS), i.e., the right (stance) foot, as the COM velocity diminishes. The upper boundary was derived as the maximum rightward COM velocity, beyond which the left foot must land to the right of the right foot (BOS) in order to prevent a fall. We established a 2-link human model and employed dynamic optimization to estimate these threshold values for velocity. For a range of initial COM positions, simulated annealing algorithm was used to search for the threshold velocity values. Our study quantified the extent to which mediolateral balance can still be maintained without resorting to a crossover step (the left foot lands to the right of the BOS) for balance recovery. The derived FSR is in good agreement with our gait experimental results.

  13. Native rotational knee kinematics is restored after lateral UKA but not after medial UKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keizo; Hamada, Daisuke; Takasago, Tomoya; Nitta, Akihiro; Goto, Tomohiro; Tonogai, Ichiro; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2018-03-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the intraoperative kinematics of medial and lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) with those of the native knee using a navigation system. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were included in the study. Medial UKA was performed in all right knees and lateral UKA was performed in all left knees. All UKA procedures were performed with a computerised navigation system. The tibial internal rotation angle and coronal alignment of the mechanical axis during passive knee flexion were assessed as rotational and varus/valgus kinematics before and after surgery using the navigation system. The rotation angles of the tibia in the early flexion phase of medial UKA were significantly larger than those of native knees (p = 0.008 at minimum knee flexion, p = 0.008 at 0° knee flexion). The rotational kinematics of lateral UKA was similar to those of the native knees throughout knee flexion. There were no significant differences in varus/valgus kinematics between native and UKA knees. The rotational kinematics of the native knee was not restored after medial UKA but was preserved after lateral UKA. There were no significant differences in the varus/valgus kinematics after either medial or lateral UKA when compared with those of the native knees. Thus, the geometry of the medial tibial articular surface is a determinant of the ability to restore the rotational kinematics of the native knee. Surgeons and implant designers should be aware that the anatomical medial articular geometry is an important factor in restoration of the native knee kinematics after knee arthroplasty.

  14. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  15. Frontal cephalometrics: practical applications, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummons, Duane; Ricketts, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    To (1) demonstrate the needs and benefits of three-dimensional diagnostic and treatment applications; (2) illustrate practical clinical applications of anteroposterior images and frontal analysis; and (3) enhance utilization of the Ricketts and Grummons frontal analyses. Frontal analysis methods and applications are specified and integrated into facial, smile, jaw, and occlusal therapies. Asymmetry conditions must be differentially diagnosed and effectively treated. Frontal and related image analysis and tracing steps are detailed. Asymmetry of facial parts is the rule, rather than the exception. Dental and facial midlines, occlusal plane, chin location, and smile esthetics are primarily emphasized. Beautiful facial proportions and smile harmony can be developed despite initial facial dysmorphosis and disproportions. Patients view themselves from the frontal perspective, so this carries priority when assessing problems. It is important to know the etiology of asymmetry to assist others with genetic counseling. Facial harmony and smile beauty are optimal when facial and maxillary dental midlines are aligned. The maxillary dentition width should be sufficiently wide to be in harmony with the individual patient facial morphology. The occlusal plane should be level and the chin centered as much as possible. Best facial development and proportionality exist when the skeletal and dental components are optimized transversely and are symmetric.

  16. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heredero Jung

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2004. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes revisados es de 34 años. La mayoría son hombres (78% y la causa más frecuente del traumatismo, los accidentes de tráfico. El patrón de fractura más común es el que afecta únicamente a la pared anterior del seno frontal. Las complicaciones descritas son: deformidad estética frontal, sinusitis frontal, mucocele frontal, celulitis fronto-orbitaria, intolerancia al material de osteosíntesis, complicaciones infecciosas del SNC y persistencia de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Conclusiones. El objetivo ha de estar encaminado a prevenir las complicaciones asociadas a los pacientes con fracturas de seno frontal. Hay que individualizar el protocolo de tratamiento en cada caso. Es recomendable un seguimiento a largo plazo para identificar precozmente las posibles complicaciones.Introduction. Frontal sinus fractures are caused by high velocity impacts. Inappropriate treatment can lead to serious complications, even many years after the trauma. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological data and associated complications. To standardize the treatment protocol. Materials and methods. the clinical records of 95 patients with frontal sinus fractures treated between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, "12 de Octubre" Hospital (Madrid, Spain, were reviewed. Results. The average age of

  17. Complex Frontal Pneumosinus Dilatans Associated with Meningioma: A Report of Two Cases and Associated Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Sara; Lakhani, Raj; Connor, Steve; Hopkins, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  Pneumosinus dilatans (PSD) is a rare phenomenon involving the expansion of the paranasal sinuses, without bony destruction or a mass. Previously documented cases have demonstrated simple expansion of a solitary air cell. We present two unique cases of PSD in the presence of meningioma, in which complex new cells developed within the frontal sinus. One of the two patients developed associated sinus disease. Case 1  A 28-year-old man presented with facial pain. A computed tomography scan showed an abnormally enlarged, septated right frontal sinus, not present on childhood scans. He underwent a modified endoscopic Lothrop approach to divide the septations, and his symptoms resolved. Case 2  A 72-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of headaches. Scans revealed a left frontal meningioma and multiple enlarged, dilated left frontal air cells. She had no clinical sinusitis and therefore was managed conservatively. Conclusions  PSD has been widely documented in association with fibrous dysplasia and meningioma. The most prevalent theory of the mechanism of PSD is of obstruction of the sinus ostium causing sinus expansion through a “ball-valve” effect. Our cases, which demonstrate septated PSD, suggest a more complex process involving local mediators and highlight the need to consider underlying meningioma in pneumosinus dilatans. PMID:28752019

  18. Frontal activation and connectivity using near-infrared spectroscopy: verbal fluency language study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; DeCerce, Joe; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-02-28

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an optical technique with high temporal resolution and reasonably good spatial resolution, which allows non invasive measurement of the blood oxygenation of tissue. The current work is focused in assessing and correlating brain activation, connectivity and cortical lateralization of the frontal cortex in response to language-based stimuli, using NIRS. Experimental studies were performed on 15 normal right-handed adults, wherein the participants were presented with a verbal fluency task. The hemodynamic responses in the pre- and anterior frontal cortex were assessed in response to a Word generation task in comparison to the baseline random Jaw movement and Rest conditions. The functional connectivity analysis was performed using zero-order correlations and the cortical lateralization was evaluated as well. An increase in oxy- and a decrease in deoxy-hemoglobin were observed during verbal fluency task in the frontal cortex. Unlike in the pre-frontal cortex, the hemodynamic response in the anterior frontal during verbal fluency task was not significantly different from that during random Jaw movement. Bilateral activation and symmetrical connectivity were observed in the pre-frontal cortex, independent of the stimuli presented. A left cortical dominance and asymmetry connectivity was observed in the anterior frontal during the verbal fluency task. The work is focused to target the pediatric epileptic populations in the future, where understanding the brain functionality (activation, connectivity, and dominance) in response to language is essential as a part of the pre-surgical evaluation in a clinical environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A beamformer analysis of MEG data reveals frontal generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lappe

    Full Text Available To localize the neural generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity with high temporal resolution we conducted a beamformer analysis (Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry, SAM on magnetoencephalography (MEG data from a previous musical mismatch study. The stimuli consisted of a six-tone melodic sequence comprising broken chords in C- and G-major. The musical sequence was presented within an oddball paradigm in which the last tone was lowered occasionally (20% by a minor third. The beamforming analysis revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal (STC, inferior frontal (IFC, superior frontal (SFC and orbitofrontal (OFC cortices within a time window of 100-200 ms after the occurrence of a deviant tone. IFC and SFC activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. The pronounced early right inferior frontal activation of the auditory mismatch negativity has not been shown in MEG studies so far. The activation in STC and IFC is consistent with earlier electroencephalography (EEG, optical imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies that reveal the auditory and inferior frontal cortices as main generators of the auditory MMN. The observed right hemispheric IFC is also in line with some previous music studies showing similar activation patterns after harmonic syntactic violations. The results demonstrate that a deviant tone within a musical sequence recruits immediately a distributed neural network in frontal and prefrontal areas suggesting that top-down processes are involved when expectation violation occurs within well-known stimuli.

  20. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) locomotion: forelimb joint mechanics across speed in the sagittal and frontal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Catherine L; Robbins, Charles T; Nelson, O Lynne; McGowan, Craig P

    2017-04-01

    The majority of terrestrial locomotion studies have focused on parasagittal motion and paid less attention to forces or movement in the frontal plane. Our previous research has shown that grizzly bears produce higher medial ground reaction forces (lateral pushing from the animal) than would be expected for an upright mammal, suggesting frontal plane movement may be an important aspect of their locomotion. To examine this, we conducted an inverse dynamics analysis in the sagittal and frontal planes, using ground reaction forces and position data from three high-speed cameras of four adult female grizzly bears. Over the speed range collected, the bears used walks, running walks and canters. The scapulohumeral joint, wrist and the limb overall absorb energy (average total net work of the forelimb joints, -0.97 W kg -1 ). The scapulohumeral joint, elbow and total net work of the forelimb joints have negative relationships with speed, resulting in more energy absorbed by the forelimb at higher speeds (running walks and canters). The net joint moment and power curves maintain similar patterns across speed as in previously studied species, suggesting grizzly bears maintain similar joint dynamics to other mammalian quadrupeds. There is no significant relationship with net work and speed at any joint in the frontal plane. The total net work of the forelimb joints in the frontal plane was not significantly different from zero, suggesting that, despite the high medial ground reaction forces, the forelimb acts as a strut in that plane. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  3. The effects of gender and age on forensic personal identification from frontal sinus in a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlisumak, Ertugrul; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Bora, Aydin; Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Etli, Yasin; Gumus, Orhan; Keskin, Siddik

    2017-01-01

    To define the dimensions of the frontal sinus in groups standardized for age and gender and to discuss the reasons and the effects of the variations. Methods: Frontal sinus measurements were obtained from paranasal CTscans of 180 males and 180 females in the Radiology Department of Dursun Odabas Medical Center of Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, which is located in Eastern Turkey, between February and March 2016. The width and height of sinuses were measured on a coronal plane, and the anteroposterior length was measured on an axial plane. Volumes were calculated using the Hospital Information Management Systems and Image Archiving and Management Systemprogram. The Statistical Package of the Social Science version 13 was used for statistical analyses.  Results: We determined differences in the frontal sinus measurements of different age groups in a Turkish adult population. Frontal sinus dimensions were usually higher in females and lower in males after 40-49 years of age than their younger counterparts, but the measurements were lower in females and higher in males in 70≤ years of age group than 60-69 years of age. Left frontal sinus was dominant in young age groups but right frontal sinus was dominant in groups 40-49 years of age or older.  Conclusion: We observed crossing of the measurements between the different age groups, which we could not find clear explanations. The results of such studies may affect forensic identification from frontal sinus measurements.

  4. Varus thrust and knee frontal plane dynamic motion in persons with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A H; Chmiel, J S; Moisio, K C; Almagor, O; Zhang, Y; Cahue, S; Sharma, L

    2013-11-01

    Varus thrust visualized during walking is associated with a greater medial knee load and an increased risk of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Little is known about how varus thrust presence determined by visual observation relates to quantitative gait kinematic data. We hypothesized that varus thrust presence is associated with greater knee frontal plane dynamic movement during the stance phase of gait. Participants had knee OA in at least one knee. Trained examiners assessed participants for varus thrust presence during ambulation. Frontal plane knee motion during ambulation was captured using external passive reflective markers and an 8-camera motion analysis system. To examine the cross-sectional relationship between varus thrust and frontal plane knee motion, we used multivariable regression models with the quantitative motion measures as dependent variables and varus thrust (present/absent) as predictor; models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), gait speed, and knee static alignment. 236 persons [mean BMI: 28.5 kg/m(2) (standard deviation (SD) 5.5), mean age: 64.9 years (SD 10.4), 75.8% women] contributing 440 knees comprised the study sample. 82 knees (18.6%) had definite varus thrust. Knees with varus thrust had greater peak varus angle and greater peak varus angular velocity during stance than knees without varus thrust (mean differences 0.90° and 6.65°/s, respectively). These patterns remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, gait speed, and knee static alignment. Visualized varus thrust during walking was associated with a greater peak knee varus angular velocity and a greater peak knee varus angle during stance phase of gait. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The medial temporal lobe: memory and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Suchan, Boris

    2013-10-01

    The structures of the medial temporal lobe, e.g., the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and parahippocampal cortex, are known to be essential for long-term memory processing and hence are labeled the medial temporal lobe memory system. Nevertheless, the exact contributions of each structure and the involvement in different cognitive processes remain controversial. This article discusses recent findings dealing with recognition memory and a long lasting involvement of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in episodic memory, based on functional imaging and lesion studies. Furthermore, a new paradigm employing objective manipulations of recollection and familiarity is presented, showing no anatomical distinction for these two processes, as opposed to studies using subjective ratings. Additionally, results regarding an involvement of the medial temporal lobe in visual processing are presented, in general supporting the visual-mnemonic theory. The discussed findings show that many questions regarding the functional organization remain unsolved, and that we are in need of further research to create a comprehensive model of the medial temporal lobe. For this, we might need to give up the distinctions into different cognitive processes and start to investigate the different types of representations that are processed by the medial temporal lobe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The frontal method in hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The frontal solution method has proven to be an effective means of solving the matrix equations resulting from the application of the finite element method to a variety of problems. In this study, several versions of the frontal method were compared in efficiency for several hydrodynamics problems. Three basic modifications were shown to be of value: 1. Elimination of equations with boundary conditions beforehand, 2. Modification of the pivoting procedures to allow dynamic management of the equation size, and 3. Storage of the eliminated equations in a vector. These modifications are sufficiently general to be applied to other classes of problems. ?? 1980.

  7. Behavioral Disorders in Association with Posterior Callosal and Frontal Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lejeune

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral disorders were a prominent clinical feature after the surgical treatment of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture in a 44-year-old man. Callosal apraxia was associated with an alien hand. The latter remained 1 year after surgery while diagonistic apraxia disappeared after 3 months. Other callosal signs included left agraphia, tactile anomia and auditory suppression. MRI revealed posterior callosal infarction and a right frontal infarct. The association of diagonistic apraxia and alien hand is rarely reported.

  8. Migration of Sparganum of the Frontal Lobe to the Ipsilateral Cerebellar Hemisphere: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Eun A; Choi, See Sung; Jeon, Se Jeong; Kim, Hey Won; Lee, Young Hwan [Wonkwang University Hopital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Most cerebral sparganosis lesions are located in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere. A few cases of cerebral sparganosis where the sparganum have migrated into the contralateral cerebral hemisphere have been reported. We report a case of cerebral sparganosis where the sparganum migrated from the white matter of the left frontal lobe to the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere after failure of surgical removal of the worm

  9. Utilization Behavior and Frontal Lobe Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1990-01-01

    Utilization behavior was investigated in an adult with an acute behavioral disturbance, memory deficits, and a localized inferior medial bifrontal lesion at the Psychology Department, National Hospital, Queen Square, London; the MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge; and Department of Neurology, Atkinson Morley's Hospital, Wimbledon; and St. Andrews Hospital, Northampton, UK.

  10. Angle at the Medial Border: The Spinovertebra Angle and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Oladipo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The evolution from quadrupedalism to bipedalism has adjusted the balance of the upper limb to extensive movement at the shoulder. The scapular angles provide the point of attachment and control to various muscles and have been associated with the different movements of the shoulder girdle and joint. This has made the morphometric and anthropometric study of scapula a subject of extensive investigation. Aim. In the present study, the angle at the medial border was measured in the South-Southern Nigerian population and an anatomical name was ascribed to the angle. Method. The study was conducted on 173 scapulae (75 right and 98 left obtained from various Anatomy Department of South-Sothern Nigerian Universities. The angle at medial border was obtained by pinning the edge of the superior and inferior angles, the lined traced out, and the angle measured using a protractor. SPSS version 20 was used to analyse the data. t-test was used to determine mean angular difference in the sides. Result. The mean ± SD of the medial angle was observed to be 136.88 ± 7.70° (R = 138.13 ± 7.06° : L = 135.92 ± 8.05°. Statistical analysis using the Z-test for mean difference showed the medial angle was found to be higher in the right side of the scapula (mean difference of 2.214 ± 1.152°, but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The above findings have adjusted the scapula from three to four angles (lateral, superior, inferior, and medial formed from four borders (lateral, superior, inferior, and superomedial and inferomedial. The medial angle because of its anatomical location was named “spinovertebral” angle, owing to its position at the scapulae spine, and located in medial proximity to the vertebra column. Conclusion. The medial angle (now referred to as the spinovertebral angle of the right side of the scapula is wider than the left. The representation of the spinovertebral angle is very important, as

  11. EEG Source Reconstruction Reveals Frontal-Parietal Dynamics of Spatial Conflict Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30–50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8–12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4–8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions. PMID:23451201

  12. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X Cohen

    Full Text Available Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz, followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz, alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  13. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  14. Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl

    2013-11-16

    The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a brief battery of six neuropsychological tasks designed to assess frontal lobe function at bedside [Neurology 55:1621-1626, 2000]. The six FAB tasks explore cognitive and behavioral domains that are thought to be under the control of the frontal lobes, most notably conceptualization and abstract reasoning, lexical verbal fluency and mental flexibility, motor programming and executive control of action, self-regulation and resistance to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy. We examined the sensitivity of performance on the FAB to frontal lobe damage in right-hemisphere-damaged first-ever stroke patients based on voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping. Voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping of FAB performance revealed that the integrity of the right anterior insula (BA13) is crucial for the FAB global composite score, for the FAB conceptualization score, as well as for the FAB inhibitory control score. Furthermore, the FAB conceptualization and mental flexibility scores were sensitive to damage of the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG; BA9). Finally, the FAB inhibitory control score was sensitive to damage of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA44/45). These findings indicate that several FAB scores (including composite and item scores) provide valid measures of right hemispheric lateral frontal lobe dysfunction, specifically of focal lesions near the anterior insula, in the MFG and in the IFG.

  15. Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, Hilde M H; Vaessen, Maarten J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Debeij-van Hall, Mariette H J A; de Louw, Anton; Hofman, Paul A M; Vles, Johan S H; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but its etiology is unknown. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have explored the relationship between brain activation, functional connectivity, and cognitive functioning in a cohort of pediatric patients with FLE and healthy controls. Thirty-two children aged 8-13 years with FLE of unknown cause and 41 healthy age-matched controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional brain MRI. We investigated to which extent brain regions activated in response to a working memory task and assessed functional connectivity between distant brain regions. Data of patients were compared to controls, and patients were grouped as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Children with FLE showed a global decrease in functional brain connectivity compared to healthy controls, whereas brain activation patterns in children with FLE remained relatively intact. Children with FLE complicated by cognitive impairment typically showed a decrease in frontal lobe connectivity. This decreased frontal lobe connectivity comprised both connections within the frontal lobe as well as connections from the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Decreased functional frontal lobe connectivity is associated with cognitive impairment in pediatric FLE. The importance of impairment of functional integrity within the frontal lobe network, as well as its connections to distant areas, provides new insights in the etiology of the broad-range cognitive impairments in children with FLE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Attention, emotion, and deactivation of default activity in inferior medial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2008-01-01

    significantly lowered blood flow (rCBF) in left IMPC, left and right insula, and right amygdala, and significantly raised blood flow in motor cortex and right precuneus. Restricted searches of rCBF changes by emotion, at coordinates of significant effect in previous studies of the medial prefrontal and temporal...... cortices, revealed significant activation in the fusiform gyrus, independently of the task. In contrast, we found no effect of emotional content in the IMPC, where emotions failed to override the effect of the task. The results are consistent with a role of the IMPC in the selection among competitive...

  17. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of left intraventricular conduction disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1979-01-01

    Both, the vectorcardiographic changes produced by the various degrees of left bundle branch block and these observed with the different types of left distal block, are described. When a "wave jumping" phenomenon exists, the vectorcardiographic changes are more characteristic in the horizontal plane than in the frontal plane and can be interpreted satisfactorily in basis of the ventricular activation sequence. The normal counterclockwise rotation of the horizontal vectorcardiogram persists in the presence of left bundle branch block of slight and moderate degrees, since the electromotive forces of the free left ventricular wall are still predominant. In the majority of intermediate degree blocks, the middle portion of the RH loop develops with a clockwise rotation and general aspect with a clockwise rotation and the general aspect of the ventricular loop resembles an eight figure. This is due to the electromotive forces originated by the delayed depolarization of the left septal mass that starts to predominate. With advanced degrees of block, the largest portion of the RH loop shows a clockwise rotation, as well as marked notchings and slurrings. The initial anterior portion of the horizontal vectorcardiogram does not disappear, but is situated to the left of the anterior-posterior axis with a counterclockwise rotation (first right septal vector). Otherwise, the direct electrical sign of left distal block emphasized: evidence of delayed activation in a limited zone of the homolateral ventricle. This local delay gives rise to an asynchronism of the activation phenomenon between the upper and lower regions of the ventricle. The diagnosis of left bifascicular block is based essentially on the evidence of unequal delay of the activation sequence in the basal regions and in the inferior ones of the homolateral ventricle and also on the frequent persistence of the first left septal vector.

  18. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2015-01-01

    : An assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial including people aged 30-50 years with no to mild pain following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated to either a 12-week neuromuscular exercise program that targeted neutral lower limb alignment......PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS...

  19. Prospective memory and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neulinger, Kerryn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; O'Gorman, John; Shum, David H K

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to examine the role of frontal lobe functioning in focal prospective memory (PM) performance and its relation to PM deficit in older adults. PM and working memory (WM) differences were studied in younger aged (n = 21), older aged (n = 20), and frontal injury (n = 14) groups. An event-based focal PM task was employed and three measures of WM were administered. The younger aged group differed from the other two groups in showing significantly higher scores on PM and on one of the WM measures, but there were no differences at a statistically significant level between the older aged group and the frontal injury groups on any of the memory measures. There were, however, some differences in correlations with a WM measure between groups. It is concluded that there are similarities and differences in the deficits in PM between older adults and patients with frontal lobe injury on focal as well as nonfocal PM tasks.

  20. Right Frontal White Matter and Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An MRI volumetric analysis of frontal and nonfrontal gray and white matter was performed in 11 boys with Tourette syndrome (TS only, 14 with TS + ADHD, 12 with ADHD only, and 26 healthy boys, at the Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD.

  1. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  2. Medial structure generation for registration of anatomical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Sergio; Gil, Debora; Kjer, Hans Martin

    2017-01-01

    Medial structures (skeletons and medial manifolds) have shown capacity to describe shape in a compact way. In the field of medical imaging, they have been employed to enrich the description of organ anatomy, to improve segmentation, or to describe the organ position in relation to surrounding...... structures. Methods for generation of medial structures, however, are prone to the generation of medial artifacts (spurious branches) that traditionally need to be pruned before the medial structure can be used for further computations. The act of pruning can affect main sections of the medial surface......, hindering its performance as shape descriptor. In this work, we present a method for the computation of medial structures that generates smooth medial surfaces that do not need to be explicitly pruned. Additionally, we present a validation framework for medial surface evaluation. Finally, we apply...

  3. The right posterior inferior frontal gyrus contributes to phonological word decisions in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Price, Cathy J; Baumgaertner, Annette

    2010-01-01

    There is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in language processing, but functional imaging studies have shown that the right as well as the left posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG) are activated when healthy right-handed individuals make phonological word decisions. Here we...... used online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the functional relevance of the right pIFG for auditory and visual phonological decisions. Healthy right-handed individuals made phonological or semantic word judgements on the same set of auditorily and visually presented words while...... they received stereotactically guided TMS over the left, right or bilateral pIFG (n=14) or the anterior left, right or bilateral IFG (n=14). TMS started 100ms after word onset and consisted of four stimuli given at a rate of 10Hz and intensity of 90% of active motor threshold. Compared to TMS of aIFG, TMS of p...

  4. Effects of implant stiffness, shape, and medialization depth on the acoustic outcomes of medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan; Chhetri, Dinesh K; Bergeron, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Medialization laryngoplasty is commonly used to treat glottic insufficiency. In this study, we investigated the effects of implant stiffness (Young modulus), medialization depth, and implant medial surface shape on acoustic outcomes. Basic science study using ex vivo laryngeal phonation model. In an ex vivo human larynx phonation model, bilateral medialization laryngoplasties were performed with implants of varying stiffness, medial surface shape (rectangular, divergent, and convergent), and varying depths of medialization. The subglottal pressure, the flow rate, and the outside sound were measured as the implant parameters were varied. Medialization through the use of implants generally improved the harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and the number of harmonics excited in the outside sound spectra. The degree of acoustic improvement depended on the implant insertion depth, stiffness, and to a lesser degree implant shape. Varying implant insertion depth led to large variations in phonation for stiff implants, but had much smaller effects for soft implants. Implants with stiffness comparable to vocal folds provided more consistent improvement in acoustic outcomes across different implant conditions. Further investigations are required to better understand the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT2ARs in mice exposed to a novel open-field...... of 5-HT2AR blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5 mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time...... spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin...

  6. Biomechanic study of the human liver during a frontal deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynel, Nicolas; Serre, Thierry; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Benoit, Laurent; Berdah, Stephane-Victor; Brunet, Christian

    2006-10-01

    Mechanisms of hepatic injury remain poorly understood. Surgical literature reports some speculative theories that have never been proved. The aim of this study was to examine the behavior of the liver during brutal frontal deceleration. Six trunks, removed from human cadavers, underwent free falls at 4, 6, and 8 meters per second (mps). Accelerometers were positioned in the two lobes of the liver, in front of the vertebra L2, and in the retro hepatic inferior vena cava. Relative motions of the lobes of the liver and of the two other anatomic marks were observed. In parallel, numerical simulations of this experiment have been performed using a finite element model. In the direction of impact, the vertebra L2 had no considerable displacement with the inferior vena cava. There was a noteworthy displacement between the two hepatic lobes. The left hepatic lobe had a large relative displacement with the vertebra L2 and the inferior vena cava. The right hepatic lobe was more stable with the vertebra L2 and the inferior vena cava. Numerical simulation of the same protocol underlined a rotation effect of the liver to the left around the axis of the inferior vena cava. These results support the surgical data. They highlight a crucial zone and explain how dramatic lacerations between the two lobes of the liver can occur.

  7. Hemichorea and dystonia due to frontal lobe meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors originating from the meninges, also known as meningiomas, have rarely been known to cause parkinsonian symptoms and other movement disorders. Although some cases of AV malformations causing movement disorders have been described in the literature, not much has been reported about meningiomas in this regard. The aim of this case report is to further highlight the importance of brain imaging in patients with movement disorders for even a benign tumor; and also emphasize the need for a careful movement disorder examination because more than one phenomenology of movement disorders may result from the mechanical pressure caused by a tumor. We present a case report of a patient with a heavily calcified right frontal lobe meningioma. Our patient had irregular, involuntary, brief, fleeting and unpredictable movements of her left upper and lower extremities, consistent with chorea. The patient also had abnormal dystonic posturing of her left arm while walking. This case report highlights the importance of brain imaging as well as careful neurological examinations of patients with benign meningiomas. Moreover, it illustrates the remarkable specificity yet clinical diversity of meningiomas in presentation through movement disorders.

  8. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Brown, Gregory G.; Bolden, Khalima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a relatively common psychiatric syndrome in HIV infection, but little is known about its neural correlates. In the present study, we examined the associations between apathy and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in key frontal white matter regions in the thalamocorticostriatal circuit that has been implicated in the expression of apathy. Nineteen participants with HIV infection and 19 demographically comparable seronegative comparison subjects completed the Apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale as a part of a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research evaluation. When compared to the seronegative participants, the HIV+ group had significantly more frontal white matter abnormalities. Within HIV+ persons, and as predicted, higher ratings of apathy were associated with greater white matter alterations in the anterior corona radiata, genu, and orbital medial prefrontal cortex. The associations between white matter alterations and apathy were independent of depression and were stronger among participants with lower current CD4 counts. All told, these findings indicate that apathy is independently associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons infected with HIV, particularly in the setting of lower current immune functioning, which may have implications for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25275424

  9. Ocean Ekman Response to Wind Forcing in Frontal Regions and Implications for Vertical Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M. F.; Tozuka, T.

    2016-12-01

    Wind forcing is fundamental to the ocean circulation. According to the classic "Ekman" theory developed in the early twentieth century, wind-induced steady flow spirals to the right of the wind stress in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere, resulting in a net wind-forced "Ekman" transport that is 90 degrees to the right of the wind stress in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This theory, however, assumes that the near-surface ocean is uniform in density (i.e., has no fronts). In frontal regions the surface "geostrophic" currents have a vertical shear aligned with the density front and this oceanic "thermal wind" shear can balance a portion of the surface wind stress. In this study we show that in frontal regions, the classic Ekman response is altered. Surface ocean currents respond to the effective wind stress—the portion of the wind stress that is out of balance with the ocean's surface geostrophic shear. Consequently, the vertical velocity at the base of the mixed layer is better approximated by the curl of the effective wind stress, rather than the full wind stress. Wind blowing along a front can give rise to a local minimum in the effective wind stress and result in a secondary circulation with downwelling on the cold side of the front and upwelling on the warm side. Using data from the high-resolution Japanese Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES), we show that these frontal effects cannot be ignored in the Tropics or in strong frontal regions in the extratropics, such as found in coastal regions and in western boundary currents of all basins. Furthermore, these frontal effects dominate the classic Ekman response in regions of both hemispheres where trade winds change to westerlies.

  10. Substance abuse risk in emerging adults associated with smaller frontal gray matter volumes and higher externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Barbara J; Korycinski, Steven T; Soules, Mary; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Zucker, Robert A; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2014-04-01

    During emerging adulthood, alcohol and substance use peak. Previous research has suggested that prefrontal and subcortical brain volumes may relate to risk for development of substance abuse. Epidemiological studies indicate that early initiation of alcohol or drug use significantly increases the likelihood of later substance use disorder diagnoses. We hypothesized that frontal regions would be smaller in young adults with early substance use and related problems (early-risk, ER), compared with a control group without early use/problems (C). We further hypothesized that these volumes would be associated with more externalizing behaviors, an additional robust predictor of substance abuse. One hundred and six subjects, ages 18-23, underwent high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance image scanning. Individuals were categorized as C (n=64) or ER (n=42) using a composite-score of early alcohol/drug use and problems based on prospectively collected assessments; externalizing behaviors were also previously assessed during adolescence. Neuroanatomical volumes were compared between groups and correlated with behavioral measures. ER subjects exhibited more externalizing behaviors than their control counterparts. Total left frontal cortex and left superior frontal cortex volumes were significantly smaller in the ER group, controlling for family history of alcoholism and current substance use. Total gray matter volumes were negatively associated with substance risk score. Further, externalizing behavior score was negatively correlated with both left superior cortical and left total cortical volumes. These findings suggest that smaller frontal cortical volumes, specifically the left superior frontal cortex, represent an underlying risk factor for substance abuse in emerging adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous medial representation for anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkevich, Paul A; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C

    2006-12-01

    The m-rep approach pioneered by Pizer et al. (2003) is a powerful morphological tool that makes it possible to employ features derived from medial loci (skeletons) in shape analysis. This paper extends the medial representation paradigm into the continuous realm, modeling skeletons and boundaries of three-dimensional objects as continuous parametric manifolds, while also maintaining the proper geometric relationship between these manifolds. The parametric representation of the boundary-medial relationship makes it possible to fit shape-based coordinate systems to the interiors of objects, providing a framework for combined statistical analysis of shape and appearance. Our approach leverages the idea of inverse skeletonization, where the skeleton of an object is defined first and the object's boundary is derived analytically from the skeleton. This paper derives a set of sufficient conditions ensuring that inverse skeletonization is well-posed for single-manifold skeletons and formulates a partial differential equation whose solutions satisfy the sufficient conditions. An efficient variational algorithm for deformable template modeling using the continuous medial representation is described and used to fit a template to the hippocampus in 87 subjects from a schizophrenia study with sub-voxel accuracy and 95% mean overlap.

  12. Treatment of Medial Malleolar Stress Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of medial malleolar stress fractures varies from 0.6%-4.1% of all stress fractures. These fractures occur almost entirely in athletes and runners, and more frequently in skeletally mature patients aged 20-40 years. Treatment depends on the result of diagnostic imaging, displacement of

  13. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riga, D.; Matos, R.M.; Glas, A.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.; van den Oever, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and

  14. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, Maarten H.; Tol, Johannes L.; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; de Winter, Theodorus C.

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise,

  15. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  16. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  17. Acute pharmacogenetic activation of medial prefrontal cortex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in anxiety-like behaviour. In rodent models, perturbations of mPFCneuronal activity through pharmacological manipulations, optogenetic activation of mPFC neurons or cell-type specificpharmacogenetic inhibition of somatostatin interneurons indicate conflicting effects on ...

  18. Medial ankle pain after lateral ligament rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Marti, R. K.

    1996-01-01

    After a severe ankle sprain the incidence of residual complaints, particularly on the medial side of the joint, is high. We studied a consecutive series of 30 patients who had operative repair of acute ruptures of lateral ligaments. During operation, arthroscopy revealed a fresh injury to the

  19. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    2014-01-01

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  20. Interposition of the posterior cruciate ligament into the medial compartment of the knee joint on coronal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Su; Yoon, Young Cheol; Park, Ki Jeong; Wang, Joon Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong Keun [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the overall prevalence and clinical significance of interposition of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) into the medial compartment of the knee joint in coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively reviewed 317 consecutive patients referred for knee MRI at our institution between October 2009 and December 2009. Interposition of the PCL into the medial compartment of the knee joint on proton coronal MRI was evaluated dichotomously (i.e., present or absent). We analyzed the interposition according to its prevalence as well as its relationship with right-left sidedness, gender, age, and disease categories (osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament tear, and medial meniscus tear). Prevalence of interposition of PCL into the medial compartment of the knee joint was 47.0% (149/317). There was no right (50.0%, 83/166) to left (43.7%, 66/151) or male (50.3%, 87/173) to female (43.1%, 62/144) differences in the prevalence. There was no significant association between the prevalence and age, or the disease categories. Interposition of the PCL into the medial compartment of the knee joint is observed in almost half of patients on proton coronal MRI of the knee. Its presence is not associated with any particular factors including knee pathology and may be regarded as a normal MR finding.

  1. The regional neuronal activity in left posterior middle temporal gyrus is correlated with the severity of chronic aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jianlin Li,1,* Dunren Du,2,* Wei Gao,1 Xichun Sun,3 Haizhu Xie,1 Gang Zhang,1 Jian Li,1 Honglun Li,1 Kefeng Li4 1Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, Yantai Laishan Branch Hospital of Yuhuangding Hospital, Medical College of Qingdao University, 3Department of Radiology, Yantai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yantai, China; 4School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Aphasia is one of the most disabling cognitive deficits affecting >2 million people in the USA. The neuroimaging characteristics of chronic aphasic patients (>6 months post onset remain largely unknown.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the regional signal changes of spontaneous neuronal activity of brain and the inter-regional connectivity in chronic aphasia. Materials and methods: Resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to obtain fMRI data from 17 chronic aphasic patients and 20 healthy control subjects in a Siemens Verio 3.0T MR Scanner. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF was determined, which directly reflects the regional neuronal activity. The functional connectivity (FC of fMRI was assessed using a seed voxel linear correlation approach. The severity of aphasia was evaluated by aphasia quotient (AQ scores obtained from Western Aphasia Battery test.Results: Compared with normal subjects, aphasic patients showed decreased ALFF values in the regions of left posterior middle temporal gyrus (PMTG, left medial prefrontal gyrus, and right cerebellum. The ALFF values in left PMTG showed strong positive correlation with the AQ score (coefficient r=0.79, P<0.05. There was a positive FC in chronic aphasia between left PMTG and left inferior temporal gyrus (BA20, fusiform gyrus (BA37, and inferior frontal gyrus (BA47\\45\\44. Conclusion: Left PMTG might play

  2. Fluid intelligence allows flexible recruitment of the parieto-frontal network in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusse, Franziska; van der Meer Elke; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Krueger, Frank; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2011-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is the ability to think flexibly and to understand abstract relations. People with high fluid intelligence (hi-fluIQ) perform better in analogical reasoning tasks than people with average fluid intelligence (ave-fluIQ). Although previous neuroimaging studies reported involvement of parietal and frontal brain regions in geometric analogical reasoning (which is a prototypical task for fluid intelligence), however, neuroimaging findings on geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ are sparse. Furthermore, evidence on the relation between brain activation and intelligence while solving cognitive tasks is contradictory. The present study was designed to elucidate the cerebral correlates of geometric analogical reasoning in a sample of hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ high school students. We employed a geometric analogical reasoning task with graded levels of task difficulty and confirmed the involvement of the parieto-frontal network in solving this task. In addition to characterizing the brain regions involved in geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ, we found that blood oxygenation level dependency (BOLD) signal changes were greater for hi-fluIQ than for ave-fluIQ in parietal brain regions. However, ave-fluIQ showed greater BOLD signal changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal gyrus than hi-fluIQ. Thus, we showed that a similar network of brain regions is involved in geometric analogical reasoning in both groups. Interestingly, the relation between brain activation and intelligence is not mono-directional, but rather, it is specific for each brain region. The negative brain activation-intelligence relationship in frontal brain regions in hi-fluIQ goes along with a better behavioral performance and reflects a lower demand for executive monitoring compared to ave-fluIQ individuals. In conclusion, our data indicate that flexibly modulating the extent of regional cerebral activity is characteristic for fluid intelligence.

  3. Fluid intelligence allows flexible recruitment of the parieto-frontal network in analogical reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska ePreusse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence is the ability to think flexibly and to understand abstract relations. People with high fluid intelligence (hi-fluIQ perform better in analogical reasoning tasks than people with average fluid intelligence (ave-fluIQ. Although previous neuroimaging studies reported involvement of parietal and frontal brain regions in geometric analogical reasoning (which is a prototypical task for fluid intelligence, however, neuroimaging findings on geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ are sparse. Furthermore, evidence on the relation between brain activation and intelligence while solving cognitive tasks is contradictory. The present study was designed to elucidate the cerebral correlates of geometric analogical reasoning in a sample of hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ high school students. We employed a geometric analogical reasoning task with graded levels of task difficulty and confirmed the involvement of the parieto-frontal network in solving this task. In addition to characterizing the brain regions involved in geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ, we found that blood oxygenation level dependency (BOLD signal changes were greater for hi-fluIQ than for ave-fluIQ in parietal brain regions. However, ave-fluIQ showed greater BOLD signal changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal gyrus than hi-fluIQ. Thus, we showed that a similar network of brain regions is involved in geometric analogical reasoning in both groups. Interestingly, the relation between brain activation and intelligence is not mono-directional, but rather, it is specific for each brain region. The negative brain activation–intelligence relationship in frontal brain regions in hi-fluIQ goes along with a better behavioral performance and reflects a lower demand for executive monitoring compared to ave-fluIQ individuals. In conclusion, our data indicate that flexibly modulating the extent of regional cerebral activity is characteristic for

  4. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions ADNFLE Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy ( ADNFLE ) is an uncommon form of epilepsy that ...

  5. Neurokinin2-R in medial septum regulate hippocampal and amygdalar ACh release induced by intraseptal application of neurokinins A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäble, Sandra; Huston, Joseph P; Silva, Maria A de Souza

    2012-05-01

    The neurokinin receptors (NK-R), NK(2)- and NK(3)-R, have been implicated in behavioral processes, but apparently in opposite ways: while NK(2)-R agonism disrupts memory and has anxiogenic-like action, NK(3) -R agonists facilitate memory and display anxiolytic-like effects. Systemic application of NK(2)-R antagonists block the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus, which is induced by intraseptal administration of the NK(2)-R ligand, neurokinin A (NKA). We investigated the effects of medial septal injection of NKA and a preferred ligand of NK(3)-R, neurokinin B (NKB), on the activity of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and assessed the role of the medial septal NK(2)-R in the control of extracellular ACh levels in cholinergic projection areas. ACh was dialysed in the frontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus of anesthetized animals and was analysed by HPLC-EC. ACh levels in hippocampus and amygdala, but not in frontal cortex were increased after intraseptal injection of either NKA or NKB (0.1, 1, 10 μM). Application of the nonpeptidic NK(2)-R antagonist, saredutant SR48968 (1, 10, 100 pM), followed by NKA (1 μM) or NKB (10 μM) injection into the medial septum, blocked the ACh increase in hippocampus and amygdala. These results indicate that medial septal NK(2)-R have an important role in mediating ACh release, for one, via the septal-hippocampal cholinergic projection and, secondly, via direct or indirect route to the amygdala, but not frontal cortex. They also support the hypothesis that hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission controls amygdala function suggesting that this interaction is regulated via NK(2)-R in the medial septum. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF VEHICLE FRONTAL IMPACT PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Mík

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possible improvement of road vehicle safety by using eCall – a system which initiates an emergency call in case of traffic accident. A possible way of better description of a frontal impact accident of a vehicle is examined and enriched by the information from the onboard e-call unit. In this article, we analyze results of frontal crash tests with different types of barriers and overlapping area and look for the correlation between the individual vehicle and collision parameters in order to provide a better description of the severity of the accident by the eCall system. The relation among the selected parameters is described using the correlation analysis.

  7. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in mucopolysaccharidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Paolo; Volzone, Anna; Randazzo, Giovanna; Antoniazzi, Lisa; Rampazzo, Angelica; Scarpa, Maurizio; Nobili, Lino

    2014-10-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an epileptic syndrome that is primarily characterized by seizures with motor signs occurring almost exclusively during sleep. We describe 2 children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) who were referred for significant sleep disturbance. Long term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEGM) demonstrated sleep-related hypermotor seizures consistent with NFLE. No case of sleep-related hypermotor seizures has ever been reported to date in MPS. However, differential diagnosis with parasomnias has been previously discussed. The high frequency of frontal lobe seizures causes sleep fragmentation, which may result in sleep disturbances observed in at least a small percentage of MPS patients. We suggest monitoring individuals with MPS using periodic LT-VEEGM, particularly when sleep disorder is present. Moreover, our cases confirm that NFLE in lysosomal storage diseases may occur, and this finding extends the etiologic spectrum of NFLE. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Frontal lobe epilepsy and EEG: Neurophysiological approach

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    La epilepsia del lóbulo frontal es la segunda más frecuente en la mayoría de las series publicadas, después de la epilepsia temporal. Sus características clínicas y electroencefalográficas son muy variadas, lo que hace de su diagnóstico y tratamiento un reto en la práctica clínica. Las crisis frontales suelen aparecen en "clusters", con frecuencia generalizan y el aspecto electroencefalográfico de la actividad intercrítica y crítica suele ser difícil de interpretar por la gran difusión que su...

  9. Intraparenchymal schwannoma of the frontal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar M

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available A 45 year old woman with bifrontal headaches and progressive diminution in vision over 6 months was found to have bilateral papilloedema. CT scan showed large right frontal lesion with surrounding oedema. Right basal frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to excise the multinodular, intraparenchymatous tumor. Hispathology confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Post-operative course was uneventful with disappearance of pre-operative signs and symptoms.

  10. Frontal Plane Tibiofemoral Alignment is Strongly Related to Compartmental Knee Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Control Strategies during Stair Ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hunter J; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Fleenor, Kristina; Zhang, Songning

    2018-03-12

    Static frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment is an important factor in dynamic knee alignment and knee adduction moments. However, little is known about the relationship between alignment and compartment contact forces or muscle control strategies. The purpose of this study was to estimate medial (MCF) and lateral (LCF) compartment knee joint contact forces and muscle forces during stair ascent using a musculoskeletal model implementing subject specific knee alignments. Kinematic and kinetic data from 20 healthy individuals with radiographically confirmed varus or valgus knee alignments were simulated using alignment specific models to predict MCFs and LCFs. Muscle forces were determined using static optimization. Independent samples t-tests compared contact and knee and frontal plane hip muscle forces between groups during weight acceptance and during pushoff. The varus group exhibited increased weight acceptance peak MCFs, while the valgus group exhibited increased pushoff peak LCFs. The varus group utilized increased vasti muscle forces during weight acceptance and hip adductor forces during pushoff. The valgus group utilized increased hip abductor forces during pushoff. The alignment dependent contact forces provide evidence of the significance of frontal plane knee alignment in healthy individuals, which may be important in considering future knee joint health. The differing muscle control strategies between alignments detail specific neuromuscular responses to control frontal plane knee loads.

  11. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  12. Subperiostal Orbital Abscess and Frontal Epidural Abscess Due to Sinusitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Ulaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A seventeen-year-old girl was admitted to our clinic with complaint of rubor, swelling, and pain on the left upper eyelid. Her medical history revealed that she had received high-dose oral steroid treatment for one week for the diagnosis of acute angioedema in another clinic. On ophthalmologic examination, her left upper eyelid had edema, swelling, and hyperemia. Additionally, she had restriction in up-gaze in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 0.7. The patient’s computerized tomography revealed ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinusitis, as well as subperiostal orbital abscess, and frontal epidural abscess. Intravenous antibiotic treatment has been arranged. Due to persistence of the clinical signs, surgical drainage of the abscesses has been performed. Following, she has been discharged from the hospital on oral antibiotic treatment. Postoperatively, at the first-month visit, the left eye’s up-gaze restriction was recovered, and visual acuity was improved to 1.0. If a patient presents with eyelid swelling, differential diagnosis should be performed carefully before making the decision to start steroid treatment. Sinusitis, which is seen frequently in clinical practice, should be kept in mind due to its potential to cause orbital abscess, epidural abscess, and intracranial complications. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 464-7

  13. Frontal cortical asymmetry may partially mediate the influence of social power on anger expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When irritated by other people, powerful people usually tend to express their anger explicitly and directly, whereas people in less powerful positions are more likely not to show their feelings freely. The neural mechanism behind power and its influence on expression tendency has been scarcely explored. This study recorded frontal EEG activity at rest and frontal EEG activation while participants were engaged in a writing task describing an anger-eliciting event, in which they were irritated by people with higher or lower social power. Participants’ anger levels and expression inclination levels were self-reported on nine-point visual analog Likert scales, and also rated by independent raters based on the essays they had written. The results showed that high social power was indeed associated with greater anger expression tendency and greater left frontal activation than low social power. This is in line with the approach-inhibition theory of power. The mid-frontal asymmetric activation served as a partial mediator between social power and expression inclination. This effect may relate to the functions of the prefrontal cortex, which is in charge of information integration and evaluation and the control of motivation direction, as reported by previous studies.

  14. Virtual endoscopy and 3D volume rendering in the management of frontal sinus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belina, Stanko; Cuk, Viseslav; Klapan, Ivica

    2009-12-01

    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are commonly caused by traffic accidents, assaults, industrial accidents and gunshot wounds. Classical roentgenography has high proportion of false negative findings in cases of FSF and is not particularly useful in examining the severity of damage to the frontal sinus posterior table and the nasofrontal duct region. High resolution computed tomography was inavoidable during the management of such patients but it may produce large quantity of 2D images. Postprocessing of datasets acquired by high resolution computer tomography from patients with severe head trauma may offer a valuable additional help in diagnostics and surgery planning. We performed virtual endoscopy (VE) and 3D volume rendering (3DVR) on high resolution CT data acquired from a 54-year-old man with with both anterior and posterior frontal sinus wall fracture in order to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Data acquisition was done by Siemens Somatom Emotion scanner and postprocessing was performed with Syngo 2006G software. VE and 3DVR were performed in a man who suffered blunt trauma to his forehead and nose in an traffic accident. Left frontal sinus anterior wall fracture without dislocation and fracture of tabula interna with dislocation were found. 3D position and orientation of fracture lines were shown in by 3D rendering software. We concluded that VE and 3DVR can clearly display the anatomic structure of the paranasal sinuses and nasopharyngeal cavity, revealing damage to the sinus wall caused by a fracture and its relationship to surrounding anatomical structures.

  15. Frontal brain activation in young children during picture book reading with their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgi, S; Loo, K K; Mizuike, C

    2010-02-01

    This study was to measure changes in frontal brain activation in young children during picture book reading with their mothers. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 15 young Japanese children (eight girls and seven boys, mean age 23.1 +/- 3.4). Two experimental tasks were presented as follows: Task 1 (picture book reading with their mothers); Task 2 (viewing of book-on-video). Duration of task stimulus was 180-sec and the 60-sec interval was filled. Brain activation was measured using an optical topography system. Significant increases in oxy-Hb were observed in both right and left frontal areas in response to Task 1 compared with Task 2. There were significant correlations between child's brain activity and mothers' and children's verbal-nonverbal behaviours. There was greater frontal lobe activation in children when they were engaged in a picture book reading task with their mothers, as opposed to passive viewing of a videotape in which the story was read to them. Social and verbal engagement of the mother in reading picture books with her young child may mediate frontal brain activity in the child.

  16. Measurement of Different Dimension of Maxillary and Frontal Sinus Through Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winniecia Dkhar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to estimate the normal upper and lower limit cut-off value of the different dimensions of maxillary and frontal sinuses, and also to determine the influence of gender on the obtained variables and to observe the effect of nasal septal deviation on maxillary sinus. The observational study was carried out and a total of 60 samples were collected from both males and females with the age group range from 20-50 years. Different dimensions of maxillary and frontal sinuses were measured and the volume was calculated. The mean of all the measured parameters in right and left maxillary sinus and frontal sinus shows the higher value in males as compared to females. The volumes of maxillary and frontal sinuses of both sides were significantly greater in males than females. All the measured dimensions were larger in males and also the volume of maxillary sinus was found to be larger in males. This study also showed that there was no effect of nasal septal deviation on the volume of maxillary sinus.

  17. Resting-state functional connectivity between right anterior insula and right orbital frontal cortex correlate with insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored the neurobiological basis of insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, though the salience network (SN has been implicated in insight deficits in schizophrenia. This study was then designed to investigate whether resting-state (rs functional connectivity (FC of SN was associated with insight level in OCD patients. We analyzed rs-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 21 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI, 19 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI, and 24 healthy controls (HCs. Seed-based whole-brain FC and ROI (region of interest-wise connectivity analyses were performed with seeds/ROIs in the bilateral anterior insula (AI and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC. The right AI-right medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC connectivity was found to be uniquely decreased in the OCD-PI group, and the value of this aberrant connectivity correlated with insight level in OCD patients. In addition, we found that the OCD-GI group had significantly increased right AI-left dACC connectivity within the SN, relative to HCs (overall trend for groups: OCD-GI > OCD-PI > HC. Our findings suggest that abnormal right AI-right mOFC FC may mediate insight deficits in OCD, perhaps due to impaired encoding and integration of self-evaluative information about OCD-related beliefs and behaviors. Our findings indicate a SN connectivity dissociation between OCD-GI and OCD-PI patients and support the notion of considering OCD-GI and OCD-PI as two distinct disorder subtypes.

  18. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal......-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait. Thirty subjects aged 20 to 32 years were included (15 with medial tibial stress syndrome and 15 controls). Navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation were measured during quiet standing with neutral and loaded foot using a ruler and digital photography....... Medial longitudinal-arch deformation was measured during walking gait using 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrated a significantly larger navicular drop (mean +/- 1 SD, 7.7 +/- 3.1 mm) and medial longitudinal-arch deformation (5.9 +/- 3.2 degrees) during...

  19. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  20. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cespón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task (n-back task during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials. A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  1. Attachment dismissal predicts frontal slow-wave ERPs during rejection by unfamiliar peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lars O; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L; Rutherford, Helena J V; David, Daryn H; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Attachment representations are thought to provide a cognitive-affective template, guiding the way individuals interact with unfamiliar social partners. To examine the neural correlates of this process, we sampled event-related potentials (ERPs) during exclusion by unfamiliar peers to differentiate insecure-dismissing from securely attached youth, as indexed by the child attachment interview. Thirteen secure and 10 dismissing 11- to 15-year-olds were ostensibly connected with two peers via the Internet to play a computerized ball-toss game. Actually, peers were computer generated, first distributing the ball evenly, but eventually excluding participants. Afterward children rated their distress. As in previous studies, distress was related to a negative left frontal slow wave (500-900 ms) during rejection, a waveform implicated in negative appraisals and less approach motivation. Though attachment classifications were comparable in frontal ERPs and distress, an attachment-related dismissal dimension predicted a negative left frontal slow wave during rejection, suggesting that high dismissal potentially involves elevated anticipation of rejection. As expected, dismissal and self-reported distress were uncorrelated. Yet, a new approach to quantifying the dissociation between self-reports and rejection-related ERPs revealed that dismissal predicted underreporting of distress relative to ERPs. Our findings imply that evaluations and regulatory strategies linked to attachment generalize to distressing social contexts in early adolescence.

  2. Segregation of the human medial prefrontal cortex in social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eBzdok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures of functional connectivity: co-activation across a wide range of neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database and correlated signal fluctuations during unconstrained (resting cognition. Furthermore, we characterized the functions associated with these two regions using the BrainMap database. Across methods, the ventral mPFC was more strongly connected with the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, while the dorsal mPFC was more strongly connected with the inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and middle temporal gyrus. Further, the ventral mPFC was selectively associated with action execution, olfaction, and reward related tasks, while the dorsal mPFC was selectively associated with perspective-taking and episodic memory retrieval. The ventral mPFC is therefore predominantly involved in sensory-driven, approach/avoidance-modulating, and evaluation-related processing, whereas the dorsal mPFC is predominantly involved in internally driven, memory-informed, and metacognition-related processing in social cognition.

  3. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Alopecia frontal fibrosante: relato de seis casos Frontal fibrosing alopecia: report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Mulinari-Brenner

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia frontal fibrosante é forma progressiva de alopecia cicatricial. Os casos iniciais foram relatados a partir 1994, na Austrália, em pacientes do sexo feminino pós-menopausa. Desde então inúmeros casos foram descritos na literatura sugerindo que ela é mais prevalente do que inicialmente se supunha. Seu curso progressivo se assemelha ao da alopecia androgenética; histologicamente, entretanto, o infiltrado liquenóide é evidente. O artigo relata seis casos brasileiros e discute a alopecia frontal fibrosante dentro do grupo das alopecias cicatriciais, como variante do líquen plano pilar.Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a progressive cicatricial alopecia. The first cases were described in Australia in postmenopausal women, in 1994. Since then, numerous cases were reported, suggesting that frontal fibrosing alopecia is more prevalent than initially thought. Its progressive course in postmenopausal women, clinically resembles androgenetic alopecia; however, histologically, lichenoid infiltrate is evident. This article report six brazilian cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia and discusses them in the context of cicatricial alopecias, as a variant of lichen planopilaris.

  5. Resting frontal EEG asymmetry in children: meta-analyses of the effects of psychosocial risk factors and associations with internalizing and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Mikko J; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Alink, Lenneke R A; Huffmeijer, Renske; Biro, Szilvia; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-09-01

    Asymmetry of frontal cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in children is influenced by the social environment and considered a marker of vulnerability to emotional and behavioral problems. To determine the reliability of these associations, we used meta-analysis to test whether variation in resting frontal EEG asymmetry is consistently associated with (a) having experienced psychosocial risk (e.g., parental depression or maltreatment) and (b) internalizing and externalizing behavior outcomes in children ranging from newborns to adolescents. Three meta-analyses including 38 studies (N = 2,523) and 50 pertinent effect sizes were carried out. The studies included in the analyses reported associations between frontal EEG asymmetry and psychosocial risk (k = 20; predominantly studies with maternal depression as the risk factor) as well as internalizing (k = 20) and externalizing (k = 10) behavior outcomes. Psychosocial risk was significantly associated with greater relative right frontal asymmetry, with an effect size of d = .36 (p < .01), the effects being stronger in girls. A non-significant relation was observed between right frontal asymmetry and internalizing symptoms (d = .19, p = .08), whereas no association between left frontal asymmetry and externalizing symptoms was observed (d = .04, p = .79). Greater relative right frontal asymmetry appears to be a fairly consistent marker of the presence of familial stressors in children but the power of frontal asymmetry to directly predict emotional and behavioral problems is modest. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Percutaneous medial collateral ligament release in arthroscopic medial meniscectomy in tight knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakioglu, Onur; Ozsoy, Mehmet Hakan; Ozdemir, Haci Mustafa; Yigit, Hasan; Cavusoglu, Ali Turgay; Lobenhoffer, Philipp

    2013-07-01

    Visualization and surgery of tears in the posterior medial meniscus are difficult in tight knees. Iatrogenic chondral lesions might cause serious morbidity, and residual tears may result in inadequate symptom relief. We evaluated the clinical and radiological results of superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL) release during arthroscopic medial meniscectomy in tight knees. Eighteen patients [median age: 43 years (22-59); median follow-up: 8.3 months (6-12)] who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy were included in the study. Patients with ligamentous injuries, severe chondral damage or meniscal repairs were excluded. Preoperatively, anteroposterior knee radiographs were obtained with 11-kg valgus stress using a specialized instrument. During the operation, if opening of the medial knee in 30° flexion under 11-kg valgus stress was inadequate, controlled release of the posterior portion of the MCL was performed using a 16-gauge needle. Intraoperative valgus stress was monitored using a specially designed lateral support with mounted load cell. MCL injury was evaluated both with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and valgus stress radiographs, which were obtained in the 1st week and 3rd and 6th months postoperatively to monitor healing of the elongated MCL. In all patients, meniscectomy could be performed with adequate visualization of the posterior medial meniscus and without iatrogenic chondral injury. The median medial joint space width on valgus stress radiographs was 7.1 mm preoperatively and 9.1, 8.0 and 7.2 mm in the 1st week, and 3rd and 6th months, respectively (p < 0.0001). On MRI, the injured structure was the posterior two-thirds of the MCL. Median Lysholm score, which was 42 points before the operation, had increased to 94 points at the final follow-up (p = 0.0002). Controlled release of the MCL in tight knees allowed easier handling in posterior medial meniscus tears and a better understanding of tear configurations, avoiding iatrogenic chondral

  7. Genes encoding heterotrimeric G-proteins are associated with gray matter volume variations in the medial frontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavarría-Siles, I.M.; Rijpkema, M.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Verhage, M.; Franke, B.; Fernández, G.; Posthuma, D.

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled signal transduction mediates most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters; this signaling system transduces a large variety of extracellular stimuli into neurons and is the most widely used mechanism for cell communication at the synaptic level. The heterotrimeric

  8. Genes Encoding Heterotrimeric G-proteins Are Associated with Gray Matter Volume Variations in the Medial Frontal Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavarria-Siles, I.; Rijpkema, Mark; Lips, E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Verhage, M.; Franke, B.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Posthuma, D.

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled signal transduction mediates most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters; this signaling system transduces a large variety of extracellular stimuli into neurons and is the most widely used mechanism for cell communication at the synaptic level. The heterotrimeric

  9. Osteoligamentous injuries of the medial ankle joint

    OpenAIRE

    L?tscher, P.; Lang, T. H.; Zwicky, L.; Hintermann, B.; Knupp, M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ank...

  10. Osteoligamentous injuries of the medial ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötscher, P; Lang, T H; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Knupp, M

    2015-12-01

    Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ankle joint osteoarthritis.

  11. Analysis of the Medial Opticocarotid Recess in Patients with Pituitary Macroadenoma Using Three-Dimensional Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryogo; Toda, Masahiro; Wakahara, Sota; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2016-09-01

    The medial opticocarotid recess (MOCR), which contains the lateral tubercular recess (LTR), is an important landmark for the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) and for accessing the parasellar and suprasellar regions. These microanatomic landmarks for endoscopic endonasal surgery can be observed using surgical simulation with three-dimensional images. The aim of this study was to analyze the MOCR in patients with pituitary macroadenoma using three-dimensional images. We constructed three-dimensional computed tomography images of 20 patients with pituitary macroadenoma and 20 patients with unruptured aneurysms as a control. Using these images, we measured the distance between the left and right LTR, the midline and the unilateral LTR, and the left and right ICA. The distance between the left and right LTR was statistically longer in the pituitary adenoma group versus the control group. Tumor volumes were multivariate parameters for the distance between the left and right LTR, which was significantly longer in the group with tumor volumes >5 cm(3) versus the other groups. This distance was also significantly correlated with the distance between the left and right ICA. Pituitary macroadenomas expand the distance between the left and right MOCR together with the distance between the left and right ICA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Risk Taking Interact to Predict Left-Frontal EEG Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Chelsea L.; Goldstein, Kim E.; LaBelle, Denise R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relat...

  13. Mirror Neurons, the Representation of Word meaning, and the Foot of the Third Left Frontal Convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; Postle, Natasha; McMahon, Katie; Meredith, Matthew; Ashton, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has attempted to demonstrate a preferential involvement of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in the comprehension of effector-related action word (verb) meanings. These studies have assumed that Broca's area (or Brodmann's area 44) is the homologue of a monkey premotor area (F5) containing mouth and hand mirror…

  14. How Left Inferior Frontal Cortex Participates in Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tracy; Swinney, David; Walenski, Matthew; Zurif, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    We report on three experiments that provide a real-time processing perspective on the poor comprehension of Broca's aphasic patients for non-canonically structured sentences. In the first experiment we presented sentences (via a Cross Modal Lexical Priming (CMLP) paradigm) to Broca's patients at a normal rate of speech. Unlike the pattern found…

  15. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...... matter hyperintensities. METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study, we investigated the relationships between DM, hypertension, blood pressure and MTA in 582 subjects, stratified by white matter hyperintensity severity, using multinomial logistic regression. MTA...... was visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95...

  16. Golden Proportion in Frontal Social Smile from Orthodontic Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Tabatabaei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical attraction has a significant effect on all aspects of personal life, and in this category facial appearance is the most important part of the body in prediction of attractiveness. In the face, mouth and specially shape and size of anterior teeth is important to gain dental and facial esthetic. The aim of this study is evaluation of golden proportion from orthodontic view in maxillary anterior teeth in both sexes. Methods: Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences were selected, and photographs of their frontal social smile were taken by a standard method from 30cm distance. Then visible part of central, lateral and canine teeth was measured by Photoshop software (Adobe Photoshop ver8 with 0.1mm precision. Data was evaluated by descriptive statistical analysis and sample T-test using SPSS. Results: According to descriptive statistical analysis and sample T- test, mean ratio of central to lateral teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.209±0.199 and 1.157±0.156 and in the right side in men and women was 1.179± 0.27 and 1.158± 0.145, respectively. The ratio of lateral to canine teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.522±0.146 and 1.494±0.127 and in the right side in men and women was 1.55±0.164 and 1.51±0.114, respectively. Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral teeth in 16% in the right side and 3.4% in the left side only in men. Conclusion: Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral in the left side and right side in men, but due to large canine in men, this proportion was not seen between lateral and canine teeth and so due to small lateral in women, it was not seen between anterior teeth.

  17. Variations in the origin of the medial calcaneal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellon, A Lee; Kim, Jaesuk; Spaulding, Cecily M

    2002-02-01

    Previous anatomic studies of the medial heel region were done on embalmed human cadavers. Here, the innervation of the medial heel region was studied by dissecting living tissue with the use of 3.5-power loupe magnification during decompression of the medial ankle for tarsal tunnel syndrome in 85 feet. The medial heel was found to be innervated by just one medial calcaneal nerve in 37% of the feet, by two medial calcaneal nerves in 41%, by three medial calcaneal nerves in 19%, and by four medial calcaneal nerves in 3%. An origin for a medial calcaneal nerve from the medial plantar nerve was found in 46% of the feet. This nerve most often innervates the skin of the posteromedial arch, where it is at risk for injury during calcaneal spur removal or plantar fasciotomy. Knowledge of the variations in location of the medial calcaneal nerves may prevent neuroma formation during surgery and provide insight into the variability of heel symptoms associated with tarsal tunnel syndrome.

  18. Hawkins Group I fracture of neck of talus and Salter Harris Type III tibial epiphyseal injury of medial malleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kodali Siva R K; Vali, Hamza; Hussain, Altaf

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting an unusual combination of Hawkins Group I fracture of the neck of left talus in association with Salter Harris Type III distal tibial epiphyseal injury of medial malleolus in a child with cerebral palsy and hemiplegia of contralateral limbs and discussed the possible mechanism as well as management. Fractures of medial malleolus usually occur in Hawkins Group III fracture-dislocations in adults. Forced dorsiflexion of talus against the anterior edge of tibia appears to be the accepted common mechanism, despite limited experimental and clinical evidence incriminating axial compression. Fracture of medial malleolus implicates supination. We managed this unusual pattern of injury conservatively. At 15 months, the child was asymptomatic with no radiological evidence of avascular necrosis of body of talus or growth disturbance of distal tibial epiphysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, Ilknur; Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-01-01

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported

  20. Posterior paralimbic and frontal metabolite impairments in asymptomatic hypertension with different treatment outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Santos, J.M.; Fuentes, L.J.; Vidal, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in elderly persons. We studied asymptomatic hypertensive subjects using brain magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy to evaluate metabolite impairments before the appearance of symptoms in patients with different treatment outcomes. In all, 14 healthy controls and 37 asymptomatic hypertensive patients (17 controlled and 20 resistant) underwent brain structural MR and MR spectroscopy of the posterior paralimbic (PPL) area and left frontal white matter. Ischemic burden (IB), global cortical atrophy and microbleeds were analyzed with visual scales. Metabolite ratios involving N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myoinositol (ml) were computed. Ultrasound measurements, including intima-media thickness, plaques and hemodynamic ratios, were obtained. Intergroup differences in IB, atrophy and metabolite ratios, and the atrophy and IB relationship were assessed with parametric and nonparametric statistical tests. In addition, the impacts of demographic, analytic and clinical factors, ischemia and atrophy, and ultrasound measurements on metabolite ratios were assessed. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. Higher atrophy scores presented with higher total or frontal IB (P<0.05). However, there was no intergroup difference in atrophy and IB. PPL ml/Cr was increased in resistant hypertension (P<0.021), whereas frontal NAA/Cr (P<0.007) showed opposite trends between controlled (increased ratios) and resistant (decreased ratios) hypertension. Unlike PPL ml/Cr, frontal NAA/Cr showed significant correlations with the lipid profile and ultrasound measurements. PPL ml/Cr increases in resistant hypertension, and frontal NAA/Cr diverges between controlled and resistant hypertension before physical and neuropsychological symptoms appear. (author)

  1. Structural connectivity of right frontal hyperactive areas scales with stuttering severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Anwander, Alfred; Bütfering, Christoph; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-01-01

    A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants. Using a newly developed structural connectivity measure, we calculated voxel-wise correlations between connection strength and stuttering severity within tract volumes that originated from functionally hyperactive right frontal regions. Correlation analyses revealed that with increasing speech motor deficits the connection strength increased in the right frontal aslant tract, the right anterior thalamic radiation, and in U-shaped projections underneath the right precentral sulcus. In contrast, with decreasing speech motor deficits connection strength increased in the right uncinate fasciculus. Additional group comparisons of whole-brain white matter skeletons replicated the previously reported reduction of fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as at the junction of right frontal aslant tract and right superior longitudinal fasciculus in adults who stutter compared to control participants. Overall, our investigation suggests that right fronto-temporal networks play a compensatory role as a fluency enhancing mechanism. In contrast, the increased connection strength within subcortical-cortical pathways may be implied in an overly active global response suppression mechanism in stuttering. Altogether, this combined functional MRI-diffusion tensor imaging study disentangles different networks involved in the neuronal underpinnings of the speech motor deficit in

  2. Radiographic evaluation of the canine elbow joint with special reference to the medial humeral condyle and the medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhout, G.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The results of radiographic examination of clinically affected elbow joints in 14 young, large-breed dogs, including standard and oblique projections and linear tomography, were compared with the findings of medial arthrotomy. Radiographs revealed arthrosis (13 dogs), osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle (2 dogs), fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (5 dogs), and a combination of osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle and fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (2 dogs). In one dog fissures in the medial coronoid process and in another dog a linear radiopacity along the articular surface of the medial coronoid process were found. In three dogs both medial humeral condyle and medial coronoid process appeared normal. The radiographic findings were confirmed during surgery in 11 dogs. Cartilage erosion of the medial humeral condyle in two dogs and of the medial coronoid process in one dog had not resulted in radiographically visible abnormalities. Radiographic examination of the elbow joints in young, large-breed dogs should include standard mediolateral and craniocaudal projections, a mediolateral projection with the joint maximally extended and the leg supinated 15°, and a craniolateral-to-caudomedial projection

  3. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS OF ANKLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The ankle joint is one of the most frequently injured joint. A sprained ankle results due to tear of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments when the foot is twisted in lateral direction. In forcible eversion of the foot, the deltoid ligament may be torn. At times, the deltoid ligament pulls the medial malleolus thereby causing avulsion fracture of the malleolus. The strong eversion pull on the deltoid ligament causes transverse fracture of medial malleolus. If the tibia is carried anteriorly, the posterior margin of the distal end of the tibia is also broken by the talus producing a trimalleolar fracture. The talocrural joint is a major weight bearing joint of the body. The weight of the body is transmitted from the tibia and fibula to the talus which distributes the weight anteriorly and posteriorly within the foot. One sixth of the static load of the leg is carried by the fibula at the tibiofibular joint. These require a high degree of stability which is determined by the passive and dynamic factors. A sprained ankle results due to tear of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments when the foot is twisted in lateral direction. In forcible eversion of the foot, the deltoid ligament may be torn. At times, the deltoid ligament pulls the medial malleolus thereby causing avulsion fracture of the malleolus. The strong eversion pull on the deltoid ligament causes transverse fracture of medial malleolus. If the tibia is carried anteriorly, the posterior margin of the distal end of the tibia is also broken by the talus producing a trimalleolar fracture. Conventionally, X-ray techniques have been used to diagnose ligament injuries. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has opened new horizons in the diagnosis and treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases of the ankle and foot. It demonstrates abnormalities in the bones and soft tissues before they become evident at other imaging modalities. The anatomy of the deltoid ligament

  4. Preservation of episodic memory in semantic dementia: The importance of regions beyond the medial temporal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Bunk, Steffie; Tu, Sicong; Kamminga, Jody; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-29

    Episodic memory impairment represents one of the hallmark clinical features of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) attributable to the degeneration of medial temporal and parietal regions of the brain. In contrast, a somewhat paradoxical profile of relatively intact episodic memory, particularly for non-verbal material, is observed in semantic dementia (SD), despite marked atrophy of the hippocampus. This retrospective study investigated the neural substrates of episodic memory retrieval in 20 patients with a diagnosis of SD and 21 disease-matched cases of AD and compared their performance to that of 35 age- and education-matched healthy older Controls. Participants completed the Rey Complex Figure and the memory subscale of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised as indices of visual and verbal episodic recall, respectively. Relative to Controls, AD patients showed compromised memory performance on both visual and verbal memory tasks. In contrast, memory deficits in SD were modality-specific occurring exclusively on the verbal task. Controlling for semantic processing ameliorated these deficits in SD, while memory impairments persisted in AD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed significant overlap in the neural correlates of verbal episodic memory in AD and SD with predominantly anteromedial regions, including the bilateral hippocampus, strongly implicated. Controlling for semantic processing negated this effect in SD, however, a distributed network of frontal, medial temporal, and parietal regions was implicated in AD. Our study corroborates the view that episodic memory deficits in SD arise very largely as a consequence of the conceptual loading of traditional tasks. We propose that the functional integrity of frontal and parietal regions enables new learning to occur in SD in the face of significant hippocampal and anteromedial temporal lobe pathology, underscoring the inherent complexity of the episodic memory circuitry. Copyright © 2015

  5. [Diagnostic value of MRI for posterior root tear of medial and lateral meniscus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yue-Nan; Liu, Fang; Dong, Yi-Long; Cai, Chun-Yuan

    2018-03-25

    To explore diagnostic value of MRI on posterior root tear of medial and lateral meniscus. From January 2012 to January 2016, clinical data of 43 patients with meniscal posterior root tear confirmed by arthroscopy were retrospective analyzed, including 25 males and 18 females, aged from 27 to 69 years old with an average age of(42.5±8.3)years old;27 cases on the right side and 16 cases on the left side. MRI examinations of 43 patients with tear of posterior meniscus root confirmed by knee arthroscopies were retrospectively reviewed. MRI images were double-blinded, independently, retrospectively scored by two imaging physicians. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI diagnosis of lateral and medial meniscus posterior root tear were calculated, and knee ligament injury and meniscal dislocation were calculated. Forty-three of 143 patients were diagnosed with meniscus posterior root tears by arthroscopy, including 19 patients with lateral tears and 24 patients with medial tears. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of posterior medial meniscus root tears for doctor A were 91.67%, 86.6% and 83.9% respectively, and for doctor B were 87.5%, 87.4% and 87.4%, 19 patients with medial meniscal protrusion and 2 patients with anterior cruciate ligament tear. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of posterior lateral meniscus root tears for doctor A were 73.7%, 79.9% and 79% respectively, and for doctor B were 78.9%, 82.3% and 82.5%, 4 patients with lateral meniscus herniation and 16 patients with cruciate ligament tear. Kappa statistics for posterior medial meniscus root tears and posterior lateral meniscus root tears were 0.84 and 0.72. MRI could effectively demonstrate imaging features of medial and lateral meniscal root tear and its accompanying signs. It could provide the basis for preoperative diagnosis of clinicians, and be worthy to be popularized. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  6. The frontal aslant tract underlies speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a pathway that connects the inferior frontal gyrus with the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. The FAT was recently identified and introduced as part of a "motor stream" that plays an important role in speech production. In this study, we use diffusion imaging to examine the hypothesis that the FAT underlies speech fluency, by studying its properties in individuals with persistent developmental stuttering, a speech disorder that disrupts the production of fluent speech. We use tractography to quantify the volume and diffusion properties of the FAT in a group of adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. Additionally, we use tractography to extract these measures from the corticospinal tract (CST), a well-known component of the motor system. We compute diffusion measures in multiple points along the tracts, and examine the correlation between these diffusion measures and behavioral measures of speech fluency. Our data show increased mean diffusivity in bilateral FAT of AWS compared with controls. In addition, the results show regions within the left FAT and the left CST where diffusivity values are increased in AWS compared with controls. Last, we report that in AWS, diffusivity values measured within sub-regions of the left FAT negatively correlate with speech fluency. Our findings are the first to relate the FAT with fluent speech production in stuttering, thus adding to the current knowledge of the functional role that this tract plays in speech production and to the literature of the etiology of persistent developmental stuttering.

  7. Lateral frontal cortex volume reduction in Tourette syndrome revealed by VBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoth Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural changes have been found predominantly in the frontal cortex and in the striatum in children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. The influence of comorbid symptomatology is unclear. Here we sought to address the question of gray matter abnormalities in GTS patients with co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM in twenty-nine adult actually unmedicated GTS patients and twenty-five healthy control subjects. Results In GTS we detected a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, but no regions demonstrating volume increases. By comparing subgroups of GTS with comorbid ADHD to the subgroup with comorbid OCD, we found a left-sided amygdalar volume increase. Conclusions From our results it is suggested that the left IFG may constitute a common underlying structural correlate of GTS with co-morbid OCD/ADHD. A volume reduction in this brain region that has been previously identified as a key region in OCD and was associated with the active inhibition of attentional processes may reflect the failure to control behavior. Amygdala volume increase is discussed on the background of a linkage of this structure with ADHD symptomatology. Correlations with clinical data revealed gray matter volume changes in specific brain areas that have been described in these conditions each.

  8. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  9. Lateralizing value of semiology in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S; Samson, Y; Nguyen-Michel, V-H; Zavanone, C; Navarro, V; Baulac, M; Adam, C

    2015-12-01

    Analysing the clinical characteristics of seizures constitutes a fundamental aspect of the presurgical evaluation of patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), the most frequent form of focal epilepsy accessible to surgery. We sought to retrospectively determine whether objective manifestations could have a reliable lateralizing value in a large population of MTLE-HS patients and if their presence could help to identify those patients who would be seizure free after surgery. We analysed the frequency and predictive lateralizing value of objective ictal and postictal signs in 391 patients with MTLE-HS (183 left/208 right). Data were derived from chart review and not from blinded videoEEG analysis. Correlation between the presence of reliable lateralizing signs and postoperative outcome was performed in a subgroup of 302 patients who underwent surgery. Contralateral dystonic posturing was the most frequent and reliable lateralizing sign that correctly lateralized the focus in 96% of patients. Unilateral head/eye deviation was noted in 42% of the patients and predicted unilateral focus in 67%. Ipsilateral postictal nose wiping, contralateral clonus and hypokinesia correctly lateralized the focus in 75%, 81%, respectively, and 100 of patients but were less frequently depicted. Postictal aphasia was a strong lateralizing sign for left MLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs was not a predictor of seizure freedom. Seizure semiology is a simple tool that may permit reliable lateralization of the seizure focus in MTLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs is not associated with a better postoperative outcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Autonoetic Consciousness in Autobiographical Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Resection

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    M. Noulhiane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task. Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection gave reduced sense of reliving (R responses and more familiarity (K responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness.

  11. Autonoetic Consciousness in Autobiographical Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulhiane, M.; Piolino, P.; Hasboun, D.; Clemenceau, S.; Baulac, M.; Samson, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K) paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task). Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection) gave reduced sense of reliving (R) responses and more familiarity (K) responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness. PMID:18413911

  12. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  13. Differential activation of frontal and parietal regions during visual word recognition: an optical topography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Markus J; Herrmann, Martin J; Dan, Ippeita; Obrig, Hellmuth; Conrad, Markus; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2008-04-15

    The present study examined cortical oxygenation changes during lexical decision on words and pseudowords using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Focal hyperoxygenation as an indicator of functional activation was compared over three target areas over the left hemisphere. A 52-channel Hitachi ETG-4000 was used covering the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the left inferior parietal gyrus (IPG) and the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). To allow for anatomical inference a recently developed probabilistic mapping method was used to determine the most likely anatomic locations of the changes in cortical activation [Tsuzuki, D., Jurcak, V., Singh, A.K., Okamoto, M., Watanabe, E., Dan, I., 2007. Virtual spatial registration of stand-alone fNIRS data to MNI space. NeuroImage 43 (4), 1506-1518. Subjects made lexical decisions on 50 low and 50 high frequency words and 100 pseudowords. With respect to the lexicality effect, words elicited a larger focal hyperoxygenation in comparison to pseudowords in two regions identified as the SFG and left IPG. The SFG activation difference was interpreted to reflect decision-related mechanisms according to the Multiple Read-Out Model [Grainger, J., Jacobs, A.M., 1996. Orthographic processing in visual word recognition: A multiple read-out model. Psychological Review 103, 518-565]. The greater oxygenation response to words in the left IPG suggests that this region connects orthographic, phonological and semantic representations. A decrease of deoxygenated hemoglobin was observed to low frequency in comparison to high frequency words in a region identified as IFG. This region's sensitivity to word frequency suggests its involvement in grapheme-phoneme conversion, or its role during the selection of pre-activated semantic candidates.

  14. Frontal sinus asymmetry: Is it an effect of cranial asymmetry? X-ray analysis of 469 normal adult human frontal sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kanat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is no study in the literature that investigates an asymmetric morphological feature of the frontal sinus (FS. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-nine consecutive direct X-rays of FSs were analyzed for the asymmetry between the right and left sides. When an asymmetry in the height and contour of the FS existed, this difference was quantified. Results: Of the 469 patients, X-rays of 402 patients (85.7%, there was an asymmetry between right and left sides of the FS. Of these 235 (50.1% were dominant on the left side, whereas 167 (35.6% were dominant on the right, the sinuses of remaining 67 patients (14.3% was symmetric. Statistical Analysis: The comparisons between parameters were performed using Wilkinson signed rank test. The relationship between handedness and sinus asymmetry was also examined by two proportions test. There is statistically significant difference between the dominance of left and right FS. Conclusions: Hemispheric dominance may have some effect (s of on sinus asymmetry of the human cranium. Surgeons sometimes enter the cranium through the FS and knowledge of asymmetric FS is important to minimize surgical complications.

  15. Aphasia induced by gliomas growing in the ventrolateral frontal region: assessment with diffusion MR tractography, functional MR imaging and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, Alberto; Nava, Simone; Ferrè, Francesca; Castelli, Gianmarco; Aquino, Domenico; Ciaraffa, Francesca; Broggi, Giovanni; DiMeco, Francesco; Piacentini, Sylvie

    2012-02-01

    Lesions in the ventrolateral region of the dominant frontal lobe have been historically associated with aphasia. Recent imaging results suggest that frontal language regions extend beyond classically defined Broca's area to include the ventral precentral gyrus (VPCG) and the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Frontal gliomas offer a unique opportunity to identify structures that are essential for speech production. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the correlation between language deficits and lesion location in patients with gliomas. Nineteen patients with glioma and 10 healthy subjects were evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance (MR) tractography, functional MR (verb generation task) and the Aachener Aphasie Test. Patients were divided into two groups according to lesion location with respect to the ventral precentral sulcus: (i) anterior (n=8) with glioma growing in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and underlying white matter; (ii) posterior (n=11) with glioma growing in the VPCG and underlying white matter. Virtual dissection of the AF, frontal intralobar tract, uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior frontal occipital fasciculus (IFOF) was performed with a deterministic approach. Seven posterior patients showed aphasia classified as conduction (4), Broca (1), transcortical motor (1) and an isolated deficit of semantic fluency; one anterior patient had transcortical mixed aphasia. All posterior patients had invasion of the VPCG, however only patients with aphasia had also lesion extension to the AF as demonstrated by tractography dissections. All patients with language deficits had high grade glioma. Groups did not differ regarding tumour volume. A functional pars opercularis was identified with functional MR imaging (fMRI) in 17 patients. Gliomas growing in the left VPCG are much more likely to cause speech deficits than gliomas infiltrating the IFG, including Broca's area. Lesion extension to the AF connecting frontal to parietal

  16. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K

    2015-06-01

    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  17. Disorganized behavior on Link's cube test is sensitive to right hemispheric frontal lobe damage in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl

    2014-01-01

    One of Luria's favorite neuropsychological tasks for challenging frontal lobe functions was Link's cube test (LCT). The LCT is a cube construction task in which the subject must assemble 27 small cubes into one large cube in such a manner that only the painted surfaces of the small cubes are visible. We computed two new LCT composite scores, the constructive plan composite score, reflecting the capability to envisage a cubical-shaped volume, and the behavioral (dis-) organization composite score, reflecting the goal-directedness of cube construction. Voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping (VLBM) was used to test the relationship between performance on the LCT and brain injury in a sample of stroke patients with right hemisphere damage (N = 32), concentrated in the frontal lobe. We observed a relationship between the measure of behavioral (dis-) organization on the LCT and right frontal lesions. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether this observation is specific for right frontal lesions. PMID:24596552

  18. Frontal bone metastasis from an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: Diagnosed by FNAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic deposits in skull bones from follicular thyroid carcinoma is rare, and metastatic disease in skull being the presenting symptom without obvious thyroid lesion (occult primary is even rarer. A 60-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the frontal region of the skull. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done which revealed an adenocarcinoma with repeated follicular pattern, reminiscent of follicular neoplasm of thyroid, which on immunocytochemistry revealed positivity for thyroglobulin. Patient was investigated further for primary thyroid malignancy, and imaging revealed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid. Neuroimaging showed osteolytic lesion involving the cranium.

  19. Frontal bone metastasis from an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: Diagnosed by FNAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Rajnish; Pawar, Richa; Hasija, Sonia; Chandna, Abha; Sankla, Manoj; Malhotra, Chanchal

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic deposits in skull bones from follicular thyroid carcinoma is rare, and metastatic disease in skull being the presenting symptom without obvious thyroid lesion (occult primary) is even rarer. A 60-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the frontal region of the skull. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done which revealed an adenocarcinoma with repeated follicular pattern, reminiscent of follicular neoplasm of thyroid, which on immunocytochemistry revealed positivity for thyroglobulin. Patient was investigated further for primary thyroid malignancy, and imaging revealed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid. Neuroimaging showed osteolytic lesion involving the cranium.

  20. Lesions in canine stifle joints due to trochleoplasties as treatment for medial patellar luxation

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    Johannes Hans van der Zee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lesions in canine stifle joints after previous trochleoplasty surgery were documented. Infour clinical cases arthrotomies were performed due to stifle pain after previous trochleardeepening procedures. A small area of hyaline cartilage remained in the groove of the stiflesin cases where previous wedge trochleoplasties had been performed. All of the stifles hadsignificant areas of eburnation on the axial aspect of the medial trochlear ridge. The stifle jointsof a dog that was euthanased due to severe irreversible osteo-arthritis were photographed.The dog had undergone previous surgery for patellar luxation and cranial cruciate ligamentruptures. The trochlear grooves in this dog had almost no visible articular cartilage left.

  1. Pott's Puffy Tumor Arising from Frontal Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hyun Koo [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Pott's puffy tumor is an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening complication of frontal sinusitis. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with mild tenderness on the glabellar area and diplopia. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Following sinus trephination and long-term antibiotic therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery.

  2. Study on the development of frontal sinuses by morphometric analysis of the skull - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.13334

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Peixoto Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The frontal sinuses are cranial areas of clinical, forensic and pathology importance whose development mechanisms are still poorly defined. Nasal airflow and brain development are two of the main theories. Current analysis debates whether they are the real determinants of frontal sinuses growth, which may be proved by the skull’s morphometric analysis. Four groups of measures related to the external cranial architecture, the pyriform aperture, orbital cavities and frontal sinuses were defined. Thirty-three skulls of individuals, mean age 68 years, from the Laboratory of Anatomy of the Academic Centre of Victoria – UFPE – Brazil, were used. Statistical analysis showed total agenesis of the frontal sinus in 18.2% of the skulls. There was significant correlation between the development of the right frontal sinus and the pyriform aperture, and between the left frontal sinus and two cranial measurements (p ≤ 0.05. Significant differences between mean of pyriform aperture areas of the skulls with or without sinuses were also reported (p ≤ 0.01. Results supported the fact that there was a modulation activity by nasal aeration and brain formation in the development of frontal sinuses.

  3. Estudo piloto dos padrões de contração do músculo frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Vieira Braz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Características anatômicas distintas e espectros cinéticos variados determinam padrões de contração da musculatura frontal peculiares a cada pessoa.Objetivo: Identificar e classificar os padrões de contração da musculatura frontal depacientes que procuraram atendimento para tratamento de rugas frontais.Métodos: Análise retrospectiva de fotografias de 83 pacientes. O padrão de contraçãomuscular foi classificado de acordo com a área hipercinética predominante, observada nafotografia em contração máxima do músculo frontal.Resultados: Foram identificados três padrões de contração: total, medial e lateral. Opadrão total foi observado em 50,6% dos casos.As rítides horizontais presentes no centroda fronte avançam lateralmente além da linha mediopupilar, até o final da cauda dassobrancelhas. O padrão medial foi observado em 25,3% dos casos.As rítides horizontaisconcentram-se na região central da fronte, contidas predominantemente entre as linhasmediopupilares. O padrão lateral foi observado em 24% dos casos.As rítides horizontaispredominam nas laterais da fronte, a maioria ocorrendo após a linha mediopupilar.Conclusões: A identificação e classificação dos padrões de contração do músculo frontalpermitem avaliação mais individualizada de cada paciente, o que é um dos pilares maisimportantes para um plano terapêutico bem-sucedido.

  4. Medial patellotibial ligament and medial patellomeniscal ligament: anatomy, imaging, biomechanics, and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-13

    The purpose of this article is to review anatomical, biomechanical, and clinical data of the medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL) and medial patellomeniscal ligament (MPML), as well as studies focusing on the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) but with relevant data about the MPTL and MPML. A literature search of articles specifically addressing the MPTL and/or MPML was included along with studies focusing on the MPFL but with relevant data about the MPTL and MPML. The medial patellar ligaments responsible for maintaining the stability of the patellofemoral (PF) joint include the MPFL, the MPTL, and the MPML. The MPFL is considered the primary restraint to lateral patellar translation, while the latter two are considered secondary restraints. There is robust literature on the anatomical, imaging, and biomechanical characteristics of the MPFL, and also the clinical outcome of its injury and surgical reconstruction; much less is known about the MPTL and MPML. Isolated MPFL reconstruction has good clinical and functional outcomes, with a low failure rate when defined as frank re-dislocation. Complications, including continued episodes of patellar apprehension and subluxation, remain present in most series. In addition, the current literature primarily includes a homogeneous population with few excessive anatomic dysplastic factors. There is lack of knowledge on the role of MPTL and MPML in (potentially) aiding patella stabilization and improving clinical outcomes. Understanding the role of the medial-sided patellar ligaments, in particular the role of the secondary stabilizers, in PF function and injury will aid in this goal. MPTL and MPML have consistent basic science literature, as well as favorable clinical outcomes of surgical patellar stabilization with reconstruction of the MPTL. However, there is much heterogeneity among clinical case series and lack of comparative studies to allow clear indication for the role of isolated or combined surgical reconstruction

  5. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  6. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based assessment of gray matter loss in medial temporal lobe epilepsy; comparison with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang Gun; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Dong Soo [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The aims of this study were to find brain regions in which gray matter volume was reduced and to show the capability of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for lateralizing epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The findings were compared with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). MR T1-weighted images of 12 left mTLE and 11 right mTLE patients were compared with those of 37 normal controls. Images were transformed to standard MNI space and averaged in order to create study-specific brain template. Each image was normalized to this local template and brain tissues were segmented. Modulation VBM analysis was performed in order to observe gray matter volume change. Gray matter was smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. After these preprocessing, statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). FDG PET images were compared with those of 22 normal controls using SPM. Gray matter volume was significantly reduced in the left amygdala and hippocampus in left mTLE. In addition, volume of cerebellum, anterior cingulate, and fusiform gyrus in both sides and left insula was reduced. In right mTLE, volume was reduced significantly in right hippocampus. In contrast, FDG uptake was decreased in broad areas of left or right temporal lobes in left TLE and right TLE, respectively. Gray matter loss was found in the ipsilateral hippocampus by modulation VBM analysis in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. This VBM analysis might be useful in lateralizing the epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy, while SPM analysis of FDG PET disclosed hypometabolic epileptogenic zones.

  7. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based assessment of gray matter loss in medial temporal lobe epilepsy; comparison with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang Gun; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to find brain regions in which gray matter volume was reduced and to show the capability of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for lateralizing epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The findings were compared with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). MR T1-weighted images of 12 left mTLE and 11 right mTLE patients were compared with those of 37 normal controls. Images were transformed to standard MNI space and averaged in order to create study-specific brain template. Each image was normalized to this local template and brain tissues were segmented. Modulation VBM analysis was performed in order to observe gray matter volume change. Gray matter was smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. After these preprocessing, statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). FDG PET images were compared with those of 22 normal controls using SPM. Gray matter volume was significantly reduced in the left amygdala and hippocampus in left mTLE. In addition, volume of cerebellum, anterior cingulate, and fusiform gyrus in both sides and left insula was reduced. In right mTLE, volume was reduced significantly in right hippocampus. In contrast, FDG uptake was decreased in broad areas of left or right temporal lobes in left TLE and right TLE, respectively. Gray matter loss was found in the ipsilateral hippocampus by modulation VBM analysis in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. This VBM analysis might be useful in lateralizing the epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy, while SPM analysis of FDG PET disclosed hypometabolic epileptogenic zones

  8. Use of Frontal Sinus and Nasal Septum Pattern as an Aid in Personal Identification and Determination of Gender: A Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kavita; Nahar, Prashant; Singh, Mohit Pal; Mathur, Hemant; Bhuvaneshwari, S

    2017-01-01

    Personal identification and gender determination of unknown person has a vital importance in forensic investigation. Human skull radiography is a useful tool in human identification in natural disaster, in any accidents such as fire accident and road traffic accident where body remains become degraded or severely destroyed. Present study was performed to evaluate the measurement of frontal sinus, uniqueness of various pattern of nasal septum when combined with frontal sinus observed on posterio anterior cephalogram for sex determination as well as personal identification. A total of 80 individuals, 40 males and 40 females, between the age ranges of 18-30 years were selected. The selected individuals had their Posterio Anterior (PA) cephalogram performed after taking their informed consent. Right and left areas and the maximum height and width of the frontal sinus were determined and septum patterns were evaluated and both patterns were also combined and compared. The radiographs were taken on Xtropan 2000 OPG X-ray machine with cephalography attachment and KODAK CR 7400 digital radiography system. Mean and SD values of the greatest height and width of frontal sinus in male and female patients were thus evaluated. The mean values of the frontal sinus were greater in males and the left area was larger than the right area, based on student's t-test at the 5% level of significance. The combination of Frontal Sinus Patterns and Nasal Septum Patterns (FP+NSP) were assessed and found that there were nine classifiable patterns in 26 (32.5%) individuals (12 males and 14 females), each of which had common representations in more than one individual. Besides these patterns, there were unique unclassifiable patterns in 54 (67.5%) individuals. The present study supports the use of radiographic evaluation of frontal sinus dimensions, frontal sinus patterns, nasal septum deviations and the combination FP+NSP patterns for personal identification and gender determination in

  9. Contribution of frontal cerebral blood flow measured by (99m)Tc-Bicisate spect and executive function deficits to predicting treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Xavier; Sferrazza, Rita; Van Der Linden, Martial; Paternot, Jacques; Verhas, Michel; Hanak, Catherine; Pelc, Isidore; Verbanck, Paul

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether inhibition and working memory deficits, and reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) (previously shown to be related), measured at the end of a detoxification programme, predict alcoholic relapse 2 months later. Twenty uncomplicated alcoholic inpatients were investigated at the end of detoxification, at least 7 days since the last dose of diazepam, and a mean of 18.8 days since the last drink. Their performance was assessed on the inhibition (Hayling) test, working memory (Alpha-span task), episodic memory (California Verbal Learning Test) and abstract reasoning (Progressive Matrices). Frontal CBF was assessed at the same time with a semiquantitative (99m)Tc-Bicisate SPECT procedure. Patients were contacted 2 months later. Patients who abstained (n = 9) did not differ from those who relapsed (n = 11) on age, gender, smoking, duration of alcohol misuse, number of previous detoxifications, amount of ethanol consumed the month prior to admission to the detoxification programme, state anxiety, trait anxiety, or depression. Relapsed subjects had shown a lower uptake of (99m)Tc-Bicisate in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus (n = 9; mean ratio +/- SD = 0.69 +/- 0.006) than abstainers (n = 11; 0.85 +/- 0.19), and poorer performance on the Alpha-span task and the Hayling test. The other tests were not different. Inhibition and working memory deficits, associated with low levels of CBF in the medial frontal gyrus, are related to the difficulty of maintaining short-term abstinence from alcohol.

  10. Motivated malleability: Frontal cortical asymmetry predicts the susceptibility to social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuerch, Robert; Pfattheicher, Stefan

    2017-07-16

    Humans, just as many other animals, regulate their behavior in terms of approaching stimuli associated with pleasure and avoiding stimuli linked to harm. A person's current and chronic motivational direction - that is, approach versus avoidance orientation - is reliably reflected in the asymmetry of frontal cortical low-frequency oscillations. Using resting electroencephalography (EEG), we show that frontal asymmetry is predictive of the tendency to yield to social influence: Stronger right- than left-side frontolateral activation during a resting-state session prior to the experiment was robustly associated with a stronger inclination to adopt a peer group's judgments during perceptual decision-making (Study 1). We posit that this reflects the role of a person's chronic avoidance orientation in socially adjusted behavior. This claim was strongly supported by additional survey investigations (Studies 2a, 2b, 2c), all of which consistently revealed that trait avoidance was positively linked to the susceptibility to social influence. The present contribution thus stresses the relevance of chronic avoidance orientation in social conformity, refining (yet not contradicting) the longstanding view that socially influenced behavior is motivated by approach-related goals. Moreover, our findings valuably underscore and extend our knowledge on the association between frontal cortical asymmetry and a variety of psychological variables.

  11. Frontal lobe epileptic seizures are accompanied by elevated pitch during verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Iva; Echternach, Matthias; Sammler, Daniela; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2018-01-31

    The objective of our study was to assess alterations in speech as a possible localizing sign in frontal lobe epilepsy. Ictal speech was analyzed in 18 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) during seizures and in the interictal period. Matched identical words were analyzed regarding alterations in fundamental frequency (ƒo) as an approximation of pitch. In patients with FLE, ƒo of ictal utterances was significantly higher than ƒo in interictal recordings (p = 0.016). Ictal ƒo increases occurred in both FLE of right and left seizure origin. In contrast, a matched temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) group showed less pronounced increases in ƒo, and only in patients with right-sided seizure foci. This study for the first time shows significant voice alterations in ictal speech in a cohort of patients with FLE. This may contribute to the localization of the epileptic focus. Increases in ƒo were interestingly found in frontal lobe seizures with origin in either hemisphere, suggesting a bilateral involvement to the planning of speech production, in contrast to a more right-sided lateralization of pitch perception in prosodic processing. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Are personality traits of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy related to frontal lobe dysfunctions? A proton MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Lin, Katia; Lin, Jaime; Peruchi, Mirella M; Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Guaranha, Mirian S B; Guilhoto, Laura M F F; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2009-05-01

    Personality traits characterized by emotional instability and immaturity, unsteadiness, lack of discipline, hedonism, frequent and rapid mood changes, and indifference toward one's disease have been associated with patients who have juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Literature data demonstrate worse seizure control and more psychosocial dysfunctions among patients with JME who have those traits. In this controlled study we performed a correlation analysis of psychiatric scores with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) values across JME patients, aiming to verify the existence of a possible relation between frontal lobe dysfunction and the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in JME. Sixteen JME patients with cluster B PDs, 41 JME patients without any psychiatric disorder, and 30 healthy controls were submitted to a psychiatric evaluation and to a quantitative multivoxel MRS of thalamus; insula; cingulate gyrus; striatum; and frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Groups were homogeneous according to age, gender, and manual dominance. Psychiatric evaluation was performed through the Scheduled Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Axis I and II (SCID I and II, respectively). A significant reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate over creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio was observed mainly in the left frontal lobe in the JME and PD group. In addition, a significant increase in the glutamate-glutamine over creatinine GLX/Cr ratio was also observed in this referred region in the same group. These data support the hypothesis that PDs in JME could represent neuronal dysfunction and possibly a more severe form of this epileptic syndrome.

  13. A Postmortem Study of Frontal and Temporal Gyri Thickness and Cell Number in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Apo, Erick; García-Sierra, Adrián; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Soto-Abraham, Virgilia; Mondragón-Maya, Alejandra; Velasco-Vales, Verónica; Pescatello, Linda S

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare cortex thickness and neuronal cell density in postmortem brain tissue from people with overweight or obesity and normal weight. The cortex thickness and neuron density of eight donors with overweight or obesity (mean = 31.6 kg/m 2 ; SD = 4.35; n = 8; 6 male) and eight donors with normal weight (mean = 21.8 kg/m 2 ; SD = 1.5; n = 8; 5 male) were compared. All participants were Mexican and lived in Mexico City. Randomly selected thickness measures of different cortex areas from the frontal and temporal lobes were analyzed based on high-resolution real-size photographs. A histological analysis of systematic-random fields was used to quantify the number of neurons in postmortem left and right of the first, second, and third gyri of frontal and temporal lobe brain samples. No statistical difference was found in cortical thickness between donors with overweight or obesity and individuals with normal weight. A smaller number of neurons was found among the donors with overweight or obesity than the donors with normal weight at different frontal and temporal areas. A lower density of neurons is associated with overweight or obesity. The morphological basis for structural brain changes in obesity requires further investigation. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  14. ISOMETRIC GLUTEUS MEDIUS MUSCLE TORQUE AND FRONTAL PLANE PELVIC MOTION DURING RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie N. Burnet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between isometric GM torque and the degree of frontal plane pelvic drop during running. Twenty-one healthy, recreational runners (9 males, 12 females who ran 8.05 km or more per week were obtained from a sample of convenience. GM maximal isometric torque was collected prior to the run. Subjects then ran on a treadmill for 30 minutes while bilateral three-dimensional pelvic kinematic data were collected for 10 seconds at each 2 minute increment. Left side pelvic drop showed a slight increase (effect size = 0.61; while, the right side pelvic drop remained stable (effect size = 0.18. Pearson's Correlations showed no relationship between GM isometric torque and frontal plane pelvic drop for any of the data collection periods during the 30-minute run. These results suggest that isometric GM torque was a poor predictor of frontal plane pelvic drop. One should question whether a dynamic rather than static measure of GM strength would be more appropriate. Future research is needed to identify dynamic strength measures that would better predict biomechanical components of running gait

  15. Effective Connectivity Hierarchically Links Temporoparietal and Frontal Areas of the Auditory Dorsal Stream with the Motor Cortex Lip Area during Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Restle, Julia; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A left-hemispheric cortico-cortical network involving areas of the temporoparietal junction (Tpj) and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is thought to support sensorimotor integration of speech perception into articulatory motor activation, but how this network links with the lip area of the primary motor cortex (M1) during speech…

  16. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity

  17. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  18. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How much does the human medial gastrocnemius muscle contribute to ankle torques outside the sagittal plane?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M.M.; Minetto, Marco A.; Hodson-Tole, Emma F.; Botter, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Ankle movements in the frontal plane are less prominent though not less relevant than movements in the plantar or dorsal flexion direction. Walking on uneven terrains and standing on narrow stances are examples of circumstances likely imposing marked demands on the ankle medio-lateral stabilization. Following our previous evidence associating lateral bodily sways in quiet standing to activation of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle, in this study we ask: how large is the MG contribution to ankle torque in the frontal plane? By arranging stimulation electrodes in a selective configuration, current pulses were applied primarily to the MG nerve branch of ten subjects. The contribution of populations of MG motor units of progressively smaller recruitment threshold to ankle torque was evaluated by increasing the stimulation amplitude by fixed amounts. From smallest intensities (12–32 mA) leading to the firstly observable MG twitches in force-plate recordings, current pulses reached intensities (56–90 mA) below which twitches in other muscles could not be observed from the skin. Key results showed a substantial MG torque contribution tending to rotate upward the foot medial aspect (ankle inversion). Nerve stimulation further revealed a linear relationship between the peak torque of ankle plantar flexion and inversion, across participants (Pearson R > .81, p torque of ankle inversion amounted to about 13% of plantar flexion peak torque. Physiologically, these results provide experimental evidence that MG activation may contribute to stabilize the body in the frontal plane, especially under situations of challenged stability. PMID:23992638

  20. The Human Frontal Lobes and Frontal Network Systems: An Evolutionary, Clinical, and Treatment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Frontal lobe syndromes, better termed as frontal network systems, are relatively unique in that they may manifest from almost any brain region, due to their widespread connectivity. The understandings of the manifold expressions seen clinically are helped by considering evolutionary origins, the contribution of the state-dependent ascending monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, and cerebral connectivity. Hence, the so-called networktopathies may be a better term for the syndromes encountered clinically. An increasing array of metric tests are becoming available that complement that long standing history of qualitative bedside assessments pioneered by Alexander Luria, for example. An understanding of the vast panoply of frontal systems' syndromes has been pivotal in understanding and diagnosing the most common dementia syndrome under the age of 60, for example, frontotemporal lobe degeneration. New treatment options are also progressively becoming available, with recent evidence of dopaminergic augmentation, for example, being helpful in traumatic brain injury. The latter include not only psychopharmacological options but also device-based therapies including mirror visual feedback therapy. PMID:23577266

  1. An orbital fistula complicating anaerobic frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.J.F. Peeters; G.M. Bleeker

    1982-01-01

    textabstractA patient is described with an orbital fistula complicating frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. The fistula was excised, but a fortnight later an acute exacerbation occurred. From the discharging pus a Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and from mucosa obtained

  2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K

    1998-01-01

    on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Subjects with lesions of the dorsolateral frontal convexity also showed memory problems, attentional slowing, and lower performance IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Restricted ventromedial frontal leukotomy should be discussed as a last-resort treatment for severe and refractory OCD...

  3. Case Report: Frontal lobe tuberculoma: A clinical and imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details: We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal ...

  4. Post-Traumatic Pneumocele of the Frontal Sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Demet; Calisir, Cuneyt; Adapinar, Baki [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2008-08-15

    A pneumocele is an abnormal dilatation of a paranasal sinus, most commonly affecting the frontal sinus. Although the etiology of pneumocele is not entirely known, several causative factors have been suggested including trauma, surgery, tumor and infection. We report here a case of post-traumatic pneumocele of the frontal sinus following a head trauma.

  5. Minimally invasive approach for lesions involving the frontal sinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional open surgery for frontal sinus pathology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks is complex and involves a craniotomy. Minimally invasive options offer an alternate solution. We describe and assess the outcome of a minimally invasive approach for lesions and defects involving the frontal sinus.

  6. Non-frontal Model Based Approach to Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance

  7. Executive functioning and depressed mood before and after unilateral frontal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Mario F; Busch, Robyn M; Chapin, Jessica S; Jehi, Lara; Najm, Imad

    2013-06-01

    Executive dysfunction occurs in a variety of patients who have sustained damage to the frontal lobes. In individuals with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) or after unilateral frontal lobe resection (FLR), a unique neuropsychological profile linking executive functions (EF) with the frontal lobe has been elusive, with conflicting findings in the literature. Some studies show greater risk of executive impairment with left-sided FLE or FLR, while others report greater risk for right-sided patients. Some studies report no relationship between FLE and EF impairment, while others show EF impairment regardless of side of seizure foci or surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, executive dysfunction is associated with depressed mood possibly reflecting disruption of cortical-limbic pathways and/or frontal-striatal circuitry. Although not previously examined, depression level may affect executive functioning in those with FLE or FLR. We hypothesized that FLE patients with poor mood state would show greater executive dysfunction than FLE patients without poor mood state. The relationship among EF, side of surgery and depressed mood before and 8 months after unilateral FLR was evaluated in 64 patients using validated measures of EF and mood state (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Results indicated that individuals with depressed mood before surgery had greater difficulty on a task of mental flexibility compared to patients without preoperative depressed mood. Further, individuals with depressed mood before surgery had significant increases in perseverative responding and completed fewer categories on a card-sorting task after surgery compared to patients without preoperative depressed mood. Regression analyses showed that among side of surgery, seizure freedom status after surgery and depression status, only pre-surgical depression status explained a significant amount of variance in executive functioning performance after surgery. Results suggest that clinically elevated

  8. Selective involvement of superior frontal cortex during working memory for shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lydia T S; Roe, Katherine; Courtney, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    A spatial/nonspatial functional dissociation between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways is well established and has formed the basis of domain-specific theories of prefrontal cortex (PFC). Inconsistencies in the literature regarding prefrontal organization, however, have led to questions regarding whether the nature of the dissociations observed in PFC during working memory are equivalent to those observed in the visual pathways for perception. In particular, the dissociation between dorsal and ventral PFC during working memory for locations versus object identities has been clearly present in some studies but not in others, seemingly in part due to the type of objects used. The current study compared functional MRI activation during delayed-recognition tasks for shape or color, two object features considered to be processed by the ventral pathway for perceptual recognition. Activation for the shape-delayed recognition task was greater than that for the color task in the lateral occipital cortex, in agreement with studies of visual perception. Greater memory-delay activity was also observed, however, in the parietal and superior frontal cortices for the shape than for the color task. Activity in superior frontal cortex was associated with better performance on the shape task. Conversely, greater delay activity for color than for shape was observed in the left anterior insula and this activity was associated with better performance on the color task. These results suggest that superior frontal cortex contributes to performance on tasks requiring working memory for object identities, but it represents different information about those objects than does the ventral frontal cortex.

  9. Stress fracture of the medial clavicle secondary to nervous tic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Sugiura, H.; Suzuki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical and radiological characteristics of swelling in the region of the medial clavicle may suggest the presence of a neoplastic or inflammatory lesion. This report describes a 27-year-old man with a painful tumor-like lesion over the medial clavicle, which was found to be a stress fracture caused by a nervous tic resulting from mental stress. (orig.)

  10. Medialization thyroplasty versus injection laryngoplasty: a cost minimization analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Samantha; Sun, Hongmei; Sarma, Sisira; Siu, Jennifer; Fung, Kevin; Sowerby, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Background Medialization thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty are widely accepted treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Although both procedures result in similar clinical outcomes, little is known about the corresponding medical care costs. Medialization thyroplasty requires expensive operating room resources while injection laryngoplasty utilizes outpatient resources but may require repeated procedures. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to quantify the cost differ...

  11. Medial Malleolar Fractures: An Anatomic Survey Determining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medial malleolar fractures are frequent, and their treatment is familiar to the orthopedic surgeon. Lag screw fixation using partially threaded screws remains the standard treatment method for medial malleolar fractures. However, the literature lacks a defined method for selecting lag screw length, relying more ...

  12. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint also known as the deltoid ligament, is a multifascicular group of ligaments. It can be divided into a superficial and deep group of fibers originating from the medial malleolus to insert in the talus, calcaneus, and navicular bones. Wide variations have been noted in ...

  13. Low implant migration of the SIGMA® medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppens, Daan; Stilling, Maiken; Munk, Stig

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate implant migration of the fixed-bearing Sigma® medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). UKA is a regularly used treatment for patients with medial osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. UKA has a higher revision rate than total knee arthroplasty. Implant...... migration can be used as a predictor of implant loosening....

  14. Computing refined skeletal features from medial point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustra, Jacek; Jalba, Andrei; Telea, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Medial representations have been widely used for many shape analysis and processing tasks. Large and complex 3D shapes are, in this context, a challenging case. Recently, several methods have been proposed that extract point-based medial surfaces with high accuracy and computational scalability.

  15. Stress fracture of the medial clavicle secondary to nervous tic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Sugiura, H.; Suzuki, Y. [Department of Orthopaedics, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa, 464-8681, Nagoya (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    The clinical and radiological characteristics of swelling in the region of the medial clavicle may suggest the presence of a neoplastic or inflammatory lesion. This report describes a 27-year-old man with a painful tumor-like lesion over the medial clavicle, which was found to be a stress fracture caused by a nervous tic resulting from mental stress. (orig.)

  16. Medial patellofemoral ligament and medial patellotibial ligament reconstruction in children: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadigursky

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament associated with the medial patellotibial ligament in skeletally immature patients. METHOD: This is a case series study in patients with patellar instability with open physis. In total, seven patients were evaluated: four males and three females were operated using the proposed technique. Patients with open physis who had more than two episodes of recurring patellar dislocation were included. No patients underwent additional procedures. The distance from the anterior tibial tuberosity to the trochlea grove (TT-TG was measured in all patients. On physical examination, the inverted J-sign, the apprehension sign, and the knee range of motion parameters were used in the pre- and post-operative period. In addition, the Kujala and Lysholm scores were applied before and 12 months after surgery. The results were analyzed with the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 11.28 in both genders. Comparing the data of the pre- and post-operative period, the inverted J-sign was present in six patients (85.7% vs. absent in one (14.3%. The apprehension sign was absent in cases in the postoperative period; the range of motion was 117.85 ± 8.09 vs. 148.57 ± 3.77. The Kujala score was 42.57 ± 8.9 vs. 88.57 ± 5.09 and the Lysholm scores were classified as excellent or good in 28.6% and 71.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The combined reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament combined with the medial patellotibial ligament in skeletally immature patients with predisposing factors, presents satisfactory results without episodes of recurrence or residual subluxation; according to these preliminary results, it should be considered as a treatment option.

  17. Interictal epileptic discharge correlates with global and frontal cognitive dysfunction in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelacker, Vera; Xin, Xu; Baulac, Michel; Samson, Séverine; Dupont, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis has widespread effects on structural and functional connectivity and often entails cognitive dysfunction. EEG is mandatory to disentangle interactions in epileptic and physiological networks which underlie these cognitive comorbidities. Here, we examined how interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) affect cognitive performance. Thirty-four patients (right TLE=17, left TLE=17) were examined with 24-hour video-EEG and a battery of neuropsychological tests to measure intelligence quotient and separate frontal and temporal lobe functions. Hippocampal segmentation of high-resolution T1-weighted imaging was performed with FreeSurfer. Partial correlations were used to compare the number and distribution of clinical interictal spikes and sharp waves with data from imagery and psychological tests. The number of IEDs was negatively correlated with executive functions, including verbal fluency and intelligence quotient (IQ). Interictal epileptic discharge affected cognitive function in patients with left and right TLE differentially, with verbal fluency strongly related to temporofrontal spiking. In contrast, IEDs had no clear effects on memory functions after corrections with partial correlations for age, age at disease onset, disease duration, and hippocampal volume. In patients with TLE of long duration, IED occurrence was strongly related to cognitive deficits, most pronounced for frontal lobe function. These data suggest that IEDs reflect dysfunctional brain circuitry and may serve as an independent biomarker for cognitive comorbidity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. MORPHOMETRY OF THE ARTICULAR FACETS ON THE SUPERIOR, MEDIAL AND LATERAL SURFACES OF THE BODY OF TALUS AND ITS CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goda Jatin B, Patel Shailesh M, Parmar Ajay M, Agarwal GC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the formation of Ankle joint, tibio-fibular mortice receives superior, medial and lateral articular surfaces of body of Talus. Because of very limited availability of the data on the Morphometry of the articular facets on the Body of the dry human tali, this study was undertaken. Aims: To prepare the database on the articular facets on the superior, medial and lateral surfaces of body of talus, to find if there is statistically significant difference between both the sides of measurements and to compare the results with the previous studies. Methods and Material: 40 Dry Human Tali (20 Right and 20 Left were measured with Digital vernier caliper for the following Measurements: On the Trochlear surface: Medial length, Central length, Lateral length, Anterior width, Central width, Posterior width. On the lateral triangular articular facet: Central height, Central width. On the coma shaped medial articular facet: Central height, Central width. Results: Mean values of Medial, Central and Lateral lengths were 31.02, 30.39 and 29.63mm on Right side and 31.79, 30.65 and 29.45mm on Left side. Mean Anterior, Central and Posterior widths were 28.87, 28.16 and 21.59mm on right side and 29.08, 27.54 and 21.78mm on left side. On the medial articular surface, mean central height was 11.93mm on the right side and 11.29mm on the left side, Mean central width was 27.94mm on the right side and 28.29mm on the left side. On the lateral articular surface, mean central height was 22.14mm on the right side and 22.63mm on the left side. Mean central width was 18.93mm on the right side and 18.99mm on the left side. There is no significant difference between right and left sides of measurements. Conclusion: The trochlear articular surface is wider in front, measurements of opposite talus bone can be used as a control during talus bone replacement surgery, it may help surgeons to plan pre-operatively the complex talar fracture surgeries, to design accurate

  19. Traumatic posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in patients with severe medial instability of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Ho Jong; Ha, Jeong Ku; Jang, Ho Su; Kim, Jin Goo

    2015-10-01

    To examine the incidence and diagnostic rate of traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear associated with severe medial instability and to evaluate the effectiveness of pullout repair. From 2007 to 2011, 51 patients who underwent operation due to multiple ligament injuries including medial collateral ligament rupture were reviewed retrospectively. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective and Lysholm score were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and if indicated, a second-look arthroscopic examination was conducted. Fourteen out of 51 patients were associated with severe medial instability. Seven patients were diagnosed with traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear and underwent arthroscopic pullout repair. Five of them were missed at initial diagnosis using MRI. In seven patients, the mean Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores improved from 74.6 ± 10.3 and 47.6 ± 7.3 to 93.0 ± 3.7 and 91.6 ± 2.6, respectively. All showed complete healing of meniscus root on follow-up MRI and second-look arthroscopy. Medial meniscus posterior root tear may occur in severe medial instability from trauma. It is a common mistake that surgeons may not notice on the diagnosis of those injuries using MRI. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of medial meniscus posterior root tear in this type of injuries. The traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear could be healed successfully using arthroscopic pullout repair technique. The possibility of the medial meniscus posterior root tear should be considered in severe medial instability and arthroscopic pullout repair can be an effective option for treatment. Case series with no comparison group, Level IV.

  20. Reduced right frontal fractional anisotropy correlated with early elevated plasma LDL levels in obese young adults.

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    Baohui Lou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n = 22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years and normal weight (n = 27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. RESULTS: In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies.

  1. Reduced frontal-subcortical white matter connectivity in association with suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, W; Han, C E; Fava, M; Mischoulon, D; Papakostas, G I; Heo, J-Y; Kim, K W; Kim, S T; Kim, D J H; Kim, D K; Seo, S W; Seong, J-K; Jeon, H J

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior have been associated with structural and functional changes in the brain. However, little is known regarding alterations of brain networks in MDD patients with suicidal ideation. We investigated whether or not MDD patients with suicidal ideation have different topological organizations of white matter networks compared with MDD patients without suicidal ideation. Participants consisted of 24 patients with MDD and suicidal ideation, 25 age- and gender-matched MDD patients without suicidal ideation and 31 healthy subjects. A network-based statistics (NBS) and a graph theoretical analysis were performed to assess differences in the inter-regional connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to assess topological changes according to suicidal ideation in MDD patients. The Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Korean version of the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) were used to assess the severity of suicidal ideation and impulsivity, respectively. Reduced structural connectivity in a characterized subnetwork was found in patients with MDD and suicidal ideation by utilizing NBS analysis. The subnetwork included the regions of the frontosubcortical circuits and the regions involved in executive function in the left hemisphere (rostral middle frontal, pallidum, superior parietal, frontal pole, caudate, putamen and thalamus). The graph theoretical analysis demonstrated that network measures of the left rostral middle frontal had a significant positive correlation with severity of SSI (r=0.59, P=0.02) and BIS (r=0.59, P=0.01). The total edge strength that was significantly associated with suicidal ideation did not differ between MDD patients without suicidal ideation and healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that the reduced frontosubcortical circuit of structural connectivity, which includes regions associated with executive function and impulsivity, appears to have a role in the emergence of suicidal

  2. Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change.

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    Arjmand, Hussain-Abdulah; Hohagen, Jesper; Paton, Bryan; Rickard, Nikki S

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo - and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation - is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18-38 years) who listened to four stimuli-pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music), neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG) data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA) indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect) were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3-FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a change in low level acoustic

  3. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

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    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  4. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

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    Thomas Z. Ramsøy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  5. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  6. Wheelchair caster loading during frontal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, Gina E; van Roosmalen, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Many wheelchair users are required or choose to use their wheelchairs as a motor vehicle seat during transport. It is therefore key that the wheelchair components be designed to tolerate crash-level loading conditions. Casters are particularly prone to failure under crash loading conditions. Our study evaluated wheelchair caster loading during 20g/48 kph frontal sled impact testing using an 85-kg surrogate wheelchair base (SWCB) with casters positioned on a load-measuring platform. A Hybrid III 50th percentile male test dummy was seated in the SWCB, which simulated a power wheelchair and was secured using four-point tiedowns. Various rear securement point heights and wheelchair seating systems were used to study their effect on caster loading. Caster normal loading was found to vary from 769 to 7,209 N depending on rear securement location and integrity of the seating system. Dynamic sled impact test results showed that normal loading of the front wheelchair casters was influenced by wheelchair seating system integrity and rear wheelchair securement height. Shear loading varied from 781 to 1,589 N and did not appear to be dependent on seat integrity or rear securement height. The load/time histories measured during dynamic impact testing can be used to guide the development of transit-safe caster design.

  7. Frontal EEG delta/alpha ratio and screening for post-stroke cognitive deficits: the power of four electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiger, Emma; Sheikh, Nabeel; Rowland, Tennille; Wong, Andrew; Read, Stephen; Finnigan, Simon

    2014-10-01

    This study analysed correlations between post-stroke, quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) indices, and cognition-specific, functional outcome measures. Results were compared between QEEG indices calculated from the standard 19 versus 4 frontal (or 4 posterior) electrodes to assess the feasibility and efficacy of employing a reduced electrode montage. Resting-state EEG was recorded at the bedside within 62-101 h after onset of symptoms of middle cerebral artery, ischaemic stroke (confirmed radiologically). Relative power for delta, theta, alpha and beta, delta/alpha ratio (DAR) and pairwise-derived brain symmetry index (pdBSI) were averaged; over all electrodes (global), over F3, F4, F7, F8 (frontal) and P3, P4, T5, T6 (posterior). The functional independence measure and functional assessment measure (FIM-FAM) was administered at mean 105 days post-stroke. Total (30 items) and cognition-specific (5 items) FIM-FAM scores were correlated with QEEG indices using Spearman's coefficient, with a Bonferroni correction. Twenty-five patients were recruited, 4 died within 3 months and 1 was lost to follow-up. Hence 20 cases (10 female; 9 left hemisphere; mean age 68 years, range 38-84) were analysed. Two QEEG indices demonstrated highly-significant correlations with cognitive outcomes: frontal DAR (ρ = -0.664, p ≤ 0.001) and global, relative alpha power (ρ = 0.67, p ≤ 0.001). After correction there were no other significant correlations. Alpha activity - particularly frontally - may index post-stroke attentional capacity, which appears to be a key determinant of functional and cognitive outcomes. Likewise frontal delta pathophysiology influences such outcomes. Pending further studies, DAR from 4 frontal electrodes may inform early screening for post-MCA stroke cognitive deficits, and thereby, clinical decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Centralization of extruded medial meniscus delays cartilage degeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Nobutake; Muneta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kenichi; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Saito, Ryusuke; Udo, Mio; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Ohara, Toshiyuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-05-01

    Meniscus extrusion often observed in knee osteoarthritis has a strong correlation with the progression of cartilage degeneration and symptom in the patients. We recently reported a novel procedure "arthroscopic centralization" in which the capsule was sutured to the edge of the tibial plateau to reduce meniscus extrusion in the human knee. However, there is no animal model to study the efficacy of this procedure. The purposes of this study were [1] to establish a model of centralization for the extruded medial meniscus in a rat model; and [2] to investigate the chondroprotective effect of this procedure. Medial meniscus extrusion was induced by the release of the anterior synovial capsule and the transection of the meniscotibial ligament. Centralization was performed by the pulled-out suture technique. Alternatively, control rats had only the medial meniscus extrusion surgery. Medial meniscus extrusion was evaluated by micro-CT and macroscopic findings. Cartilage degeneration of the medial tibial plateau was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. By micro-CT analysis, the medial meniscus extrusion was significantly improved in the centralization group in comparison to the extrusion group throughout the study. Both macroscopically and histologically, the cartilage lesion of the medial tibial plateau was prevented in the centralization group but was apparent in the control group. We developed medial meniscus extrusion in a rat model, and centralization of the extruded medial meniscus by the pull-out suture technique improved the medial meniscus extrusion and delayed cartilage degeneration, though the effect was limited. Centralization is a promising treatment to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Othello syndrome in a patient with two left hemispheric tumors

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    Po-Kuan Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with Othello syndrome caused by two left hemispheric tumors. This 50-year-old female had experienced seizures for 10 years and developed manic-like symptoms, delusions of jealousy, persecution and being watched, auditory hallucinations, irritable mood, and violent and disorganized behavior for the past 3 years. Brain imaging studies revealed two left frontal tumors, the larger of which was causing a mass effect. The delusions of jealousy in Othello syndrome resolved after removing the larger tumor, and the other psychiatric symptoms improved after treatment with psychotropic medications. This report aims to raise awareness of Othello syndrome related to disruptions in cortico-subcortical connections in the left orbitofrontal region. Timely surgical treatment may prevent associated psychiatric comorbidities and increase the likelihood of a good outcome.

  10. Cirurgia de osteoma de seio frontal Surgery of frontal sinus osteoma

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    Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira Fobe

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os osteomas do seio frontal correspondem a 57% dos osteomas dos seios paranasais, com incidência variando de 0,01% a 3%. A remoção cirúrgica nos osteomas frontais é indicada nos pacientes sintomáticos. Nos pacientes assintomáticos pode-se adotar a conduta conservadora ou cirúrgica em todos os pacientes independente da sua localização ou extensão. Cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de osteoma de seio frontal foram operados entre 1995 e 1999. A idade média foi 38,4 anos (extremos de 12 a 55 anos, sendo 3 homens e 2 mulheres. O período de sintomatologia variou de 6 meses a 3 anos com média de 10,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentaram cefaléia. Um paciente apresentou epistaxe. Os exames complementares realizados foram: radiografia simples e tomografia computadorizada de seios paranasais com cortes axiais e coronais. Em dois pacientes o diâmetro do osteoma foi maior que 3 cm, e menor que 3 cm em três. A decisão da técnica cirúrgica entre coronal e supraciliar foi estética, reservando-se a abordagem supraciliar para um paciente com calvície, apesar do tumor ser volumoso com extensão para seio etmoidal. Nenhuma dificuldade técnica intra-operatória foi atribuída à escolha da abordagem. O óstio nasofrontal não foi obstruído no intra-operatório. O seguimento pós-operatório mínimo foi de dois anos. Em todos os casos a remoção foi total sem recidiva ou resíduos tumorais. Os sintomas clínicos, achados radiológicos e abordagens cirúrgicas são discutidos. Não ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias.Frontal sinus osteomas are 57% of all paranasal sinus osteomas, with an incidence of 00.1 to 3%. Surgical removal of the frontal sinus osteomas is done in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients can be managed conservatively or submitted to surgery in spite of its location or extension. Five patients having the diagnosis of frontal sinus osteoma were operated on between 1995 and 1999. Medium age was 38.4 years (from 12

  11. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  12. Analisis Penyerapan Energi Crash Box Pola Origami pada Pengujian Frontal Impact Posisi Angular Frontal

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    Redi Bintarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the car, the body structure is designed in such a way so as to transfer and absorb energy. This serves to minimize the result of this accident related to kinetic energy. This needs a system to absorb the kinetic energy maximally, so as a result of a frontal collision events that can be reduced optimally and kinetic energy can be absorbed by a front body structure. Devices used for absorbing kinetic energy in the car is usually called a crash box, which is located between the main structure and bumper. Crash Box generally tubular thin shaped. It has been a lot of research about the crash box. In this study using crash box origami patterns and using methods taguchi orthogonal array L9 (34. AA7003-T7 aluminum material modeled as bilinear isotropic hardening, the loading method is Frontal Impact Frontal Angular Position with impact angles of 5, 15 and 30 degree by using the finite element software simulation methods. The simulation results showed that the crash box in the lowest possible energy absorption were happened at crash box with 5 degree, with 683 153 Joule energy absorbsion. The highest result was happened to crash box number 5 with the results of 3,140.778 Joule. Lowest absorption on impact of 15 degree and 30 degree were happened to crash box number 1 and number 3 with a value of 245 685 Joule and 174 845 Joule, while the highest absorption at mumber 3 with each value 1,708.521 Joule and 1,750.872 Joule.

  13. T171. REDUCED FRONTAL CORTICAL THICKNESS AND SURFACE IN A 10 YEARS FOLLOW-UP OF EARLY ONSET PSYCHOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilzarbe, Daniel; de la Serna, Elena; Baeza, Inmaculada; Pariente, Jose; Fortea, Adriana; Redondo, Marina; Bargallo, Nuria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2018-01-01

    %) between groups. The distribution of diagnosis in the case group was: schizoaffective disorder (n=5), bipolar disorder with psychotic features (n=3), schizophrenia (n=2) and others (n=3). There was a trend-level group effect in global CTH (p = .07) which was significant in the frontal lobe (p = .014). EOP exhibited less CTH in the caudal middle frontal (p = .016) and pars opercularis (p = .03) and orbitalis (p = .007) of the inferior frontal gyrus. There was an effect of time in the parietal (p = .013) and occipital (p = .004) lobes consisting of thinner CTH at follow-up in both groups. There were no differences in SA between groups. Both showed an increase in total SA (p < .001) and for parietal (p < .001), temporal (p = .009) and occipital (p = .003) regions at follow-up. There a group by time effect in frontal SA, consisting of an increase over time in HC and a decrease in EOP (p = .044), specifically in medial orbito-frontal cortex (p = .039). Discussion Our results have identified: 1) thinner cortices in frontal regions in EOP compared to HC, which seems to be constant over time; and 2) a decreased in SA in frontal areas in EOP along time, contrasting with HC, whose frontal surface increased at follow-up. These findings are consistent with another study (Greenstein et al. 2006) which also reported reduced CTH in frontal areas in EOP during development, while we found no abnormalities in temporal regions (Vita et al. 2012). Despite the small sample size, to our knowledge this is the longest follow-up of an EOP sample employing magnetic resonance imaging so far.

  14. [Functional asymmetry of the frontal cortex and lateral hypothalamus of cats during food instrumental conditioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanetsiian, G L; Pavlova, I V

    2003-01-01

    The synchronism and latency of auditory evoked potentials (EP) recorded in symmetric points of the frontal cortex and lateral hypothalamus of cats were measured at different stages of instrumental food conditioning and after the urgent transition to 30% reinforcement. Correlation coefficients between EPs in the cortex and hypothalamus were high (with left-side dominance) at the beginning of the experiments, when food motivation was high, and during the whole experiments in cases of high-probability of conditioned performance. Analysis of early positive P55-80 EP component showed that at all conditioning stages the peak latency of this component was shorter in the left cortical areas than in symmetrical points, whereas in the hypothalamus the shorter latency at the left side was observed at the stage of unstable conditioned reflex, and at the stage of stable reflex the latency of the studied component was shorter at the right side. During transition to 30% reinforcement, the latency was also shorter in the right hypothalamus. It is suggested that the high left-side correlation between the hypothalamus and cortex was associated with motivational and motor component of behavior rather than reflected the emotional stress induced by transition to another stereotype of food reinforcement (30%).

  15. Fragmentation of the medial malleolus of dogs with and without tarsal osteochondrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, S.M.; Mahaffey, M.B.; Aron, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Fragmentation of the medial malleolus of the tibia was found radiographically in 5 canine tarsi which did not have evidence of osteochondrosis of the medial trochlear ridge. An additional 5 tarsi were found where both medial malleolar fragmentation and osteochondrosis of the medial trochlear ridge were present. Radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease was present in 3 of 5 dogs with medial malleolar fragmentation alone, and 5 of 5 dogs with medial malleolar fragmentation and medial trochlear ridge osteochondrosis. Eight of the 9 dogs were Rottweilers. Considering the sites of occurrence of osteochondrosis in other species, the authors propose that medial malleolar fragmentation could be secondary to osteochondrosis of the medial malleolus. Osteochondrosis of the medial malleolus has not been previously reported in dogs. Histological examination of the medial malleolar fragmentation was unavailable because surgery was not performed, therefore the hypothesis that the medial malleolar fragmentation is due to osteochondrosis was not proven

  16. Frontal Dynamics of Powder Snow Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louge, M. Y.; Carroll, C. S.; Turnbull, B.

    2012-04-01

    We model the dynamics of the head of dilute powder snow avalanches sustained by a massive frontal blow-out, arising as a weakly cohesive snow cover is fluidized by the very pore pressure gradients that the avalanche induces within the snow pack. Such material eruption just behind the front acts as a source of denser fluid thrust into a uniform ambient air flow at high Reynolds number. In such "eruption current", fluidization depth is inversely proportional to a bulk Richardson number representing avalanche height. By excluding situations in which the snow cover is not fluidized up to its free surface, we derive a criterion combining snow pack friction and density indicating which avalanches can produce a sustainable powder cloud. A mass balance involving snow cover and powder cloud sets avalanche height and mean density. By determining which solution of the mass balance is stable, we find that avalanches reach constant growth and acceleration rates for fixed slope and avalanche width. Under these conditions, we calculate the fraction of the fluidized cover that is actually scoured and blown-out into the cloud, and deduce from a momentum balance on the head that the avalanche accelerates at a rate only 14% of the gravitational component along the flow. We also calculate how far a powder cloud travels until its mean density becomes constant. Finally, we show that the dynamics of powder snow avalanches are crucially affected by the rate of change of their width, for example by reaching an apparent steady speed as their channel widens. If such widening is rapid, or if slope inclination vanishes, we calculate where and how powder clouds collapse. Predictions agree well with observations of powder snow avalanches carried out at the Vallee de la Sionne (Switzerland).

  17. Left atrial appendage occlusion

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    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  18. Spinal Cord Injury During Ultrasound-Guided C7 Cervical Medial Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghwi; Seong, Min Yong; Kim, Ha Yong; Ryu, Ju Seok

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided cervical medial branch block (CMBB) is commonly performed to diagnose and treat head, neck, and shoulder pain. However, its use at the C7 level has been shown to be less accurate than at other levels, which may increase the chance of injury owing to the imprecision of needle site provided by the ultrasound guide. We report the first case of iatrogenic spinal cord injury from an ultrasound-guided C7 CMBB. The patient, upon receiving this procedure, had fainted shortly after experiencing an electrical sensation that ran from the neck to the toe. The patient complained of weakness and tingling sensation in the left upper extremity. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hematoma in the cervical spinal cord, and an electrophysiological study, which was performed at 3 weeks after the incident, revealed an injury at the left C3-T2 anterior horn. After 2 months of rehabilitation, the patient showed moderate improvement in the strength of the left proximal upper extremity; however, there was no improvement in the strength of the left distal upper extremity. Therefore, we recommend caution when performing ultrasound-guided CMBB at the C7 level, as the guide particularly at this level is relatively inaccurate, posing a risk of spinal cord injury.

  19. Frontal Motor Cortex Activity During Reactive Control Is Associated With Past Suicidal Behavior in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Yoon, Jong H; Cheng, Yaoan; Rhoades, Remy N; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is prevalent in schizophrenia (SZ), yet the neural system functions that confer suicide risk remain obscure. Circuits operated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in SZ, including those that support reactive control, and PFC changes are observed in postmortem studies of heterogeneous suicide victims. We tested whether history of suicide attempt is associated with altered frontal motor cortex activity during reactive control processes. We evaluated 17 patients with recent onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined SZ using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and functional magnetic resonance imaging during Stroop task performance. Group-level regression models relating past suicidal behavior to frontal activation controlled for depression, psychosis, and impulsivity. Past suicidal behavior was associated with relatively higher activation in the left-hemisphere supplementary motor area (SMA), pre-SMA, premotor cortex, and dorsolateral PFC, all ipsilateral to the active primary motor cortex. This study provides unique evidence that suicidal behavior in patients with recent-onset SZ directly relates to frontal motor cortex activity during reactive control, in a pattern reciprocal to the relationship with proactive control found previously. Further work should address how frontal-based control functions change with risk over time, and their potential utility as a biomarker for interventions to mitigate suicide risk in SZ.

  20. Test-retest reliability of frontal alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) measures in adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegust, Adira K; Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2014-12-01

    A number of studies have shown that the pattern of resting frontal EEG alpha power and asymmetry and heart rate are predictive of individual differences in affective style in children and adults. Although test-retest reliability of frontal electrocortical and autonomic measures has been established in adult and child and some clinical populations, few studies have examined test-retest reliability of these measures in adolescents. Here, we conducted a pilot study to examine the test-retest reliability of frontal EEG alpha power and asymmetry and heart period and heart rate in 10 typically developing adolescent participants (M age = 15.9 years) over a 1 month period. We found acceptable test-retest reliability using Pearson and intra-class correlations in left and right mid-frontal alpha power and asymmetry and heart period and heart rate over 1 month. These results provide initial evidence for acceptable levels of test-retest reliability in central and peripheral psychophysiological measures in adolescents used to index affective style in children and adults. Future studies are needed with a larger sample to ensure the reliability of these results.

  1. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai eRiga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g. thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus, the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders.

  2. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  3. A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report

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    Ardic Füsun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. Case presentation We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. Conclusion MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.

  4. Word wins over Face: Emotional Stroop effect activates the frontal cortical network

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    Shima Ovaysikia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC has been implicated in higher order cognitive control of behaviour. Sometimes such control is executed through suppression of an unwanted response in order to avoid conflict. Conflict occurs when two simultaneously competing processes lead to different behavioral outcomes, as seen in tasks such as the anti-saccade, go/no-go and the Stroop task. We set out to examine whether different types of stimuli in a modified emotional Stroop task would cause similar interference effects as the original Stroop-colour/word, and whether the required suppression mechanism(s would recruit similar regions of the medial PFC (mPFC. By using emotional words and emotional faces in this Stroop experiment, we examined the two well-learned automatic behaviours of word reading and recognition of face expressions. In our emotional Stroop paradigm, words were processed faster than face expressions with incongruent trials yielding longer reaction times (RT and larger number of errors compared to the congruent trials. This novel Stroop effect activated the anterior and inferior regions of the mPFC, namely the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG as well as the superior frontal gyrus. Our results suggest that prepotent behaviours such as reading and recognition of face expressions are stimulus-dependent and perhaps hierarchical, hence recruiting distinct regions of the mPFC. Moreover, the faster processing of word reading compared to reporting face expressions is indicative of the formation of stronger stimulus-response (SR associations of an over-learned behaviour compared to an instinctive one, which could alternatively be explained through the distinction between awareness and selective attention.

  5. Epileptic seizure propagation from the second somatic sensory area to the fronto-medial region, by insular redistribution. A case report and a connectome description

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    Balogh Attila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The seizure propagation phenomenon by inducing remote symptoms brings several difficulties in finding the seizure onset and delineating the epileptic network which should be taken into consideration in epilepsy surgery. By demonstrating a difficult (MRI negative epilepsy surgery case explored with invasive presurgical evaluation we highlight the importance to recognise the secondary sensory area and to explore the the parieto-opercular-insular-medial frontal network in certain cases. A further conclusion is the consideration of the redistributory role of the insula as a special structure in the cerebral connectome, having a role in epileptic network organisation.

  6. ADHD Symptoms in Post-Institutionalized Children Are Partially Mediated by Altered Frontal EEG Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Tahl I; Koss, Kalsea J; Donzella, Bonny; Frenn, Kristin A; Lamm, Connie; Fox, Nathan A; Gunnar, Megan R

    2017-07-01

    Individual differences in the propensity for left versus right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry may underlie differences in approach/withdrawal tendencies and mental health deficits. Growing evidence suggests that early life adversity may shape brain development and contribute to the emergence of mental health problems. The present study examined frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) following the transition to family care in children adopted internationally from institutional care settings between 15 and 36 months of age (N = 82; 46 female, 36 male). Two comparison groups were included: an international adoption control consisting of children adopted from foster care with little to no institutional deprivation (N = 45; 17 female, 28 male) and a post-adoption condition control consisting of children reared in birth families of the same education and income as the adoptive families (N = 48; 23 female, 25 male). Consistent with evidence of greater approach and impulsivity-related behavior problems in post-institutionalized (PI) children, PI status was associated with greater left FEA than found in the other two groups. In addition, left FEA served as a mediator between institutionalization and age 5 ADHD symptoms for girls. Age at adoption and other preadoption factors were examined with results suggesting that earlier adoption into a supportive family resulted in a more typical pattern of brain functioning. Findings support the idea that the capacity of brain activity to evidence typical functioning following perturbation may differ in relation to the timing of intervention and suggest that the earlier the intervention of adoption, the better.

  7. Altered basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in frontal lobe epilepsy: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Wang, Pu; Peng, Rui; Jiang, Sisi; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations of basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were gathered from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was used to assess the functional connections between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Regions of interest, including the left/right caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus, were selected as the seeds. Two sample t-test was used to determine the difference between patients and controls, while controlling the age, gender and head motions. Compared with controls, FLE patients demonstrated increased FCs between basal ganglia and regions including the right fusiform gyrus, the bilateral cingulate gyrus, the precuneus and anterior cingulate gyrus. Reduced FCs were mainly located in a range of brain regions including the bilateral middle occipital gyrus, the ventral frontal lobe, the right putamen, the left fusiform gyrus and right rolandic operculum. In addition, the relationships between basal ganglia-cingulate connections and durations of epilepsy were also found. The alterations of functional integrity within the basal ganglia, as well as its connections to limbic and ventral frontal areas, indicate the important roles of the basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in FLE, and provide new insights in the pathophysiological mechanism of FLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rhomboid flap: An option to medial canthal reconstruction

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    Rafael Corredor-Osorio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medial canthal defects after wide local excision of basal cell carcinoma can range from small to medium size which can be reconstructed by using full thickness skin-grafts or defect local flaps. This report describes the case of 51-year-old woman with a medial canthal tumor. The large defect after of excision was successfully reconstructed with local rhomboid flap. The result cosmetic was highly satisfactory. Local rhomboid flap reconstruction is a safe, rapid and practical technique for skin defects in the canthal medial region after tumor excisions.

  9. Cartilage Delamination Flap Mimicking a Torn Medial Meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Zhi-Wei Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis.

  10. Medial Column Arthrodesis Using an Anatomic Distal Fibular Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ellianne M; LaPorta, Guido A; Trott, Kasandra

    2015-01-01

    The medial column fusion is performed for a multitude of etiologies, including peritalar subluxation deformity, Charcot arthropathy, trauma, post-traumatic degenerative joint disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Various surgical techniques have been described for medial column arthrodesis. We describe a new fixation method using an anatomic distal fibular locking plate for medial column arthrodesis. This technique provides a rigid construct in compromised or at risk bone. After a review of the surgical technique, we outline 2 case examples of patients with peritalar subluxation and Charcot arthropathy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Takiguchi, M.; Schrader, S.C.; Biller, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, mediocaudal-laterocranial 15 degrees oblique (extended and supinated mediolateral), and craniolateral-caudomedial 20 degrees to 30 degrees oblique radiographs of 16 elbow-joint specimens were produced to study the radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process. On the mediolateral view, the cranial point of the coronoid process was at the level of the distal one-third of the radial epiphysis. Degree of superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna determined how the medial coronoid process was projected on the radiographs. Mediocaudal-laterocranial oblique radiographs best showed the cranial outline of the medial coronoid process with moderate superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna

  12. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of left ventricular and biventricular enlargement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1979-01-01

    The basic criteria for the vectorcardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular and biventricular enlargements are discussed on the basis of the myocardial activation sequence. Left ventricular dilatation, secondary to isolated diastolic overloading, increases the manifestation of all the vectors resulting of the activation of this ventricle. These changes reflect the proximity of the left ventricular walls to the exploring electrodes. The vectors above mentioned project themselves as wide ventricular curves with counterclockwise rotation on the three planes. The T loop, of secondary type, is concordant in its orientation with the R loop. Cases with left ventricular hypertrophy, produced by a sustained systolic overloading, are also described. In the presence of global left ventricular hypertrophy without LBBB, the manifestation of all the vectors resulting from the depolarization of this ventricle (I, IIl, IIIl), is increased. This is due to a prolonged duration of the corresponding activation fronts. These vectors are projected on the different segments of the ventricular curves and they show a counterclockwise rotation on the three planes. When LBBB is also present, the first septal vector is not evident. The T loop, of secondary type, opposes the R loop on the frontal and horizontal planes. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy of the segmentary type, generally increases the manifestation of the vector I, and sometimes, also that of the vector IIIl. When both ventricles are hypertrophied, the electromotive forces of the chamber more severely affected predominate in the vectorcardiographic records.

  13. Frontal dynamic aphasia in progressive supranuclear palsy: Distinguishing between generation and fluent sequencing of novel thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gail A; Spooner, Donna; Harrison, William J

    2015-10-01

    Frontal dynamic aphasia is characterised by a profound reduction in spontaneous speech despite well-preserved naming, repetition and comprehension. Since Luria (1966, 1970) designated this term, two main forms of dynamic aphasia have been identified: one, a language-specific selection deficit at the level of word/sentence generation, associated with left inferior frontal lesions; and two, a domain-general impairment in generating multiple responses or connected speech, associated with more extensive bilateral frontal and/or frontostriatal damage. Both forms of dynamic aphasia have been interpreted as arising due to disturbances in early prelinguistic conceptual preparation mechanisms that are critical for language production. We investigate language-specific and domain-general accounts of dynamic aphasia and address two issues: one, whether deficits in multiple conceptual preparation mechanisms can co-occur; and two, the contribution of broader cognitive processes such as energization, the ability to initiate and sustain response generation over time, to language generation failure. Thus, we report patient WAL who presented with frontal dynamic aphasia in the context of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). WAL was given a series of experimental tests that showed that his dynamic aphasia was not underpinned by a language-specific deficit in selection or in microplanning. By contrast, WAL presented with a domain-general deficit in fluent sequencing of novel thoughts. The latter replicated the pattern documented in a previous PSP patient (Robinson, et al., 2006); however, unique to WAL, generating novel thoughts was impaired but there was no evidence of a sequencing deficit because perseveration was absent. Thus, WAL is the first unequivocal case to show a distinction between novel thought generation and subsequent fluent sequencing. Moreover, WAL's generation deficit encompassed verbal and non-verbal responses, showing a similar (but more profoundly reduced) pattern

  14. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

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    Hestad KA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut A Hestad,1–3 Siri Weider,3,4 Kristian Bernhard Nilsen,5–7 Marit Sæbø Indredavik,8,9 Trond Sand7,10 1Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 2Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Psychiatry, Specialised Unit for Eating Disorder Patients, Levanger Hospital, Health Trust Nord-Trøndelag, Levanger, Norway; 5Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway; 7Department of Neurology, Section for Clinical Neurophysiology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway; 8Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 9Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 10Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway Objective: To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN and healthy controls.Methods: Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions.Results: There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in µV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051. Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P

  15. Theory of mind and the frontal lobes Teoria da mente e lobos frontais

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    Glauco C. Igliori

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. Its cerebral organization is not enough established, even though the literature suggests the relevant role of the frontal lobes. OBEJECTIVE: To evaluate frontal lobe patients and controls in ToM tests. METHOD:We studied 20 patients with lesions limited to the frontal lobes (as shown by CT or MRI, and 10 normal control subjects by means of ToM tests (recognizing himself in mirrors, false belief, first and second order ToM tasks, as well as tests of other cognitive functions (counter-proofs. RESULTS: Patients and controls performed similarly in ToM tests. There was significant difference between frontal subgroups (left, right, bifrontal in the double-bluff task (second order ToM (p=0.021, without relation to verbal fluency (p=0.302 or delayed recall ability (p=0.159. The only two patients with deficits in ToM tasks had impairment of social behavior. CONCLUSION: Frontal lesions do not necessarily implicate in ToM deficits, which may occur when such lesions are associated to disturbance of social behavior.CONTEXTO: Teoria da mente (TM é a capacidade de atribuir estados mentais aos outros. Sua organização cerebral não está suficientemente esclarecida, embora a literatura indique que os lobos frontais desempenham papel relevante. OBEJETIVO: Avaliar pacientes com lesões frontais e controles em testes de TM. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 20 pacientes com lesões restritas aos lobos frontais (conforme imagens de CT ou RM e 10 controles normais em testes de TM (reconhecimento da própria imagem no espelho, falsa crença, TM de 1ª ordem e TM de 2ª ordem, usando como contra-provas testes de outras funções cognitivas. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre pacientes e controles nos testes de TM. Os subgrupos frontais (direito, esquerdo, bilateral diferiram significativamente no teste de "duplo blefe" (TM 2ª ordem (p=0,021, sem relação com a flu

  16. Determination of frontal offset test conditions based on crash data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the test procedure development : phase of the agencys Improved Frontal Protection : research program. It is anticipated that even after all cars : and light trucks have air bags for drivers and front seat : passengers there w...

  17. Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nostalgia is often triggered by feelings-such as sadness, loneliness, or meaninglessness-that are typically associated with withdrawal motivation. Here, we examined whether a trait tendency to experience withdrawal motivation is associated with nostalgia proneness. Past work indicates that baseline right-frontal cortical asymmetry is a neural correlate of withdrawal-related motivation. We therefore hypothesized that higher baseline levels of right-frontal asymmetry would predict increased proneness to nostalgia. We assessed participants' baseline levels of frontal cortical activity using EEG. Results supported the hypothesis and demonstrated that the association between relative right-frontal asymmetry and increased nostalgia remained significant when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these findings indicate that individuals with a stronger dispositional tendency to experience withdrawal-related motivation are more prone to nostalgia. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. [Morphometric vectorial method of analysis of the frontal sinuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordan, A; Ulmeanu, D

    2008-03-01

    The frontal sinuses are pneumatic cavities located in the thickness of the squama frontalis, which communicate with the nasal cavity through the frontonasal duct. These cavities develop by the pneumatisation extent of some anterior ethmoidal cells. Morphologically, there is a large variability of the frontal sinus shape, size and extent, the position of the intersinusal septum, the existence and number of intrasinusal septa. There exist morphologically atypical frontal sinuses as: uni- or bilateral frontal sinuses aplasia, supernumerary sinuses, great extent of the cavities. Paranasal sinuses can be explored by different methods, but the most accessible and easy to perform is conventional radiological imaging. The radiographs can be morphometrically assessed in order to prove the individuality of these air cavities.

  19. Frontal parosteal lipoma with thickening of diploic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Morishita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parosteal lipoma is a rare benign tumor that is composed mainly of benign mature lipocytes, and it has an intimate association with the underlying affected bone. Parosteal lipoma involving the head and neck is very rare, and there are only two reported cases of parosteal lipoma of the skull in English literature. This paper reports a rare case of frontal parosteal lipoma in a young child with a hard enlargement of the forehead region after blunt trauma. Computed tomography revealed a large soft tissue mass and an osseous projection of the unilateral frontal bone. The pathology report identified lipoma and thickening of diploic space of the frontal bone. Here, we present a new case of parosteal lipoma in the frontal region.

  20. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dirlikov

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  1. Giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matushita, Joao Paulo, E-mail: jpauloejulieta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Matushita, Julieta S.; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem Dr. Matsushita, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Matushita, Cristina S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Simoes, Luiz Antonio Monteiro; Carvalho Neto, Lizando Franco de

    2013-06-15

    The authors report the case of a giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus in a 54-year-old male patient. This tumor location is rare, and this is the third case reported in the literature with radiographic documentation and histopathological confirmation. The patient underwent surgery, with curettage of frontal sinus and placement of a prosthesis. He died because a voluntary abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids. (author)

  2. Frontal Lobe Tuberculoma: A Clinical and Imaging Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu, Tinsae; Ergete, Wondwossen; Abebe, Workeabeba

    2017-01-01

    Background Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal tuberculoma was made upon a post-operative biopsy. He improved following treatment with anti-tubercular drugs. Conclusion Tuberculosis should be considered in children with a chr...

  3. Medial fracture line significance in calcaneus fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, Tahir; Ayhan, Egemen; Kantarci, Fatih; Unlu, Mehmet C; Salih, Muhammet

    2011-01-01

    In Sanders' classification of calcaneus fractures, the medial fracture line (subtype C) is close to the tarsal canal, which contains an artery for the talus and calcaneus. We hypothesized that because of this brittle vascular localization, patients with C line fracture patterns might describe radiologic subtalar arthritis more often and have more complaints. The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of C line fracture patterns with other types of calcaneus fractures. A total of 25 surgically treated feet were involved. Regarding Sanders' classification, group 1 included fractures involving the C line (11 feet), and group 2 included fractures not involving the C line (14 feet). Patient age at admission, trauma date, and interval until surgery were obtained from the patients' medical records. The Bohler angles were determined from the radiographs. At the last follow-up visit, the radiologist graded subtalar arthritis using computed tomography. For clinical follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were assessed. No significant differences were found in mean age, follow-up period, delay to surgery, or postoperative Bohler angle between the 2 groups. The mean preoperative Bohler angle was significantly low for group 1. Although not significantly different, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were lower for group 1 (81.9 and 84.3) than group 2 (87.8 and 92.0), and the median subtalar arthritis grade was greater for group 1 (score 2) than for group 2 (score 1.5). The worse results with C line fracture patterns despite satisfactory reduction might result from sinus tarsi artery damage. Angiographic investigations could clarify this theory in the future. Consequently, surgeons must inform and should hesitate to operate on patients with these highly comminuted C line calcaneus fractures. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Unfamiliar Face Matching With Frontal and Profile Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robin S S; Reynolds, Michael G

    2018-04-01

    Research has systematically examined how laboratory participants and real-world practitioners decide whether two face photographs show the same person or not using frontal images. In contrast, research has not examined face matching using profile images. In Experiment 1, we ask whether matching unfamiliar faces is easier with frontal compared with profile views. Participants completed the original, frontal version of the Glasgow Face Matching Test, and also an adapted version where all face pairs were presented in profile. There was no difference in performance across the two tasks, suggesting that both views were similarly useful for face matching. Experiments 2 and 3 examined whether matching unfamiliar faces is improved when both frontal and profile views are provided. We compared face matching accuracy when both a frontal and a profile image of each face were presented, with accuracy using each view alone. Surprisingly, we found no benefit when both views were presented together in either experiment. Overall, these results suggest that either frontal or profile views provide substantially overlapping information regarding identity or participants are unable to utilise both sources of information when making decisions. Each of these conclusions has important implications for face matching research and real-world identification development.

  5. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  6. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  7. An unusually medial axillary arch muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Dharap, A

    1994-01-01

    In the left upper limb of an adult male cadaver a triangular muscular slip, 3.5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, arose from the lower border of latissimus dorsi just proximal to its tendon of insertion. It was inserted by a slender 6 cm long tendon mainly into the coracoid process of the scapula. Three short fibrous strands radiated from this slender tendon to gain attachments to pectoralis minor and the common tendon of origin of the short head of biceps brachii and coracobrachialis. In addition 2 f...

  8. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brund, René B K; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome injuries (APM-injuries) account for approximately 25% of the total number of running injuries amongst recreational runners. Reports on the association between static foot pronation and APM-injuries are contradic......Objectives Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome injuries (APM-injuries) account for approximately 25% of the total number of running injuries amongst recreational runners. Reports on the association between static foot pronation and APM...

  9. The medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floris, S; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Dalstra, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed. On morph......Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed...

  10. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionAlthough medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol.Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology.MethodsEleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies t...

  11. Persistent Medial Subluxation of the Ulna with Radiotrochlear Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Kachooei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two patients-one with a terrible triad fracture dislocation and one with an anterior olecranon fracture dislocation—weretreated for maltracking of the elbow (medial subluxation. The radial head articulated with the lateral trochlea while theulnar trochlear notch was perched over the medial trochlea. The late revision surgery could not correct the subluxationbecause the joints were accustomed to the new alignment, however the overall function was reasonable.

  12. Persistent Medial Subluxation of the Ulna with Radiotrochlear Articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachooei, Amir R; Ring, David

    2017-07-01

    Two patients-one with a terrible triad fracture dislocation and one with an anterior olecranon fracture dislocation-were treated for maltracking of the elbow (medial subluxation). The radial head articulated with the lateral trochlea while the ulnar trochlear notch was perched over the medial trochlea. The late revision surgery could not correct the subluxation because the joints were accustomed to the new alignment, however the overall function was reasonable.

  13. Medial Clamp Tine Positioning Affects Ankle Syndesmosis Malreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Christopher T; Putnam, Sara M; Cherney, Steven M; Ricci, William M; Spraggs-Hughes, Amanda; McAndrew, Christopher M; Gardner, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether the position of the medial clamp tine during syndesmotic reduction affected reduction accuracy. Prospective cohort. Urban Level 1 trauma center. Seventy-two patients with operatively treated syndesmotic injuries. Patients underwent operative fixation of their ankle syndesmotic injuries using reduction forceps. The position of the medial clamp tine was then recorded with intraoperative fluoroscopy. Malreduction rates were then assessed with bilateral ankle computerized tomography. Fibular position within the incisura was measured with respect to the uninjured side to determine whether a malreduction had occurred. Malreductions were then analyzed for associations with injury pattern, patient demographics, and the location of the medial clamp tine. A statistically significant association was found between medial clamp position and sagittal plane syndesmosis malreduction. In reference to anterior fibular translation, there was a 0% malreduction rate in the 18 patients where the clamp tine was placed in the anterior third, a 19.4% malreduction rate in the middle third, and 60% malreduction rate in the posterior third (P = 0.006). In reference to posterior fibular translation, there was a 11.1% malreduction when clamp placement was in the anterior third, a 16.1% malreduction rate in the middle third, and 60% malreduction rate in the posterior third (P = 0.062). There were no significant associations between medial clamp position and coronal plane malreductions (overcompression or undercompression) (P = 1). When using reduction forceps for syndesmotic reduction, the position of the medial clamp tine can be highly variable. The angle created with off-axis syndesmotic clamping is likely a major culprit in iatrogenic malreduction. Sagittal plane malreduction appears to be highly sensitive to clamp obliquity, which is directly related to the medial clamp tine placement. Based on these data, we recommend placing the medial clamp tine in the anterior third

  14. Comparative techniques of medial rectus muscle retraction for endoscopic exposure of the medial intraconal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Giant C; Freitag, Suzanne K; Kocharyan, Armine; Yoon, Michael K; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Bleier, Benjamin S

    2016-05-01

    The medial rectus muscle (MRM) is the medial boundary to the intraconal space of the orbit, and retraction of the MRM is oftentimes necessary for endoscopic removal of intraconal tumors, e.g., orbital hemangioma. We evaluated each of the reported methods of MRM retraction for endoscopic orbital surgery and quantified the degree of intraconal exposure conferred by each method. Eight orbits from four cadaver heads were dissected. In each orbit, medial orbital decompression was performed and the MRM was retracted by using four previously described techniques: (1) external MRM retraction at the globe insertion point by using vessel loop (external group), (2) transseptal MRM retraction by using vessel loop (transseptal group), (3) transchoanal retraction of the MRM by using vessel loop (choanal group), and (4) transseptal four-handed technique by using double ball retraction by a second surgeon (transseptal double ball group). The length, height, and area of exposure of the medial intraconal space were quantified and compared. The average ± standard deviation (SD) anterior-posterior exposures for the external group, transseptal group, and transseptal double ball group were 17.51 ± 3.39 mm, 16.59 ± 4.16 mm, and 18.0 ± 15.25 mm, respectively. The choanal group provided significantly less exposure (12.39 ± 3.44 mm, p = 0.049) than the other groups. The average ± SD vertical exposures for the transseptal group, choanal group, and transseptal double ball group were 12.53 ± 4.38 mm, 13.05 ± 5.86 mm, and 13.57 ± 3.74 mm, respectively. The external group provided significantly less exposure (4.51 ± 1.56 mm, p = 0.0072) than the other groups. The transseptal and transseptal double ball groups provided the greatest total access by surface area (58.88 ± 26.96 mm(2) and 62.94 ± 34.74 mm(2), respectively) compared with the external and choanal groups (34.82 ± 23.37 mm(2) and 43.10 ± 23.68 mm(2), respectively). Although the transseptal trajectory of MRM retraction was

  15. Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of Medial Malleolus in A Young Soccer Player - Diagnosis in Clinical setting of Ankle Sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerulli, Giuliano; Fabiano, Fantasia; Gabriele, Potalivo; Giacomo, Placella; Enrico, Sebastiani

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a young female soccer player affected by congenital medial bilateral malleolus pseudoarthrosis and os subfibulare. Congenital pseudoarthrosis is the failure of the bones to fuse prior or at birth. The etiology is still unknown, although frequency is high in subjects affected by neurofibromatosis or correlated syndromes, so it has been suggested that these congenital disorders may be the cause of congenital pseudoarthrosis. Our patient, a 16-year-old female, high level soccer player, was referred to us following a right ankle sprain during a match. She reported no medical history of tibia-tarsus joint injuries or disease. Pain, swelling and functional impairment were noted immediately after the accident. Standard radiographs in the emergency department revealed a displaced fracture of the medial malleolus and the presence of os subfibularis. The patient was transferred to our Traumatology and Orthopaedic Department to undergo malleolus ostheosynthesis. Before surgery swelling, functional impairment and intense pain at the medial malleolus level were confirmed. However, there was no radiological opening of ankle, instability or pronation pain; furthermore the flexion-extension was preserved with slight pain. Twenty-four hours later a considerable remission of symptoms was evident with increased range of motion and reduction in the swelling and post-traumatic edema. A radiograph on the left ankle to compare with that of the right ankle was necessary to overcome the discrepancy between the radiological diagnosis and the clinical examination. The radiographic results of both medial malleoli were comparable although on the left the os subfibularis was absent. Since the diagnosis of fracture by the association between the radiographs and the symptomatology was doubtful, a bilateral CT was performed. The scan revealed a medial bilateral malleolus pseudoarthrosis and an accessory right subfibularis nucleus. The patient was discharged from hospital with

  16. Frontal midline theta rhythm and gamma power changes during focused attention on mental calculation: an MEG beamformer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ryouhei; Canuet, Leonides; Ishihara, Tsutomu; Aoki, Yasunori; Ikeda, Shunichiro; Hata, Masahiro; Katsimichas, Themistoklis; Gunji, Atsuko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Iwase, Masao; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ) appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings, indicating focused attention. Although mental calculation is often used as an attention-demanding task, little has been reported on calculation-related activation in Fmθ experiments. In this study we used spatially filtered MEG and permutation analysis to precisely localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ, as well as other sources of oscillatory activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction). Our results confirmed and extended earlier EEG/MEG studies indicating that Fmθ during mental calculation is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Mental subtraction was also associated with gamma event-related synchronization, as an index of activation, in right parietal regions subserving basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma event-related desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task. PMID:24966825

  17. Frontal midline theta rhythm and gamma power changes during focused attention on mental calculation: an MEG beamformer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryouhei eIshii

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings, indicating focused attention. Although mental calculation is often used as an attention-demanding task, little has been reported on calculation-related activation in Fmθ experiments. In this study we used spatially filtered MEG and permutation analysis to precisely localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ, as well as other sources of oscillatory activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction. Our results confirmed and extended earlier EEG/MEG studies indicating that Fmθ during mental calculation is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Mental subtraction was also associated with gamma event-related synchronization, as an index of activation, in right parietal regions subserving basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma event-related desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task.

  18. EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON FRONTAL PLANE KNEE MOTION, MUSCLE ACTIVITY, AND GROUND REACTION FORCES IN MEN AND WOMEN DURING LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Women tear their Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL 2-8 times more frequently than men. Frontal plane knee motion can produce a pathological load in the ACL. During a state of fatigue the muscles surrounding the knee joint may lose the ability to protect the joint during sudden deceleration while landing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fatigue and gender on frontal plane knee motion, EMG amplitudes, and GRF magnitudes during drop- jump landing. Pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. Twenty-six volunteers (14 women; 12 Men; Mean ± standard deviation age = 24.5 ± 2.7 yrs; height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m; mass = 74.3 ± 11.8 kg participated in the study. Knee frontal plane ranges of motion and positions, ground reaction force peak magnitudes, and surface EMG RMS amplitudes from five lower extremity muscles (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, medial hamstring, lateral hamstring, and lateral gastrocnemius were obtained during the landing phase of a drop-jump. MANOVA and ANOVA indicated that peak GRF significantly (p < 0.05; 2.50 ± 0.75 BW vs. 2.06 ± 0.93 BW decreased during fatigued landings. No other variables exhibited a fatigue main effect, although there was a significant (p < 0.05 fatigue by gender interaction for the frontal plane range of motion from initial contact to max knee flexion variable. Follow-up analyses failed to reveal significant gender differences at the different levels of fatigue for this variable. Additionally, no variables exhibited a significant gender main effect. Single subject analysis indicated that fatigue significantly altered frontal plane knee motion, peak GRF, and EMG in some subjects and the direction of differences varied by individual. Fatigue altered some aspects of landing performance in both men and women, but there were no gender differences. Additionally, both group and single subject analyses provided valuable but different information about factors representing

  19. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  20. Effect of lower limb malalignment in the frontal plane on transverse plane mechanics during gait in young individuals with varus knee alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, Felix; Böhm, Harald; Dussa, Chakravarthy U; Multerer, Christel; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Imhoff, Andreas B; Döderlein, Leonhard

    2014-06-01

    Varus knee alignment has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study tested the hypothesis that not only frontal plane kinematics and kinetics but also transverse plane lower extremity mechanics during gait are affected by varus malalignment of the knee. Eighteen, otherwise healthy children and adolescents with varus malalignment of the knee were studied to examine the association between static varus malalignment and functional gait parameters. Kinematic data were collected using a Vicon motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). Two AMTI force plates (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA) were used to collect kinetic data. The results indicated that changes in transverse plane mechanics occur concomitantly with changes in knee malalignment in the frontal plane. A mechanical consequence of varus knee malalignment is obviously an increased endorotation of the foot (internal foot placement) and an increased internal knee rotation (tibia rotation) during stance phase. The linear correlation between the maximum external knee adduction moment in terminal stance and the internal knee rotation in terminal stance (r=0.823, pvarus malaligned knees may help us to identify risk factors that lead to OA. Thus, three-dimensional gait analysis could be used for clinical prognoses regarding the onset or progression of medial knee OA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Shifted inferior frontal laterality in women with major depressive disorder is related to emotion-processing deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, E M; Weisenbach, S L; Rapport, L J; Hazlett, K E; Bieliauskas, L A; Haase, B D; Ransom, M T; Brinkman, M L; Peciña, M; Schteingart, D E; Starkman, M N; Giordani, B; Welsh, R C; Noll, D C; Zubieta, J-K; Langenecker, S A

    2013-07-01

    Facial emotion perception (FEP) is a critical human skill for successful social interaction, and a substantial body of literature suggests that explicit FEP is disrupted in major depressive disorder (MDD). Prior research suggests that weakness in FEP may be an important phenomenon underlying patterns of emotion-processing challenges in MDD and the disproportionate frequency of MDD in women. Method Women with (n = 24) and without (n = 22) MDD, equivalent in age and education, completed a FEP task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The MDD group exhibited greater extents of frontal, parietal and subcortical activation compared with the control group during FEP. Activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) appeared shifted from a left >right pattern observed in healthy women to a bilateral pattern in MDD women. The ratio of left to right suprathreshold IFG voxels in healthy controls was nearly 3:1, whereas in the MDD group, there was a greater percentage of suprathreshold IFG voxels bilaterally, with no leftward bias. In MDD, relatively greater activation in right IFG compared with left IFG (ratio score) was present and predicted FEP accuracy (r = 0.56, p imaging-to-assessment translational applications in MDD.

  2. Variations in size, shape and asymmetries of the third frontal convolution in hominids: paleoneurological implications for hominin evolution and the origin of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Holloway, Ralph L; Prima, Sylvain; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    The study of brain structural asymmetries as anatomical substrates of functional asymmetries in extant humans, great apes, and fossil hominins is of major importance in understanding the structural basis of modern human cognition. We propose methods to quantify the variation in size, shape and bilateral asymmetries of the third frontal convolution (or posterior inferior frontal gyrus) among recent modern humans, bonobos and chimpanzees, and fossil hominins using actual and virtual endocasts. These methodological improvements are necessary to extend previous qualitative studies of these features. We demonstrate both an absolute and relative bilateral increase in the size of the third frontal convolution in width and length between Pan species, as well as in hominins. We also observed a global bilateral increase in the size of the third frontal convolution across all species during hominin evolution, but also non-allometric intra-group variations independent of brain size within the fossil samples. Finally, our results show that the commonly accepted leftward asymmetry of Broca's cap is biased by qualitative observation of individual specimens. The trend during hominin evolution seems to be a reduction in size on the left compared with the right side, and also a clearer definition of the area. The third frontal convolution considered as a whole projects more laterally and antero-posteriorly in the right hemisphere. As a result, the left 'Broca's cap' looks more globular and better defined. Our results also suggest that the pattern of brain asymmetries is similar between Pan paniscus and hominins, leaving the gradient of the degree of asymmetry as the only relevant structural parameter. As the anatomical substrate related to brain asymmetry has been present since the appearance of the hominin lineage, it is not possible to prove a direct relationship between the extent of variations in the size, shape, and asymmetries of the third frontal convolution and the origin of

  3. Inferior Frontal Cortex Contributions to the Recognition of Spoken Words and Their Constituent Speech Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jack C; Davis, Matthew H

    2017-05-01

    Speech perception and comprehension are often challenged by the need to recognize speech sounds that are degraded or ambiguous. Here, we explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in resolving ambiguity in the identity of speech sounds using syllables that contain ambiguous phonetic segments (e.g., intermediate sounds between /b/ and /g/ as in "blade" and "glade"). We used an audio-morphing procedure to create a large set of natural sounding minimal pairs that contain phonetically ambiguous onset or offset consonants (differing in place, manner, or voicing). These ambiguous segments occurred in different lexical contexts (i.e., in words or pseudowords, such as blade-glade or blem-glem) and in different phonological environments (i.e., with neighboring syllables that differed in lexical status, such as blouse-glouse). These stimuli allowed us to explore the impact of phonetic ambiguity on the speed and accuracy of lexical decision responses (Experiment 1), semantic categorization responses (Experiment 2), and the magnitude of BOLD fMRI responses during attentive comprehension (Experiment 3). For both behavioral and neural measures, observed effects of phonetic ambiguity were influenced by lexical context leading to slower responses and increased activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus for high-ambiguity syllables that distinguish pairs of words, but not for equivalent pseudowords. These findings suggest lexical involvement in the resolution of phonetic ambiguity. Implications for speech perception and the role of inferior frontal regions are discussed.

  4. The right inferior frontal gyrus processes nested non-local dependencies in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Vincent K M; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D; Koelsch, Stefan

    2018-02-28

    Complex auditory sequences known as music have often been described as hierarchically structured. This permits the existence of non-local dependencies, which relate elements of a sequence beyond their temporal sequential order. Previous studies in music have reported differential activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when comparing regular and irregular chord-transitions based on theories in Western tonal harmony. However, it is unclear if the observed activity reflects the interpretation of hierarchical structure as the effects are confounded by local irregularity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that violations to non-local dependencies in nested sequences of three-tone musical motifs in musicians elicited increased activity in the right IFG. This is in contrast to similar studies in language which typically report the left IFG in processing grammatical syntax. Effects of increasing auditory working demands are moreover reflected by distributed activity in frontal and parietal regions. Our study therefore demonstrates the role of the right IFG in processing non-local dependencies in music, and suggests that hierarchical processing in different cognitive domains relies on similar mechanisms that are subserved by domain-selective neuronal subpopulations.

  5. Theta oscillations orchestrate medial temporal lobe and neocortex in remembering autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentemilla, L; Barnes, G R; Düzel, E; Levine, B

    2014-01-15

    Remembering autobiographical events can be associated with detailed visual imagery. The medial temporal lobe (MTL), precuneus and prefrontal cortex are held to jointly enable such vivid retrieval, but how these regions are orchestrated remains unclear. An influential prediction from animal physiology is that neural oscillations in theta frequency may be important. In this experiment, participants prospectively collected audio recordings describing personal autobiographical episodes or semantic knowledge over 2 to 7 months. These were replayed as memory retrieval cues while recording brain activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). We identified a peak of theta power within a left MTL region of interest during both autobiographical and General Semantic retrieval. This MTL region was selectively phase-synchronized with theta oscillations in precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and this synchrony was higher during autobiographical as compared to General Semantic knowledge retrieval. Higher synchrony also predicted more detailed visual imagery during retrieval. Thus, theta phase-synchrony orchestrates in humans the MTL with a distributed neocortical memory network when vividly remembering autobiographical experiences. © 2013.

  6. Accuracy and Measurement Error of the Medial Clear Space of the Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metitiri, Ogheneochuko; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Zurakowski, David; Hochman, Mary G; Nazarian, Ara; Kwon, John Y

    2017-04-01

    Measurement of the medial clear space (MCS) is commonly used to assess deltoid ligament competency and mortise stability when managing ankle fractures. Lacking knowledge of the true anatomic width measured, previous studies have been unable to measure accuracy of measurement. The purpose of this study was to determine MCS measurement error and accuracy and any influencing factors. Using 3 normal transtibial ankle cadaver specimens, deltoid and syndesmotic ligaments were transected and the mortise widened and affixed at a width of 6 mm (specimen 1) and 4 mm (specimen 2). The mortise was left intact in specimen 3. Radiographs were obtained of each cadaver at varying degrees of rotation. Radiographs were randomized, and providers measured the MCS using a standardized technique. Lack of accuracy as well as lack of precision in measurement of the medial clear space compared to a known anatomic value was present for all 3 specimens tested. There were no significant differences in mean delta with regard to level of training for specimens 1 and 2; however, with specimen 3, staff physicians showed increased measurement accuracy compared with trainees. Accuracy and precision of MCS measurements are poor. Provider experience did not appear to influence accuracy and precision of measurements for the displaced mortise. This high degree of measurement error and lack of precision should be considered when deciding treatment options based on MCS measurements.

  7. Frontal sinus fractures: report of one case and review of literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The frontal sinus is a bilateral asymmetric and pyramidal structure located in the frontal bone. It is absent at birth. The frontal sinus is extremely resilient to injury. However, high velocity impacts such as motor vehicle accidents and assaults can result in frontal sinus fractures. Such high velocity impacts lead to aesthetic ...

  8. Recurrent meningitis and frontal encephalocele as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumussoy, Murat; Ugur, Omer; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan

    2014-03-01

    Frontal sinus back table fractures are seen rarely; also, typical presentation of frontal sinus encephalocele as a delayed complication of frontal sinus fracture is seen more rarely. We present a case of frontal encephalocele and recurrent meningitis as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma. Diagnosis, management, and treatment approaches of these complications are discussed.

  9. Childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms predict frontal EEG asymmetry in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Flasbeck, Vera; Schlegel, Uwe; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2018-03-15

    Frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) has been studied as both state and trait parameter in emotion regulation and affective disorders. Its significance in borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains largely unknown. Twenty-six BPD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent EEG before and after mood induction using aversive images. A slight but significant shift from left- to right-sided asymmetry over prefrontal electrodes occurred across all subjects. In BPD baseline FEA over F7 and F8 correlated significantly with childhood trauma and functional neurological "conversion" symptoms as assessed by respective questionnaires. Regression analysis revealed a predictive role of both childhood trauma and dissociative neurological symptoms. FEA offers a relatively stable electrophysiological correlate of BPD psychopathology that responds only minimally to acute mood changes. Future studies should address whether this psychophysiological association is universal for trauma- and dissociation-related disorders, and whether it is responsive to psychotherapy.

  10. Frontal recurrence of medulloblastoma five years after excision and craniospinal irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka Y

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastomas were originally classified under gliomas of the cerebellum until Bailey and Cushing in 1925 named these tumors as medulloblastoma. At present these tumors are classified under primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Surgical excision followed by craniospinal irradiation is the treatment of choice. A 13-year-old-girl operated for posterior fossa medulloblastoma 5 years ago presented with history of headache and vomiting on and off for 4 days in late August 2008. The MRI showed left frontal tumor which on excision was reported as medulloblastoma. Even after optimal treatment reports of recurrence abound in literature. The most common location is in the posterior fossa, followed by spinal, supratentorial, and uncommonly, systemic metastases. We conclude that medulloblastomas are highly aggressive tumor with high local recurrences if the initial excision is incomplete and that recurrence in the supratentorial area although uncommon is still a possibility. This mandates regular follow up of these children till adulthood to catch early recurrences and metastatic disease.

  11. Plasmapheresis Responsive Rapid Onset Dementia with Predominantly Frontal Dysfunction in the Context of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Endres

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE is a rare immunological neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by increased antithyroid antibodies and mixed neurological and psychiatric symptoms. HE has been previously discussed as a differential diagnosis for rapid progressive dementia. However, most of these patients suffered from additional neurological symptoms, like ataxia or seizures.Case presentationHere, we present the case of a 59-year-old female patient suffering rapid onset dementia with salient frontal executive dysfunction. She developed rapid onset symptoms, including apathy, verbal depletion up to a stuporous state, severe working memory deficits, evidence of primitive reflexes, disturbed Luria’s three-step test, and micturition disorder. Analysis of her cerebrospinal fluid was normal. The serum analyses showed increased antithyroid (antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies. In the cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, supratentorial deep and peripheral white matter lesions were found; the electroencephalography showed intermittent slowing, and the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET depicted medial and superior dorsolateral frontal hypometabolism. Several different psychopharmacological therapeutic approaches with various neuroleptics, antidepressants, and high doses of lorazepam were unsuccessful. Due to the organic alterations, including increased antithyroid antibodies, HE was suspected. Against expectations, treatment with high-dose corticosteroids proved to be ineffective and was associated with worsening symptoms. However, escalated treatment with plasmapheresis over 5 days led to significant improvement in all reported symptoms and in psychometric testing. The neuropsychological improvement was stable over a 6-month follow-up period, and the FDG-PET normalized.ConclusionThis case report reveals that (1 HE can mimic rapid onset dementia with predominantly frontal dysfunction; (2 this

  12. Medialization thyroplasty versus injection laryngoplasty: a cost minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Samantha; Sun, Hongmei; Sarma, Sisira; Siu, Jennifer; Fung, Kevin; Sowerby, Leigh

    2017-02-20

    Medialization thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty are widely accepted treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Although both procedures result in similar clinical outcomes, little is known about the corresponding medical care costs. Medialization thyroplasty requires expensive operating room resources while injection laryngoplasty utilizes outpatient resources but may require repeated procedures. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to quantify the cost differences in adult patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis undergoing medialization thyroplasty versus injection laryngoplasty. Cost minimization analysis conducted using a decision tree model. A decision tree model was constructed to capture clinical scenarios for medialization thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty. Probabilities for various events were obtained from a retrospective cohort from the London Health Sciences Centre, Canada. Costs were derived from the published literature and the London Health Science Centre. All costs were reported in 2014 Canadian dollars. Time horizon was 5 years. The study was conducted from an academic hospital perspective in Canada. Various sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess differences in procedure-specific costs and probabilities of key events. Sixty-three patients underwent medialization thyroplasty and 41 underwent injection laryngoplasty. Cost of medialization thyroplasty was C$2499.10 per patient whereas those treated with injection laryngoplasty cost C$943.19. Results showed that cost savings with IL were C$1555.91. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses suggested cost savings ranged from C$596 to C$3626. Treatment with injection laryngoplasty results in cost savings of C$1555.91 per patient. Our extensive sensitivity analyses suggest that switching from medialization thyroplasty to injection laryngoplasty will lead to a minimum cost savings of C$596 per patient. Considering the significant cost savings and similar

  13. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism is the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of [3H]TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation

  14. Frontal-subcortical volumetric deficits in single episode, medication-naïve depressed patients and the effects of 8 weeks fluoxetine treatment: a VBM-DARTEL study.

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    Lingtao Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Convergent studies suggest that morphological abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits which involved with emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD. Antidepressant treatment which has been reported to reverse the functional abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits in MDD may have treating effects to related brain morphological abnormalities. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry method to investigate whole brain structural abnormalities in single episode, medication-naïve MDD patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of an 8 weeks pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine. METHODS: 28 single episode, medication-naïve MDD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC acquired the baseline high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI scan. 24 MDD participants acquired a follow-up sMRI scan after 8 weeks antidepressant treatment. Gray matter volumetric (GMV difference between groups was examined. RESULTS: Medication-naïve MDD had significantly decreased GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left middle frontal gyrus as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right insula compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. Moreover, treated MDD had significantly increased GMV in the left middle frontal gyrus and right orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. No difference on GMV was detected between medication-naïve MDD group and treated MDD group. CONCLUSIONS: This study of single episode, medication-naïve MDD subjects demonstrated structural abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuitsin the early stage of MDD and the effects of 8 weeks successful antidepressant treatment, suggesting these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.

  15. Frontal lobe atrophy of the brain in schizophrenia

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    Hara, Tomio

    1981-01-01

    Reported here are the CT findings on cerebral atrophic lesion chiefly developed in the frontal lobe in schizophrenics with unusual organic encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was recognized in 84 (73%) of 115 schizophrenics and 13 (33%) of 40 neurotics. In an attempt to exclude the effects of aging on encephalopathy, the ages at CT and at the development of disease, the number of morbid years, subtypical schizophrenia and relation between the clinical severity and the atrophic condition were comparatively studied. As a result, cerebral atrophy tended to increase along with aging, but the findings differed in that atrophia classified by age covered the entire brain in general, whereas atrophia in schizophrenics was found in the frontal lobe. In particular, because of the fact that clinical severity and atrophia in the frontal lobe are high correlated and that severe atrophia is recognized even in young people, schizophrenia and atrophia in the frontal lobe are considered to be closely related to each other. It is therefore suggested that the CT findings are useful to clinicians for finding appropriate methods to deal with the prognosis of schizophrenics in their daily diagnosis and for the therapeutic prevention of encephalatrophy by stimulating the frontal lobe, thereby delaying mental deterioration. (author)

  16. Case Report: A Rare Case Report of Frontal Lobe Syndrome

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    Morteza Nouri- Khajavi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The frontal lobe syndrome is a permanent personality change disorder with characteristic clinical pictures, which followed by frontal lobes damage. Clinical picture include: Affective instability, recurrent aggressive behavior, impaired social judgment, apathy and undifferentiating or suspiciousness and paranoid ideations. According DSM-IV classification frontal lobe syndrome named personality change due to head trauma on Axis I.