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Sample records for left lateral segment

  1. Socintigraphic evaluation of lateral segment of the left lobe of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Sanshin; Kogure, Takashi; Hirakawa, Ken; Akaike, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Lateral segment of left lobe of the liver is clearly demarcated on sup(99m) Tc-labeled cholescintigram. With analysis of 112 sup(99m) Tc-pyridoxylideneisoleucine scintigrams about lateral border of left lobe, there are some variants in 22 cases (19.7%) in shape in lateral segment of Type 4 left lobe in morphologic classification. Of lateral segment of left lobe, there are classified into five types in the anterior view according to the degeneration; Type 1 is gradually elongated tapered type in 8 cases (36.4%), Type 2 is laterally elongated type as rod shape or island shape in 5 cases (22.7%), Type 3 is lobulated type in 1 case (4.6%), Type 4 is narrowing type in 5 cases (22.7%), Type 5 is indentation type in 3 cases (13.6%). Using colloidal radiopharmaceuticals in liver scintigraphy, lateral segment of left lobe often overlapps with the spleen, which disturb to interpret the abnormality in left lobe of the liver and in the spleen. This analysis depends upon the recent advances in sup(99m) Tc-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals and equipment, and there has never discussed about the shape of lateral segment of left lobe in roentgenologic and scintigraphic evaluations. (author)

  2. CT evaluation of decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji; Ono, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    We occasionally see decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe on normal chest CT and notice that this finding could be seen in elder population. Then, we assessed the frequency, age distribution and cause of decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe. Chest CT scans of 246 patients without lung or cardiac disorders were retrospectively reviewed. Segmental low attenuation area in the superior segment of the left lower lobe was identified in 12 patients (4.9%), which were 65-92 years old with mean age of 77.2 years old. In all of them, chest CT demonstrated that the tortuous descending aorta compressed directly the superior segmental bronchus of the left lower lobe. It is concluded that the lateral tortuousity of the descending aorta could cause decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe. (author)

  3. Left-handedness and language lateralization in children.

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    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Schapiro, Mark B; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-01-18

    This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and righthanded children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemispheric lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right-hemispheric lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%), respectively. Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Event segmentation improves event memory up to one month later.

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    Flores, Shaney; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-01

    When people observe everyday activity, they spontaneously parse it into discrete meaningful events. Individuals who segment activity in a more normative fashion show better subsequent memory for the events. If segmenting events effectively leads to better memory, does asking people to attend to segmentation improve subsequent memory? To answer this question, participants viewed movies of naturalistic activity with instructions to remember the activity for a later test, and in some conditions additionally pressed a button to segment the movies into meaningful events or performed a control condition that required button-pressing but not attending to segmentation. In 5 experiments, memory for the movies was assessed at intervals ranging from immediately following viewing to 1 month later. Performing the event segmentation task led to superior memory at delays ranging from 10 min to 1 month. Further, individual differences in segmentation ability predicted individual differences in memory performance for up to a month following encoding. This study provides the first evidence that manipulating event segmentation affects memory over long delays and that individual differences in event segmentation are related to differences in memory over long delays. These effects suggest that attending to how an activity breaks down into meaningful events contributes to memory formation. Instructing people to more effectively segment events may serve as a potential intervention to alleviate everyday memory complaints in aging and clinical populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Segmental sensory disturbance in brain stem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Imai, Terukuni; Okuda, Bungo.

    1987-01-01

    We reported on seven cases of brainstem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla, the sensory deficit manifested over the trunk or the leg namely segmental sensory disturbances. All patients showed dissociated sensory disturbance of pain and temperature with retained deep sensations except two cases in which touch was also slightly impaired. The sensory distribution was classified into two types. The first ''crossed type'', ipsilatral face and contralateral trunk and leg below the level was involved in 4 cases, and the second ''unilateral type'' contralateral face and trunk above the level in 3 cases. Clinico-anatomical evaluation was executed by MRI. Lesions were detected in the lateral lower pons in two cases and in the lateral medulla in one case. The location of lesions by MRI revealed more lateral lesions showed ''crossed type'' of segmental sensory disturbance and more medial lesions ''unilateral type''. It was shown that the segmental sensory disturbance could be explained by the partial involvement of the lateral spinothalamic tract, which is arranged with the fibers from the sacral segments most lateral. We considered it very important to differentiate the segmental sensory disturbance by brainstem lesion in practical clinical diagnosis. We also emphasize the type of segmental sensory disturbance could be a localizing sign in the lateral brainstem as such, ''crossed type'' indicating the lesion of the lateral portion and ''unilateral type'' the medial portion of the lateral lower brainstem. (author)

  6. LAPAROSCOPIC LEFT LATERAL SECTIONECTOMY IN LIVING LIVER DONOR

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    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Living donor liver transplantation has proved to be an effective, safe and radical treatment modality for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Left lateral section (LLS of donor’s liver is used in pediatric recipients. Laparoscopic LLS procurement was fi rst described by D. Cherqui in 2002. At present, this technique is routinely used only by 5 hospitals in the world. However, up to date, some authors consider it to be a new standard to perform such a surgery in living donors.Aim. To analyze the fi rst Russian experience in laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LapLLS in living related donor.Materials and methods. From May to September 2016 fi ve LapLLS were performed in living donors. In all cases donors were women (mothers in 4 cases and aunt in 1 case. Recipients were children aged from 6 months through 3 years with body mass from 5.6 to 12.5 kg. Liver transection was carried out under conditions of maintained blood supply. Parenchymal transection was performed using a harmonic scalpel, bipolar coagulation and ultrasound dissection.Results. Average donor age was 32 ± 5 years. Average operation time was 287 ± 16 min. Average LLS graft weight was 220 ± 16 g. Intraoperative blood loss did not exceed 100 ml (95 ± 5 ml. Donors were discharged on the 3rd–4th post-op day. There were no postoperative complications in donors. Recipients were also characterized by a standard course of the postoperative period.Conclusion. LapLLS is an effective and safe method with several advantages. Primarily, these are early rehabilitation of the donors and shortening of the hospital stay, which are important for the quick return to normal way of live. Excellent visualization of anatomical structures, including vascular and biliary ones, allows performing precise selection. In addition, good cosmetic effect is also an important aspect.

  7. Automatic segmentation of the lateral geniculate nucleus: Application to control and glaucoma patients.

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    Wang, Jieqiong; Miao, Wen; Li, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhen, Zonglei; Sabel, Bernhard; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-11-30

    The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is a key relay center of the visual system. Because the LGN morphology is affected by different diseases, it is of interest to analyze its morphology by segmentation. However, existing LGN segmentation methods are non-automatic, inefficient and prone to experimenters' bias. To address these problems, we proposed an automatic LGN segmentation algorithm based on T1-weighted imaging. First, the prior information of LGN was used to create a prior mask. Then region growing was applied to delineate LGN. We evaluated this automatic LGN segmentation method by (1) comparison with manually segmented LGN, (2) anatomically locating LGN in the visual system via LGN-based tractography, (3) application to control and glaucoma patients. The similarity coefficients of automatic segmented LGN and manually segmented one are 0.72 (0.06) for the left LGN and 0.77 (0.07) for the right LGN. LGN-based tractography shows the subcortical pathway seeding from LGN passes the optic tract and also reaches V1 through the optic radiation, which is consistent with the LGN location in the visual system. In addition, LGN asymmetry as well as LGN atrophy along with age is observed in normal controls. The investigation of glaucoma effects on LGN volumes demonstrates that the bilateral LGN volumes shrink in patients. The automatic LGN segmentation is objective, efficient, valid and applicable. Experiment results proved the validity and applicability of the algorithm. Our method will speed up the research on visual system and greatly enhance studies of different vision-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of segmental left ventricular wall motion by equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, D; Janowitz, W R; Holmes, D R; Cohen, H A

    1979-01-01

    The ability of equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography to detect segmental left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities was determined in 26 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Multiple gated studies obtained in 30 degrees right anterior oblique and 45 degrees left anterior oblique projections, played back in a movie format, were compared to the corresponding LV ventriculograms. The LV wall in the two projections was divided into eight segments. Each segment was graded as normal, hypokinetic, akinetic, dyskinetic, or indeterminate. Thirteen percent of the segments in the gated images were indeterminate; 24 out of 27 of these were proximal or distal inferior wall segments. There was exact agreement in 86% of the remaining segments. The sensitivity of the radionuclide technique for detecting normal versus any abnormal wall motion was 71%, with a specificity of 99%. Equilibrium gated ventriculography is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating segmental LV wall motion. It is least reliable in assessing the proximal inferior wall and interventricular septum.

  9. Event Segmentation Improves Event Memory up to One Month Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Shaney; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    When people observe everyday activity, they spontaneously parse it into discrete meaningful events. Individuals who segment activity in a more normative fashion show better subsequent memory for the events. If segmenting events effectively leads to better memory, does asking people to attend to segmentation improve subsequent memory? To answer…

  10. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Loffing

    Full Text Available In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing, for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  11. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the verification of

  12. Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  13. An Overview of Techniques for Cardiac Left Ventricle Segmentation on Short-Axis MRI

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    Krasnobaev Arseny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, heart diseases are the leading cause of death. Left ventricle segmentation of a human heart in magnetic resonance images (MRI is a crucial step in both cardiac diseases diagnostics and heart internal structure reconstruction. It allows estimating such important parameters as ejection faction, left ventricle myocardium mass, stroke volume, etc. In addition, left ventricle segmentation helps to construct the personalized heart computational models in order to conduct the numerical simulations. At present, the fully automated cardiac segmentation methods still do not meet the accuracy requirements. We present an overview of left ventricle segmentation algorithms on short-axis MRI. A wide variety of completely different approaches are used for cardiac segmentation, including machine learning, graph-based methods, deformable models, and low-level heuristics. The current state-of-the-art technique is a combination of deformable models with advanced machine learning methods, such as deep learning or Markov random fields. We expect that approaches based on deep belief networks are the most promising ones because the main training process of networks with this architecture can be performed on the unlabelled data. In order to improve the quality of left ventricle segmentation algorithms, we need more datasets with labelled cardiac MRI data in open access.

  14. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

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    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  15. Reliability of a Seven-Segment Foot Model with Medial and Lateral Midfoot and Forefoot Segments During Walking Gait.

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    Cobb, Stephen C; Joshi, Mukta N; Pomeroy, Robin L

    2016-12-01

    In-vitro and invasive in-vivo studies have reported relatively independent motion in the medial and lateral forefoot segments during gait. However, most current surface-based models have not defined medial and lateral forefoot or midfoot segments. The purpose of the current study was to determine the reliability of a 7-segment foot model that includes medial and lateral midfoot and forefoot segments during walking gait. Three-dimensional positions of marker clusters located on the leg and 6 foot segments were tracked as 10 participants completed 5 walking trials. To examine the reliability of the foot model, coefficients of multiple correlation (CMC) were calculated across the trials for each participant. Three-dimensional stance time series and range of motion (ROM) during stance were also calculated for each functional articulation. CMCs for all of the functional articulations were ≥ 0.80. Overall, the rearfoot complex (leg-calcaneus segments) was the most reliable articulation and the medial midfoot complex (calcaneus-navicular segments) was the least reliable. With respect to ROM, reliability was greatest for plantarflexion/dorsiflexion and least for abduction/adduction. Further, the stance ROM and time-series patterns results between the current study and previous invasive in-vivo studies that have assessed actual bone motion were generally consistent.

  16. Selective hypertrophy of the lobus caudatus as a novel approach enabling extended right hepatectomy in the presence of a non-perfused left lateral liver lobe.

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    Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Thelen, Armin; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Krenzien, Felix; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Moche, Michael; Jonas, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a well-established technique to enhance functional hepatic reserves of segments II and III before curative extended right hepatectomy for tumors of the right liver lobe. However, an adequate hepatopetal flow of the left lateral portal vein branches is required for a sufficient PVE-associated hypertrophy. Here, we report a 65-year old patient suffering from a locally advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the right liver lobe and segment IV. A curative extended right hepatectomy after preoperative PVE of liver segments IV-VIII was initially impossible because of partial thrombosis of the left lateral portal vein branches resulting in an ischemic-type atrophy of segments II and III. However, due to a massive hypertrophy of the caudate lobe following PVE of liver segments IV-VIII, subsequent extended right hepatectomy with intraoperative thrombectomy of segments II and III was made possible. To our knowledge this is the first case in which an extended right hepatectomy for a liver malignancy, in the presence of atrophic left lateral section, was made possible by a massive PVE-associated hypertrophy of the caudate lobe.

  17. Iatrogenic injury in the lateral segment of the liver after pancreatoduodenectomy: Early follow up CT features and clinical implications

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    Kim, Yaena; Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Cho, Eun Suk; Ahn, Jhii Hyun; Kim, Ki Whang [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    To investigate the incidence, predisposing factors and image features of iatrogenically induced focal parenchymal changes in the lateral segment of the liver after a pancreatoduodenectomy. A follow up CT taken on the seventh day after an uneventful pancreatoduodenectomy were retrospectively reviewed for 123 patients for newly developed focal hepatic lesions. The location, size, and shape of the lesions were analyzed along with preoperative anatomic variation of the hepatic artery, for the degree of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and procedure duration. Other than two patients with hepatic metastases, 13 (10.6%) patients showed newly developed irregular (n = 9), linear (n = 2) or wedge like (n = 2) hypovascular areas (1.4-8.5 cm; mean, 2.8 cm) in the posterior subcapsular portion of the lateral segment. There were only two patients (15.4%) with an aberrant origin of the segmental hepatic artery from the left gastric artery, and the degree of bile duct dilatation was nonspecific for the 13 subjected patients. Mean procedure time was not significantly different between the subjected patients and the others (541 min vs. 507 min; p = 0.160). Focal iatrogenic injury in the lateral segment after a pancreatoduodenectomy would not be a common event regardless of preoperative vascular anatomic variation, bile duct dilatation, or procedure duration.

  18. Iatrogenic injury in the lateral segment of the liver after pancreatoduodenectomy: Early follow up CT features and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yaena; Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Cho, Eun Suk; Ahn, Jhii Hyun; Kim, Ki Whang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the incidence, predisposing factors and image features of iatrogenically induced focal parenchymal changes in the lateral segment of the liver after a pancreatoduodenectomy. A follow up CT taken on the seventh day after an uneventful pancreatoduodenectomy were retrospectively reviewed for 123 patients for newly developed focal hepatic lesions. The location, size, and shape of the lesions were analyzed along with preoperative anatomic variation of the hepatic artery, for the degree of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and procedure duration. Other than two patients with hepatic metastases, 13 (10.6%) patients showed newly developed irregular (n = 9), linear (n = 2) or wedge like (n = 2) hypovascular areas (1.4-8.5 cm; mean, 2.8 cm) in the posterior subcapsular portion of the lateral segment. There were only two patients (15.4%) with an aberrant origin of the segmental hepatic artery from the left gastric artery, and the degree of bile duct dilatation was nonspecific for the 13 subjected patients. Mean procedure time was not significantly different between the subjected patients and the others (541 min vs. 507 min; p = 0.160). Focal iatrogenic injury in the lateral segment after a pancreatoduodenectomy would not be a common event regardless of preoperative vascular anatomic variation, bile duct dilatation, or procedure duration

  19. The evolutionary psychology of left and right: costs and benefits of lateralization.

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    Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2006-09-01

    Why do the left and right sides of the vertebrate brain play different functions? Having a lateralized brain, in which each hemisphere carries out different functions, is ubiquitous among vertebrates. The different specialization of the left and right side of the brain may increase brain efficiency--and some evidence for that is reported here. However, lateral biases due to brain lateralization (such as preferences in the use of a limb or, in animals with laterally placed eyes, of a visual hemifield) usually occur at the population level, with most individuals showing similar direction of bias. Individual brain efficiency does not require the alignment of lateralization in the population. Why then are not left--and right-type individuals equally common? Not only humans, but most vertebrates show a similar pattern. For instance, in the paper I report evidence that most toads, chickens, and fish react faster when a predator approaches from the left. I argue that invoking individual brain efficiency (lateralization may increase fitness), evolutionary chance or direct genetic mechanisms cannot explain this widespread pattern. Instead, using concepts from mathematical theory of games, I show that alignment of lateralization at the population level may arise as an "evolutionarily stable strategy" when individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. Thus, the population structure of lateralization may result from genes specifying the direction of asymmetries which have been selected under "social" pressures.

  20. Validation of a model of left ventricular segmentation for interpretation of SPET myocardial perfusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aepfelbacher, F.C.; Johnson, R.B.; Schwartz, J.G.; Danias, P.G.; Chen, L.; Parker, R.A.; Parker, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Several models of left ventricular segmentation have been developed that assume a standard coronary artery distribution, and are currently used for interpretation of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) myocardial perfusion imaging. This approach has the potential for incorrect assignment of myocardial segments to vascular territories, possibly over- or underestimating the number of vessels with significant coronary artery disease (CAD). We therefore sought to validate a 17-segment model of myocardial perfusion by comparing the predefined coronary territory assignment with the actual angiographically derived coronary distribution. We examined 135 patients who underwent both coronary angiography and stress SPET imaging within 30 days. Individualized coronary distribution was determined by review of the coronary angiograms and used to identify the coronary artery supplying each of the 17 myocardial segments of the model. The actual coronary distribution was used to assess the accuracy of the assumed coronary distribution of the model. The sensitivities and specificities of stress SPET for detection of CAD in individual coronary arteries and the classification regarding perceived number of diseased coronary arteries were also compared between the two coronary distributions (actual and assumed). The assumed coronary distribution corresponded to the actual coronary anatomy in all but one segment (3). The majority of patients (80%) had 14 or more concordant segments. Sensitivities and specificities of stress SPET for detection of CAD in the coronary territories were similar, with the exception of the RCA territory, for which specificity for detection of CAD was better for the angiographically derived coronary artery distribution than for the model. There was 95% agreement between assumed and angiographically derived coronary distributions in classification to single- versus multi-vessel CAD. Reassignment of a single segment (segment 3) from the LCX to the LAD

  1. Validation of a model of left ventricular segmentation for interpretation of SPET myocardial perfusion images

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    Aepfelbacher, F.C.; Johnson, R.B.; Schwartz, J.G.; Danias, P.G. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, L.; Parker, R.A. [Biometrics Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Parker, A.J. [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Several models of left ventricular segmentation have been developed that assume a standard coronary artery distribution, and are currently used for interpretation of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) myocardial perfusion imaging. This approach has the potential for incorrect assignment of myocardial segments to vascular territories, possibly over- or underestimating the number of vessels with significant coronary artery disease (CAD). We therefore sought to validate a 17-segment model of myocardial perfusion by comparing the predefined coronary territory assignment with the actual angiographically derived coronary distribution. We examined 135 patients who underwent both coronary angiography and stress SPET imaging within 30 days. Individualized coronary distribution was determined by review of the coronary angiograms and used to identify the coronary artery supplying each of the 17 myocardial segments of the model. The actual coronary distribution was used to assess the accuracy of the assumed coronary distribution of the model. The sensitivities and specificities of stress SPET for detection of CAD in individual coronary arteries and the classification regarding perceived number of diseased coronary arteries were also compared between the two coronary distributions (actual and assumed). The assumed coronary distribution corresponded to the actual coronary anatomy in all but one segment (3). The majority of patients (80%) had 14 or more concordant segments. Sensitivities and specificities of stress SPET for detection of CAD in the coronary territories were similar, with the exception of the RCA territory, for which specificity for detection of CAD was better for the angiographically derived coronary artery distribution than for the model. There was 95% agreement between assumed and angiographically derived coronary distributions in classification to single- versus multi-vessel CAD. Reassignment of a single segment (segment 3) from the LCX to the LAD

  2. [Left lateral gaze paresis due to subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Takamori, M

    1998-03-01

    We report a case of transient left lateral gaze paresis due to a hemorrhagic lesion restricted in the right precentral gyrus. A 74-year-old female experienced a sudden clumsiness of the left upper extremity. A neurological examination revealed a left central facial paresis, distal dominant muscle weakness in the left upper limb and left lateral gaze paresis. There were no other focal neurological signs. Laboratory data were all normal. Brain CTs and MRIs demonstrated a subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus. The neurological symptoms and signs disappeared over seven days. A recent physiological study suggested that the human frontal eye field (FEF) is located in the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 8) and the precentral gyrus around the precentral sulcus. More recent studies stressed the role of the precentral sulcus and the precentral gyrus. Our case supports those physiological findings. The hematoma affected both the FEF and its underlying white matter in our case. We assume the lateral gaze paresis is attributable to the disruption of the fibers from the FEF. It is likely that fibers for motor control of the face, upper extremity, and lateral gaze lie adjacently in the subcortical area.

  3. Functional plasticity in the respiratory drive to thoracic motoneurons in the segment above a chronic lateral spinal cord lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, T W; Anissimova, Natalia P; Meehan, Claire Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A previous neurophysiological investigation demonstrated an increase in functional projections of expiratory bulbospinal neurons (EBSNs) in the segment above a chronic lateral thoracic spinal cord lesion that severed their axons. We have now investigated how this plasticity might be manifested...... in thoracic motoneurons by measuring their respiratory drive and the connections to them from individual EBSNs. In anesthetized cats, simultaneous recordings were made intracellularly from motoneurons in the segment above a left-side chronic (16 wk) lesion of the spinal cord in the rostral part of T8, T9......, or T10 and extracellularly from EBSNs in the right caudal medulla, antidromically excited from just above the lesion but not from below. Spike-triggered averaging was used to measure the connections between pairs of EBSNs and motoneurons. Connections were found to have a very similar distribution...

  4. Fully automated segmentation of left ventricle using dual dynamic programming in cardiac cine MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luan; Ling, Shan; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are becoming a leading cause of death all over the world. The cardiac function could be evaluated by global and regional parameters of left ventricle (LV) of the heart. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated scheme for segmentation of LV in short axis cardiac cine MR images. Our fully automated method consists of three major steps, i.e., LV localization, LV segmentation at end-diastolic phase, and LV segmentation propagation to the other phases. First, the maximum intensity projection image along the time phases of the midventricular slice, located at the center of the image, was calculated to locate the region of interest of LV. Based on the mean intensity of the roughly segmented blood pool in the midventricular slice at each phase, end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) phases were determined. Second, the endocardial and epicardial boundaries of LV of each slice at ED phase were synchronously delineated by use of a dual dynamic programming technique. The external costs of the endocardial and epicardial boundaries were defined with the gradient values obtained from the original and enhanced images, respectively. Finally, with the advantages of the continuity of the boundaries of LV across adjacent phases, we propagated the LV segmentation from the ED phase to the other phases by use of dual dynamic programming technique. The preliminary results on 9 clinical cardiac cine MR cases show that the proposed method can obtain accurate segmentation of LV based on subjective evaluation.

  5. Convolutional neural network regression for short-axis left ventricle segmentation in cardiac cine MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Kuo; Liew, Yih Miin; Lim, Einly; McLaughlin, Robert A

    2017-07-01

    Automated left ventricular (LV) segmentation is crucial for efficient quantification of cardiac function and morphology to aid subsequent management of cardiac pathologies. In this paper, we parameterize the complete (all short axis slices and phases) LV segmentation task in terms of the radial distances between the LV centerpoint and the endo- and epicardial contours in polar space. We then utilize convolutional neural network regression to infer these parameters. Utilizing parameter regression, as opposed to conventional pixel classification, allows the network to inherently reflect domain-specific physical constraints. We have benchmarked our approach primarily against the publicly-available left ventricle segmentation challenge (LVSC) dataset, which consists of 100 training and 100 validation cardiac MRI cases representing a heterogeneous mix of cardiac pathologies and imaging parameters across multiple centers. Our approach attained a .77 Jaccard index, which is the highest published overall result in comparison to other automated algorithms. To test general applicability, we also evaluated against the Kaggle Second Annual Data Science Bowl, where the evaluation metric was the indirect clinical measures of LV volume rather than direct myocardial contours. Our approach attained a Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) of .0124, which would have ranked tenth in the original challenge. With this we demonstrate the effectiveness of convolutional neural network regression paired with domain-specific features in clinical segmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy with the use of Habib 4X: technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharoulis, Dimitris; Sioka, Eleni; Tzovaras, George; Jiao, Long R; Habib, Nagy

    2013-06-01

    Various techniques and energy-based devices have been used to minimize the blood loss during transection of the liver parenchyma laparoscopically. The laparoscopic Habib™ 4X sealer (Rita Medical Systems, Inc., Fremont, CA) is a promising device using bipolar radiofrequency energy. The purpose of the study was to test the safety and the efficiency of the device in laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy. Five patients underwent laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy using the laparoscopic Habib 4X in a period of 12 months. Indications for liver resection were hepatocellular carcinoma in 2 cirrhotic patients and colorectal cancer liver metastasis in 3 patients. Technical aspects were analyzed. All the patients underwent formal laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy. The Pringle maneuver was not applied in any of the patients. Mean operative time was 75 minutes (range, 60-90 minutes). Bleeding control along the transection line was satisfactory. No conversion to laparotomy was required. Operative blood loss was minimal. No blood transfusion was recorded. The postoperative period was uneventful. Median hospital stay was 3 days (range, 2-5 days). Histopathology revealed that the margins were disease free. Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy with the use of Habib 4X proved safe and efficient. This technique may be an initial step for surgeons shifting to laparoscopic liver surgery provided they have previous experience in laparoscopic and liver surgery. Well-designed controlled randomized studies are needed in order to evaluate further the role of the device used in the present study in minimally invasive liver surgery.

  7. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  8. [Effects of acupuncture at left and right Hegu (LI 4) for cerebral function laterality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linying; Xu, Chunsheng; Zhu, Yifang; Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    To explore the cerebral function laterality of acupuncture at left and right Hegu (LI 4) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and provide objective evidences for side selection of Hegu (LI 4) in the clinical application. Eighty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into a left-acupoint group and a right-acupoint group, and they were treated with acupuncture at left Hegu (LI 4) and right Hegu (LI 4) respectively. After the arrival of qi, the task-state fMRI data in both groups was collected, and analysis of functional neuroimages (AFNI) software was used to perform intra-group and between-group comparisons. After acupuncture, acupuncture feelings were recorded and MGH acupuncture sensation scale (MASS) was recorded. The difference of MASS between the two groups was not significant (P>0. 05). The result of left-acupoint group showed an increased signal on right cerebral hemisphere, while the right-acupoint group showed extensive signal changes in both cerebral hemispheres. The analysis between left-acupoint group and retroflex right-acupoint group showed differences in brain areas. The central effect of acupuncture at left and right Hegu (LI 4) is dissymmetry, indicating right hemisphere laterality. The right lobus insularis and cingulate gyrus may be the key regions in the acupuncture at Hegu (LI 4).

  9. ST-segment elevation and ventricular fibrillation shortly after transseptal puncture for left atrial catheter ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ishigaki, MD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old man with drug-resistant paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent left atrial (LA catheter ablation. After sheaths were inserted into the LA using the Brockenbrough method, he complained of angina and developed ST-segment elevation in the II, III, aVF, V5, and V6 leads. Ventricular fibrillation (VF occurred followed by ventricular tachycardia. The VF was successfully treated with direct current shock. Coronary angiography with isosorbide dinitrate showed neither spasm nor embolism in the coronary artery. The chest pain disappeared after 6 min with resolution of the ST-segment elevation. A summarized review of ST-segment elevation associated with transseptal puncture disclosed that ST-segment elevation is often found in inferior leads (87.5%, while concomitant bradyarrhythmia has been reported in 43.8% of patients. Our patient is the first recorded case with potentially lethal tachyarrhythmia. Although ST-segment elevation and VF is a rare complication associated with transseptal puncture, awareness of this complication is important.

  10. Bilateral generic working memory circuit requires left-lateralized addition for verbal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Manaan Kar; Mackay, Clare E; Harmer, Catherine J; Crow, Timothy J

    2008-06-01

    According to the Baddeley-Hitch model, phonological and visuospatial representations are separable components of working memory (WM) linked by a central executive. The traditional view that the separation reflects the relative contribution of the 2 hemispheres (verbal WM--left; spatial WM--right) has been challenged by the position that a common bilateral frontoparietal network subserves both domains. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is a generic WM circuit that recruits additional specialized regions for verbal and spatial processing. We designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to elicit activation in the WM circuit for verbal and spatial information using identical stimuli and applied this in 33 healthy controls. We detected left-lateralized quantitative differences in the left frontal and temporal lobe for verbal > spatial WM but no areas of activation for spatial > verbal WM. We speculate that spatial WM is analogous to a "generic" bilateral frontoparietal WM circuit we inherited from our great ape ancestors that evolved, by recruitment of additional left-lateralized frontal and temporal regions, to accommodate language.

  11. Left hemispheric dominance of vestibular processing indicates lateralization of cortical functions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Christoph; Lange, Elena; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Reuss, Stefan; Dieterich, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Lateralization of cortical functions such as speech dominance, handedness and processing of vestibular information are present not only in humans but also in ontogenetic older species, e.g. rats. In human functional imaging studies, the processing of vestibular information was found to be correlated with the hemispherical dominance as determined by the handedness. It is located mainly within the right hemisphere in right handers and within the left hemisphere in left handers. Since dominance of vestibular processing is unknown in animals, our aim was to study the lateralization of cortical processing in a functional imaging study applying small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and galvanic vestibular stimulation in an in vivo rat model. The cortical and subcortical network processing vestibular information could be demonstrated and correlated with data from other animal studies. By calculating a lateralization index as well as flipped region of interest analyses, we found that the vestibular processing in rats follows a strong left hemispheric dominance independent from the "handedness" of the animals. These findings support the idea of an early hemispheric specialization of vestibular cortical functions in ontogenetic older species.

  12. Comparative study of body surface isopotential map, left ventriculogram and thallium-201 myocardial scintigram in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    1988-01-01

    In 16 patients with old lateral myocardial infarction, body surface isopotential maps and 12 lead electrocardiograms were compared with left ventriculographic findings. In addition 8 of these subjects were performed thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in order to determine the location and extent of myocardial necrosis. Common 12 lead electrocardiographic findings of the subjects were initial Q waves more than 30 msec and inverted T waves in only aVL lead. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to the location and extent of ventricular wall motion abnormalities group I (6 cases) showed hypokinesis in the anterior segment, group II (5 cases): akinesis in the anterior segment and hypokinesis in the seg. 6, group III (4 cases): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 7, group IV (1 case): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 4, 7. And each of the 4 groups demonstrated characteristic findings of surface isopotential maps. Group II with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 6 showed surface isopotential maps additional pattern of anterior myocardial infarction, and group III with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 7 showed additional patterns of posterior myocardial infarction. The classification according to the abnormality of ventricular wall motion was also conformed with the thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphic findings except one case. These results suggest that body surface isopotential map is more useful than the 12 lead electrocardiogram in detecting the location and extent of left ventricular wall motion abnormality in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction. (author) 53 refs

  13. A neural method for determining electromagnetic shower positions in laterally segmented calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.; Ray, A.; Mitra, T.; Roy, A.

    1995-01-01

    A method based on a neural network technique is proposed to calculate the coordinates of an incident photon striking a laterally segmented calorimeter and depositing shower energies in different segments. The technique uses a multilayer perceptron trained by back-propagation implemented through standard gradient descent followed by conjugate gradient algorithms and has been demonstrated with GEANT simulations of a BAF2 detector array. The position resolution results obtained by using this method are found to be substantially better than the first moment method with logarithmic weighting. (orig.)

  14. Automatic segmentation of left ventricle in cardiac cine MRI images based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Icke, Ilknur; Dogdas, Belma; Parimal, Sarayu; Sampath, Smita; Forbes, Joseph; Bagchi, Ansuman; Chin, Chih-Liang; Chen, Antong

    2017-02-01

    In developing treatment of cardiovascular diseases, short axis cine MRI has been used as a standard technique for understanding the global structural and functional characteristics of the heart, e.g. ventricle dimensions, stroke volume and ejection fraction. To conduct an accurate assessment, heart structures need to be segmented from the cine MRI images with high precision, which could be a laborious task when performed manually. Herein a fully automatic framework is proposed for the segmentation of the left ventricle from the slices of short axis cine MRI scans of porcine subjects using a deep learning approach. For training the deep learning models, which generally requires a large set of data, a public database of human cine MRI scans is used. Experiments on the 3150 cine slices of 7 porcine subjects have shown that when comparing the automatic and manual segmentations the mean slice-wise Dice coefficient is about 0.930, the point-to-curve error is 1.07 mm, and the mean slice-wise Hausdorff distance is around 3.70 mm, which demonstrates the accuracy and robustness of the proposed inter-species translational approach.

  15. Improving left ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI using intramodality image registration for cardiac blood flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Bustamante, Mariana; Fredriksson, Alexandru; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of blood flow in the left ventricle using four-dimensional flow MRI requires accurate left ventricle segmentation that is often hampered by the low contrast between blood and the myocardium. The purpose of this work is to improve left-ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI for reliable blood flow analysis. The left ventricle segmentations are first obtained using morphological cine-MRI with better in-plane resolution and contrast, and then aligned to four-dimensional flow MRI data. This alignment is, however, not trivial due to inter-slice misalignment errors caused by patient motion and respiratory drift during breath-hold based cine-MRI acquisition. A robust image registration based framework is proposed to mitigate such errors automatically. Data from 20 subjects, including healthy volunteers and patients, was used to evaluate its geometric accuracy and impact on blood flow analysis. High spatial correspondence was observed between manually and automatically aligned segmentations, and the improvements in alignment compared to uncorrected segmentations were significant (P  0.05). Our results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in improving left-ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI, and its potential for reliable blood flow analysis. Magn Reson Med 79:554-560, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Computer-based automated left atrium segmentation and volumetry from ECG-gated coronary CT angiography data. Comparison with manual slice segmentation and ultrasound planimetric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, R.W.; Kraus, B.; Kerl, J.M.; Lehnert, T.; Vogl, T.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Bernhardt, D.; Vega-Higuera, F. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany). Computed Tomography; Ackermann, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fuer Biostatistik und Mathematische Modellierung

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Enlargement of the left atrium is a risk factor for cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. We evaluated the performance of prototype software for fully automated segmentation and volumetry of the left atrium. Materials and Methods: In 34 retrospectively ECG-gated coronary CT angiography scans, the end-systolic (LAVsys) and end-diastolic (LAVdia) volume of the left atrium was calculated fully automatically by prototype software. Manual slice segmentation by two independent experienced radiologists served as the reference standard. Furthermore, two independent observers calculated the LAV utilizing two ultrasound planimetric methods ('area length' and 'prolate ellipse') on CTA images. Measurement periods were compared for all methods. Results: The left atrial volumes calculated with the prototype software were in excellent agreement with the results from manual slice segmentation (r = 0.97 - 0.99; p < 0.001; Bland-Altman) with excellent interobserver agreement between both radiologists (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). Ultrasound planimetric methods clearly showed a higher variation (r = 0.72 - 0.86) with moderate interobserver agreement (r = 0.51 - 0.79). The measurement period was significantly lower with the software (267 {+-} 28 sec; p < 0.001) than with ultrasound methods (431 {+-} 68 sec) or manual slice segmentation (567 {+-} 91 sec). Conclusion: The prototype software showed excellent agreement with manual slice segmentation with the least time consumption. This will facilitate the routine assessment of the LA volume from coronary CTA data and therefore risk stratification. (orig.)

  17. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Stephanie K.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Knight, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes—lexical activation and lexical selection—and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation. PMID:26766393

  18. Investigation of left and right lateral fluid percussion injury in C57BL6/J mice: In vivo functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurman, Lesley D; Smith, Terry L; Morales, Anthony J; Lee, Nancy N; Reeves, Thomas M; Phillips, Linda L; Lichtman, Aron H

    2017-07-13

    Although rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) reliably produce cognitive and motor disturbances, behavioral characterization resulting from left and right hemisphere injuries remains unexplored. Here we examined the functional consequences of targeting the left versus right parietal cortex in lateral fluid percussion injury, on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial memory tasks (fixed platform and reversal) and neurological motor deficits (neurological severity score and rotarod). In the MWM fixed platform task, right lateral injury produced a small delay in acquisition rate compared to left. However, injury to either hemisphere resulted in probe trial deficits. In the MWM reversal task, left-right performance deficits were not evident, though left lateral injury produced mild acquisition and probe trial deficits compared to sham controls. Additionally, left and right injury produced similar neurological motor task deficits, impaired righting times, and lesion volumes. Injury to either hemisphere also produced robust ipsilateral, and modest contralateral, morphological changes in reactive microglia and astrocytes. In conclusion, left and right lateral TBI impaired MWM performance, with mild fixed platform acquisition rate differences, despite similar motor deficits, histological damage, and glial cell reactivity. Thus, while both left and right lateral TBI produce cognitive deficits, laterality in mouse MWM learning and memory merits consideration in the investigation of TBI-induced cognitive consequences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy for metachronic metastases of small intestine adenocarcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais-Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatectomy has been the standard treatment for metachronic metastases of non-colorectal (NCR origin, mainly when the disease-free interval is more than two years. Laparoscopic hepatectomy has become the golden standard mainly for left side resections, due to lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, early recovery and good cosmetic outcome. The authors report the case of a female patient with two metachronic metastases (ten years of disease-free survival, of non-colorectal origin (adenocarcinoma of small intestine, treated by laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy (left hepatic lobectomy with success. The postoperative progress was satisfactory. To date, the patient has presented no tumoral recurrence (six months of follow-up period. Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy can be satisfactorily performed in selected cases of hepatic metastasis. This approach presents low morbidity and good cosmetic result. The lack of alternative treatments and the poor prognosis of untreated cases have justified surgical resection in order to increase overall survival. Nevertheless, this approach should be performed by hepatic surgery expertise teams trained on advanced laparoscopic procedures.A hepatectomia tem sido o tratamento padrão para metástase de origem não colorretal (NCR metacrônica, principalmente quando o intervalo livre de doença é maior do que dois anos. A hepatectomia por laparoscopia tem se tornado padrão principalmente para as ressecções à esquerda, haja vista a menor morbidade, menor tempo de internação, reabilitação precoce e melhor resultado estético. Os autores relatam um caso de paciente com duas metástases metacrônicas (10 anos de sobrevida livre de doença, de etiologia não colorretal (adenocarcinoma de intestino delgado, tratada com segmentectomia lateral esquerda (lobectomia hepática esquerda laparoscópica. Paciente apresentou boa evolução pós-operatória sem recidiva (seis meses de seguimento. Segmentectomia

  20. Frequency of left ventricular thrombus after anterior wall st-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.W.; Fayyaz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) formation is a well known complication seen in patients presenting with acute anterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In previous studies the incidence of this complication, after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported to be 4% to 60% in large anterior wall STEMI, depending significantly upon the method as well as time of reperfusion therapy after STEMI. Objective: The objective of this descriptive case series study was to evaluate the frequency of left ventricular thrombus formation in patients after acute anterior wall ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction. Methodology: In this study, 100 patients with anterior wall STEMI presenting to cardiac emergency or coronary care unit (CCU) of Cardiac complex, Gulab Devi Hospital, were selected on non-probability, purposive sampling meeting inclusion criteria, after taking written informed consent. All the patients were treated initially for management of acute STEMI, including use of thrombolytics where indicated. 2-D Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed during the same admission to assess presence of LV thrombus (LVT). Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.3 +- 11.4 years. There were 84(84%) male patients and 16 (16%) female patients. LVT was present in 28 (28%) patients on TTE. Among those, there were 23 (82.1%) male and 5 (17.9%) female patients. However, out of 84 male patients 27.4% develop LVT and among 16 female patients this ratio was 31.3%. The LV thrombus was independent of age and gender. LV thrombus was significantly less in thrombolytic group as compared to those who were not given this therapy, i.e. p value <0.05. Conclusion: Patients with anterior wall acute STEMI not infrequently develop the complication of development of LV thrombus. In this study the frequency of LV thrombus formation after anterior wall acute STEMI was 28%. (author)

  1. [Deficit of verbal recall caused by left dorso-lateral thalamic infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, M; Cabaret, M; Benaim, C; Steinling, M

    1995-01-01

    A case of amnesia with preferential disorder of verbal recall, associated to a limited infarct of the left superior, external and anterior thalamus, is reported. This lesion involved the anterior and middle dorso-lateral nuclei and the centrolateral nucleus, sparing most of the structures classically incriminated in diencephalic amnesia. At the initial stage, the patient presented discrete language impairment and severe deficit of semantic processing, which later recovered. At the late stage, the anterograde and retrograde amnesia principally concerned the recall of verbal information used in daily life, verbal learning using short-term and long-term recall, questionnaires evaluating retrograde memory and requiring the evocation of proper names. Verbal priming was also affected. Verbal recognition was preserved. Evocation of the most recent events of the personal life was also impaired. Confrontation of this case with others previously reported suggests that various thalamic amnesias may be described, associated to different cognitive deficits, in relation with the preferential situation of lesions.

  2. White-matter microstructure and language lateralization in left-handers: a whole-brain MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlaki, Gabor; Horvath, Reka; Orsi, Gergely; Aradi, Mihaly; Auer, Tibor; Varga, Eszter; Kantor, Gyongyi; Altbäcker, Anna; John, Flora; Doczi, Tamas; Komoly, Samuel; Kovacs, Norbert; Schwarcz, Attila; Janszky, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    Most people are left-hemisphere dominant for language. However the neuroanatomy of language lateralization is not fully understood. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we studied whether language lateralization is associated with cerebral white-matter (WM) microstructure. Sixteen healthy, left-handed women aged 20-25 were included in the study. Left-handers were targeted in order to increase the chances of involving subjects with atypical language lateralization. Language lateralization was determined by fMRI using a verbal fluency paradigm. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI data was applied to test for WM microstructural correlates of language lateralization across the whole brain. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were used as indicators of WM microstructural organization. Right-hemispheric language dominance was associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left-sided parietal lobe WM. In left-handed women, reduced integrity of the left-sided language related tracts may be closely linked to the development of right hemispheric language dominance. Our results may offer new insights into language lateralization and structure-function relationships in human language system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular responses to the change from the left lateral to the upright position in pregnant hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, R A; Anthony, J; Ledeboer, Q; James, M F

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate by non-invasive means, the autonomically mediated changes in heart rate and blood pressure in response to postural change in pregnancy. Ninety-one patients were studied, of whom 17 were non-pregnant controls, 21 were normotensive parturients, 22 had non-proteinuric hypertension, and 31 were pre-eclamptics. In all patients the heart rate and blood pressure response to the change from the left lateral to the erect position was measured non-invasively, during the third trimester in the pregnant groups. The change from the left lateral to the erect position induced significantly greater mean changes (increases) in systolic blood pressure in the normotensive pregnant (PC) women than all other groups (Pchanges when comparing the PC, NP and H groups. The PE group exhibited a significantly greater increase in heart rate on adopting the erect position than all other groups. Pre-eclamptics exhibit smaller changes in blood pressure than normotensive pregnant patients and non-proteinuric hypertensives on standing, while producing an exaggerated heart rate response, indicating altered autonomic compensatory mechanisms in these patients.

  4. Do Lordotic Cages Provide Better Segmental Lordosis Versus Nonlordotic Cages in Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Horazdovsky, Ryan D; Sharma, Amit K; Yson, Sharon C; Santos, Edward R G; Polly, David W

    2017-05-01

    A retrospective comparative radiographic review. To evaluate the radiographic changes brought about by lordotic and nonlordotic cages on segmental and regional lumbar sagittal alignment and disk height in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF). The effects of cage design on operative level segmental lordosis in posterior interbody fusion procedures have been reported. However, there are no studies comparing the effect of sagittal implant geometry in LLIF. This is a comparative radiographic analysis of consecutive LLIF procedures performed with use of lordotic and nonlordotic interbody cages. Forty patients (61 levels) underwent LLIF. Average age was 57 years (range, 30-83 y). Ten-degree lordotic PEEK cages were used at 31 lumbar interbody levels, and nonlordotic cages were used at 30 levels. The following parameters were measured on preoperative and postoperative radiographs: segmental lordosis; anterior and posterior disk heights at operative level; segmental lordosis at supra-level and subjacent level; and overall lumbar (L1-S1) lordosis. Measurement changes for each cage group were compared using paired t test analysis. The use of lordotic cages in LLIF resulted in a significant increase in lordosis at operative levels (2.8 degrees; P=0.01), whereas nonlordotic cages did not (0.6 degrees; P=0.71) when compared with preoperative segmental lordosis. Anterior and posterior disk heights were significantly increased in both groups (Plordosis (lordotic P=0.86 vs. nonlordotic P=0.25). Lordotic cages provided significant increase in operative level segmental lordosis compared with nonlordotic cages although overall lumbar lordosis remained unchanged. Anterior and posterior disk heights were significantly increased by both cages, providing basis for indirect spinal decompression.

  5. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  6. Modulating phonemic fluency performance in healthy subjects with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left or right lateral frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirni, Daniela; Turriziani, Patrizia; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Bracco, Martina; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2017-07-28

    A growing body of evidence have suggested that non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can improve the performance of aphasic patients in language tasks. For example, application of inhibitory rTMS or tDCs over the right frontal lobe of dysphasic patients resulted in improved naming abilities. Several studies have also reported that in healthy controls (HC) tDCS application over the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) improve performance in naming and semantic fluency tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate in HC, for the first time, the effects of inhibitory repetitive TMS (rTMS) over left and right lateral frontal cortex (BA 47) on two phonemic fluency tasks (FAS or FPL). 44 right-handed HCs were administered rTMS or sham over the left or right lateral frontal cortex in two separate testing sessions, with a 24h interval, followed by the two phonemic fluency tasks. To account for possible practice effects, an additional 22 HCs were tested on only the phonemic fluency task across two sessions with no stimulation. We found that rTMS-inhibition over the left lateral frontal cortex significantly worsened phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. In contrast, rTMS-inhibition over the right lateral frontal cortex significantly improved phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. These results were not accounted for practice effects. We speculated that rTMS over the right lateral frontal cortex may induce plastic neural changes to the left lateral frontal cortex by suppressing interhemispheric inhibitory interactions. This resulted in an increased excitability (disinhibition) of the contralateral unstimulated left lateral frontal cortex, consequently enhancing phonemic fluency performance. Conversely, application of rTMS over the left lateral frontal cortex may induce a temporary, virtual lesion, with effects similar to those reported in left frontal

  7. Left hemisphere lateralization for lexical and acoustic pitch processing in Cantonese speakers as revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Zhang, Caicai; Hu, Axu; Zhao, Guoping

    2013-12-01

    For nontonal language speakers, speech processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and musical processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., function-dependent brain asymmetry). On the other hand, acoustic temporal processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and spectral/pitch processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry). In this study, we examine whether the hemispheric lateralization of lexical pitch and acoustic pitch processing in tonal language speakers is consistent with the patterns of function- and acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry in nontonal language speakers. Pitch contrast in both speech stimuli (syllable /ji/ in Experiment 1) and nonspeech stimuli (harmonic tone in Experiment 1; pure tone in Experiment 2) was presented to native Cantonese speakers in passive oddball paradigms. We found that the mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by lexical pitch contrast was lateralized to the left hemisphere, which is consistent with the pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., left hemisphere lateralization for speech processing) in nontonal language speakers. However, the MMN elicited by acoustic pitch contrast was also left hemisphere lateralized (harmonic tone in Experiment 1) or showed a tendency for left hemisphere lateralization (pure tone in Experiment 2), which is inconsistent with the pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., right hemisphere lateralization for acoustic pitch processing) in nontonal language speakers. The consistent pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry and the inconsistent pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry between tonal and nontonal language speakers can be explained by the hypothesis that the acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry is the consequence of a carryover effect from function-dependent brain asymmetry. Potential evolutionary implication of this hypothesis is discussed. © 2013.

  8. A simple method of shower localization and identification in laterally segmented calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awes, T.C.; Obenshain, F.E.; Plasil, F.; Saini, S.; Young, G.R.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    A method is proposed to calculate the first and second moments of the spatial distribution of the energy of electromagnetic and hadronic showers measured in laterally segmented colorimeters. The technique uses a logarithmic weighting of energy fraction observed in the individual detector cells. It is fast and simple requiring no fitting or complicated corrections for the position or angle of incidence. The method is demonstrated with GEANT simulations of a BGO detector array. The position resolution results and the e/π separation results are found to be equal or superior to those obtained with more complicated techniques. (orig.)

  9. Global left ventricular function in cardiac CT. Evaluation of an automated 3D region-growing segmentation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlenbruch, Georg; Das, Marco; Hohl, Christian; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Rinck, Daniel; Flohr, Thomas G.; Koos, Ralf; Knackstedt, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate a new semi-automated 3D region-growing segmentation algorithm for functional analysis of the left ventricle in multislice CT (MSCT) of the heart. Twenty patients underwent contrast-enhanced MSCT of the heart (collimation 16 x 0.75 mm; 120 kV; 550 mAseff). Multiphase image reconstructions with 1-mm axial slices and 8-mm short-axis slices were performed. Left ventricular volume measurements (end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, ejection fraction and stroke volume) from manually drawn endocardial contours in the short axis slices were compared to semi-automated region-growing segmentation of the left ventricle from the 1-mm axial slices. The post-processing-time for both methods was recorded. Applying the new region-growing algorithm in 13/20 patients (65%), proper segmentation of the left ventricle was feasible. In these patients, the signal-to-noise ratio was higher than in the remaining patients (3.2±1.0 vs. 2.6±0.6). Volume measurements of both segmentation algorithms showed an excellent correlation (all P≤0.0001); the limits of agreement for the ejection fraction were 2.3±8.3 ml. In the patients with proper segmentation the mean post-processing time using the region-growing algorithm was diminished by 44.2%. On the basis of a good contrast-enhanced data set, a left ventricular volume analysis using the new semi-automated region-growing segmentation algorithm is technically feasible, accurate and more time-effective. (orig.)

  10. Left ventricle segmentation in cardiac MRI images using fully convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Romaguera, Liset; Costa, Marly Guimarães Fernandes; Romero, Francisco Perdigón; Costa Filho, Cicero Ferreira Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 17.3 million deaths per year, a number that is expected to grow to more than 23.6 million by 2030. Most cardiac pathologies involve the left ventricle; therefore, estimation of several functional parameters from a previous segmentation of this structure can be helpful in diagnosis. Manual delineation is a time consuming and tedious task that is also prone to high intra and inter-observer variability. Thus, there exists a need for automated cardiac segmentation method to help facilitate the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. In this work we propose a deep fully convolutional neural network architecture to address this issue and assess its performance. The model was trained end to end in a supervised learning stage from whole cardiac MRI images input and ground truth to make a per pixel classification. For its design, development and experimentation was used Caffe deep learning framework over an NVidia Quadro K4200 Graphics Processing Unit. The net architecture is: Conv64-ReLU (2x) - MaxPooling - Conv128-ReLU (2x) - MaxPooling - Conv256-ReLU (2x) - MaxPooling - Conv512-ReLu-Dropout (2x) - Conv2-ReLU - Deconv - Crop - Softmax. Training and testing processes were carried out using 5-fold cross validation with short axis cardiac magnetic resonance images from Sunnybrook Database. We obtained a Dice score of 0.92 and 0.90, Hausdorff distance of 4.48 and 5.43, Jaccard index of 0.97 and 0.97, sensitivity of 0.92 and 0.90 and specificity of 0.99 and 0.99, overall mean values with SGD and RMSProp, respectively.

  11. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sitnikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.

  12. Graph cut-based method for segmenting the left ventricle from MRI or echocardiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Michael; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Humbert, Olivier; Lalande, Alain

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a fast and interactive graph cut method for 3D segmentation of the endocardial wall of the left ventricle (LV) adapted to work on two of the most widely used modalities: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography. Our method accounts for the fundamentally different nature of both modalities: 3D echocardiographic images have a low contrast, a poor signal-to-noise ratio and frequent signal drop, while MR images are more detailed but also cluttered and contain highly anisotropic voxels. The main characteristic of our method is to work in a 3D Bezier coordinate system instead of the original Euclidean space. This comes with several advantages, including an implicit shape prior and a result guarantied not to have any holes in it. The proposed method is made of 4 steps. First, a 3D sampling of the LV cavity is made based on a Bezier coordinate system. This allows to warp the input 3D image to a Bezier space in which a plane corresponds to an anatomically plausible 3D Euclidean bullet shape. Second, a 3D graph is built and an energy term (which is based on the image gradient and a 3D probability map) is assigned to each edge of the graph, some of which being given an infinite energy to ensure the resulting 3D structure passes through key anatomical points. Third, a max-flow min-cut procedure is executed on the energy graph to delineate the endocardial surface. And fourth, the resulting surface is projected back to the Euclidean space where a post-processing convex hull algorithm is applied on every short axis slice to remove local concavities. Results obtained on two datasets reveal that our method takes between 2 and 5s to segment a 3D volume, it has better results overall than most state-of-the-art methods on the CETUS echocardiographic dataset and is statistically as good as a human operator on MR images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fully automatic segmentation of left atrium and pulmonary veins in late gadolinium-enhanced MRI: Towards objective atrial scar assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qian; Ipek, Esra Gucuk; Shahzad, Rahil; Berendsen, Floris F; Nazarian, Saman; van der Geest, Rob J

    2016-08-01

    To realize objective atrial scar assessment, this study aimed to develop a fully automatic method to segment the left atrium (LA) and pulmonary veins (PV) from late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extent and distribution of atrial scar, visualized by LGE-MRI, provides important information for clinical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Forty-six AF patients (age 62 ± 8, 14 female) who underwent cardiac MRI prior to RF ablation were included. A contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) sequence was acquired for anatomy assessment followed by an LGE sequence for LA scar assessment. A fully automatic segmentation method was proposed consisting of two stages: 1) global segmentation by multiatlas registration; and 2) local refinement by 3D level-set. These automatic segmentation results were compared with manual segmentation. The LA and PVs were automatically segmented in all subjects. Compared with manual segmentation, the method yielded a surface-to-surface distance of 1.49 ± 0.65 mm in the LA region when using both MRA and LGE, and 1.80 ± 0.93 mm when using LGE alone (P automatic and manual segmentation was comparable to the interobserver difference (P = 0.8 in LA region and P = 0.7 in PV region). We developed a fully automatic method for LA and PV segmentation from LGE-MRI, with comparable performance to a human observer. Inclusion of an MRA sequence further improves the segmentation accuracy. The method leads to automatic generation of a patient-specific model, and potentially enables objective atrial scar assessment for AF patients. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:346-354. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Lateral chest radiographic findings in lobar collapse of the left lung : the distance between both upper lobe bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G. H.; Sung, D. W.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the distance between both upper love bronchi on lateral radiographs and its change in left upper or lower lobe collapse. 144 true lateral radiographs were analyzed on which both upper lobe bronchi were clearly identified. They included 116 normal cases, 11 cases of left upper lobe collapse, 13 of left lower lobe collapse, and 4 cases of left lower lobe lobectomy. Line A was drawn parallel to the vertebral end plate through the upper margin of the lift upper lobe bronchus. Line B was drawn parallel to line A through the upper margin of the right upper love bronchus. The shortest distance between line A and line B was measured as the distance between both upper lobe bronchi. In normal cases, the mean value of the distance was 2.19 cm ± S.D. 0.37 cm on right and on right and 2.16 cm ± S.D. 0.40 cm on left lateral radiographs ; these results were not significantly different(P=0.79). In cases of collapse, the mean value of the distance was 0.43 cm ± S.D. 0.99 cm in upper lobe collapse and 3.56 cm ± S.D. 0.72 cm in lower lobe collapse, results which were significantly different from those of normal cases(p<0.01). In eight cases(73%) of left upper lobe collapse, the distance was less than 1 cm and in 10 cases(77%) of left lower lobe collapse, the distance was more than 3 cm. The distance between both upper lobe bronchi varies markedly in case of lobar collapse. A distance of less than 1 cm suggests collapse of the left upper lobe and a distance more than 3 cm suggests collapse of the left lower lobe

  15. The change of volume of each hepatic segment in liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kazunori; Takashima, Tsutomu; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi; Kameyama, Tomiaki; Nishijima, Hiroshi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi

    1986-01-01

    We studied morphological changes of liver due to liver cirrhosis by evaluating the volume of liver and each hepatic segments (left lateral, left medial, right anterior, right posterior, and caudate lobe) divided using dynamic sequential CT during arterial portography. In liver cirrhosis, left lateral segment and caudate lobe were relatively enlarged, while right lobe and left medial segment showed significant shrinkage. But when posterior inferior right hepatic vein was evident on CT, right posterior segment did not shrink. (author)

  16. Health-related quality of life after segmental resection of the lateral mandible: Free fibula flap versus plate reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Johannes; Holtslag, Irene; van der Bilt, Andries; Merkx, Matthias; Koole, Ron; Van Cann, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    Segmental resection of the mandible causes functional, aesthetic and social problems affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It is often assumed that reconstruction with composite free flaps guarantees better function and aesthetics than bridging the defect with reconstruction plates. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35), we compared HRQoL in patients who received free fibula flaps versus reconstruction plates after segmental resection of the lateral mandible. Thirty-seven completed questionnaires (18 fibula reconstructions and 19 patients with reconstruction plates) were available. Reconstruction with a free fibula flap did not provide clear additional benefit to bridging the defect with a reconstruction plate after segmental resection of the lateral mandible. In particular aspects known to have the most impact on HRQoL like swallowing, speech and chewing were not influenced by the type of reconstruction. Reconstruction of segmental defects of the lateral mandible with free fibula flap and reconstruction plate resulted in comparable HRQoL. If dental rehabilitation by means of dental implants is not anticipated in the fibula, then plate reconstruction with adequate soft tissue remains a suitable technique for the reconstruction of segmental defects of the lateral mandible. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Embryonic left-right separation mechanism allows confinement of mutation-induced phenotypes to one lateral body half of bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun

    2013-12-01

    A fundamental question in developmental biology is how a chimeric animal such as a bilateral gynandromorphic animal can have different phenotypes confined to different lateral body halves, and how mutation-induced phenotypes, such as genetic diseases, can be confined to one lateral body half in patients. Here, I propose that embryos of many, if not all, bilaterian animals are divided into left and right halves at a very early stage (which may vary among different types of animals), after which the descendants of the left-sided and right-sided cells will almost exclusively remain on their original sides, respectively, throughout the remaining development. This embryonic left-right separation mechanism allows (1) mutations and the mutation-induced phenotypes to be strictly confined to one lateral body half in animals and humans; (2) mothers with bilateral hereditary primary breast cancer to transmit their disease to their offspring at twofold of the rate compared to mothers with unilateral hereditary breast cancer; and (3) a mosaic embryo carrying genetic or epigenetic mutations to develop into either an individual with the mutation-induced phenotype confined unilaterally, or a pair of twins displaying complete, partial, or mirror-image discordance for the phenotype. Further, this left-right separation mechanism predicts that the two lateral halves of a patient carrying a unilateral genetic disease can each serve as a case and an internal control, respectively, for genetic and epigenetic comparative studies to identify the disease causations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Combined Random Forests and Active Contour Model Approach for Fully Automatic Segmentation of the Left Atrium in Volumetric MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of the left atrium (LA from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI datasets is of great importance for image guided atrial fibrillation ablation, LA fibrosis quantification, and cardiac biophysical modelling. However, automated LA segmentation from cardiac MRI is challenging due to limited image resolution, considerable variability in anatomical structures across subjects, and dynamic motion of the heart. In this work, we propose a combined random forests (RFs and active contour model (ACM approach for fully automatic segmentation of the LA from cardiac volumetric MRI. Specifically, we employ the RFs within an autocontext scheme to effectively integrate contextual and appearance information from multisource images together for LA shape inferring. The inferred shape is then incorporated into a volume-scalable ACM for further improving the segmentation accuracy. We validated the proposed method on the cardiac volumetric MRI datasets from the STACOM 2013 and HVSMR 2016 databases and showed that it outperforms other latest automated LA segmentation methods. Validation metrics, average Dice coefficient (DC and average surface-to-surface distance (S2S, were computed as 0.9227±0.0598 and 1.14±1.205 mm, versus those of 0.6222–0.878 and 1.34–8.72 mm, obtained by other methods, respectively.

  19. Functional measurements based on feature tracking of cine magnetic resonance images identify left ventricular segments with myocardial scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Eva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to perform a feature tracking analysis on cine magnetic resonance (MR images to elucidate if functional measurements of the motion of the left ventricular wall may detect scar defined with gadolinium enhanced MR. Myocardial contraction can be measured in terms of the velocity, displacement and local deformation (strain of a particular myocardial segment. Contraction of the myocardial wall will be reduced in the presence of scar and as a consequence of reduced myocardial blood flow. Methods Thirty patients (3 women and 27 men were selected based on the presence or absence of extensive scar in the anteroseptal area of the left ventricle. The patients were investigated in stable clinical condition, 4-8 weeks post ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Seventeen had a scar area >75% in at least one anteroseptal segment (scar and thirteen had scar area Results In the scar patients, segments with scar showed lower functional measurements than remote segments. Radial measurements of velocity, displacement and strain performed better in terms of receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC than the corresponding longitudinal measurements. The best area-under-curve was for radial strain, 0.89, where a cut-off value of 38.8% had 80% sensitivity and 86% specificity for the detection of a segment with scar area >50%. As a percentage of the mean, intraobserver variability was 16-14-26% for radial measurements of displacement-velocity-strain and corresponding interobserver variability was 13-12-18%. Conclusion Feature tracking analysis of cine-MR displays velocity, displacement and strain in the radial and longitudinal direction and may be used for the detection of transmural scar. The accuracy and repeatability of the radial functional measurements is satisfactory and global measures agree.

  20. Automatic segmentation of the left ventricle in a cardiac MR short axis image using blind morphological operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Mehreen; Muhammad, Nazeer; Sharif, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Mussarat

    2018-04-01

    Conventionally, cardiac MR image analysis is done manually. Automatic examination for analyzing images can replace the monotonous tasks of massive amounts of data to analyze the global and regional functions of the cardiac left ventricle (LV). This task is performed using MR images to calculate the analytic cardiac parameter like end-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass, respectively. These analytic parameters depend upon genuine delineation of epicardial, endocardial, papillary muscle, and trabeculations contours. In this paper, we propose an automatic segmentation method using the sum of absolute differences technique to localize the left ventricle. Blind morphological operations are proposed to segment and detect the LV contours of the epicardium and endocardium, automatically. We test the benchmark Sunny Brook dataset for evaluation of the proposed work. Contours of epicardium and endocardium are compared quantitatively to determine contour's accuracy and observe high matching values. Similarity or overlapping of an automatic examination to the given ground truth analysis by an expert are observed with high accuracy as with an index value of 91.30% . The proposed method for automatic segmentation gives better performance relative to existing techniques in terms of accuracy.

  1. Lateral sphincteromyotomy in patients with outlet obstruction after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease and short-segment disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorm, Hanne N; Jensen, Susanne I; Qvist, Niels

    2002-01-01

    The results of lateral sphincteromyotomy (LSM) including the external sphincter in patients with severe outlet obstruction (OO) and constipation refractory to medical treatment after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HD) or with short-segment disease were evaluated. The parents filled out a det...

  2. Evidence for Mojave-Sonora megashear-Systematic left-lateral offset of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies, western United States and northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Major successions as well as individual units of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies appear to be systematically offset left laterally from eastern California and western Nevada in the western United States to Sonora, Mexico. This pattern is most evident in units such as the "Johnnie oolite," a 1- to 2-m-thick oolite of the Neoproterozoic Rainstorm Member of the Johnnie Formation in the western United States and of the Clemente Formation in Sonora. The pattern is also evident in the Lower Cambrian Zabriskie Quartzite of the western United States and the correlative Proveedora Quartzite in Sonora. Matching of isopach lines of the Zabriskie Quartzite and Proveedora Quartzite suggests ???700-800 km of left-lateral offset. The offset pattern is also apparent in the distribution of distinctive lithologic types, unconformities, and fossil assemblages in other rocks ranging in age from Neoproterozoic to Early Jurassic. In the western United States, the distribution of facies in Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata indicates that the Cordilleran miogeocline trends north-south. A north-south trend is also suggested in Sonora, and if so is compatible with offset of the miogeocline but not with the ideas that the miogeocline wrapped around the continental margin and trends east-west in Sonora. An imperfect stratigraphic match of supposed offset segments along the megashear is apparent. Some units, such as the "Johnnie oolite" and Zabriskie-Proveedora, show almost perfect correspondence, but other units are significantly different. The differences seem to indicate that the indigenous succession of the western United States and offset segments in Mexico were not precisely side by side before offset but were separated by an area-now buried, eroded, or destroyed-that contained strata of intermediate facies. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  3. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Y. Flugelman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years.

  4. Guiding automated left ventricular chamber segmentation in cardiac imaging using the concept of conserved myocardial volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, Christopher D; Li, Bing; Acton, Scott T; Hossack, John A

    2008-06-01

    The active surface technique using gradient vector flow allows semi-automated segmentation of ventricular borders. The accuracy of the algorithm depends on the optimal selection of several key parameters. We investigated the use of conservation of myocardial volume for quantitative assessment of each of these parameters using synthetic and in vivo data. We predicted that for a given set of model parameters, strong conservation of volume would correlate with accurate segmentation. The metric was most useful when applied to the gradient vector field weighting and temporal step-size parameters, but less effective in guiding an optimal choice of the active surface tension and rigidity parameters.

  5. Towards continuum models of lateral rupture propagation in a segmented megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranger, C. C.; van Dinther, Y.; Le Pourhiet, L.; May, D.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    At subduction megathrusts, propagation of large ruptures may be confined between the up-dip and down-dip limits of the seismogenic zone. This opens a primary role for lateral rupture dimensions to control the magnitude and severity of megathrust earthquakes. The goal of this study is to improve our understanding of the ways in which the inherent variability of the subduction interface may influence the degree of interseismic locking, and the propensity of a rupture to propagate over regions of variable slip potential. We focus in particular on the roughness of the incoming seafloor, which we expect to be of primary importance. The global absence of a historic record sufficiently long to base risk assessment on, makes us rely on numerical modelling as a way to extend our understanding of the spatio-temporal occurrence of earthquakes. However, the complex interaction of the subduction stress environment, the variability of the subduction interface, and the structure and deformation of the crustal wedge has made it very difficult to construct comprehensive numerical models of megathrust segmentation. We intend to develop and exploit the power of a plastic 3D continuum representation of the subduction megathrust, as well as off-megathrust faulting to model the long-term tectonic build-up of stresses, and their sudden seismic release. The sheer size of the 3D problem, and the time scales covering those of tectonics as well as seismology, force us to explore efficient and accurate physical and numerical techniques. So far, we have focused our efforts on developing a staggered grid finite difference code that makes use of the PETSc library for massively parallel computing. The code incorporates a newly developed automatic discretization algorithm, which enables it to handle a wide variety of equations with relative ease. What remains now is combining the physics that act on the different spatial and temporal scales. To this end we explore new constitutive models that

  6. PREVENTION OF LEFT VENTRICLE SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME WITH ST SEGMENT ELEVATION AFTER CARDIAC REVASCULARIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Alyavi; B. A. Alyavi; M. L. Kenzhaev; S. R. Kenzhaev

    2009-01-01

    Aim. To study effects of bioflavonoid quercetin (corvitin) on left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction in patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation (ACS+ST) after cardiac revascularization.Material and methods. 60 patients with ACS+ST (44,2±1,3 y.o.) were examined. Patients were admitted to hospital within 6 hours after complaints beginning. Patients were randomized in two groups. 30 patients of group A had standard therapy and cardiac revascularization. 30 patients of g...

  7. Segmental omental infarction in childhood: an unusual case of left-sided location with extension into the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foscolo, Sylvain; Mandry, Damien; Galloy, Marie-Agnes; Claudon, Michel; Champigneulles, Jacqueline; Miscault, Godefroy de

    2007-01-01

    Segmental omental infarction (OI) is a rare cause of abdominal pain in children. It generally occurs in the right lower and upper quadrants of the abdomen and only a few cases of other locations have been described in adults. We report a unique paediatric case of OI with an unusual left-sided location extending into the pelvis in a 6-year-old non-obese girl. The diagnosis was suspected on US and CT based on imaging patterns previously described in adults and children. Laparoscopic resection should be balanced with nonsurgical management. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of left atrial function by multidetector computed tomography before left atrial radiofrequency-catheter ablation: Comparison of a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Florian; Ourednicek, Petr; Loewe, Christian; Richter, Bernhard; Goessinger, Heinz David; Gwechenberger, Marianne; Plank, Christina; Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Toepker, Michael; Lammer, Johannes; Feuchtner, Gudrun M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation tool for evaluation of left atrial (LA) function by 64-slice multidetector-CT (MDCT). Methods and materials: In 33 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation a MDCT scan was performed before radiofrequency-catheter ablation. Atrial function (minimal volume (LAmin), maximal volume (LAmax), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF)) was evaluated by two readers using a manual and an automatic tool and measurement time was evaluated. Results: Automated LA volume segmentation failed in one patient due to low LA enhancement (103HU). Mean LAmax, LAmin, SV and EF were 127.7 ml, 93 ml, 34.7 ml, 27.1% by the automated, and 122.7 ml, 89.9 ml, 32.8 ml, 26.3% by the manual method with no significant difference (p > 0.05) and high Pearsons correlation coefficients (r = 0.94, r = 0.94, r = 0.82 and r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), respectively. The automated method was significantly faster (p < 0.001). Interobserver variability was low for both methods with Pearson's correlation coefficients between 0.98 and 0.99 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Evaluation of LA volume and function with 64-slice MDCT is feasible with a very low interobserver variability. The automatic method is as accurate as the manual method but significantly less time consuming permitting a routine use in clinical practice before RF-catheter ablation.

  9. Cerebral lateralization for the processing of spatial coordinates and categories in left-and right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAENG, B; PETERS, M

    1995-04-01

    Subjects judged whether a tachistoscopially lateralized drawing was identical or different to a drawing seen immediately before in free vision. The drawings depicted natural objects (e.g. animals). On half of the trials the tachistoscopic drawing presented the same objects but either the categorical or the coordinate spatial relations (according to Kosslyn's definitions [23]) between the objects were transformed. In the first experiment 38 right-handed subjects (half males and half females) were tested. Categorical judgements were faster when the match drawing appeared in the right visual field, whereas coordinate judgements were faster when the match drawing appeared in the left visual field. In the second experiment 26 right-handed and 40 left-handed subjects participated. Almost all the subjects were female. Right-handed subjects replicated the findings of the subjects in the first experiment. However, the LHs did not show any difference in response times between spatial conditions and visual fields. These findings support Kosslyn's hypothesis that the left and right hemispheres are specialized respectively for processing categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Moreover, they also suggest that this lateralization pattern is not typical of left-handers.

  10. A supervised framework for lesion segmentation and automated VLSM analyses in left hemispheric stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Pustina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM is conventionally performed using skill and knowledge of experts to manually delineate brain lesions. This process requires time, and is likely to have substantial inter-rater variability. Here, we propose a supervised machine learning framework for lesion segmentation capable of learning from a single modality and existing manual segmentations in order to delineate lesions in new patients. METHODS: Data from 60 patients with chronic stroke aphasia were utilized in the study (age: 59.7±11.5yrs, post-stroke interval: 5±2.9yrs, male/female ratio: 34/26. Using a single T1 image of each subject, additional features were created that provided complementary information, such as, difference from template, tissue segmentation, brain asymmetries, gradient magnitude, and deviances of these images from 80 age and gender matched controls. These features were fed into MRV-NRF (multi-resolution voxel-wise neighborhood random forest; Tustison et al., 2014 prediction algorithm implemented in ANTsR (Avants, 2015. The algorithm incorporates information from each voxel and its surrounding neighbors from all above features, in a hierarchy of random forest predictions from low to high resolution. The validity of the framework was tested with a 6-fold cross validation (i.e., train from 50 subjects, predict 10. The process was repeated ten times, producing ten segmentations for each subject, from which the average solution was binarized. Predicted lesions were compared to manually defined lesions, and VLSM models were built on 4 language measures: repetition and comprehension subscores from the WAB (Kertesz, 1982, WAB-AQ, and PNT naming accuracy (Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996. RESULTS: Manual and predicted lesion size showed high correlation (r=0.96. Compared to manual lesions, the predicted lesions had a dice overlap of 0.72 (±0.14 STD, a case-wise maximum distance (Hausdorff of 21mm (±16

  11. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J M; Ramsey, N; Rutten, G J

    2015-12-01

    Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MRI can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on the ratio between left and right brain activity in a specific region associated with language. Nearly all fMRI language studies show language-related activity in both hemispheres, and as a result the LI shows a large range of values. The clinical significance of the variation in language laterality as measured with the LI is still under debate. In this study, we tested two hypotheses in relation to the LI, measured in Broca's region, and it's right hemisphere homologue: 1: the level of activity in Broca's and it's right hemisphere homologue is mirrored for subjects with an equal but opposite LI; 2: the whole brain language activation pattern differs between subjects with an equal but opposite LI. One hundred sixty-three glioma and meningioma patients performed a verb generation task as part of a standard clinical protocol. We calculated the LI in the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, referred to as Broca's region from here on. In our database, 21 patients showed right lateralized activity, with a moderate average level (-0.32). A second group of 21 patients was selected from the remaining group, for equal but opposite LI (0.32). We compared the level and distribution of activity associated with language production in the left and right hemisphere in these two groups. Patients with left sided laterality showed a significantly higher level of activity in Broca's region than the patients with right sided laterality. However, both groups showed no difference in level of activity in Broca's homologue region in the right hemisphere. Also, we did not see any difference in the pattern of activity between patients with left

  12. Left or right? Lateralizing temporal lobe epilepsy by dynamic amygdala fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives-Deliperi, Victoria; Butler, James Thomas; Jokeit, Hennric

    2017-05-01

    In this case series, the findings of 85 functional MRI studies employing a dynamic fearful face paradigm are reported. Previous findings have shown the paradigm to generate bilateral amygdala activations in healthy subjects and unilateral activations in patients with MTLE, in the contralateral hemisphere to seizure origin. Such findings suggest ipsilateral limbic pathology and offer collateral evidence in lateralizing MTLE. The series includes 60 patients with TLE, 12 patients with extra-temporal lobe epilepsy, and 13 healthy controls. Functional MRI studies using a 1.5T scanner were conducted over a three-year period at a single epilepsy center and individual results were compared with EEG findings. In the cohort of unilateral TLE patients, lateralized activations of the amygdala were concordant with EEG findings in 76% of patients (77% lTLE, 74% rTLE). The differences in the mean lateralized indices of the lTLE, rTLE, and healthy control groups were all statistically significant. Lateralized amygdala activations were concordant with EEG findings in only 31% of the 12 patients with extra-temporal lobe epilepsy and bilateral amygdala activations were generated in all but one of the healthy control subjects. This case series further endorses the utility of the dynamic fearful face functional MRI paradigm using the widely available 1.5T as an adjunctive investigation to lateralize TLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of left atrial function by multidetector computed tomography before left atrial radiofrequency-catheter ablation: Comparison of a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Florian, E-mail: florian.wolf@meduniwien.ac.a [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ourednicek, Petr [Philips Medical Systems, Prague (Czech Republic); Loewe, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Richter, Bernhard; Goessinger, Heinz David; Gwechenberger, Marianne [Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Plank, Christina; Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Toepker, Michael; Lammer, Johannes [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation tool for evaluation of left atrial (LA) function by 64-slice multidetector-CT (MDCT). Methods and materials: In 33 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation a MDCT scan was performed before radiofrequency-catheter ablation. Atrial function (minimal volume (LAmin), maximal volume (LAmax), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF)) was evaluated by two readers using a manual and an automatic tool and measurement time was evaluated. Results: Automated LA volume segmentation failed in one patient due to low LA enhancement (103HU). Mean LAmax, LAmin, SV and EF were 127.7 ml, 93 ml, 34.7 ml, 27.1% by the automated, and 122.7 ml, 89.9 ml, 32.8 ml, 26.3% by the manual method with no significant difference (p > 0.05) and high Pearsons correlation coefficients (r = 0.94, r = 0.94, r = 0.82 and r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), respectively. The automated method was significantly faster (p < 0.001). Interobserver variability was low for both methods with Pearson's correlation coefficients between 0.98 and 0.99 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Evaluation of LA volume and function with 64-slice MDCT is feasible with a very low interobserver variability. The automatic method is as accurate as the manual method but significantly less time consuming permitting a routine use in clinical practice before RF-catheter ablation.

  14. Evaluation of lateral margin of left lobe of the liver on CT scan : focus on perisplenic extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Chang Hye; Cha, Seong Sook; Lee, Byung Jin; Choi, Jae Young; Choi, Seok Jin; Eun, Choong Ki

    1996-01-01

    The perisplenic extension of the left lobe of the liver can be misinterpreted as a splenic or perisplenic lesion on ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT). The purpose of our study is to classify the lateral margin of the left lobe of the liver into three types and to evaluate the incidence and the relationship between each type and abnormal liver on CT scan. A total of 515 abdominal CT scans from patients over 15 years old were retrospectively evaluated. Liver contours were divided into three types on the basis of degree of the left lateral extension of the left lobe of the liver. Type A was defined as the lateral extension of the left lobe of liver to the medial portion of the stomach, type C as the perisplenic portion, and type B as between the two types. Each type was further divided into normal and abnormal liver groups based on clinical, CT, surgical and patholigic findings and evaluated on its ratio of normal and abnormal liver, intrahepatic diseases associated with an abnormal liver and statistical significance between a normal and abnormal liver. The incidence of the three types of liver among the 515 patients was 360(69.9%), 121(23.5%) and 34(6.6%) patients in type A, B and C, respectively. Type C showed normal liver in six patients, which was 2.7% of all normal livers(221/515) and abnormal liver in 28 patients, which was 9.5% of all abnormal livers(294/515). Type A showed normal liver in 49.7%, abnormal liver in 50.3% and there was not statistically significant difference between normal and abnormal liver(p>0.05). Type B showed normal liver in 29.8% and abnormal liver in 70.2%;type C showed normal liver in 17.6%, abnormal liver in 82.4% and there was a statistically significant difference between normal and abnormal liver(P<0.001). The space occupying lesion(SOL) was most common(52.6%) in all the abnormal livers and hepatoma was the most common disease in the SOL(47.2%). In the abnormal type C liver, SOL(58%) and diffuse hepatopathy(32.8%) were

  15. Lesions to the left lateral prefrontal cortex impair decision threshold adjustment for lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Royce; Riès, Stéphanie; Van Maanen, Leendert; Alario, F-Xavier

    Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data. We also compare the results to healthy speakers. Analysis of the cognitive parameters indicates an impairment of the PFC patients to appropriately adjust their decision threshold, in order to handle the increased item difficulty that is introduced by semantic interference. Also, the modelling contributes to other topics in psycholinguistic theory, in which specific effects are observed on the cognitive parameters according to item familiarization, and the opposing effects of priming (lower threshold) and semantic interference (lower drift) which are found to depend on repetition. These results are developed for the blocked-cyclic picture naming paradigm, in which pictures are presented within semantically homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (HET) blocks, and are repeated several times per block. Overall, the results are in agreement with a role of the left PFC in adjusting the decision threshold for lexical selection in language production.

  16. Lateralization in the invertebrate brain: left-right asymmetry of olfaction in bumble bee, Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Anfora

    Full Text Available Brain and behavioural lateralization at the population level has been recently hypothesized to have evolved under social selective pressures as a strategy to optimize coordination among asymmetrical individuals. Evidence for this hypothesis have been collected in Hymenoptera: eusocial honey bees showed olfactory lateralization at the population level, whereas solitary mason bees only showed individual-level olfactory lateralization. Here we investigated lateralization of odour detection and learning in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris L., an annual eusocial species of Hymenoptera. By training bumble bees on the proboscis extension reflex paradigm with only one antenna in use, we provided the very first evidence of asymmetrical performance favouring the right antenna in responding to learned odours in this species. Electroantennographic responses did not reveal significant antennal asymmetries in odour detection, whereas morphological counting of olfactory sensilla showed a predominance in the number of olfactory sensilla trichodea type A in the right antenna. The occurrence of a population level asymmetry in olfactory learning of bumble bee provides new information on the relationship between social behaviour and the evolution of population-level asymmetries in animals.

  17. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  18. Aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seok; Kang, Mi Jin; Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jin Hae; Lee, Han Bee; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kang, Tae Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant origins of the pulmonary artery are rare anomalies, but are being reported several times in the world literature. Among them, pulmonary artery sling is the most well known anomaly, which is the left pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery. In case of pulmonary artery sling, the left pulmonary artery causes compression of the trachea and esophagus while it courses in between. In this case, we describe a case on incidentally found aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery without any compressions of the esophagus or trachea. In the world literature, aberrant origins of the left pulmonary artery without pulmonary artery sling was reported at one time, but currently, this is the first case of aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery.

  19. Aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Seok; Kang, Mi Jin; Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jin Hae; Lee, Han Bee; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kang, Tae Kyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Aberrant origins of the pulmonary artery are rare anomalies, but are being reported several times in the world literature. Among them, pulmonary artery sling is the most well known anomaly, which is the left pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery. In case of pulmonary artery sling, the left pulmonary artery causes compression of the trachea and esophagus while it courses in between. In this case, we describe a case on incidentally found aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery without any compressions of the esophagus or trachea. In the world literature, aberrant origins of the left pulmonary artery without pulmonary artery sling was reported at one time, but currently, this is the first case of aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery.

  20. Case report 400: Unilateral fusion of odontoid to lateral mass of C1 with pseudoarthrosis on left

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyska, M; Margulies, J Y; Gomori, J M; Beauvoir, G

    1986-11-01

    A case is described of a 19-year-old woman who presented with pain in the neck of several months duration. Torticolis and limitation of rotation of the head and neck to the right were observed. Plain films of the cervical spine were interpreted as normal, but plain film tomography and CT studies demonstrated an unusual anomaly, consisting of fusion of the odontoid process to the right lateral mass of C1 and a pseudoarthrosis in the anterior mass on the left side. (orig./SHA).

  1. Rivaroxaban as an Antithrombotic Agent in a Patient With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Seecheran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of left ventricular (LV thrombi in the setting of an anterior myocardial infarction has declined significantly since the advent of primary percutaneous coronary intervention coupled with contemporary antithrombotic strategies in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STE-ACS. Despite oral anticoagulation with the currently accepted, standard-of-care vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, major bleeding complications still arise. Rivaroxaban is a novel, direct oral factor X anticoagulant that has several advantageous properties, which can attenuate bleeding risk. We present a case in which a patient successfully underwent a 3-month course of rivaroxaban in addition to his dual antiplatelet regimen of aspirin and ticagrelor for his STE-ACS and LV thrombus with resultant complete dissolution.

  2. Strong rightward lateralization of the dorsal attentional network in left-handers with right sighting-eye: an evolutionary advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Laurent; Zago, Laure; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for spatial attention and its relationships with manual preference strength and eye preference were studied in a sample of 293 healthy individuals balanced for manual preference. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map this large sample while performing visually guided saccadic eye movements. This activated a bilateral distributed cortico-subcortical network in which dorsal and ventral attentional/saccadic pathways elicited rightward asymmetrical activation depending on manual preference strength and sighting eye. While the ventral pathway showed a strong rightward asymmetry irrespective of both manual preference strength and eye preference, the dorsal frontoparietal network showed a robust rightward asymmetry in strongly left-handers, even more pronounced in left-handed subjects with a right sighting-eye. Our findings brings support to the hypothesis that the origin of the rightward hemispheric dominance for spatial attention may have a manipulo-spatial origin neither perceptual nor motor per se but rather reflecting a mechanism by which a spatial context is mapped onto the perceptual and motor activities, including the exploration of the spatial environment with eyes and hands. Within this context, strongly left-handers with a right sighting-eye may benefit from the advantage of having the same right hemispheric control of their dominant hand and visuospatial attention processing. We suggest that this phenomenon explains why left-handed right sighting-eye athletes can outperform their competitors in sporting duels and that the prehistoric and historical constancy of the left-handers ratio over the general population may relate in part on the hemispheric specialization of spatial attention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PREVENTION OF LEFT VENTRICLE SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME WITH ST SEGMENT ELEVATION AFTER CARDIAC REVASCULARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Alyavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of bioflavonoid quercetin (corvitin on left ventricle (LV systolic dysfunction in patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation (ACS+ST after cardiac revascularization.Material and methods. 60 patients with ACS+ST (44,2±1,3 y.o. were examined. Patients were admitted to hospital within 6 hours after complaints beginning. Patients were randomized in two groups. 30 patients of group A had standard therapy and cardiac revascularization. 30 patients of group B received corvitin additionally to standard therapy before cardiac revascularization. Echocardiography initially and stress-echocardiography with dobutamine after status stabilization (at 8-10 days of disease were performed.Results. Dobutamine test (with low and high doses showed myocardial viability in patients of group B. Patients of group A had irreversible LV systolic dysfunction in 32 % of segments. Corvitin slowed down LV dilatation progression in patients with ACS+ST. It resulted in the end-diastolic and end-systolic indexes did not change within 10 days. The LV ejection fraction was more increased in patients of group B in comparison with patients of group A.Conclusion. The early corvitin prescribing has positive effects on LV systolic function and prevents post-reperfusion complications. 

  4. PREVENTION OF LEFT VENTRICLE SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME WITH ST SEGMENT ELEVATION AFTER CARDIAC REVASCULARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Alyavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of bioflavonoid quercetin (corvitin on left ventricle (LV systolic dysfunction in patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation (ACS+ST after cardiac revascularization.Material and methods. 60 patients with ACS+ST (44,2±1,3 y.o. were examined. Patients were admitted to hospital within 6 hours after complaints beginning. Patients were randomized in two groups. 30 patients of group A had standard therapy and cardiac revascularization. 30 patients of group B received corvitin additionally to standard therapy before cardiac revascularization. Echocardiography initially and stress-echocardiography with dobutamine after status stabilization (at 8-10 days of disease were performed.Results. Dobutamine test (with low and high doses showed myocardial viability in patients of group B. Patients of group A had irreversible LV systolic dysfunction in 32 % of segments. Corvitin slowed down LV dilatation progression in patients with ACS+ST. It resulted in the end-diastolic and end-systolic indexes did not change within 10 days. The LV ejection fraction was more increased in patients of group B in comparison with patients of group A.Conclusion. The early corvitin prescribing has positive effects on LV systolic function and prevents post-reperfusion complications. 

  5. Left ventricular ejection fraction to predict early mortality in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Xavier; Théroux, Pierre

    2005-08-01

    Improvement in risk stratification of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a gateway to a more judicious treatment. This study examines whether the routine determination of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) adds significant prognostic information to currently recommended stratifiers. Several predictors of inhospital mortality were prospectively characterized in a registry study of 1104 consecutive patients, for whom an EF was determined, who were admitted for an ACS. Multiple regression models were constructed using currently recommended clinical, electrocardiographic, and blood marker stratifiers, and values of EF were incorporated into the models. Age, ST-segment shifts, elevation of cardiac markers, and the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score all predicted mortality (P model improved the prediction of mortality (C statistic 0.73 vs 0.67). The odds of death increased by a factor of 1.042 for each 1% decrement in EF. By receiver operating curves, an EF cutoff of 48% provided the best predictive value. Mortality rates were 3.3 times higher within each TIMI risk score stratum in patients with an EF of 48% or lower as compared with those with higher. The TIMI risk score predicts inhospital mortality in a broad population of patients with ACS. The further consideration of EF adds significant prognostic information.

  6. Quantification of Right and Left Ventricular Function in Cardiac MR Imaging: Comparison of Semiautomatic and Manual Segmentation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Martin Carreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a semiautomatic segmentation method for the anatomical and functional assessment of both ventricles from cardiac cine magnetic resonance (MR examinations, reducing user interaction to a “mouse-click”. Fifty-two patients with cardiovascular diseases were examined using a 1.5-T MR imaging unit. Several parameters of both ventricles, such as end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV and ejection fraction (EF, were quantified by an experienced operator using the conventional method based on manually-defined contours, as the standard of reference; and a novel semiautomatic segmentation method based on edge detection, iterative thresholding and region growing techniques, for evaluation purposes. No statistically significant differences were found between the two measurement values obtained for each parameter (p > 0.05. Correlation to estimate right ventricular function was good (r > 0.8 and turned out to be excellent (r > 0.9 for the left ventricle (LV. Bland-Altman plots revealed acceptable limits of agreement between the two methods (95%. Our study findings indicate that the proposed technique allows a fast and accurate assessment of both ventricles. However, further improvements are needed to equal results achieved for the right ventricle (RV using the conventional methodology.

  7. Evaluation of state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms for left ventricle infarct from late Gadolinium enhancement MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rashed; Bhagirath, Pranav; Claus, Piet; James Housden, R; Chen, Zhong; Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Sohn, Hyon-Mok; Lara Rodríguez, Laura; Vera, Sergio; Albà, Xènia; Hennemuth, Anja; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Arbel, Tal; Gonzàlez Ballester, Miguel A; Frangi, Alejandro F; Götte, Marco; Razavi, Reza; Schaeffter, Tobias; Rhode, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated the feasibility of late Gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for guiding the management of patients with sequelae to myocardial infarction, such as ventricular tachycardia and heart failure. Clinical implementation of these developments necessitates a reproducible and reliable segmentation of the infarcted regions. It is challenging to compare new algorithms for infarct segmentation in the left ventricle (LV) with existing algorithms. Benchmarking datasets with evaluation strategies are much needed to facilitate comparison. This manuscript presents a benchmarking evaluation framework for future algorithms that segment infarct from LGE CMR of the LV. The image database consists of 30 LGE CMR images of both humans and pigs that were acquired from two separate imaging centres. A consensus ground truth was obtained for all data using maximum likelihood estimation. Six widely-used fixed-thresholding methods and five recently developed algorithms are tested on the benchmarking framework. Results demonstrate that the algorithms have better overlap with the consensus ground truth than most of the n-SD fixed-thresholding methods, with the exception of the Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) fixed-thresholding method. Some of the pitfalls of fixed thresholding methods are demonstrated in this work. The benchmarking evaluation framework, which is a contribution of this work, can be used to test and benchmark future algorithms that detect and quantify infarct in LGE CMR images of the LV. The datasets, ground truth and evaluation code have been made publicly available through the website: https://www.cardiacatlas.org/web/guest/challenges. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to lateral collision in signalized intersections with protected left turn under different traffic control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midenet, Sophie; Saunier, Nicolas; Boillot, Florence

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposes an original definition of the exposure to lateral collision in signalized intersections and discusses the results of a real world experiment. This exposure is defined as the duration of situations where the stream that is given the right-of-way goes through the conflict zone while road users are waiting in the cross-traffic approach. This measure, obtained from video sensors, makes it possible to compare different operating conditions such as different traffic signal strategies. The data from a real world experiment is used, where the adaptive real-time strategy CRONOS (ContRol Of Networks by Optimization of Switchovers) and a time-plan strategy with vehicle-actuated ranges alternately controlled an isolated intersection near Paris. Hourly samples with similar traffic volumes are compared and the exposure to lateral collision is different in various areas of the intersection and various traffic conditions for the two strategies. The total exposure under peak hour traffic conditions drops by roughly 5 min/h with the CRONOS strategy compared to the time-plan strategy, which occurs mostly on entry streams. The results are analyzed through the decomposition of cycles in phase sequences and recommendations are made for traffic control strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of the Retroperitoneal Transpsoas Minimally Invasive Lateral Interbody Fusion on Segmental and Regional Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien V. Le

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion (MIS LIF in the lumbar spine can correct coronal Cobb angles, but the effect on sagittal plane correction is unclear. Methods. A retrospective review of thirty-five patients with lumbar degenerative disease who underwent MIS LIF without supplemental posterior instrumentation was undertaken to study the radiographic effect on the restoration of segmental and regional lumbar lordosis using the Cobb angles on pre- and postoperative radiographs. Mean disc height changes were also measured. Results. The mean follow-up period was 13.3 months. Fifty total levels were fused with a mean of 1.42 levels fused per patient. Mean segmental Cobb angle increased from 11.10° to 13.61° (<0.001 or 22.6%. L2-3 had the greatest proportional increase in segmental lordosis. Mean regional Cobb angle increased from 52.47° to 53.45° (=0.392. Mean disc height increased from 6.50 mm to 10.04 mm (<0.001 or 54.5%. Conclusions. The MIS LIF improves segmental lordosis and disc height in the lumbar spine but not regional lumbar lordosis. Anterior longitudinal ligament sectioning and/or the addition of a more lordotic implant may be necessary in cases where significant increases in regional lumbar lordosis are desired.

  10. Significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with myocardial infarction involving the left circumflex artery. Evaluation by exercise thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koitabashi, Norimichi; Toyama, Takuji; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    The significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with left circumflex artery involvement was investigated by comparing exercise electrocardiography with exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (Tl-SPECT) and the wall motion estimated by left ventriculography. Tl-SPECT and exercise electrocardiography were simultaneously performed in 51 patients with left circumflex artery involvement (angina pectoris 30, myocardial infarction 21). In patients with myocardial infarction, exercise-induced ST depression was frequently found in the V 2 , V 3 and V 4 leads. In patients with angina pectoris, ST depression was frequently found in the II, III, aV F , V 5 and V 6 leads. There was no obvious difference in the leads of ST depression in patients with myocardial infarction with ischemia and without ischemia on Tl-SPECT images. In patients with myocardial infarction, the lateral wall motion of the infarcted area evaluated by left ventriculography was more significantly impaired in the patients with ST depression than without ST depression (p<0.01). Exercise-induced ST depression in the precordial leads possibly reflects wall motion abnormality rather than ischemia in the lateral infarcted myocardium. (author)

  11. Left atrial appendage segmentation and quantitative assisted diagnosis of atrial fibrillation based on fusion of temporal-spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Feng, Jianjiang; Wang, Lei; Yu, Heng; Liu, Jiang; Lu, Jiwen; Zhou, Jie

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present an approach for left atrial appendage (LAA) multi-phase fast segmentation and quantitative assisted diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) based on 4D-CT data. We take full advantage of the temporal dimension information to segment the living, flailed LAA based on a parametric max-flow method and graph-cut approach to build 3-D model of each phase. To assist the diagnosis of AF, we calculate the volumes of 3-D models, and then generate a "volume-phase" curve to calculate the important dynamic metrics: ejection fraction, filling flux, and emptying flux of the LAA's blood by volume. This approach demonstrates more precise results than the conventional approaches that calculate metrics by area, and allows for the quick analysis of LAA-volume pattern changes of in a cardiac cycle. It may also provide insight into the individual differences in the lesions of the LAA. Furthermore, we apply support vector machines (SVMs) to achieve a quantitative auto-diagnosis of the AF by exploiting seven features from volume change ratios of the LAA, and perform multivariate logistic regression analysis for the risk of LAA thrombosis. The 100 cases utilized in this research were taken from the Philips 256-iCT. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can construct the 3-D LAA geometries robustly compared to manual annotations, and reasonably infer that the LAA undergoes filling, emptying and re-filling, re-emptying in a cardiac cycle. This research provides a potential for exploring various physiological functions of the LAA and quantitatively estimating the risk of stroke in patients with AF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with increased infarct size and decreased myocardial salvage in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Christensen, Lars; Lønborg, Jacob; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov

    2017-01-01

    Background--Approximately one third of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which is associated with impaired outcome. However, the causal association between LVH and outcome in STEMI is unknown. We evaluated the association bet...

  13. Left-ventricle segmentation in real-time 3D echocardiography using a hybrid active shape model and optimal graph search approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghai; Abiose, Ademola K.; Campbell, Dwayne N.; Sonka, Milan; Martins, James B.; Wahle, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of the left ventricular shape and motion patterns associated with left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) is essential for diagnosis and treatment planning in congestive heart failure. Real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) used for LVMD analysis is frequently limited by heavy speckle noise or partially incomplete data, thus a segmentation method utilizing learned global shape knowledge is beneficial. In this study, the endocardial surface of the left ventricle (LV) is segmented using a hybrid approach combining active shape model (ASM) with optimal graph search. The latter is used to achieve landmark refinement in the ASM framework. Optimal graph search translates the 3D segmentation into the detection of a minimum-cost closed set in a graph and can produce a globally optimal result. Various information-gradient, intensity distributions, and regional-property terms-are used to define the costs for the graph search. The developed method was tested on 44 RT3DE datasets acquired from 26 LVMD patients. The segmentation accuracy was assessed by surface positioning error and volume overlap measured for the whole LV as well as 16 standard LV regions. The segmentation produced very good results that were not achievable using ASM or graph search alone.

  14. Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces after left lateral temporo-occipital venous infarction: a double dissociation with prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Mohr, Christine; Valenza, Nathalie; Wetzel, Corinne; Landis, Theodor

    2003-04-01

    Right hemisphere dominance in face processing is well established and unilateral right inferior temporo-occipital damage can result in prosopagnosia. Here, we describe a 21-year-old right-handed woman with acute impairment in face recognition that selectively concerned unfamiliar faces, following a focal left lateral temporo-occipital venous infarct. She was severely impaired in discerning that unknown people seen in everyday life were unfamiliar, although she had no difficulty recognizing familiar people. Thus, she had no prosopagnosia, but abnormal 'hyperfamiliarity' for unknown faces. Her difficulty was not accompanied by delusions or deficits in discrimination, identification or memory for faces. Standard neuropsychological testing showed that her recognition of familiar faces was entirely normal. By contrast, her sense of personally knowing faces was severely impaired when unknown faces evoked weak signals of familiarity based on spurious cues, to the extent that she would misattribute fame to faces that were unknown but to which she had been incidentally exposed on a prior occasion. Priming experiments also revealed that, unlike normal subjects, she made familiarity judgements without accessing semantic identity representations. Moreover, in face recognition tests, she generally showed bias in that she relied more on right-hemisphere strategies to identify global traits and less on left-hemisphere processes compared with healthy subjects. This case provides novel evidence for a differential contribution of the two hemispheres to face recognition. Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces might arise from an imbalance between reciprocal hemispheric functions in face recognition, with relative hypoactivation of left hemisphere processes but hyperactivation of right-hemisphere processes for retrieving stored associations about people, linking seen faces to representations of affective and personal relevance. Hence, abnormal bias in attributing some personal meaning to

  15. Method of segmenting inferior horns of lateral ventricles using active contour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Masumi; Koyama, Shuji; Kodera, Yoshie

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the measurement of regional atrophy in the structure of the medial temporal lobe is a promising way to discriminate Alzheimer-type dementia patients from healthy control subjects. There are some reports that the inferior horns of the lateral ventricles are expanded by atrophying the structure of the medial temporal lobe. We developed a technique to automatically detect the region of the inferior horns of the lateral ventricles by gray-level thresholding and morphological processing. However, there were some incorrect regions in this method. Accordingly, we proposed a technique for which active contour models (ACM) were used. Our ACM incorporates the improved edge-based image and the external constraint to improve convergence and to reduce its dependence on initial estimation. In this study, we present the details of an algorithm that traces the contours of the inferior horns of the lateral ventricles and its performance relative to manual methods. The average degree of correspondence between the extract region and manual trace was measured in 30 inferior horns of 15 subjects. The average degree of correspondence of the proposed method was about 4% higher than that of the conventional method. These results suggest that the proposed method is more accurate than the conventional method. (author)

  16. Tempering Proactive Cognitive Control by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Right (but Not the Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroimaging data support the distinction of two different modes of cognitive control: proactive, which involves the active and sustained maintenance of task-relevant information to bias behavior in accordance with internal goals; and reactive, which entails the detection and resolution of interference at the time it occurs. Both control modes may be flexibly deployed depending on a variety of conditions (i.e., age, brain alterations, motivational factors, prior experience. Critically, and in line with specific predictions derived from the dual mechanisms of control account (Braver, 2012, findings from neuroimaging studies indicate that the same lateral prefrontal regions (i.e., left dorsolateral cortex and right inferior frontal junction may implement different control modes on the basis of temporal dynamics of activity, which would be modulated in response to external or internal conditions. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether transcraneal direct current stimulation over either the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the right inferior frontal junction would differentially modulate performance on the AX-CPT, a well-validated task that provides sensitive and reliable behavioral indices of proactive/reactive control. The study comprised six conditions of real stimulation [3 (site: left dorsolateral, right dorsolateral and right inferior frontal junction × 2 (polarity: anodal and cathodal], and one sham condition. The reference electrode was always placed extracephalically. Performance on the AX-CPT was assessed through two blocks of trials. The first block took place while stimulation was being delivered, whereas the second block was administered after stimulation completion. The results indicate that both offline cathodal stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and online anodal stimulation of the right inferior frontal junction led participants to be much less proactive, with such a dissociation

  17. Semi-automatic segmentation of gated blood pool emission tomographic images by watersheds: application to the determination of right and left ejection fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano-Goulart, D.; Collet, H.; Kotzki, P.-O.; Zanca, M.; Rossi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tomographic multi-gated blood pool scintigraphy (TMUGA) is a widely available method which permits simultaneous assessment of right and left ventricular ejection fractions. However, the widespread clinical use of this technique is impeded by the lack of segmentation methods dedicated to an automatic analysis of ventricular activities. In this study we evaluated how a watershed algorithm succeeds in providing semi-automatic segmentation of ventricular activities in order to measure right and left ejection fractions by TMUGA. The left ejection fractions of 30 patients were evaluated both with TMUGA and with planar multi-gated blood pool scintigraphy (PMUGA). Likewise, the right ejection fractions of 25 patients were evaluated with first-pass scintigraphy (FP) and with TMUGA. The watershed algorithm was applied to the reconstructed slices in order to group together the voxels whose activity came from one specific cardiac cavity. First, the results of the watershed algorithm were compared with manual drawing around left and right ventricles. Left ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA with the watershed procedure were not significantly different (p=0.30) from manual outlines whereas a small but significant difference was found for right ejection fractions (p=0.004). Then right and left ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA (with the semi-automatic segmentation procedure) were compared with the results obtained by FP or PMUGA. Left ventricular ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA showed an excellent correlation with those evaluated by PMUGA (r=0.93; SEE=5.93%; slope=0.99; intercept = 4.17%). The measurements of these ejection fractions were significantly higher with TMUGA than with PMUGA (P<0.01). The interoperator variability for the measurement of left ejection fractions by TMUGA was 4.6%. Right ventricular ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA showed a good correlation with those evaluated by FP (r = 0.81; SEE = 6.68%; slope = 1.00; intercept = 0.85%) and were not

  18. Effect of the left lateral recumbent position compared with the supine and upright positions on placental blood flow in normal late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonio, S; Simpanen, A L; Olkkonen, H; Haring, P

    1976-02-01

    The placental blood flow was assessed by the 99mTc accumulation method in 10 normal pregnancies in the left lateral recumbent position accomplished by a 15 degree wedge and in the supine position. The postural change caused a 17% decrease in the mean placental accumulation rate, which was not statistically significant. Ten patients were moved from the left lateral recumbent position to the upright position, which caused a statistically significant 23% decrease in the mean accumulation rate. Other haemodynamic variables studied were the maternal heart rate and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The clinical significance of the haemodynamic changes produced by alterations in posture are briefly discussed.

  19. Lateralization of spatial rather than temporal attention underlies the left hemifield advantage in rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanowicz, Dariusz; Kruse, Lena; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting. In the unilateral task, the targets were presented block-wise in the LVF or RVF only, such that no spatial orienting was needed for target identification. Temporal attention was manipulated in both tasks by varying the T1-T2 lag. The results showed that the LVF advantage disappeared when involvement of stimulus-driven spatial orienting was eliminated, whereas the manipulation of temporal attention had no effect on the asymmetry. In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention, and provide further evidence that the LVF advantage reflects right hemisphere predominance in stimulus-driven orienting of spatial attention. These conclusions fit evidence that temporal attention is implemented by bilateral parietal areas and spatial attention by the right-lateralized ventral frontoparietal network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative right and left ventricular functional analysis during gated whole-chest MDCT: A feasibility study comparing automatic segmentation to semi-manual contouring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coche, Emmanuel; Walker, Matthew J.; Zech, Francis; Crombrugghe, Rodolphe de; Vlassenbroek, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of an automatic, whole-heart segmentation algorithm for measuring global heart function from gated, whole-chest MDCT images. Material and methods: 15 patients with suspicion of PE underwent whole-chest contrast-enhanced MDCT with retrospective ECG synchronization. Two observers computed right and left ventricular functional indices using a semi-manual and an automatic whole-heart segmentation algorithm. The two techniques were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and paired Student's t-test. Measurement reproducibility was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: Ventricular analysis with automatic segmentation was successful in 13/15 (86%) and in 15/15 (100%) patients for the right ventricle and left ventricle, respectively. Reproducibility of measurements for both ventricles was perfect (ICC: 1.00) and very good for automatic and semi-manual measurements, respectively. Ventricular volumes and functional indices except right ventricular ejection fraction obtained from the automatic method were significantly higher for the RV compared to the semi-manual methods. Conclusions: The automatic, whole-heart segmentation algorithm enabled highly reproducible global heart function to be rapidly obtained in patients undergoing gated whole-chest MDCT for assessment of acute chest pain with suspicion of pulmonary embolism.

  1. Maintenance of Segmental Lordosis and Disk Height in Stand-alone and Instrumented Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malham, Gregory M; Ellis, Ngaire J; Parker, Rhiannon M; Blecher, Carl M; White, Rohan; Goss, Ben; Seex, Kevin A

    2017-03-01

    A prospective single-surgeon nonrandomized clinical study. To evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes, by fixation type, in extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) patients and provide an algorithm for determining patients suitable for stand-alone XLIF. XLIF may be supplemented with pedicle screw fixation, however, since stabilizing structures remain intact, it is suggested that stand-alone XLIF can be used for certain indications. This eliminates the associated morbidity, though subsidence rates may be elevated, potentially minimizing the clinical benefits. A fixation algorithm was developed after evaluation of patient outcomes from the surgeon's first 30 cases. This algorithm was used prospectively for 40 subsequent patients to determine the requirement for supplemental fixation. Preoperative, postoperative, and 12-month follow-up computed tomography scans were measured for segmental and global lumbar lordosis and posterior disk height. Clinical outcome measures included back and leg pain (visual analogue scale), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36 physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS). Preoperatively to 12-month follow-up there were increases in segmental lordosis (7.9-9.4 degrees, P=0.0497), lumbar lordosis (48.8-55.2 degrees, P=0.0328), and disk height (3.7-5.5 mm, P=0.0018); there were also improvements in back (58.6%) and leg pain (60.0%), ODI (44.4%), PCS (56.7%), and MCS (16.1%) for stand-alone XLIF. For instrumented XLIF, segmental lordosis (7.6-10.5 degrees, P=0.0120) and disk height (3.5-5.6 mm, Plordosis decreased (51.1-45.8 degrees, P=0.2560). Back (49.8%) and leg pain (30.8%), ODI (32.3%), PCS (37.4%), and MCS (2.0%) were all improved. Subsidence occurred in 3 (7.5%) stand-alone patients. The XLIF treatment fixation algorithm provided a clinical pathway to select suitable patients for stand-alone XLIF. These patients achieved positive clinical outcomes, satisfactory fusion rates, with sustained correction of lordosis and

  2. A combined deep-learning and deformable-model approach to fully automatic segmentation of the left ventricle in cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendi, M R; Kheradvar, Arash; Jafarkhani, Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets is an essential step for calculation of clinical indices such as ventricular volume and ejection fraction. In this work, we employ deep learning algorithms combined with deformable models to develop and evaluate a fully automatic LV segmentation tool from short-axis cardiac MRI datasets. The method employs deep learning algorithms to learn the segmentation task from the ground true data. Convolutional networks are employed to automatically detect the LV chamber in MRI dataset. Stacked autoencoders are used to infer the LV shape. The inferred shape is incorporated into deformable models to improve the accuracy and robustness of the segmentation. We validated our method using 45 cardiac MR datasets from the MICCAI 2009 LV segmentation challenge and showed that it outperforms the state-of-the art methods. Excellent agreement with the ground truth was achieved. Validation metrics, percentage of good contours, Dice metric, average perpendicular distance and conformity, were computed as 96.69%, 0.94, 1.81 mm and 0.86, versus those of 79.2-95.62%, 0.87-0.9, 1.76-2.97 mm and 0.67-0.78, obtained by other methods, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  4. Acute thrombosis during left main stenting using tap technique in a patient presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This case reports the sudden development of large burden of thrombi in the left anterior descending coronary artery immediately following distal left main stenting using TAP technique in a middle aged man who presented with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome despite having been administered 7,500 units of unfractionated heparin and being given 325 mg of aspirin and 60 mg of prasugrel prior to the procedure. The thrombi were managed effectively by giving an intra-coronary high bolus dose of tirofiban (25 mcg/kg) without the need for catheter thrombus extraction. Tirofiban intra-venous infusion was maintained for 18 hours, and the patient was discharged in stable condition on the third day. Importantly there is no controlled study on upstream administration of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in addition to the newer more potent anti-platelet agents in patients with unprotected distal left main disease presenting with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, nor is there any data on safety and efficacy of mandatory usage of injectable anti-platelet agents at the start of a procedure in a catheterization laboratory in such a setting

  5. Acute thrombosis during left main stenting using tap technique in a patient presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Deepak, E-mail: deepaknatarajan@me.com

    2015-06-15

    This case reports the sudden development of large burden of thrombi in the left anterior descending coronary artery immediately following distal left main stenting using TAP technique in a middle aged man who presented with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome despite having been administered 7,500 units of unfractionated heparin and being given 325 mg of aspirin and 60 mg of prasugrel prior to the procedure. The thrombi were managed effectively by giving an intra-coronary high bolus dose of tirofiban (25 mcg/kg) without the need for catheter thrombus extraction. Tirofiban intra-venous infusion was maintained for 18 hours, and the patient was discharged in stable condition on the third day. Importantly there is no controlled study on upstream administration of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in addition to the newer more potent anti-platelet agents in patients with unprotected distal left main disease presenting with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, nor is there any data on safety and efficacy of mandatory usage of injectable anti-platelet agents at the start of a procedure in a catheterization laboratory in such a setting.

  6. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  7. Escape tectonism in the Gulf of Thailand: Paleogene left-lateral pull-apart rifting in the Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H

    2010-01-01

    The Malay Basin represents one of the largest rift basins of SE Asia. Based on a comprehensive 2-D seismic database tied to wells covering mainly Vietnamese acreage, the evolution of the Vietnamese part of the basin is outlined and a new tectonic model is proposed for the development of the basin....... The Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin comprises a large and deep Paleogene pull-apart basin formed through Middle or Late Eocene to Oligocene left-lateral strike-slip along NNW-trending fault zones. The Tho Chu Fault Zone constitutes a significant Paleogene left-lateral strike-slip zone most likely associated......–Strending faults in the central part of the basin. However, the lack of inversion in Vietnamese territory only seems to merit a few kilometers of dextral inversion....

  8. Attention that covers letters is necessary for the left-lateralization of an early print-tuned ERP in Japanese hiragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2015-03-01

    Extensive experience with reading develops expertise in acquiring information from print, and this is reflected in specific enhancement of the left-lateralized N170 component in event-related potentials. The N170 is generally considered to reflect visual/orthographic processing; while modulations of its left-lateralization related to phonological processes have also been indicated. However, in our previous study, N170-like response to Hiragana strings lacked left-lateralization when the stimuli were completely task-irrelevant in rapid-presentation sequences [Okumura et al. (2014). Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings. Neuroreport 25, 410-414]. This suggests that, despite the highly transparent character-to-syllable correspondence, the phonological mapping of Hiragana strings requires some kind of attention toward print. To verify this notion, the present study examined ERPs under the same experimental condition as in the previous study, except that the task required attention to a stimulus attribute (i.e., color). As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited left-lateralized negative deflection in the occipito-temporal region during 130-170ms post-stimulus in comparison to symbol strings, but only when the print had a narrow intercharacter spacing. Moreover, we observed the enhancement of very early occipital ERP in response to words during 70-100ms. The present results suggest that visual attention plays a role in early print processing, which may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie expert as well as impaired reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  10. Segmentation of left ventricle myocardium in porcine cardiac cine MR images using a hybrid of fully convolutional neural networks and convolutional LSTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Icke, Ilknur; Dogdas, Belma; Parimal, Sarayu; Sampath, Smita; Forbes, Joseph; Bagchi, Ansuman; Chin, Chih-Liang; Chen, Antong

    2018-03-01

    In the development of treatments for cardiovascular diseases, short axis cardiac cine MRI is important for the assessment of various structural and functional properties of the heart. In short axis cardiac cine MRI, Cardiac properties including the ventricle dimensions, stroke volume, and ejection fraction can be extracted based on accurate segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) myocardium. One of the most advanced segmentation methods is based on fully convolutional neural networks (FCN) and can be successfully used to do segmentation in cardiac cine MRI slices. However, the temporal dependency between slices acquired at neighboring time points is not used. Here, based on our previously proposed FCN structure, we proposed a new algorithm to segment LV myocardium in porcine short axis cardiac cine MRI by incorporating convolutional long short-term memory (Conv-LSTM) to leverage the temporal dependency. In this approach, instead of processing each slice independently in a conventional CNN-based approach, the Conv-LSTM architecture captures the dynamics of cardiac motion over time. In a leave-one-out experiment on 8 porcine specimens (3,600 slices), the proposed approach was shown to be promising by achieving average mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.84, Hausdorff distance (HD) of 6.35 mm, and average perpendicular distance (APD) of 1.09 mm when compared with manual segmentations, which improved the performance of our previous FCN-based approach (average mean DSC=0.84, HD=6.78 mm, and APD=1.11 mm). Qualitatively, our model showed robustness against low image quality and complications in the surrounding anatomy due to its ability to capture the dynamics of cardiac motion.

  11. Left ventricular filling pressure by septal and lateral E/e' equally predict cardiovascular events in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Joanna Nan; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk

    2017-01-01

    /e'lateral were equally strong predictors of cardiac events; in age- and sex-adjusted models they did not differ in AUC (septal: 0.8385, lateral: 0.8389; p = 0.94) or in continuous NRI (p = 0.84). Models using E/e'average did not improve AUC or NRI, and the intra-individual difference between sites had...... no predictive value (p = 0.79). E/e'septal was generally higher than E/e'lateral, thus age- and sex-specific normal values were reported for both sites for a population free of cardiac events during 10 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Septal and lateral E/e' are equally useful in predicting cardiac events...

  12. Cerebral lateralization of the face-cortical network in left-handers: only the FFA does not get it right

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Henryk; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine; Hanseeuw; Dricot, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Face processing is a function that is highly lateralized in humans, as supported by original evidence from brain lesion studies (Hecaen & Anguerlergues, 1962), followed by studies using divided visual field presentations (Heller & Levy, 1981), neuroimaging (Sergent et al., 1992) and event-related potentials (Bentin et al., 1996). Studies in non-human primates (Perrett et al., 1988; Zangenehpour & Chaudhuri, 2005), or other mammals (Peirce & Kendrick, 2001) support the right lateralization of ...

  13. Cosmetic appreciation of lateralization of peripheral facial palsy: 'preference for left or right, true or mirror image?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, Sjaak; Ingels, Koen; van Heerbeek, Niels; Beurskens, Carien

    2014-09-01

    There have been several studies in the past depicting asymmetry in 'normal' human faces. Evidence supports the fact that the right hemisphere is superior in the recognition of emotions expressed by the human face and indicates a right hemispheric specialization for processing emotional information. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in cosmetic appreciation of a left peripheral facial palsy compared to a right peripheral facial palsy? Pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House-Brackmann II-VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Forty-two patients and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. The primary 'end' point was the most attractive side in the pictures chosen by medical professionals and patients. The secondary 'end' points consisted of the preferences for the mirror or true image, and influences of the House-Brackmann score and age. Medical professionals preferred the photographs from patients with a right and left peripheral facial palsy (PFP) in, respectively, a mean of 44 % (41-48 %) and 56 % (52-59 %) of the pictures (p = 0.02). When comparing mirror and true image, patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror and true image as most attractive in 90 and 10 %, respectively (p 0.05). Subanalysis of patients with a PFP House-Brackmann score V and VI showed that medical professionals did not have a significant preference for a left nor right-sided facial palsy. Patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror image in all cases and patients with a right-sided palsy chose their mirror and true image in resp. 33 and 67 %. The House-Brackmann score (p = 0.52) and age (p = 0.73) of the patients did not influence preferences. This study, demonstrating that medical professionals find a right-sided facial palsy cosmetically less attractive than a left-sided, has

  14. Sagittal Plane Correction Using the Lateral Transpsoas Approach: A Biomechanical Study on the Effect of Cage Angle and Surgical Technique on Segmental Lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikian, Rojeh; Yoon, Sangwook Tim; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Kun Young; Yoon, Caroline; Hutton, William

    2016-09-01

    Cadaveric biomechanical study. To determine the degree of segmental correction that can be achieved through lateral transpsoas approach by varying cage angle and adding anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) release and posterior element resection. Lordotic cage insertion through the lateral transpsoas approach is being used increasingly for restoration of sagittal alignment. However, the degree of correction achieved by varying cage angle and ALL release and posterior element resection is not well defined. Thirteen lumbar motion segments between L1 and L5 were dissected into single motion segments. Segmental angles and disk heights were measured under both 50 N and 500 N compressive loads under the following conditions: intact specimen, discectomy (collapsed disk simulation), insertion of parallel cage, 10° cage, 30° cage with ALL release, 30° cage with ALL release and spinous process (SP) resection, 30° cage with ALL release, SP resection, facetectomy, and compression with pedicle screws. Segmental lordosis was not increased by either parallel or 10° cages as compared with intact disks, and contributed small amounts of lordosis when compared with the collapsed disk condition. Placement of 30° cages with ALL release increased segmental lordosis by 10.5°. Adding SP resection increased lordosis to 12.4°. Facetectomy and compression with pedicle screws further increased lordosis to approximately 26°. No interventions resulted in a decrease in either anterior or posterior disk height. Insertion of a parallel or 10° cage has little effect on lordosis. A 30° cage insertion with ALL release resulted in a modest increase in lordosis (10.5°). The addition of SP resection and facetectomy was needed to obtain a larger amount of correction (26°). None of the cages, including the 30° lordotic cage, caused a decrease in posterior disk height suggesting hyperlordotic cages do not cause foraminal stenosis. N/A.

  15. Coronary perfusion pressure and compression quality in maternal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in supine and left-lateral tilt positions: A prospective, crossover study using mannequins and swine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Satoshi; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Matsuoka, Ryu; Seo, Kohei; Nagatsuka, Masaaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2017-09-01

    The risk of maternal and fetal mortality is high if cardiopulmonary arrest occurs during pregnancy. To assess the best position for maternal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), a prospective randomized crossover study was undertaken, involving basic life support mannequin-based simulation (BLS-MS) and a swine model of pulseless electrical activity (an unstable cardiac state) incorporating a fetal mannequin (PEA-FM). The BLS-MS (performed by certified rescuers) served to evaluate the quality of chest compressions in 30° left lateral tilt (LLT) and supine positions. Based on a 5-point scale, each rescuer subjectively graded their experience. The PEA-FM model was used to compare coronary perfusion pressure readings during CPR in supine, supine with left uterine displacement, 30° LLT, and 30° right lateral tilt positions. Compression rate and correctness of hand position, compression depth, and recoil were measures of compression quality (BLS-MS). Compared with LLT position, supine position enabled correct hand position (rate: 0.99 vs 0.88; p<0.05) and compression depth (rate: 0.76 vs 0.36; p<0.001) significantly more often. Moreover, BLS-MS rescuers found chest compressions significantly easier to perform with the mannequin in supine (vs LLT) position (difficulty score: 1.75 vs 3.95; p<0.001). In the PEA-FM study arm, supine position with left uterine displacement and right lateral tilt positions had the highest and lowest recorded coronary perfusion pressure readings, respectively. Supine position with left uterine displacement is optimal for maternal CPR. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The lateralized arcuate fasciculus in developmental pitch disorders among mandarin amusics: left for speech and right for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xizhuo; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Li, Jiaqi; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2018-05-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics. Compared to age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched controls, amusics demonstrated increased connectivity as reflected by the increased fractional anisotropy in the right posterior AF but decreased connectivity as reflected by the decreased volume in the right anterior AF. Moreover, greater fractional anisotropy in the left direct AF was correlated with worse performance in speech tone perception among amusics. This study is the first to examine the neural connectivity of AF in the neurodevelopmental condition of amusia as a result of disrupted music pitch and speech tone processing. We found abnormal white matter structural connectivity in the right AF for the amusic individuals. Moreover, we demonstrated that the white matter microstructural properties of the left direct AF is modulated by lexical tone deficits among the amusic individuals. These data support the notion of distinctive pitch processing systems between music and speech.

  17. Total resection of any segment of the lateral meniscus may cause early cartilage degeneration: Evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging using T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koji; Arai, Yuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Kato, Kammei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Fujii, Yuta; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform quantitative evaluation of degeneration of joint cartilage using T2 mapping in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after arthroscopic partial resection of the lateral meniscus.The subjects were 21 patients (23 knees) treated with arthroscopic partial resection of the lateral meniscus. MRI was performed for all knees before surgery and 6 months after surgery to evaluate the center of the lateral condyle of the femur in sagittal images for T2 mapping. Ten regions of interest (ROIs) on the articular cartilage were established at 10-degree intervals, from the point at which the femur shaft crossed the lateral femoral condyle joint to the articular cartilage 90° relative to the femur shaft. Preoperative and postoperative T2 values were evaluated at each ROI. Age, sex, body mass index, femorotibial angle, Tegner score, and amount of meniscal resection were evaluated when the T2 value increased more than 6% at 30°.T2 values at approximately 10 °, 20 °, 30 °, 40 °, 50 °, and 60 ° degrees relative to the anatomical axis of the femur were significantly greater postoperatively (3.1, 3.6, 5.5, 4.4, 5.0, 6.4%, respectively) than preoperatively. A >6% increase at 30° was associated with total resection of any segment of the meniscus.Degeneration of the articular cartilage, as shown by the disorganization of collagen arrays at positions approximately 10 °, 20 °, 30 °, 40 °, 50 °, and 60 ° relative to the anatomical axis of the femur, may start soon after arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy. Total resection of any segment of the lateral meniscus may cause T2 elevation of articular cartilage of lateral femoral condyle.

  18. Rapid-Sequence Intubation in the Left-Lateral Tilt Position in a Pregnant Woman with Premature Placental Abruption Utilizing a Videolaryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Nakao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Case - A 24-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital with decreased fetal heart rate. Obstetric examination revealed premature placental abruption; emergent caesarean section was planned under general anesthesia. On entering the operating room, the patient showed severe vital sign deterioration (blood pressure, 75/45 mm Hg; heart rate, 142 beats per minute. As left uterine displacement may worsen the premature placental abruption, the patient was placed in the left-lateral tilt position by rotating the operating table to release compression on the inferior vena cava by theuterus. To avoid circulatory collapse, rapid-sequence intubation was performed in this position. Tracheal intubation was performed with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS videolaryngoscope, AWS; HOYA, Japan to obtain a good laryngeal view and minimize stress from laryngoscopy. After sufficient oxygenation, 120 mg of thiopental was administered. A second anesthesiologist performed cricoid pressure and 50 mg of rocuronium was administered after confirming loss of consciousness. This was followed by insertion of the AWS with a thin intlock into the mouth. Tracheal intubation was performed uneventfully. Discussion - Rapid-sequence intubation in the left-lateral tilted position with the AWS videolaryngoscope may be beneficial for pregnant women with vital sign deterioration.

  19. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J. M.; Ramsey, N.; Rutten, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MM can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on

  20. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional stroop study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional

  1. Experimental study of essential hypertension related to neurovascular compression established by fixation of balloon at the left lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jialin; Xu Jianrong; Luo Qizhong; Zhang Xiaohua; Li Shanquan; Chen Kemin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possible mechanisms of neurogenic hypertension. Methods: With the guide of modern imaging, the hypertensive animal model of pulsatile neurovascular compression was established by fixation of balloon at the entry zone of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves of the left ventrolateral medulla oblongata. Blood pressure and heart rate data were collected at preoperation and one hour, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks of postoperation. Results: The results showed that SBP at postoperation rose by 27.3%, 26.1%, 25.4% and 27.4%, respectively; DBP rose by 18.8%, 20.8%, 20.0% and 20.2%, respectively; MAP rose by 24.2%, 24.1%, 23.2% and 24.8%, respectively; HR rose by 34.9%, 26.7%, 26.9% and 26.1% respectively. Statistically, SBP, DAP, MAP and HR of postoperation significantly increased compared with that of preoperation in hypertension group (F = 9.044, 12,679, 11.306, 16.536, P 0.05). Conclusion: Essential hypertension may by caused by neurovascular compression of ninth and tenth cranial nerves of the left ventrolateral medulla oblongata at the REZ

  2. Left dorso-lateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects cortical excitability and functional connectivity, but does not impair cognition in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajahan, Polash M; Glabus, Mike F; Steele, J Douglas; Doris, Alan B; Anderson, Kay; Jenkins, Jenny A; Gooding, Patricia A; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2002-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for over a decade to investigate cortical function. More recently, it has been employed to treat conditions such as major depression. This study was designed to explore the effects of differential treatment parameters, such as stimulation frequency. In addition, the data were examined to determine whether a change in connectivity occurred following TMS. Fifteen patients with major depression were entered into a combined imaging and treatment experiment with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain perfusion during a verbal fluency task was compared between pre- and poststimulation conditions. Patients were then treated with 80% of motor threshold for a total of 10 days, using 5000 stimuli at 5, 10 or 20 Hz. Tests of cortical excitability and neuropsychological tests were done throughout the trial. Patients generally improved with treatment. There was no perceptible difference between stimulation frequencies, which may have reflected low study power. An increase in rostral anterior cingulate activation after the treatment day was associated with increased functional connectivity in the dorso-lateral frontal loop on the left and the limbic loop on both sides. No noticeable deterioration in neuropsychological function was observed. TMS at the stimulation frequencies used seems to be safe over a course of 5000 stimuli. It appears to have an activating effect in anterior limbic structures and increase functional connectivity in the neuroanatomical networks under the stimulation coil within an hour of stimulation.

  3. Innate collateral segments are predominantly present in the subendocardium without preferential connectivity within the left ventricular wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horssen, Pepijn; Siebes, Maria; Spaan, Jos A E; Hoefer, Imo E; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M

    2014-01-01

    Functional collateral vessels often stem from outward remodelling of pre-existing connections between perfusion territories. Knowledge of the distribution and morphology of innate collateral connections may help in identifying myocardial areas with protection against risk for ischaemia. The coronary network of six healthy canine hearts was investigated with an imaging cryomicrotome. Innate collateral connections ranged from 286 to 1015 μm in diameter. Left ventricular collateral density (number per gram of tissue) was about five in the subendocardium vs. 2.5 in the mid-myocardium (P collateral connections were oriented parallel to the long axis of the heart. For the major coronary arteries, five times more intracoronary than intercoronary connections were found, while their median diameter and interquartile range were not significantly different, at 96.1 (16.9) vs. 94.7 (18.9) μm. Collateral vessels connecting crowns from sister branches from a stem are denoted intercrown connections and those within crowns intracrown connections. The number of intercrown connections was related to the mean tissue weight of the crowns (y = 0.73x − 0.33, r2 = 0.85, P collateral diameter and length were independent of the tissue volumes bridged. We conclude that connectivity and morphology of the innate collateral network are distributed with no preference for intra-or intercrown connections, independent of stem diameter, including epicardial arteries. This renders all sites of the myocardium equally protected in case of coronary artery disease. The orientation of subendocardial collateral vessels indicates the longitudinal direction of subendocardial collateral flow. PMID:24366260

  4. Innate collateral segments are predominantly present in the subendocardium without preferential connectivity within the left ventricular wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horssen, Pepijn; Siebes, Maria; Spaan, Jos A E; Hoefer, Imo E; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M

    2014-03-01

    Functional collateral vessels often stem from outward remodelling of pre-existing connections between perfusion territories. Knowledge of the distribution and morphology of innate collateral connections may help in identifying myocardial areas with protection against risk for ischaemia. The coronary network of six healthy canine hearts was investigated with an imaging cryomicrotome. Innate collateral connections ranged from 286 to 1015 μm in diameter. Left ventricular collateral density (number per gram of tissue) was about five in the subendocardium vs. 2.5 in the mid-myocardium (P collateral connections were oriented parallel to the long axis of the heart. For the major coronary arteries, five times more intracoronary than intercoronary connections were found, while their median diameter and interquartile range were not significantly different, at 96.1 (16.9) vs. 94.7 (18.9) μm. Collateral vessels connecting crowns from sister branches from a stem are denoted intercrown connections and those within crowns intracrown connections. The number of intercrown connections was related to the mean tissue weight of the crowns (y = 0.73x - 0.33, r2 = 0.85, P collateral diameter and length were independent of the tissue volumes bridged. We conclude that connectivity and morphology of the innate collateral network are distributed with no preference for intra- or intercrown connections, independent of stem diameter, including epicardial arteries. This renders all sites of the myocardium equally protected in case of coronary artery disease. The orientation of subendocardial collateral vessels indicates the longitudinal direction of subendocardial collateral flow.

  5. Multiple sclerosis: Left advantage for auditory laterality in dichotic tests of central auditory processing and relationship of psychoacoustic tests with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale-EDSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza López, Yolanda Rebeca; Orozco Peña, Xóchitl Daisy; Pérez Ruiz, Santiago Jesús

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the central auditory processing disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis, emphasizing auditory laterality by applying psychoacoustic tests and to identify their relationship with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale (EDSS) functions. Depression scales (HADS), EDSS, and 9 psychoacoustic tests to study CAPD were applied to 26 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 controls. Correlation tests were performed between the EDSS and psychoacoustic tests. Seven out of 9 psychoacoustic tests were significantly different (P<.05); right or left (14/19 explorations) with respect to control. In dichotic digits there was a left-ear advantage compared to the usual predominance of RDD. There was significant correlation in five psychoacoustic tests and the specific functions of EDSS. The left-ear advantage detected and interpreted as an expression of deficient influences of the corpus callosum and attention in multiple sclerosis should be investigated. There was a correlation between psychoacoustic tests and specific EDSS functions. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. One-year Outcomes in Patients with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Caused by Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion Treated by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Wei; Han, Ya-Ling; Jin, Quan-Min; Wang, Xiao-Zeng; Ma, Ying-Yan; Wang, Geng; Wang, Bin; Xu, Kai; Li, Yi; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2018-06-20

    Very few data have been reported for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) caused by unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) occlusion, and very little is known about the results of this subgroup of patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features and outcomes of patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI for acute ULMCA occlusion. From January 2000 to February 2014, 372 patients with STEMI caused by ULMCA acute occlusion (ULMCA-STEMI) who underwent primary PCI at one of two centers were enrolled. The 230 patients with non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) caused by ULMCA lesion (ULMCA-NSTEMI) who underwent emergency PCI were designated the control group. The main indexes were the major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in-hospital, at 1 month, and at 1 year. Compared to the NSTEMI patients, the patients with STEMI had significantly higher rates of Killip class≥III (21.2% vs. 3.5%, χ 2 = 36.253, P 0.05) and TVR (all P > 0.05) in the intervals of 0-1 month as well as 1 month to 1 year. The results of Cox regression analysis showed that the differences in the independent predictors for MACE included the variables of Killip class ≥ III and intra-aortic balloon pump support for the STEMI patients and the variables of previous MI, ULMCA distal bifurcation, and 2-stent for distal ULMCA lesions for the NSTEMI patients. Compared to the NSTEMI patients, the patients with STEMI and ULMCA lesions still remain at a much higher risk for adverse events at 1 year, especially on 1 month. If a successful PCI procedure is performed, the 1-year outcomes in those patients might improve.

  7. Increased spatial granularity of left brain activation and unique age/gender signatures: a 4D frequency domain approach to cerebral lateralization at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agcaoglu, O; Miller, R; Mayer, A R; Hugdahl, K; Calhoun, V D

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a well-studied topic. However, most of the research to date in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been carried out on hemodynamic fluctuations of voxels, networks, or regions of interest (ROIs). For example, cerebral differences can be revealed by comparing the temporal activation of an ROI in one hemisphere with the corresponding homotopic region in the other hemisphere. While this approach can reveal significant information about cerebral organization, it does not provide information about the full spatiotemporal organization of the hemispheres. The cerebral differences revealed in literature suggest that hemispheres have different spatiotemporal organization in the resting state. In this study, we evaluate cerebral lateralization in the 4D spatiotemporal frequency domain to compare the hemispheres in the context of general activation patterns at different spatial and temporal scales. We use a gender-balanced resting fMRI dataset comprising over 600 healthy subjects ranging in age from 12 to 71, that have previously been studied with a network specific voxel-wise and global analysis of lateralization (Agcaoglu, et al. NeuroImage, 2014). Our analysis elucidates significant differences in the spatiotemporal organization of brain activity between hemispheres, and generally more spatiotemporal fluctuation in the left hemisphere especially in the high spatial frequency bands, and more power in the right hemisphere in the low and middle spatial frequencies. Importantly, the identified effects are not visible in the context of a typical assessment of voxelwise, regional, or even global laterality, thus our study highlights the value of 4D spatiotemporal frequency domain analyses as a complementary and powerful tool for studying brain function.

  8. Comparison of Safety and Effectiveness Between Right Versus Left Radial Arterial Access in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahdy, Mahmoud Farouk; ElMaghawry, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohamed; Kassem, Hussien Heshmat; Said, Karim; Elfaramawy, Amr AbdelAziz

    2017-01-01

    Transradial approach (TRA) is now considered the standard of care in many centres for elective and primary percutaneous intervention (PCI). The use of the radial approach in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients has been associated with a significant reduction in major adverse cardiac events. However, it is still unclear if the side of radial access (right vs. left) has impact on safety and effectiveness of TRA in primary PCI. So this study was conducted to compare the safety, feasibility, and outcomes of right radial access (RRA) vs. left radial access (LRA) in the setting of primary PCI. We retrospectively analysed the data of 400 consecutive patients presenting to our institution with STEMI for whom primary PCIs were performed via RRA and LRA. Mean age of the whole studied population was 57±12.8 years, with male predominance (77.2%). There were 202 cases in the RRA group and 198 in the LRA group, with no significant difference in demographics and clinical characteristics for patients included in both groups. There was no significant difference in procedure success rate (97.5% for RRA vs. 98.4% for LRA; P=0.77). In addition, no significant difference between both approaches was observed in the contrast volume, number of catheters, fluoroscopy time (FT), needle-to-balloon time, post-procedure vascular complications, in hospital reinfarction, stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or death. Right radial access and LRA are equally safe and effective in the setting of primary PCI. Both approaches have a high success rate and comparable needle-to-balloon time. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of diastolic dysfunction severity on global left ventricular volumetric filling - assessment by automated segmentation of routine cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza Dorinna D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine relationships between severity of echocardiography (echo -evidenced diastolic dysfunction (DD and volumetric filling by automated processing of routine cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Background Cine-CMR provides high-resolution assessment of left ventricular (LV chamber volumes. Automated segmentation (LV-METRIC yields LV filling curves by segmenting all short-axis images across all temporal phases. This study used cine-CMR to assess filling changes that occur with progressive DD. Methods 115 post-MI patients underwent CMR and echo within 1 day. LV-METRIC yielded multiple diastolic indices - E:A ratio, peak filling rate (PFR, time to peak filling rate (TPFR, and diastolic volume recovery (DVR80 - proportion of diastole required to recover 80% stroke volume. Echo was the reference for DD. Results LV-METRIC successfully generated LV filling curves in all patients. CMR indices were reproducible (≤ 1% inter-reader differences and required minimal processing time (175 ± 34 images/exam, 2:09 ± 0:51 minutes. CMR E:A ratio decreased with grade 1 and increased with grades 2-3 DD. Diastolic filling intervals, measured by DVR80 or TPFR, prolonged with grade 1 and shortened with grade 3 DD, paralleling echo deceleration time (p 80 identified 71% of patients with echo-evidenced grade 1 but no patients with grade 3 DD, and stroke-volume adjusted PFR identified 67% with grade 3 but none with grade 1 DD (matched specificity = 83%. The combination of DVR80 and PFR identified 53% of patients with grade 2 DD. Prolonged DVR80 was associated with grade 1 (OR 2.79, CI 1.65-4.05, p = 0.001 with a similar trend for grade 2 (OR 1.35, CI 0.98-1.74, p = 0.06, whereas high PFR was associated with grade 3 (OR 1.14, CI 1.02-1.25, p = 0.02 DD. Conclusions Automated cine-CMR segmentation can discern LV filling changes that occur with increasing severity of echo-evidenced DD. Impaired relaxation is associated with prolonged

  10. Impact of early, late, and no ST-segment resolution measured by continuous ST Holter monitoring on left ventricular ejection fraction and infarct size as determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeck, Joost D. E.; Verouden, Niels J. W.; Kuijt, Wichert J.; Koch, Karel T.; Majidi, Mohamed; Hirsch, Alexander; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of ST-segment resolution (STR) early after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), late STR, and no STR for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size (IS) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at

  11. Pediatric liver transplantation using left hepatic segments from living related donors: surgical experience in 100 recipients at Saint-Luc University Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Ahmed A; Bourdeaux, Christophe; Kader, Hesham A; Janssen, Magda; Sokal, Etienne; Lerut, Jan; Ciccarelli, Olga; Veyckemans, Francis; Otte, Jean-Bernard; de Goyet, Jean de Ville; Reding, Raymond

    2006-05-01

    Living-related liver transplantation was developed in the context of deceased donor organ shortage, which is particularly acute for pediatric recipients. This retrospective study analyzes the surgical technique and complications in the first 100 pediatric liver transplantation using left segmental liver grafts from living donors, performed at Saint-Luc University Clinics between July 1993 and April 2002. Pre-operative evaluation in donors and recipients, analysis of the surgical technique, and postoperative complications were reviewed. After a median follow-up period of 2526 days, no donor mortality was encountered, with a minimal morbidity and no long-term sequelae. At one and five yr post-transplantation, the actuarial patient survival rates were 94% and 92%, the corresponding figures being 92% and 89% for graft survival. The incidences of portal vein and hepatic artery thromboses, and of biliary complications were 14%, 1%, and 27%, respectively. Living-related liver transplantation in children constitutes an efficient therapy for liver failure to face the increased demand for liver grafts. Donor morbidity was kept to acceptable incidence, and surgical technique in the recipient needs to be tailored to minimize postoperative complications.

  12. Speech-induced striatal dopamine release is left lateralized and coupled to functional striatal circuits in healthy humans: A combined PET, fMRI and DTI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Herscovitch, Peter; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been recently made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying speech and language control. However, the neurochemical underpinnings of normal speech production remain largely unknown. We investigated the extent of striatal endogenous dopamine release and its influences on the organization of functional striatal speech networks during production of meaningful English sentences using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand [11C]raclopride and functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, we used diffusion tensor tractography (DTI) to examine the extent of dopaminergic modulatory influences on striatal structural network organization. We found that, during sentence production, endogenous dopamine was released in the ventromedial portion of the dorsal striatum, in its both associative and sensorimotor functional divisions. In the associative striatum, speech-induced dopamine release established a significant relationship with neural activity and influenced the left-hemispheric lateralization of striatal functional networks. In contrast, there were no significant effects of endogenous dopamine release on the lateralization of striatal structural networks. Our data provide the first evidence for endogenous dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during normal speaking and point to the possible mechanisms behind the modulatory influences of dopamine on the organization of functional brain circuits controlling normal human speech. PMID:23277111

  13. Timing of metamorphism of the Lansang gneiss and implications for left-lateral motion along the Mae Ping (Wang Chao) strike-slip fault, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, R. M.; Searle, M. P.; Morley, C. K.; Charusiri, P.; Horstwood, M. S. A.; Roberts, N. M. W.

    2013-10-01

    The Mae Ping fault (MPF), western Thailand, exhibits dominantly left-lateral strike-slip motion and stretches for >600 km, reportedly branching off the right-lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and extending southeast towards Cambodia. Previous studies have suggested that the fault assisted the large-scale extrusion of Sundaland that occurred during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, with a geological offset of ˜120-150 km estimated from displaced high-grade gneisses and granites of the Chiang Mai-Lincang belt. Exposures of high-grade orthogneiss in the Lansang National Park, part of this belt, locally contain strong mylonitic textures and are bounded by strike-slip ductile shear zones and brittle faults. Geochronological analysis of monazite from a sample of sheared biotite-K-feldspar orthogneiss suggests two episodes of crystallization, with core regions documenting Th-Pb ages between c. 123 and c. 114 Ma and rim regions documenting a significantly younger age range between c. 45-37 Ma. These data are interpreted to represent possible magmatic protolith emplacement for the Lansang orthogneiss during the Early Cretaceous, with a later episode of metamorphism occurring during the Eocene. Textural relationships provided by in situ analysis suggest that ductile shearing along the MPF occurred during the latter stages of, or after, this metamorphic event. In addition, monazite analyzed from an undeformed garnet-two-mica granite dyke intruding metamorphic units at Bhumipol Lake outside of the Mae Ping shear zone produced a Th-Pb age of 66.2 ± 1.6 Ma. This age is interpreted to date the timing of dyke emplacement, implying that the MPF cuts through earlier formed magmatic and high-grade metamorphic rocks. These new data, when combined with regional mapping and earlier geochronological work, show that neither metamorphism, nor regional cooling, was directly related to strike-slip motion.

  14. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model during anterior and lateral step down tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Contani, Luciane Beatriz Grohs; Lima, Bruna; Rabelo, Nayra Deise dos Anjos; Ferreira, Cintia Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Pulpio Silva; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the reproducibility of the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) when used with healthy adults during two clinical tests, i.e., the Anterior Step Down Test (SDA) and the Lateral Step Down Test (SDL). Five healthy participants (one male and four females, 10 limbs in total) with a mean age of 22.2 (19-30) years were assessed in four sessions of tests conducted at intervals of one week. Two independent examiners performed two of the sessions of each of the tests. For each session (intra-day), nine repetitions of each clinical test (SDA and SDL) were performed. After an interval of three hours, the data were collected again. The tests were conducted again after an interval of one week using the same experimental conditions. The intra- and inter-session repeatabilities of the ranges of motion of the feet were determined according to the standard error of measurement (SEM) for each examiner and for the differences between the examiners. The repeatabilities of the results were high for both of the conducted tests. The SEM results were as follows: 0.47-1.94° for the intra-examiner assessment (SDA), 0.55-2.01° for the inter-examiner comparison (SDA), 0.44-2.43° for the intra-examiner assessment (SDL), and 0.54-1.89° for the inter-examiner comparison (SDL). The OFM model was shown to be reproducible in terms of assessing the range of motion of healthy adults during functional tests (SDA and SDL). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of prone SPET and left lateral (decubitus) planar imaging for inferior wall attenuation artefact in 201Tl myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, M.; Jenkin, B.; Van Every, B.; Kelly, M.J.; Kalff, V.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Inferior wall attenuation artefacts are a major problem in supine SPET (S-S) myocardial perfusion imaging. SPET imaging with the patient lying in the prone position (P-S) and left lateral planar imaging with the patient lying in the right lateral decubitus position (LL) ameliorate this artefact. This study attempts to define the clinical role of P-S and LL imaging in characterizing S-S inferior wall defects. 21 patients with an inferior wall defect on S-S then had LL and rapid P-S imaging. All images were performed with a GE Optima NX gamma camera using GENIE acquisition and processing. All SPETs used 16 stops (32 frames) through 90 deg, with 40 s per stop for SS and 14 s per stop for P-S. LL images were acquired for 150 s. All images were assessed for adequacy and inferior wall scored for 0 = no, 1 mild, 2 moderate and 3 = severe defects. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for matched pairs. All images were adequate for analysis. Significantly fewer defects were seen in P-S vs S-S, LL vs S-S (P 0.88); however; there was a difference (P < 0.05) in the subgroup (n = 7) with moderate defects on S-S imaging but no LL defect. In conclusion, most inferior wall defects seen on S-S imaging can be attributed to either attenuation or true perfusion defects with the use of LL imaging. Prone imaging may only be helpful where the inferior defect is of moderate severity but no LL defect is seen

  16. MR imaging assessment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle: prevalence of segmental anomalous origins in children and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in the lower extremity musculature have been identified, including an anomalous origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Anomalies of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LGN) have been less frequently described, especially in children. To describe the MR imaging appearance, frequency and clinical symptoms associated with anatomic variations of the LGN in children and young adults. A retrospective review of 465 knee MR imaging examinations was performed. The site of origin of the LGN was identified as either normal, lateral segmental anomalous origin (LSAO), or medial accessory anomalous origin (MAAO). The clinical indication for imaging was recorded. An anatomic variation of the LGN was identified in 16 patients (3.4%). Nine patients had LSAO, and five of these had symptoms referable to or abnormalities of the patella. Seven patients had MAAO, and three of these had chronic nontraumatic knee pain. Anatomic variations of the LGN are not rare in young patients, occurring with a frequency of 3.4% in our series. It is unknown whether these anomalies play a role in the etiology of patellofemoral pain or unexplained joint pain in children. (orig.)

  17. MR imaging assessment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle: prevalence of segmental anomalous origins in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M

    2008-12-01

    Variations in the lower extremity musculature have been identified, including an anomalous origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Anomalies of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LGN) have been less frequently described, especially in children. To describe the MR imaging appearance, frequency and clinical symptoms associated with anatomic variations of the LGN in children and young adults. A retrospective review of 465 knee MR imaging examinations was performed. The site of origin of the LGN was identified as either normal, lateral segmental anomalous origin (LSAO), or medial accessory anomalous origin (MAAO). The clinical indication for imaging was recorded. An anatomic variation of the LGN was identified in 16 patients (3.4%). Nine patients had LSAO, and five of these had symptoms referable to or abnormalities of the patella. Seven patients had MAAO, and three of these had chronic nontraumatic knee pain. Anatomic variations of the LGN are not rare in young patients, occurring with a frequency of 3.4% in our series. It is unknown whether these anomalies play a role in the etiology of patellofemoral pain or unexplained joint pain in children.

  18. MR imaging assessment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle: prevalence of segmental anomalous origins in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Variations in the lower extremity musculature have been identified, including an anomalous origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Anomalies of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LGN) have been less frequently described, especially in children. To describe the MR imaging appearance, frequency and clinical symptoms associated with anatomic variations of the LGN in children and young adults. A retrospective review of 465 knee MR imaging examinations was performed. The site of origin of the LGN was identified as either normal, lateral segmental anomalous origin (LSAO), or medial accessory anomalous origin (MAAO). The clinical indication for imaging was recorded. An anatomic variation of the LGN was identified in 16 patients (3.4%). Nine patients had LSAO, and five of these had symptoms referable to or abnormalities of the patella. Seven patients had MAAO, and three of these had chronic nontraumatic knee pain. Anatomic variations of the LGN are not rare in young patients, occurring with a frequency of 3.4% in our series. It is unknown whether these anomalies play a role in the etiology of patellofemoral pain or unexplained joint pain in children. (orig.)

  19. MINIMALLY INVASIVE SINGLE-DOOR PLATE LAMINOPLASTY WITH LATERAL MASS SCREW FIXATION FOR THE UNSTABLE SEGMENT. REPORT OF TWO CASES WITH LONG FOLLOW-UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO SORIANO-SOLÍS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report two cases of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy with monosegmental instability, in which we performed a minimally invasive microsurgical transmuscular approach with tubular retractors to create a single-door plate laminoplasty combined with fixation of the unstable segment with lateral mass screws. Methods: The surgical procedures were performed by the senior author. In both patients, the follow-up was performed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, the Visual Analogue Scale for neck and radicular pain (radVAS, neckVAS, the Neck Disability Index (NDI and the Short Form 36 (SF-36, in the preoperative (preop and postoperative (postop periods, and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. A radiological evaluation also was performed, which included AP, lateral and flexion-extension films at 6, 12 and 24 months and CT-scan at 12 months. Results: Case 1 - preop ODI: 40%, 24 months postop ODI: 4%; preop radVAS: 7, 24 months radVAS: 0; preop neckVAS: 8, postop 24 months neckVAS: 0; preopNDI: 43%, 24 months PostopNDI: 8%; SF-36 - preop Physical Functioning (PF: 40, preop Vitality (VT: 40, preop Emotional role functioning (RE: 33.3, Bodily pain (BP: 51, General Health (GH: 57, Social Functioning (SF: 75; postop PF: 95, VT: 95, RE: 100, BP: 74, GH: 87, SF: 100. Case 2 - preopODI: 46%, 24 months postopODI: 10%; preop radVAS: 7, 24m radVAS: 0; preop neckVAS: 9, postop 24 months neckVAS: 0; preopNDI: 56%, 24 months PostopNDI: 15%; SF-36 - preop PF: 39, VT: 45, RE: 33.3, BP: 50, GH: 49, SF: 70; postop PF: 90, VT: 100, RE: 100, BP: 82, GH: 87, SF: 100. No complications, cervical instability or signs of failed surgery were found trough and at final follow-up at 24 months. We found significant clinical improvement in both patients. Conclusions: Minimally invasive cervical laminoplasty combined with lateral mass screw fixation for the unstable segment is a useful technique in cases with multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy

  20. Late Quaternary slip history of the Mill Creek strand of the San Andreas fault in San Gorgonio Pass, southern California: The role of a subsidiary left-lateral fault in strand switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Katherine J.; Matti, Jonathan; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The fault history of the Mill Creek strand of the San Andreas fault (SAF) in the San Gorgonio Pass region, along with the reconstructed geomorphology surrounding this fault strand, reveals the important role of the left-lateral Pinto Mountain fault in the regional fault strand switching. The Mill Creek strand has 7.1–8.7 km total slip. Following this displacement, the Pinto Mountain fault offset the Mill Creek strand 1–1.25 km, as SAF slip transferred to the San Bernardino, Banning, and Garnet Hill strands. An alluvial complex within the Mission Creek watershed can be linked to palinspastic reconstruction of drainage segments to constrain slip history of the Mill Creek strand. We investigated surface remnants through detailed geologic mapping, morphometric and stratigraphic analysis, geochronology, and pedogenic analysis. The degree of soil development constrains the duration of surface stability when correlated to other regional, independently dated pedons. This correlation indicates that the oldest surfaces are significantly older than 500 ka. Luminescence dates of 106 ka and 95 ka from (respectively) 5 and 4 m beneath a younger fan surface are consistent with age estimates based on soil-profile development. Offset of the Mill Creek strand by the Pinto Mountain fault suggests a short-term slip rate of ∼10–12.5 mm/yr for the Pinto Mountain fault, and a lower long-term slip rate. Uplift of the Yucaipa Ridge block during the period of Mill Creek strand activity is consistent with thermochronologic modeled uplift estimates.

  1. Human liver segments: role of cryptic liver lobes and vascular physiology in the development of liver veins and left-right asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Peeters, Mathijs M. J. P.; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Mommen, Greet M. C.; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    Couinaud based his well-known subdivision of the liver into (surgical) segments on the branching order of portal veins and the location of hepatic veins. However, both segment boundaries and number remain controversial due to an incomplete understanding of the role of liver lobes and vascular

  2. Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalati, Moutaz

    Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from

  3. Myocardial perfusion SPECT in a case of retropulmonary looping of left coronary artery in a baby after arterial switch surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is not a routine investigation in an Indian setting due to under referrals and logistic problems. However, MPI is a frequently performed and established modality of investigation in adults for the identification of myocardial ischemia and viability. We report myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in a case of retropulmonary looping of left coronary artery in a baby after arterial switch surgery. Adenosine stress MPI revealed a large infarct involving anterior segment with moderate reversible ischemia of the lateral left ventricular segment. Coronary angiogram later confirmed left main coronary artery ostial occlusion with retrograde collateral supply from dilated right coronary artery

  4. Contribution of the FUTUREVOLC project to the study of segmented lateral dyke growth in the 2014 rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Rafn Heimisson, Elías; Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Spaans, Karsten; Guðmundsson, Gunnar B.; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Samsonov, Sergey; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; White, Robert S.; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Björnsson, Helgi; Bean, Christopher J.

    2015-04-01

    The FUTUREVOLC project (a 26-partner project funded by FP7 Environment Programme of the European Commission, addressing topic "Long-term monitoring experiment in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept) set aims to (i) establish an innovative volcano monitoring system and strategy, (ii) develop new methods for near real-time integration of multi-parametric datasets, (iii) apply a seamless transdisciplinary approach to further scientific understanding of magmatic processes, and (iv) to improve delivery, quality and timeliness of transdisciplinary information from monitoring scientists to civil protection. The project duration is 1 October 2012 - 31 March 2016. Unrest and volcanic activity since August 2014 at one of the focus areas of the project in Iceland, at the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, near the middle of the project duration, has offered unique opportunities for this project. On 16 August 2014 an intense seismic swarm started in Bárðarbunga, the beginning of a major volcano-tectonic rifting event forming over 45 km long dyke extending from the caldera to Holuhraun lava field outside the northern margin of Vatnajökull. A large basaltic, effusive fissure eruption began in Holuhraun on 31 August which had by January formed a lava field with a volume in excess of one cubic kilometre. We document how the FUTUREVOLC project has contributed to the study and response to the subsurface dyke formation, through increased seismic and geodetic coverage and joint interpreation of the data. The dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, grew laterally for over 45 km at a variable rate, with an influence of topography on the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground

  5. The prognosis of impaired left ventricular systolic function and heart failure in a middle-aged and elderly population in an urban population segment of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Ilan; Mehlsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Frants

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prognosis, total mortality and cardiac morbidity, of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure (HF) in a general population sample.......To determine the prognosis, total mortality and cardiac morbidity, of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure (HF) in a general population sample....

  6. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, Yasuji, E-mail: oshiro4211@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Okinawa Hospital, 20-14 Ganeko 3-chome, Ginowan city, Okinawa 901-2214 (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Ohta, Morio [Department of Surgery, Nakagami Hospital, 6-25-5 Chibana, Okinawa-city, Okinawa 904-2195 (Japan); Teruya, Takao [Second Department of Surgery, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung.

  7. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Yasuji; Murayama, Sadayuki; Ohta, Morio; Teruya, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung

  8. Two-dimensional tracking and TDI are consistent methods for evaluating myocardial longitudinal peak strain in left and right ventricle basal segments in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lstefani, L.Stefani; Ltoncelli, L.Toncelli; Mgianassi, M.Gianassi; Pmanetti, P.Manetti; Vdi, V.Di Tante; Mrvono, M.R.Vono; Amoretti, A.Moretti; Bcappelli, B.Cappelli; Gpedrizzetti, G.Pedrizzetti; Ggalanti, G.Galanti

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial contractility can be investigated using longitudinal peak strain. It can be calculated using the Doppler-derived TDI method and the non-Doppler method based on tissue tracking on B-mode images. Both are validated and show good reproducibility, but no comparative analysis of their results has yet been conducted. This study analyzes the results obtained from the basal segments of the ventricular chambers in a group of athletes. Methods 30 regularly-trained athlete...

  9. Network-wise cerebral blood flow redistribution after 20 Hz rTMS on left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuan-Qi; Xie, Jun; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Chang, Da; Wang, Ze

    2018-04-01

    The repetitive application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been consistently shown to be beneficial for treating various neuropsychiatric or neuropsychological disorders, but its neural mechanisms still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of high-frequency left DLPFC rTMS using cerebral blood flow (CBF) collected from 40 young healthy subjects before and after applying 20 Hz left DLPFC rTMS or SHAM stimulations. Relative CBF (rCBF) changes before and after 20 Hz rTMS or SHAM were assessed with paired-t test. The results show that 20 Hz DLPFC rTMS induced CBF redistribution in the default mode network, including increased rCBF in left medial temporal cortex (MTC)/hippocampus, but reduced rCBF in precuneus and cerebellum. Meanwhile, SHAM stimulation didn't produce any rCBF changes. After controlling SHAM effects, only the rCBF increase in MTC/hippocampus remained. Those data suggest that the beneficial effects of high-frequency rTMS may be through a within-network rCBF redistribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Left Ventricle: Fully Automated Segmentation Based on Spatiotemporal Continuity and Myocardium Information in Cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (LV-FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CMR quantification of LV chamber volumes typically and manually defines the basal-most LV, which adds processing time and user-dependence. This study developed an LV segmentation method that is fully automated based on the spatiotemporal continuity of the LV (LV-FAST. An iteratively decreasing threshold region growing approach was used first from the midventricle to the apex, until the LV area and shape discontinued, and then from midventricle to the base, until less than 50% of the myocardium circumference was observable. Region growth was constrained by LV spatiotemporal continuity to improve robustness of apical and basal segmentations. The LV-FAST method was compared with manual tracing on cardiac cine MRI data of 45 consecutive patients. Of the 45 patients, LV-FAST and manual selection identified the same apical slices at both ED and ES and the same basal slices at both ED and ES in 38, 38, 38, and 41 cases, respectively, and their measurements agreed within -1.6±8.7 mL, -1.4±7.8 mL, and 1.0±5.8% for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively. LV-FAST allowed LV volume-time course quantitatively measured within 3 seconds on a standard desktop computer, which is fast and accurate for processing the cine volumetric cardiac MRI data, and enables LV filling course quantification over the cardiac cycle.

  11. Left is where the L is right. Significantly delayed reaction time in limb laterality recognition in both CRPS and phantom limb pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Haarmeyer, Golo Sung; Blankenburg, Markus; Frettlöh, Jule; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Maier, Christoph

    2010-12-17

    The body schema is based on an intact cortical body representation. Its disruption is indicated by delayed reaction times (RT) and high error rates when deciding on the laterality of a pictured hand in a limb laterality recognition task. Similarities in both cortical reorganisation and disrupted body schema have been found in two different unilateral pain syndromes, one with deafferentation (phantom limb pain, PLP) and one with pain-induced dysfunction (complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS). This study aims to compare the extent of impaired laterality recognition in these two groups. Performance on a test battery for attentional performance (TAP 2.0) and on a limb laterality recognition task was evaluated in CRPS (n=12), PLP (n=12) and healthy subjects (n=38). Differences between recognising affected and unaffected hands were analysed. CRPS patients and healthy subjects additionally completed a four-day training of limb laterality recognition. Reaction time was significantly delayed in both CRPS (2278±735.7ms) and PLP (2301.3±809.3ms) compared to healthy subjects (1826.5±517.0ms), despite normal TAP values in all groups. There were no differences between recognition of affected and unaffected hands in both patient groups. Both healthy subjects and CRPS patients improved during training, but RTs of CRPS patients (1874.5±613.3ms) remain slower (pCRPS patients, uninfluenced by attention and pain and cannot be fully reversed by training alone. This suggests the involvement of complex central nervous system mechanisms in the disruption of the body schema. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The washout rate of (123)I-BMIPP and the evolution of left ventricular function in patients with successfully reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: comparisons with the echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shankar K; Sarai, Masayoshi; Yamada, Akira; Toyama, Hiroshi; Motoyama, Sadako; Harigaya, Hiroto; Hara, Tomonori; Naruse, Hiroyuki; Hishida, Hitoshi; Ozaki, Yukio

    2010-02-01

    The evolution of the oxidative metabolism of (11)C acetate parallels the recovery of left ventricular(LV) contraction following acute myocardial infarction(AMI). This study was designed to unravel, for the first time, the impact of the global washout rate(WR) of (123)I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) on the recovery of LV function followingAMI, as evidenced from conventional echocardiography.Twenty consecutive patients (age: 58 +/- 13 years; 16 males and 4 females) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were enrolled and all of them underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (123)I-BMIPP cardiac scintigraphy was performed at 7 +/- 3 days after admission. The WR was calculated from the polar map and the regional BMIPP defect score was calculated using a 17 segment model. Echocardiography was performed within 24 h of admission and at 3 months to record the ejection fraction (EF), the wall motion score index (WMSI), the ratio of the mitralinflow velocity to the early diastolic velocity (E/E0)and the myocardial performance index (MPI). The mean global WR of the BMIPP was 22.12 +/- 7.22%, and it was significantly correlated with the improvement of the WMSI (r = 0.61, P\\0.004). However,the relative changes of the EF, E/E0 and MPI were not correlated with the WR. The BMIPP defect score (18 +/- 10) was significantly correlated with the WMSI on admission (r = 0.74, P = 0.0002), but the defect score was not correlated with the relative changes of any of the echocardiographic parameters. We proved that the WR of the BMIPP is a promising indicator of improvement of the LV wall motion (WMSI) following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and successful reperfusion.

  13. Time course of infarct healing and left ventricular remodelling in patients with reperfused ST segment elevation myocardial infarction using comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganame, Javier; Messalli, Giancarlo; Dymarkowski, Steven; Abbasi, Kayvan; Bogaert, Jan; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Werf, Frans van de; Janssens, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    To describe the time course of myocardial infarct (MI) healing and left ventricular (LV) remodelling and to assess factors predicting LV remodelling using cardiac MRI. In 58 successfully reperfused MI patients, MRI was performed at baseline, 4 months (4M), and 1 year (1Y) post MI Infarct size decreased between baseline and 4M (p < 0.001), but not at 1Y; i.e. 18 ± 11%, 12 ± 8%, 11 ± 6% of LV mass respectively; this was associated with LV mass reduction. Infarct and adjacent wall thinning was found at 4M, whereas significant remote wall thinning was measured at 1Y. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes significantly increased at 1Y, p < 0.05 at 1Y vs. baseline and vs. 4M; this was associated with increased LV sphericity index. No regional or global LV functional improvement was found at follow-up. Baseline infarct size was the strongest predictor of adverse LV remodelling. Infarct healing, with shrinkage of infarcted myocardium and wall thinning, occurs early post-MI as reflected by loss in LV mass and adjacent myocardial remodelling. Longer follow-up demonstrates ongoing remote myocardial and ventricular remodelling. Infarct size at baseline predicts long-term LV remodelling and represents an important parameter for tailoring future post-MI pharmacological therapies designed to prevent heart failure. (orig.)

  14. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  15. Prognostic validation of a 17-segment score derived from a 20-segment score for myocardial perfusion SPECT interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Daniel S; Abidov, Aiden; Kang, Xingping; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Sciammarella, Maria G; Cohen, Ishac; Gerlach, James; Waechter, Parker B; Germano, Guido; Hachamovitch, Rory

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a 17-segment model of the left ventricle has been recommended as an optimally weighted approach for interpreting myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods to convert databases from previous 20- to new 17-segment data and criteria for abnormality for the 17-segment scores are needed. Initially, for derivation of the conversion algorithm, 65 patients were studied (algorithm population) (pilot group, n = 28; validation group, n = 37). Three conversion algorithms were derived: algorithm 1, which used mid, distal, and apical scores; algorithm 2, which used distal and apical scores alone; and algorithm 3, which used maximal scores of the distal septal, lateral, and apical segments in the 20-segment model for 3 corresponding segments of the 17-segment model. The prognosis population comprised 16,020 consecutive patients (mean age, 65 +/- 12 years; 41% women) who had exercise or vasodilator stress technetium 99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion SPECT and were followed up for 2.1 +/- 0.8 years. In this population, 17-segment scores were derived from 20-segment scores by use of algorithm 2, which demonstrated the best agreement with expert 17-segment reading in the algorithm population. The prognostic value of the 20- and 17-segment scores was compared by converting the respective summed scores into percent myocardium abnormal. Conversion algorithm 2 was found to be highly concordant with expert visual analysis by the 17-segment model (r = 0.982; kappa = 0.866) in the algorithm population. In the prognosis population, 456 cardiac deaths occurred during follow-up. When the conversion algorithm was applied, extent and severity of perfusion defects were nearly identical by 20- and derived 17-segment scores. The receiver operating characteristic curve areas by 20- and 17-segment perfusion scores were identical for predicting cardiac death (both 0.77 +/- 0.02, P = not significant). The optimal prognostic cutoff value for either 20

  16. Anterior corpectomy via the mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach combined with short-segment posterior fixation for single-level traumatic lumbar burst fractures: analysis of health-related quality of life outcomes and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, Alexander A; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Toogood, Paul; Kennedy, Abbey; Birk, Harjus; McClellan, R Trigg; Pekmezci, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The authors present clinical outcome data and satisfaction of patients who underwent minimally invasive vertebral body corpectomy and cage placement via a mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach and posterior short-segment instrumentation for lumbar burst fractures. Patients with unstable lumbar burst fractures who underwent corpectomy and anterior column reconstruction via a mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach with short-segment posterior fixation were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic information, operative parameters, perioperative radiographic measurements, and complications were analyzed. Patient-reported outcome instruments (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12]) and an anterior scar-specific patient satisfaction questionnaire were recorded at the latest follow-up. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women, average age 42 years, range 22-68 years) met the inclusion criteria. Lumbar corpectomies with anterior column support were performed (L-1, n = 8; L-2, n = 2; L-3, n = 2) and supplemented with short-segment posterior instrumentation (4 open, 8 percutaneous). Four patients had preoperative neurological deficits, all of which improved after surgery. No new neurological complications were noted. The anterior incision on average was 6.4 cm (range 5-8 cm) in length, caused mild pain and disability, and was aesthetically acceptable to the large majority of patients. Three patients required chest tube placement for pleural violation, and 1 patient required reoperation for cage subsidence/hardware failure. Average clinical follow-up was 38 months (range 16-68 months), and average radiographic follow-up was 37 months (range 6-68 months). Preoperative lumbar lordosis and focal lordosis were significantly improved/maintained after surgery. Patients were satisfied with their outcomes, had minimal/moderate disability (average ODI score 20, range 0-52), and had good physical (SF-12 physical component score 41.7% ± 10

  17. Renovascular hypertension due to insufficient collateral flow in segmental artery occulusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    We report a case in which a 33-year-old woman with renovascular hypertension due to insufficient collateral flow in segmental renal artery occlusion demonstrated abnormality on captopril renal scintigram. Baseline renal scintigram with DTPA showed normal perfusion and excretion in left kidney and captopril renal scintigram with DTPA showed a focal area of decreased perfusion and delayed clearance in lower half of left kidney, suggesting segmental renal artery stenosis. Selective left renal arteriography showed complete obstruction in proximal portion of anterior segmental artery with multiple small collateral vessels from posterior segmental artery and capsular artery and delayed opacification in lower half of left kidney. These findings are suggestive of segmental hypoperfusion due to insufficient collateral blood flow resulting to positive captopril response. Patient's blood pressure have been controlled well with ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitor and calcium channel blocker for 2 year. Follow-up baseline renal scintigram with MAG3 showed normal perfusion and excretion in left kidney and captopril renal scintigram with MAG3 showed a focal area of decreased perfusion and delayed clearance in lower lateral portion of left kidney, which was smaller size than that of previous renal scintigram. And captopril renal scintigram with DMSA demonstrated a small area of decreased DMSA uptake on this lesion compared to baseline DMSA scintigram

  18. Expanding extension, subsidence and lateral segmentation within the Santorini - Amorgos basins during Quaternary: Implications for the 1956 Amorgos events, central - south Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Hübscher, C.; Papanikolaou, D.; Farangitakis, G. P.; Ruhnau, M.; Lampridou, D.

    2018-01-01

    New bathymetric and seismic reflection data from the Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone in the southern Cyclades have been analysed and a description of the morphology and tectonic structure of the area has been presented. The basins of Anhydros, Amorgos and Santorini-Anafi have been distinguished together with the intermediate Anhydros Horst within the NE-SW oriented Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone which has a length of 60-70 km and a width of 20-25 km. The basins represent tectonic grabens or semi-grabens bordered by the active marginal normal faults of Santorini-Anafi, Amorgos, Ios, Anhydros and Astypalaea. The Santorini-Anafi, Amorgos and Ios marginal faults have their footwall towards the NW where Alpine basement occurs in the submarine scarps and their hangingwall towards the southeast, where the Quaternary sediments have been deposited with maximum thickness of 700 m. Six sedimentary Units 1-6 have been distinguished in the stratigraphic successions of the Santorini-Anafi and the western Anhydros Basin whereas in the rest area only the upper four Units 3-6 have been deposited. This shows the expansion of the basin with subsidence during the Quaternary due to ongoing extension in a northwest-southeast direction. Growth structures are characterized by different periods of maximum deformation as this is indicated by the different sedimentary units with maximum thickness next to each fault. Transverse structures of northwest-southeast direction have been identified along the Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone with distinction of the blocks/segments of Santorini, Anhydros/Kolumbo, Anhydros islet and Amorgos. Recent escarpments with 7-9 m offset observed along the Amorgos Fault indicate that this was activated during the first earthquake of the 7.5 magnitude 1956 events whereas no recent landslide was found in the area that could be related to the 1956 tsunami.

  19. Additive prognostic value of left ventricular ejection fraction to the TIMI risk score for in-hospital and long-term mortality in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue-Biao; Liu, Yuan-Hui; He, Peng-Cheng; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Ying-Ling; Chen, Ji-Yan; Tan, Ning; Yu, Dan-Qing

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the addition of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to the TIMI risk score enhances the prediction of in-hospital and long-term death in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. 673 patients with STEMI were divided into three groups based on TIMI risk score for STEMI: low-risk group (TIMI ≤3, n = 213), moderate-risk group (TIMI 4-6, n = 285), and high-risk group (TIMI ≥7, n = 175). The predictive value was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine risk predictors. The rates of in-hospital death (0.5 vs 3.2 vs 10.3 %, p risk group. Multivariate analysis showed that TIMI risk score (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.04-1.48, P = 0.015) and LVEF (OR 3.85, 95 % CI 1.58-10.43, P = 0.004) were independent predictors of in-hospital death. LVEF had good predictive value for in-hospital death (AUC: 0.838 vs 0.803, p = 0.571) or 1-year death (AUC: 0.743 vs 0.728, p = 0.775), which was similar to TIMI risk score. When compared with the TIMI risk score alone, the addition of LVEF was associated with significant improvements in predicting in-hospital (AUC: 0.854 vs 0.803, p = 0.033) or 1-year death (AUC: 0.763 vs 0.728, p = 0.016). The addition of LVEF to TIMI risk score enhanced net reclassification improvement (0.864 for in-hospital death, p value to TIMI risk score.

  20. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  1. Comparisons of the Pentax-AWS, Glidescope, and Macintosh Laryngoscopes for Intubation Performance during Mechanical Chest Compressions in Left Lateral Tilt: A Randomized Simulation Study of Maternal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Rapid advanced airway management is important in maternal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. This study aimed to compare intubation performances among Pentax-AWS (AWS, Glidescope (GVL, and Macintosh laryngoscope (MCL during mechanical chest compression in 15° and 30° left lateral tilt. Methods. In 19 emergency physicians, a prospective randomized crossover study was conducted to examine the three laryngoscopes. Primary outcomes were the intubation time and the success rate for intubation. Results. The median intubation time using AWS was shorter than that of GVL and MCL in both tilt degrees. The time to visualize the glottic view in GVL and AWS was significantly lower than that of MCL (all P<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between the two video laryngoscopes (in 15° tilt, P=1; in 30° tilt, P=0.71. The progression of tracheal tube using AWS was faster than that of MCL and GVL in both degrees (all P<0.001. Intubations using AWS and GVL showed higher success rate than that of Macintosh laryngoscopes. Conclusions. The AWS could be an appropriate laryngoscope for airway management of pregnant women in tilt CPR considering intubation time and success rate.

  2. Segmental vitiligo with segmental morphea: An autoimmune link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old girl with segmental vitiligo involving the left side of the trunk and left upper limb with segmental morphea involving the right side of trunk and right upper limb without any deeper involvement is illustrated. There was no history of preceding drug intake, vaccination, trauma, radiation therapy, infection, or hormonal therapy. Family history of stable vitiligo in her brother and a history of type II diabetes mellitus in the father were elicited. Screening for autoimmune diseases and antithyroid antibody was negative. An autoimmune link explaining the co-occurrence has been proposed. Cutaneous mosiacism could explain the presence of both the pathologies in a segmental distribution.

  3. Cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda Myocardial revascularization surgery through left anterolateral minithoracotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Filho

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1995 a fevereiro de 1996, 16 pacientes selecionados foram submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda. Em todos os casos a artéria torácica interna esquerda foi dissecada, para posterior anastomose com o ramo interventricular anterior (RIA sem a utilização de circulação extracorpórea. A idade variou de 43 a 77, com média de 60 anos. Sessenta e dois por cento dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Não houve complicações tais como: hemorragias, acidente vascular cerebral, insuficiência renal aguda, mediastinite ou infarto agudo do miocárdio. Não houve mortalidade no grupo em questão. Em 4 (25% pacientes foi realizado estudo hemodinâmico, que demostrou uma normalidade da anastomose da artéria torácica interna para o ramo interventricular anterior. Devido aos excelentes resultados iniciais, acreditamos que este procedimento possa ser empregado com maior freqüência e com a familiarização dos grupos cirúrgicos, e que as artérias diagonais e marginais da circunflexa possam ser beneficiadas com este tipo de procedimento.Between October 1995 and February 1996, sixteen patients were selected to undergo to surgical myocardial revascularization through left anterolateral minithoracotomy. The left internal thoracic artery was dissected in all patients, for consecutive anastomosis with interventricular anterior artery, without using extracorporeal circulation. Patients age ranged from 43 to 77, average 60 years. Sixty-two percent of them were men. There were no complications such as: acute myocardial infarction, mediastinitis, acute renal failure, hemorrhagy or stroke. There were no deaths. Four (25% patients were submitted to cardiac catheterization that showed patency of grafts and grafted native arteries. Due to excellent initial results, the authors believe that this technique can be employed with greater frequency and that its use can be

  4. Quantitative description of the regional mechanics of the left atria by electroanatomical mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuklik, Pawel; Molaee, Payman; Brooks, Anthony G; John, Bobby; Worthley, Stephen G; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2010-01-01

    The left atrium is a complex chamber, which plays an integral role in the maintenance of physiologic hemodynamic and electrical stability of the heart and is involved in many disease states, most commonly atrial fibrillation. Preserving regions of the left atrium that contribute the greatest to atrial mechanical function during curative strategies for atrial fibrillation are important. We present here a new application of the CARTO electroanatomical mapping system in the assessment of the left atria mechanical function. Electroanatomical data were collected in course of the electrophysiological procedure in 11 control patients and 12 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The three-dimensional geometry of the left atria was reconstructed in 10 ms intervals and segmented into distinct regions. For each segment, a regional ejection fraction was calculated. We found that anterior, septal and lateral segments have significantly greater regional ejection fraction than atria roof, inferior and posterior segments. Therefore, we hypothesize that in order to minimize the impact on atrial mechanical function, an important determinant of thromboembolic risk, damage should be minimized to these atrial regions

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik

    2007-01-01

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI

  7. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  8. Atlas-based segmentation technique incorporating inter-observer delineation uncertainty for whole breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L R; Pogson, E M; Metcalfe, P; Holloway, L; Dowling, J A

    2017-01-01

    Accurate, efficient auto-segmentation methods are essential for the clinical efficacy of adaptive radiotherapy delivered with highly conformal techniques. Current atlas based auto-segmentation techniques are adequate in this respect, however fail to account for inter-observer variation. An atlas-based segmentation method that incorporates inter-observer variation is proposed. This method is validated for a whole breast radiotherapy cohort containing 28 CT datasets with CTVs delineated by eight observers. To optimise atlas accuracy, the cohort was divided into categories by mean body mass index and laterality, with atlas’ generated for each in a leave-one-out approach. Observer CTVs were merged and thresholded to generate an auto-segmentation model representing both inter-observer and inter-patient differences. For each category, the atlas was registered to the left-out dataset to enable propagation of the auto-segmentation from atlas space. Auto-segmentation time was recorded. The segmentation was compared to the gold-standard contour using the dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean absolute surface distance (MASD). Comparison with the smallest and largest CTV was also made. This atlas-based auto-segmentation method incorporating inter-observer variation was shown to be efficient (<4min) and accurate for whole breast radiotherapy, with good agreement (DSC>0.7, MASD <9.3mm) between the auto-segmented contours and CTV volumes. (paper)

  9. Regional left ventricular contractile dynamics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy estimated by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    1994-01-01

    To assess the regional myocardial function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), I examined the systolic wall thickening (%WT) and percent change of segmental wall area (%AR) using cine magnetic resonance imaging in 23 normal volunteers (G1) and 40 patients (G2) with HCM. Short axis images of the left ventricle were recorded at the base and the apex, and were divided into 5 segments, and %WT and %AR were measured for each segment. There were no significant differences in %WT and %AR among the segments in G1, while %WT of the posterior septum, posterior and lateral segments in the apex were higher than the corresponding segments of the base. Wall segments of G2 were classified into 3 groups according to the end-diastolic wall thickness: G2a, ≤12 mm; G2b, 12 15. At each slice level, %WT and %AR were highest in G2a and lowest in G2c. These findings suggest that myocardial shortening in normal subjects is higher in the apex than in the base, and, in HCM, regional myocardial function decreases in association with an advance of hypertrophy, with a possible compensatory increased wall function of normal segments. (author)

  10. A new 4-variable formula to differentiate normal variant ST segment elevation in V2-V4 (early repolarization) from subtle left anterior descending coronary occlusion - Adding QRS amplitude of V2 improves the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Brian E; Khalil, Ayesha; Henry, Timothy; Kazmi, Faraz; Adil, Amina; Smith, Stephen W

    Precordial normal variant ST elevation (NV-STE), previously often called "early repolarization," may be difficult to differentiate from subtle ischemic STE due to left anterior descending (LAD) occlusion. We previously derived and validated a logistic regression formula that was far superior to STE alone for differentiating the two entities on the ECG. The tool uses R-wave amplitude in lead V4 (RAV4), ST elevation at 60 ms after the J-point in lead V3 (STE60V3) and the computerized Bazett-corrected QT interval (QTc-B). The 3-variable formula is: 1.196 x STE60V3 + 0.059 × QTc-B - 0.326 × RAV4 with a value ≥23.4 likely to be acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Adding QRS voltage in V2 (QRSV2) would improve the accuracy of the formula. 355 consecutive cases of proven LAD occlusion were reviewed, and those that were obvious ST elevation myocardial infarction were excluded. Exclusion was based on one straight or convex ST segment in V2-V6, 1 millimeter of summed inferior ST depression, any anterior ST depression, Q-waves, "terminal QRS distortion," or any ST elevation >5 mm. The NV-STE group comprised emergency department patients with chest pain who ruled out for AMI by serial troponins, had a cardiologist ECG read of "NV-STE," and had at least 1 mm of STE in V2 and V3. R-wave amplitude in lead V4 (RAV4), ST elevation at 60 ms after the J-point in lead V3 (STE60V3) and the computerized Bazett-corrected QT interval (QTc-B) had previously been measured in all ECGs; physicians blinded to outcome then measured QRSV2 in all ECGs. A 4-variable formula was derived to more accurately classify LAD occlusion vs. NV-STE and optimize area under the curve (AUC) and compared with the previous 3-variable formula. There were 143 subtle LAD occlusions and 171 NV-STE. A low QRSV2 added diagnostic utility. The derived 4-variable formula is: 0.052*QTc-B - 0.151*QRSV2 - 0.268*RV4 + 1.062*STE60V3. The 3-variable formula had an AUC of 0.9538 vs. 0.9686 for the 4-variable formula (p = 0

  11. Bookshelf faulting and transform motion between rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. G.; White, R. S.; Greenfield, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Plate spreading is segmented on length scales from 10 - 1,000 kilometres. Where spreading segments are offset, extensional motion has to transfer from one segment to another. In classical plate tectonics, mid-ocean ridge spreading centres are offset by transform faults, but smaller 'non-transform' offsets exist between slightly overlapping spreading centres which accommodate shear by a variety of geometries. In Iceland the mid-Atlantic Ridge is raised above sea level by the Iceland mantle plume, and is divided into a series of segments 20-150 km long. Using microseismicity recorded by a temporary array of 26 three-component seismometers during 2009-2012 we map bookshelf faulting between the offset Askja and Kverkfjöll rift segments in north Iceland. The micro-earthquakes delineate a series of sub-parallel strike-slip faults. Well constrained fault plane solutions show consistent left-lateral motion on fault planes aligned closely with epicentral trends. The shear couple across the transform zone causes left-lateral slip on the series of strike-slip faults sub-parallel to the rift fabric, causing clockwise rotations about a vertical axis of the intervening rigid crustal blocks. This accommodates the overall right-lateral transform motion in the relay zone between the two overlapping volcanic rift segments. The faults probably reactivated crustal weaknesses along the dyke intrusion fabric (parallel to the rift axis) and have since rotated ˜15° clockwise into their present orientation. The reactivation of pre-existing rift-parallel weaknesses is in contrast with mid-ocean ridge transform faults, and is an important illustration of a 'non-transform' offset accommodating shear between overlapping spreading segments.

  12. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  13. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  14. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  15. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  16. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  18. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  19. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  20. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  1. Distance measures for image segmentation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Fernando C.; Campilho, Aurélio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of evaluation measures that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. Despite significant advances in image segmentation techniques, evaluation of these techniques thus far has been largely subjective. Typically, the effectiveness of a new algorithm is demonstrated only by the presentation of a few segmented images and is otherwise left to subjective evaluation by the reader. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for differ...

  2. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...

  3. Segmenting Bone Parts for Bone Age Assessment using Point Distribution Model and Contour Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singh Mann, Kulwinder, Dr.

    2018-01-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) is a task performed on radiographs by the pediatricians in hospitals to predict the final adult height, to diagnose growth disorders by monitoring skeletal development. For building an automatic bone age assessment system the step in routine is to do image pre-processing of the bone X-rays so that features row can be constructed. In this research paper, an enhanced point distribution algorithm using contours has been implemented for segmenting bone parts as per well-established procedure of bone age assessment that would be helpful in building feature row and later on; it would be helpful in construction of automatic bone age assessment system. Implementation of the segmentation algorithm shows high degree of accuracy in terms of recall and precision in segmenting bone parts from left hand X-Rays.

  4. A 21.7 kb DNA segment on the left arm of yeast chromosome XIV carries WHI3, GCR2, SPX18, SPX19, an homologue to the heat shock gene SSB1 and 8 new open reading frames of unknown function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonniaux, J L; Coster, F; Purnelle, B; Goffeau, A

    1994-12-01

    We report the amino acid sequence of 13 open reading frames (ORF > 299 bp) located on a 21.7 kb DNA segment from the left arm of chromosome XIV of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Five open reading frames had been entirely or partially sequenced previously: WHI3, GCR2, SPX19, SPX18 and a heat shock gene similar to SSB1. The products of 8 other ORFs are new putative proteins among which N1394 is probably a membrane protein. N1346 contains a leucine zipper pattern and the corresponding ORF presents an HAP (global regulator of respiratory genes) upstream activating sequence in the promoting region. N1386 shares homologies with the DNA structure-specific recognition protein family SSRPs and the corresponding ORF is preceded by an MCB (MluI cell cycle box) upstream activating factor.

  5. Automatic segmentation and disease classification using cardiac cine MR images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M.; Leiner, Tim; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Segmentation of the heart in cardiac cine MR is clinically used to quantify cardiac function. We propose a fully automatic method for segmentation and disease classification using cardiac cine MR images. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was designed to simultaneously segment the left ventricle

  6. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments

  7. Real-time cardiac magnetic resonance cine imaging with sparse sampling and iterative reconstruction for left-ventricular measures: Comparison with gold-standard segmented steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Gabriel C; Erthal, Fernanda; Sabioni, Leticia; Penna, Filipe; Strecker, Ralph; Schmidt, Michaela; Zenge, Michael O; Lima, Ronaldo de S L; Gottlieb, Ilan

    2017-05-01

    Segmented cine imaging with a steady-state free-precession sequence (Cine-SSFP) is currently the gold standard technique for measuring ventricular volumes and mass, but due to multi breath-hold (BH) requirements, it is prone to misalignment of consecutive slices, time consuming and dependent on respiratory capacity. Real-time cine avoids those limitations, but poor spatial and temporal resolution of conventional sequences has prevented its routine application. We sought to examine the accuracy and feasibility of a newly developed real-time sequence with aggressive under-sampling of k-space using sparse sampling and iterative reconstruction (Cine-RT). Stacks of short-axis cines were acquired covering both ventricles in a 1.5T system using gold standard Cine-SSFP and Cine-RT. Acquisition parameters for Cine-SSFP were: acquisition matrix of 224×196, temporal resolution of 39ms, retrospective gating, with an average of 8 heartbeats per slice and 1-2 slices/BH. For Cine-RT: acquisition matrix of 224×196, sparse sampling net acceleration factor of 11.3, temporal resolution of 41ms, prospective gating, real-time acquisition of 1 heart-beat/slice and all slices in one BH. LV contours were drawn at end diastole and systole to derive LV volumes and mass. Forty-one consecutive patients (15 male; 41±17years) in sinus rhythm were successfully included. All images from Cine-SSFP and Cine-RT were considered to have excellent quality. Cine-RT-derived LV volumes and mass were slightly underestimated but strongly correlated with gold standard Cine-SSFP. Inter- and intra-observer analysis presented similar results between both sequences. Cine-RT featuring sparse sampling and iterative reconstruction can achieve spatial and temporal resolution equivalent to Cine-SSFP, providing excellent image quality, with similar precision measurements and highly correlated and only slightly underestimated volume and mass values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  9. Associations Between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lyden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant. The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  10. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E; Kaplan, Jonas T; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant). The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations were found between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  11. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  12. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm 2 in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  13. ST–Segment elevation: Not always an acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors can be primary or metastatic, the latter being more frequent and usually of pulmonary or hematologic origin. These patients’ clinical signs are non-specific and the electrocardiogram (ECG can assume many patterns, among which, ST-segment elevation. Nevertheless, associated occlusion of the coronary arteries is rare in these situations.We present a 79-year-old woman with a history of pulmonary neoplasia who was admitted to the emergency department due to atypical chest pain, cough and worsening dyspnea in the previous 3 days. The ECG revealed an ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral and inferolateral leads, despite normal blood work, namely normal troponin. Due to the disparity between the patient’s symptoms and the ECG findings, a decision was made not to proceed to primary angioplasty, but to further investigate with echocardiography, which revealed a mass localized in the anterolateral and inferolateral left ventricle walls, confirmed by computed tomography. The patient was admitted in the medical ward for symptomatic management. Her clinical condition gradually deteriorated due to the disease’s natural evolution and she died two weeks later.This case highlights the importance to keep in mind differential diagnoses to acute coronary syndromes, when a ST-segment elevation is encountered on an ECG.

  14. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  15. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  16. Hepatic parenchymal atrophy induction for intractable segmental bile duct injury after liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shin; Park, Gil-Chun; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Choi, Young-Il; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-05-01

    Liver resection can result in various types of bile duct injuries but their treatment is usually difficult and often leads to intractable clinical course. We present an unusual case of hepatic segment III duct (B3) injury, which occurred after left medial sectionectomy for large hepatocellular carcinoma and was incidentally detected 1 week later due to bile leak. Since the pattern of this B3 injury was not adequate for operative biliary reconstruction, atrophy induction of the involved hepatic parenchyma was attempted. This treatment consisted of embolization of the segment III portal branch to inhibit bile production, induction of heavy adhesion at the bile leak site and clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube to accelerate segment III atrophy. This entire procedure, from liver resection to PTBD tube removal took 4 months. This patient has shown no other complication or tumor recurrence for 4 years to date. These findings suggest that percutaneous segmental portal vein embolization, followed by intentional clamping of external biliary drainage, can effectively control intractable bile leak from segmental bile duct injury.

  17. Multi-scale hippocampal parcellation improves atlas-based segmentation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew J.; McHugo, Maureen; Heckers, Stephan; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-02-01

    Known for its distinct role in memory, the hippocampus is one of the most studied regions of the brain. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging have allowed for high-contrast, reproducible imaging of the hippocampus. Typically, a trained rater takes 45 minutes to manually trace the hippocampus and delineate the anterior from the posterior segment at millimeter resolution. As a result, there has been a significant desire for automated and robust segmentation of the hippocampus. In this work we use a population of 195 atlases based on T1-weighted MR images with the left and right hippocampus delineated into the head and body. We initialize the multi-atlas segmentation to a region directly around each lateralized hippocampus to both speed up and improve the accuracy of registration. This initialization allows for incorporation of nearly 200 atlases, an accomplishment which would typically involve hundreds of hours of computation per target image. The proposed segmentation results in a Dice similiarity coefficient over 0.9 for the full hippocampus. This result outperforms a multi-atlas segmentation using the BrainCOLOR atlases (Dice 0.85) and FreeSurfer (Dice 0.75). Furthermore, the head and body delineation resulted in a Dice coefficient over 0.87 for both structures. The head and body volume measurements also show high reproducibility on the Kirby 21 reproducibility population (R2 greater than 0.95, p develop a robust tool for measurement of the hippocampus and other temporal lobe structures.

  18. Origins of feeding arteries of hepatocellular carcinoma located near the umbilical fissure of the left hepatic lobe: angiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Shiro; Yamashiro, Masashi; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Yoshida, Miki; Tsuji, Kazunobu; Toshima, Fumihito; Matsui, Osamu

    2012-12-01

    To analyze the origins of the feeding arteries of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) near the umbilical fissure of the left hepatic lobe. Twenty-eight HCCs with a mean ± SD tumor diameter of 3.4 ± 1.0 cm (range 1-4.4 cm) in contact with the right or left side of the umbilical fissure were treated by superselective transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The origins of the tumor-feeding arteries were analyzed with arteriograms and computed tomography or cone-beam computed tomography images obtained during and 1 week after TACE. Twenty-one HCC lesions were located in segment 3 and seven were located in segment 4. Of 21 tumors in segment 3, 13 (61.9%) were supplied by the lateral inferior subsegmental artery (A3), three (14.3%) by the medial subsegmental artery (A4), three (14.3%) by both A4 and A3, one (4.8%) by a branch arising from the left lateral hepatic artery, and one (4.8%) by a branch of the right gastric artery. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A4 were the first branch of A4. Of seven tumors in segment 4, four (57.1%) were supplied by A4 and three (42.9%) by A3. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A3 were the first branch of A3. This study demonstrates crossover blood supply to HCC lesions located near the umbilical fissure, in addition to direct feeding from a separate branch. In particular, the first branch of the opposite subsegmental artery may feed tumors when crossover blood supply is present.

  19. Origins of Feeding Arteries of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located Near the Umbilical Fissure of the Left Hepatic Lobe: Angiographic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: s-miyayama@fukui.saiseikai.or.jp; Yamashiro, Masashi; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Yoshida, Miki; Tsuji, Kazunobu; Toshima, Fumihito [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To analyze the origins of the feeding arteries of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) near the umbilical fissure of the left hepatic lobe. Methods: Twenty-eight HCCs with a mean {+-} SD tumor diameter of 3.4 {+-} 1.0 cm (range 1-4.4 cm) in contact with the right or left side of the umbilical fissure were treated by superselective transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The origins of the tumor-feeding arteries were analyzed with arteriograms and computed tomography or cone-beam computed tomography images obtained during and 1 week after TACE.ResultsTwenty-one HCC lesions were located in segment 3 and seven were located in segment 4. Of 21 tumors in segment 3, 13 (61.9%) were supplied by the lateral inferior subsegmental artery (A3), three (14.3%) by the medial subsegmental artery (A4), three (14.3%) by both A4 and A3, one (4.8%) by a branch arising from the left lateral hepatic artery, and one (4.8%) by a branch of the right gastric artery. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A4 were the first branch of A4. Of seven tumors in segment 4, four (57.1%) were supplied by A4 and three (42.9%) by A3. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A3 were the first branch of A3. Conclusion: This study demonstrates crossover blood supply to HCC lesions located near the umbilical fissure, in addition to direct feeding from a separate branch. In particular, the first branch of the opposite subsegmental artery may feed tumors when crossover blood supply is present.

  20. Segmental fracture of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'hEireamhoin, Sven; Devitt, Brian; Baker, Joseph; Kiely, Paul; Synnott, Keith

    2010-10-01

    A case report is presented. To describe a rare, previously undescribed pattern of spinal injury. This seems to be a unique injury with no previously described injuries matching the fracture pattern observed. This is a case report based on the experience of the authors. The discussion includes a short literature review based on pubmed searches. We report the case of a 26-year-old female cyclist involved in a road traffic accident with a truck resulting in complete disruption of the lumbar spine. The cyclist was caught on the inside of a truck turning left and seems to have passed under the rear wheels. She was brought to the local emergency department where, after appropriate resuscitation, trauma survey revealed spinal deformity with complete neurologic deficit below T12 and fractured pubic rami, soft tissue injuries to the perineum and multiple abrasions. Plain radiology showed a segmental fracture dislocation of her lumbar vertebrae, extending from the L1 superior endplate through to L4-L5 disc space. The entire segment was displaced in both anteroposterior and lateral planes. Computed tomography confirmed these injuries and ruled out significant visceral injury. She was transferred to the national spinal unit (author unit), where she underwent reduction and fixation with rods and screws from T9-S1, using one cross-link. After her immediate postoperative recovery, she was referred to the national rehabilitation unit. Although so-called "en bloc" lumbar fractures have been previously described, the authors were unable to find any injury of this degree in the literature. This rare injury seems to show a pattern of spinal injury previously undescribed.

  1. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Devine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM to explore gray matter (GM asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15 or left-sided limb (n = 15. Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01. Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  2. Summation and Cancellation Effects on QRS and ST-Segment Changes Induced by Simultaneous Regional Myocardial Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives-Borrás, Miquel; Jorge, Esther; Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; Millán, Xavier; Arzamendi, Dabit; Cinca, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous ischemia in two myocardial regions is a potentially lethal clinical condition often unrecognized whose corresponding electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns have not yet been characterized. Thus, this study aimed to determine the QRS complex and ST-segment changes induced by concurrent ischemia in different myocardial regions elicited by combined double occlusion of the three main coronary arteries. For this purpose, 12 swine were randomized to combination of 5-min single and double coronary artery occlusion: Group 1: left Circumflex (LCX) and right (RCA) coronary arteries ( n = 4); Group 2: left anterior descending artery (LAD) and LCX ( n = 4) and; Group 3: LAD and RCA ( n = 4). QRS duration and ST-segment displacement were measured in 15-lead ECG. As compared with single occlusion, double LCX+RCA blockade induced significant QRS widening of about 40 ms in nearly all ECG leads and magnification of the ST-segment depression in leads V1-V3 (maximal 228% in lead V3, p ST-segment elevation in precordial leads (maximal attenuation of 60% in lead V3 in LAD+LCX and 86% in lead V5 in LAD+RCA, p ST-segment elevation in leads V7-V9 was a specific sign of single LCX occlusion. In conclusion, concurrent infero-lateral ischemia was associated with a marked summation effect of the ECG changes previously elicited by each single ischemic region. By contrast, a cancellation effect on ST-segment changes with no QRS widening was observed when the left anterior descending artery was involved.

  3. CT-based manual segmentation and evaluation of paranasal sinuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirner, S; Tingelhoff, K; Wagner, I; Westphal, R; Rilk, M; Wahl, F M; Bootz, F; Eichhorn, Klaus W G

    2009-04-01

    Manual segmentation of computed tomography (CT) datasets was performed for robot-assisted endoscope movement during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Segmented 3D models are needed for the robots' workspace definition. A total of 50 preselected CT datasets were each segmented in 150-200 coronal slices with 24 landmarks being set. Three different colors for segmentation represent diverse risk areas. Extension and volumetric measurements were performed. Three-dimensional reconstruction was generated after segmentation. Manual segmentation took 8-10 h for each CT dataset. The mean volumes were: right maxillary sinus 17.4 cm(3), left side 17.9 cm(3), right frontal sinus 4.2 cm(3), left side 4.0 cm(3), total frontal sinuses 7.9 cm(3), sphenoid sinus right side 5.3 cm(3), left side 5.5 cm(3), total sphenoid sinus volume 11.2 cm(3). Our manually segmented 3D-models present the patient's individual anatomy with a special focus on structures in danger according to the diverse colored risk areas. For safe robot assistance, the high-accuracy models represent an average of the population for anatomical variations, extension and volumetric measurements. They can be used as a database for automatic model-based segmentation. None of the segmentation methods so far described provide risk segmentation. The robot's maximum distance to the segmented border can be adjusted according to the differently colored areas.

  4. Assessment of left ventricular function using 201Tl electrocardiogram-gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikubo, Naotsugu; Tamai, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Advances in computed tomography (CT) technology make it possible to obtain left ventricular wall motion using 3D reconstruction. In this study, we compared the images obtained from CT and 201 Tl electrocardiogram (ECG) gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In 20 patients with ischemic heart disease, we performed 201 Tl ECG gated SPECT (GE Healthcare Millennium VG) and ECG gated CT (Philips Medical Systems Brilliance iCT) to evaluate of left ventricular wall motion during the resting phase. In SPECT, left ventricular images were reconstructed using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. In CT, the images were reconstructed using Virtual Place (AZE Software). The left ventricle was classified into five regions (anterior, lateral, inferior, septal, and apical). The amplitude of the wall motion was classified into five grades according to AHA classification. The values of the wall motion were separately checked by two radiographers. Assessment of left ventricular function myocardial wall movement using the three-dimensional movie display with ECG gated myocardial SPECT data was in agreement with the evaluation by cardiac CT inspection, and corresponded with wall motion in 88 of all 100 segments. SPECT analysis has the same quantity as that of obtained from CT for evaluation of left ventricular wall motion. (author)

  5. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  6. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in a pediatric population with isolated left ventricular non-compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated Left Ventricular Non-compaction (LVNC is an uncommon disorder characterized by the presence of increased trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses. In adults, it has been found that Ejection Fraction (EF decreases significantly as non-compaction severity increases. In children however, there are a few data describing the relation between anatomical characteristics of LVNC and ventricular function. We aimed to find correlations between morphological features and ventricular performance in children and young adolescents with LVNC using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR. Methods 15 children with LVNC (10 males, mean age 9.7 y.o., range 0.6 - 17 y.o., underwent a CMR scan. Different morphological measures such as the Compacted Myocardial Mass (CMM, Non-Compaction (NC to the Compaction (C distance ratio, Compacted Myocardial Area (CMA and Non-Compacted Myocardial Area (NCMA, distribution of NC, and the assessment of ventricular wall motion abnormalities were performed to investigate correlations with ventricular performance. EF was considered normal over 53%. Results The distribution of non-compaction in children was similar to published adult data with a predilection for apical, mid-inferior and mid-lateral segments. Five patients had systolic dysfunction with decreased EF. The number of affected segments was the strongest predictor of systolic dysfunction, all five patients had greater than 9 affected segments. Basal segments were less commonly affected but they were affected only in these five severe cases. Conclusion The segmental pattern of involvement of non-compaction in children is similar to that seen in adults. Systolic dysfunction in children is closely related to the number of affected segments.

  8. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  9. The effect of erythropoietin on healing of obstructive vs nonobstructive left colonic anastomosis: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renda Nurten

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anastomotic leakage is an important problem following primary resection in the left colon and is even more prominent when obstruction is present. We aimed to evaluate the possible effects of erythropoietin on the healing of anastomosis under both obstructive and non-obstructive states. Methods Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. In group I, two cm left colonic resection and primary anastomosis were done. In group II, left colon were completely ligated and 24 hours later animals were re-operated for segmental resection. The same procedures were performed for rats in group III and IV in respect to group I and II and, 500 IU/kg a day erythropoietin were given in the latter two groups for seven days. For the quantative description of anastomotic healing mechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters were employed on the seventh day and the animals were sacrificied. Results Although erythropoietin had positive effects on bursting pressure in group IV when compared to group II, it has no effect in group III. Despite the increased tissue hydroxyproline levels in group IV, erythropoietin failed to show any effects in group III. Erythropoietin had positive effects on neovascularization, fibroblast proliferiation and storage of collagen in group IV. Conclusion We failed to find any direct and evident effects of erythropoietin on healing of left colonic anastomosis. On the other hand, erythropoietin might prevent negative effects of obstruction on healing.

  10. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P.; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M.; Rossum, Albert C. van; Nijveldt, Robin; Kuijer, Joost P.A.; Ven, Peter M. van de; Meine, Mathias; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. (orig.)

  11. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P.; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M.; Rossum, Albert C. van; Nijveldt, Robin [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, and Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ven, Peter M. van de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meine, Mathias [University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick [Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, INSA, CNRS UMR 5520, INSERM U1206, CREATIS, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2017-12-15

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. (orig.)

  12. Aetiological factors in left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateralisation associates the extremities and senses of one side of the body, which are connected by afferent and efferent pathways, with the primary motor and sensory areas of the hemisphere on the opposite side. Dominant laterality denotes the appearance of a dominant extremity or sense in the performance of complex psychomotor activities. Laterality is manifested both as right-handedness or left-handedness, which are functionally equivalent and symmetrical in the performance of activities. Right-handedness is significantly more common than left-handedness. Genetic theory is most widely accepted in explaining the onset of lateralisation. According to this theory, the models of brain organisation asymmetry (anatomical, functional, and biochemical are strongly, genetically determined. However, the inability to clearly demonstrate the association between genetic factors and left-handedness has led researchers to investigate the effects of the environment on left-handedness. Of particular interest are the intrauterine environment and the factors influencing foetal development, of which hormones and ultrasound exposure are the most significant. It has been estimated that an extra five cases of nonright-handed lateralisation can be expected in every 100 males who were exposed to ultrasound in utero compared to those who were not. Socio-cultural pressure on left-handed individuals was much more severe in the past, which is confirmed by scientific findings that left-handedness is present in 13% of individuals in their twenties, while in less than 1% of individuals in their eighties.

  13. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  15. Current status of ultrafast CT to evaluate the left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, R.M.; Rees, M.R.; Maranhao, V.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrafast CT with the cine mode can enable reliable assessment of left ventricular mass and function. Two oblique planar views, the long axis and short axis, are required. Right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, stroke volume and ejection fraction, left ventricular segmental wall motion, and left ventricular mass can be measured. This exhibit emphasizes the methods and pitfalls in acquiring this information. Results from the authors' studies thus far to validate these measurements against reference standards are reviewed

  16. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew S; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; McCombe, Pamela A; Rose, Stephen E; Henderson, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15) or left-sided limb (n = 15). Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left) motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  17. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  18. Pavement management segment consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Dividing roads into "homogeneous" segments has been a major problem for all areas of highway engineering. SDDOT uses Deighton Associates Limited software, dTIMS, to analyze life-cycle costs for various rehabilitation strategies on each segment of roa...

  19. SEGMENTATION OF SME PORTFOLIO IN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namolosu Simona Mihaela

    2013-07-01

    others (risky/ non-profitable etc. may be left aside. This entire shift in strategy is considering also growth potential per sub segment. Examples are provided for different strategies considering growth potential of each sub segment.

  20. Speaker segmentation and clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kotti, M; Moschou, V; Kotropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    07.08.13 KB. Ok to add the accepted version to Spiral, Elsevier says ok whlile mandate not enforced. This survey focuses on two challenging speech processing topics, namely: speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. Speaker segmentation aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream, whereas speaker clustering aims at grouping speech segments based on speaker characteristics. Model-based, metric-based, and hybrid speaker segmentation algorithms are reviewed. Concerning speaker...

  1. Spinal segmental dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mahomed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.

  2. Epicardial distribution of ST segment and T wave changes produced by stimulation of intrathoracic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, P; Cardinal, R; Nadeau, R A; Armour, J A

    1991-06-01

    Sixty-three ventricular epicardial electrograms were recorded simultaneously in 8 atropinized dogs during stimulation of acutely decentralized intrathoracic autonomic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves. Three variables were measured: (1) isochronal maps representing the epicardial activation sequence, (2) maps depicting changes in areas under the QRS complex and T wave (regional inhomogeneity of repolarization), and (3) local and total QT intervals. Neural stimulations did not alter the activation sequence but induced changes in the magnitude and polarity of the ST segments and T waves as well as in QRST areas. Stimulation of the same neural structure in different dogs induced electrical changes with different amplitudes and in different regions of the ventricles, except for the ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerve which usually affected the dorsal wall of the left ventricle. Greatest changes occurred when the right recurrent, left intermediate medial, left caudal pole, left ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerves and stellate ganglia were stimulated. Local QT durations either decreased or did not change, whereas total QT duration as measured using a root-mean-square signal did not change, indicating the regional nature of repolarization changes. Taken together, these data indicate that intrathoracic efferent sympathetic neurons can induce regional inhomogeneity of repolarization without prolonging the total QT interval.

  3. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  4. Optical coherence tomography plaque characterization in a patient with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction after cocaine intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Morten Steen Svarer; Antonsen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2016-01-01

    A 28-year old man presented to the Emergency Department with malaise after cocaine intake. After arrival he developed retrosternal chest pain and the electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevations in V1-V2 and ST segment depressions in V5-V6. An acute coronary angiogram revealed a focal non-occlusive lesion with thrombus in the left anterior descending artery. Supplementary optical coherence tomography (OCT) detected plaque erosion with adherent thrombus to be the responsible underlying pathophysiological mechanism. The patient received an effective antithrombotic regimen. Repeat angiogram with additional OCT one month later documented thrombus resolution and complete restoration of the previously eroded coronary vascular surface area. - Highlights: • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize a coronary artery plaque. • OCT detected coronary plaque erosion in a young male with MI due to cocaine abuse. • OCT was used to document thrombus resolution.

  5. Optical coherence tomography plaque characterization in a patient with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction after cocaine intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Steen Svarer, E-mail: morten.steen.hansen2@rsyd.dk [Emergency Department, Kolding Hospital, Skovvangen 2-8, DK-6000 Kolding (Denmark); Antonsen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Lisette Okkels [Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, DK-5000 Odense (Denmark)

    2016-04-15

    A 28-year old man presented to the Emergency Department with malaise after cocaine intake. After arrival he developed retrosternal chest pain and the electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevations in V1-V2 and ST segment depressions in V5-V6. An acute coronary angiogram revealed a focal non-occlusive lesion with thrombus in the left anterior descending artery. Supplementary optical coherence tomography (OCT) detected plaque erosion with adherent thrombus to be the responsible underlying pathophysiological mechanism. The patient received an effective antithrombotic regimen. Repeat angiogram with additional OCT one month later documented thrombus resolution and complete restoration of the previously eroded coronary vascular surface area. - Highlights: • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize a coronary artery plaque. • OCT detected coronary plaque erosion in a young male with MI due to cocaine abuse. • OCT was used to document thrombus resolution.

  6. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varix draining via the left inferior phrenic vein into the left hepatic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibukuro, Kenji; Mori, Koichi; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Yukako; Tagawa, Kazumi

    1999-01-01

    We encountered a patient with gastric varix draining not via the usual left suprarenal vein but via the left inferior phrenic vein joining the left hepatic vein. Transfemoral balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of the varix was performed under balloon occlusion of the left inferior phrenic vein via the left hepatic vein and retrograde injection of the sclerosing agent (5% of ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix. Disappearance of the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic examination 2 months later.

  7. Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Epicardial Left Ventricular Lead Placement by Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery in Nonresponders to Biventricular Pacing and Previous Chest Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carsten; Chung, Jane M; Mackall, Judith A; Cakulev, Ivan T; Patel, Aaron; Patel, Sunny J; Hoit, Brian D; Sahadevan, Jayakumar

    2018-06-14

    The aim of the study was to study the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of transesophageal echocardiography-guided intraoperative left ventricular lead placement via a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach in patients with failed conventional biventricular pacing. Twelve patients who could not have the left ventricular lead placed conventionally underwent epicardial left ventricular lead placement by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Eight patients had previous chest surgery (66%). Operative positioning was a modified far lateral supine exposure with 30-degree bed tilt, allowing for groin and sternal access. To determine the optimal left ventricular location for lead placement, the left ventricular surface was divided arbitrarily into nine segments. These segments were transpericardially paced using a hand-held malleable pacing probe identifying the optimal site verified by transesophageal echocardiography. The pacing leads were screwed into position via a limited pericardiotomy. The video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach was successful in all patients. Biventricular pacing was achieved in all patients and all reported symptomatic benefit with reduction in New York Heart Association class from III to I-II (P = 0.016). Baseline ejection fraction was 23 ± 3%; within 1-year follow-up, the ejection fraction increased to 32 ± 10% (P = 0.05). The mean follow-up was 566 days. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days with chest tube removal between postoperative days 2 and 5. In patients who are nonresponders to conventional biventricular pacing, intraoperative left ventricular lead placement using anatomical and functional characteristics via a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach is effective in improving heart failure symptoms. This optimized left ventricular lead placement is feasible and safe. Previous chest surgery is no longer an exclusion criterion for a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach.

  8. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Koski, Lisa; Zaidel, Eran; Mazziotta, John; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-03-15

    A cortical network consisting of the inferior frontal, rostral inferior parietal, and posterior superior temporal cortices has been implicated in representing actions in the primate brain and is critical to imitation in humans. This neural circuitry may be an evolutionary precursor of neural systems associated with language. However, language is predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere, whereas the degree of lateralization of the imitation circuitry in humans is unclear. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of imitation of finger movements with lateralized stimuli and responses. During imitation, activity in the inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal cortex, although fairly bilateral, was stronger in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual stimulus and response hand. This ipsilateral pattern is at variance with the typical contralateral activity of primary visual and motor areas. Reliably increased signal in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was observed for both left-sided and right-sided imitation tasks, although subthreshold activity was also observed in the left STS. Overall, the data indicate that visual and motor components of the human mirror system are not left-lateralized. The left hemisphere superiority for language, then, must be have been favored by other types of language precursors, perhaps auditory or multimodal action representations.

  9. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  10. Is performance better when brain functions are typically lateralized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Reint; Zickert, Nele; Beking, Tess; Groothuis, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    Lateralization refers to the dominant involvement of one homologous region of the brain over the other in functional task performance. Direction and strength of lateralization depend on the functional task. It is well known that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere, even in most

  11. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P; Kuijer, Joost P A; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M; van de Ven, Peter M; Meine, Mathias; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; van Rossum, Albert C; Nijveldt, Robin

    2017-12-01

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. • Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.

  12. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  13. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  14. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  15. Specific perfusion pattern in stress 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy of left main coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Shigetoshi; Shibata, Nobuhiko; Kobayashi, Tohru; Fudemoto, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Nakano, Shunichi

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of stress 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy for identifying left main coronary artery disease was evaluated with data from 23 patients with 50% or more narrowing of the left main coronary artery and 56 patients with 75% or more narrowing of the major coronary arteries but without left main coronary artery involvement (no left main coronary artery disease). Quantitative evaluation of stress perfusion scintigrams in all five patients with narrowing of the left main coronary artery of 90% or more showed a characteristic perfusion pattern (left main pattern) of extensive homogeneous defect over the whole anterolateral segment and simultaneous defects in all radii of the high anteroseptal and high posterolateral segments. On the other hand, such a perfusion pattern was noted in only 1 of 18 patients with less than 90% stenosis of the left main coronary artery and in only 1 of 56 patients with no left coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  16. What's Left of the Left-Right Dimension? Why the Economic Policy Positions of Europeans Do Not Fit the Left-Right Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjes, Simon

    2018-01-01

    In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension. There is also a role for the legacy of communist dictatorship: citizens who were socialised in democratic countries have views that fit the left-right dimension better than those socialised during communism.

  17. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illu...

  18. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  19. Effect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage function and thrombotic potential in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçelik, Muhammed Bora; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçekcioğlu, Hülya; Uçar, Özgül; Duran, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage functions, spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In 58 patients with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrilation and preserved left ventricular systolic function, left atrial appendage functions, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast grading and left ventricular diastolic functions were evaluated using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiogram. Patients divided in two groups: Group D (n=30): Patients with diastolic dysfunction, Group N (n=28): Patients without diastolic dysfunction. Categorical variables in two groups were evaluated with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The significance of the lineer correlation between the degree of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and clinical measurements was evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Peak pulmonary vein D velocity of the Group D was significantly higher than the Group N (p=0.006). However, left atrial appendage emptying velocity, left atrial appendage lateral wall velocity, peak pulmonary vein S, pulmonary vein S/D ratio were found to be significantly lower in Group D (p=0.028, patrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities respectively (r=-0.438, r=-0.328, r=-0.233, r=-0.447). Left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities were significantly lower in SEC 2-3-4 than SEC 1 (p=0.003, p=0.029, patrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial appendage functions are decreased in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may constitute a potential risk for formation of thrombus and stroke.

  20. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do. (orig.)

  1. Neogene tectonic block rotations and margin curvature at the Pampean flat slab segment (28º-33º SL, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S Japas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Available paleomagnetic data from the Pampean flat slab segment reveal a heterogeneous rotation pattern that is interpreted herein as the result of the overprinting of late NNW-WNW left-lateral brittle-ductile megashear zones that would be also responsible for the continental margin bending.La base de datos paleomagnéticos disponible para el segmento de losa plana Pampeano revela un patrón de rotaciones heterogéneo como resultado de la sobreimposición de zonas de cizalla frágil-dúctiles regionales, de desplazamiento lateral izquierdo y rumbo NNO a ONO, las que habrían producido además la curvatura del margen continental.

  2. Phase image characterization of ventricular contraction in left anterior hemiblock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akifumi; Mizuno, Haruyoshi; Tahara, Yorio; Ishikawa, Kyozo

    1991-01-01

    We investigated whether or not left anterior hemiblock is present in patients with left axis deviation using first-harmonic Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool images. Gated blood-pool images were taken in 50 patients without contraction abnormality. They included 14 normal subjects, 8 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB), 20 with left axis deviation (LAD) and 8 with both RBBB and LAD (RBBB+LAD). ECG gated blood-pool scans were acquired in the anterior and 'best septal' left anterior oblique projections. First, the phase images were displayed cinematically as a continuous-loop movie. Next, for quantitative analysis of the phase image, the whole left ventricular and left ventricular high lateral regions of interest were drawn. The 'regional phase shift' (RPS) was then defined as {RPS=A-a} where 'A' is the mean value of the whole left ventricular phase angles and 'a' is that of phase angles in the high lateral region. The left ventricular phase changes and the RPSs in the RBBB and LAD groups were similar to those in the normal group. In the RBBB+LAD group, the latest phase changes occurred in the high anterolateral region. The RPSs of this group were significantly lower than those in the other 3 groups (p<0.01). These data suggest that left anterior hemiblock might coexist with RBBB in patients with RBBB+LAD, whereas left anterior hemiblock might not exist in the majority of patients with LAD alone. (author)

  3. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  4. Effect of Mitral Annular Calcium on Left Ventricular Diastolic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codolosa, Jose N; Koshkelashvili, Nikoloz; Alnabelsi, Talal; Goykhman, Igor; Romero-Corral, Abel; Pressman, Gregg S

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function by Doppler flow imaging and tissue Doppler is an integral part of the echocardiographic examination. Mitral annular calcium (MAC) is frequently encountered on echocardiography. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of MAC, quantitatively measured by computed tomography scan, on echocardiographic LV diastolic parameters. We included 155 patients aged ≥65 years. Computed tomography reconstructions of the mitral annulus were created, and calcium identified and quantified by Agatston technique. Calcium locations were assigned using an overlaid template depicting the annular segments in relation to surrounding anatomic structures. Echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function was performed in standard fashion. Mean age was 77 years; 49% were men; and 43% were black. Patients with MAC had lower septal e' (p = 0.003), lateral e' (p = 0.04), and average e' (p = 0.01) compared with those without MAC. They also had a higher E-wave velocity (p = 0.01) and E/e' ratio (p <0.001). When evaluated by severity of MAC, and after adjustment for multiple clinical factors, there was a graded (inverse) relation between MAC severity and septal e' (p = 0.01), lateral e' (p = 0.01), and average e' (p = 0.01). In conclusion, LV diastolic parameters, as measured by Doppler echocardiography, are altered in the presence of MAC. This could be due to direct effects of MAC on annular function or might reflect truly reduced diastolic function. Interpretation of diastolic parameters in patients with MAC should be performed with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of the Myocardial Contraction and Relaxation Velocities through Doppler Tissue Imaging Echocardiography: A New Alternative in the Assessment of the Segmental Ventricular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Carlos Eduardo Suaide

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Doppler tissue imaging (DTI enables the study of the velocity of contraction and relaxation of myocardial segments. We established standards for the peak velocity of the different myocardial segments of the left ventricle in systole and diastole, and correlated them with the electrocardiogram. METHODS: We studied 35 healthy individuals (27 were male with ages ranging from 12 to 59 years (32.9 ± 10.6. Systolic and diastolic peak velocities were assessed by Doppler tissue imaging in 12 segments of the left ventricle, establishing their mean values and the temporal correlation with the cardiac cycle. RESULTS: The means (and standard deviation of the peak velocities in the basal, medial, and apical regions (of the septal, anterior, lateral, and posterior left ventricle walls were respectively, in cm/s, 7.35(1.64, 5.26(1.88, and 3.33(1.58 in systole and 10.56(2.34, 7.92(2.37, and 3.98(1.64 in diastole. The mean time in which systolic peak velocity was recorded was 131.59ms (±19.12ms, and diastolic was 459.18ms (±18.13ms based on the peak of the R wave of the electrocardiogram. CONCLUSION: In healthy individuals, maximum left ventricle segment velocities decreased from the bases to the ventricular apex, with certain proportionality between contraction and relaxation (P<0.05. The use of Doppler tissue imaging may be very helpful in detecting early alterations in ventricular contraction and relaxation.

  6. Effects of fog, driver experience and gender on driving behavior on S-curved road segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wong, S C

    2015-04-01

    Driving on curved roads has been recognized as a significant safety issue for many years. However, driver behavior and the interactions among variables that affect driver performance on curves is complicated and not well understood. Previous studies have investigated various factors that influence driver performance on right- or left-turn curves, but have paid little attention to the effects of foggy weather, driver experience and gender on driver performance on complex curves. A driving simulator experiment was conducted in this study to evaluate the relationships between driving behavior on a continuous S-curve and foggy weather, driver experience and gender. The process of negotiating a curve was divided into three stages consisting of a straight segment, the transition from the straight segment to the S-curve and the S-curve. The experimental results indicated that drivers tended to drive more cautiously in heavy fog, but the driving risk was still increased, especially in the transition stage from the straight segment to the S-curve. The non-professional (NP) drivers were less sensitive to the impending change in the road geometry, and less skilled in both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control than the professional drivers. The NP female drivers in particular were found to be the most vulnerable group in S-curve driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  8. Stress Transfer Processes during Great Plate Boundary Thrusting Events: A Study from the Andaman and Nicobar Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V.; Rajendran, K.

    2010-12-01

    Diglipur (depth: 21 km) and the August 10, 2009, Mw 7.5 normal faulting earthquake near Coco Island (depth: 22 km), within the northern terminus of the 2004 rupture are cited as examples of the alternating pre and post earthquake stress conditions. The major pre and post 2004 clusters were associated with the Andaman Spreading Ridge (ASR). In the Nicobar segment, the most recent earthquake on June 12, 2010, Mw 7.5 (focal depth: 35 km) occurred very close to the plate boundary, through left lateral strike-slip faulting. A segment that does not feature any active volcanoes unlike its northern and southern counterparts, this part of the plate boundary has generated several right lateral strike-slip earthquakes, mostly on the Sumatra Fault System. The left-lateral strike-slip faulting associated with the June 12 event on a nearly N-S oriented fault plane consistent with the trend of the Ninety East ridge and the occasional left-lateral earthquakes prior to the 2004 mega-thrust event suggest the involvement of the Ninety East ridge in the subduction process.

  9. Gated-SPECT myocardial scintigraphy in left bundle branch block: A study in patients with and without coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao, A.M.; Moffa, P.J.; Chalela, W.A.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, C.G.; Kreling, J.C.; Ferreira, B.A.; Uchida, A.H.; Meneghetti, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is a non-invasive method helpful for evaluating coronary heart disease. In left bundle branch block (LBBB), the myocardial scintigraphy frequently reveals septal abnormalities in the absence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and gives rise to 'false-positive' results in patients (pts) with suspected CAD. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic role of ECG-gated SPECT in pts with complete LBBB, with and without known CAD. Methods. This study included 46 pts, 29 women (63%), with mean age 63.8 ± 11.6yr, divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=21 pts) with LBBB and CAD angiographically confirmed and Group 2 (n=25 pts) with LBBB and normal coronangiography. All pts underwent MPS at rest and two stress tests - dipyridamole (DIP) and treadmill exercise test (ET) with Bruce protocol. Myocardial perfusion, wall motility and wall thickening were analyzed qualitatively by consensus of two observers in anterior, septal, inferior, lateral and apical myocardial segments. Scores were attributed to: perfusion as normal, reversible or fixed defects; motility as normal, hypokinesia, akinesia or dyskinesia and thickening if present or absent. The left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) was automatically calculated from the ECG-gated SPECT. Results: The comparative analysis between groups 1 and 2 for both stresses (DIP and ET) for the parameters analyzed in the myocardial segments are presented: LVEF at rest, ET and DIP show statistically significant differences between groups 1 and 2 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: In the anterior and septal segments, only septal thickening was capable of differentiating between LBBB with and without CAD, independent of the kind of stress. In the other segments there was no influence of disturbance conduction for the perfusion analysis

  10. Lung segment geometry study: simulation of largest possible tumours that fit into bronchopulmonary segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, S; Stöcker, C; Dicken, V; Kühl, H; Krass, S; Stamatis, G

    2012-03-01

    Segmental resection in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been well described and is considered to have similar survival rates as lobectomy but with increased rates of local tumour recurrence due to inadequate parenchymal margins. In consequence, today segmentectomy is only performed when the tumour is smaller than 2 cm. Three-dimensional reconstructions from 11 thin-slice CT scans of bronchopulmonary segments were generated, and virtual spherical tumours were placed over the segments, respecting all segmental borders. As a next step, virtual parenchymal safety margins of 2 cm and 3 cm were subtracted and the size of the remaining tumour calculated. The maximum tumour diameters with a 30-mm parenchymal safety margin ranged from 26.1 mm in right-sided segments 7 + 8 to 59.8 mm in the left apical segments 1-3. Using a three-dimensional reconstruction of lung CT scans, we demonstrated that segmentectomy or resection of segmental groups should be feasible with adequate margins, even for larger tumours in selected cases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Segmentation, advertising and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José

    This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two

  12. Sipunculans and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral...

  13. [Successful One-lung Ventilation with a Right-sided Double-lumen Tube in a Patient with a Right Upper Tracheal Bronchus, who Underwent Left Pneumonectomy for Left Hilar Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Izumi; Kohchiyama, Tsukasa; Hayashida, Masakazu; Satoh, Daizoh; Suzuki, Kenji; Inada, Eiichi

    2016-06-01

    A 60-year-old male patient with left hilar lung cancer was scheduled to undergo left pneumonectomy or left sleeve lower lobectomy. Preoperative computer tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations revealed that the bronchus (B1) to the right apical segment (S1) was a tracheal bronchus (TB) originating from the trachea approximately 10 mm above the carina. Because the left main bronchus was to be dissected, a right-sided double-lumen tube (DLT) was selected to completely protect the right lung from spillage of secretions or cancer cells from the left lung. The right-sided DLT was placed so as to fit its lateral opening of the bronchial lumen to normal upper branches (B2, B3), while sacrificing ventilation of S1 with an abnormal branch (B1). However, one-lung ventilation (OLV) of the right lung could not be achieved, since a gas leakage from the opened tracheal lumen occurred, most probably due to intra-lobar micro-airway communications between S1 and S2/S3. The DLT was withdrawn until the blue bronchial cuff occluded the orifice of the TB (B1). Although the upper half of the blue bronchial cuff appeared above the tracheal carina, OLV through the two bronchial lumen openings could be achieved due to a specific, slanted doughnut shape of the blue bronchial cuff and the location of the abnormal branch (B1) approximate to the carina. Left pneumonectomy using successful OLV was completed safely without hypoxemia or hypercapnea. Our experience indicates that management of OLV for patients with a thoracheal bronchus needs special considerations of the exact location of the TB and intra-lobar micro-airway communications, in addition to types of scheduled surgical procedures.

  14. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  15. The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett

    2012-01-01

    This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…

  16. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  17. Left ventricular lipoma with pseudoaneurysm-like appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarai, Shun-ichi; Yaginuma, Gen-ya; Abe, Kazuo; Hamasaki, Azumi; Ishikawa, Kazunori; Tanaka, Daizo

    2010-06-01

    We describe an extremely rare cardiac lipoma, with electrocardiographic changes in ST segments and T waves, suggesting ischemic heart disease. The abnormal electrocardiogram was identified during a routine physical examination of an asymptomatic 57-year-old man. Coronary angiography showed no stenotic or occlusive lesions in the coronary arteries except that the left anterior descending artery followed a winding course in the apical region. Left ventriculography revealed a pseudoaneurysm-like mass around the apical portion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cardiac lipoma that communicated with the left ventricle and resembled a pseudoaneurysm. After complete resection of the lipoma and left ventricle patch plasty, the postoperative course was uneventful. Histologically, the tumor was an intramyocardiac lipoma with no evidence of malignancy. To our knowledge, we are the first to describe an intramyocardiac lipoma resembling a left ventricle pseudoaneurysm.

  18. A case of luftsichel sign for left upper lobe collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden Erol Ünlüer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of dyspnea in Emergency Department (ED patients is broad and atelectasis is one of the differentials among these. We present a 29-year-old women presented to our ED for evaluation of shortness of breath. On her chest examination, air entry and breath sounds were diminished on the left side but normal on the right. A posteroanterior chest radiograph showed radioluscent area in the upper zone of the left lung, around the aortic arch and also hyperdens area neighbouring this, like covered by a veil. Luftsichel sign together with this hiperdensity were consistent with the diagnose of left lung upper lobe collapse. The Luftsichel sign represents the hyperexpanded superior segment of the left lower lobe interposed between the atelectatic left upper lobe and aortic arch. Patient was discharged to home with chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises together with analgesic prescreption.

  19. Building Creativity Training: Drawing with Left Hand to Stimulate Left Brain in Children Age 5-7 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Yanty Hardi; Sabana, Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Researcher and professionals that started researching about brains since 1930 believe that left brain is a rational brain, which is tightly related with the IO, rational thinking, arithmetic thinking, verbal, segmental, focus, serial (linear), finding the differences, and time management, Meanwhile right brain is the part of brain that controlled…

  20. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  1. Special distraction osteogenesis before bone grafting for alveolar cleft defects to correct maxillary deformities in patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates: distraction osteogenesis performed separately for each bone segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Morishita, Tadashi; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-07-01

    Patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates have premaxillary protrusion and characteristic jaw deformities involving three-dimensional malposition of the premaxilla and bilateral maxillary bone segments. This study examined patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates who had deviation and hypoplasia of the premaxillas and bilateral maxillary segments. Before bone grafting, the patients were treated with special distraction performed separately for each bone segment using a halo-type external device. This report describes this novel treatment method which produced good results. The subjects were five patients with severe jaw deformities due to bilateral cleft lip and palate. They were treated with maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy and subsequent distraction performed separately for each bone segment using a halo device. In three of five patients, premaxillary osteotomy was not performed, and osteotomy and distraction were performed only for the right and left lateral segments with severe hypoplasia. All patients achieved distraction close to the desired amount. The widths of the alveolar clefts were narrowed, and satisfactory occlusion and maxillary arch form were achieved. After the surgery, three of five patients underwent bone grafting for bilateral alveolar cleft defects and the bone graft survival was satisfactory. This method had many benefits, including narrowing of alveolar clefts, improvement of maxillary hypoplasia, and achievement of a good maxillary arch form. In addition, subsequent bone grafting for alveolar cleft defects was beneficial, dental prostheses were unnecessary, and frequency of surgery and surgical invasiveness were reduced. This method is a good surgical procedure that should be considered for patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates who have premaxillary protrusion and hypoplasia of the right and left lateral segments. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Dual Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Draining into the Left Adrenal Vein and Left Inferior Phrenic Vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Norifumi; Ninoi, Teruhisa; Kitayama, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Akira; Sakai, Yukimasa; Sato, Kimihiko; Hamuro, Masao; Nakamura, Kenji; Inoue, Yuichi; Yamada, Ryusaku

    2004-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with a gastric varix, draining into a dilated left adrenal vein and a left inferior phrenic vein, was treated with dual balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Under balloon occlusion of the left adrenal vein and the left inferior phrenic vein, retrograde injection of a sclerosant (5% ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix was performed. Two weeks later, disappearance of flow in the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic ultrasound examination

  3. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  4. Ventrículo izquierdo no compacto/ventrículo izquierdo hipertrabeculado Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Restrepo

    2005-06-01

    history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed.

  5. Intraoperative bowel irrigation improves anastomotic collagen metabolism in the left-sided colonic obstruction but not covering colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraker, N; Bender, O; Memişoğlu, K; Yalçiner, A

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intraoperative colonic irrigation and proximal diverting end colostomy after segmental bowel resection in experimental left-colonic obstruction on anastomotic healing. Simple obstruction of descending colon was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 24 h we performed segmental colonic resection and anastomosis in the control group (n = 15); resection, anastomosis, and covering colostomy in the colostomy group (n = 14); resection and anastomosis after antegrade colonic lavage through cecum by using isotonic saline solution in the irrigation group (n = 13). In rats that were killed 7 days later anastomotic dehiscence and bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline concentration at the anastomosis were measured. No significant differences were observed between groups in terms of anastomotic dehiscence, bursting site, or pressure. The hydroxyproline concentration was significantly higher in the irrigation group than the control group (P = 0.025) and the colostomy group (P = 0.029), but no difference was noted between the control group and the colostomy group. These findings suggest that intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation in the acute left-sided colonic obstruction positively affects collagen metabolism at the anastomotic site; if the anastomosis is performed without bowel cleansing, covering colostomy does not improve collagen metabolism.

  6. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Iain M.

    2018-01-01

    Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease. PMID:29755990

  7. Segmentation of consumer's markets and evaluation of market's segments

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVECOVÁ, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor thesis was to explain a possibly segmentation of consumer´s markets for a chosen company, and to present a suitable goods offer, so it would be suitable to the needs of selected segments. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. First part describes marketing, segmentation, segmentation of consumer's markets, consumer's market, market's segments a other terms. Second part describes an evaluation of questionnaire survey, discovering of market's segment...

  8. Biventricular non-compaction with predominant right ventricular involvement, reduced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and pulmonary hypertension in a Hispanic male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Sarmad; Cooper, Chad J; Quevedo, Karla; Rodriguez, Emmanuel; Hernandez, German T

    2013-01-01

    Male, 22 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Cardiomyopathy Symptoms: Shortness of breath • dispnoea • chest discomfort - Clinical Procedure: Echocardiogram • cardiac MRI Specialty: Cardiology. Challenging differential diagnosis. Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCM) is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by increased trabeculation in one or more segments of the ventricle. The left ventricle is most commonly affected. However, biventricular involvement or right ventricle predominance has also been described. Clinical features of NCM are non-specific and can range from being asymptomatic to symptoms of congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, and systemic thromboembolism. 22-year-old Hispanic male presented with two month history of chest discomfort. Laboratory workup revealed an elevated brain-natriuretic-peptide of 1768 pg/ml. ECG and chest x-ray was nonspecific. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed prominent trabeculae and spongiform appearance of the left ventricle (LV) with an ejection-fraction of 15-20%; 5 of 9 segments of the LV were trabeculated with deep intertrabecular recesses also involving the right ventricle (RV) with demonstrated blood flow in these recesses on color-doppler. The biventricular spongiform appearance was morphologically suggestive for NCM with involvement of the RV. Confirmatory cardiac MRI was performed, demonstrating excessive trabeculation of the left-ventricular apex and mid-ventricular segments. Hypertrabecularion was exhibited at the apical and lateral wall of the RV. Cardiac catheterization showed an intact cardiac vessel system. The patient was discharged on heart failure treatment and was placed on the heart transplantation list. NCM is a unique disorder resulting in serious and severe complications. The majority of the reported cases describe the involvement of the left ventricle. However, the right ventricle should be taken into careful consideration. The early diagnosis may help to increase the event-free survival.

  9. Influence of left ventricular hypertrophy on infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Małek, Łukasz A.; Śpiewak, Mateusz; Kłopotowski, Mariusz; Petryka, Joanna; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz; Kruk, Mariusz; Kępka, Cezary; Miśko, Jolanta; Rużyłło, Witold; Witkowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) predisposes to larger infarct size, which may be underestimated by the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) due to supranormal systolic performance often present in patients with LVH. The aim of the study was to compare infarct size and LVEF in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and increased left ventricular mass on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: The study included unselected group of 52 patients (61 ± 11 years, 69% male) with first STEMI who had CMR after median 5 days from the onset of the event. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was defined as left ventricular mass index exceeding 95th percentile of references values for age and gender. Infarct size was assessed with means of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Results: LVH was found in 16 patients (31%). In comparison to the rest of the group, patients with LVH had higher absolute and relative infarct mass (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). LVH was related to higher prevalence of microvascular obstruction and myocardial haemorrhage and higher number of LV segments with transmural necrosis (p = 0.02, p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). Despite marked difference in the infarct size between both studied subgroups there was no difference in LVEF and mean number of dysfunctional LV segments. Conclusions: Patients with LVH undergoing STEMI have larger infarct size underestimated by the LV systolic performance in comparison to patients without LVH.

  10. The lateralization of motor cortex activation to action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eHauk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What determines the laterality of activation in motor cortex for words whose meaning is related to bodily actions? It has been suggested that the neuronal representation of the meaning of action-words is shaped by individual experience. However, core language functions are left-lateralized in the majority of both right- and left-handers. It is still an open question to what degree connections between left-hemispheric core language areas and right-hemispheric motor areas can play a role in semantics. We investigated laterality of brain activation using fMRI in right- and left-handed participants in response to visually presented hand-related action-words, namely uni- and bi-manual actions (such as "throw" and "clap". These stimulus groups were matched with respect to general (hand-action-relatedness, but differed with respect to whether they are usually performed with the dominant hand or both hands. We may expect generally more left-hemispheric motor-cortex activation for hand-related words in both handedness groups, with possibly more bilateral activation for bimanual words as well as left-handers. In our study, both participant groups activated motor cortex bilaterally for bi-manual words. Interestingly, both groups also showed a left-lateralized activation pattern to uni-manual words. We argue that this reflects the effect of left-hemispheric language dominance on the formation of semantic brain circuits on the basis of Hebbian correlation learning.

  11. Kinematics and strain analyses of the eastern segment of the Pernicana Fault (Mt. Etna, Italy derived from geodetic techniques (1997-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the ground deformations occurring on the eastern part of the Pernicana Fault from 1997 to 2005. This segment of the fault was monitored with three local networks based on GPS and EDM techniques. More than seventy GPS and EDM surveys were carried out during the considered period, in order to achieve a higher temporal detail of ground deformation affecting the structure. We report the comparisons among GPS and EDM surveys in terms of absolute horizontal displacements of each GPS benchmark and in terms of strain parameters for each GPS and EDM network. Ground deformation measurements detected a continuous left-lateral movement of the Pernicana Fault. We conclude that, on the easternmost part of the Pernicana Fault, where it branches out into two segments, the deformation is transferred entirely SE-wards by a splay fault.

  12. Segmental tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthappa H

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of segmental Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis is reported in 10 year old boy. The condition was resembling the ascending lymphangitic type of sporotrichosis. The lesions cleared on treatment with INH 150 mg daily for 6 months.

  13. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  14. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  15. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  16. Quantitative description of the 3D regional mechanics of the left atrium using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuklik, P; Molaee, P; Ganesan, A N; Brooks, A G; Worthley, S G; Sanders, P; Podziemski, P

    2014-01-01

    The left atrium (LA) plays an important role in the maintenance of hemodynamic and electrical stability of the heart. One of the conditions altering the atrial mechanical function is atrial fibrillation (AF), leading to an increased thromboembolic risk due to impaired mechanical function. Preserving the regions of the LA that contribute the greatest to atrial mechanical function during curative strategies for AF is important. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method of regional assessment of mechanical function of the LA. We used cardiac MRI to reconstruct the 3D geometry of the LA in nine control and nine patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Regional mechanical function of the LA in pre-defined segments of the atrium was calculated using regional ejection fraction and wall velocity. We found significantly greater mechanical function in anterior, septal and lateral segments as opposed to roof and posterior segments, as well as a significant decrease of mechanical function in the PAF group. We suggest that in order to minimize the impact of the AF treatment on global atrial mechanical function, damage related to therapeutic intervention, such as catheter ablation, in those areas should be minimized. (paper)

  17. Fluence map segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: 'Interpreting' the fluence map; The sequencer; Reasons for difference between desired and actual fluence map; Principle of 'Step and Shoot' segmentation; Large number of solutions for given fluence map; Optimizing 'step and shoot' segmentation; The interdigitation constraint; Main algorithms; Conclusions on segmentation algorithms (static mode); Optimizing intensity levels and monitor units; Sliding window sequencing; Synchronization to avoid the tongue-and-groove effect; Accounting for physical characteristics of MLC; Importance of corrections for leaf transmission and offset; Accounting for MLC mechanical constraints; The 'complexity' factor; Incorporating the sequencing into optimization algorithm; Data transfer to the treatment machine; Interface between R and V and accelerator; and Conclusions on fluence map segmentation (Segmentation is part of the overall inverse planning procedure; 'Step and Shoot' and 'Dynamic' options are available for most TPS (depending on accelerator model; The segmentation phase tends to come into the optimization loop; The physical characteristics of the MLC have a large influence on final dose distribution; The IMRT plans (MU and relative dose distribution) must be carefully validated). (P.A.)

  18. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  19. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  20. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  1. The role of the notochord in amniote vertebral column segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lizzy; Pang, Angel S W; Evans, Susan E; Stern, Claudio D

    2018-07-01

    The vertebral column is segmented, comprising an alternating series of vertebrae and intervertebral discs along the head-tail axis. The vertebrae and outer portion (annulus fibrosus) of the disc are derived from the sclerotome part of the somites, whereas the inner nucleus pulposus of the disc is derived from the notochord. Here we investigate the role of the notochord in vertebral patterning through a series of microsurgical experiments in chick embryos. Ablation of the notochord causes loss of segmentation of vertebral bodies and discs. However, the notochord cannot segment in the absence of the surrounding sclerotome. To test whether the notochord dictates sclerotome segmentation, we grafted an ectopic notochord. We find that the intrinsic segmentation of the sclerotome is dominant over any segmental information the notochord may possess, and no evidence that the chick notochord is intrinsically segmented. We propose that the segmental pattern of vertebral bodies and discs in chick is dictated by the sclerotome, which first signals to the notochord to ensure that the nucleus pulposus develops in register with the somite-derived annulus fibrosus. Later, the notochord is required for maintenance of sclerotome segmentation as the mature vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs form. These results highlight differences in vertebral development between amniotes and teleosts including zebrafish, where the notochord dictates the segmental pattern. The relative importance of the sclerotome and notochord in vertebral patterning has changed significantly during evolution. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prolonged lateral steep position impairs respiratory mechanics during continuous lateral rotation therapy in respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellongowski, Peter; Losert, Heidrun; Locker, Gottfried J; Laczika, Klaus; Frass, Michael; Holzinger, Ulrike; Bojic, Andja; Staudinger, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    To establish whether prolonged lateral steep position during continuous rotation therapy leads to improvement on pulmonary gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome undergoing continuous rotation therapy. Blood gas analysis, static lung compliance, blood pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary shunt fraction were measured in supine as well as in left and right lateral steep position at 62 degrees during continuous rotation therapy (phase I). Rotation was then stopped for 30 min with the patients in supine position, left and right lateral steep position, and the same measurements were performed every 10 min (phase II). Phase I and II revealed no significant changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary shunt fraction, or cardiac index. Significantly lower static compliance was observed in lateral steep position than in supine position (pposition than in left and right lateral steep position (ppositioning impairs the compliance of the respiratory system. Prolonged lateral steep position does not lead to benefits with respect to oxygenation or hemodynamics. Individual response to the different positions is unpredictable. The pauses in "extreme" positions should be as short as possible.

  3. Rapid estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction in acute myocardial infarction by echocardiographic wall motion analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, J; Rokkedal Nielsen, J; Launbjerg, J

    1992-01-01

    Echocardiographic estimates of left ventricular ejection fraction (ECHO-LVEF) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained by a new approach, using visual analysis of left ventricular wall motion in a nine-segment model. The method was validated in 41 patients using radionuclide...

  4. Single-port laparoscopic approach of the left liver: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps Lasa, Judith; Cugat Andorrà, Esteban; Herrero Fonollosa, Eric; García Domingo, María Isabel; Sánchez Martínez, Raquel; Vargas Pierola, Harold; Rodríguez Campos, Aurora

    2014-11-01

    New technological advances have enabled the development of single-port laparoscopic surgery. This approach began with cholecystectomy and subsequently with other abdominal surgeries. However, few publications on laparoscopic liver surgery have described the use of complete single-port access. We present our initial experience of a single-port laparoscopic hepatectomy. Between May 2012 and December 2013, 5 single-port laparoscopic hepatectomies were performed: one for benign disease and four for colorectal liver metastases. The lesions were approached through a 3-5 cm right supraumbilical incision using a single-port access device. All the lesions were located in hepatic segments II or III. Four left lateral sectorectomies and one left hepatectomy were performed. Median operative time was 135 min. No cases were converted to conventional laparoscopic or open surgery. The oral intake began at 18 h. There were no postoperative complications and no patients required blood transfusion. The median hospital stay was 3 days. The degree of satisfaction was very good in 4 cases and good in one. Patients resumed their normal daily activities at 8 days. Single-port laparoscopic hepatectomy is safe and feasible in selected cases and may reduce surgical aggression and offer better cosmetic results. Comparative studies are needed to determine the real advantages of this approach. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. [Revascularization surgery of an anuric solitary kidney using the left colic artery as a free graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Gama, A Dinis; Nunes, J Silva; Cunha e Sá, Diogo; Pedro, Luís Mendes

    2003-01-01

    The thrombotic occlusion of one renal artery may become completely asymptomatic, due to the functionality of the contralateral kidney. However, in rare circumstances, such is the case of individuals with a solitary kidney, a situation of anuria and acute renal failure may constitute the main presentation of the condition. The authors report the clinical case of a 43 year old male patient, with the previous diagnosis of an infrarenal aortic occlusion and a single left kidney, who developed a thrombotic occlusion of the renal artery, with anuria and acute renal failure. The patient underwent an emergency revascularization procedure, consisting in the implantation of a prosthetic bypass graft from the superceliac aorta to the renal artery, with immediate recovery of the diuresis and renal function. Seventeen months later as a consequence of an anastomotic hyperplasia, an occlusion of the bypass graft occurred, again with anuria and acute renal failure. The patient was reoperated on and due to the inadequacy of both saphenous veins to be used as the material of choice for the revascularization procedure, a redundant segment of the left colic artery (Riolan's arcade) was removed and used as an interposition graft, from the middle colic artery to the renal artery, followed by an immediate restoration of diuresis and renal function. The singular and recurrent character of this clinical condition and the utilization of an original, eventually unique and well succeeded revascularization procedure, prompted its presentation and divulgation.

  6. Studies on clinical significance of exercise-induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads in the patients with prior myocardial infarction using the stress scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Toshitaka

    1988-01-01

    Stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging and stress radionuclide ventriculography were performed in a total of 67 patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) to assess the clinical significance of exercise induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads on ECG during the chronic stage. The patients consisted of 12 with inferior MI with single vessel disease (SVD) that showed no precordial ST-segment depression; 7 with inferior MI with SVD accompanied by precordial ST-segment depression; 13 with inferior MI with multivessel disease (MVD); 20 with anterior MI with SVD that showed no inferior ST-segment depression; 4 with anterior MI with SVD accompanied by inferior ST-segment depression; and 11 with anterior MI with MVD. In cases of SVD, the incidence of ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads was higher for inferior MI (36.8%) than anterior MI (16.7%). Myocardial imaging revealed large infarct and infarct extending into the inferoseptal wall of the left ventricle (LV) in cases of exercise induced precordial ST-segment depression; and infarct extending into the lateral wall of LV in cases of exercise induced inferior ST-segment depression. In detecting MVD, stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging was superior to exercise electrocardiography and stress radionuclide ventriculography, but this was not statistically significant. Prognostic value of error rate for detecting MVD was significantly improved with a discriminant analysis. Exercise induced ST-segment depression on ECG should be of clinical significance in reflecting myocardial ischemia around an infarcted area. (Namekawa, K)

  7. Segmented block copolymers with monodisperse aramide end-segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araichimani, A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers were synthesized using monodisperse diaramide (TT) as hard segments and PTMO with a molecular weight of 2 900 g · mol-1 as soft segments. The aramide: PTMO segment ratio was increased from 1:1 to 2:1 thereby changing the structure from a high molecular weight multi-block

  8. The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not conversion symptoms are lateralized. Studies have shown a predominant left-oriented manifestation of symptoms for most somatoform disorders. The reports in the literature on the lateralization of conversion symptoms, however, are

  9. Sex Differences in Timeliness of Reperfusion in Young Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction by Initial Electrocardiographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Barrabes, Jose A; Strait, Kelly; Bueno, Hector; Porta-Sánchez, Andreu; Acosta-Vélez, J Gabriel; Lidón, Rosa-Maria; Spatz, Erica; Geda, Mary; Dreyer, Rachel P; Lorenze, Nancy; Lichtman, Judith; D'Onofrio, Gail; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2018-03-07

    Young women with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction experience reperfusion delays more frequently than men. Our aim was to determine the electrocardiographic correlates of delay in reperfusion in young patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We examined sex differences in initial electrocardiographic characteristics among 1359 patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction in a prospective, observational, cohort study (2008-2012) of 3501 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 18 to 55 years of age, as part of the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study at 103 US and 24 Spanish hospitals enrolling in a 2:1 ratio for women/men. We created a multivariable logistic regression model to assess the relationship between reperfusion delay (door-to-balloon time >90 or >120 minutes for transfer or door-to-needle time >30 minutes) and electrocardiographic characteristics, adjusting for sex, sociodemographic characteristics, and clinical characteristics at presentation. In our study (834 women and 525 men), women were more likely to exceed reperfusion time guidelines than men (42.4% versus 31.5%; P ST elevation in lateral leads was an inverse predictor of reperfusion delay. Sex disparities in timeliness to reperfusion in young patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction persisted, despite adjusting for initial electrocardiographic characteristics. Left ventricular hypertrophy by voltage criteria and absence of prehospital ECG are strongly positively correlated and ST elevation in lateral leads is negatively correlated with reperfusion delay. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Left regular bands of groups of left quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1988-10-01

    A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs

  11. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  12. Neutrosophic Left Almost Semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the theory of neutrosophy to study left almost semigroup shortly LAsemigroup. We generalize the concepts of LA-semigroup to form that for neutrosophic LA-semigroup. We also extend the ideal theory of LA-semigroup to neutrosophy and discuss different kinds of neutrosophic ideals. We also find some new type of neutrosophic ideal which is related to the strong or pure part of neutrosophy. We have given many examples to illustrate the theory of neutrosophic LA-semigroup and display many properties of neutrosophic LA-semigroup in this paper.

  13. Scorpion image segmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  14. Selected Gray Matter Volumes and Gender but Not Basal Ganglia nor Cerebellum Gyri Discriminate Left Versus Right Cerebral Hemispheres: Multivariate Analyses in human Brains at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Suarez-May, Marcela A; Favila, Rafael; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Rios, Camilo

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the lateralization of the human brain is evident through a multidisciplinary number of scientific studies. Understanding volumetric brain asymmetries allows the distinction between normal development stages and behavior, as well as brain diseases. We aimed to evaluate volumetric asymmetries in order to select the best gyri able to classify right- versus left cerebral hemispheres. A cross-sectional study performed in 47 right-handed young-adults healthy volunteers. SPM-based software performed brain segmentation, automatic labeling and volumetric analyses for 54 regions involving the cerebral lobes, basal ganglia and cerebellum from each cerebral hemisphere. Multivariate discriminant analysis (DA) allowed the assembling of a predictive model. DA revealed one discriminant function that significantly differentiated left vs. right cerebral hemispheres: Wilks' λ = 0.008, χ(2) (9) = 238.837, P brain gyri are able to accurately classify left vs. right cerebral hemispheres by using a multivariate approach; the selected regions correspond to key brain areas involved in attention, internal thought, vision and language; our findings favored the concept that lateralization has been evolutionary favored by mental processes increasing cognitive efficiency and brain capacity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Automatic short axis orientation of the left ventricle in 3D ultrasound recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, João.; Heyde, Brecht; Heeren, Laurens; Engvall, Jan; Zamorano, Jose; Papachristidis, Alexandros; Edvardsen, Thor; Claus, Piet; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The recent advent of three-dimensional echocardiography has led to an increased interest from the scientific community in left ventricle segmentation frameworks for cardiac volume and function assessment. An automatic orientation of the segmented left ventricular mesh is an important step to obtain a point-to-point correspondence between the mesh and the cardiac anatomy. Furthermore, this would allow for an automatic division of the left ventricle into the standard 17 segments and, thus, fully automatic per-segment analysis, e.g. regional strain assessment. In this work, a method for fully automatic short axis orientation of the segmented left ventricle is presented. The proposed framework aims at detecting the inferior right ventricular insertion point. 211 three-dimensional echocardiographic images were used to validate this framework by comparison to manual annotation of the inferior right ventricular insertion point. A mean unsigned error of 8, 05° +/- 18, 50° was found, whereas the mean signed error was 1, 09°. Large deviations between the manual and automatic annotations (> 30°) only occurred in 3, 79% of cases. The average computation time was 666ms in a non-optimized MATLAB environment, which potentiates real-time application. In conclusion, a successful automatic real-time method for orientation of the segmented left ventricle is proposed.

  16. Clinical evaluation of segmental wall motion by radionuclide cardioangiography in the patients with myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1980-01-01

    To detect segmental wall motion of left ventricle is useful to identify the size and location of infarcted area in coronary arteries diseases. In this study, segmental wall motion by radionuclide cardioangiography were evaluated to compare with contrast left ventriculography in fifty patients of myocardial infarction. Segmental wall motion in RAO position by first pass method, in LAO position by multi-gated method were evaluated using an Anger camera and on-line minicomputer system by following methods; ED, ES images, sequential images, edge display, regional ejection fraction and movie imaging system (MIS). The percent agreements of segmental wall motion by RI and LVG were 84% in 350 segments of 50 cases. In all segments, segments 4, 6, 7 were better agreements than other segments. For the degree of wall motion, skinesis and dyskinesis were good agreements in both methods, while hypokinesia was slightly poor agreement (62%). On the other hand, the size of infarction, that is, percent thallium defect area was good correlated with radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.855 in anterior infarction, r = -0.646 in inferior infarction). From these data, wall motion was thought to be closely related with left ventricular function, therefore, regional ejection fraction in seven areas in left ventricular image was developed and compared with segmental wall motion in left ventriculogram according to the classification of A.H.A. Comittee Report. The value of regional ejection fraction is 0.29, 0.40, 0.60 in akinesis, hypokinesis and normal. In conclusion, radionuclide cardioangiography is useful in the detection of abnormal segmental wall motion as noninvasive methods. (author)

  17. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  18. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  19. Assessment of left ventricular function using dobutamine stress echocardiography and myocardial scintigraphy in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Nobuchika; Sugimoto, Takaki; Okada, Masayoshi

    1999-01-01

    To assess the left ventricular (LV) function in valvular heart disease, we employed the preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography and the myocardial scintigraphy. During the past 13 years, 37 of 324 the patients showed LV dysfunction with the % fractional shortening (%FS) of 25% or less in the preoperative echocardiogram. These patients were retrospectively divided into two groups; Group A (n=21): %FS has improved late after operation; Group B (n=16): %FS has deteriorated or LV failure occurred. The mean follow-up period was 84±54 months after valve surgery. No significant differences were observed in the preoperative characteristics and operative variables between these two groups. The dobutamine stress test had been performed in 8 patients in Group A and 9 patients in Group B preoperatively, and the maximum increase ratio of %FS (Δ%FS) was used for assessment. Seven patients in Group A had showed Δ%FS of more than 9%, while all patients in Group B had showed Δ%FS of less than 9%. Myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 11 patients of them, and another 22 patients with %FS of above 25% acted as the control group. The Defect Score, which was defined as the sum of defect scales in 25 LV segments, showed a significant difference between 11 patients with LV dysfunction and control group. The distribution of the Defect Score in each myocardial segment, showed significantly higher in the posterior and inferior LV segments. In addition, the perfusion defect on myocardial imaging was initiated in the junction between the septal and LV free wall, and extended from the posterior to the lateral wall along with deterioration of LV function. In conclusion, preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography proved to be very useful for prediction of the postoperative LV function, and myocardial scintigraphy might be indicative of LV function even in valvular heart disease. (author)

  20. Assessment of left ventricular function using dobutamine stress echocardiography and myocardial scintigraphy in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Nobuchika; Sugimoto, Takaki; Okada, Masayoshi [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-02-01

    To assess the left ventricular (LV) function in valvular heart disease, we employed the preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography and the myocardial scintigraphy. During the past 13 years, 37 of 324 the patients showed LV dysfunction with the % fractional shortening (%FS) of 25% or less in the preoperative echocardiogram. These patients were retrospectively divided into two groups; Group A (n=21): %FS has improved late after operation; Group B (n=16): %FS has deteriorated or LV failure occurred. The mean follow-up period was 84{+-}54 months after valve surgery. No significant differences were observed in the preoperative characteristics and operative variables between these two groups. The dobutamine stress test had been performed in 8 patients in Group A and 9 patients in Group B preoperatively, and the maximum increase ratio of %FS ({delta}%FS) was used for assessment. Seven patients in Group A had showed {delta}%FS of more than 9%, while all patients in Group B had showed {delta}%FS of less than 9%. Myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 11 patients of them, and another 22 patients with %FS of above 25% acted as the control group. The Defect Score, which was defined as the sum of defect scales in 25 LV segments, showed a significant difference between 11 patients with LV dysfunction and control group. The distribution of the Defect Score in each myocardial segment, showed significantly higher in the posterior and inferior LV segments. In addition, the perfusion defect on myocardial imaging was initiated in the junction between the septal and LV free wall, and extended from the posterior to the lateral wall along with deterioration of LV function. In conclusion, preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography proved to be very useful for prediction of the postoperative LV function, and myocardial scintigraphy might be indicative of LV function even in valvular heart disease. (author)

  1. Increased opacity of left pericardiac area on chest radiograph : correlation with CT findings and its frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ik; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwak, Jin Young; Ryu, Chang Woo; Yoon, Sam Hyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of extrapericardial fat in the left cardiac border, and with regard to left extrapericardial fat, to correlate chest radiographs with CT scans. This study involved 132 consecutive patients who underwent chest PA and lateral radiographs, and chest CT scans. According to the results of chest PA radiograph, patients were divided into three groups: those with a clear left cardiac border; those with an indistinct left cardiac border; and those with an indistinct left cardiac border with increased density; cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph, the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs was evaluated. On the basis of the results of CT scanning, patients were classified into four groups according to the amount of left extrapericardial fat : negative, minimum, moderate, and maximum. Left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, was correlated with the conspicuity of left cardiac border seen on PA radiograph and the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph. The conspicuousness of the left cardiac border, as seen on PA chest radiograph, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, and was related to the amount of left extrapericardial fat. Increased density of the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat on CT, but the absence of increased density on lateral radiograph corresponds to the absence or a minimal amount of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  3. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  4. Interrupted inferior vena cava with hemiazygos continuation in an adult with a persistent left superior vena cava and left single coronary artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Jin; Kwon, Se Hwan; Ahn, Sung Eun; Kim, Soo Joong; Oh, Joo Hyeong [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our institution for medical screening due to an incidental finding on abdominal ultrasonography. She underwent chest, abdomen and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Her MDCT revealed absence of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC), with hemiazygos continuation and a left single coronary artery. The dilated hemiazygos vein drained directly into the persistent left superior vena cava (SVC). Herein, we reported a very rare case combining an incidentally found interrupted IVC with hemiazygos vein continuation, persistent left SVC and a left single coronary artery diagnosed by MDCT.

  5. Long-segment plication technique for arteriovenous fistulae threatened by diffuse aneurysmal degeneration: short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Alexis; Wooster, Mathew; Carroll, Megan; Cardentey-Oliva, Damian; Cavanagh-Voss, Sean; Armstrong, Paul; Shames, Murray; Illig, Karl; Gabbard, Wesley

    2015-08-01

    A substantial number of patients with autologous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) develop diffuse aneurysmal degeneration, which frequently interferes with successful access. These AVFs are often deemed unsalvageable. We hypothesize that long-segment plication in these patients can be performed safely with acceptable short-term AVF salvage rates. We reviewed a prospectively maintained database to identify all patients with extensive AVF aneurysmal disease operated on for this problem. Thirty-five patients, 25 (71%) male and 10 (29%) female were operated on between July 2012 and January 2014. AVFs included 23 (66%) brachiocephalic, 5 (14%) radiocephalic, and 7 brachiobasilic (20%) fistulae (one first stage only but in use). The cohort had one or a combination of local pain, arm edema, cannulation issue, recurrent thrombosis, dysfunctional during dialysis, or extreme tortuousity. Time range for AVF creation to consultation ranged from 3 months to 11 years. All underwent long-segment plication over a 20-Fr Bougie with or without segmental vein resection; 3 underwent concomitant first rib resection for costoclavicular stenosis; 21 patients had tunneled catheter placement for use while healing, whereas 13 were allowed segmental use of their AVF during the perioperative period (1 patient was not yet on dialysis). Early in our experience, AVFs were left under the wound, whereas all but one repaired since early 2013 were left under a lateral flap. All patients were followed by clinical examination and duplex. In the 30-day postoperative period, 2 AVFs (5.7%) became infected requiring excision, 2 occluded (5.7%), 1 day 1 and the other at 24 days out, 1 patient developed steal and required DRIL 1 week postoperatively, and 1 patient died, unrelated to his surgery. Postoperative functional primary patency was 88% (30 of 34). Of the patients needing temporary access catheter, mean time to first fistula use was 44 days. No wound or bleeding complications have occurred in repaired

  6. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...

  7. Annular subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C; Filho, A S; Esteves, J P; Abreu, W N; Vinhaes, L A; de Almeida Souza, J A; Machado, A

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of left ventricular aneurysm, a 16-year-old black boy and a 23-year-old white girl, from Bahia, Brazil, are presented. In both patients there was enlargement of the cardiac silhouette and a prominent bulge of the left inferior border. On the right oblique view a ring of calcium at the ventricular opening of the aneurysms was visualized. A left ventriculogram showed a huge aneurysm in the first case and a bulge on the lateral wall of the left ventricle in the other. Cardiac catheterization showed a rise in left and right ventricular end-diastolic pressures and in the mean pulmonary artery pressure. In the first case the contour of the right ventricular pressure curve showed a restrictive pattern. The similarities of these aneurysms with the annular submitral type described in young black Africans are stressed.

  8. Plain chest PA evaluation of left atrial thrombosis in mitral valvular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Conventional posteroanterior chest radiographs of 73 patients with mitral valve disease who had had surgery were analyzed, and particular attention was directed to the absence of the convexity of the left lower mid cardiac border (left atrial segment) and to the relation with duration of illness, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) as well as surgical findings. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The flatness or concavity of this segment, despite other evidence of left atrial enlargement, was observed in eleven (64.7%) of 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis and in six (10.7%) of 56 patients who did not have thrombosis (false positive diagnosis). Six (35.5%) of the 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis did not this findings on radiographs (false positive diagnosis). Six (35.3%) of the 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis did not show this finding on radiographs (false positive diagnosis). Therefore, the accuracy in the diagnosis of thrombosis of left atrium wa 64.7% (eleven of seventeen) for patients who had thrombosis of left atrium. 2. The atrial fibrillation was observed in sixteen (94.1%)of 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis. So, correlation between the presence of left atrial thrombosis and atrial fibrillation wa evident. But there was no correlation between the duration of illness of the PCWP of patients and the presence of left atrial thrombosis.

  9. Plain chest PA evaluation of left atrial thrombosis in mitral valvular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1984-01-01

    Conventional posteroanterior chest radiographs of 73 patients with mitral valve disease who had had surgery were analyzed, and particular attention was directed to the absence of the convexity of the left lower mid cardiac border (left atrial segment) and to the relation with duration of illness, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) as well as surgical findings. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The flatness or concavity of this segment, despite other evidence of left atrial enlargement, was observed in eleven (64.7%) of 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis and in six (10.7%) of 56 patients who did not have thrombosis (false positive diagnosis). Six (35.5%) of the 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis did not this findings on radiographs (false positive diagnosis). Six (35.3%) of the 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis did not show this finding on radiographs (false positive diagnosis). Therefore, the accuracy in the diagnosis of thrombosis of left atrium wa 64.7% (eleven of seventeen) for patients who had thrombosis of left atrium. 2. The atrial fibrillation was observed in sixteen (94.1%)of 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis. So, correlation between the presence of left atrial thrombosis and atrial fibrillation wa evident. But there was no correlation between the duration of illness of the PCWP of patients and the presence of left atrial thrombosis.

  10. Anosognosia for hemiparesis after left-sided stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Vucurevic, Goran; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Glassl, Oliver; Geber, Christian; Dieterich, Marianne; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2014-12-01

    In patients with left-sided lesions, anosognosia for hemiparesis (AHP) seems to be a rare phenomenon. It has been discussed whether this rareness might be due to an inevitable bias due to language dysfunction and whether the left hemisphere's role for our self-awareness of motor actions thus is underestimated. By applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined whether patients with AHP following a left hemisphere stroke show a regular, left-sided or a reversed, right-sided lateralization of language functions. Only the former observation would argue for an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. In a consecutive series of 44 acute left-sided stroke patients, only one patient (=2%) was identified showing AHP. In this case, we could verify by using fMRI that lateralization of AHP and spatial neglect on the one hand and of language functions on the other hand were reversed. The present single case observation thus argues against an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. We discuss the data in the context of previous observations in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early and delayed Tc-99m-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT in patients with left bundle branch block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Kinoshita, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yoshihiko

    1998-01-01

    To determine the utility of the myocardial tracer Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in the examination of patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and to investigate Tc-99m-tetrofosmin uptake and retention in the myocardium, early and delayed Tc-99m-tetrofosmin SPECT was performed in 10 patients having LBBB without coronary stenosis. After 740 MBq of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin injection in the resting state, the early and delayed SPECT imaging was done at 30 min and 180 min, respectively. Decreased Tc-99m-tetrofosmin uptake in the septal segments was observed in 4 patients (40%) at 30 min and in 9 (90%) at 180 min. Reverse redistribution was seen in 9 of 10 patients. In patients with LBBB, the septal-to-lateral uptake ratio was lower in the delayed images than in the early images (0.80±0.09 vs. 0.89±0.09, p<0.001). In patients with LBBB, the washout rate of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin was higher in the septal segments than in the lateral segments (28.3±4.3% vs. 22.8±3.3%, p<0.001). The SPECT data indicate that in LBBB without coronary stenosis, the uptake of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin is decreased in the septal wall, and that reverse redistribution occurs frequently. Our results contribute to the elucidation of both the cellular biokinetics of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in the myocardium and the hemodynamics of the septum in LBBB, and indicate the possible clinical utility of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin. (author)

  12. Rectal volvulus following laparoscopic left hemicolectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul Anthony; Lee, Han Sian; Din, Islah; Vimalachandran, Dale

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old lady with a history of Dukes B2 (T3N0M0) colorectal cancer presented some 2 years following a laparoscopic left hemicolectomy with a 4-day history of absolute constipation. A plain radiograph demonstrated large bowel obstruction, and subsequent CT of the abdomen showed the level of the obstruction to be at the rectum. Initially the aetiology was believed to be recurrence at the site of the anastomosis; however, subsequent review of the imaging and indeed endoscopic examination of the rectum showed it to be volvulus. This was initially treated with endoscopic decompression and later by the insertion of a flatus tube to good effect. The patient was discharged 3 days later with no recurrence of her symptoms at 2 months. PMID:23608861

  13. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  14. Segmentation in cinema perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J M; Bever, T G

    1976-03-12

    Viewers perceptually segment moving picture sequences into their cinematically defined units: excerpts that follow short film sequences are recognized faster when the excerpt originally came after a structural cinematic break (a cut or change in the action) than when it originally came before the break.

  15. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  16. Unsupervised Image Segmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2014), s. 23-23 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : unsupervised image segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/haindl-0434412.pdf

  17. Metrics for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise

    1998-07-01

    An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.

  18. Left main coronary artery disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Carlos; Capodanno, Davide; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Banning, Adrian; Stone, Gregg W; Taggart, David P; Sabik, Joseph; Serruys, Patrick W

    2018-06-01

    The advent of coronary angiography in the 1960s allowed for the risk stratification of patients with stable angina. Patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease have an increased risk of death related to the large amount of myocardium supplied by this vessel. Although coronary angiography remains the preferred imaging modality for the evaluation of left main coronary artery stenosis, this technique has important limitations. Angiograms of the left main coronary artery segment can be difficult to interpret, and almost one-third of patients can be misclassified when fractional flow reserve is used as the reference. In patients with clinically significant unprotected left main coronary artery disease, surgical revascularization was shown to improve survival compared with medical therapy and has been regarded as the treatment of choice for unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Two large-scale clinical trials published in 2016 support the usefulness of catheter-based revascularization in selected patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease. In this Review, we describe the pathophysiology of unprotected left main coronary artery disease, discuss diagnostic approaches in light of new noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques, and detail risk stratification models to aid the Heart Team in the decision-making process for determining the best revascularization strategy for these patients.

  19. Value and pitfalls of the lateral lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, W.M.; Krol, G.; Faunce, H.; Bay, R.

    1975-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-one of 443 lung scans composed of anterior, posterior, and lateral projections (done in our hospital) demonstrated defects. In 3.9 percent of them (11 cases), the defects were delineated in the lateral views only, while in 29.2 percent (82 cases), the lateral views either outlined additional defects not appreciated on the straight views, or showed more extensive lung involvement. In the majority of instances, 56.6 percent (159 cases), the lateral views showed comparable findings and also tended to segmentally localize the defects better. However, in 10.3 percent (29 cases), defects present on the straight projections were not detected on the lateral views. Various causes that could give rise to artefactual abnormalities in the lateral lung scan and therefore inhibit its proper interpretation are reviewed and discussed. Despite these problems, the lateral may be the only view to demonstrate abnormalities and, in fact, frequently provides additional useful information

  20. Cerebral Lateralization of Face-Selective and Body-Selective Visual Areas Depends on Handedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Peelen, M.V.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    The left-hemisphere dominance for language is a core example of the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. The degree of left-hemisphere dominance for language depends on hand preference: Whereas the majority of right-handers show left-hemispheric language lateralization, this number

  1. Cerebral lateralization of face-selective and body-selective visual areas depends on handedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Peelen, M.V.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    The left-hemisphere dominance for language is a core example of the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. The degree of left-hemisphere dominance for language depends on hand preference: Whereas the majority of right-handers show left-hemispheric language lateralization, this number

  2. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  3. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  4. Status of the segment interconnect, cable segment ancillary logic, and the cable segment hybrid driver projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swoboda, C.; Barsotti, E.; Chappa, S.; Downing, R.; Goeransson, G.; Lensy, D.; Moore, G.; Rotolo, C.; Urish, J.

    1985-01-01

    The FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. In particular, the Segment Interconnect links a backplane crate segment to a cable segment. All standard FASTBUS address and data transactions can be passed through the SI or any number of SIs and segments in a path. Thus systems of arbitrary connection complexity can be formed, allowing simultaneous independent processing, yet still permitting devices associated with one segment to be accessed from others. The model S1 Segment Interconnect and the Cable Segment Ancillary Logic covered in this report comply with all the mandatory features stated in the FASTBUS specification document DOE/ER-0189. A block diagram of the SI is shown

  5. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  6. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  7. Evaluation of left ventricular function using digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozuka, Takahiro; Ohta, Mitsushige

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion images, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 45 patients with ischemic heart disease. Validity of the technique was compared with data obtained from cine left ventriculogram in all patients and 201 T1 myocardial images in 20 patients. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) calculated from DSA were correlated closely with those from cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.92, r = 0.94 and r = 0.86, respectively). Regional contractility at the antero-lateral wall of the left ventricle, assessed by DSA, was also correlated well with cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.75). Evaluation of the inferior wall motion showed less correlation in both procedures (r = 0.68). Phase and amplitude analysis with the same technique with radionuclide cardiac angiography was successfully applied in left ventriculogram obtained by DSA. The procedure seems to be helpful for objective evaluation of the left ventricular wall motion. Myocardial perfusion image, obtained with modified Radtke's technique, showed good coincidence with 201 T1 images. Thus, DSA is applicable for evaluation of function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion in patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  8. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  9. Age-Dependent Mesial Temporal Lobe Lateralization in Language FMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N.; Berl, Madison M.; Wilke, Marko; You, Xiaozhen; Mehta, Meera; Xu, Benjamin; Inati, Sara; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Austermuehle, Alison; Theodore, William H.; Gaillard, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective FMRI activation of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) may be important for epilepsy surgical planning. We examined MTL activation and lateralization during language fMRI in children and adults with focal epilepsy. Methods 142 controls and patients with left hemisphere focal epilepsy (Pediatric: epilepsy, n = 17, mean age = 9.9 ± 2.0; controls, n = 48; mean age = 9.1 ± 2.6; Adult: epilepsy, n = 20, mean age = 26.7 ± 5.8; controls, n = 57, mean age = 26.2 ± 7.5) underwent 3T fMRI using a language task (auditory description decision task). Image processing and analyses were conducted in SPM8; ROIs included MTL, Broca’s area, and Wernicke’s area. We assessed group and individual MTL activation, and examined degree of lateralization. Results Patients and controls (pediatric and adult) demonstrated group and individual MTL activation during language fMRI. MTL activation was left lateralized for adults but less so in children (p’s < 0.005). Patients did not differ from controls in either age group. Stronger left-lateralized MTL activation was related to older age (p = 0.02). Language lateralization (Broca’s and Wernicke’s) predicted 19% of the variance in MTL lateralization for adults (p = 0.001), but not children. Significance Language fMRI may be used to elicit group and individual MTL activation. The developmental difference in MTL lateralization and its association with language lateralization suggests a developmental shift in lateralization of MTL function, with increased left lateralization across the age span. This shift may help explain why children have better memory outcomes following resection compared to adults. PMID:26696589

  10. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  11. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  12. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  13. The anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Alan A; Selva, Dinesh; Hardy, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Brett

    2014-10-01

    To determine the anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas (OCH). Retrospective case series. The records of 104 patients with OCH were analyzed. The anatomical location of each OCH defined by the location of a point at the centre of the lesion, and its laterality. There were 104 patients included in the study. No patient had more than one lesion. Sixteen (15.4%) were located in the anterior third of the orbit, 74 (71.2%) were in the middle third, and 14 (13.5%) in the posterior third. In the middle third, 10 of 74 (13.5%) were extraconal and 64 intraconal (86.5%), with 30 of 64 (46.9%) middle third intraconal lesions lying lateral to the optic nerve. Of 104 lesions, 56 (53.8%) were left sided, showing a trend towards a predilection for the left side (p = 0.065). If data from other published series which included data on laterality is added to our own data and analysed, 270 of 468 (57.7%) OCH occurred in the left orbit (p lateral to the optic nerve. This may reflect an origin of these lesions from the arterial side of the circulation, as there are more small arteries in the intraconal space lateral to the optic nerve than in other locations. A predilection for the left orbit remains unexplained.

  14. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  15. Video segmentation using keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton-That, Vinh; Vong, Chi-Tai; Nguyen-Dao, Xuan-Truong; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2018-04-01

    At DAVIS-2016 Challenge, many state-of-art video segmentation methods achieve potential results, but they still much depend on annotated frames to distinguish between background and foreground. It takes a lot of time and efforts to create these frames exactly. In this paper, we introduce a method to segment objects from video based on keywords given by user. First, we use a real-time object detection system - YOLOv2 to identify regions containing objects that have labels match with the given keywords in the first frame. Then, for each region identified from the previous step, we use Pyramid Scene Parsing Network to assign each pixel as foreground or background. These frames can be used as input frames for Object Flow algorithm to perform segmentation on entire video. We conduct experiments on a subset of DAVIS-2016 dataset in half the size of its original size, which shows that our method can handle many popular classes in PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset with acceptable accuracy, about 75.03%. We suggest widely testing by combining other methods to improve this result in the future.

  16. Possible evolutionary origins of cognitive brain lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Rogers, L J; Bisazza, A

    1999-08-01

    Despite the substantial literature on the functional architecture of the asymmetries of the human brain, which has been accumulating for more than 130 years since Dax and Broca's early reports, the biological foundations of cerebral asymmetries are still poorly understood. Recent advances in comparative cognitive neurosciences have made available new animal models that have started to provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary origins and neuronal mechanisms of cerebral asymmetries. Animal model-systems, particularly those provided by the avian brain, highlight the interrelations of genetic, hormonal and environmental events to produce neural and behavioural asymmetries. Novel evidences showing that functional and structural lateralization of the brain is widespread among vertebrates (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) have accumulated rapidly. Perceptual asymmetries, in particular, seem to be ubiquitous in everyday behaviour of most species of animals with laterally placed eyes; in organisms with wider binocular overlap (e.g., amphibians), they appear to be retained for initial detection of stimuli in the extreme lateral fields. We speculate that adjustment of head position and eye movements may play a similar role in mammals with frontal vision as does the choice for right or left lateral visual fields in animals with laterally placed eyes. A first attempt to trace back the origins of brain asymmetry to early vertebrates is presented, based on the hypothesis that functional incompatibility between the logical demands associated with very basic cognitive functions is central to the phenomenon of cerebral lateralization.

  17. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial imaging in left main coronary artery disease: sensitive but not specific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, T.; Griffith, L.S.; Achuff, S.C.; Bailey, I.K.; Bulkley, B.H.; Burow, R.; Pitt, B.; Becker, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy for identifying left main coronary artery disease, the results of scintigraphy at rest and during exercise were compared in 24 patients with 50 percent or greater narrowing of the left main coronary artery and 80 patients with 50 percent or greater narrowing of one or more of the major coronary arteries but without left main coronary involvement. By segmental analysis of the scintigrams, perfusion defects were assigned to the left anterior descending, left circumflex or right coronary artery, singly or in combination, and the pattern of simultaneous left anterior descending and circumflex arterial defects was used to identify left main coronary artery disease. Of the 24 patients with left main coronary artery disease, 22 (92 percent) had abnormal exercise scintigrams. Despite this high sensitivity, the pattern of perfusion defects was not specific; the ''left main pattern'' was found in 3 patients (13 percent) with left main coronary artery disease but also in 3 (33 percent) of 9 patients with combined left anterior descending and left circumflex arterial disease, 4 (19 percent) of 21 patients with three vessel disease and 3 (6 percent) of 50 patients with one or two vessel disease but excluding the group with left anterior descending plus left circumflex arterial disease. The pattern of perfusion defects in the patients with left main coronary artery disease was determined by the location and severity of narrowings in the coronary arteries downstream from the left main arterial lesion. Concomitant lesions in other arteries were found in all patients with left main coronary disease (one vessel in 1 patient, two vessels in 7 patients and three vessels in 16). For this reason, it is unlikely that even with improvements in radiopharmaceutical agents and imaging techniques, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy will be sufficiently specific for definitive identification of left main coronary artery disease

  18. Market segmentation in behavioral perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...

  19. PCR, exit stage left ...

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989. The Prévessin Control Room (PCR) was recently engulfed in a wave of nostalgia. The PCR, scene of some of the greatest moments in CERN's history, is being dismantled to prepare for a complete overhaul. In February 2006, a new combined control centre for all the accelerators will open its doors on the same site, together with a new building currently under construction (see Bulletin issue 27/2004 of 28 June 2004). This marks the end of an important chapter in CERN's history. The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event 28 years ago when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world. Today the 80 terminals and PCs have b...

  20. Later zaaien kost opbrengst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.

    2000-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van het zaaitijdstip op de gewasproductie en op opbrengstderving, bijvoorbeeld doordat de grond later bewerkt kan worden door een hogere grondwaterstand als gevolg van peilverhoging

  1. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  2. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  3. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  4. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump during zebrafish gastrulation affects left-right asymmetry of the heart and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Jill A; Balantac, Zaneta L; Crawford, Andrew R; Ren, Yuexin; Toure, Jamal; Zchut, Sigalit; Kochilas, Lazaros; Creton, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos generate striking Ca(2+) patterns, which are unique regulators of dynamic developmental events. In the present study, we used zebrafish embryos as a model system to examine the developmental roles of Ca(2+) during gastrulation. We found that gastrula stage embryos maintain a distinct pattern of cytosolic Ca(2+) along the dorsal-ventral axis, with higher Ca(2+) concentrations in the ventral margin and lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the dorsal margin and dorsal forerunner cells. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump with 0.5 microM thapsigargin elevates cytosolic Ca(2+) in all embryonic regions and induces a randomization of laterality in the heart and brain. Affected hearts, visualized in living embryos by a subtractive imaging technique, displayed either a reversal or loss of left-right asymmetry. Brain defects include a left-right reversal of pitx2 expression in the dorsal diencephalon and a left-right reversal of the prominent habenular nucleus in the brain. Embryos are sensitive to inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during early and mid gastrulation and lose their sensitivity during late gastrulation and early segmentation. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during gastrulation inhibits expression of no tail (ntl) and left-right dynein related (lrdr) in the dorsal forerunner cells and affects development of Kupffer's vesicle, a ciliated organ that generates a counter-clockwise flow of fluid. Previous studies have shown that Ca(2+) plays a role in Kupffer's vesicle function, influencing ciliary motility and translating the vesicle's counter-clockwise flow into asymmetric patterns of gene expression. The present results suggest that Ca(2+) plays an additional role in the formation of Kupffer's vesicle.

  5. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  6. Combined lateral rectus augmented transposition and inferior rectus recession for monocular elevation deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Manjula; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Agarwal, Amar

    2018-04-01

    We report the case of a 21-year-old woman who presented with a drooping right upper eyelid and smaller-appearing right eye, evident since birth. Her visual acuity was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. In primary gaze she had a hypotropia of 25 Δ , with a marked elevation limitation and associated true upper lid ptosis of 3 mm. Under local anesthesia, the lateral rectus muscle was transposed to the superior rectus muscle and was augmented by a nonabsorbable suture attaching the superior rectus muscle and lateral rectus muscle 8 mm posterior to the insertion, accompanied by an inferior rectus recession. One year after surgery she was orthophoric in primary position and showed improvement in elevation. The surgical procedure can be performed at the same time as the inferior rectus recession and reduces the risk of anterior segment ischemia. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the Head Stabilization Response to a Lateral Perturbation During Walking in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2009-01-01

    A main contributor of fractures in older adults is from a lateral fall. The decline in sensory systems results in difficulty maintaining balance stability. Head stabilization contributes to postural control by serving as a stable platform for the sensory systems. The purpose of this study was to characterize the head stabilization response to a lateral perturbation while walking. A total of 16 healthy older adults, aged 66-81 years, walked across a foam pathway 6 times. One piece of the foam pathway covered a movable platform that translated to the left when the subject stepped on the foam. Three trials were randomized in which the platform shifted. Angular rate sensors placed on the center of mass of the head and trunk collected head and trunk movement in all three planes of motion. The roll plane was analyzed to examine motion in the plane of the perturbation. Subjects stepped onto the platform with the right foot. Recovery step time and distance were recorded. The first trial was analyzed to capture the novelty of the perturbation. Results indicate a significant difference in footfall distance t=0.004, pOlder adults place their recovery foot down faster when perturbed to re-establish their base of support. Head and trunk segments are less stable and move with greater velocities to reestablish stability when perturbed.

  8. Ostial left main coronary stenosis in a frequent flyer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, John F

    2009-05-15

    A 52 year old gentleman presented with chest pain, after a long distance flight from India; he had made long haul flights every 2 weeks over the last 5 years as part of his job. His ECG revealed T wave inversion in leads V1-3. Cardiac biomarkers including troponin were negative; we proceeded to exercise stress testing (EST). This revealed 2 mm ST depression at 2 min of the standard Bruce protocol, associated with chest pain. He was taken immediately to the coronary catheterization laboratory; engagement of the left main caused pressure damping with 6 French, then 5 French diagnostic Judkins left 4 catheters. An ostial left main stenosis was seen; the right and left coronary trees otherwise had no significant stenoses. He had normal LV function. He underwent inpatient CABG 7 days later.

  9. Albedo estimation for scene segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-03-01

    Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.

  10. Physiological Laterality of Superficial Cerebral Veins on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Gomi, Taku; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether laterality of the superficial cerebral veins can be seen on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in patients with no intracranial lesions that affect venous visualization. We retrospectively evaluated 386 patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including SWI in our institute. Patients with a lesion with the potential to affect venous visualization on SWI were excluded. Two neuroradiologists visually evaluated the findings and scored the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins. Of the 386 patients, 315 (81.6%) showed no obvious laterality on venous visualization, 64 (16.6%) showed left-side dominant laterality, and 7 (1.8%) showed right-side dominant laterality. Left-side dominant physiological laterality exists in the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI. Therefore, when recognizing left-side dominant laterality of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI, the radiologist must also consider the possibility of physiological laterality.

  11. FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARING SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  12. Assessment of left ventricular wall motion and function by cross-sectional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akifumi; Hirata, Shunkichi; Ishikawa, Kyozo

    1982-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of cross-sectional echocardiography (CSE) was evaluated with M-mode echocardiography and radionuclide cardioangiography (RCG) in 50 cases including 30 patients with myocardial infarction. Segmental wall motion by CSE was highly correlated with segmental wall motion and left ventricular ejection fraction by RCG (r = 0.89 in the former, r = -0.84 in the latter). On the other hand, the left ventricular ejection fraction by M-mode echocardiography revealed a fairly well correlation with that by RCG ( r = 0.68). These results suggest that, as compared with RCG, CSE is quite useful in an evaluation of left ventricular function and in a detection of segmental wall motion abnormalities. (author)

  13. Value and limitations of segmental analysis of stress thallium myocardial imaging for localization of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Bailey, I.K.; Griffith, L.S.C.; Pitt, B.; Borow, R.D.; Wagner, H.N.; Becker, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    This study was done to determine the value of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphic imaging (MSI) for identifying disease in the individual coronary arteries. Segmental analysis of rest and stress MSI was performed in 133 patients with ateriographically proved coronary artery disease (CAD). Certain scintigraphic segments were highly specific (97 to 100%) for the three major coronary arteries: anterior wall and septum for the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery; the inferior wall for the right coronary artery (RCA); and the proximal lateral wall for the circumflex (LCX) artery. Perfusion defects located in the anterolateral wall in the anterior view were highly specific for proximal disease in the LAD involving the major diagonal branches, but this was not true for septal defects. The apical segments were not specific for any of the three major vessels. Although MSI was abnormal in 89% of these patients with CAD, it was less sensitive for identifying individual vessel disease: 63% for LAD, 50% for RCA, and 21% for LCX disease (narrowings > = 50%). Sensitivity increased with the severity of stenosis, but even for 100% occlusions was only 87% for LAD, 58% for RCA and 38% for LCX. Sensitivity diminished as the number of vessels involved increased: with single-vessel disease, 80% of LAD, 54% of RAC and 33% of LCX lesions were detected, but in patients with triple-vessel disease, only 50% of LAD, 50% of RCA and 16% of LCX lesions were identified. Thus, although segmented analysis of MSI can identify disease in the individual coronary arteries with high specificity, only moderate sensitivity is achieved, reflecting the tendency of MSI to identify only the most severely ischemic area among several that may be present in a heart. Perfusion scintigrams display relative distributions rather than absolute values for myocardial blood flow

  14. Quantitative evaluations of left ventricular function obtained by electrocardiographically-gated magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tohru; Iida, Kaname; Sugishita, Yasuro; Anno, Izumi; Akisada, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Akatsuka, Takao; Koseki, Susumu.

    1989-01-01

    Using electrocardiographically-gated magnetic resonance imaging, regional cardiac function was evaluated in 12 normal volunteers and in 10 cases of old myocardial infarction. The optimal short axis of the left ventricle was selected at the chordae tendineae level. The left ventricle was divided into 12 segments using a computer-aided system, and percentile shortening fraction (%SF) and percentile wall thickening (%WT) were calculated in each segment by the fixed coordinate method. In the normal volunteers, heterogeneity of both %FS and %WT was observed, ranging from 25±13% and 37±13%, respectively in the septal segment, to 49±13% and 60±21%, respectively in the posterior segment. In the cases of myocardial infarction, decreased %FS and %WT were detected at the affected regions. The abnormal regions revealed by %WT tended to be narrower than those revealed by %FS. Thus the MR technique at the optimal axis may be useful for quantitative evaluations of regional cardiac function. (author)

  15. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.; James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm 3 ) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm 3 ) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  16. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu [Government Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra, Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [SCTIMST, Department of Imaging Science and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm{sup 3}) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm{sup 3}) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  17. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices.......We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  18. [Application of hepatic segment resection combined with rigid choledochoscope in the treatment of complex hepatolithiasis guided by three-dimensional visualization technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Fang, Chihua

    2015-05-01

    To study the value of hepatic segment resection combined with rigid choledochoscope by the three-dimensional (3D) visualization technology in the diagnosis and treatment of complex hepatolithiasis. Enhance computed tomography (CT) data of 46 patients with complex hepatolithiasis who were admitted to the Zhujiang Hospital of the Southern Medical University from July 2010 to June 2014 were collected.All of the CT data were imported into the medical image three-dimensional visualization system (MI-3DVS) for 3D reconstruction and individual 3D types. The optimal scope of liver resection and the remnant liver volume were determined according to the individualized liver segments which were made via the distribution and variation of hepatic vein and portal vein, the distribution of bile duct stones and stricture of the bile duct, which provided guidance for intraoperative hepatic lobectomy and rigid choledochoscope for the remnant calculus lithotripsy. Outcomes of individual 3D types: 10 cases of type I, 11 cases of IIa, 23 cases of IIb, 2 cases of IIc, 19 cases coexisted with history of biliary surgery. The variation of hepatic artery was appeared 6 cases. The variation of portal vein was appeared 8 cases. The remaining liver volume for virtual hepatic lobectomy controlled more than 50%. Eighteen cases underwent left lateral hepatectomy, 8 cases underwent left liver resection, 8 cases underwent right posterior lobe of liver resection, 4 cases underwent the right hepatic resection, 4 cases underwent IV segment liver resection, 2 cases underwent right anterior lobe of liver resection, 2 cases underwent left lateral hepatectomy combined with right posterior lobe of liver resection, 26 cases underwent targeting treatment of rapid choledochoscope and preumatic lithotripsy. The actual surgical procedure was consistent with the preoperative surgical planning. There was no postoperative residual liver ischemia,congestion, liver failure occurred in this study. The intraoperative

  19. Segmental stiff skin syndrome (SSS): A distinct clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathryn L; Mir, Adnan; Schaffer, Julie V; Meehan, Shane A; Orlow, Seth J; Brinster, Nooshin K

    2016-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome (SSS) is a noninflammatory, fibrosing condition of the skin, often affecting the limb girdles. We present 4 new patients with SSS with largely unilateral, segmental distribution. To date, reported cases of SSS have been grouped based on generally accepted clinical and histopathologic findings. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in clinical and histopathologic findings between previously reported SSS cases. This is a retrospective review of 4 new cases and 48 previously published cases of SSS obtained from PubMed search. Of 52 total cases, 18 (35%) were segmentally distributed and 34 (65%) were widespread. The average age of onset was 4.1 years versus 1.6 years for segmental versus widespread SSS, respectively. Limitation in joint mobility affected 44% of patients with segmental SSS and 97% of patients with widespread SSS. Histopathologic findings were common between the 2 groups. This was a retrospective study of previously published cases limited by the completeness and accuracy of the reviewed cases. We propose a distinct clinical entity, segmental SSS, characterized by a segmental distribution, later age of onset, and less severe functional limitation. Both segmental SSS and widespread SSS share common diagnostic histopathologic features. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Right Site, Wrong Route - Cannulating the Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Peter; Arukala, Sanjay K; Sule, Anupam A

    2018-01-09

    Central venous catheters are placed in approximately five million patients annually in the US. The preferred site of insertion is one with fewer risks and easier access. Although the right internal jugular vein is preferred, on occasion, the left internal jugular may have to be accessed. A patient was admitted for septic shock, cerebrovascular accident, and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A central venous line was needed for antibiotic and vasopressor administration. Due to trauma from a fall to the right side and previously failed catheterization attempts at the left subclavian and femoral veins, the left internal jugular vein was accessed. On chest radiography for confirmation, the left internal jugular central venous catheter was seen projecting down the left paraspinal region. It did not take the expected course across the midline toward the right and into the superior vena cava (SVC). A review of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest with contrast done on a prior admission revealed a duplicated SVC on the left side that had not been reported in the original CT scan interpretation. A left-sided SVC is present in approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of the population, with 90% of these draining into the coronary sinus. During placements of central venous lines and pacemakers, irritation of the coronary sinus may result in hypotension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, or cardiac arrest. A widened mediastinum can be an indication of a duplicated SVC. When attempting a left internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement, it is important to be aware of venous anomalies in order to prevent complications.

  1. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: computerized anatomic study of relashionship between septal and free left ventricle wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliani, Paulo Sérgio; Costa, Eder França da; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Monteiro, Rosangela; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    A feature of dilated cardiomyopathy is the deformation of ventricular cavity, which contributes to systolic dysfunction. Few studies have evaluated this deformation bearing in mind ventricular regions and segments of the ventricle, which could reveal important details of the remodeling process, supporting a better understanding of its role in functional impairment and the development of new therapeutic strategies. To evaluate if, in basal, equatorial and apical regions, increased internal transverse perimeter of left ventricle in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy occurs proportionally between the septal and non-septal segment. We performed an anatomical study with 28 adult hearts from human cadavers. One group consisted of 18 hearts with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and another group with 10 normal hearts. After lamination and left ventricle digital image capture, in three different regions (base, equator and apex), the transversal internal perimeter of left ventricle was divided into two segments: septal and not septal. These segments were measured by proper software. It was established an index of proportionality between these segments, called septal and non-septal segment index. Then we determined whether this index was the same in both groups. Among patients with normal hearts and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the index of proportionality between the two segments (septal and non-septal) showed no significant difference in the three regions analyzed. The comparison results of the indices NSS/SS among normal and enlarged hearts were respectively: in base 1.99 versus 1.86 (P=0.46), in equator 2.22 versus 2.18 (P=0.79) and in apex 2.96 versus 3.56 (P=0.11). In the idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the transversal dilatation of left ventricular internal perimeter occurs proportionally between the segments corresponding to the septum and free wall at the basal, equatorial and apical regions of this chamber.

  2. Complex left profunda femoris vein to renal vein bypass for the management of progressive chronic iliofemoral occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Adams, Matthew K; Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Dresser, Kelly L; Ismail, Nyla; Peden, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Chronic occlusions of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and iliofemoral veins are long-term sequelae of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) that can lead to postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Patients may present with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, ranging from mild discomfort and swelling to severe venous hypertension and ulcerations. We report a 68-year-old man who had a history of left lower extremity DVT after a laminectomy and who developed PTS with nonhealing ulcers. The patient underwent a cross-pubic femorofemoral venous bypass that failed to improve his clinical status. After unsuccessful endovascular attempts for recanalization of the iliofemoral segment, a profunda femoris to IVC bypass was performed. The symptoms recurred 2 years later. Venography revealed restenosis at the caval anastomosis that did not resolve by endovascular means. A surgical revision was performed, and given the quality of the IVC, a jump bypass was created to the left renal vein. The swelling improved and the ulcers healed completely. Twenty-eight months after the complex reconstructions, he remains ulcer-free with mild edema controlled with stockings. Venous reconstructions remain a viable option for patients with symptomatic and recalcitrant nonmalignant obstruction of the large veins. Copyright © 2013 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Nielsen

    Full Text Available Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area, whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields. Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right

  4. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jared A; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ferguson, Michael A; Lainhart, Janet E; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction) and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area), whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields). Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right-brained" network strength

  5. Differential neuropsychological test sensitivity to left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Strauss, Esther; Hermann, Bruce P; Barr, William B; Perrine, Kenneth; Trenerry, Max R; Chelune, Gordon; Westerveld, Michael; Lee, Gregory P; Meador, Kimford J; Bowden, Stephen C

    2008-05-01

    We examined the sensitivity of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), and Multilingual Aphasia Examination Visual Naming subtest (MAE VN) to lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in patients who subsequently underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. For the AVLT (n = 189), left TLE patients performed more poorly than their right TLE counterparts [left TLE = 42.9 (10.6), right TLE = 47.7 (9.9); p LTE = 40.7 (11.1), right TLE = 43.8 (9.9); (p measures of confrontation naming ability [BNT: left LTE = 43.1 (8.9), right TLE = 48.1 (8.9); p < .001 (Cohen's d = .56); MAE VN: left TLE = 42.2, right TLE = 45.6, p = .02 (Cohen's d = .36)]. When these data were modeled in independent logistic regression analyses, the AVLT and BNT both significantly predicted side of seizure focus, although the positive likelihood ratios were modest. In the subset of 108 patients receiving both BNT and AVLT, the AVLT was the only significant predictor of seizure laterality, suggesting individual patient variability regarding whether naming or memory testing may be more sensitive to lateralized TLE.

  6. Left ventricular aneurysm in short axis: a comparison of magnetic resonance, ultrasound and thallium-201 SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Johnson, R.F. Jr.; Fawcett, H.D.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Short axis magnetic resonance images of a left ventricular aneurysm were compared to similar views obtained by echocardiography and by thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography. Images of the dyskinetic left ventricular apex and the contractile left ventricular base were analyzed and compared. Unlike the previously reported orthogonal plane magnetic resonance images, short axis imaging provided representative and quantitative information in views comparable to those obtained by standard noninvasive imaging techniques. These data indicate that short axis magnetic resonance imaging is capable of identifying and sizing the aneurysmal and the residual segments of the left ventricle. The findings may be of prognostic value in patients with left ventricular aneurysm

  7. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  8. Anomalous Systemic Artery to the Left Lower Lobe: Literature Review and a New Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob R; Lancaster, Timothy S; Abarbanell, Aaron M; Manning, Peter B; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2018-05-01

    Anomalous systemic arterial supply to the basal segments of the left lower lobe without coexisting pulmonary artery connection is a rare anomaly. Most feel treatment is necessary; however, the ideal strategy is unclear. Treatments described include embolization, pulmonary resection, or anastomosis to the native pulmonary artery. We recently encountered an infant with this anomaly and present a literature review summarizing all recent reports. Additionally, we describe a novel surgical technique to create a tension-free anastomosis utilizing segmental aortic translocation that we employed in our patient due to a large distance between the anomalous vessel and native left pulmonary artery.

  9. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiak Krystyna A; Łuba Małgorzata; Mathiak Klaus; Karzel Katarzyna; Wolańczyk Tomasz; Szczepanik Elżbieta; Ostaszewski Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Measuring quality of life (QOL) helps to delineate mechanisms underlying the interaction of disease and psychosocial factors. In adults, epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe led to lower QOL and higher depression and anxiety as compared to the right-sided foci. No study addressed the development of QOL disturbances depending on the lateralization of epileptogenic focus. The objective of our study was to examine QOL in children with lateralized epileptiform discharges. ...

  10. Behavioral lateralization in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Chapman, Kate M; Frances, Candice; Bauer, Gordon B

    2016-01-01

    We examined side preferences in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) through observations of limb use (right and left flipper) in 123 wild and 16 captive individuals.  We also analyzed archival data on wild manatees to develop an index of boat-caused body scars to determine lateralization of evasive action.  Wild and captive manatees displayed flipper lateralization at the individual, but not the population level for several behaviors including substrate touches, sculling, and...

  11. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined. Objective. The aim of the study was: (a re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order, and (b examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods. Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth putative agents are examined. Results. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6 can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively. The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Conclusion. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  12. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragović, Milan; Milenković, Sanja; Kocijancić, Dusica; Zlatko, Sram

    2013-01-01

    Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control) are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness) with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome) implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined). The aim of the study was: (a) re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order), and (b) examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy). Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females) from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order) and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth) putative agents are examined. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6) can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively).The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  13. Case of congenital absence of the left pericardium. In special reference to diagnostic significance of echocardiography and thoracic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Genji; Katayama, Tomoyuki; Honda, Yukiharu; Eguchi, Keisuke [Nagasaki City Hospital (Japan); Mori, Hideki; Oku, Yasuhiko

    1983-11-01

    In a 24-year-old female patient with complete congenital absence of the left pericardium, M mode echocardiography revealed that excessive motility of the left posterior ventricular wall observed in a supine position became more conspicuous in the left lateral position. In this postural position, a systolic notch in the posterior left ventricular wall, which was attributed to a large displacement of the heart to the left posteriorly in the early systolic phase, was observed. Thoracic CT visualized an extensive defect of the left pericardium even in a supine position by combination of artificial pneumothorax. In the left lateral position, CT clearly visualized the remaining end of the left pericardium in defect on 2 slices, front and back.

  14. Training labels for hippocampal segmentation based on the EADC-ADNI harmonized hippocampal protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Morency, Félix C; Collins, D Louis; Nishikawa, Masami; Ganzola, Rossana; Grothe, Michel J; Wolf, Dominik; Redolfi, Alberto; Pievani, Michela; Antelmi, Luigi; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Teipel, Stefan; Duchesne, Simon; Jack, Clifford R; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-02-01

    The European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) Harmonized Protocol (HarP) is a Delphi definition of manual hippocampal segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can be used as the standard of truth to train new tracers, and to validate automated segmentation algorithms. Training requires large and representative data sets of segmented hippocampi. This work aims to produce a set of HarP labels for the proper training and certification of tracers and algorithms. Sixty-eight 1.5 T and 67 3 T volumetric structural ADNI scans from different subjects, balanced by age, medial temporal atrophy, and scanner manufacturer, were segmented by five qualified HarP tracers whose absolute interrater intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.953 and 0.975 (left and right). Labels were validated as HarP compliant through centralized quality check and correction. Hippocampal volumes (mm(3)) were as follows: controls: left = 3060 (standard deviation [SD], 502), right = 3120 (SD, 897); mild cognitive impairment (MCI): left = 2596 (SD, 447), right = 2686 (SD, 473); and Alzheimer's disease (AD): left = 2301 (SD, 492), right = 2445 (SD, 525). Volumes significantly correlated with atrophy severity at Scheltens' scale (Spearman's ρ = segmentation algorithms. The publicly released labels will allow the widespread implementation of the standard segmentation protocol. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  16. Stamina in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  17. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  18. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  19. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  20. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  1. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phasing multi-segment undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Elleaume, P.; Vaerenbergh, P. Van

    1996-01-01

    An important issue in the manufacture of multi-segment undulators as a source of synchrotron radiation or as a free-electron laser (FEL) is the phasing between successive segments. The state of the art is briefly reviewed, after which a novel pure permanent magnet phasing section that is passive and does not require any current is presented. The phasing section allows the introduction of a 6 mm longitudinal gap between each segment, resulting in complete mechanical independence and reduced magnetic interaction between segments. The tolerance of the longitudinal positioning of one segment with respect to the next is found to be 2.8 times lower than that of conventional phasing. The spectrum at all gaps and useful harmonics is almost unchanged when compared with a single-segment undulator of the same total length. (au) 3 refs

  3. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  4. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  5. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  6. International EUREKA: Market Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year

  7. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  8. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  9. 123I-MIBG myocardial imaging in hypertensive patients. Abnormality progresses with left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Isao; Sumita, Shinichi; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Ochiai, Hisao; Ishii, Masao

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with essential hypertension were prospectively studied with 123 I-labeled metaiodobenzyl-guanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) to assess the presence and location of impaired sympathetic innervation in hypertrophied myocardium. Thirteen patients had left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiography, and 14 had normal echocardiograms. The wash-out ratio of 123 I-MIBG in these two groups did not differ significantly (35.3±6.1 and 35.4±5.1) but was higher than in control subjects (29.4±6.7). The delayed heart-to-mediastinum count ratio was lower in the patients with hypertrophy than in the patients without hypertrophy (1.93±0.28 and 2.22±0.21; p<0.05) and the control subjects (1.93±0.28 and 2.33±0.25; p<0.05). On SPECT imaging, abnormalities in segmental uptake were frequent at the posterior and postero-lateral wall in both groups, although the hypertrophic group had more significant impairment. Our results lead to the hypothesis that hypertension in more advanced stages may be associated not only with hypertrophic changes but also with more advanced regional impairment of cardiac sympathetic innervation. (author)

  10. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detailing magnetic field strength dependence and segmental artifact distribution of myocardial effective transverse relaxation rate at 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Antonella; Hezel, Fabian; Positano, Vincenzo; Keilberg, Petra; Pepe, Alessia; Lombardi, Massimo; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-06-01

    Realizing the challenges and opportunities of effective transverse relaxation rate (R2 *) mapping at high and ultrahigh fields, this work examines magnetic field strength (B0 ) dependence and segmental artifact distribution of myocardial R2 * at 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T. Healthy subjects were considered. Three short-axis views of the left ventricle were examined. R2 * was calculated for 16 standard myocardial segments. Global and mid-septum R2 * were determined. For each segment, an artifactual factor was estimated as the deviation of segmental from global R2 * value. The global artifactual factor was significantly enlarged at 7.0 T versus 1.5 T (P = 0.010) but not versus 3.0 T. At 7.0 T, the most severe susceptibility artifacts were detected in the inferior lateral wall. The mid-septum showed minor artifactual factors at 7.0 T, similar to those at 1.5 and 3.0 T. Mean R2 * increased linearly with the field strength, with larger changes for global heart R2 * values. At 7.0 T, segmental heart R2 * analysis is challenging due to macroscopic susceptibility artifacts induced by the heart-lung interface and the posterior vein. Myocardial R2 * depends linearly on the magnetic field strength. The increased R2 * sensitivity at 7.0 T might offer means for susceptibility-weighted and oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging of the myocardium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...

  13. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  14. ADVANCED CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kesavaraja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.

  15. Automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-ray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Amir Hossein; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2015-10-01

    As the panoramic x-ray is the most common extraoral radiography in dentistry, segmentation of its anatomical structures facilitates diagnosis and registration of dental records. This study presents a fast and accurate method for automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-rays. In the proposed four-step algorithm, a superior border is extracted through horizontal integral projections. A modified Canny edge detector accompanied by morphological operators extracts the inferior border of the mandible body. The exterior borders of ramuses are extracted through a contour tracing method based on the average model of mandible. The best-matched template is fetched from the atlas of mandibles to complete the contour of left and right processes. The algorithm was tested on a set of 95 panoramic x-rays. Evaluating the results against manual segmentations of three expert dentists showed that the method is robust. It achieved an average performance of [Formula: see text] in Dice similarity, specificity, and sensitivity.

  16. Cardiac pacing in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block: impact of pacing site for optimizing left ventricular resynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappone, C; Rosanio, S; Oreto, G; Tocchi, M; Gulletta, S; Salvati, A; Dicandia, C; Santinelli, V; Mazzone, P; Veglia, F; Ding, J; Sallusti, L; Spinelli, J; Vicedomini, G

    2000-07-01

    Acute left ventricular pacing has been associated with hemodynamic improvement in patients with congestive heart failure and wide QRS complex. We hypothesized that pacing two left ventricular sites simultaneously would produce faster activation and better systolic function than single-site pacing. We selected 14 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class III or IV) in normal sinus rhythm with left bundle branch block and QRS > 150 ms. An 8F dual micromanometer catheter was placed in the aorta for measuring +dP/dt (mmHg/s), aortic pulse pressure (mmHg), and end-diastolic pressure (mmHg). Pacing leads were positioned via coronary veins at the posterior base and lateral wall. Patients were acutely paced VDD at the posterior base, lateral wall, and both sites (dual-site) with 5 atrioventricular delays (from 8 ms to PR -30 ms). Pacing sequences were executed in randomized order using a custom external computer (FlexStim, Guidant CRM). Dual-site pacing increased peak +dP/dt significantly more than posterior base and lateral wall pacing. Dual-site and posterior base pacing raised aortic pulse pressure significantly more than lateral wall pacing. Dual-site pacing shortened QRS duration by 22 %, whereas posterior base and lateral wall pacing increased it by 2 and 12%, respectively (p = 0.006). In heart failure patients with left bundle branch block, dual-site pacing improves systolic function more than single-site stimulation. Improved ventricular activation synchrony, expressed by paced QRS narrowing, may account for the additional benefit of dual- vs single-site pacing in enhancing contractility. This novel approach deserves consideration for future heart failure pacing studies.

  17. Multislice CT imaging of ruptured left sinus of Valsalva aneurysm with fistulous track between left sinus and right atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampapati, Praveenkumar; Rao, Hejmadi Tati Gururaj; Radhesh, Srinivasan; Anand, Hejjaji Krishnamurthy; Praveen, Lokkur Srinivasamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Sinus of valsalva aneurysm is a rare condition arising from any of the three aortic sinuses. Among them, an aneurysm arising from the left coronary sinus is the rarest. Most of these cases were earlier diagnosed using echocardiography and conventional angiography. But with the availability of advanced imaging modalities like 64 slice cardiac CT and MR modalities, this condition can be accurately assessed noninvasively. We report a case of ruptured aneurysm originating from the left coronary sinus with a long windsock type of fistulous track between the aneurysm and right atrium evaluated by 64 slice cardiac CT imaging. This was later confirmed perioperatively.

  18. The laterality of the gallop gait in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Cully

    Full Text Available Laterality can be observed as side biases in locomotory behaviour which, in the horse, manifest inter alia as forelimb preferences, most notably in the gallop. The current study investigated possible leading-leg preferences at the population and individual level in Thoroughbred racehorses (n = 2095 making halt-to-gallop transitions. Videos of flat races in the UK (n = 350 were studied to record, for each horse, the lead-leg preference of the initial stride into gallop from the starting stalls. Races from clockwise (C and anti-clockwise (AC tracks were chosen alternately at random to ensure equal representation. Course direction, horse age and sex, position relative to the inside rail and finishing position were also noted. On C courses, the left/right ratio was 1.15, which represents a significant bias to the left (z = -2.29, p = 0.022, while on AC courses it was 0.92 (z = 0.51, p = 0.610. In both course directions, there was no significant difference between winning horses that led with the left leading leg versus the right (C courses, z = -1.32, p = 0.19 and AC courses, z = -0.74, p = 0.46. Of the 2,095 horses studied 51.26% led with their L fore and 48.74% with their R, with no statistically significant difference (z = -1.16, p = 0.25. Therefore, there was no evidence of a population level motor laterality. Additionally, 22 male and 22 female horses were randomly chosen for repeated measures of leading leg preference. A laterality index was calculated for each of the 44 horses studied using the repeated measures: 22 exhibited right laterality (of which two were statistically significant and 21 exhibited left laterality (eight being statistically significant; one horse was ambilateral. Using these data, left lateralized horses were more strongly lateralized on an individual level than the right lateralized horses (t = 2.28, p = 0.03, DF = 34 and mares were more left lateralized than males (t = 2.4, p = 0.03, DF = 19.

  19. The laterality of the gallop gait in Thoroughbred racehorses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Paulette; Lancaster, Bryony

    2018-01-01

    Laterality can be observed as side biases in locomotory behaviour which, in the horse, manifest inter alia as forelimb preferences, most notably in the gallop. The current study investigated possible leading-leg preferences at the population and individual level in Thoroughbred racehorses (n = 2095) making halt-to-gallop transitions. Videos of flat races in the UK (n = 350) were studied to record, for each horse, the lead-leg preference of the initial stride into gallop from the starting stalls. Races from clockwise (C) and anti-clockwise (AC) tracks were chosen alternately at random to ensure equal representation. Course direction, horse age and sex, position relative to the inside rail and finishing position were also noted. On C courses, the left/right ratio was 1.15, which represents a significant bias to the left (z = –2.29, p = 0.022), while on AC courses it was 0.92 (z = 0.51, p = 0.610). In both course directions, there was no significant difference between winning horses that led with the left leading leg versus the right (C courses, z = –1.32, p = 0.19 and AC courses, z = –0.74, p = 0.46). Of the 2,095 horses studied 51.26% led with their L fore and 48.74% with their R, with no statistically significant difference (z = -1.16, p = 0.25). Therefore, there was no evidence of a population level motor laterality. Additionally, 22 male and 22 female horses were randomly chosen for repeated measures of leading leg preference. A laterality index was calculated for each of the 44 horses studied using the repeated measures: 22 exhibited right laterality (of which two were statistically significant) and 21 exhibited left laterality (eight being statistically significant); one horse was ambilateral. Using these data, left lateralized horses were more strongly lateralized on an individual level than the right lateralized horses (t = 2.28, p = 0.03, DF = 34) and mares were more left lateralized than males (t = 2.4, p = 0.03, DF = 19). PMID:29883459

  20. 左右侧脑电生物反馈治疗广泛性焦虑的随机对照开放研究%A randomized controlled open-label study of right and left lateral EEG biofeedback treatment of generalized anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯月; 王玉平; 詹淑琴; 李宁; 黄朝阳; 王黎

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback training of alpha activity over the parietal lobe in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and to compare the effects of training of alpha activity over the left parietal lobe and right parietal lobe in patients with GAD. Methods: Twenty-six female patients with GAD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, DSM-IV) criteria for GAD were included in this study, and these patients were randomized into two groups: the left parietal lobe training group (n = 13) and the right parietal lobe training group (n = 13). Patients received a total of 10 times training, in which each training consisted of a 40 minutes training session every three days. The degree of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms before the first time training, after the fifth time training and after the last time training were evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Results: In the left parietal lobe training group, the scores of STAI-S[(38. 7 ±8. 8), (35. 2 ±9. 2) vs. (47. 2 ± 10. 7), P <0. 05] and ISI[(13.0 ±5. 2),(8.4 ±4.7) vs. (17.5 ±5. 3), P <0. 05] decreased after 5 and 10 times of training. In the right parietal lobe training group, the scores of STAI-S[(37. 3 ± 6. 4), (29. 9 ± 6. 2) vs. (44. 9 ± 12. 4), P < 0. 05], STAI-T[ (40.9 ±6.4),(36.9 ±6.9) vs. (47. 8 ±7. 5), P<0. 05]and ISI[ (10. 2 ±5.1), (6. 9 ±3. 1) vs. (15.5 ±6.9),P< 0. 05] decreased after 5 and 10 times of training. The BDI-II scores [ (10. 3 ± 6. 0) vs. (17. 7 ±7. 2), P <0. 05] decreased after 10 times of training. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that EEG biofeedback training of alpha activity over the parietal lobe could improve the anxiety and insomnia symptom in patients with GAD. EEG biofeedback training of alpha activity over the right parietal lobe could

  1. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicles...... was transversally cut while the other fascicle and the fascicular membrane were kept intact. Cycle 3: both fascicles were cut in opposite ends while the fascicular membrane was left intact. A decline in peak force of 45% and 55% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and 93% and 92% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed...... in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. A decline in stiffness of 39% and 60% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and of 93% and 100% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. The present data demonstrate that lateral force transmission between...

  2. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Teimournezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critical concepts such as handedness and its main features, the theoretical bases for this phenomenon, the nature and functions of lateralization, and the relationship between these two concepts have been shed light on for a better understanding. Finally, the general differences between the left-handers vs. right-handers have been drawn into consideration.

  3. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  4. Fully convolutional neural networks improve abdominal organ segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Meg F.; Bao, Shunxing; Huo, Yuankai; Yao, Yuang; Virostko, Jack; Plassard, Andrew J.; Lyu, Ilwoo; Assad, Albert; Abramson, Richard G.; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2018-03-01

    Abdominal image segmentation is a challenging, yet important clinical problem. Variations in body size, position, and relative organ positions greatly complicate the segmentation process. Historically, multi-atlas methods have achieved leading results across imaging modalities and anatomical targets. However, deep learning is rapidly overtaking classical approaches for image segmentation. Recently, Zhou et al. showed that fully convolutional networks produce excellent results in abdominal organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) scans. Yet, deep learning approaches have not been applied to whole abdomen magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. Herein, we evaluate the applicability of an existing fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) designed for CT imaging to segment abdominal organs on T2 weighted (T2w) MRI's with two examples. In the primary example, we compare a classical multi-atlas approach with FCNN on forty-five T2w MRI's acquired from splenomegaly patients with five organs labeled (liver, spleen, left kidney, right kidney, and stomach). Thirty-six images were used for training while nine were used for testing. The FCNN resulted in a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.930 in spleens, 0.730 in left kidneys, 0.780 in right kidneys, 0.913 in livers, and 0.556 in stomachs. The performance measures for livers, spleens, right kidneys, and stomachs were significantly better than multi-atlas (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In a secondary example, we compare the multi-atlas approach with FCNN on 138 distinct T2w MRI's with manually labeled pancreases (one label). On the pancreas dataset, the FCNN resulted in a median DSC of 0.691 in pancreases versus 0.287 for multi-atlas. The results are highly promising given relatively limited training data and without specific training of the FCNN model and illustrate the potential of deep learning approaches to transcend imaging modalities. 1

  5. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  6. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  7. Advantages of later motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  8. Right hemispheric reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient with left hemispheric partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Gina S; McCaslin, Justin; Shamim, Sadat

    2017-04-01

    We report a right-handed 19-year-old girl who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) lateralized to the right hemisphere with simultaneous new-onset left hemispheric seizures. RCVS, typically more diffuse, was lateralized to one of the cerebral hemispheres.

  9. Differences in cerebral cortical anatomy of left- and right-handers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, T.M.; Willems, R.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Hoogman, M.; Hagoort, P.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.

    2014-01-01

    The left and right sides of the human brain are specialized for different kinds of information processing, and much of our cognition is lateralized to an extent toward one side or the other. Handedness is a reflection of nervous system lateralization. Roughly ten percent of people are mixed- or

  10. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  11. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2010-09-21

    Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over the right or left SMG. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence that the right SMG contributes to accurate and efficient phonological decisions in the healthy brain, with no evidence that the left and right SMG can compensate for one another during TMS. Our findings motivate detailed studies of phonological processing in patients with acute or long-term damage of the right SMG.

  12. Lateralization of the Avian Magnetic Compass: Analysis of Its Early Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gehring

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In European Robins, Erithacus rubecula, the magnetic compass is lateralized in favor of the right eye/left hemisphere of the brain. This lateralization develops during the first winter and initially shows a great plasticity. During the first spring migration, it can be temporarily removed by covering the right eye. In the present paper, we used the migratory orientation of robins to analyze the circumstances under which the lateralization can be undone. Already a period of 1½ h being monocularly left-eyed before tests began proved sufficient to restore the ability to use the left eye for orientation, but this effect was rather short-lived, as lateralization recurred again within the next 1½ h. Interpretable magnetic information mediated by the left eye was necessary for removing the lateralization. In addition, monocularly, the left eye seeing robins could adjust to magnetic intensities outside the normal functional window, but this ability was not transferred to the “right-eye system”. Our results make it clear that asymmetry of magnetic compass perception is amenable to short-term changes, depending on lateralized stimulation. This could mean that the left hemispheric dominance for the analysis of magnetic compass information depends on lateralized interhemispheric interactions that in young birds can swiftly be altered by environmental effects.

  13. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  14. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  15. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.; Postma, A.; Ham, I.J. van der; Klink, P.C.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  16. On the relationship between language lateralization and handedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, several aspects of the relation between hand-preference and language lateralization were investigated by employing meta-analytic, neuroimaging and genetic techniques. To achieve this, we tested whether there is a difference between left- and right-handers with regard to spatial

  17. Individual performance and leader's laterality in interactive contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2017-05-01

    Left-handedness is known to provide an intrinsic and tactical advantage at top level in many sports involving interactive contests. Again, most of the renowned leaders of the world are known to have been left-handed. Leadership plays an important role in politics, sports and mentorship. In this paper we show that Cricket captains who bat left-handed have a strategic advantage over the right-handed captains in One Day International (ODI) and Test matches. The present study involving 46 left-handed captains and 148 right-handed captains in ODI matches, reveal a strong relation between leader's laterality and team member performance, demonstrating the critical importance of left-handedness and successful leadership. The odds for superior batting performance in an ODI match under left-handed captains are 89% higher than the odds under right-handed captains. Our study shows that left-handed captains are more successful in extracting superior performance from the batsmen and bowlers in ODI and Test matches; perhaps indicating left-handed leaders are better motivators as leaders when compared to right-handed captains.

  18. Development of prenatal lateralization: evidence from fetal mouth movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Exley, K

    2014-05-28

    Human lateralized behaviors relate to the asymmetric development of the brain. Research of the prenatal origins of laterality is equivocal with some studies suggesting that fetuses exhibit lateralized behavior and other not finding such laterality. Given that by around 22weeks of gestation the left cerebral hemisphere compared to the right is significantly larger in both male and female fetuses we expected that the right side of the fetal face would show more movement with increased gestation. This longitudinal study investigated whether fetuses from 24 to 36weeks of gestation showed increasing lateralized behaviors during mouth opening and whether lateralized mouth movements are related to fetal age, gender and maternal self-reported prenatal stress. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy fetuses (8 girls) of primagravid mothers were scanned four times from 24 to 36-gestation. Two types of mouth opening movements - upper lip raiser and mouth stretch - were coded in 60 scans for 10min. We modeled the proportion of right mouth opening for each fetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, which takes account of the repeated measures design. There was a significant increase in the proportion of lateralized mouth openings over the period increasing by 11% for each week of gestational age (LRT change in deviance=10.92, 1df; pgender differences were found nor was there any effect of maternally reported stress on fetal lateralized mouth movements. There was also evidence of left lateralization preference in mouth movement, although no evidence of changes in lateralization bias over time. This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the development of lateralized mouth movements from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left

  20. Gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the left atrium-A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Moritz, E-mail: moritz.wagner@charite.d [Department of Radiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Rief, Matthias; Asbach, Patrick [Department of Radiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Vogtmann, Thomas [Department of Cardioloy and Angiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Imaging Science Institute Charite Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Beling, Mark [Department of Cardioloy and Angiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Butler, Craig [Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Laule, Michael [Department of Cardioloy and Angiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Warmuth, Carsten; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Lembcke, Alexander [Department of Radiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Aim: Imaging of the left atrium is regularly performed prior to pulmonary vein isolation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the left atrium using the blood-pool contrast agent gadofosveset trisodium in comparison to noncontrast MRA. Materials and methods: Twenty consecutive patients were examined by free-breathing electrocardiogram-gated whole-heart MRA (reconstructed spatial resolution, 0.7 mm x 0.6 mm x 0.8 mm) with a noncontrast T2-prepared steady state free precession sequence (T2-prep SSFP) and a gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced inversion-recovery SSFP sequence (CE IR-SSFP). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of blood in the left atrium was determined. Depiction of the left atrium was rated by two radiologists in consensus. A cardiologist segmented the MR data sets and rated depiction of the left atrium. Results: Five of 20 patients had irregular breathing patterns with navigator efficiency less than 35% and were excluded from evaluation. CNR was significantly higher for CE IR-SSFP compared with T2-prep SSFP (18.4 {+-} 5.3 vs. 11.7 {+-} 3.5, p < 0.01). Depiction of the left atrium by T2-prep SSFP was rated as good in four patients, moderate in ten patients, and poor in one patient, whereas depiction of the left atrium by CE IR-SSFP was rated as excellent in nine patients, good in four patients, and moderate in two patients. CE IR-SSFP allowed for semiautomated segmentation of the left atrium in 15 patients, whereas T2-prep SSFP allowed for segmentation only in ten patients. Conclusion: Gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced MRA of the left atrium is feasible with significantly improved image quality compared to noncontrast MRA.

  1. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Region segmentation along image sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs

  3. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  4. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  5. IFRS 8 – OPERATING SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCHIS LEONICA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  6. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  7. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  8. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  9. Lateralization Pattern in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rajneesh Gupta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to see the incidence of peripheral laterality in schizophrenics and depressed patients. A total of 147 male subjects (29 schizophrenics, 38 depressed, 80 non-patient controls were asked to indicate their preferences for hand, foot, eye, and ear on the Sidedness Bias Schedule. The correlations among the laterality quotients (LQ in all the three groups were positive and highly significant except the foot-eye correlation in the non-patient controls. The left and mixed-handed schizophrenics and depressed subjects exhibited extreme left and mixed preference for foot, eye, and ear, respectively. Hand and ear preferences emerged as the predictors of schizophrenia and depression in the logistic regression analysis. The findings indicate a possible relationship between psychopathology and extreme left-mixed dominance.

  10. Muscles of mastication model-based MR image segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H.P. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore (Singapore). Biomedical Imaging Lab.; Ong, S.H. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Div. of Bioengineering; Hu, Q.; Nowinski, W.L. [Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore (Singapore). Biomedical Imaging Lab.; Foong, K.W.C. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Preventive Dentistry; Goh, P.S. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2006-11-15

    Objective: The muscles of mastication play a major role in the orodigestive system as the principal motive force for the mandible. An algorithm for segmenting these muscles from magnetic resonance (MR) images was developed and tested. Materials and methods: Anatomical information about the muscles of mastication in MR images is used to obtain the spatial relationships relating the muscle region of interest (ROI) and head ROI. A model-based technique that involves the spatial relationships between head and muscle ROIs as well as muscle templates is developed. In the segmentation stage, the muscle ROI is derived from the model. Within the muscle ROI, anisotropic diffusion is applied to smooth the texture, followed by thresholding to exclude bone and fat. The muscle template and morphological operators are employed to obtain an initial estimate of the muscle boundary, which then serves as the input contour to the gradient vector flow snake that iterates to the final segmentation. Results: The method was applied to segmentation of the masseter, lateral pterygoid and medial pterygoid in 75 images. The overlap indices (K) achieved are 91.4, 92.1 and 91.2%, respectively. Conclusion: A model-based method for segmenting the muscles of mastication from MR images was developed and tested. The results show good agreement between manual and automatic segmentations. (orig.)

  11. Muscles of mastication model-based MR image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, H.P.; Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore; Ong, S.H.; National Univ. of Singapore; Hu, Q.; Nowinski, W.L.; Foong, K.W.C.; National Univ. of Singapore; Goh, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The muscles of mastication play a major role in the orodigestive system as the principal motive force for the mandible. An algorithm for segmenting these muscles from magnetic resonance (MR) images was developed and tested. Materials and methods: Anatomical information about the muscles of mastication in MR images is used to obtain the spatial relationships relating the muscle region of interest (ROI) and head ROI. A model-based technique that involves the spatial relationships between head and muscle ROIs as well as muscle templates is developed. In the segmentation stage, the muscle ROI is derived from the model. Within the muscle ROI, anisotropic diffusion is applied to smooth the texture, followed by thresholding to exclude bone and fat. The muscle template and morphological operators are employed to obtain an initial estimate of the muscle boundary, which then serves as the input contour to the gradient vector flow snake that iterates to the final segmentation. Results: The method was applied to segmentation of the masseter, lateral pterygoid and medial pterygoid in 75 images. The overlap indices (K) achieved are 91.4, 92.1 and 91.2%, respectively. Conclusion: A model-based method for segmenting the muscles of mastication from MR images was developed and tested. The results show good agreement between manual and automatic segmentations. (orig.)

  12. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and "pull of the north" are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts.

  13. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and “pull of the north” are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts. PMID:28945773

  14. An unusual manifestation of acute appendicitis with left flank pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Talanow, MD, PhD

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a case with an unusual presentation of early appendicitis. The patient presented initially with left sided flank pain. Workup for nephrolithiasis, including non-contrast CT of the abdomen and pelvis was negative for renal stones or hydronephrosis. After discharge, the patient presented one week later in the ED with right lower quadrant pain. Contrast enhanced CT of the abdomen revealed perforated appendicitis.

  15. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  16. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  17. The forgotten view: Chest X-ray - Lateral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M. Ittyachen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With CT (computed tomography chest gaining more importance as a diagnostic tool, chest X-ray especially the lateral view is taken less commonly nowadays. Besides CT chest is also proven to be superior to chest X-ray in patients with major blunt trauma. We are presenting a 68-year old male who was partially treated from outside for a left sided pneumonia. He came to our hospital because of persisting chest pain. Chest X-ray, frontal view (postero-anterior was almost normal except for a mild opacity in the left lower zone. CT scan of the chest revealed a fluid collection posteriorly enclosed within enhancing pleura. Chest X-ray, left lateral view showed a corresponding posterior pleural based opacity. We are presenting this case to highlight the importance of the lateral view of the chest X-ray. In selected cases there is still a role for the lateral view. With the three dimensional visualization provided by the CT, the lateral view of the chest may be easier to understand. Consequent to the initial diagnosis by CT further follow up can be done with the chest X-ray. In a limited way this mitigates unnecessary expenditure and more importantly prevents the patient from exposure to harmful radiation in the form of repeated CT.

  18. The Inverted Discoid Meniscus Segment: Clinical, Radiographic, and Arthroscopic Description of a Hidden Tear Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMont, Lauren; Ellis, Henry; Wise, Kelsey; Wilson, Philip

    2016-06-01

    A flipped, or inverted, meniscus segment is easily visualized in the normal meniscus. However, an inverted discoid meniscus segment may be difficult to appreciate because the tear occurs more centrally and leaves more meniscal rim; thus, it may be undertreated if not addressed during arthroscopy. To describe findings on clinical history, radiographs, MRI, and arthroscopy of a lateral discoid meniscus with an inverted segment and compare them with characteristics of a lateral discoid meniscus without an inverted segment. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Between 2009 and 2012, a retrospective series of 121 consecutive knee arthroscopies for symptomatic lateral discoid meniscus were reviewed for the presence of an inverted fragment. Chart review of clinical presentation, operative reports, radiographic images, and arthroscopic images was performed. Comparative analysis of the clinical presentation between lateral discoid menisci with an inverted segment and noninverted lateral discoid menisci was performed by use of Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney test. Nineteen patients with an inverted discoid meniscus segment (14 males, 5 females; average age, 15.0 years; range, 9.5-17.0 years) were compared with 102 patients with a noninverted discoid meniscus (53 males, 49 females; average age, 12.3 years; range, 5-17.0 years) (P = .011 for sex and P meniscus patients with an inverted segment had activity-related knee pain. Only 4 patients (21.0%) reported mechanical symptoms. Patients with an inverted discoid segment, compared with patients with discoid menisci without inverted segments, were more likely to have instability and effusion (P = .012 and P meniscus patients with an inverted segment (94.7%) had an injury, while only 41.2% of patients with noninverted symptomatic discoid menisci had an injury (P meniscus. During arthroscopy, the inverted discoid segment appeared normal, without a tear; upon probing, however, the inverted segment could be exposed. An

  19. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  20. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  1. Central nervous system involvement in a case of segmental nevus depigmentosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system involvement in segmental nevus depigmentosus (SND is rare. A 7-month-old boy having convulsion and segmental hypopigmented patch in the right inguinal region. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed bilateral periventricular white matter hypoplasia with prominent subarachnoid spaces and mild dilation of ventricles with mild left cerebral hemispheric atrophy. Association of SND with seizure and white matter lesion has been rarely reported.

  2. Segmental, synaptic actions of commissural interneurons in the mouse spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinlan, Katharina A.; Kiehn, Ole

    2007-01-01

    outlines the basic connectivity pattern of CINs in the mouse spinal cord on a segmental level. Our study suggests that, based on observed synaptic connectivity, both short- and long-range CINs are likely involved in segmental left-right coordination and that the CIN system is organized into a dual......-inhibitory and single-excitatory system. These systems are organized in a way that they could provide appropriate coordination during locomotion....

  3. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  4. Eye laterality: a comprehensive analysis in refractive surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Stephan J; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Steinberg, Johannes; Richard, Gisbert; Katz, Toam

    2013-08-01

    To explore eye laterality (higher refractive error in one eye) and its association with refractive state, spherical/astigmatic anisometropia, age and sex in refractive surgery candidates. Medical records of 12 493 consecutive refractive surgery candidates were filtered. Refractive error (subjective and cycloplegic) was measured in each subject and correlated with eye laterality. Only subjects with corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of >20/22 in each eye were enrolled to exclude amblyopia. Associations between eye laterality and refractive state were analysed by means of t-test, chi-squared test, Spearman's correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in spherical equivalent between right (-3.47 ± 2.76 D) and left eyes (-3.47 ± 2.76 D, p = 0.510; Pearson's r = 0.948, p laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D in myopic (-5.64 ± 2.5 D versus -4.92 ± 2.6 D; p = 0.001) and in hyperopic (4.44 ± 1.69 D versus 3.04 ± 1.79 D; p = 0.025) subjects, (II) a tendency for left eye cylindrical laterality in myopic subjects, and (III) myopic male subjects had a higher prevalence of left eye laterality. (IV) Age did not show any significant impact on laterality. Over the full refractive spectrum, this study confirmed previously described strong interocular refractive correlation but revealed a statistically significant higher rate of right eye laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D. In general, our results support the use of data from one eye only in studies of ocular refraction. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  5. Behavioural relevance of atypical language lateralization in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, S; Dräger, B; Flöel, A; Lohmann, H; Breitenstein, C; Deppe, M; Henningsen, H; Ringelstein, E B

    2001-08-01

    In most humans, language is lateralized to the left side of the brain. It has been speculated that this hemispheric specialization is a prerequisite for the full realization of linguistic potential. Using standardized questionnaires and performance measures, we attempted to determine if there are behavioural correlates of atypical, i.e. right-hemispheric and bilateral, language lateralization. The side and degree of language lateralization were determined by measuring the hemispheric perfusion differences by functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography during a word generation task in healthy volunteers. Subjects with left (n = 264), bilateral (n = 31) or right (n = 31) hemisphere language representation did not differ significantly with respect to mastery of foreign languages, academic achievement, artistic talents, verbal fluency or (as assessed in a representative subgroup) in intelligence or speed of linguistic processing. These findings suggest that atypical hemispheric specialization for language, i.e. right-hemisphere or bilateral specialization, is not associated with major impairments of linguistic faculties in otherwise healthy subjects.

  6. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Traudt, Joachim; Güntürkün, Onur; Prior, Helmut; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2002-10-01

    Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of the magnetic field. We found that captive migrants tested in cages with the magnetic field as the only available orientation cue were well oriented in their appropriate migratory direction when using their right eye only, but failed to show a significant directional preference when using their left eye. This implies that magnetoreception for compass orientation, assumed to take place in the eyes alongside the visual processes, is strongly lateralized, with a marked dominance of the right eye/left brain hemisphere.

  7. Laterality and mental disorders in the postgenomic age--A closer look at schizophrenia and language lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hirnstein, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Most people are right-handed and show left-hemispheric language lateralization, but a minority exhibits left-handedness and right-hemispheric language lateralization. This atypical laterality pattern is observed significantly more often in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, which led several authors to conclude that there is a genetic link between laterality and schizophrenia. It has even been suggested that a failure in the lateralization process, orchestrated by genes, could be the primary cause of schizophrenia. However, the molecular genetic evidence for a link between laterality and schizophrenia is weak. Recent genetic evidence indicates that schizophrenia is not a single disorder but a group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks leading to distinct clinical symptoms. To uncover the link between schizophrenia and laterality we therefore suggest a paradigm shift where genetics are not mapped on schizophrenia as a whole but on discrete schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, we provide a critical evaluation of current theories on the genetic link between schizophrenia and brain asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elderly patient with acute, left lower abdominal pain: perforated jejunal diverticulitis (2010:7b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, Manuela; Certo, Manuela; Varzim, Pedro; Silva, Donzilia; Peixoto, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    An elderly patient with acute, left, lower abdominal pain is described, for whom the diagnosis of perforated jejunal diverticulitis was established by computed tomography (CT). The presence of a jejunal segmental inflammatory process, with or without abscess or perforation, in the setting of jejunal diverticulosis, is very suggestive of jejunal diverticulitis. (orig.)

  9. Predictors and prognostic value of left atrial remodelling after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels; Lønborg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Left atrial (LA) volume is a strong prognostic predictor in patients following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the change in LA volume over time (LA remodelling) following STEMI has been scarcely studied. We sought to identify predictors for LA remodelling an...

  10. Improving vertebra segmentation through joint vertebra-rib atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinong; Yao, Jianhua; Roth, Holger R.; Burns, Joseph E.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate spine segmentation allows for improved identification and quantitative characterization of abnormalities of the vertebra, such as vertebral fractures. However, in existing automated vertebra segmentation methods on computed tomography (CT) images, leakage into nearby bones such as ribs occurs due to the close proximity of these visibly intense structures in a 3D CT volume. To reduce this error, we propose the use of joint vertebra-rib atlases to improve the segmentation of vertebrae via multi-atlas joint label fusion. Segmentation was performed and evaluated on CTs containing 106 thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 10 pathological and traumatic spine patients on an individual vertebra level basis. Vertebra atlases produced errors where the segmentation leaked into the ribs. The use of joint vertebra-rib atlases produced a statistically significant increase in the Dice coefficient from 92.5 +/- 3.1% to 93.8 +/- 2.1% for the left and right transverse processes and a decrease in the mean and max surface distance from 0.75 +/- 0.60mm and 8.63 +/- 4.44mm to 0.30 +/- 0.27mm and 3.65 +/- 2.87mm, respectively.

  11. Endovascular Treatment of a Splenic Aneurysm Associated With Segmental Arterial Mediolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Segmental arterial mediolysis is a rare disorder characterised by disintegration of the medial layer of an arterial wall usually affecting the intra-abdominal splanchnic vessels. Report: A case of 50 year old man who presented with sudden-onset left sided flank pain is reported. A computed tomography mesenteric angiogram showed haemorrhage and a stable left upper quadrant haematoma arising from 8 × 8 mm splenic artery aneurysm. Discussion: The patient underwent a successful endovascular coiling procedure to exclude the aneurysm and for complete resolution of his symptoms. Keywords: Segmental arterial mediolysis, Splanchnic vessels, Splenic artery aneurysm

  12. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...... [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients....

  13. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  14. Using Predictability for Lexical Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çöltekin, Çağrı

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored. This paper presents an incremental computational model of lexical segmentation for exploring the usefulness of predictability for lexical segmentation. We show that the predictability cue is a strong cue for segmentation. Contrary to earlier reports in the literature, the strategy yields state-of-the-art segmentation performance with an incremental computational model that uses only this particular cue in a cognitively plausible setting. The paper also reports an in-depth analysis of the model, investigating the conditions affecting the usefulness of the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. ''Natural'' left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed

  16. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Hs 224, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ridder, Dirk de [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-08-15

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P{sub corrected} < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  17. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Marion; Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan; Ridder, Dirk de

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P corrected < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  18. Quantifying brain development in early childhood using segmentation and registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabar, P.; Bhatia, K. K.; Murgasova, M.; Hajnal, J. V.; Boardman, J. P.; Srinivasan, L.; Rutherford, M. A.; Dyet, L. E.; Edwards, A. D.; Rueckert, D.

    2007-03-01

    In this work we obtain estimates of tissue growth using longitudinal data comprising MR brain images of 25 preterm children scanned at one and two years. The growth estimates are obtained using segmentation and registration based methods. The segmentation approach used an expectation maximisation (EM) method to classify tissue types and the registration approach used tensor based morphometry (TBM) applied to a free form deformation (FFD) model. The two methods show very good agreement indicating that the registration and segmentation approaches can be used interchangeably. The advantage of the registration based method, however, is that it can provide more local estimates of tissue growth. This is the first longitudinal study of growth in early childhood, previous longitudinal studies have focused on later periods during childhood.

  19. The Hierarchy of Segment Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to find the connection between reports created for managers responsible for different business segments. With this purpose, the hierarchy of the business reporting segments is proposed. This can lead to better understanding of the expenses under common responsibility of more than one manager since these expenses should be in more than one report. The structure of cost defined per business segment hierarchy with the aim of new, unusual but relevant cost structure for management can be established. Both could potentially bring new information benefits for management in the context of profit reporting.

  20. Segmental dilatation of the ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tune-Yie Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.

  1. Differences in graph theory functional connectivity in left and right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Sharon; Stern, John M; Engel, Jerome; Levin, Harvey S; Haneef, Zulfi

    2014-12-01

    To investigate lateralized differences in limbic system functional connectivity between left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using graph theory. Interictal resting state fMRI was performed in 14 left TLE patients, 11 right TLE patients, and 12 controls. Graph theory analysis of 10 bilateral limbic regions of interest was conducted. Changes in edgewise functional connectivity, network topology, and regional topology were quantified, and then left and right TLE were compared. Limbic edgewise functional connectivity was predominantly reduced in both left and right TLE. More regional connections were reduced in right TLE, most prominently involving reduced interhemispheric connectivity between the bilateral insula and bilateral hippocampi. A smaller number of limbic connections were increased in TLE, more so in left than in right TLE. Topologically, the most pronounced change was a reduction in average network betweenness centrality and concurrent increase in left hippocampal betweenness centrality in right TLE. In contrast, left TLE exhibited a weak trend toward increased right hippocampal betweenness centrality, with no change in average network betweenness centrality. Limbic functional connectivity is predominantly reduced in both left and right TLE, with more pronounced reductions in right TLE. In contrast, left TLE exhibits both edgewise and topological changes that suggest a tendency toward reorganization. Network changes in TLE and lateralized differences thereof may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Accounting for segment correlations in segmented gamma-ray scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, G.A.; Prettyman, T.H.; Piquette, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    In a typical segmented gamma-ray scanner (SGS), the detector's field of view is collimated so that a complete horizontal slice or segment of the desired thickness is visible. Ordinarily, the collimator is not deep enough to exclude gamma rays emitted from sample volumes above and below the segment aligned with the collimator. This can lead to assay biases, particularly for certain radioactive-material distributions. Another consequence of the collimator's low aspect ratio is that segment assays at the top and bottom of the sample are biased low because the detector's field of view is not filled. This effect is ordinarily countered by placing the sample on a low-Z pedestal and scanning one or more segment thicknesses below and above the sample. This takes extra time, however, We have investigated a number of techniques that both account for correlated segments and correct for end effects in SGS assays. Also, we have developed an algorithm that facilitates estimates of assay precision. Six calculation methods have been compared by evaluating the results of thousands of simulated, assays for three types of gamma-ray source distribution and ten masses. We will report on these computational studies and their experimental verification

  3. What are Segments in Google Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segments find all sessions that meet a specific condition. You can then apply this segment to any report in Google Analytics (GA). Segments are a way of identifying sessions and users while filters identify specific events, like pageviews.

  4. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  5. Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not

  6. Quantitation of left ventricular dimensions and function by digital video subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.; Norris, S.L.; Gerber, K.H.; Slutsky, R.A.; Ashburn, W.L.; Baily, N.

    1982-01-01

    Digital video subtraction angiography (DVSA) after central intravenous administration of contrast media was used in experimental animals and in patients with suspected coronary artery disease to quantitate left ventricular dimensions and regional and global contractile function. In animals, measurements of left ventricular (LV) volumes, wall thickness, ejection fraction, segmental contraction, and cardiac output correlated closely with sonocardiometry or thermodilution measurements. In patients, volumes and ejection fractions calculated from mask mode digital images correlated closely with direct left ventriculography. Global and segmental contractile function was displayed in patients by ejection shell images, stroke volume images, and time interval difference images. Central cardiovascular function was also quantitated by measurement of pulmonary transit time and calculation of pulmonary blood volume from digital fluoroscopic images. DVSA was shown to be useful and accurate in the quantitation of central cardiovascular physiology

  7. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  8. Monoradiculopathy and secondary segmental instability caused by postoperative pars interarticularis fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Tuncay; Tutkan, Ibrahim

    2009-04-01

    Instability can develop after lumbar spinal surgery. What is also known as secondary segmental instability is one of the important causes of failed back syndrome. In this paper, we described a 45-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with secondary segmental instability caused by left L3 pars interarticularis fracture after a high lumbar disc surgery and was subsequently treated with re-operation. We evaluated the clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment methods for secondary segmental instability caused by postoperative pars interarticularis fracture. Furthermore, we emphasized the importance of preserving the pars interarticularis during upper lumbar disc surgeries in order to avoid a potential stress fracture.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of myocardial infarction due to left circumflex artery occlusion: comparison with infarction due to right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, B.L.; Beller, G.A.; Kaiser, D.L.; Gibson, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Forty consecutive patients with creatine kinase-MB confirmed myocardial infarction due to circumflex artery occlusion (Group 1) were prospectively evaluated and compared with 107 patients with infarction due to right coronary artery occlusion (Group 2) and 94 with left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group 3). All 241 patients underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography, 24 h Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring and coronary arteriography before hospital discharge and were followed up for 39 +/- 18 months. There were no significant differences among the three infarct groups in age, gender, number of risk factors, prevalence and type of prior infarction, Norris index, Killip class and frequency of in-hospital complications. Acute ST segment elevation was present in only 48% of patients in Group 1 versus 71 and 72% in Groups 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.012), and 38% of patients with a circumflex artery-related infarct had no significant ST changes (that is, elevation or depression) on admission (versus 21 and 20% for patients in Groups 2 and 3, respectively) (p = 0.001). Abnormal R waves in lead V1 were more common in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p less than 0.003) as was ST elevation in leads I, aVL and V4 to V6 (p less than or equal to 0.048). These differences in ECG findings between Group 1 and 2 patients correlated with a significantly higher prevalence of posterior and lateral wall asynergy in the group with a circumflex artery-related infarct. Infarct size based on peak creatine kinase levels and multiple radionuclide variables was intermediate in Group 1 compared with that in Group 2 (smallest) and Group 3 (largest). During long-term follow-up, the probability of recurrent cardiac events was similar in the three infarct groups

  10. Laterality influences schooling position in rainbowfish, Melanotaenia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a widespread trait among animals, is often manifested as side biases in behaviour (laterality) and has been suggested to provide fitness benefits. Here we examined the influence of laterality on the organisation of fish schools using rainbowfish (Melanotaenia spp) as model species. The pattern and strength of laterality for each individual was determined by examining eye preferences whilst examining their reflection in a mirror. Schools of four fish of known laterality were then created and the preferred position for each fish within the school was repeatedly observed in a flume. Fish which showed right eye preferences in the mirror test preferentially adopted a position on the left side of the school. Conversely, fish that showed left eye preferences in the mirror test or where non-lateralised preferentially adopted a position slightly to the right side of the school. However, this general pattern varied depending on the species and sex of the school. Our results strongly implicate individual laterality in the geometry of school formation.

  11. Laterality of suckling behaviour in three zebra species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluháček, Jan; Olléová, Michaela; Bartošová, Jitka; Pluháčková, Jana; Bartoš, Luděk

    2013-01-01

    Although side preference while suckling is an easily characterised lateralised behaviour, few studies have been conducted. We observed laterality in suckling behaviour in three captive zebra species to test two hypotheses: laterality affected by the foal (motor laterality) and laterality affected by the mother. In total we observed 35 foals of Grevy's, plains, and mountain zebra in two zoos and recorded 5128 successful suckling bouts and 9095 unsuccessful suckling attempts. At the population level the only factor affecting side preference of suckling bouts and attempts was the identity of the individual foal. Ten foals showed individual preferences: seven foals preferred suckling from the left side of the mother, three preferred suckling from the right side of the mother. The individual preferences increased with increasing age of the foal. Only one foal was refused more often from the opposite side than the preferred side used for suckling whereas three other foals were refused from the preferred side. Foals that preferred suckling either from left or right side were refused by the mare more often than foals which showed non-preference. Thus lateral preferences in suckling behaviour of zebra foals seem to be in line with the motor laterality hypotheses.

  12. CLG for Automatic Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Christo Ananth; S.Santhana Priya; S.Manisha; T.Ezhil Jothi; M.S.Ramasubhaeswari

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic segmentation method which effectively combines Active Contour Model, Live Wire method and Graph Cut approach (CLG). The aim of Live wire method is to provide control to the user on segmentation process during execution. Active Contour Model provides a statistical model of object shape and appearance to a new image which are built during a training phase. In the graph cut technique, each pixel is represented as a node and the distance between those nodes is rep...

  13. Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...

  14. Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  16. Efficacy of CTA portography for preoperatively determining the segmental location of focal hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.C.; Chemzmar, J.L.; Sugarbaker, P.H.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Using cross-sectional images to localize tumors to specific hepatic segments before resection might be difficult because the transverse scissura, an important segmental landmark, is approximately parallel to the axial plane. Since this plane is parallel to the main right and left portal pedicles, the authors postulated that they could localize lesions above this plane to segments 2,4A,7, or 8, and below this plane to segments 3, 4B,5, or 6. The authors have retrospectively evaluated, in a blinded fashion, 24 hepatic masses in 13 patients who underwent CTA-portography and subsequent tumor resection. Using this scheme, they have accurately predicted the primary segmental location in 22 (92%) of 24 surgically confirmed lesions

  17. Recognition Using Classification and Segmentation Scoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin

    1992-01-01

    .... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...

  18. Spine lateral flexion strength development differences between exercises with pelvic stabilization and without pelvic stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straton, Alexandru; Gidu, Diana Victoria; Micu, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Poor lateral flexor muscle strength can be an important source of lumbar/thoracic back pain in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pelvic stabilization (PS) and no pelvic stabilization (NoPS) lateral flexion strength exercise training on the development of isolated right and left lateral flexion strength. Isometric torque of the isolated right and left lateral flexion muscles was measured at two positions (0° and 30° opposed angle range of motion) on 42 healthy women before and after 8 weeks of PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise training. Subjects were assigned in three groups, the first (n=14) trained 3 times/week with PS lateral flexion strength exercise, the second (n=14) trained 3 times/week with NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise and the third (control, n=14) did not train. Post training isometric strength values describing PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength improved in greater extent for the PS lateral flexion strength exercise group and in lesser extent for the NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise group, in both angles (pstrength exercises; NoPS lateral flexion strength exercises can be an effective way of training for the spine lateral flexion muscles, if there is no access to PS lateral flexion strength training machines.

  19. Right-ear precedence and vocal emotion contagion: The role of the left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Cornmell, Louise; Smith, Bethany; de Sa, Sabrina Lauren; Borwick, Ciara; Belfon-Thompson, Elisha

    2018-05-01

    Much evidence suggests that the processing of emotions is lateralized to the right hemisphere of the brain. However, under some circumstances the left hemisphere might play a role, particularly for positive emotions and emotional experiences. We explored whether emotion contagion was right-lateralized, lateralized valence-specifically, or potentially left-lateralized. In two experiments, right-handed female listeners rated to what extent emotionally intoned pseudo-sentences evoked target emotions in them. These sound stimuli had a 7 ms ear lead in the left or right channel, leading to stronger stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere. In both experiments, the results revealed that right ear lead stimuli received subtly but significantly higher evocation scores, suggesting a left hemisphere dominance for emotion contagion. A control experiment using an emotion identification task showed no effect of ear lead. The findings are discussed in relation to prior findings that have linked the processing of emotional prosody to left-hemisphere brain regions that regulate emotions, control orofacial musculature, are involved in affective empathy processing areas, or have an affinity for processing emotions socially. Future work is needed to eliminate alternative interpretations and understand the mechanisms involved. Our novel binaural asynchrony method may be useful in future work in auditory laterality.

  20. Lateral atlanto-axial joint block for cervical headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu P Mallick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 32-year-old car mechanic, having chronic headache for three years affecting the left upper lateral part of the neck, suboccipital region, and scalp (VAS: 8/10, having a history of whiplash injury from a car accident three years ago, with a deep cut injury on the scalp. He was complaining of neck stiffness and pain during all neck movements and a burning pain in the entire left side of the neck and scalp. He was treated, using conservative methods, by Orthopedists, Neurologists, as well as Psychiatrists, and all investigations including computed tomography (CT of the brain, X-ray cervical spine, and all related blood reports were within normal limits. He was sent to the Pain Clinic for further assessment. Suspecting sympathetic mediated pain on the left side and upper cervical facet pain, he was given a diagnostic Stellate Ganglion Block, a Third Occipital Nerve block, and a fourth cervical medial branch block (MBB, which gave him good relief; by this the visual analog scale (VAS score reduced to 3/10. Yet, he was complaining of pain on a focal area on the left upper cervical spine corresponding to the C1-2 joint with lateral rotation on the left side. Subsequently it was decided that a diagnostic Atlanto-axial joint block under fluoroscopy would be carried out. This gave him very good relief from the cervicogenic headache.

  1. Aortic root segmentation in 4D transesophageal echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechani, Shubham; Suresh, Rahul; Patwardhan, Kedar A.

    2018-02-01

    The Aortic Valve (AV) is an important anatomical structure which lies on the left side of the human heart. The AV regulates the flow of oxygenated blood from the Left Ventricle (LV) to the rest of the body through aorta. Pathologies associated with the AV manifest themselves in structural and functional abnormalities of the valve. Clinical management of pathologies often requires repair, reconstruction or even replacement of the valve through surgical intervention. Assessment of these pathologies as well as determination of specific intervention procedure requires quantitative evaluation of the valvular anatomy. 4D (3D + t) Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) is a widely used imaging technique that clinicians use for quantitative assessment of cardiac structures. However, manual quantification of 3D structures is complex, time consuming and suffers from inter-observer variability. Towards this goal, we present a semiautomated approach for segmentation of the aortic root (AR) structure. Our approach requires user-initialized landmarks in two reference frames to provide AR segmentation for full cardiac cycle. We use `coarse-to-fine' B-spline Explicit Active Surface (BEAS) for AR segmentation and Masked Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) method for AR tracking. Our method results in approximately 0.51 mm average localization error in comparison with ground truth annotation performed by clinical experts on 10 real patient cases (139 3D volumes).

  2. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    At the height of mass activity on the Left, the ascendancy of the women's liberation movement (WLM), and the beginnings of real social and personal change for men and women, the 1970s are increasingly seen as the decade when sixties permissiveness began to be truly felt in Britain. This article...... draws upon a personal archive of correspondence from this turbulent decade, between two revolutionary women, Di Parkin and Annie Howells. It argues that the women's letters form an important contribution to new understandings about the construction of the post-war gendered self. The letters represent...... an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  3. Time left in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; King, Adam Philip; Gallistel, C R

    2007-02-22

    Evidence suggests that the online combination of non-verbal magnitudes (durations, numerosities) is central to learning in both human and non-human animals [Gallistel, C.R., 1990. The Organization of Learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA]. The molecular basis of these computations, however, is an open question at this point. The current study provides the first direct test of temporal subtraction in a species in which the genetic code is available. In two experiments, mice were run in an adaptation of Gibbon and Church's [Gibbon, J., Church, R.M., 1981. Time left: linear versus logarithmic subjective time. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 7, 87-107] time left paradigm in order to characterize typical responding in this task. Both experiments suggest that mice engaged in online subtraction of temporal values, although the generalization of a learned response rule to novel stimulus values resulted in slightly less systematic responding. Potential explanations for this pattern of results are discussed.

  4. The EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for manual hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance: Evidence of validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bocchetta, Martina; Bauer, Corinna; Frederiksen, Kristian S.; Liu, Yawu; Preboske, Gregory; Swihart, Tim; Blair, Melanie; Cavedo, Enrica; Grothe, Michel J.; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Martinez, Oliver; Nishikawa, Masami; Portegies, Marileen; Stoub, Travis; Ward, Chadwich; Apostolova, Liana G.; Ganzola, Rossana; Wolf, Dominik; Barkhof, Frederik; Bartzokis, George; DeCarli, Charles; Csernansky, John G.; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Killiany, Ronald J.; Lehéricy, Stephane; Matsuda, Hiroshi; O'Brien, John; Silbert, Lisa C.; Scheltens, Philip; Soininen, Hilkka; Teipel, Stefan; Waldemar, Gunhild; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Barnes, Josephine; Firbank, Michael; Gerritsen, Lotte; Henneman, Wouter; Malykhin, Nikolai; Pruessner, Jens C.; Wang, Lei; Watson, Craig; Wolf, Henrike; deLeon, Mony; Pantel, Johannes; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bosco, Paolo; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Duchesne, Simon; Duvernoy, Henri; Boccardi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background An international Delphi panel has defined a harmonized protocol (HarP) for the manual segmentation of the hippocampus on MR. The aim of this study is to study the concurrent validity of the HarP toward local protocols, and its major sources of variance. Methods Fourteen tracers segmented 10 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cases scanned at 1.5 T and 3T following local protocols, qualified for segmentation based on the HarP through a standard web-platform and resegmented following the HarP. The five most accurate tracers followed the HarP to segment 15 ADNI cases acquired at three time points on both 1.5 T and 3T. Results The agreement among tracers was relatively low with the local protocols (absolute left/right ICC 0.44/0.43) and much higher with the HarP (absolute left/right ICC 0.88/0.89). On the larger set of 15 cases, the HarP agreement within (left/right ICC range: 0.94/0.95 to 0.99/0.99) and among tracers (left/right ICC range: 0.89/0.90) was very high. The volume variance due to different tracers was 0.9% of the total, comparing favorably to variance due to scanner manufacturer (1.2), atrophy rates (3.5), hemispheric asymmetry (3.7), field strength (4.4), and significantly smaller than the variance due to atrophy (33.5%, P < .001), and physiological variability (49.2%, P < .001). Conclusions The HarP has high measurement stability compared with local segmentation protocols, and good reproducibility within and among human tracers. Hippocampi segmented with the HarP can be used as a reference for the qualification of human tracers and automated segmentation algorithms. PMID:25267715

  5. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a