WorldWideScience

Sample records for left lateral prefrontal

  1. Language and Memory Improvements following tDCS of Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K Hussey

    Full Text Available Recent research demonstrates that performance on executive-control measures can be enhanced through brain stimulation of lateral prefrontal regions. Separate psycholinguistic work emphasizes the importance of left lateral prefrontal cortex executive-control resources during sentence processing, especially when readers must override early, incorrect interpretations when faced with temporary ambiguity. Using transcranial direct current stimulation, we tested whether stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex had discriminate effects on language and memory conditions that rely on executive-control (versus cases with minimal executive-control demands, even in the face of task difficulty. Participants were randomly assigned to receive Anodal, Cathodal, or Sham stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex while they (1 processed ambiguous and unambiguous sentences in a word-by-word self-paced reading task and (2 performed an n-back memory task that, on some trials, contained interference lure items reputed to require executive-control. Across both tasks, we parametrically manipulated executive-control demands and task difficulty. Our results revealed that the Anodal group outperformed the remaining groups on (1 the sentence processing conditions requiring executive-control, and (2 only the most complex n-back conditions, regardless of executive-control demands. Together, these findings add to the mounting evidence for the selective causal role of left lateral prefrontal cortex for executive-control tasks in the language domain. Moreover, we provide the first evidence suggesting that brain stimulation is a promising method to mitigate processing demands encountered during online sentence processing.

  2. Multimodal connectivity mapping of the human left anterior and posterior lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Andrew T; Bzdok, Danilo; Langner, Robert; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Amunts, Katrin; Eickhoff, Simon B; Eickhoff, Claudia R

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is essential for many of our distinctly human abilities, including reasoning, problem solving, and planning. Research spanning many decades has helped to refine our understanding of this high-level function as comprising several hierarchically organized components, some which maintain information in the conscious mind, and others which manipulate and reorganize this information in useful ways. In the neocortex, these processes are likely implemented by a distributed frontoparietal network, with more posterior regions serving to maintain volatile information, and more anterior regions subserving the manipulation of this information. Recent meta-analytic findings have identified the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex, in particular, as being generally engaged by working memory tasks, while the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex was more strongly associated with the cognitive load required by these tasks. These findings suggest specific roles for these regions in the cognitive control processes underlying working memory. To further characterize these regions, we applied three distinct seed-based methods for determining cortical connectivity. Specifically, we employed meta-analytic connectivity mapping across task-based fMRI experiments, resting-state BOLD correlations, and VBM-based structural covariance. We found a frontoparietal pattern of convergence which strongly resembled the working memory networks identified in previous research. A contrast between anterior and posterior parts of the lateral prefrontal cortex revealed distinct connectivity patterns consistent with the idea of a hierarchical organization of frontoparietal networks. Moreover, we found a distributed network that was anticorrelated with the anterior seed region, which included most of the default mode network and a subcomponent related to social and emotional processing. These findings fit well with the internal attention model of working memory, in which representation of

  3. Lesions to the left lateral prefrontal cortex impair decision threshold adjustment for lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Royce; Riès, Stéphanie; Van Maanen, Leendert; Alario, F-Xavier

    Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data. We also compare the results to healthy speakers. Analysis of the cognitive parameters indicates an impairment of the PFC patients to appropriately adjust their decision threshold, in order to handle the increased item difficulty that is introduced by semantic interference. Also, the modelling contributes to other topics in psycholinguistic theory, in which specific effects are observed on the cognitive parameters according to item familiarization, and the opposing effects of priming (lower threshold) and semantic interference (lower drift) which are found to depend on repetition. These results are developed for the blocked-cyclic picture naming paradigm, in which pictures are presented within semantically homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (HET) blocks, and are repeated several times per block. Overall, the results are in agreement with a role of the left PFC in adjusting the decision threshold for lexical selection in language production.

  4. Lateralized hippocampal volume increase following high-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Motoaki; Noda, Yoshihiro; Izuno, Takuji; Saeki, Takashi; Iwanari, Hideo; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied as a treatment for patients with treatment-resistant depression in recent years, and a large body of evidence has demonstrated its therapeutic efficacy through stimulating neuronal plasticity. The aim of this study was to investigate structural alterations in the hippocampus (HIPP) and amygdala (AM) following conventional rTMS in patients with depression. Twenty-eight patients with depression underwent 10 daily 20-Hz left prefrontal rTMS over 2 weeks. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was identified using magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation prior to stimulation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained at baseline and after the completion of rTMS sessions. The therapeutic effects of rTMS were evaluated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D 17 ), and the volumes of the HIPP and AM were measured by a manual tracing method. Statistical analyses revealed a significant volume increase in the left HIPP (+3.4%) after rTMS but no significant volume change in the AM. No correlation was found between the left HIPP volume increase and clinical improvement, as measured by the HAM-D 17 . The present study demonstrated that conventional left prefrontal rTMS increases the HIPP volume in the stimulated side, indicating a remote neuroplastic effect through the cingulum bundle. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Task constraints modulate activation in right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2005-10-01

    Lesion data suggest that right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in open-ended problem solving. To test this hypothesis, we scanned fifteen normal subjects with fMRI as they completed three types of anagram problems varying in the level of constraints placed on the search space. On unconstrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions (e.g., Can you make a "Word with ZJAZ?"). On semantically constrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions within particular semantic categories (e.g., Can you make a type of "Music with ZJAZ?"). On baseline trials, they rearranged letters to make specific words (e.g., Can you make the word "JAZZ with ZJAZ?"). As predicted, the critical comparison of unconstrained vs. semantically constrained trials revealed significant activation in right ventral lateral PFC, as well as left superior frontal gyrus, frontopolar cortex, right superior parietal lobe, right post central gyrus, and the occipital-parietal sulcus. Furthermore, activation in right ventral lateral PFC (BA 47) increased as the constraints placed on the anagram search space were reduced. We argue that the activation in right ventral lateral PFC is related to hypothesis generation in unconstrained settings, whereas activation in other structures is related to additional processes linked to anagram problems such as semantic retrieval, semantic categorization, and cognitive monitoring. These results extend the lesion data and imaging studies by demonstrating that a relative absence of constraints on the solution space is sufficient to engage right ventral lateral PFC in hypothesis generation tasks.

  6. Lateral prefrontal cortex subregions make dissociable contributions during fluid reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John; Owen, Adrian M

    2011-01-01

    Reasoning is a key component of adaptable "executive" behavior and is known to depend on a network of frontal and parietal brain regions. However, the mechanisms by which this network supports reasoning and adaptable behavior remain poorly defined. Here, we examine the relationship between reasoning, executive control, and frontoparietal function in a series of nonverbal reasoning experiments. Our results demonstrate that, in accordance with previous studies, a network of frontal and parietal brain regions is recruited during reasoning. Our results also reveal that this network can be fractionated according to how different subregions respond when distinct reasoning demands are manipulated. While increased rule complexity modulates activity within a right lateralized network including the middle frontal gyrus and the superior parietal cortex, analogical reasoning demand-or the requirement to remap rules on to novel features-recruits the left inferior rostrolateral prefrontal cortex and the lateral occipital complex. In contrast, the posterior extent of the inferior frontal gyrus, associated with simpler executive demands, is not differentially sensitive to rule complexity or analogical demand. These findings accord well with the hypothesis that different reasoning demands are supported by different frontal and parietal subregions.

  7. Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Subregions Make Dissociable Contributions during Fluid Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John; Owen, Adrian M.

    2011-01-01

    Reasoning is a key component of adaptable “executive” behavior and is known to depend on a network of frontal and parietal brain regions. However, the mechanisms by which this network supports reasoning and adaptable behavior remain poorly defined. Here, we examine the relationship between reasoning, executive control, and frontoparietal function in a series of nonverbal reasoning experiments. Our results demonstrate that, in accordance with previous studies, a network of frontal and parietal brain regions is recruited during reasoning. Our results also reveal that this network can be fractionated according to how different subregions respond when distinct reasoning demands are manipulated. While increased rule complexity modulates activity within a right lateralized network including the middle frontal gyrus and the superior parietal cortex, analogical reasoning demand—or the requirement to remap rules on to novel features—recruits the left inferior rostrolateral prefrontal cortex and the lateral occipital complex. In contrast, the posterior extent of the inferior frontal gyrus, associated with simpler executive demands, is not differentially sensitive to rule complexity or analogical demand. These findings accord well with the hypothesis that different reasoning demands are supported by different frontal and parietal subregions. PMID:20483908

  8. Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone Pascual, A

    1996-02-01

    We studied the effects of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of different scalp positions on mood. Ten normal volunteers rated themselves before and after rTMS on five analog scales labeled "Tristeza" (Sadness), "Ansiedad" (Anxiety), "Alegria" (Happiness), "Cansancio" (Tiredness), and "Dolor/Malestar" (Pain/Discomfort). rTMS was applied to the right lateral prefrontal, left prefrontal, or midline frontal cortex in trains of 5 seconds' duration at 10 Hz and 110% of the subject's motor threshold intensity. Each stimulation position received 10 trains separated by a 25-second pause. No clinically apparent mood changes were evoked by rTMS to any of the scalp positions in any subject. However, left prefrontal rTMS resulted in a significant increase in the Sadness ratings (Tristeza) and a significant decrease in the Happiness ratings ("Alegria") as compared with right prefrontal and midfrontal cortex stimulation. These results show differential effects of rTMS of left and right prefrontal cortex stimulation on mood and illustrate the lateralized control of mood in normal volunteers.

  9. White matter integrity between left basal ganglia and left prefrontal cortex is compromised in gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Timmeren, Tim; Jansen, Jochem M; Caan, Matthan W A; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth J

    2017-11-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a behavioral addiction characterized by an inability to stop gambling despite the negative consequences, which may be mediated by cognitive flexibility deficits. Indeed, impaired cognitive flexibility has previously been linked to PG and also to reduced integrity of white matter connections between the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex. It remains unclear, however, how white matter integrity problems relate to cognitive inflexibility seen in PG. We used a cognitive switch paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging in pathological gamblers (PGs; n = 26) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 26). Cognitive flexibility performance was measured behaviorally by accuracy and reaction time on the switch task, while brain activity was measured in terms of blood oxygen level-dependent responses. We also used diffusion tensor imaging on a subset of data (PGs = 21; HCs = 21) in combination with tract-based spatial statistics and probabilistic fiber tracking to assess white matter integrity between the basal ganglia and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Although there were no significant group differences in either task performance, related neural activity or tract-based spatial statistics, PGs did show decreased white matter integrity between the left basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex. Our results complement and expand similar findings from a previous study in alcohol-dependent patients. Although we found no association between white matter integrity and task performance here, decreased white matter connections may contribute to a diminished ability to recruit prefrontal networks needed for regulating behavior in PG. Hence, our findings could resonate an underlying risk factor for PG, and we speculate that these findings may extend to addiction in general. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Levels of conflict in reasoning modulate right lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollstorff, Melanie; Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2012-01-05

    Right lateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) has previously been implicated in logical reasoning under conditions of conflict. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to explore its role in conflict more precisely. Specifically, we distinguished between belief-logic conflict and belief-content conflict, and examined the role of rlPFC under each condition. The results demonstrated that a specific region of rlPFC is consistently activated under both types of conflict. Moreover, the results of a parametric analysis demonstrated that the same region was modulated by the level of conflict contained in reasoning arguments. This supports the idea that this specific region is engaged to resolve conflict, including during deductive reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Cognitive Neuroscience of Thought". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of the lateral prefrontal cortex in speech monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Riès

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of lateral prefrontal cortex in speech monitoring has not been delineated. Recent work suggests that medial frontal cortex (MFC is involved in overt speech monitoring initiated before auditory feedback. This mechanism is reflected in an event-related potential (ERP, the error negativity (Ne, peaking within 100 ms after vocal-onset. Critically, in healthy individuals the Ne is sensitive to the accuracy of the response; it is larger for error than correct trials. By contrast, patients with lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC damage are impaired in nonverbal monitoring tasks showing no amplitude difference between the Ne measured in correct vs. error trials. Interactions between the lPFC and the MFC are assumed to play a necessary role for normal action monitoring. We investigated whether the lPFC was involved in speech monitoring to the same extent as in non-linguistic actions by comparing performance and EEG activity in patients with lPFC damage and in aged-matched controls performing linguistic (Picture Naming and non-linguistic (Simon tasks. Controls did not produce enough errors to allow the comparison of the Ne or other ERP in error vs. correct trials. PFC patients had worse performance than controls in both tasks, but their Ne was larger for error than correct trials only in Naming. This task-dependent pattern can be explained by lPFC-dependent working-memory requirements present in non-linguistic tasks used to study action monitoring but absent in picture naming. This suggests that lPFC may not be necessary for speech monitoring as assessed by simple picture naming. In addition, bilateral temporal cortex activity starting before and peaking around vocal-onset was observed in lPFC and control groups in both tasks but was larger for error than correct trials only in Naming, suggesting the temporal cortex is associated with on-line monitoring of speech specifically when access to lexical representations is necessary.

  12. tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex enhances cognitive control for positive affective stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation, we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial expressions. Gender did not influence the effects of tDCS on cognitive control for emotional information. In line with the Valence Theory of side-lateralized activity, this stimulation protocol might have led to a left dominant (relative to right prefrontal cortical activity, resulting in augmented cognitive control specifically for positive relative to negative stimuli. To verify that tDCS induces effects that are in line with all aspects of the well known Valence Theory, future research should investigate the effects of tDCS over the left vs. right DLPFC on cognitive control for emotional information.

  13. Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Wai Yiu Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

  14. Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Fluid Intelligence Through Multinetwork Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Braver, Todd S

    2015-10-01

    Our ability to effectively adapt to novel circumstances--as measured by general fluid intelligence--has recently been tied to the global connectivity of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Global connectivity is a broad measure that summarizes both within-network connectivity and across-network connectivity. We used additional graph theoretical measures to better characterize the nature of LPFC connectivity and its relationship with fluid intelligence. We specifically hypothesized that LPFC is a connector hub with an across-network connectivity that contributes to fluid intelligence independent of within-network connectivity. We verified that LPFC was in the top 10% of brain regions in terms of across-network connectivity, suggesting it is a strong connector hub. Importantly, we found that the LPFC across-network connectivity predicted individuals' fluid intelligence and this correlation remained statistically significant when controlling for global connectivity (which includes within-network connectivity). This supports the conclusion that across-network connectivity independently contributes to the relationship between LPFC connectivity and intelligence. These results suggest that LPFC contributes to fluid intelligence by being a connector hub with a truly global multisystem connectivity throughout the brain.

  15. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with gliomas adjacent to classical language areas. Lateralization of activated prefrontal cortex is important in determining the dominant hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karibe, Hiroshi; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Shirane, Reizo; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    In patients with gliomas adjacent to classical language areas, lateralized activation of prefrontal cortex was assessed to determine language dominant hemisphere using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve patients presented with aphasias were studied. In all patients, either the left frontal operculum or left superior temporal gyri were adjacent to gliomas, suggesting all patients had left lateralization in hemispheric language dominance. Functional MRI was performed with a 1.5T scanner, with the sequence of gradient-echo type echo-planar imaging. As specific language tasks, verb, word, and capping generations were used. Using a cross-correlation analysis method, primary activation maps were generated using pixels with a correlation coefficient of >0.7. The lateralized activation of frontal operculum, superior temporal gyrus, and prefrontal cortex were assessed by calculating laterality index. Successful activation of frontal operculum was imaged in 11 of 12, in the superior temporal gyrus or prefrontal cortex. Three out of 11 cases had apparent activation lateralized in the right frontal operculum on fMRI, while 3 out of 12 cases showed activation in the superior temporal gyrus. On the other hand, all cases had apparent activation lateralized to the left prefrontal cortex. Significant activation of true language area may not be obtained in some cases with gliomas adjacent to classical language areas. In such cases, lateralization of apparent activation of prefrontal cortex may reflect lateralization in the dominant hemisphere. These result suggest that the assessment of apparent activation of prefrontal cortex lateralization is useful to determine the language dominant hemisphere. (author)

  16. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (pchildren in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  17. rTMS on left prefrontal cortex contributes to memories for positive emotional cues: a comparison between pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, M; Cobelli, C

    2015-02-26

    The present research explored the cortical correlates of emotional memories in response to words and pictures. Subjects' performance (Accuracy Index, AI; response times, RTs; RTs/AI) was considered when a repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) was applied on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC). Specifically, the role of LDLPFC was tested by performing a memory task, in which old (previously encoded targets) and new (previously not encoded distractors) emotional pictures/words had to be recognized. Valence (positive vs. negative) and arousing power (high vs. low) of stimuli were also modulated. Moreover, subjective evaluation of emotional stimuli in terms of valence/arousal was explored. We found significant performance improving (higher AI, reduced RTs, improved general performance) in response to rTMS. This "better recognition effect" was only related to specific emotional features, that is positive high arousal pictures or words. Moreover no significant differences were found between stimulus categories. A direct relationship was also observed between subjective evaluation of emotional cues and memory performance when rTMS was applied to LDLPFC. Supported by valence and approach model of emotions, we supposed that a left lateralized prefrontal system may induce a better recognition of positive high arousal words, and that evaluation of emotional cue is related to prefrontal activation, affecting the recognition memories of emotions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-11-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the left prefrontal cortex increases randomness of choice in instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Zsolt; Mittner, Matthias; Opitz, Alexander; Popkes, Miriam; Paulus, Walter; Antal, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    There is growing evidence from neuro-computational studies that instrumental learning involves the dynamic interaction of a computationally rigid, low-level striatal and a more flexible, high-level prefrontal component. To evaluate the role of the prefrontal cortex in instrumental learning, we applied anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) optimized for the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, by using realistic MR-derived finite element model-based electric field simulations. In a study with a double-blind, sham-controlled, repeated-measures design, sixteen male participants performed a probabilistic learning task while receiving anodal and sham tDCS in a counterbalanced order. Compared to sham tDCS, anodal tDCS significantly increased the amount of maladaptive shifting behavior after optimal outcomes during learning when reward probabilities were highly dissociable. Derived parameters of the Q-learning computational model further revealed a significantly increased model parameter that was sensitive to random action selection in the anodal compared to the sham tDCS session, whereas the learning rate parameter was not influenced significantly by tDCS. These results congruently indicate that prefrontal tDCS during instrumental learning increased randomness of choice, possibly reflecting the influence of the cognitive prefrontal component. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cathodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex diminishes choice-induced preference change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengarelli, Flavia; Spoglianti, Silvia; Avenanti, Alessio; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    In everyday life, people often find themselves facing difficult decisions between options that are equally attractive. Cognitive dissonance theory states that after making a difficult choice between 2 equally preferred options, individuals no longer find the alternatives similarly desirable. Rather, they often change their existing preferences to align more closely with the choice they have just made. Despite the relevance of cognitive dissonance in modulating behavior, little is known about the brain processes crucially involved in choice-induced preference change. In the present study, we applied cathodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) with the aim of downregulating the activity of the left or the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during a revised version of Brehm's (in 1956. Post-decision changes in the desirability of alternatives. J Abnorm Soc Psychol. 52:384-389) free-choice paradigm. We found that cathodal tDCS over the left, but not over the right, DLPFC caused a reduction of the typical behavior-induced preference change relative to sham stimulation. Our findings highlight the role of prefrontal cortex in cognitive dissonance and provide evidence that left DLPFC plays a necessary role in the implementation of choice-induced preference change. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Functional organization and visual representations of human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie W.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) even in the absence of working memory (WM) demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the VLPFC remain unclear. In a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the VLPFC? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the VLPFC to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex. PMID:23847558

  2. Specifying the role of the left prefrontal cortex in word selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, S. K; Karzmark, C. R.; Navarrete, E.; Knight, R. T.; Dronkers, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Word selection allows us to choose words during language production. This is often viewed as a competitive process wherein a lexical representation is retrieved among semantically-related alternatives. The left prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is thought to help overcome competition for word selection through top-down control. However, whether the LPFC is always necessary for word selection remains unclear. We tested 6 LPFC-injured patients and controls in two picture naming paradigms varying in terms of item repetition. Both paradigms elicited the expected semantic interference effects (SIE), reflecting interference caused by semantically-related representations in word selection. However, LPFC patients as a group showed a larger SIE than controls only in the paradigm involving item repetition. We argue that item repetition increases interference caused by semantically-related alternatives, resulting in increased LPFC-dependent cognitive control demands. The remaining network of brain regions associated with word selection appears to be sufficient when items are not repeated. PMID:26291289

  3. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex shifts preference of moral judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kuehne

    Full Text Available Attitude to morality, reflecting cultural norms and values, is considered unique to human social behavior. Resulting moral behavior in a social environment is controlled by a widespread neural network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, which plays an important role in decision making. In the present study we investigate the influence of neurophysiological modulation of DLPFC reactivity by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on moral reasoning. For that purpose we administered anodal, cathodal, and sham stimulation of the left DLPFC while subjects judged the appropriateness of hard moral personal dilemmas. In contrast to sham and cathodal stimulation, anodal stimulation induced a shift in judgment of personal moral dilemmas towards more non-utilitarian actions. Our results demonstrate that alterations of left DLPFC activity can change moral judgments and, in consequence, provide a causal link between left DLPFC activity and moral reasoning. Most important, the observed shift towards non-utilitarian actions suggests that moral decision making is not a permanent individual trait but can be manipulated; consequently individuals with boundless, uncontrollable, and maladaptive moral behavior, such as found in psychopathy, might benefit from neuromodulation-based approaches.

  4. Fifteen Minutes of Left Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Acutely Increases Thermal Pain Thresholds in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Borckardt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of the motor cortex appears to alter pain perception in healthy adults and in patients with chronic neuropathic pain. There is, however, emerging brain imaging evidence that the left prefrontal cortex is involved in pain inhibition in humans.

  5. Central as well as peripheral attentional bottlenecks in dual-task performance activate lateral prefrontal cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre J Szameitat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human information processing suffers from severe limitations in parallel processing. In particular, when required to respond to two stimuli in rapid succession, processing bottlenecks may appear at central and peripheral stages of task processing. Importantly, it has been suggested that executive functions are needed to resolve the interference arising at such bottlenecks. The aims of the present study were to test whether central attentional limitations (i.e., bottleneck at the decisional response selection stage as well as peripheral limitations (i.e., bottleneck at response initiation both demand executive functions located in the lateral prefrontal cortex. For this, we re-analysed two previous studies, in which a total of 33 participants performed a dual-task according to the paradigm of the psychological refractory period (PRP during fMRI. In one study (N=17, the PRP task consisted of two two-choice response tasks known to suffer from a central bottleneck (CB group. In the other study (N=16, the PRP task consisted of two simple-response tasks known to suffer from a peripheral bottleneck (PB group. Both groups showed considerable dual-task costs in form of slowing of the second response in the dual-task (PRP effect. Imaging results are based on the subtraction of both single-tasks from the dual-task within each group. In the CB group, the bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri were activated. Higher activation in these areas was associated with lower dual-task costs. In the PB group, the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus were activated. Here, higher activation was associated with higher dual-task costs. In conclusion we suggest that central and peripheral bottlenecks both demand executive functions located in lateral prefrontal cortices. Differences between the CB and PB groups with respect to the exact prefrontal areas activated and the correlational patterns suggest that the executive functions resolving

  6. Enhancement Of Motor Recovery Through Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation After Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Oveisgharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two previous studies, which investigated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS use in motor recovery after acute ischemic stroke, did not show tDCS to be effective in this regard. We speculated that additional left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ‎(DLPFC ‎stimulation may enhance post stroke motor recovery.  ‎ Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 20 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited. Patients received real motor cortex (M1 stimulation in both arms of the trial. The two arms differed in terms of real vs. sham stimulation over the left DLPFC‎. Motor component of the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity assessment (FM and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT scores were used to assess primary outcomes, and non-linear mixed effects models were used for data analyses. Results: Primary outcome measures improved more and faster among the real stimulation group. During the first days of stimulations, sham group’s FM scores increased 1.2 scores per day, while real group’s scores increased 1.7 scores per day (P = 0.003. In the following days, FM improvement decelerated in both groups. Based on the derived models, a hypothetical stroke patient with baseline FM score of 15 improves to 32 in the sham stimulation group and to 41 in the real stimulation group within the first month after stroke. Models with ARAT scores yielded nearly similar results. Conclusion: The current study results showed that left DLPFC‎ stimulation in conjunction with M1 stimulation resulted in better motor recovery than M1 stimulation alone.

  7. Structural alterations in lateral prefrontal, parietal and posterior midline regions of men with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Cindy; Stoppel, Christian; Kaufmann, Jörn; Tempelmann, Claus; Hinrichs, Hermann; Elbert, Thomas; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2011-05-01

    So far, the neural network associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been suggested to mainly involve the amygdala, hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. However, increasing evidence indicates that cortical regions extending beyond this network might also be implicated in the pathophysiology of PTSD. We aimed to investigate PTSD-related structural alterations in some of these regions. We enrolled highly traumatized refugees with and without (traumatized controls) PTSD and nontraumatized controls in the study. To increase the validity of our results, we combined an automatic cortical parcellation technique and voxel-based morphometry. In all, 39 refugees (20 with and 19 without PTSD) and 13 controls participated in the study. Participants were middle-aged men who were free of psychoactive substances and consumed little to no alcohol. Patients with PTSD (and to a lesser extent traumatized controls) showed reduced volumes in the right inferior parietal cortex, the left rostral middle frontal cortex, the bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the bilateral isthmus of the cingulate. An influence of cumulative traumatic stress on the isthmus of the cingulate and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex indicated that, at least in these regions, structural alterations might be associated with repeated stress experiences. Voxel-based morphometry analyses produced largely consistent results, but because of a poorer signal-to-noise ratio, conventional statistics did not reach significance. Although we controlled for several important confounding variables (e.g., sex, alcohol abuse) with our particular sample, this might limit the generalizibility of our data. Moreover, high comorbidity of PTSD and major depression hinders a definite separation of these conditions in our findings. Finally, the results concerning the lateral orbito frontal cortex should be interpreted with caution, as magnetic resonance imaging acquisition in this region is affected by a general

  8. Deficit in rewarding mechanisms and prefrontal left/right cortical effect in vulnerability for internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta

    2016-10-01

    The present research explored the cortical correlates of rewarding mechanisms and cortical 'unbalance' effect in internet addiction (IA) vulnerability. Internet Addiction Inventory (IAT) and personality trait (Behavioural Inhibition System, BIS; Behavioural Activation System, BAS) were applied to 28 subjects. Electroencephalographic (EEG, alpha frequency band) and response times (RTs) were registered during a Go-NoGo task execution in response to different online stimuli: gambling videos, videogames or neutral stimuli. Higher-IAT (more than 50 score, with moderate or severe internet addiction) and lower-IAT (internet addiction). Alpha band and RTs were affected by IAT, with significant bias (reduced RTs) for high-IAT in response to gambling videos and videogames; and by BAS, BAS-Reward subscale (BAS-R), since not only higher-IAT, but also BAS and BAS-R values determined an increasing of left prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity (alpha reduction) in response to videogames and gambling stimuli for both Go and NoGo conditions, in addition to decreased RTs for these stimuli categories. The increased PFC responsiveness and the lateralisation (left PFC hemisphere) effect in NoGo condition was explained on the basis of a 'rewarding bias' towards more rewarding cues and a deficit in inhibitory control in higher-IAT and higher-BAS subjects. In contrast lower-IAT and lower-BAS predicted a decreased PFC response and increased RTs for NoGo (inhibitory mechanism). These results may support the significance of personality (BAS) and IAT measures for explaining future internet addiction behaviour based on this observed 'vulnerability'.

  9. Inhibitory modulation of medial prefrontal cortical activation on lateral orbitofrontal cortex-amygdala information flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hui; Ho, Ta-Wen

    2017-09-01

    The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) receives input from the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) for cue-outcome contingencies and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for emotion control. Here we examined how the mPFC modulates lOFC-BLA information flow. We found that the majority of BLA neurons responsive to lOFC stimulation were also responsive to mPFC stimulation. Activation of the mPFC exerted an inhibitory modulation of the lOFC-BLA pathway, which was reversed with intra-amygdala blockade of GABAergic receptors. mPFC tetanus potentiated the lOFC-BLA pathway, but did not alter its inhibitory modulatory gating. These results show that the mPFC potently inhibits lOFC drive of the BLA in a GABA-dependent manner, which is informative in understanding the normal and potential pathophysiological state of emotion and contingency associations in regulating behaviour. Several neocortical projections converge onto the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), including the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Lateral orbitofrontal input to the BLA is important for cue-outcome contingencies, while medial prefrontal input is essential for emotion control. In this study, we examined how the mPFC, specifically the infralimbic division of the mPFC, modulates lOFC-BLA information flow, using combined in vivo extracellular single-unit recordings and pharmacological manipulations in anaesthetized rats. We found that the majority (over 95%) of BLA neurons that responded to lOFC stimulation also responded to mPFC stimulation. Compared to basal condition, pharmacological (N-methyl-d-aspartate) or electrical activation of the mPFC exerted an inhibitory modulation of the lOFC-BLA pathway, which was reversed with intra-amygdala blockade of GABAergic receptors with combined GABA A and GABA B antagonists (bicuculline and saclofen). Moreover, mPFC tetanus potentiated the lOFC-BLA pathway, but mPFC tetanus or low-frequency stimulation did

  10. Modulation of the Left Prefrontal Cortex with High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Facilitates Gait in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer M. Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a chronic central nervous system (CNS demyelinating disease. Gait abnormalities are common and disabling in patients with MS with limited treatment options available. Emerging evidence suggests a role of prefrontal attention networks in modulating gait. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is known to enhance cortical excitability in stimulated cortex and its correlates. We investigated the effect of high-frequency left prefrontal rTMS on gait parameters in a 51-year-old Caucasian male with chronic relapsing/remitting MS with residual disabling attention and gait symptoms. Patient received 6 Hz, rTMS at 90% motor threshold using figure of eight coil centered on F3 location (using 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG lead localization system. GAITRite gait analysis system was used to collect objective gait measures before and after one session and in another occasion three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Two-tailed within subject repeated measure t-test showed significant enhancement in ambulation time, gait velocity, and cadence after three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Modulating left prefrontal cortex excitability using rTMS resulted in significant change in gait parameters after three sessions. To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates the effect of rTMS applied to the prefrontal cortex on gait in MS patients.

  11. Central as well as Peripheral Attentional Bottlenecks in Dual-Task Performance Activate Lateral Prefrontal Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szameitat, André J.; Vanloo, Azonya; Müller, Hermann J.

    2016-01-01

    Human information processing suffers from severe limitations in parallel processing. In particular, when required to respond to two stimuli in rapid succession, processing bottlenecks may appear at central and peripheral stages of task processing. Importantly, it has been suggested that executive functions are needed to resolve the interference arising at such bottlenecks. The aims of the present study were to test whether central attentional limitations (i.e., bottleneck at the decisional response selection stage) as well as peripheral limitations (i.e., bottleneck at response initiation) both demand executive functions located in the lateral prefrontal cortex. For this, we re-analyzed two previous studies, in which a total of 33 participants performed a dual-task according to the paradigm of the psychological refractory period (PRP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In one study (N = 17), the PRP task consisted of two two-choice response tasks known to suffer from a central bottleneck (CB group). In the other study (N = 16), the PRP task consisted of two simple-response tasks known to suffer from a peripheral bottleneck (PB group). Both groups showed considerable dual-task costs in form of slowing of the second response in the dual-task (PRP effect). Imaging results are based on the subtraction of both single-tasks from the dual-task within each group. In the CB group, the bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri were activated. Higher activation in these areas was associated with lower dual-task costs. In the PB group, the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were activated. Here, higher activation was associated with higher dual-task costs. In conclusion we suggest that central and peripheral bottlenecks both demand executive functions located in lateral prefrontal cortices (LPFC). Differences between the CB and PB groups with respect to the exact prefrontal areas activated and the correlational patterns

  12. Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex control in food-directed attention and goal-directed food choice in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Lieneke K.; Duif, Iris; Loon, van Ilke; Wegman, Joost; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC)-mediated attentional control may explain the automatic tendency to eat in the face of food. Here, we investigate the neurocognitive mechanism underlying attentional bias to food words and its association with obesity using a food Stroop task. We tested 76

  13. Left Prefrontal Activity Reflects the Ability of Vicarious Fear Learning: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear could be acquired indirectly via social observation. However, it remains unclear which cortical substrate activities are involved in vicarious fear transmission. The present study was to examine empathy-related processes during fear learning by-proxy and to examine the activation of prefrontal cortex by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We simultaneously measured participants’ hemodynamic responses and skin conductance responses when they were exposed to a movie. In this movie, a demonstrator (i.e., another human being was receiving a classical fear conditioning. A neutral colored square paired with shocks (CSshock and another colored square paired with no shocks (CSno-shock were randomly presented in front of the demonstrator. Results showed that increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in left prefrontal cortex was observed when participants watched a demonstrator seeing CSshock compared with that exposed to CSno-shock. In addition, enhanced skin conductance responses showing a demonstrator's aversive experience during learning object-fear association were observed. The present study suggests that left prefrontal cortex, which may reflect speculation of others’ mental state, is associated with social fear transmission.

  14. Left prefrontal activity reflects the ability of vicarious fear learning: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Huang, Yujing; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Fear could be acquired indirectly via social observation. However, it remains unclear which cortical substrate activities are involved in vicarious fear transmission. The present study was to examine empathy-related processes during fear learning by-proxy and to examine the activation of prefrontal cortex by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We simultaneously measured participants' hemodynamic responses and skin conductance responses when they were exposed to a movie. In this movie, a demonstrator (i.e., another human being) was receiving a classical fear conditioning. A neutral colored square paired with shocks (CS(shock)) and another colored square paired with no shocks (CS(no-shock)) were randomly presented in front of the demonstrator. Results showed that increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in left prefrontal cortex was observed when participants watched a demonstrator seeing CS(shock) compared with that exposed to CS(no-shock). In addition, enhanced skin conductance responses showing a demonstrator's aversive experience during learning object-fear association were observed. The present study suggests that left prefrontal cortex, which may reflect speculation of others' mental state, is associated with social fear transmission.

  15. Food cravings and the effects of left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation using an improved sham condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eBarth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether a single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left prefrontal cortex would inhibit food cravings in healthy women who endorsed frequent food cravings. Ten participants viewed images of food and completed ratings for food cravings before and after receiving either real or sham rTMS over the left prefrontal cortex (10Hz, 100% rMT, 10 seconds-on, 20 seconds-off for 15 minutes; 3000 pulses. Sham TMS was matched with real TMS with respect to perceived painfulness of the stimulation. Each participant received both real and sham rTMS in random order and were blind to the condition in a within-subject cross-over design. With an improved sham control condition, prefrontal rTMS inhibited food cravings no better than sham rTMS. The mild pain from the real and sham rTMS may distract or inhibit food craving, and the decreased craving may not be caused by the effect of rTMS itself. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether rTMS has any true effects on food craving and whether painful stimuli inhibit food or other cravings. A sham condition which matches the painfulness is important to understand the true effects of TMS on behaviors and diseases.

  16. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Strength and Diversity of Inhibitory Signaling Differentiates Primate Anterior Cingulate from Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalla, Maria; Gilman, Joshua P; Wang, Jing-Yi; Luebke, Jennifer I

    2017-05-03

    The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of the primate play distinctive roles in the mediation of complex cognitive tasks. Compared with the LPFC, integration of information by the ACC can span longer timescales and requires stronger engagement of inhibitory processes. Here, we reveal the synaptic mechanism likely to underlie these differences using in vitro patch-clamp recordings of synaptic events and multiscale imaging of synaptic markers in rhesus monkeys. Although excitatory synaptic signaling does not differ, the level of synaptic inhibition is much higher in ACC than LPFC layer 3 pyramidal neurons, with a significantly higher frequency (∼6×) and longer duration of inhibitory synaptic currents. The number of inhibitory synapses and the ratio of cholecystokinin to parvalbumin-positive inhibitory inputs are also significantly higher in ACC compared with LPFC neurons. Therefore, inhibition is functionally and structurally more robust and diverse in ACC than in LPFC, resulting in a lower excitatory: inhibitory ratio and a greater dynamic range for signal integration and network oscillation by the ACC. These differences in inhibitory circuitry likely underlie the distinctive network dynamics in ACC and LPC during normal and pathological brain states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play temporally distinct roles during the execution of cognitive tasks (rapid working memory during ongoing tasks and long-term memory to guide future action, respectively). Compared with LPFC-mediated tasks, ACC-mediated tasks can span longer timescales and require stronger engagement of inhibition. This study shows that inhibitory signaling is much more robust and diverse in the ACC than in the LPFC. Therefore, there is a lower excitatory: inhibitory synaptic ratio and a greater dynamic range for signal integration and oscillatory behavior in the ACC. These significant differences in

  18. Contrasting roles for lateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in transient and dispositional affective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Xia, Chenjie; Padon, Alisa A; Heberlein, Andrea S; Farah, Martha J; Fellows, Lesley K

    2011-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in the experience and regulation of emotional states. Emotional experience is a complex construct, encompassing a range of more specific processes. This exploratory study aimed to delineate which (if any) aspects of emotional experience rely critically on either the ventromedial frontal (VMF) or lateral frontal (LF) lobes. The affective experience of individuals with damage to these regions was surveyed in detail using several measures and compared with that of control participants. Dependent measures included subjective and observer ratings of both dispositional affect and transient responses to laboratory mood inductions. VMF damage was associated with greater negative dispositional affect relative to controls and to individuals with LF damage; however, transient responses to emotional stimuli were largely normal. In contrast, LF damage was associated with an exaggerated subjective reactivity to sad emotional stimuli relative to control participants, but normal dispositional affect. Interestingly, neither form of PFC damage affected spontaneous emotion recovery following the mood inductions. These findings suggest a role for VMF in modulating dispositional negative affect; in contrast, LF areas appear to be critical in regulating transient emotional responses while emotional stimuli are present. This study also illustrates the dissociability of different aspects of emotional experience in patients with focal brain injury.

  19. Neural correlates of auditory recognition memory in primate lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, B; Ng, C-W; Poremba, A

    2013-08-06

    The neural underpinnings of working and recognition memory have traditionally been studied in the visual domain and these studies pinpoint the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) as a primary region for visual memory processing (Miller et al., 1996; Ranganath et al., 2004; Kennerley and Wallis, 2009). Herein, we utilize single-unit recordings for the same region in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) but investigate a second modality examining auditory working and recognition memory during delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) performance. A large portion of neurons in the dorsal and ventral banks of the principal sulcus (area 46, 46/9) show DMS event-related activity to one or more of the following task events: auditory cues, memory delay, decision wait time, response, and/or reward portions. Approximately 50% of the neurons show evidence of auditory-evoked activity during the task and population activity demonstrated encoding of recognition memory in the form of match enhancement. However, neither robust nor sustained delay activity was observed. The neuronal responses during the auditory DMS task are similar in many respects to those found within the visual working memory domain, which supports the hypothesis that the lPFC, particularly area 46, functionally represents key pieces of information for recognition memory inclusive of decision-making, but regardless of modality. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reward-dependent modulation of working memory in lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerley, Steven W; Wallis, Jonathan D

    2009-03-11

    Although research implicates lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in executive control and goal-directed behavior, it remains unclear how goals influence executive processes. One possibility is that goal-relevant information, such as expected rewards, could modulate the representation of information relating to executive control, thereby ensuring the efficient allocation of cognitive resources. To investigate this, we examined how reward modulated spatial working memory. Past studies investigating spatial working memory have focused on dorsolateral PFC, but this area only weakly connects with areas processing reward. Ventrolateral PFC has better connections in this regard. Thus, we contrasted the functional properties of single neurons in ventrolateral and dorsolateral PFC as two subjects performed a task that required them to hold spatial information in working memory under different expectancies of reward for correct performance. We balanced the order of presentation of spatial and reward information so we could assess the neuronal encoding of the two pieces of information independently and conjointly. Neurons in ventrolateral PFC encoded both spatial and reward information earlier, stronger and in a more sustained manner than neurons in dorsolateral PFC. Within ventrolateral PFC, spatial selectivity was more prevalent on the inferior convexity than within the principal sulcus. Finally, when reward increased spatial selectivity, behavioral performance improved, whereas when reward decreased spatial selectivity, behavioral performance deteriorated. These results suggest that ventrolateral PFC may be a locus whereby information about expected rewards can modulate information in working memory. The pattern of results is consistent with a role for ventrolateral PFC in attentional control.

  1. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Tully, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9 during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  2. Effects of Unilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Left Prefrontal Cortex on Processing and Memory of Emotional Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarotti, Stefania; Colombo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is generally thought to be involved in affect and emotional processing; however, the specific contribution of each hemisphere continues to be debated. In the present study, we employed unilateral tDCS to test the unique contribution of left DLPFC in the encoding and retrieval of emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. Forty-two right handed undergraduate students received either anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation of left DLPFC while viewing neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. After completing a filler task, participants were asked to remember as many pictures as possible. Results showed that participants were able to remember a larger amount of emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant) pictures than of neutral ones, regardless of the type of tDCS condition. Participants who received anodal stimulation recalled a significantly higher number of pleasant images than participants in the sham and cathodal conditions, while no differences emerged in the recall of neutral and unpleasant pictures. We conclude that our results provide some support to the role of left prefrontal cortex in the encoding and retrieval of pleasant stimuli.

  3. Effects of Unilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Left Prefrontal Cortex on Processing and Memory of Emotional Visual Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Balzarotti

    Full Text Available The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is generally thought to be involved in affect and emotional processing; however, the specific contribution of each hemisphere continues to be debated. In the present study, we employed unilateral tDCS to test the unique contribution of left DLPFC in the encoding and retrieval of emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. Forty-two right handed undergraduate students received either anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation of left DLPFC while viewing neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. After completing a filler task, participants were asked to remember as many pictures as possible. Results showed that participants were able to remember a larger amount of emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant pictures than of neutral ones, regardless of the type of tDCS condition. Participants who received anodal stimulation recalled a significantly higher number of pleasant images than participants in the sham and cathodal conditions, while no differences emerged in the recall of neutral and unpleasant pictures. We conclude that our results provide some support to the role of left prefrontal cortex in the encoding and retrieval of pleasant stimuli.

  4. Emergence of realism: Enhanced visual artistry and high accuracy of visual numerosity representation after left prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Saito, Fumie; Muramatsu, Taro; Yamada, Makiko; Shirahase, Joichiro; Tabuchi, Hajime; Suhara, Tetsuya; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Motoichiro

    2014-05-01

    Over the last two decades, evidence of enhancement of drawing and painting skills due to focal prefrontal damage has accumulated. It is of special interest that most artworks created by such patients were highly realistic ones, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be understood. Our hypothesis is that enhanced tendency of realism was associated with accuracy of visual numerosity representation, which has been shown to be mediated predominantly by right parietal functions. Here, we report a case of left prefrontal stroke, where the patient showed enhancement of artistic skills of realistic painting after the onset of brain damage. We investigated cognitive, functional and esthetic characteristics of the patient׳s visual artistry and visual numerosity representation. Neuropsychological tests revealed impaired executive function after the stroke. Despite that, the patient׳s visual artistry related to realism was rather promoted across the onset of brain damage as demonstrated by blind evaluation of the paintings by professional art reviewers. On visual numerical cognition tasks, the patient showed higher performance in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. These results paralleled increased perfusion in the right parietal cortex including the precuneus and intraparietal sulcus. Our data provide new insight into mechanisms underlying change in artistic style due to focal prefrontal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in online sentence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazbanou Nozari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with damage to the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC are often not impaired in understanding simple sentences. It is, however, possible that the damage may cause subclinical effects. If VLPFC has a role in biasing competition towards what is relevant to the task, we would expect patients with VLPFC damage to be slower in using the relevant information and discarding the irrelevant information when they process sentences online. Methods: Nine patients, five with lesions limited to VLPFC, and four with lesions sparing VLPFC participated. The groups were matched in age, education, WAB-AQ and total lesion volume. Two experiments explored processing of online cues during sentence comprehension by tracking eye fixations in a Visual World paradigm with four pictures. Participants only listened to the sentences and looked at the pictures. Experiment 1 investigated how quickly cues can be used for target identification using a simple “She will [verb] the [target].” sentence structure. The verbs in the restrictive condition were compatible with only one of the four pictures (e.g., “eat”; target “apple” + three inedible competitors. The verbs in the control conditions were matched to the restrictive verbs in length and frequency, but did not point to a unique target (e.g., “see”. If VLPFC is critical for quickly biasing competition towards the relevant target, the VLPFC patients should to be slower than the non-VLPFC patients in fixating the noun when the verb is restrictive. Experiment 2 probed how effectively irrelevant cues are suppressed. A similar Visual World paradigm was used, but all verbs were restrictive, and one of the distractors was also compatible with the verb (e.g., “banana”. The sentences contained an adjective that ruled out one of verb-compatible pictures (e.g., “red”. The critical manipulation involved a third picture (the adjective competitor which was compatible with the

  6. Affective and cognitive prefrontal cortex projections to the lateral habenula in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eVadovičová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior insula (AI and dorsal ACC (dACC are known to process information about pain, loss, adversities, bad, harmful or suboptimal choices and consequences that threaten survival or well-being. Also pregenual ACC (pgACC is linked to loss and pain, being activated by sad thoughts and regrets. Lateral habenula (LHb is stimulated by predicted and received pain, discomfort, aversive outcome, loss. Its chronic stimulation makes us feel worse/low and gradually stops us choosing and moving for the suboptimal or punished choices, by direct and indirect (via rostromedial tegmental nucleus RMTg inhibition of DRN and VTA/SNc. The response selectivity of LHb neurons suggests their cortical input from affective and cognitive evaluative regions that make expectations about bad, unpleasant or suboptimal outcomes. Based on these facts we predicted direct dACC, pgACC and AI projections to LHb, which form part of an adversity processing circuit that learns to avoid bad outcomes by suppressing dopamine and serotonin signal. To test this connectivity we used Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI. We found dACC, pgACC, AI and caudolateral OFC projections to LHb. We predicted no corticohabenular projections from the reward processing regions: medial OFC (mOFC and ventral ACC (vACC because both respond most strongly to good, high valued stimuli and outcomes, inducing dopamine and serotonin release. This lack of LHb projections was confirmed for vACC and likely for mOFC. The surprising findings were the corticohabenular projections from the cognitive prefrontal cortex regions, known for flexible reasoning, planning and combining whatever information are relevant for reaching current goals. We propose that the prefrontohabenular projections provide a teaching signal for value-based choice behaviour, to learn to deselect, avoid or inhibit the potentially harmful, low valued or wrong choices, goals, strategies, predictions and ways of doing things, to prevent bad or suboptimal

  7. Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  8. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Loffing

    Full Text Available In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing, for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  9. Continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over the lateral prefrontal cortex alters reinforcement learning bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Derek V M; Ullsperger, Markus; Jocham, Gerhard; Neumann, Jane; Klein, Tilmann A

    2011-07-15

    The prefrontal cortex is known to play a key role in higher-order cognitive functions. Recently, we showed that this brain region is active in reinforcement learning, during which subjects constantly have to integrate trial outcomes in order to optimize performance. To further elucidate the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in reinforcement learning, we applied continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) either to the left or right DLPFC, or to the vertex as a control region, respectively, prior to the performance of a probabilistic learning task in an fMRI environment. While there was no influence of cTBS on learning performance per se, we observed a stimulation-dependent modulation of reward vs. punishment sensitivity: Left-hemispherical DLPFC stimulation led to a more reward-guided performance, while right-hemispherical cTBS induced a more avoidance-guided behavior. FMRI results showed enhanced prediction error coding in the ventral striatum in subjects stimulated over the left as compared to the right DLPFC. Both behavioral and imaging results are in line with recent findings that left, but not right-hemispherical stimulation can trigger a release of dopamine in the ventral striatum, which has been suggested to increase the relative impact of rewards rather than punishment on behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex atrophy is associated with frontal lobe function in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Hashimoto, Akiko; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Takahashi, Masato; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Iida, Junzo; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-12-27

    Caregivers of patients with dementia experience physical and mental deterioration. We have previously reported a correlation between caregiver burden and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) total scores of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially regarding the dependency factor from the Zarit Burden Interview. The present study aimed to identify an objective biomarker for predicting caregiver burden. The participants were 26 pairs of caregivers and patients with AD and mild-to-moderate dementia. Correlations between regional gray matter volumes in the patients with AD and the FAB total scores were explored by using whole-brain voxel-based morphometric analysis. Path analysis was used to estimate the relationships between regional gray matter volumes, FAB total scores, and caregiver burden based on the Zarit Burden Interview. The voxel-based morphometric revealed a significant positive correlation between the FAB total scores and the volume of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This positive correlation persisted after controlling for the effect of general cognitive dysfunction, which was assessed by using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Path analysis revealed that decreases in FAB scores, caused by reduced frontal lobe volumes, negatively affected caregiver burden. The present study revealed that frontal lobe function, based on FAB scores, was affected by the volume of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Decreased scores were associated with greater caregiver burden, especially for the dependency factor. These findings may facilitate the development of an objective biomarker for predicting caregiver burden. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Left prefrontal neuronavigated electrode localization in tDCS: 10-20 EEG system versus MRI-guided neuronavigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Sara; Klooster, Debby; Dedoncker, Josefien; Duprat, Romain; Remue, Jonathan; Baeken, Chris

    2018-04-30

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) involves positioning two electrodes at specifically targeted locations on the human scalp. In neuropsychiatric research, the anode is often placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while the cathode is positioned over a contralateral cephalic region above the eye, referred-to as the supraorbital region. Although the 10-20 EEG system is frequently used to locate the DLPFC, due to inter-subject brain variability, this method may lack accuracy. Therefore, we compared in forty participants left DLPFC-localization via the 10-20 EEG system to MRI-guided neuronavigation. In one participant, with individual electrode positions in close proximity to the mean electrode position across subjects, we also investigated whether distinct electrode localizations were associated with different tDCS-induced electrical field distributions. Furthermore, we aimed to examine which neural region is targeted when placing the reference-electrode on the right supraorbital region. Compared to the 10-20 EEG system, MRI-guided neuronavigation localizes the DLPFC-targeting anode more latero-posteriorly, targeting the middle prefrontal gyrus. tDCS-induced electric fields (n = 1) suggest that both localization methods induce significantly different electric fields in distinct brain regions. Considering the frequent application of tDCS as a neuropsychiatric treatment, an evaluation and direct comparison of the clinical efficacy of targeting methods is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism.

  13. THC alters alters morphology of neurons in medial prefrontal cortex, orbital prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens and alters the ability of later experience to promote structural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Bryan; Li, Yilin; Robinson, Terry; Parker, Linda A

    2018-03-01

    Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). To determine if drugs other than psychomotor stimulants will also interfere with later experience-dependent structural plasticity we gave Long-Evans rats THC (0.5 mg/kg) or saline for 11 days before placing them in complex environments or standard laboratory caging for 90 days. Brains were subsequently processed for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology and spine density mPFC, orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and NAcc. THC altered both dendritic arborization and spine density in all three regions, and, like psychomotor stimulants, THC influenced the effect of later experience in complex environments to shape the structure of neurons in these three regions. We conclude that THC may therefore contribute to persistent behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with prolonged use of the drug. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  15. Lateral, Not Medial, Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Punishment and Aversive Instrumental Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Richard-dit-Bressel , Philip; McNally, Gavan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aversive outcomes punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in punishment learning and behavior, although the exact roles for different PFC regions in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the orbitofrontal (OFC), rostral…

  16. Pedophilia is linked to reduced activation in hypothalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex during visual erotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin; Witzel, Joachim; Wiebking, Christine; Gubka, Udo; Rotte, Michael; Schiltz, Kolja; Bermpohl, Felix; Tempelmann, Claus; Bogerts, Bernhard; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Northoff, Georg

    2007-09-15

    Although pedophilia is of high public concern, little is known about underlying neural mechanisms. Although pedophilic patients are sexually attracted to prepubescent children, they show no sexual interest toward adults. This study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of deficits of sexual and emotional arousal in pedophiles. Thirteen pedophilic patients and 14 healthy control subjects were tested for differential neural activity during visual stimulation with emotional and erotic pictures with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions showing differential activations during the erotic condition comprised the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the latter correlating with a clinical measure. Alterations of emotional processing concerned the amygdala-hippocampus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Hypothesized regions relevant for processing of erotic stimuli in healthy individuals showed reduced activations during visual erotic stimulation in pedophilic patients. This suggests an impaired recruitment of key structures that might contribute to an altered sexual interest of these patients toward adults.

  17. Improved working memory performance through self-regulation of dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex activation using real-time fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for a wide range of high-level cognitive activities. Previous studies have shown that the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC plays a critical role in working memory and that behavioral training of working memory can alter the activity of DLPFC. However, it is unclear whether the activation in the DLPFC can be self-regulated and whether any self-regulation can affect working memory behavior. The recently emerged real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI technique enables the individuals to acquire self-control of localized brain activation, potentially inducing desirable behavioral changes. In the present study, we employed the rtfMRI technique to train subjects to up-regulate the activation in the left DLPFC, which is linked to verbal working memory. After two rtfMRI training sessions, activation in the left DLPFC was significantly increased, whereas the control group that received sham feedback did not show any increase in DLPFC activation. Pre- and post-training behavioral tests indicated that performance of the digit span and letter memory task was significantly improved in the experimental group. Between-group comparison of behavioral changes showed that the increase of digit span in the experimental group was significantly greater than that in the control group. These findings provide preliminary evidence that working memory performance can be improved through learned regulation of activation in associated brain regions using rtfMRI.

  18. Regional concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in the frontal cortex of the rat: dopaminergic innervation of the prefrontal subareas and lateralization of prefrontal dopamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slopsema, J.S.; Gugten, J. van der; Bruin, J.P.C. de

    1982-01-01

    Catecholamine levels in the two subareas of the prefrontal cortex and in one non-prefrontal region of the rat frontal lobe were measured radioenzymatically. In contrast with noradrenaline (NA), the distribution of dopamine (DA) in the frontal lobe is markedly heterogeneous. DA levels of the

  19. Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortical Modulation on the Medial Prefrontal Cortex-Amygdala Pathway: Differential Regulation of Intra-Amygdala GABAA and GABAB Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hui

    2017-07-01

    The basolateral complex of the amygdala receives inputs from neocortical areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Earlier studies have shown that lateral orbitofrontal cortex activation exerts an inhibitory gating on medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala information flow. Here we examined the individual role of GABAA and GABAB receptors in this process. In vivo extracellular single-unit recordings were done in anesthetized rats. We searched amygdala neurons that fire in response to medial prefrontal cortex activation, tested lateral orbitofrontal cortex gating at different delays (lateral orbitofrontal cortex-medial prefrontal cortex delays: 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 milliseconds), and examined differential contribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors with iontophoresis. Relative to baseline, lateral orbitofrontal cortex stimulation exerted an inhibitory modulatory gating on the medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala pathway and was effective up to a long delay of 500 ms (long-delay latencies at 100, 250, and 500 milliseconds). Moreover, blockade of intra-amygdala GABAA receptors with bicuculline abolished the lateral orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory gating at both short- (25 milliseconds) and long-delay (100 milliseconds) intervals, while blockade of GABAB receptors with saclofen reversed the inhibitory gating at long delay (100 milliseconds) only. Among the majority of the neurons examined (8 of 9), inactivation of either GABAA or GABAB receptors during baseline did not change evoked probability per se, suggesting that local feed-forward inhibitory mechanism is pathway specific. Our results suggest that the effect of lateral orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory modulatory gating was effective up to 500 milliseconds and that intra-amygdala GABAA and GABAB receptors differentially modulate the short- and long-delay lateral orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory gating on the medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala pathway.

  20. Dorso-Lateral Prefrontal Cortex MRI Measurements and Cognitive Performance in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Jessica; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bodner, Kimberly; Libove, Robin; Bansal, Rahul; Konasale, Prasad; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between volumetric measurements of frontal lobe structures and performance on executive function tasks in individuals with autism. MRI scans were obtained from 38 individuals with autism and 40 matched controls between the ages of 8 and 45 years. Executive function was assessed using neuropsychological measures including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Tower of Hanoi. Differences in performance on the neuropsychological tests were found between the two groups. However, no differences in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes were observed between groups. No correlations between volumetric measurements and performance on the neuropsychological tests were found. Findings from this study suggest that executive function deficits observed in autism are related to functional but not anatomical abnormalities of the frontal lobe. The absence of correlations suggests that executive dysfunction is not the result of focal brain alterations but, rather, is the result of a distributed neural network dysfunction. PMID:20097663

  1. High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affects performance in Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Zhang, Zhuoran; Da, Shu; Sheng, Xiaotian; Zhang, Xichao

    2018-02-01

    Studies on risk preferences have long been of great concern and have examined the neural basis underlying risk-based decision making. However, studies using conventional transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) revealed that bilateral stimulation could change risk propensity with limited evidence of precisely focalized unilateral high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS). The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of HD-tDCS focalizing the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on risk-taking behavior during the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). This study was designed as a between-subject, single-blind, sham-controlled experiment. University students were randomly assigned to three groups: the anodal group (F3 anode, AF3, F1, F5, FC3 returned), the cathodal group (F3 cathodal, AF3, F1, F5, FC3 returned) and the sham group. Subsequently, 1.5-mA 20-min HD-tDCS was applied during the BART, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), the Sensation Seeking Scale-5 (SSS-5), and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Approach System scale (BIS/BAS) were measured as control variables. The cathodal group earned less total money than the sham group, and no significant difference was observed between the anodal group and the sham group. These results showed that, to some extent, focalized unilateral cathodal HD-tDCS on left DLPFC could change performance during risky tasks and diminish risky decision making. Further studies are needed to investigate the dose effect and electrode distribution of HD-tDCS during risky tasks and examine synchronous brain activity to show the neural basis.

  2. Effect of Bilateral Prefrontal rTMS on Left Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Schizophrenia Patients with Predominant Negative Symptoms : An Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Bais, Leonie; van de Poel-Mustafayeva, Aida T.; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S. M.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prefrontal repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) may improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanism. Objective: This study aims to investigate changes in the levels of glutamate and glutamine (Glx,

  3. Affective emotion increases heart rate variability and activates left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in post-traumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuguang; Han, Jin; Zhang, Yuqing; Hannak, Walter; Dai, Yanyan; Liu, Zhengkui

    2017-11-30

    The present study evaluated the activities of heart rate variability (HRV) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to the presentation of affective pictures correlated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adults exposed to the Tianjin explosion incident. The participants who were directly involved in the Tianjin explosions were divided into control, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTG group according to the scores of PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and PTG Inventory survey. All participants received exposure to affective images. Electrocardiogram recording took place during the process for the purpose of analyzing HRV. Meanwhile, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure DLPFC activity through hemodynamic response. Our results indicated that, while performing the negative and positive picture stimulating, PTG increased both in low and high frequency components of HRV compared with the control group, but PTSD was not observed in this phenomenon. Moreover, the fNIRS data revealed that PTG had an increased activation in the left DLPFC compared to the control in the condition of negative pictures stimulating, wheras PTSD showed a higher activation in the right DLPFC while receiving positive pictures stimulating. To our knowledge, this is the first study which provides the differences between PTSD and PTG in emotional regulation.

  4. Organization of cortico-cortical pathways supporting memory retrieval across subregions of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barredo, Jennifer; Verstynen, Timothy D; Badre, David

    2016-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence indicates that different subregions of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) participate in distinct cortical networks. These networks have been shown to support separable cognitive functions: anterior VLPFC [inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) pars orbitalis] functionally correlates with a ventral fronto-temporal network associated with top-down influences on memory retrieval, while mid-VLPFC (IFG pars triangularis) functionally correlates with a dorsal fronto-parietal network associated with postretrieval control processes. However, it is not known to what extent subregional differences in network affiliation and function are driven by differences in the organization of underlying white matter pathways. We used high-angular-resolution diffusion spectrum imaging and functional connectivity analysis in unanesthetized humans to address whether the organization of white matter connectivity differs between subregions of VLPFC. Our results demonstrate a ventral-dorsal division within IFG. Ventral IFG as a whole connects broadly to lateral temporal cortex. Although several different individual white matter tracts form connections between ventral IFG and lateral temporal cortex, functional connectivity analysis of fMRI data indicates that these are part of the same ventral functional network. By contrast, across subdivisions, dorsal IFG was connected with the midfrontal gyrus and correlated as a separate dorsal functional network. These qualitative differences in white matter organization within larger macroanatomical subregions of VLPFC support prior functional distinctions among these regions observed in task-based and functional connectivity fMRI studies. These results are consistent with the proposal that anatomical connectivity is a crucial determinant of systems-level functional organization of frontal cortex and the brain in general. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  6. Comparison of Metabolite Concentrations in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, the Left Frontal White Matter, and the Left Hippocampus in Patients in Stable Schizophrenia Treated with Antipsychotics with or without Antidepressants. ¹H-NMR Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Grzelak, Piotr; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-10-15

    Managing affective, negative, and cognitive symptoms remains the most difficult therapeutic problem in stable phase of schizophrenia. Efforts include administration of antidepressants. Drugs effects on brain metabolic parameters can be evaluated by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy. We compared spectroscopic parameters in the left prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the left frontal white matter (WM) and the left hippocampus and assessed the relationship between treatment and the spectroscopic parameters in both groups. We recruited 25 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR), with dominant negative symptoms and in stable clinical condition, who were treated with antipsychotic and antidepressive medication for minimum of three months. A group of 25 patients with schizophrenia, who were taking antipsychotic drugs but not antidepressants, was matched. We compared metabolic parameters (N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), glutamatergic parameters (Glx), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr)) between the two groups. All patients were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). In patients receiving antidepressants we observed significantly higher NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios within the DLPFC, as well as significantly higher mI/Cr within the frontal WM. Moreover, we noted significantly lower values of parameters associated with the glutamatergic transmission--Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho in the hippocampus. Doses of antipsychotic drugs in the group treated with antidepressants were also significantly lower in the patients showing similar severity of psychopathology.

  7. Comparison of Metabolite Concentrations in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, the Left Frontal White Matter, and the Left Hippocampus in Patients in Stable Schizophrenia Treated with Antipsychotics with or without Antidepressants. 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Grzelak, Piotr; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Managing affective, negative, and cognitive symptoms remains the most difficult therapeutic problem in stable phase of schizophrenia. Efforts include administration of antidepressants. Drugs effects on brain metabolic parameters can be evaluated by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. We compared spectroscopic parameters in the left prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the left frontal white matter (WM) and the left hippocampus and assessed the relationship between treatment and the spectroscopic parameters in both groups. We recruited 25 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR), with dominant negative symptoms and in stable clinical condition, who were treated with antipsychotic and antidepressive medication for minimum of three months. A group of 25 patients with schizophrenia, who were taking antipsychotic drugs but not antidepressants, was matched. We compared metabolic parameters (N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), glutamatergic parameters (Glx), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr)) between the two groups. All patients were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). In patients receiving antidepressants we observed significantly higher NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios within the DLPFC, as well as significantly higher mI/Cr within the frontal WM. Moreover, we noted significantly lower values of parameters associated with the glutamatergic transmission—Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho in the hippocampus. Doses of antipsychotic drugs in the group treated with antidepressants were also significantly lower in the patients showing similar severity of psychopathology. PMID:26501256

  8. Different involvement of medial prefrontal cortex and dorso-lateral striatum in automatic and controlled processing of a future conditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Francisco; Díaz, Estrella; Sánchez, Natividad; Vargas, Juan Pedro; Pearce, John M; López, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies support the idea that stimulus processing in latent inhibition can vary during the course of preexposure. Controlled attentional mechanisms are said to be important in the early stages of preexposure, while in later stages animals adopt automatic processing of the stimulus to be used for conditioning. Given this distinction, it is possible that both types of processing are governed by different neural systems, affecting differentially the retrieval of information about the stimulus. In the present study we tested if a lesion to the dorso-lateral striatum or to the medial prefrontal cortex has a selective effect on exposure to the future conditioned stimulus (CS). With this aim, animals received different amounts of exposure to the future CS. The results showed that a lesion to the medial prefrontal cortex enhanced latent inhibition in animals receiving limited preexposure to the CS, but had no effect in animals receiving extended preexposure to the CS. The lesion of the dorso-lateral striatum produced a decrease in latent inhibition, but only in animals with an extended exposure to the future conditioned stimulus. These results suggest that the dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex play essential roles in controlled and automatic processes. Automatic attentional processes appear to be impaired by a lesion to the dorso-lateral striatum and facilitated by a lesion to the prefrontal cortex.

  9. Ketamine-Induced Changes in the Signal and Noise of Rule Representation in Working Memory by Lateral Prefrontal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liya; Skoblenick, Kevin; Seamans, Jeremy K; Everling, Stefan

    2015-08-19

    Working memory dysfunction is an especially debilitating symptom in schizophrenia. The NMDA antagonist ketamine has been successfully used to model working memory deficits in both rodents and nonhuman primates, but how it affects the strength and the consistency of working memory representations remains unclear. Here we recorded single-neuron activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex of macaque monkeys before and after the administration of subanesthetic doses of ketamine in a rule-based working memory task. The rule was instructed with a color cue before each delay period and dictated the correct prosaccadic or antisaccadic response to a peripheral stimulus appearing after the delay. We found that acute ketamine injections both weakened the rule signal across all delay periods and amplified the trial-to-trial variance in neural activities (i.e., noise), both within individual neurons and at the ensemble level, resulting in impaired performance. In the minority of postinjection trials when the animals responded correctly, the preservation of the signal strength during the delay periods was predictive of their subsequent success. Our findings suggest that NMDA receptor function may be critical for establishing the optimal signal-to-noise ratio in information representation by ensembles of prefrontal cortex neurons. In schizophrenia patients, working memory deficit is highly debilitating and currently without any efficacious treatment. An improved understanding of the pathophysiology of this symptom may provide critical information to treatment development. The NMDA antagonist ketamine, when injected at a subanesthetic dose, produces working memory deficit and other schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans and other animals. Here we investigated the effects of ketamine on the representation of abstract rules by prefrontal neurons, while macaque monkeys held the rules in working memory before responding accordingly. We found that ketamine weakened the signal

  10. Left laterality is an independent prognostic factor for metastasis in N3 stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Fatih; Sahin, Sanja; Erdem, Gokmen U; Ates, Ozturk; Babacan, Taner; Akin, Serkan; Sever, Ali R; Ozisik, Yavuz; Altundag, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    Development of metastasis in patients with breast cancer (BC) is the most important negative prognostic factor and this process mainly begins with lymphatic involvement. Therefore, axillary, subclavicular, internal mammary or supraclavicular nodal involvement is a crucial step before metastasis. Anatomical differences between the right and left lymphatic drainages of the breasts may significantly affect the rate, site and time to development of distant metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate if laterality is an independent prognostic factor for metastasis in N3 breast cancer patients. From a total of 4215 BC patients diagnosed between 1994 and 2015 in our center, 305 non-metastatic women with pathological N3 (pN3) nodal status at presentation were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: left and right BC. Analysis of overall survival (OS) and time to first metastasis (TTM) was performed according to Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. The median number of lymph node involvement and lymph node ratio (number of positive lymph nodes / total number of excised lymph nodes) between the two groups was equal (14 and 0,66 respectively). Recurrence was observed in 123 patients [53 (35%) right vs 70 (44%) left group]. Patients with left BC had significantly higher rate of axial bone metastases compared with the right BC group (55.7 vs 35.8%, p<0.02, respectively). TTM was significantly shorter in the left BC group [49.1 months (95% CI 36.5-61.8) vs 103.6 months (95% CI 47.0-160); p7equals;0.03, respectively]. Median OS did not differ between the groups, however, there was a trend towards lower OS in patients with left BC (p=0.68). Left laterality in patients with pN3 non-metastatic BC is an independent prognostic factor associated with shorter TTM, increased risk of distant metastases and axial bone involvement compared with right laterality.

  11. Effects of 10 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Disorders of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Xia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhile repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been applied in treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC, a standardized stimulation protocol has not been proposed, and its therapeutic effects are inconsistently documented.ObjectivesTo assess the efficacy of rTMS in improving consciousness in patients with persistent minimally conscious state (MCS or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, previously known as vegetative state (VS.MethodA prospective single-blinded study, with selected subjects, was carried out. In total, 16 patients (5 MCS and 11 VS/UWS with chronic DOC were included. All patients received active 10 Hz rTMS at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, at one session per day, for 20 consecutive days. A single daily session of stimulation consisted of 1,000 pulses (10 s of 10 Hz trains; repeated 10 times with an inter-train interval of 60 s; and 11 min and 40 s for total session. The main outcome measures were changes in the total score on the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R scale. Additional measures were the impressions of caregivers after the conclusion of the interventions, which were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale.ResultsThe CRS-R scores were increased in all 5 MCS patients and 4 of 11 VS/UWS patients, while a significant enhancement of CRS-R scores was observed compared to the baseline in all participants (p = 0.007. However, the improvement was more notable in MCS patients (p = 0.042 than their VS/UWS counterparts (p = 0.066. Based on the CGI-I scores, two patients improved considerably, two improved, six minimally improved, six experienced no change, and none deteriorated. Good concordance was seen between the CGI-I result and the increases in CRS-R scores.ConclusionTreatment of 10 Hz multisession rTMS applied to the left DLPFC is promising for the rehabilitation of DOC patients, especially those in MCS

  12. Contribution of different regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion laterality to deficit of decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerchefani, Riadh; Ouerchefani, Naoufel; Allain, Philippe; Ben Rejeb, Mohamed Riadh; Le Gall, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined the contribution of different sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion laterality to decision-making abilities. In addition, there are inconsistent findings about the role of ventromedial and dorsolateral lesions in decision-making deficit. In this study, decision-making processes are investigated following different damaged areas of the prefrontal cortex. We paid particular attention to the contribution of laterality, lesion location and lesion volume in decision-making deficit. Twenty-seven patients with discrete ventromedial lesions, dorsolateral lesions or extended-frontal lesions were compared with normal subjects on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Our results showed that all frontal subgroups were impaired on the IGT in comparison with normal subjects. We noted also that IGT performance did not vary systematically based on lesion laterality or location. More precisely, our lesion analysis revealed that decision-making processes depend on a large cerebral network, including both ventromedial and dorsolateral areas of the prefrontal cortex. Consistent with past findings, our results support the claim that IGT deficit is not solitarily associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Left lateral decubitus position on patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Ramasamy, Mouli

    2017-04-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a cardiovascular disease that affects about 5.7 million people in the US. The most prevalent comorbidity to CHF is Atrial Fibrillation (AF). These two pathologies present in a mutually worsening manner in that patients diagnosed with CHF are more likely to develop AF and patients who are diagnosed with AF are more likely to develop CHF. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied for several years and the most recent efforts are in the cellular and molecular basis. In this paper, we focus on manifestation of CHF and AF symptoms as influenced by the posture assumed by a patient. We consider three postures - Left lateral decubitus, right lateral decubitus and supine. We review the clinical evidence gathered thus far relating enhanced sympathetic activity to the left lateral decubitus and supine positions with equivalent evidence on the enhanced vagal activity when the right lateral decubitus posture is assumed. We conclude with a compilation of all the hypotheses on the mechanism by which the right lateral decubitus posture alleviates the symptoms of CHF and AF, and future avenues for investigation.

  14. Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex control in food-directed attention and goal-directed food choice in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Lieneke K; Duif, Iris; van Loon, Ilke; Wegman, Joost; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2017-02-01

    Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC)-mediated attentional control may explain the automatic tendency to eat in the face of food. Here, we investigate the neurocognitive mechanism underlying attentional bias to food words and its association with obesity using a food Stroop task. We tested 76 healthy human subjects with a wide body mass index (BMI) range (19-35kg/m 2 ) using fMRI. As a measure of obesity we calculated individual obesity scores based on BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio using principal component analyses. To investigate the automatic tendency to overeat directly, the same subjects performed a separate behavioral outcome devaluation task measuring the degree of goal-directed versus automatic food choices. We observed that increased obesity scores were associated with diminished lPFC responses during food attentional bias. This was accompanied by decreased goal-directed control of food choices following outcome devaluation. Together these findings suggest that deficient control of both food-directed attention and choice may contribute to obesity, particularly given our obesogenic environment with food cues everywhere, and the choice to ignore or indulge despite satiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adults with high social anhedonia have altered neural connectivity with ventral lateral prefrontal cortex when processing positive social signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I

    2015-01-01

    Social anhedonia (SA) is a debilitating characteristic of schizophrenia, a common feature in individuals at psychosis-risk, and a vulnerability for developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Prior work (Hooker et al., 2014) revealed neural deficits in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when processing positive social cues in a community sample of people with high SA. Lower VLPFC neural activity was related to more severe self-reported schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms as well as the exacerbation of symptoms after social stress. In the current study, psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis was applied to further investigate the neural mechanisms mediated by the VLPFC during emotion processing. PPI analysis revealed that, compared to low SA controls, participants with high SA exhibited reduced connectivity between the VLPFC and the motor cortex, the inferior parietal and the posterior temporal regions when viewing socially positive (relative to neutral) emotions. Across all participants, VLPFC connectivity correlated with behavioral and self-reported measures of attentional control, emotion management, and reward processing. Our results suggest that impairments to the VLPFC mediated neural circuitry underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits associated with social anhedonia, and may serve as neural targets for prevention and treatment of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  16. Larger Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Volume Predicts Better Exercise Adherence Among Older Women: Evidence From Two Exercise Training Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Hall, Peter A; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline. Independent of intracranial volume, age, education, body composition, mobility, depressive symptoms, and general cognitive functioning, larger lPFC volume predicted greater exercise class attendance (all p values exercise adherence as well as identified other regions, especially in the insula and temporal cortex, that predicted exercise adherence. These findings suggest that sustained engagement in exercise training might rely in part on functions of the lPFC and that lPFC volume might be a reasonable proxy for such functions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Independent representations of verbs and actions in left lateral temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, Marius V; Romagno, Domenica; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    Verbs and nouns differ not only on formal linguistic grounds but also in what they typically refer to: Verbs typically refer to actions, whereas nouns typically refer to objects. Prior neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions in the left lateral temporal cortex (LTC), including the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), respond selectively to action verbs relative to object nouns. Other studies have implicated the left pMTG in action knowledge, raising the possibility that verb selectivity in LTC may primarily reflect action-specific semantic features. Here, using functional neuroimaging, we test this hypothesis. Participants performed a simple memory task on visually presented verbs and nouns that described either events (e.g., "he eats" and "the conversation") or states (e.g., "he exists" and "the value"). Verb-selective regions in the left pMTG and the left STS were defined in individual participants by an independent localizer contrast between action verbs and object nouns. Both regions showed equally strong selectivity for event and state verbs relative to semantically matched nouns. The left STS responded more to states than events, whereas there was no difference between states and events in the left pMTG. Finally, whole-brain group analysis revealed that action verbs, relative to state verbs, activated a cluster in pMTG that was located posterior to the verb-selective pMTG clusters. Together, these results indicate that verb selectivity in LTC is independent of action representations. We consider other differences between verbs and nouns that may underlie verb selectivity in LTC, including the verb property of predication.

  18. Increased Low-Frequency Resting-State Brain Activity by High-Frequency Repetitive TMS on the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shao-Wei; Guo, Yonghu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Chang, Da; Zang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Ze

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) have been consistently shown for treating various neuropsychiatrical or neuropsychological disorders, but relatively little is known about its neural mechanisms. Here we conducted a randomized, double-blind, SHAM-controlled study to assess the effects of high-frequency left DLPFC rTMS on resting-state activity. Thirty-eight young healthy subjects received two sessions of either real rTMS ( N = 18, 90% motor-threshold; left DLPFC at 20 Hz) or SHAM TMS ( N = 20) and functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during rest in 2 days separated by 48 h. Resting-state bran activity was measured with the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and functional connectivity (FC). Increased fALFF was found in rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) after 20 Hz rTMS, while no changes were observed after SHAM stimulation. Using the suprathreshold rACC cluster as the seed, increased FC was found in left temporal cortex (stimulation vs. group interaction). These data suggest that high-frequency rTMS on left DLPFC enhances low-frequency resting-state brain activity in the target site and remote sites as reflected by fALFF and FC.

  19. White-matter microstructure and language lateralization in left-handers: a whole-brain MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlaki, Gabor; Horvath, Reka; Orsi, Gergely; Aradi, Mihaly; Auer, Tibor; Varga, Eszter; Kantor, Gyongyi; Altbäcker, Anna; John, Flora; Doczi, Tamas; Komoly, Samuel; Kovacs, Norbert; Schwarcz, Attila; Janszky, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    Most people are left-hemisphere dominant for language. However the neuroanatomy of language lateralization is not fully understood. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we studied whether language lateralization is associated with cerebral white-matter (WM) microstructure. Sixteen healthy, left-handed women aged 20-25 were included in the study. Left-handers were targeted in order to increase the chances of involving subjects with atypical language lateralization. Language lateralization was determined by fMRI using a verbal fluency paradigm. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI data was applied to test for WM microstructural correlates of language lateralization across the whole brain. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were used as indicators of WM microstructural organization. Right-hemispheric language dominance was associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left-sided parietal lobe WM. In left-handed women, reduced integrity of the left-sided language related tracts may be closely linked to the development of right hemispheric language dominance. Our results may offer new insights into language lateralization and structure-function relationships in human language system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular responses to the change from the left lateral to the upright position in pregnant hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, R A; Anthony, J; Ledeboer, Q; James, M F

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate by non-invasive means, the autonomically mediated changes in heart rate and blood pressure in response to postural change in pregnancy. Ninety-one patients were studied, of whom 17 were non-pregnant controls, 21 were normotensive parturients, 22 had non-proteinuric hypertension, and 31 were pre-eclamptics. In all patients the heart rate and blood pressure response to the change from the left lateral to the erect position was measured non-invasively, during the third trimester in the pregnant groups. The change from the left lateral to the erect position induced significantly greater mean changes (increases) in systolic blood pressure in the normotensive pregnant (PC) women than all other groups (Pchanges when comparing the PC, NP and H groups. The PE group exhibited a significantly greater increase in heart rate on adopting the erect position than all other groups. Pre-eclamptics exhibit smaller changes in blood pressure than normotensive pregnant patients and non-proteinuric hypertensives on standing, while producing an exaggerated heart rate response, indicating altered autonomic compensatory mechanisms in these patients.

  1. Left lateralization in autobiographical memory: an fMRI study using the expert archival paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Guillermo; Parker, Amanda; Head, Kay; Gobet, Fernand

    2008-02-01

    In brain-imaging and behavioral research, studies of autobiographical memory have higher ecological validity than controlled laboratory memory studies. However, they also have less controllability over the variables investigated. This article presents a novel technique - the expert archival paradigm - that increases controllability while maintaining ecological validity. Stimuli were created from games played by two international-level chess masters. The two players were asked to perform a memory task with stimuli generated from their own games and stimuli generated from other players' games while they were scanned using fMRI. The study found a left lateralized pattern of brain activity that was very similar in both masters. The brain areas activated were the left temporo-parietal junction and left frontal areas. The expert archival paradigm has the advantage of not requiring an interview to assess the participants' autobiographical memories, and affords the possibility of measuring their accuracy of remembering as well as their brain activity related to remote and recent memories. It can also be used in any field of expertise, including arts, sciences, and sports, in which archival data are available.

  2. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  3. Continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over the lateral prefrontal cortex alters reinforcement learning bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, D.V.M.; Ullsperger, M.; Jocham, G.; Neumann, J.; Klein, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is known to play a key role in higher-order cognitive functions. Recently, we showed that this brain region is active in reinforcement learning, during which subjects constantly have to integrate trial outcomes in order to optimize performance. To further elucidate the role of

  4. Role of the Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Mediating Behavioral Control-Induced Reduction of Later Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Michael V.; Lucero, Thomas R.; Amat, Jose; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2008-01-01

    A prior experience of behavioral control over a stressor interferes with subsequent Pavlovian fear conditioning, and this effect is dependent on the activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv) at the time of the initial experience with control. It is unknown whether mPFCv activity is necessary during fear learning and/or testing for…

  5. Left and right High Frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex does not affect mood in female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeken, C; Leyman, L; De Raedt, R; Vanderhasselt, M A; D'haenen, H

    2008-03-01

    High Frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (HF-rTMS) has yielded divergent results concerning its effect on mood in normal volunteers. In a former study, we were unable to demonstrate negative mood effects after one session of HF-rTMS on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in a large group of healthy female volunteers: researchers had focused mainly on negative mood changes, overlooking a possible positive mood induction, while no studies had yet examined mood effects of HF-rTMS delivered on the right prefrontal cortex. In this study, we have tried to replicate our previous HF-rTMS findings on the left DLPFC in a new (large) group of healthy female subjects, and we focused especially on positive mood changes. We also extended our former research by stimulating the right DLPFC in a different but comparable (large) group of healthy female volunteers with the same HF-rTMS parameters. In this sham-controlled, single blind, crossover HF-rTMS study, stimulus parameters were an exact copy of our previous healthy volunteer study. To exclude individual anatomical differences, the left and right DLPFC were targeted under magnetic resonance (MRI) guidance. To examine subjective mood changes we used Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), the Profile of Mood States (POMS), and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the latter to assure assessment of positive emotions. To detect any delayed mood changes, assessments were also re-administered 30min post-HF-rTMS. We were unable to demonstrate immediate or delayed mood changes after one single active HF-rTMS session on the left or right DLPFC. Although we took into account several methodological problems which might have confounded previous rTMS mood induction studies, the hypothesis that one single session of HF-rTMS on the left or on the right DLPFC can influence mood in healthy female volunteers was not supported. One HF-rTMS session has no effect on subjective mood in healthy female

  6. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asensio, S.; Goldstein, R.; Asensio, S.; Romero, M.J.; Romero, F.J.; Wong, C.T.; Alia-Klein, N.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Telang, F..; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-05-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to nondrug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with [{sup 11}C]raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of three years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine-addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a nondrug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine-addicted individuals.

  7. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio, S.; Goldstein, R.; Romero, M.J.; Romero, F.J.; Wong, C.T.; Alia-Klein, N.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Telang, F.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to nondrug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with ( 11 C)raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of three years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine-addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a nondrug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine-addicted individuals.

  8. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Samuel; Romero, Maria J.; Romero, Francisco J.; Wong, Christopher; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to non-drug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with [11C]raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of 3 years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a non-drug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine addicted individuals. PMID:20034014

  9. The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Owen Y; Huston, Joseph P; Li, Jay-Shake; Wang, An-Li; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Left-Lateral Strike-Slip Faulting in the East Alborz, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J.; Walker, R.; Jackson, J.; Bolourchi, M. J.; Eshraghi, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    The East Alborz mountains of NE Iran are actively deforming as a result of Arabia-Eurasia collision. We combine observations of the geomorphology made using high resolution satellite, topographic and field data, with historical and recent seismicity to map major active faults in this poorly studied region. Deformation on the north side of the range occurs by range-normal shortening on the Khazar thrust fault, which separates Central Iran from the South Caspian. South of the range, deformation involves both left-lateral slip on the previously undocumented Shahrud fault system, which comprises several range-bounding fault segments, and shortening on (probably minor) thrust faults. Faulting south of the range is responsible for major historical earthquakes at Damghan (856AD) and Shahrud (1890). Deformation accommodated across the East Alborz is estimated from the difference in GPS velocities north and south of the range. South of the Alborz, northward GPS velocities across Central Iran decrease eastwards and the strike of the deforming belt changes to become more sub-parallel to the direction of South Caspian- Iran relative motion. This reduces the shortening component across the East Alborz, resulting in lower elevations between 54--57°E. West of 55.5°E, the more arc-normal shortening is achieved by partitioning of deformation onto the Khazar thrust (~1 mm/yr) and the Astaneh and Firuzkuh strike-slip faults (~3 mm/yr). East of 55.5°E, the Khazar fault ends and East Alborz deformation is accommodated primarily on the left-lateral Shahrud fault system, which may slip up to 3~mm/yr. Due to the long gap in seismicity along the eastern Shahrud fault system, the city of Jajarm (15,000 pop.) is considered at high risk from future earthquakes.

  11. Renoportal Anastomosis in Left Lateral Lobe Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Pediatric Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ogasawara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In adult liver transplantation, renoportal anastomosis (RPA has been introduced as a useful technique for patients with grade 4 portal vein thrombosis and a splenorenal shunt. Here, we report a pediatric case in which RPA allowed a left lateral lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT despite portal vein thrombosis and a large splenorenal shunt. At 36 days old, the patient underwent a Kasai operation for biliary atresia. At 17 months old, she underwent LDLT because of repetitive cholangitis. Pretransplant examinations revealed a large splenorenal shunt and portal vein thrombosis. Simple end-to-end portal reconstruction and clamping of the collateral route after removing the thrombosis were unsuccessful. Thus, RPA was performed using a donor superficial femoral vein as an interpositional graft. The portal vein pressure was 20 mm Hg after arterial reperfusion. Ligation of the splenic artery reduced the portal vein pressure. Although she developed severe acute cellular rejection and chylous ascites, there were no signs of portal vein complications. She was discharged 73 days after transplantation without any signs of renal dysfunction. The patient’s condition was good at her last follow-up, 22 months after transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case of RPA in pediatric left lateral lobe LDLT. Additionally, this is the first case of RPA with splenic artery ligation and using the donor’s superficial femoral vein as the venous graft for RPA. Although long-term follow-up is necessary, RPA could be a salvage option in LDLT in infants if other methods are unsuccessful.

  12. At-home tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves visual short-term memory in mild vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Sebastian; Heinrich, Simon; Kayser, Friederike; Menzler, Katja; Kesselring, Jürg; Khader, Patrick H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Mylius, Veit

    2016-10-15

    Previous studies have shown that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) led to an improvement of various cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer dementia, early affected by short-term memory deficits. Since this approach has not been evaluated in the context of vascular dementia, which rather affects the velocity of cognitive responses, we aimed at improving these functions by applying repetitive sessions of anodal tDCS. Four 20-minute sessions of 2mA anodal or sham at-home tDCS were applied to the left DLPFC in a single-blinded randomised study of 21 patients with mild vascular dementia, with parallel-group design. The effect of tDCS on cognitive testing was assessed up to two weeks beyond the stimulation time. A similar clinically meaningful improvement of various cognitive and behavioral dysfunction characteristics could be observed following either active or sham tDCS, whereas visual recall, and reaction times in the n-back task as well as in the go/no-go test improved only in the active tDCS group. In patients with mild vascular dementia, anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC is able to produce additional effects to cognitive training on visual short-term memory, verbal working memory, and executive control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sitnikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.

  14. Linkage analysis in a Dutch population isolate shows no major gene for left-handedness or atypical language lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Aukes, Maartje F; Cantor, Rita M; Boks, Marco P; Dauwan, Meenakshi; de Visser, Kees L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E

    2015-06-10

    Cerebral dominance of language function and hand preference are suggested to be heritable traits with possible shared genetic background. However, joined genetic studies of these traits have never been conducted. We performed a genetic linkage study in 37 multigenerational human pedigrees of both sexes (consisting of 355 subjects) enriched with left-handedness in which we also measured language lateralization. Hand preference was measured with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and language lateralization was measured with functional transcranial Doppler during language production. The estimated heritability of left-handedness and language lateralization in these pedigrees is 0.24 and 0.31, respectively. A parametric major gene model was tested for left-handedness. Nonparametric analyses were performed for left-handedness, atypical lateralization, and degree of language lateralization. We did not observe genome-wide evidence for linkage in the parametric or nonparametric analyses for any of the phenotypes tested. However, multiple regions showed suggestive evidence of linkage. The parametric model showed suggestive linkage for left-handedness in the 22q13 region [heterogeneity logarithm of odds (HLOD) = 2.18]. Nonparametric multipoint analysis of left-handedness showed suggestive linkage in the same region [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 2.80]. Atypical language lateralization showed suggestive linkage in the 7q34 region (LODMax = 2.35). For strength of language lateralization, we observed suggestive linkage in the 6p22 (LODMax = 2.54), 7q32 (LODMax = 1.93), and 9q33 (LODMax = 2.10) regions. We did not observe any overlap of suggestive genetic signal between handedness and the extent of language lateralization. The absence of significant linkage argues against the presence of a major gene coding for both traits; rather, our results are suggestive of these traits being two independent polygenic complex traits. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358730-07$15.00/0.

  15. Impact of Anodal and Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex during Attention Bias Modification: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Heeren

    Full Text Available People with anxiety disorders show an attentional bias for threat (AB, and Attention Bias Modification (ABM procedures have been found to reduce this bias. However, the underlying processes accounting for this effect remain poorly understood. One explanation suggests that ABM requires the modification of attention control, driven by the recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. In the present double-blind study, we examined whether modifying left DLPFC activation influences the effect of ABM on AB. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to directly modulate cortical excitability of the left DLPFC during an ABM procedure designed to reduce AB to threat. Anodal tDCS increases excitability, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases it. We randomly assigned highly trait-anxious individuals to one of three conditions: 1 ABM combined with cathodal tDCS, 2 ABM combined with anodal tDCS, or 3 ABM combined with sham tDCS. We assessed the effects of these manipulations on both reaction times and eye-movements on a task indexing AB. Results indicate that combining ABM and anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC reduces the total duration that participants' gaze remains fixated on threat, as assessed using eye-tracking measurement. However, in contrast to previous studies, there were no changes in AB from baseline to post-training for participants that received ABM without tDCS. As the tendency to maintain attention to threat is known to play an important role in the maintenance of anxiety, the present findings suggest that anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC may be considered as a promising tool to reduce the maintenance of gaze to threat. Implications for future translational research combining ABM and tDCS are discussed.

  16. Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Silberstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 days GBE and 14 days placebo in random order. For both groups, SSVEP was recorded from 64 scalp electrode sites during the completion of an object WM task both pre- and 14 days post-treatment. GBE was found to improve behavioural performance on the WM task. GBE was also found to increase the SSVEP amplitude at occipital and frontal sites and increase SSVEP latency at left temporal and left frontal sites during the hold component of the WM task. These SSVEP changes associated with GBE may represent more efficient processing during WM task completion.

  17. Distinctive laterality of neural networks supporting action understanding in left- and right-handed individuals: An EEG coherence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rachel; Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that perspective and handedness of observed actions can affect action understanding differently in right and left-handed persons, suggesting potential differences in the neural networks underlying action understanding between right and left-handed individuals. We sought to evaluate potential differences in these neural networks using electroencephalography (EEG). Right- and left-handed participants observed images of tool-use actions from egocentric and allocentric perspectives, with right- and left-handed actors performing the actions. Participants judged the outcome of the observed actions, and response accuracy and latency were recorded. Behaviorally, the highest accuracy and shortest latency was found in the egocentric perspective for right- and left-handed observers. Handedness of subject showed an effect on accuracy and latency also, where right-handed observers were faster to respond than left-handed observers, but on average were less accurate. Mu band (8-10 Hz) cortico-cortical coherence analysis indicated that right-handed observers have coherence in the motor dominant left parietal-premotor networks when looking at an egocentric right or allocentric left hands. When looking in an egocentric perspective at a left hand or allocentric right hand, coherence was lateralized to right parietal-premotor areas. In left-handed observers, bilateral parietal-premotor coherence patterns were observed regardless of actor handedness. These findings suggest that the cortical networks involved in understanding action outcomes are dependent on hand dominance, and notably right handed participants seem to utilize motor systems based on the limb seen performing the action. The decreased accuracy for right-handed participants on allocentric images could be due to asymmetrical lateralization of encoding action and motoric dominance, which may interfere with translating allocentric limb action outcomes. Further neurophysiological studies will

  18. No change in N-acetyl aspartate in first episode of moderate depression after antidepressant treatment: 1H magnetic spectroscopy study of left amygdala and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajs Janović M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maja Bajs Janović,1,3 Petra Kalember,2 Špiro Janović,1,3 Pero Hrabač,2 Petra Folnegović Grošić,1 Vladimir Grošić,4 Marko Radoš,5 Neven Henigsberg2,61University Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 2Polyclinic Neuron, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 3University North, Varaždin, 4Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan, Zagreb, 5University Department of Radiology, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 6Psychiatric Clinic Vrapče, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: The role of brain metabolites as biological correlates of the intensity, symptoms, and course of major depression has not been determined. It has also been inconclusive whether the change in brain metabolites, measured with proton magnetic spectroscopy, could be correlated with the treatment outcome. Methods: Proton magnetic spectroscopy was performed in 29 participants with a first episode of moderate depression occurring in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left amygdala at baseline and after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment with escitalopram. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess the intensity of depression at baseline and at the endpoint of the study. At endpoint, the participants were identified as responders (n=17 or nonresponders (n=12 to the antidepressant therapy. Results: There was no significant change in the N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr after treatment with antidepressant medication. The baseline and endpoint NAA/Cr ratios were not significantly different between the responder and nonresponder groups. The correlation between NAA/Cr and changes in the scores of clinical scales were not significant in either group. Conclusion: This study could not confirm any significant changes in NAA after antidepressant treatment in the first episode of moderate depression, or in

  19. Gesture subtype-dependent left lateralization of praxis planning: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlhalter, S; Hattori, N; Wheaton, L; Fridman, E; Shamim, E A; Garraux, G; Hallett, M

    2009-06-01

    Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder mainly of praxis planning, and the deficit is typically more evident in pantomiming transitive (tool related) than intransitive (communicative) gestures. The goal of the present study was to assess differential hemispheric lateralization of praxis production using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based analysis demonstrated significant activations in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and premotor cortex (PMC) association areas, which were predominantly left hemispheric, regardless of whether planning occurred for right or left hand transitive or intransitive pantomimes. Furthermore, region of interest-based calculation of mean laterality index (LI) revealed a significantly stronger left lateralization in PPC/PMC clusters for planning intransitive (LI = -0.49 + 0.10, mean + standard deviation [SD]) than transitive gestures (-0.37 + 0.08, P = 0.02, paired t-tests) irrespective of the hand involved. This differential left lateralization for planning remained significant in PMC (LI = -0.47 + 0.14 and -0.36 + 0.13, mean + SD, P = 0.04), but not in PPC (-0.56 + 0.11 and -0.45 + 0.12, P = 0.11), when both regions were analyzed separately. In conclusion, the findings point to a left-hemispheric specialization for praxis planning, being more pronounced for intransitive gestures in PMC, possibly due to their communicative nature.

  20. Lateral chest radiographic findings in lobar collapse of the left lung : the distance between both upper lobe bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G. H.; Sung, D. W.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the distance between both upper love bronchi on lateral radiographs and its change in left upper or lower lobe collapse. 144 true lateral radiographs were analyzed on which both upper lobe bronchi were clearly identified. They included 116 normal cases, 11 cases of left upper lobe collapse, 13 of left lower lobe collapse, and 4 cases of left lower lobe lobectomy. Line A was drawn parallel to the vertebral end plate through the upper margin of the lift upper lobe bronchus. Line B was drawn parallel to line A through the upper margin of the right upper love bronchus. The shortest distance between line A and line B was measured as the distance between both upper lobe bronchi. In normal cases, the mean value of the distance was 2.19 cm ± S.D. 0.37 cm on right and on right and 2.16 cm ± S.D. 0.40 cm on left lateral radiographs ; these results were not significantly different(P=0.79). In cases of collapse, the mean value of the distance was 0.43 cm ± S.D. 0.99 cm in upper lobe collapse and 3.56 cm ± S.D. 0.72 cm in lower lobe collapse, results which were significantly different from those of normal cases(p<0.01). In eight cases(73%) of left upper lobe collapse, the distance was less than 1 cm and in 10 cases(77%) of left lower lobe collapse, the distance was more than 3 cm. The distance between both upper lobe bronchi varies markedly in case of lobar collapse. A distance of less than 1 cm suggests collapse of the left upper lobe and a distance more than 3 cm suggests collapse of the left lower lobe

  1. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M H; Jones, 'Ōiwi Parker; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2015-09-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug-kettle) than unrelated (car-teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced lateral prefrontal cortical volume is associated with performance on the modified Iowa Gambling Task: A surface based morphometric analysis of previously deployed veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogleman, Nicholas D; Naaz, Farah; Knight, Lindsay K; Stoica, Teodora; Patton, Samantha C; Olson-Madden, Jennifer H; Barnhart, Meghan C; Hostetter, Trisha A; Forster, Jeri; Brenner, Lisa A; Banich, Marie T; Depue, Brendan E

    2017-09-30

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are two of the most common consequences of combat deployment. Estimates of comorbidity of PTSD and mTBI are as high as 42% in combat exposed Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) Veterans. Combat deployed Veterans with PTSD and/or mTBI exhibit deficits in classic executive function (EF) tasks. Similarly, the extant neuroimaging literature consistently indicates abnormalities of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and amygdala/hippocampal complex in these individuals. While studies examining deficits in classical EF constructs and aberrant neural circuitry have been widely replicated, it is surprising that little research examining reward processing and decision-making has been conducted in these individuals, specifically, because the vmPFC has long been implicated in underlying such processes. Therefore, the current study employed the modified Iowa Gambling Task (mIGT) and structural neuroimaging to assess whether behavioral measures related to reward processing and decision-making were compromised and related to cortical morphometric features of OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with PTSD, mTBI, or co-occurring PTSD/mTBI. Results indicated that gray matter morphometry in the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) predicted performance on the mIGT among all three groups and was significantly reduced, as compared to the control group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions. PMID:26696865

  4. Low-frequency brain stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the negative impact of social exclusion among those high in personal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette Mary; Kirkovski, Melissa; Bailey, Neil Wayne; Thomson, Richard Hilton; Eisenberger, Naomi; Enticott, Peter Gregory; Fitzgerald, Paul Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to play a key role in the cognitive control of emotion and has therefore, unsurprisingly, been implicated in the regulation of physical pain perception. This brain region may also influence the experience of social pain, which has been shown to activate similar neural networks as seen in response to physical pain. Here, we applied sham or active low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC, previously shown to exert bilateral effects in pain perception, in healthy participants. Following stimulation, participants played the "Cyberball Task"; an online ball-tossing game in which the subject participant is included or excluded. Compared to sham, rTMS did not modulate behavioural response to social exclusion. However, within the active rTMS group only, greater trait personal distress was related to enhanced negative outcomes to social exclusion. These results add further support to the notion that the effect of brain stimulation is not homogenous across individuals, and indicates the need to consider baseline individual differences when assessing response to brain stimulation. This seems particularly relevant in social neuroscience investigations, where trait factors may have a meaningful effect.

  5. Organization of connections between the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral hypothalamus: a single and double retrograde tracing study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppucci, Christina J; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2016-07-01

    The amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are highly interconnected telencephalic areas critical for cognitive processes, including associative learning and decision making. Both structures strongly innervate the lateral hypothalamus (LHA), an important component of the networks underlying the control of feeding and other motivated behaviors. The amygdala-prefrontal-lateral hypothalamic system is therefore well positioned to exert cognitive control over behavior. However, the organization of this system is not well defined, particularly the topography of specific circuitries between distinct cell groups within these complex, heterogeneous regions. This study used two retrograde tracers to map the connections from the amygdala (central and basolateral area nuclei) and mPFC to the LHA in detail, and to determine whether amygdalar pathways to the mPFC and to LHA originate from the same or different neurons. One tracer was placed into a distinct mPFC area (dorsal anterior cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic, or rostromedial orbital), and the other into dorsal or ventral LHA. We report that the central nucleus and basolateral area of the amygdala send projections to distinct LHA regions, dorsal and ventral, respectively. The basolateral area, but not central nucleus, also sends substantial projections to the mPFC, topographically organized rostrocaudal to dorsoventral. The entire mPFC, in turn, projects to the LHA, providing a separate route for potential amygdalar influence following mPFC processing. Nearly all amygdalar projections to the mPFC and to the LHA originated from different neurons suggesting amygdala and amygdala-mPFC processing influence the LHA independently, and the balance of these parallel pathways ultimately controls motivated behaviors.

  6. Differential effects of continuous theta burst stimulation over left premotor cortex and right prefrontal cortex on modulating upper limb somatosensory input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matt J N; Staines, W Richard

    2016-02-15

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) represent somatosensory processing in non-primary motor areas (i.e. frontal N30 and N60) and somatosensory cortices (i.e. parietal P50). It is well-known that the premotor cortex (PMC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are involved in the preparation and planning of upper limb movements but it is currently unclear how they modulate somatosensory processing for upper limb motor control. In the current study, two experiments examined SEP modulations after continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was used to transiently disrupt the left PMC (Experiment 1) and right PFC (Experiment 2). Both Experiment 1 (n=15) and Experiment 2 (n=16) used pre-post experimental designs. In both experiments participants performed a task requiring detection of varying amplitudes of attended vibrotactile (VibT) stimuli to the left index finger (D2) and execution of a pre-matched finger sequence with the right (contralateral) hand to specific VibT targets. During the task, SEPs were measured to median nerve (MN) stimulations time-locked during pre-stimulus (250 ms before VibT), early response selection (250 ms after VibT), late preparatory (750 ms after VibT) and execution (1250 ms VibT) phases. The key findings of Experiment 1 revealed significant decreases in N30 and N60 peak amplitudes after cTBS to PMC. In contrast, the results of Experiment 2, also found significant decreased N60 peak amplitudes as well as trends for increased N30 and P50 peak amplitudes. A direct comparison of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 confirmed differential modulation of N30 peak amplitudes after PMC (gated) compared to PFC (enhanced) cTBS. Collectively, these results support that both the left PMC and right PFC have modulatory roles on early somatosensory input into non-primary motor areas, such as PMC and supplementary motor area (SMA), represented by frontal N30 and N60 SEPs. These results confirm that PMC and PFC are both part of a network that regulates somatosensory input

  7. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Y. Flugelman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years.

  8. Cerebral lateralization for the processing of spatial coordinates and categories in left-and right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAENG, B; PETERS, M

    1995-04-01

    Subjects judged whether a tachistoscopially lateralized drawing was identical or different to a drawing seen immediately before in free vision. The drawings depicted natural objects (e.g. animals). On half of the trials the tachistoscopic drawing presented the same objects but either the categorical or the coordinate spatial relations (according to Kosslyn's definitions [23]) between the objects were transformed. In the first experiment 38 right-handed subjects (half males and half females) were tested. Categorical judgements were faster when the match drawing appeared in the right visual field, whereas coordinate judgements were faster when the match drawing appeared in the left visual field. In the second experiment 26 right-handed and 40 left-handed subjects participated. Almost all the subjects were female. Right-handed subjects replicated the findings of the subjects in the first experiment. However, the LHs did not show any difference in response times between spatial conditions and visual fields. These findings support Kosslyn's hypothesis that the left and right hemispheres are specialized respectively for processing categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Moreover, they also suggest that this lateralization pattern is not typical of left-handers.

  9. You talkin' to me? Communicative talker gaze activates left-lateralized superior temporal cortex during perception of degraded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Jasmin, Kyle; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Josephs, Oliver J; Calder, Andrew J; Jessop, Rosemary; Lawson, Rebecca P; Spielmann, Mona; Scott, Sophie K

    2017-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies of speech perception have consistently indicated a left-hemisphere dominance in the temporal lobes' responses to intelligible auditory speech signals (McGettigan and Scott, 2012). However, there are important communicative cues that cannot be extracted from auditory signals alone, including the direction of the talker's gaze. Previous work has implicated the superior temporal cortices in processing gaze direction, with evidence for predominantly right-lateralized responses (Carlin & Calder, 2013). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the lateralization of responses to talker gaze differs in an auditory communicative context. Participants in a functional MRI experiment watched and listened to videos of spoken sentences in which the auditory intelligibility and talker gaze direction were manipulated factorially. We observed a left-dominant temporal lobe sensitivity to the talker's gaze direction, in which the left anterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus and temporal pole showed an enhanced response to direct gaze - further investigation revealed that this pattern of lateralization was modulated by auditory intelligibility. Our results suggest flexibility in the distribution of neural responses to social cues in the face within the context of a challenging speech perception task. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathological left-handedness revisited: origins and later life health outcorigins outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramadhani, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Investigations to explore human handedness have been conducted for ages. It is still uncertain what causes people to use the left or the right hand. Clues supporting the genetic origin of handedness have been accumulating and provide the best evidence. Nevertheless, in some populations there are

  11. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J M; Ramsey, N; Rutten, G J

    2015-12-01

    Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MRI can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on the ratio between left and right brain activity in a specific region associated with language. Nearly all fMRI language studies show language-related activity in both hemispheres, and as a result the LI shows a large range of values. The clinical significance of the variation in language laterality as measured with the LI is still under debate. In this study, we tested two hypotheses in relation to the LI, measured in Broca's region, and it's right hemisphere homologue: 1: the level of activity in Broca's and it's right hemisphere homologue is mirrored for subjects with an equal but opposite LI; 2: the whole brain language activation pattern differs between subjects with an equal but opposite LI. One hundred sixty-three glioma and meningioma patients performed a verb generation task as part of a standard clinical protocol. We calculated the LI in the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, referred to as Broca's region from here on. In our database, 21 patients showed right lateralized activity, with a moderate average level (-0.32). A second group of 21 patients was selected from the remaining group, for equal but opposite LI (0.32). We compared the level and distribution of activity associated with language production in the left and right hemisphere in these two groups. Patients with left sided laterality showed a significantly higher level of activity in Broca's region than the patients with right sided laterality. However, both groups showed no difference in level of activity in Broca's homologue region in the right hemisphere. Also, we did not see any difference in the pattern of activity between patients with left

  12. Right prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation enhances multi-day savings in sensorimotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Rachael D; Gluskin, Brittany S; Greeley, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported that visuospatial working memory performance and magnitude of activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex predict the rate of visuomotor adaptation. Recent behavioral studies suggest that sensorimotor savings, or faster relearning on second exposure to a task, are due to recall of these early, strategic components of adaptation. In the present study we applied anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to right or left prefrontal cortex or left motor cortex. We found that all groups adapted dart throwing movements while wearing prism lenses at the same rate as subjects receiving sham stimulation on day 1 On test day 2, which was conducted a few days later, the right prefrontal and left motor cortex groups adapted faster than the sham group. Moreover, only the right prefrontal group exhibited greater savings, expressed as a greater difference between day 1 and day 2 errors, compared with sham stimulation. These findings support the hypothesis that the right prefrontal cortex contributes to sensorimotor adaptation and savings. We have previously reported that visuospatial working memory performance and magnitude of activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex predict the rate of manual visuomotor adaptation. Sensorimotor savings, or faster adaptation to a previously experienced perturbation, has been recently linked to cognitive processes. We show that facilitating the right prefrontal cortex with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhances sensorimotor savings compared with sham stimulation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Left Hippocampal Pathology Is Associated with Atypical Language Lateralization in Patients with Focal Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernd; Wellmer, Jorg; Reuber, Markus; Mormann, Florian; Weis, Susanne; Urbach, Horst; Ruhlmann, Jurgen; Elger, Christian E.; Fernandez, Guillen

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognized that the incidence of atypical language lateralization is increased in patients with focal epilepsy. The hypothesis that shifts in language dominance are particularly likely when epileptic lesions are located in close vicinity to the so-called language-eloquent areas rather than in more remote brain regions such as the…

  14. Left hippocampal pathology is associated with atypical language lateralization in patients with focal epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Wellmer, J.; Reuber, M.; Mormann, F.; Weis, S.; Urbach, H.; Ruhlmann, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognized that the incidence of atypical language lateralization is increased in patients with focal epilepsy. The hypothesis that shifts in language dominance are particularly likely when epileptic lesions are located in close vicinity to the so-called language-eloquent areas rather

  15. Lateralization in the invertebrate brain: left-right asymmetry of olfaction in bumble bee, Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Anfora

    Full Text Available Brain and behavioural lateralization at the population level has been recently hypothesized to have evolved under social selective pressures as a strategy to optimize coordination among asymmetrical individuals. Evidence for this hypothesis have been collected in Hymenoptera: eusocial honey bees showed olfactory lateralization at the population level, whereas solitary mason bees only showed individual-level olfactory lateralization. Here we investigated lateralization of odour detection and learning in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris L., an annual eusocial species of Hymenoptera. By training bumble bees on the proboscis extension reflex paradigm with only one antenna in use, we provided the very first evidence of asymmetrical performance favouring the right antenna in responding to learned odours in this species. Electroantennographic responses did not reveal significant antennal asymmetries in odour detection, whereas morphological counting of olfactory sensilla showed a predominance in the number of olfactory sensilla trichodea type A in the right antenna. The occurrence of a population level asymmetry in olfactory learning of bumble bee provides new information on the relationship between social behaviour and the evolution of population-level asymmetries in animals.

  16. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  17. Holocene earthquakes and right-lateral slip on the left-lateral Darrington-Devils Mountain fault zone, northern Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personius, Stephen F.; Briggs, Richard W.; Nelson, Alan R.; Schermer, Elizabeth R; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Sherrod, Brian; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Bradley, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Sources of seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region of northwestern Washington include deep earthquakes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, and shallow earthquakes associated with some of the numerous crustal (upper-plate) faults that crisscross the region. Our paleoseismic investigations on one of the more prominent crustal faults, the Darrington–Devils Mountain fault zone, included trenching of fault scarps developed on latest Pleistocene glacial sediments and analysis of cores from an adjacent wetland near Lake Creek, 14 km southeast of Mount Vernon, Washington. Trench excavations revealed evidence of a single earthquake, radiocarbon dated to ca. 2 ka, but extensive burrowing and root mixing of sediments within 50–100 cm of the ground surface may have destroyed evidence of other earthquakes. Cores in a small wetland adjacent to our trench site provided stratigraphic evidence (formation of a laterally extensive, prograding wedge of hillslope colluvium) of an earthquake ca. 2 ka, which we interpret to be the same earthquake documented in the trenches. A similar colluvial wedge lower in the wetland section provides possible evidence for a second earthquake dated to ca. 8 ka. Three-dimensional trenching techniques revealed evidence for 2.2 ± 1.1 m of right-lateral offset of a glacial outwash channel margin, and 45–70 cm of north-side-up vertical separation across the fault zone. These offsets indicate a net slip vector of 2.3 ± 1.1 m, plunging 14° west on a 286°-striking, 90°-dipping fault plane. The dominant right-lateral sense of slip is supported by the presence of numerous Riedel R shears preserved in two of our trenches, and probable right-lateral offset of a distinctive bedrock fault zone in a third trench. Holocene north-side-up, right-lateral oblique slip is opposite the south-side-up, left-lateral oblique sense of slip inferred from geologic mapping of Eocene and older rocks along the fault zone. The cause of this slip reversal is

  18. Extensional and compressional regime driven left-lateral shear in southwestern Anatolia (eastern Mediterranean): The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Aktuğ, Bahadır

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic framework of the eastern Mediterranean presented in this paper is based on an active subduction and small underwater hills/mountains on the oceanic crust moving toward the north. The Hellenic Arc, the Anaximander Mountains, the Rhodes and Finike basins, the compressional southern regions of the Western Taurides, and the extensional western Anatolian graben are the main interrelated tectonic structures that are shaped by the complex tectonic regimes. There are still heated debates regarding the structural properties and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Anatolia. GPS velocities and focal mechanisms of earthquakes demonstrate the absence of a single transform fault across the Burdur-Fethiye region; however, hundreds of small faults showing normal and left-lateral oblique slip indicate the presence of a regionally extensive shear zone in southwestern Turkey, which plays an important role in the eastern Mediterranean tectonics. The 300-km-long, 75-90-km-wide NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone developed during the formation of Aegean back-arc extensional system and the thrusting of Western Taurides. Today, the left-lateral differential motion across the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone varies from 3 to 4 mm/yr in the north to 8-10 mm/yr in the south. This finding could be attributed to the fact that while the subduction of the African Plate is relatively fast beneath the western Anatolia at the Hellenic Trench, it is slow or locked beneath the Western Taurides. Therefore, the GPS vectors and their distributions on land indicate remarkable velocity differences and enable us to determine the left-lateral shear zone located between the extensional and compressional blocks. Furthermore, this active tectonic regime creates differences in topography. This study also demonstrates how deep structures, such as the continuation of the subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs in the continental area, can come into play

  19. LEFT LATERAL POSITIONING WITH HEAD ELEVATION INCREASE THE PARTIAL PRESSURE OF OXYGEN ON PATIENTS WITH MECHANICAL VENTILATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmiza Karmiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breathing literally means the movement of oxygen from the atmosphere and reach the cells and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 is one of the important components in the process of respiration, especially in patients with mechanical ventilation. There are several interventions that can be performed in an effort to improve the ventilation, one of them is patients positioning: left lateral position with 30 degrees head elevation. This study aimed to determine the effect of left lateral position with 30 degrees head elevation to the value of partial pressure of oxygen in patients with mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit RSUP DR. M. Djamil Padang. Method: This study was Pra Experiments with one group pretest posttest design. 15 samples taken by purposive sampling method. Data obtained by blood gasses analysis and it was conducted since May 8th untill June 5th, 2013. Univariate data presented in frequency distribution table, while the bivariate data using the paired T test. Result: Univariate analysis showed the value of the partial pressure of oxygen ( pO2 before intervention between 119-228 mmHg , while the value of the partial pressure of oxygen ( pO2 after intervention between 132-269 mmHg . Paired T test results showed a signifi cant difference between the value of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 before and after intervention (p = 0.040, p < 0.05 . Discussion: The left lateral position with 30 degrees head elevation could increase the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 in patients with mechanical ventilation. The results of this study can be used for increasing the nursingcare quality of patients with mechanical ventilation in order to reduce the time of hospitalization. Further research on these positioning interventions can be developed for patients with primary respiratory problems or lung disease. Keywords: left lateral position, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, mechanical ventilation

  20. Slip rate and slip magnitudes of past earthquakes along the Bogd left-lateral strike-slip fault (Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Rizza, M.; Ritz, J.F.; Baucher, R.; Vassallo, R.; Mahan, S.

    2011-01-01

    We carried out morphotectonic studies along the left-lateral strike-slip Bogd Fault, the principal structure involved in the Gobi-Altay earthquake of 1957 December 4 (published magnitudes range from 7.8 to 8.3). The Bogd Fault is 260 km long and can be subdivided into five main geometric segments, based on variation in strike direction. West to East these segments are, respectively: the West Ih Bogd (WIB), The North Ih Bogd (NIB), the West Ih Bogd (WIB), the West Baga Bogd (WBB) and the East Baga Bogd (EBB) segments. Morphological analysis of offset streams, ridges and alluvial fans—particularly well preserved in the arid environment of the Gobi region—allows evaluation of late Quaternary slip rates along the different faults segments. In this paper, we measure slip rates over the past 200 ka at four sites distributed across the three western segments of the Bogd Fault. Our results show that the left-lateral slip rate is∼1 mm yr–1 along the WIB and EIB segments and∼0.5 mm yr–1 along the NIB segment. These variations are consistent with the restraining bend geometry of the Bogd Fault. Our study also provides additional estimates of the horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake along the western part of the Bogd rupture, complementing previously published studies. We show that the mean horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake decreases progressively from 5.2 m in the west to 2.0 m in the east, reflecting the progressive change of kinematic style from pure left-lateral strike-slip faulting to left-lateral-reverse faulting. Along the three western segments, we measure cumulative displacements that are multiples of the 1957 coseismic offset, which may be consistent with a characteristic slip. Moreover, using these data, we re-estimate the moment magnitude of the Gobi-Altay earthquake at Mw 7.78–7.95. Combining our slip rate estimates and the slip distribution per event we also determined a mean recurrence interval of∼2500

  1. Decreased neural activity and neural connectivity while performing a set-shifting task after inhibiting repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the left dorsal prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, N.J.H.M.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; van der Werf, Y.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sub-optimal functioning of the dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with executive dysfunction, such as set-shifting deficits, in neurological and psychiatric disorders. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effect of low-frequency 'inhibiting' off-line repetitive

  2. Decreased neural activity and neural connectivity while performing a set-shifting task after inhibiting repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the left dorsal prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal functioning of the dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with executive dysfunction, such as set-shifting deficits, in neurological and psychiatric disorders. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effect of low-frequency 'inhibiting' off-line repetitive

  3. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pollmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  4. What is difficult for you can be easy for me. Effects of increasing individual task demand on prefrontal lateralization: A tDCS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergallito, Alessandra; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Bonandrini, Rolando; Zapparoli, Laura; Danelli, Laura; Berlingeri, Manuela

    2018-01-31

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the increment of the cognitive load associated with a specific task may induce the recruitment of a more bilateral brain network. In most studies, however, task demand has been manipulated in a static and pre-specified way, regardless of individual cognitive resources. Here we implemented a new paradigm based on a pre-experimental assessment to set up subject-specific levels of task demand and applied tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) to assess each hemisphere involvement in task performance. 24 young participants performed a digit span backward (DSB, complex cognitive function) and a paced finger tapping task (pFT, basic motor function) at 3 levels of subject-specific task demand ("low" 5/5 correct answers, "medium" 3/5, "high" 1/5). Anodal tDCS (20min, 1.5mA) was delivered through a target electrode (5 × 5cm) positioned to stimulate both the inferior frontal gyrus and the primary motor area over left and right hemisphere and in sham condition in three different days. A 3 (left, right, sham) × 3 (low, medium, high) mixed-model with random intercept for subjects was run with R software. As expected, in both tasks accuracy decreased with the increment of subject-specific task demand. Moreover, a significant interaction between type of stimulation and subject-specific task demand was found for the reaction times recorded during the DSB and for the accuracy in the pFT: in the most demanding conditions, right anodal tDCS significantly interfered with behavioural performance. Our results suggest that hemispheric lateralization is modulated by the subject-specific level of task demand and this modulation is not task-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of the left lateral recumbent position compared with the supine and upright positions on placental blood flow in normal late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonio, S; Simpanen, A L; Olkkonen, H; Haring, P

    1976-02-01

    The placental blood flow was assessed by the 99mTc accumulation method in 10 normal pregnancies in the left lateral recumbent position accomplished by a 15 degree wedge and in the supine position. The postural change caused a 17% decrease in the mean placental accumulation rate, which was not statistically significant. Ten patients were moved from the left lateral recumbent position to the upright position, which caused a statistically significant 23% decrease in the mean accumulation rate. Other haemodynamic variables studied were the maternal heart rate and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The clinical significance of the haemodynamic changes produced by alterations in posture are briefly discussed.

  6. Lateralization of spatial rather than temporal attention underlies the left hemifield advantage in rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanowicz, Dariusz; Kruse, Lena; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting. In the unilateral task, the targets were presented block-wise in the LVF or RVF only, such that no spatial orienting was needed for target identification. Temporal attention was manipulated in both tasks by varying the T1-T2 lag. The results showed that the LVF advantage disappeared when involvement of stimulus-driven spatial orienting was eliminated, whereas the manipulation of temporal attention had no effect on the asymmetry. In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention, and provide further evidence that the LVF advantage reflects right hemisphere predominance in stimulus-driven orienting of spatial attention. These conclusions fit evidence that temporal attention is implemented by bilateral parietal areas and spatial attention by the right-lateralized ventral frontoparietal network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Zic3 is required in the extra-cardiac perinodal region of the lateral plate mesoderm for left-right patterning and heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengxin; Zhu, Lirong; Hu, Lingyun; Slesnick, Timothy C; Pautler, Robia G; Justice, Monica J; Belmont, John W

    2013-03-01

    Mutations in ZIC3 cause human X-linked heterotaxy and isolated cardiovascular malformations. A mouse model with targeted deletion of Zic3 demonstrates an early role for Zic3 in gastrulation, CNS, cardiac and left-right axial development. The observation of multiple malformations in Zic3(null) mice and the relatively broad expression pattern of Zic3 suggest its important roles in multiple developmental processes. Here, we report that Zic3 is primarily required in epiblast derivatives to affect left-right patterning and its expression in epiblast is necessary for proper transcriptional control of embryonic cardiac development. However, cardiac malformations in Zic3 deficiency occur not because Zic3 is intrinsically required in the heart but rather because it functions early in the establishment of left-right body axis. In addition, we provide evidence supporting a role for Zic3 specifically in the perinodal region of the posterior lateral plate mesoderm for the establishment of laterality. These data delineate the spatial requirement of Zic3 during left-right patterning in the mammalian embryo, and provide basis for further understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interaction of Zic3 with signaling pathways involved in the early establishment of laterality.

  8. The laterality of stop and go processes of the motor response in left-handed and right-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Igawa, Kyudo; Kashiwagi, Mina; Nakahara, Chisato; Oshima, Yuki; Takakura, Yu

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the stop and go processes of the motor response are asymmetrical and whether the asymmetries are dependent on handedness and the response selection process that is engaged. Both right-handed and left-handed participants abducted either the left or right index finger in response to an imperative cue in the choice reaction time (choice RT) or the simple RT task. A stop cue was presented after the imperative cue with a probability of .25. When the stop cue was presented, the participants withheld the prepared response. On the choice RT task, left-handed participants had significantly shorter RT and stop signal reaction time (SSRT) with the left versus the right hand, whereas right-handers showed no difference between hands on either measure. In the simple RT task, the RT and SSRT were not significantly different between the groups or the response sides. These results indicate that both the stop and go processes of the prepared left-hand response are completed earlier than those of the right-hand response in left-handed individuals when the stimulus-response process involves a response selection process.

  9. Shifting from right to left: the combined effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on behavioural lateralization in a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenici

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that elevated CO2 can affect the behaviour of larval and juvenile fishes. In particular, behavioural lateralization, an expression of brain functional asymmetries, is affected by elevated CO2 in both coral reef and temperate fishes. However, the potentially interacting effects of rising temperatures and CO2 on lateralization are unknown. Here, we tested the combined effect of near-future elevated-CO2 concentrations (930 µatm and temperature variation on behavioural lateralization of a marine damselfish, Pomacentrus wardi. Individuals exposed to one of four treatments (two CO2 levels and two temperatures were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. Individuals exposed to current CO2 and ambient temperature levels showed a significant right-turning bias at the population level. This biased was reversed (i.e. to the left side in fish exposed to the elevated-CO2 treatment. Increased temperature attenuated this effect, resulting in lower values of relative lateralization. Consequently, rising temperature and elevated CO2 may have different and interactive effects on behavioural lateralization and therefore future studies on the effect of climate change on brain functions need to consider both these critical variables in order to assess the potential consequences for the ecological interactions of marine fishes.

  10. Selective hypertrophy of the lobus caudatus as a novel approach enabling extended right hepatectomy in the presence of a non-perfused left lateral liver lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Thelen, Armin; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Krenzien, Felix; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Moche, Michael; Jonas, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a well-established technique to enhance functional hepatic reserves of segments II and III before curative extended right hepatectomy for tumors of the right liver lobe. However, an adequate hepatopetal flow of the left lateral portal vein branches is required for a sufficient PVE-associated hypertrophy. Here, we report a 65-year old patient suffering from a locally advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the right liver lobe and segment IV. A curative extended right hepatectomy after preoperative PVE of liver segments IV-VIII was initially impossible because of partial thrombosis of the left lateral portal vein branches resulting in an ischemic-type atrophy of segments II and III. However, due to a massive hypertrophy of the caudate lobe following PVE of liver segments IV-VIII, subsequent extended right hepatectomy with intraoperative thrombectomy of segments II and III was made possible. To our knowledge this is the first case in which an extended right hepatectomy for a liver malignancy, in the presence of atrophic left lateral section, was made possible by a massive PVE-associated hypertrophy of the caudate lobe.

  11. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  12. Rostral and caudal prefrontal contribution to creativity: A meta-analysis of functional imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eGonen-Yaacovi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the caudal lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, the medial and lateral rostral PFC, and the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices. Further analyses showed that tasks involving the combination of remote information (combination tasks activated more anterior areas of the lateral PFC than tasks involving the free generation of unusual responses (unusual generation tasks, although both types of tasks shared caudal prefrontal areas. In addition, verbal and non-verbal tasks involved the same regions in the left caudal prefrontal, temporal, and parietal areas, but also distinct domain-oriented areas. Taken together, these findings suggest that several frontal and parieto-temporal regions may support cognitive processes shared by diverse creativity tasks, and that some regions may be specialized for distinct types of processes. In particular, the lateral PFC appeared to be organized along a rostro-caudal axis, with rostral regions involved in combining ideas creatively and more posterior regions involved in freely generating novel ideas.

  13. Cerebral lateralization of the face-cortical network in left-handers: only the FFA does not get it right

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Henryk; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine; Hanseeuw; Dricot, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Face processing is a function that is highly lateralized in humans, as supported by original evidence from brain lesion studies (Hecaen & Anguerlergues, 1962), followed by studies using divided visual field presentations (Heller & Levy, 1981), neuroimaging (Sergent et al., 1992) and event-related potentials (Bentin et al., 1996). Studies in non-human primates (Perrett et al., 1988; Zangenehpour & Chaudhuri, 2005), or other mammals (Peirce & Kendrick, 2001) support the right lateralization of ...

  14. Improved multitasking following prefrontal tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Mattingley, Jason B; Dux, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    We have a limited capacity for mapping sensory information onto motor responses. This processing bottleneck is thought to be a key factor in determining our ability to make two decisions simultaneously - i.e., to multitask (Pashler, 1984, 1994; Welford, 1952). Previous functional imaging research (Dux, Ivanoff, Asplund, & Marois, 2006; Dux et al., 2009) has localised this bottleneck to the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (pLPFC) of the left hemisphere. Currently, however, it is unknown whether this region is causally involved in multitasking performance. We investigated the role of the left pLPFC in multitasking using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The behavioural paradigm included single- and dual-task trials, each requiring a speeded discrimination of visual stimuli alone, auditory stimuli alone, or both visual and auditory stimuli. Reaction times for single- and dual-task trials were compared before, immediately after, and 20 min after anodal stimulation (excitatory), cathodal stimulation (inhibitory), or sham stimulation. The cost of responding to the two tasks (i.e., the reduction in performance for dual- vs single-task trials) was significantly reduced by cathodal stimulation, but not by anodal or sham stimulation. Overall, the results provide direct evidence that the left pLPFC is a key neural locus of the central bottleneck that limits an individual's ability to make two simple decisions simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cosmetic appreciation of lateralization of peripheral facial palsy: 'preference for left or right, true or mirror image?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, Sjaak; Ingels, Koen; van Heerbeek, Niels; Beurskens, Carien

    2014-09-01

    There have been several studies in the past depicting asymmetry in 'normal' human faces. Evidence supports the fact that the right hemisphere is superior in the recognition of emotions expressed by the human face and indicates a right hemispheric specialization for processing emotional information. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in cosmetic appreciation of a left peripheral facial palsy compared to a right peripheral facial palsy? Pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House-Brackmann II-VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Forty-two patients and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. The primary 'end' point was the most attractive side in the pictures chosen by medical professionals and patients. The secondary 'end' points consisted of the preferences for the mirror or true image, and influences of the House-Brackmann score and age. Medical professionals preferred the photographs from patients with a right and left peripheral facial palsy (PFP) in, respectively, a mean of 44 % (41-48 %) and 56 % (52-59 %) of the pictures (p = 0.02). When comparing mirror and true image, patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror and true image as most attractive in 90 and 10 %, respectively (p 0.05). Subanalysis of patients with a PFP House-Brackmann score V and VI showed that medical professionals did not have a significant preference for a left nor right-sided facial palsy. Patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror image in all cases and patients with a right-sided palsy chose their mirror and true image in resp. 33 and 67 %. The House-Brackmann score (p = 0.52) and age (p = 0.73) of the patients did not influence preferences. This study, demonstrating that medical professionals find a right-sided facial palsy cosmetically less attractive than a left-sided, has

  16. Left ventricular filling pressure by septal and lateral E/e' equally predict cardiovascular events in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Joanna Nan; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There exists no consensus on the site of E/e' measurement. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of septal and lateral E/e' along with the importance of their intra-individual difference. METHODS: In 1775 persons from the general population, peak early diastolic velocity (e...... no predictive value (p = 0.79). E/e'septal was generally higher than E/e'lateral, thus age- and sex-specific normal values were reported for both sites for a population free of cardiac events during 10 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Septal and lateral E/e' are equally useful in predicting cardiac events...... in the general population. Measuring both sites provides no further predictive value than measuring a single site....

  17. The lateralized arcuate fasciculus in developmental pitch disorders among mandarin amusics: left for speech and right for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xizhuo; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Li, Jiaqi; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2018-05-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics. Compared to age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched controls, amusics demonstrated increased connectivity as reflected by the increased fractional anisotropy in the right posterior AF but decreased connectivity as reflected by the decreased volume in the right anterior AF. Moreover, greater fractional anisotropy in the left direct AF was correlated with worse performance in speech tone perception among amusics. This study is the first to examine the neural connectivity of AF in the neurodevelopmental condition of amusia as a result of disrupted music pitch and speech tone processing. We found abnormal white matter structural connectivity in the right AF for the amusic individuals. Moreover, we demonstrated that the white matter microstructural properties of the left direct AF is modulated by lexical tone deficits among the amusic individuals. These data support the notion of distinctive pitch processing systems between music and speech.

  18. Rapid-Sequence Intubation in the Left-Lateral Tilt Position in a Pregnant Woman with Premature Placental Abruption Utilizing a Videolaryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Nakao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Case - A 24-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital with decreased fetal heart rate. Obstetric examination revealed premature placental abruption; emergent caesarean section was planned under general anesthesia. On entering the operating room, the patient showed severe vital sign deterioration (blood pressure, 75/45 mm Hg; heart rate, 142 beats per minute. As left uterine displacement may worsen the premature placental abruption, the patient was placed in the left-lateral tilt position by rotating the operating table to release compression on the inferior vena cava by theuterus. To avoid circulatory collapse, rapid-sequence intubation was performed in this position. Tracheal intubation was performed with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS videolaryngoscope, AWS; HOYA, Japan to obtain a good laryngeal view and minimize stress from laryngoscopy. After sufficient oxygenation, 120 mg of thiopental was administered. A second anesthesiologist performed cricoid pressure and 50 mg of rocuronium was administered after confirming loss of consciousness. This was followed by insertion of the AWS with a thin intlock into the mouth. Tracheal intubation was performed uneventfully. Discussion - Rapid-sequence intubation in the left-lateral tilted position with the AWS videolaryngoscope may be beneficial for pregnant women with vital sign deterioration.

  19. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J. M.; Ramsey, N.; Rutten, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MM can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on

  20. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional stroop study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional

  1. A case of a resected benign myxoma-like hemorrhagic cyst, which later recurred as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the left atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Choi, Seo-Won; Min, Daniel; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Woo-In; Moon, Jae Youn; Sung, Jung Hoon; Kim, In Jai; Lim, Sang-Wook; Cha, Dong-Hun; Moon, Byung; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Won-Jang

    2017-04-01

    An intracardiac cystic mass is a rare type of mass found in the left atrium. The differential diagnosis of an intracardiac cystic mass includes hydatid cysts, bronchogenic cysts, intracardiac varices, and hemorrhages in some tumor types, including myxoma. We present the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with episodic dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed the presence of a left atrial mass mimicking myxoma. However, in postoperative findings, it was determined that the mass was actually a hemorrhagic cyst. Eighteen months later, the patient presented with recurrent exertional dyspnea and TTE revealed the recurrence of a left atrial mass. Computed tomography showed that the mass extended into the right atrium, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus. After re-operation, the final histological diagnosis was determined to be an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the left atrium. An intracardiac hemorrhagic cyst was suspected during the operation of a benign-looking LA mass. As such, we recommend that other rare etiologies be considered and more biopsies be performed when possible.

  2. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  3. Long-Term Excessive Body Weight and Adult Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Are Linked Through Later-Life Body Size and Blood Pressure: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijie; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Guo, Yajun; Shen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia A; Urbina, Elaine M; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-05-12

    Childhood adiposity is associated with cardiac structure in later life, but little is known regarding to what extent childhood body weight affects adult left ventricular geometric patterns through adult body size and blood pressure (BP). Determine quantitatively the mediation effect of adult body weight and BP on the association of childhood body mass index (BMI) with adult left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. This longitudinal study consisted of 710 adults, aged 26 to 48 years, who had been examined for BMI and BP measured ≥4× during childhood and ≥2× during adulthood, with a mean follow-up period of 28.0 years. After adjusting for age, race, and sex, adult BMI had a significant mediation effect (76.4%; P adult LV mass index association. The mediation effects of adult systolic BP (15.2%), long-term burden (12.1%), and increasing trends of systolic BP (7.9%) were all significant ( P adult LV hypertrophy, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. Importantly, the mediation effects of adult BMI were all significantly stronger than those of adult systolic BP on LV mass index, LV hypertrophy, and LV remodeling patterns ( P adult cardiac structure, and early life excessive body weight and adult LV hypertrophy are linked through later life excessive body weight and elevated BP. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Discourse Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…

  5. Endomyocardial biopsies in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and a common Chinese later-onset fabry mutation (IVS4 + 919G > A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In Taiwan, DNA-based newborn screening showed a surprisingly high incidence of a cardiac Fabry mutation (IVS4 + 919G > A). The prevalence of this mutation is too high to be believed that it is a real pathogenic mutation. The purpose of this study is to identify the cardiac pathologic characteristics in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and this mutation Methods and results Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained in 22 patients (Median age: 61, males: 17; females: 5) with left ventricular hypertrophy and the IVS4 + 919G > A mutation; five patients had not received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) before biopsy, while the other 17 patients had received ERT from 8 months to 51 months. Except for three patients who had received ERT for more than 3 years, all other patients showed significant pathological change and globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) accumulation in their cardiomyocytes. In contrast to classical Fabry patients, no Gb3 accumulation was found in the capillary endothelial cells of any of our patients. Fourteen patients (63.6%) were found to have myofibrillolysis. Conclusions All of the untreated and most of the treated IVS4 + 919G > A patients showed typical pathological changes of Fabry disease in their cardiomyocytes. No endothelial accumulation of Gb3 was found, which is similar to the findings of several previous reports regarding later-onset Fabry disease. This result highly suggests that the IVS4 + 919G > A is a real pathogenic later-onset Fabry mutation. PMID:24980630

  6. Speech-induced striatal dopamine release is left lateralized and coupled to functional striatal circuits in healthy humans: A combined PET, fMRI and DTI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Herscovitch, Peter; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been recently made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying speech and language control. However, the neurochemical underpinnings of normal speech production remain largely unknown. We investigated the extent of striatal endogenous dopamine release and its influences on the organization of functional striatal speech networks during production of meaningful English sentences using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand [11C]raclopride and functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, we used diffusion tensor tractography (DTI) to examine the extent of dopaminergic modulatory influences on striatal structural network organization. We found that, during sentence production, endogenous dopamine was released in the ventromedial portion of the dorsal striatum, in its both associative and sensorimotor functional divisions. In the associative striatum, speech-induced dopamine release established a significant relationship with neural activity and influenced the left-hemispheric lateralization of striatal functional networks. In contrast, there were no significant effects of endogenous dopamine release on the lateralization of striatal structural networks. Our data provide the first evidence for endogenous dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during normal speaking and point to the possible mechanisms behind the modulatory influences of dopamine on the organization of functional brain circuits controlling normal human speech. PMID:23277111

  7. Role of the offshore Pedro Banks left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in the plate tectonic evolution of the northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.; Saunders, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous workers, mainly mapping onland active faults on Caribbean islands, defined the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone as a 200-km-wide bounded by two active and parallel strike-slip faults: the Oriente fault along the northern edge of the Cayman trough with a GPS rate of 14 mm/yr, and and the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) with a rate of 5-7 mm/yr. In this study we use 5,000 km of industry and academic data from the Nicaraguan Rise south and southwest of the EPGFZ in the maritime areas of Jamaica, Honduras, and Colombia to define an offshore, 700-km-long, active, left-lateral strike-slip fault in what has previously been considered the stable interior of the Caribbean plate as determined from plate-wide GPS studies. The fault was named by previous workers as the Pedro Banks fault zone because a 100-km-long segment of the fault forms an escarpment along the Pedro carbonate bank of the Nicaraguan Rise. Two fault segments of the PBFZ are defined: the 400-km-long eastern segment that exhibits large negative flower structures 10-50 km in width, with faults segments rupturing the sea floor as defined by high resolution 2D seismic data, and a 300-km-long western segment that is defined by a narrow zone of anomalous seismicity first observed by previous workers. The western end of the PBFZ terminates on a Quaternary rift structure, the San Andres rift, associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism and thickening trends indicating initial rifting in the Late Miocene. The southern end of the San Andreas rift terminates on the western Hess fault which also exhibits active strands consistent with left-lateral, strike-slip faults. The total length of the PBFZ-San Andres rift-Southern Hess escarpment fault is 1,200 km and traverses the entire western end of the Caribbean plate. Our interpretation is similar to previous models that have proposed the "stable" western Caribbean plate is broken by this fault whose rate of displacement is less than the threshold

  8. Shared and distinct contributions of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex to analogical reasoning and episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Andrew J; Reggente, Nicco; Ito, Kaori L; Rissman, Jesse

    2016-03-01

    Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) is widely appreciated to support higher cognitive functions, including analogical reasoning and episodic memory retrieval. However, these tasks have typically been studied in isolation, and thus it is unclear whether they involve common or distinct RLPFC mechanisms. Here, we introduce a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task paradigm to compare brain activity during reasoning and memory tasks while holding bottom-up perceptual stimulation and response demands constant. Univariate analyses on fMRI data from twenty participants identified a large swath of left lateral prefrontal cortex, including RLPFC, that showed common engagement on reasoning trials with valid analogies and memory trials with accurately retrieved source details. Despite broadly overlapping recruitment, multi-voxel activity patterns within left RLPFC reliably differentiated these two trial types, highlighting the presence of at least partially distinct information processing modes. Functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that while left RLPFC showed consistent coupling with the fronto-parietal control network across tasks, its coupling with other cortical areas varied in a task-dependent manner. During the memory task, this region strengthened its connectivity with the default mode and memory retrieval networks, whereas during the reasoning task it coupled more strongly with a nearby left prefrontal region (BA 45) associated with semantic processing, as well as with a superior parietal region associated with visuospatial processing. Taken together, these data suggest a domain-general role for left RLPFC in monitoring and/or integrating task-relevant knowledge representations and showcase how its function cannot solely be attributed to episodic memory or analogical reasoning computations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  10. Less cost by using hanging maneuver and Pringle maneuver in left lateral hepatectomy through small laparotomy wound--experience of Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Lung; Alikhanov, Ruslan; Kuo, Sheng-Chih; Li, Wei-Feng; Chen, Chao-Long; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Chih-Che; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Wang, Chih-Chi

    2016-01-08

    Laparoscopic segmentectomy for liver tumor located in the left lateral segment (LLS) is thought to be a standard protocol nowadays with several advantages, such as small wound, few blood loss, and short hospital stay. However, there are still many disadvantages during executing laparoscopic LLS segmentectomy. This manuscript aims to present the technique to execute LLS segmentectomy with small incision, hanging maneuver without Pringle maneuver in patients with tumor at LLS of the liver. Between November 2010 and July 2011, hepatectomies through small incision for nine patients with benign and malignant tumors were performed at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. Perioperative and postoperative results, such as operation time, blood loss, incisional width, and postoperative stay were used to determine consequents for this technique. Results demonstrated that modified LLS segmentectomy by the author's team was performed successfully in patient with liver tumor with fewer blood loss, smaller incisional width, and lower hospital cost than traditional open surgery. In addition, the instrument cost and blood loss in our series were less than that in laparoscopic LLS segmentectomy in published literature. Authors concluded that minimally incisional segmentectomy, with less cost and technical demanding, could be an alternative choice in patient with liver tumor at LLS.

  11. Empathy for pain-related dorsolateral prefrontal activity is modulated by angry face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Amirie, Scharbanu; Brüne, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Empathy, i.e., the ability to perceive and share another person's affective state, is associated with activity in a complex neural network, including the anterior insula, the anterior and mid-cingulate cortex, and the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here, we were interested in the question how facial emotions influence the activation of the 'pain network'. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal correlates of empathy for pain and its interaction with emotional face recognition in 20 healthy subjects. We identified various brain regions commonly associated with empathy for pain, including the right mid-cingulate cortex, the left anterior insula (AI), and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), with an increased neuronal response in the left dlPFC after the presentation of angry faces. Furthermore, a negative correlation between psychological measures of alexithymia and empathy for pain-related brain activity was observed in the left AI. The dlPFC is an important brain region involved in cognitive reappraisal or in 'top-down' control of the limbic system. Our findings could therefore reflect a regulatory response associated with distancing from negatively valenced stimuli. Moreover, our results underline the involvement of the AI in empathy for pain responses and their relationship to alexithymia.

  12. Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalati, Moutaz

    Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from

  13. TV commercial and rTMS: can brain lateralization give us information about consumer preference?

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Leanza; Michela Balconi

    2017-01-01

    The current research aimed at investigating the brain lateralization effect in response to TV advertising of different commercial sectors. This study explored the effects of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation on subjective evaluation (semantic differential), in response to some consumer goods. We adopted rTMS (low-frequency 1Hz on left and right DLPFC) to modulate the consumers’ (N=thirty-three) response during the vision of five commercials. After three hours from the first e...

  14. Verbal Memory Deficits Are Correlated with Prefrontal Hypometabolism in 18FDG PET of Recreational MDMA Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Oliver G.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Kühn, Kai-Uwe; Joe, Alexius; Seifritz, Erich; Maier, Wolfgang; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Quednow, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a recreational club drug with supposed neurotoxic effects selectively on the serotonin system. MDMA users consistently exhibit memory dysfunction but there is an ongoing debate if these deficits are induced mainly by alterations in the prefrontal or mediotemporal cortex, especially the hippocampus. Thus, we investigated the relation of verbal memory deficits with alterations of regional cerebral brain glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) in recreational MDMA users. Methods Brain glucose metabolism in rest was assessed using 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) in 19 male recreational users of MDMA and 19 male drug-naïve controls. 18FDG PET data were correlated with memory performance assessed with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results As previously shown, MDMA users showed significant impairment in verbal declarative memory performance. PET scans revealed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right precuneus, right cerebellum, and pons (at the level of raphe nuclei) of MDMA users. Among MDMA users, learning and recall were positively correlated with rMRGlu predominantly in bilateral frontal and parietal brain regions, while recognition was additionally related to rMRGlu in the right mediotemporal and bihemispheric lateral temporal cortex. Moreover, cumulative lifetime dose of MDMA was negatively correlated with rMRGlu in the left dorsolateral and bilateral orbital and medial PFC, left inferior parietal and right lateral temporal cortex. Conclusions Verbal learning and recall deficits of recreational MDMA users are correlated with glucose hypometabolism in prefrontal and parietal cortex, while word recognition was additionally correlated with mediotemporal hypometabolism. We conclude that memory deficits of MDMA users arise from combined

  15. Bilateral responses of prefrontal and motor cortices to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fenghua; Kozel, Frank Andrew; Dhamne, Sameer; McClintock, Shawn M.; Croarkin, Paul; Mapes, Kimberly; Husain, Mustafa M.; Liu, Hanli

    2009-02-01

    Simultaneously acquiring cortical functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) during repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) offers the possibility of directly investigating the effects of rTMS on brain regions without quantifiable behavioral changes. In this study, the left motor cortex and subsequently the left prefrontal cortex were stimulated at 1 Hz while fNIRS data was simultaneously acquired. Changes in hemodynamic signals were measured on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides. In each cortex, a significantly larger decrease in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and a smaller increase in the concentration of deoxygenated hemoglobin during the stimulation periods were observed in both the motor and prefrontal cortices. The ipsilateral and contralateral changes showed high temporal consistency. Same experiment was repeated for each subject 2 or 3 days later. The hemodynamic responses associated with the stimulation showed good reproducibility in two sessions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous fNIRS measurement of ipsilateral and contralateral changes of either the motor or prefrontal cortex during rTMS stimulation.

  16. Executive Semantic Processing Is Underpinned by a Large-scale Neural Network: Revealing the Contribution of Left Prefrontal, Posterior Temporal, and Parietal Cortex to Controlled Retrieval and Selection Using TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Carin; Kirk, Marie; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    To understand the meanings of words and objects, we need to have knowledge about these items themselves plus executive mechanisms that compute and manipulate semantic information in a task-appropriate way. The neural basis for semantic control remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies have focused on the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus…

  17. Specialized prefrontal auditory fields: organization of primate prefrontal-temporal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eMedalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No other modality is more frequently represented in the prefrontal cortex than the auditory, but the role of auditory information in prefrontal functions is not well understood. Pathways from auditory association cortices reach distinct sites in the lateral, orbital, and medial surfaces of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys. Among prefrontal areas, frontopolar area 10 has the densest interconnections with auditory association areas, spanning a large antero-posterior extent of the superior temporal gyrus from the temporal pole to auditory parabelt and belt regions. Moreover, auditory pathways make up the largest component of the extrinsic connections of area 10, suggesting a special relationship with the auditory modality. Here we review anatomic evidence showing that frontopolar area 10 is indeed the main frontal auditory field as the major recipient of auditory input in the frontal lobe and chief source of output to auditory cortices. Area 10 is thought to be the functional node for the most complex cognitive tasks of multitasking and keeping track of information for future decisions. These patterns suggest that the auditory association links of area 10 are critical for complex cognition. The first part of this review focuses on the organization of prefrontal-auditory pathways at the level of the system and the synapse, with a particular emphasis on area 10. Then we explore ideas on how the elusive role of area 10 in complex cognition may be related to the specialized relationship with auditory association cortices.

  18. Left and right amygdala - mediofrontal cortical functional connectivity is differentially modulated by harm avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baeken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The left and right amygdalae are key regions distinctly involved in emotion-regulation processes. Individual differences, such as personality features, may affect the implicated neurocircuits. The lateralized amygdala affective processing linked with the temperament dimension Harm Avoidance (HA remains poorly understood. Resting state functional connectivity imaging (rsFC may provide more insight into these neuronal processes. METHODS: In 56 drug-naive healthy female subjects, we have examined the relationship between the personality dimension HA on lateralized amygdala rsFC. RESULTS: Across all subjects, left and right amygdalae were connected with distinct regions mainly within the ipsilateral hemisphere. Females scoring higher on HA displayed stronger left amygdala rsFC with ventromedial prefrontal cortical (vmPFC regions involved in affective disturbances. In high HA scorers, we also observed stronger right amygdala rsFC with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC, which is implicated in negative affect regulation. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy females, left and right amygdalae seem implicated in distinct mPFC brain networks related to HA and may represent a vulnerability marker for sensitivity to stress and anxiety (disorders.

  19. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Grosskreutz, Julian; Prell, Tino; Kaufmann, Jörn; Bodammer, Nils; Peschel, Thomas

    2014-01-07

    Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS "only" (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded.

  20. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS “only” (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Results Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Conclusions Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded. PMID:24397347

  1. A microdialysis study of the medial prefrontal cortex of adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiti, Amanda M; Morgane, Peter J; Galler, Janina R; Grivetti, Janice Y; Bass, Donna C; Mokler, David J

    2011-09-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the rat has become a key focus of studies designed to elucidate the basis of behavior involving attention and decision-making, i.e. executive functions. The adolescent mPFC is of particular interest given the role of the mPFC in impulsivity and attention, and disorders such as attentional deficit disorder. In the present study we have examined the basal extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the ventral portion of the mPFC (vmPFC) in both adolescent (post-natal day 45-50) and adult, and male and female rats using in vivo microdialysis. We have also examined both the left and right vmPFCs given reports of laterality in function between the hemispheres. Basal extracellular concentrations of 5-HT differed significantly between male and female rats. Extracellular DA also differed significantly between male and female rats and between the left and the right vmPFC in adult males. No differences were seen in basal extracellular NE. There was a significant age difference between groups in the laterality of extracellular NE levels between right and left vmPFC. Infusion of 100 μM methamphetamine through the dialysis probe increased the extracellular concentration of all the monoamines although there were no differences between groups in methamphetamine stimulated release. The findings from this study demonstrate that there are differences in monoaminergic input to the mPFC of the rat based on age, gender and hemisphere. This work sets the neurochemical baseline for further investigations of the prefrontal cortex during development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prefrontal Hemodynamics in Toddlers at Rest: A Pilot Study of Developmental Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz A. Anderson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is a non-invasive functional neuroimaging modality. Although, it is amenable to use in infants and young children, there is a lack of fNIRS research within the toddler age range. In this study, we used fNIRS to measure cerebral hemodynamics in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in 18–36 months old toddlers (n = 29 as part of a longitudinal study that enrolled typically-developing toddlers as well as those “at risk” for language and other delays based on presence of early language delays. In these toddlers, we explored two hemodynamic response indices during periods of rest during which time audiovisual children's programming was presented. First, we investigate Lateralization Index, based on differences in oxy-hemoglobin saturation from left and right prefrontal cortex. Then, we measure oxygenation variability (OV index, based on variability in oxygen saturation at frequencies attributed to cerebral autoregulation. Preliminary findings show that lower cognitive (including language abilities are associated with fNIRS measures of both lower OV index and more extreme Lateralization index values. These preliminary findings show the feasibility of using fNIRS in toddlers, including those at risk for developmental delay, and lay the groundwork for future studies.

  3. Strategy-effects in prefrontal cortex during learning of higher-order S-R rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensteller, Uta; von Cramon, D Yves

    2011-07-15

    All of us regularly face situations that require the integration of the available information at hand with the established rules that guide behavior in order to generate the most appropriate action. But where individuals differ from one another is most certainly in terms of the different strategies that are adopted during this process. A previous study revealed differential brain activation patterns for the implementation of well established higher-order stimulus-response (S-R) rules depending on inter-individual strategy differences (Wolfensteller and von Cramon, 2010). This raises the question of how these strategies evolve or which neurocognitive mechanisms underlie these inter-individual strategy differences. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study revealed striking strategy-effects across regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex during the implementation of higher-order S-R rules at an early stage of learning. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex displayed a quantitative strategy-effect, such that activation during rule integration based on a mismatch was related to the degree to which participants continued to rely on rule integration. A quantitative strategy ceiling effect was observed for the left inferior frontal junction area. Conversely, the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed a qualitative strategy-effect such that participants who at a later point relied on an item-based strategy showed stronger activations in this region compared to those who continued with the rule integration strategy. Together, the present findings suggest that a certain amount of rule integration is mandatory when participants start to learn higher-order rules. The more efficient item-based strategy that evolves later appears to initially require the recruitment of additional cognitive resources in order to shield the currently relevant S-R association from interfering information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prefrontal responses to Stroop tasks in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder assessed by functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennu, Amarnath; Tian, Fenghua; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; J. Gatchel, Robert; Woon, Fu Lye; Liu, Hanli

    2016-07-01

    Studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showing attentional deficits have implicated abnormal activities in the frontal lobe. In this study, we utilized multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate selective attention-related hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex among 15 combat-exposed war-zone veterans with PTSD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. While performing the incongruent Stroop task, healthy controls showed significant activations in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) compared to baseline readings. This observation is consistent with previously reported results. In comparison, subjects with PTSD failed to activate left LPFC during the same Stroop task. Our observations may implicate that subjects with PTSD experienced difficulty in overcoming Stroop interference. We also observed significant negative correlation between task reaction times and hemodynamic responses from left LPFC during the incongruent Stroop task in the PTSD group. Regarding the methodology used in this study, we have learned that an appropriate design of Stroop paradigms is important for meeting an optimal cognitive load which can lead to better brain image contrasts in response to Stroop interference between healthy versus PTSD subjects. Overall, the feasibility of fNIRS for studying and mapping neural correlates of selective attention and interference in subjects with PTSD is reported.

  5. Older adults get episodic memory boosting from noninvasive stimulation of prefrontal cortex during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini, Marco; Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara; Cohen, Leonardo G; Cotelli, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Episodic memory displays the largest degree of age-related decline, a process that is accelerated in pathological conditions such as amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown that the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to the encoding of episodic memories along the life span. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to test the hypothesis that anodal trascranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left lateral PFC during the learning phase would enhance delayed recall of verbal episodic memories in elderly individuals. Older adults learned a list of words while receiving anodal or placebo (sham) tDCS. Memory recall was tested 48 hours and 1 month later. The results showed that anodal tDCS strengthened episodic memories, an effect indicated by enhanced delayed recall (48 hours) compared to placebo stimulation (Cohen's d effect size = 1.01). The observation that PFC-tDCS during learning can boost verbal episodic memory in the elderly opens up the possibility to design-specific neurorehabilitation protocols targeted to conditions that affect episodic memory such as mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Strengthening of Existing Episodic Memories Through Non-invasive Stimulation of Prefrontal Cortex in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Manenti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory is critical to daily life functioning. This type of declarative memory declines with age and is the earliest cognitive function to be compromised in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Subjective memory complaints are commonly reported by older adults and have been considered a risk factor for developing AD. The possibilities for prevention of memory disorders in older adults have increased substantially in recent years. Previous studies have shown that anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS applied over the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC after a contextual reminder strengthened existing verbal episodic memories, conceivably through reconsolidation, in elderly people. In this study, we hypothesized that anodal tDCS applied over the left lateral PFC after a contextual reminder would improve delayed memory retrieval relative to placebo (sham stimulation in elderly individuals with SMC. Twenty-two subjects learned a list of words. Twenty-four hour later, tDCS (anodal or placebo was applied over the left lateral PFC after a contextual reminder. Memory retrieval was tested 48h and 30 days later. These findings showed that anodal tDCS over the left lateral PFC strengthened existing episodic memories, a behavioral effect documented by improved recognition up to 30 days, relative to placebo stimulation. This study suggests that tDCS after a contextual reminder can induce long-lasting beneficial effects by facilitating the consolidation processes and opens up the possibility to design specific non-invasive interventions aimed at preventing memory decline in this at-risk population.

  7. Cerebral responses and role of the prefrontal cortex in conditioned pain modulation: an fMRI study in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B.; Viganò, Alessandro; Noirhomme, Quentin; Bogdanova, Olena V.; Guy, Nathalie; Laureys, Steven; Renshaw, Perry F.; Dallel, Radhouane; Phillips, Christophe; Schoenen, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying conditioned pain modulation (CPM) are multifaceted. We searched for a link between individual differences in prefrontal cortex activity during multi-trial heterotopic noxious cold conditioning and modulation of the cerebral response to phasic heat pain. In 24 healthy female subjects, we conditioned laser heat stimuli to the left hand by applying alternatively ice-cold or lukewarm compresses to the right foot. We compared pain ratings with cerebral fMRI BOLD responses. We also analyzed the relation between CPM and BOLD changes produced by the heterotopic cold conditioning itself, as well as the impact of anxiety and habituation of cold-pain ratings. Specific cerebral activation was identified in precuneus and left posterior insula/SII, respectively, during early and sustained phases of cold application. During cold conditioning, laser pain decreased (n = 7), increased (n = 10) or stayed unchanged (n = 7). At the individual level, the psychophysical effect was directly proportional to the cold-induced modulation of the laser-induced BOLD response in left posterior insula/SII. The latter correlated with the BOLD response recorded 80 s earlier during the initial 10-s phase of cold application in anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal cortices. High anxiety and habituation of cold pain were associated with greater laser heat-induced pain during heterotopic cold stimulation. The habituation was also linked to the early cold-induced orbitofrontal responses. We conclude that individual differences in conditioned pain modulation are related to different levels of prefrontal cortical activation by the early part of the conditioning stimulus, possibly due to different levels in trait anxiety. PMID:25461267

  8. Listen, learn, like! Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in the mere exposure effect in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anders C; Bærentsen, Klaus B; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of the mere exposure effect in music listening, which links previous exposure to liking. Prior to scanning, participants underwent a learning phase, where exposure to melodies was systematically varied. During scanning, participants rated liking for each melody and, later, their recognition of them. Participants showed learning effects, better recognising melodies heard more often. Melodies heard most often were most liked, consistent with the mere exposure effect. We found neural activations as a function of previous exposure in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, probably reflecting retrieval and working memory-related processes. This was despite the fact that the task during scanning was to judge liking, not recognition, thus suggesting that appreciation of music relies strongly on memory processes. Subjective liking per se caused differential activation in the left hemisphere, of the anterior insula, the caudate nucleus, and the putamen.

  9. Listen, Learn, Like! Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Involved in the Mere Exposure Effect in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders C. Green

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of the mere exposure effect in music listening, which links previous exposure to liking. Prior to scanning, participants underwent a learning phase, where exposure to melodies was systematically varied. During scanning, participants rated liking for each melody and, later, their recognition of them. Participants showed learning effects, better recognising melodies heard more often. Melodies heard most often were most liked, consistent with the mere exposure effect. We found neural activations as a function of previous exposure in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, probably reflecting retrieval and working memory-related processes. This was despite the fact that the task during scanning was to judge liking, not recognition, thus suggesting that appreciation of music relies strongly on memory processes. Subjective liking per se caused differential activation in the left hemisphere, of the anterior insula, the caudate nucleus, and the putamen.

  10. Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: A 4-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Vijayakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between the development of effortful control (EC, a temperamental measure of self-regulation, and concurrent development of three regions of the prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dlPFC; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, vlPFC between early- and mid-adolescence. It also examined whether development of EC mediated the relationship between cortical maturation and emotional and behavioral symptoms. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline assessments when they were approximately 12 years old and follow-up assessments approximately 4 years later. At each assessment, participants had MRI scans and completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, as well as measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, and aggressive and risk taking behavior. Cortical thicknesses of the ACC, dlPFC and vlPFC, estimated using the FreeSurfer software, were found to decrease over time. EC also decreased over time in females. Greater thinning of the left ACC was associated with less reduction in EC. Furthermore, change in effortful control mediated the relationship between greater thinning of the left ACC and improvements in socioemotional functioning, including reductions in psychopathological symptoms. These findings highlight the dynamic association between EC and the maturation of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the importance of this relationship for socioemotional functioning during adolescence.

  11. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  12. Complementary Patterns of Direct Amygdala and Hippocampal Projections to the Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, John P; Wright, Nicholas F; Rosene, Douglas L; Saunders, Richard C

    2015-11-01

    The projections from the amygdala and hippocampus (including subiculum and presubiculum) to prefrontal cortex were compared using anterograde tracers injected into macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta). Almost all prefrontal areas were found to receive some amygdala inputs. These connections, which predominantly arose from the intermediate and magnocellular basal nucleus, were particularly dense in parts of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. Contralateral inputs were not, however, observed. The hippocampal projections to prefrontal areas were far more restricted, being confined to the ipsilateral medial and orbital prefrontal cortex (within areas 11, 13, 14, 24a, 32, and 25). These hippocampal projections principally arose from the subiculum, with the fornix providing the sole route. Thus, while the lateral prefrontal cortex essentially receives only amygdala inputs, the orbital prefrontal cortex receives both amygdala and hippocampal inputs, though these typically target different areas. Only in medial prefrontal cortex do direct inputs from both structures terminate in common sites. But, even when convergence occurs within an area, the projections predominantly terminate in different lamina (hippocampal inputs to layer III and amygdala inputs to layers I, II, and VI). The resulting segregation of prefrontal inputs could enable the parallel processing of different information types in prefrontal cortex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Finding prefrontal cortex in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Christiana M

    2016-08-15

    The prefrontal cortex of the rat. I. Cortical projection of the mediodorsal nucleus. II. Efferent connections The cortical projection field of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) was identified in the rat using the Fink-Heimer silver technique for tracing degenerating fibers. Small stereotaxic lesions confined to MD were followed by terminal degeneration in the dorsal bank of the rhinal sulcus (sulcal cortex) and the medial wall of the hemisphere anterior and dorsal to the genu of the corpus callosum (medial cortex). No degenerating fibers were traced to the convexity of the hemisphere. The cortical formation receiving a projection from MD is of a relatively undifferentiated type which had been previously classified as juxtallocortex. A study of the efferent fiber connections of the rat׳s MD-projection cortex demonstrated some similarities to those of monkey prefrontal cortex. A substantial projection to the pretectal area and deep layers of the superior colliculus originates in medial cortex, a connection previously reported for caudal prefrontal (area 8) cortex in the monkey. Sulcal cortex projects to basal olfactory structures and lateral hypothalamus, as does orbital frontal cortex in the monkey. The rat׳s MD-projection cortex differs from that in the monkey in that it lacks a granular layer and appears to have no prominent direct associations with temporal and juxtahippocampal areas. Furthermore, retrograde degeneration does not appear in the rat thalamus after damage to MD-projection areas, suggesting that the striatum or thalamus receives a proportionally larger share of the MD-projection in this animal than it does in the monkey. Comparative behavioral investigations are in progress to investigate functional differences between granular prefrontal cortex in the primate and the relatively primitive MD-projection cortex in the rat. © 1969. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  14. Comparison of (stereotactic) parcellations in mouse prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werd, H.J.J.M.; Uylings, H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the cytoarchitectonic parcellation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the mouse as presented in publications that are commonly used for identifying brain areas. Agreement was found to be greater for boundaries in the medial PFC than in the lateral PFC and lowest for those in the

  15. 1 hz rTMS over the right prefrontal cortex reduces vigilant attention to unmasked but not to masked fearful faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Honk, Jack; Schutter, Dennis J L G; d'Alfonso, Alfredo A L; Kessels, Roy P C; de Haan, Edward H F

    2002-08-15

    Recent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) research in healthy subjects suggests that the emotions anger and anxiety are lateralized in the prefrontal cortex. Low-frequency rTMS over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) shifts the anterior asymmetry in brain activation to the left hemisphere and reduces anxiety. The same rTMS technique results in enhanced anger-related emotional processing, observed as elevations in attention for angry faces. The current study used low-frequency rTMS over the right PFC and indexed selective attention to fearful faces, hypothesizing a reduction in attention for fearful faces, i.e., a reversal of the latter effect. In a placebo-controlled design, 1 Hz rTMS at 130% of the individual motor threshold (MT) was applied continuously over the right PFC of eight healthy subjects for 20 minutes. Effects on motivated attention were investigated by means of an emotional Stroop task, indexing selective attention to masked and unmasked fearful faces. Vigilant attention for masked and unmasked fearful faces was observed after placebo stimulation. As hypothesized, rTMS reduced the vigilant emotional response to the fearful face, but only in the unmasked task. These data provide further support for the lateralization of the emotions anger and anxiety in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, the absence of an effect for masked fearful faces suggests that changes in emotional processing after a single session of rTMS predominantly involve the cortical affective pathways.

  16. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... and the striatal circuitry, areas involved in emotion and reward processing. The PFC, however, is able to modulate amygdala reactivity via a feedback loop to this area. A role for serotonin in adjusting for this circuitry of cognitive regulation of emotion has long been suggested based primarily on the positive...... pharmacological effect of elevating serotonin levels in anxiety regulation. Recent animal and human functional magnetic resonance studies have pointed to a specific involvement of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A serotonin receptor in the PFC feedback regulatory projection onto the amygdala. This receptor...

  17. Changes in morning salivary melatonin correlate with prefrontal responses during working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kent, Haley C; Knight, Sara A; Alkozei, Anna

    2018-04-11

    Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function. We measured the change in salivary melatonin from mid-morning to late-morning in 26 healthy young adults who were also exposed to a 30-min period of blue or amber light followed by functional MRI during a working memory task (N-back). Brain activation was regressed on the change in melatonin scores from the mid-morning to late-morning saliva samples and the role of light exposure was also assessed. Although overall melatonin levels did not change significantly over the morning at the group level, individual declines in salivary melatonin were associated with significant increases in activation within the left dorsomedial and right inferior lateral prefrontal cortex during the 2-back condition (Pmorning are associated with increased prefrontal cortex functioning and may play a role in the increased frontal activation that occurs following awakening.

  18. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eFerreri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. 22 healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  19. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  20. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

  1. Studying hemispheric lateralization during a Stroop task by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Sun, Bailei; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-03-01

    We measured hemodynamic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a Chinese color-word matching Stroop task using a homemade continuous-wave NIRS system. Two probes were placed separately over the left and the right PFC. Wavelet transform coherence (WTC) analysis was employed to calculate coherences between all channels of the same probe pairwise to obtain the intrahemispheric functional connectivity for each side of the PFC. The intrahemispheric functional connectivities in both sides of PFC were stronger during the incongruent task compared to that of the neutral task, but only the left intrahemispheric functional connectivity showed a significant Stroop effect. In addition to the Stroop effect, for the incongruent or the neutral task, there was also a leftward lateralization. The results indicate that, compared with traditional activation, NIRS-based connectivity is more sensitive for identifying hemispheric lateralization.

  2. Linking trait-based phenotypes to prefrontal cortex activation during inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Achala H; Di Domenico, Stefano I; Graves, Bryanna; Lam, Jaeger; Ayaz, Hasan; Bagby, R Michael; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control is subserved in part by discrete regions of the prefrontal cortex whose functionality may be altered according to specific trait-based phenotypes. Using a unified model of normal range personality traits, we examined activation within lateral and medial aspects of the prefrontal cortex during a manual go/no-go task. Evoked hemodynamic oxygenation within the prefrontal cortex was measured in 106 adults using a 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy system. Within lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex, greater activation was associated with higher trait levels of extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and lower neuroticism. Higher agreeableness was also related to more activation in the medial prefrontal cortex during inhibitory control. These results suggest that personality traits reflecting greater emotional stability, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness may be associated with more efficient recruitment of control processes subserved by lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight key links between trait-based phenotypes and neural activation patterns in the prefrontal cortex underlying inhibitory control. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Prefrontal and occipital asymmetry and volume in boys with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Tracey A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Mock, Jeffrey; Dauterive, Rachel; Foundas, Anne L

    2012-12-01

    To examine prefrontal and occipital asymmetry (brain torque) in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and controls. A secondary aim was to study age-related changes in gray and white matter volume. Several studies have found atypical early cortical development in ASD. Atypical brain torque, defined as a greater-than-normal left prefrontal and right occipital asymmetry, has been found in some studies of children and adults with ASD. This configuration may be an early neural marker of ASD risk. We studied 24 right-handed boys with ASD and 27 typically developing right-handed boys, 7 to 15 years old, obtaining neuropsychological profiles and measuring prefrontal and occipital volumes on magnetic resonance images. Most participants had the expected rightward prefrontal and leftward occipital asymmetry, with no group differences in direction or degree of asymmetry. We found a trend toward larger prefrontal volume in the ASD group than in the controls. The controls also had a trend toward differences in age associations, correlating with total and left prefrontal white matter volumes. Our findings suggest that atypical brain torque may not be a neural signature of ASD, although our sample was limited to high-functioning, right-handed boys. Our results provide support for aberrant cortical development in ASD, continuing into adolescence, with prefrontal regions being disproportionally affected.

  4. Delayed enhancement of multitasking performance: Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Yu; Zanto, Theodore P; Anguera, Joaquin A; Lin, Yung-Yang; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-08-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been proposed to play an important role in neural processes that underlie multitasking performance. However, this claim is underexplored in terms of direct causal evidence. The current study aimed to delineate the causal involvement of the DLPFC during multitasking by modulating neural activity with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prior to engagement in a demanding multitasking paradigm. The study is a single-blind, crossover, sham-controlled experiment. Anodal tDCS or sham tDCS was applied over left DLPFC in forty-one healthy young adults (aged 18-35 years) immediately before they engaged in a 3-D video game designed to assess multitasking performance. Participants were separated into three subgroups: real-sham (i.e., real tDCS in the first session, followed by sham tDCS in the second session 1 h later), sham-real (sham tDCS first session, real tDCS second session), and sham-sham (sham tDCS in both sessions). The real-sham group showed enhanced multitasking performance and decreased multitasking cost during the second session, compared to first session, suggesting delayed cognitive benefits of tDCS. Interestingly, performance benefits were observed only for multitasking and not on a single-task version of the game. No significant changes were found between the first and second sessions for either the sham-real or the sham-sham groups. These results suggest a causal role of left prefrontal cortex in facilitating the simultaneous performance of more than one task, or multitasking. Moreover, these findings reveal that anodal tDCS may have delayed benefits that reflect an enhanced rate of learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Anterior Prefrontal Cortex and the Hippocampus Are Negatively Correlated during False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeye, Brittany M; Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2017-01-23

    False memories commonly activate the anterior/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (A/DLPFC) and the hippocampus. These regions are assumed to work in concert during false memories, which would predict a positive correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions across participants. However, the A/DLPFC may also inhibit the hippocampus, which would predict a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, during encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, participants classified each old shape as previously in the "left" or "right" visual field followed by an "unsure"-"sure"-"very sure" confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus and three activations in the left A/DLPFC. For each participant, activity associated with false memories (right-"left"-"very sure" responses) from the two hippocampal regions was plotted as a function of activity in each A/DLPFC region. Across participants, for one region in the left anterior prefrontal cortex, there was a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in this region and the hippocampus. This suggests that the anterior prefrontal cortex might inhibit the hippocampus during false memories and that participants engage either the anterior prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus during false memories.

  6. The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Action Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raos, Vassilis; Savaki, Helen E

    2017-10-01

    In an attempt to shed light on the role of the prefrontal cortex in action perception, we used the quantitative 14C-deoxyglucose method to reveal the effects elicited by reaching-to-grasp in the light or in the dark and by observation of the same action executed by an external agent. We analyzed the cortical areas in the principal sulcus, the superior and inferior lateral prefrontal convexities and the orbitofrontal cortex of monkeys. We found that execution in the light and observation activated in common most of the lateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical areas, with the exception of 9/46-dorsal activated exclusively for observation and 9/46-ventral, 11 and 13 activated only for execution. Execution in the dark implicated only the ventral bank of the principal sulcus and its adjacent inferior convexity along with areas 47/12-dorsal and 13, whereas execution in the light activated both banks of the principal sulcus and both superior and inferior convexities along with areas 10 and 11. Our results demonstrate that the prefrontal cortex integrates information in the service of both action generation and action perception, and are discussed in relation to its contribution in movement suppression during action observation and in attribution of action to the correct agent. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Social hierarchies and emotions: cortical prefrontal activity, facial feedback (EMG), and cognitive performance in a dynamic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    In the present research, we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. In two experiments, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating on an attentional task. Based on our hypotheses, social rank may influence nonverbal cues (such as facial mimic related to emotional response), cortical lateralized activity in frontal areas (brain oscillations), and cognitive outcomes in response to rank modulation. Thus, the facial mimic (corrugators vs. zygomatic muscle activity), frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta), and real cognitive performance [(error rate (ER); response times (RTs)] were considered. Specifically, a peer-group comparison was enrolled and an improved (experiment 1, N = 29) or decreased (experiment 2, N = 31) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. Results showed a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs), an increased zygomatic activity (positive emotions), and a more prefrontal left-lateralized cortical response in the case of a perceived increased social ranking. On the contrary, a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs), an increased corrugators activity (negative emotions), and a less left-lateralized cortical response were observed as a consequence of a perceived decreased social ranking. Moreover, the correlational values revealed a consistent trend between behavioral (RTs) and EMG and EEG measures for both experiments. The present results suggest that social status not only guides social behavior, but it also influences cognitive processes and subjects' performance.

  8. Influence of subjective happiness on the prefrontal brain activity: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonishi, Sayuri; Hori, Shota; Hoshi, Yoko; Seiyama, Akitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the relationship between subjective happiness (SH) and emotional changes, we examined influences of SH on emotion-related prefrontal activity using multichannel NIRS. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was used to evoke emotional changes. Subjects were a total of 18 right-handed healthy students. Frequency of picture-induced increases in oxygenated haemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was evaluated. Subjects with a high SH score had a higher frequency of increased oxy-Hb in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) while viewing pleasant pictures, whereas they showed a lower frequency in the right PFC while viewing unpleasant pictures. It is well known that the left PFC and right PFC are engaged in different ways in the emotional processes. Although further investigations are required, the present results indicate that the SH level influences the right-left differences in emotion-related prefrontal activity.

  9. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  10. Prefrontal activity and impaired memory encoding strategies in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Hawco, Colin; Lepage, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan. Brain activity was examined for conditions where participants were a) prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, or b) not prompted but required to self-initiate such strategies. When prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, schizophrenia patients exhibited similar recognition performance and brain activity as healthy controls. However, when required to self-initiate these strategies, patients had significant reduced recognition performance and brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in the left temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. When patients were divided based on performance on the SEMT, the subgroup with more severe deficits in self-initiation also showed greater reduction in left dorsolateral prefrontal activity. These results suggest that impaired self-initiation of elaborative encoding strategies is a driving feature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. We also identified the neural correlates of impaired self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies, in which a failure to activate the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a key role. These findings provide important new targets in the development of novel treatments aiming to improve memory and ultimately patients' outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Abnormal network connectivity in frontotemporal dementia: evidence for prefrontal isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Norman A S; Grady, Cheryl L; Strother, Stephen; Tang-Wai, David F; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra; Freedman, Morris; Pollock, Bruce G; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn; Chow, Tiffany W

    2013-01-01

    represent a compensatory response to the absence of affective feedback during the planning and execution of behavior. Increased reliance upon prefrontal processes in isolation from subcortical structures appears to be maladaptive and may drive behavioral withdrawal that is commonly observed in later phases of neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct Fos-Expressing Neuronal Ensembles in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Mediate Food Reward and Extinction Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Brandon L; Mendoza, Michael P; Cruz, Fabio C; Leao, Rodrigo M; Caprioli, Daniele; Rubio, F Javier; Whitaker, Leslie R; McPherson, Kylie B; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2016-06-22

    In operant learning, initial reward-associated memories are thought to be distinct from subsequent extinction-associated memories. Memories formed during operant learning are thought to be stored in "neuronal ensembles." Thus, we hypothesize that different neuronal ensembles encode reward- and extinction-associated memories. Here, we examined prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles involved in the recall of reward and extinction memories of food self-administration. We first trained rats to lever press for palatable food pellets for 7 d (1 h/d) and then exposed them to 0, 2, or 7 daily extinction sessions in which lever presses were not reinforced. Twenty-four hours after the last training or extinction session, we exposed the rats to either a short 15 min extinction test session or left them in their homecage (a control condition). We found maximal Fos (a neuronal activity marker) immunoreactivity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex of rats that previously received 2 extinction sessions, suggesting that neuronal ensembles in this area encode extinction memories. We then used the Daun02 inactivation procedure to selectively disrupt ventral medial prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles that were activated during the 15 min extinction session following 0 (no extinction) or 2 prior extinction sessions to determine the effects of inactivating the putative food reward and extinction ensembles, respectively, on subsequent nonreinforced food seeking 2 d later. Inactivation of the food reward ensembles decreased food seeking, whereas inactivation of the extinction ensembles increased food seeking. Our results indicate that distinct neuronal ensembles encoding operant reward and extinction memories intermingle within the same cortical area. A current popular hypothesis is that neuronal ensembles in different prefrontal cortex areas control reward-associated versus extinction-associated memories: the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) promotes reward seeking, whereas the

  13. Laterality of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, Michael; Simons, Kurt; Kraker, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    To determine the frequency of unilateral amblyopia in right versus left eyes among children younger than 18 years. Analysis of data collected in randomized clinical trials conducted by the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. The laterality of the amblyopic eye was analyzed in 2635 subjects younger than 18 years who participated in 9 multicenter prospective, randomized treatment trials. Eligibility criteria for these clinical trials included unilateral amblyopia associated with strabismus, anisometropia, or both, with visual acuity between 20/40 and 20/400. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of baseline and demographic factors with the laterality of amblyopia. Among subjects with anisometropic amblyopia (with or without strabismus), amblyopia was present more often in left than right eyes, with a relative prevalence of 59% in left eyes (95% confidence interval, 57% to 62%; P amblyopia, there was no laterality predilection (relative prevalence of 50% in left eyes; 95% confidence interval, 47% to 54%; P = .94). Anisometropic amblyopia, with or without strabismus, occurs more often in left eyes than right eyes. This finding of amblyopia laterality may be related to microtropia, sighting dominance, or other forms of ocular dominance; developmental or neurological factors; laterality in the development of refractive error; or a combination thereof. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda Myocardial revascularization surgery through left anterolateral minithoracotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Filho

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1995 a fevereiro de 1996, 16 pacientes selecionados foram submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda. Em todos os casos a artéria torácica interna esquerda foi dissecada, para posterior anastomose com o ramo interventricular anterior (RIA sem a utilização de circulação extracorpórea. A idade variou de 43 a 77, com média de 60 anos. Sessenta e dois por cento dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Não houve complicações tais como: hemorragias, acidente vascular cerebral, insuficiência renal aguda, mediastinite ou infarto agudo do miocárdio. Não houve mortalidade no grupo em questão. Em 4 (25% pacientes foi realizado estudo hemodinâmico, que demostrou uma normalidade da anastomose da artéria torácica interna para o ramo interventricular anterior. Devido aos excelentes resultados iniciais, acreditamos que este procedimento possa ser empregado com maior freqüência e com a familiarização dos grupos cirúrgicos, e que as artérias diagonais e marginais da circunflexa possam ser beneficiadas com este tipo de procedimento.Between October 1995 and February 1996, sixteen patients were selected to undergo to surgical myocardial revascularization through left anterolateral minithoracotomy. The left internal thoracic artery was dissected in all patients, for consecutive anastomosis with interventricular anterior artery, without using extracorporeal circulation. Patients age ranged from 43 to 77, average 60 years. Sixty-two percent of them were men. There were no complications such as: acute myocardial infarction, mediastinitis, acute renal failure, hemorrhagy or stroke. There were no deaths. Four (25% patients were submitted to cardiac catheterization that showed patency of grafts and grafted native arteries. Due to excellent initial results, the authors believe that this technique can be employed with greater frequency and that its use can be

  15. The Anterior Prefrontal Cortex and the Hippocampus Are Negatively Correlated during False Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Jeye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available False memories commonly activate the anterior/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (A/DLPFC and the hippocampus. These regions are assumed to work in concert during false memories, which would predict a positive correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions across participants. However, the A/DLPFC may also inhibit the hippocampus, which would predict a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, during encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, participants classified each old shape as previously in the “left” or “right” visual field followed by an “unsure”–“sure”–“very sure” confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus and three activations in the left A/DLPFC. For each participant, activity associated with false memories (right–“left”–“very sure” responses from the two hippocampal regions was plotted as a function of activity in each A/DLPFC region. Across participants, for one region in the left anterior prefrontal cortex, there was a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in this region and the hippocampus. This suggests that the anterior prefrontal cortex might inhibit the hippocampus during false memories and that participants engage either the anterior prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus during false memories.

  16. Detrital zircon and sandstone provenance analysis from Permian and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary units to constrain total and incremental left-lateral offset along the East Gobi Fault Zone, southeastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, M.; Johnson, C.; Webb, L.; Taylor, J.

    2008-12-01

    This study presents initial U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology results coupled with sandstone provenance point-counting to constrain sedimentary basin evolution along the East Gobi Fault Zone (EGFZ), southeastern Mongolia. These results fingerprint potential piercing points in sedimentary units argued here to have once been part of the same depositional basins, now offset by the strike-slip fault zone. Detrital zircon samples were collected and analyzed using LA-ICPMS from two sets of proposed offset-basin systems: Permian fluvial and marine units at Bulgan Uul and Nomgon, and Cretaceous fluvial units at Tavan Har and Ulgay Khid (11 sandstone samples total). The age probability plots for Bulgan Uul and Nomgon, as well as Tavan Har and Ulgay Khid, show very convincing correlations with significant implications. The Late Permian Lugyn Gol units at Nomgon are currently ~270 km northeast of those Late Permian Onch Uul samples at Bulgan Uul, and provide similar age probability plots, with most significant peaks at ~280 Ma and ~440 Ma, for zircons of igneous origins based on U/Th ratios. Lower Cretaceous strata from Tavan Har and Ulgay Khid are currently located ~90 km left-laterally off-set from each other, and also show strong correlation with significant age probability peaks centered at ~280 Ma and ~120 Ma, also with igneous origins. As the detrital zircon data are not intended to stand alone, 23 samples including all the zircon samples were point-counted for establishing provenance. QFL ternary plots indicate semi-mature, recycled orogen and arc sources for samples collected at Bulgan Uul, Nomgon, and Ulgay Khid. Tavan Har, however, primarily plotted in the dissected arc field. The results presented here argue for the following three main findings: First, detrital zircon analysis shows a clear connection of Bulgan Uul and Nomgon, as well as Ulgay Khid and Tavan Har. These cross-fault stratigraphic connections are further supported in most cases by the provenance

  17. Late Quaternary slip history of the Mill Creek strand of the San Andreas fault in San Gorgonio Pass, southern California: The role of a subsidiary left-lateral fault in strand switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Katherine J.; Matti, Jonathan; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The fault history of the Mill Creek strand of the San Andreas fault (SAF) in the San Gorgonio Pass region, along with the reconstructed geomorphology surrounding this fault strand, reveals the important role of the left-lateral Pinto Mountain fault in the regional fault strand switching. The Mill Creek strand has 7.1–8.7 km total slip. Following this displacement, the Pinto Mountain fault offset the Mill Creek strand 1–1.25 km, as SAF slip transferred to the San Bernardino, Banning, and Garnet Hill strands. An alluvial complex within the Mission Creek watershed can be linked to palinspastic reconstruction of drainage segments to constrain slip history of the Mill Creek strand. We investigated surface remnants through detailed geologic mapping, morphometric and stratigraphic analysis, geochronology, and pedogenic analysis. The degree of soil development constrains the duration of surface stability when correlated to other regional, independently dated pedons. This correlation indicates that the oldest surfaces are significantly older than 500 ka. Luminescence dates of 106 ka and 95 ka from (respectively) 5 and 4 m beneath a younger fan surface are consistent with age estimates based on soil-profile development. Offset of the Mill Creek strand by the Pinto Mountain fault suggests a short-term slip rate of ∼10–12.5 mm/yr for the Pinto Mountain fault, and a lower long-term slip rate. Uplift of the Yucaipa Ridge block during the period of Mill Creek strand activity is consistent with thermochronologic modeled uplift estimates.

  18. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  19. Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior striatum and prefrontal cortex predicts reading performance in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcauter, Sarael; García-Mondragón, Liliana; Gracia-Tabuenca, Zeus; Moreno, Martha B; Ortiz, Juan J; Barrios, Fernando A

    2017-11-01

    The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed). Functional connectivity of the left frontal and temporal cortices and subcortical regions predicted reading speed. These results extend previous findings on the relationship between functional connectivity and reading competence in children, providing new evidence about such relationships in previously unexplored regions in the resting brain, including the left caudate, putamen and thalamus. This work highlights the relevance of a broad network, functionally synchronized in the resting state, for the acquisition and perfecting of reading abilities in young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NEURAL CORRELATES FOR APATHY: FRONTAL - PREFRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICAL - SUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional invovlement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in every day life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC and basal ganglia; emotional affective apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; cognitive apathy may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of autoactivation may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to grey matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies and a reduced speedness in action decsion, major resposnible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control.We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  1. Neural Correlates for Apathy: Frontal-Prefrontal and Parietal Cortical- Subcortical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Signori, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basal ganglia; “emotional affective” apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; “cognitive apathy” may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of “autoactivation” may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to gray matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies, and a reduced speedness in action decision, major responsible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control. We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  2. Human Thalamic-Prefrontal Peduncle Connectivity Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Fiber Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The thalamic-prefrontal peduncle (TPP is a large bundle connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. The definitive structure and function of the TPP are still controversial. To investigate the connectivity and segmentation patterns of the TPP, we employed diffusion spectrum imaging with generalized q-sampling reconstruction to perform both subject-specific and template-based analyses. Our results confirmed the trajectory and spatial relationship of the TPP in the human brain and identified the connection areas in the prefrontal cortex. The TPP-connecting areas identified based on Brodmann areas (BAs were BAs 8–11 and 45–47. Based on the automated anatomical atlas, these areas were the medial superior frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, pars triangularis, pars orbitalis, anterior orbital gyrus, and lateral orbital gyrus. In addition, we identified the TPP connection areas in the thalamus, including the anterior and medial nuclei, and the lateral dorsal/lateral posterior nuclei. TPP fibers connected the thalamus with the ipsilateral prefrontal BAs 11, 47, 10, 46, 45, 9, and 8 seriatim from medial to lateral, layer by layer. Our results provide further details of the thalamic-prefrontal peduncle structure, and may aid future studies and a better understanding of the functional roles of the TPP in the human brain.

  3. Stimulus selectivity in dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex after training in working memory tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis; Qi, Xue-Lian; Stanford, Terrence R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is known to represent different types of information in working memory. Contrasting theories propose that the dorsal and ventral regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex are innately specialized for the representation of spatial and non-spatial information respectively (Goldman-Rakic, 1996), or that the two regions are shaped by the demands of cognitive tasks imposed on them (Miller, 2000). To resolve this issue, we recorded from neurons in the two regions, prior to and at multiple stages of training monkeys on visual working memory tasks. Prior to training, substantial functional differences were present between the two regions. Dorsal prefrontal cortex exhibited higher overall responsiveness to visual stimuli and higher selectivity for spatial information. After training, stimulus selectivity generally decreased, though dorsal prefrontal cortex retained higher spatial selectivity regardless of task performed. Ventral prefrontal cortex appeared to be affected to a greater extent by the nature of task performed. Our results indicate that regional specialization for stimulus selectivity is present in the primate prefrontal cortex regardless of training. Dorsal areas of the prefrontal cortex are inherently organized to represent spatial information and training has little influence on this spatial bias. Ventral areas are biased toward non-spatial information although they are more influenced by training both in terms of activation and changes in stimulus selectivity. PMID:21525266

  4. A dorsolateral prefrontal cortex semi-automatic segmenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Fallon, James; Nain, Delphine; Melonakos, John; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-03-01

    Structural, functional, and clinical studies in schizophrenia have, for several decades, consistently implicated dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in the etiology of the disease. Functional and structural imaging studies, combined with clinical, psychometric, and genetic analyses in schizophrenia have confirmed the key roles played by the prefrontal cortex and closely linked "prefrontal system" structures such as the striatum, amygdala, mediodorsal thalamus, substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area, and anterior cingulate cortices. The nodal structure of the prefrontal system circuit is the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), or Brodmann area 46, which also appears to be the most commonly studied and cited brain area with respect to schizophrenia. 1, 2, 3, 4 In 1986, Weinberger et. al. tied cerebral blood flow in the DLPFC to schizophrenia.1 In 2001, Perlstein et. al. demonstrated that DLPFC activation is essential for working memory tasks commonly deficient in schizophrenia. 2 More recently, groups have linked morphological changes due to gene deletion and increased DLPFC glutamate concentration to schizophrenia. 3, 4 Despite the experimental and clinical focus on the DLPFC in structural and functional imaging, the variability of the location of this area, differences in opinion on exactly what constitutes DLPFC, and inherent difficulties in segmenting this highly convoluted cortical region have contributed to a lack of widely used standards for manual or semi-automated segmentation programs. Given these implications, we developed a semi-automatic tool to segment the DLPFC from brain MRI scans in a reproducible way to conduct further morphological and statistical studies. The segmenter is based on expert neuroanatomist rules (Fallon-Kindermann rules), inspired by cytoarchitectonic data and reconstructions presented by Rajkowska and Goldman-Rakic. 5 It is semi-automated to provide essential user interactivity. We present our results and provide details on

  5. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  6. Areas of Active Tectonic Uplift Are Sensitive to Small Changes in Fold Orientations within a Broad Zone of Left-lateral Transpression and Shearing, Dominican Republic and Haiti (Hispaniola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosius, I.; Mann, P.

    2014-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown that the island of Hispaniola is a 250 km-wide zone of active, east-west, left-lateral shearing along two major strike-slip zones: the Septentrional-Oriente fault zone through the northern part of the island and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) through the southern part of the island. The total interplate rate distributed on both faults is 21 mm/yr. Using a high-resolution DEM, we constructed fluvial channel profiles across transpression-related folds of late Miocene to recent age in the area of central and southern Dominican Republic and Haiti to determine controls of areas of relatively high, moderate, and slow uplift inferred from fluvial channel profiles. Fold axes in this area extend for 50-150 km and exhibit two different trends: 1) folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Neiba-Chaine des Matheux north of the Enriquillo-Cul-de-Sac Valley and EPGFZ and folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Bahoruco-Massif de la Selle all exhibit more east-west fold axes trending 110; 2) folds that occupy the area northwest of the EPGFZ in the western Chaine des Matheux and Sierra de Neiba all exhibit fold axes with more northwest trends of 125. River channel profiles show that the second group of more northwesterly-trending fold axes show relatively higher rates of tectonic uplift based on their convex-upward river profiles. Our interpretation for regional variations in river profiles and inferred uplift is that uplift is more pronounced on fold axes trending 15 degrees more to the northwest because their axes are more oblique to the interplate direction of east-west shearing. Longterm uplift rates previously measured from a stairstep of late Quaternary coral terraces at the plunging nose of the westernmost Chaine des Matheux have been previously shown to be occurring at a rate of 0.19 mm/yr. Onland exposures of Holocene corals are found only on one locality within the southern area of folds 30 km west of the epicenter

  7. Lateralization of brain activation to imagination and smell of odors using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): left hemispheric localization of pleasant and right hemispheric localization of unpleasant odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, R I; Levy, L M

    2001-01-01

    Our goal was to use functional MRI (fMRI) of brain to reveal activation in each cerebral hemisphere in response to imagination and smell of odors. FMRI brain scans were obtained in 24 normal subjects using multislice fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI in response to imagination of banana and peppermint odors and in response to smell of corresponding odors of amyl acetate and menthone, respectively, and of pyridine. Three coronal sections selected from anterior to posterior brain regions were used. Similar studies were obtained in two patients with hyposmia using FLASH MRI and in one patient with hyposmia using echo planar imaging (EPI) both before and after theophylline treatment that returned smell function to or toward normal in each patient and in two patients with birhinal phantosmia (persistent foul odor) and global phantogeusia (persistent foul taste) with FLASH and EPI fMRI before and after treatment with neuroleptic drugs that inhibited their phantosmia and phantogeusia. Activation images were derived using correlation analysis. Ratios of hemispheric areas of brain activation to total hemispheric brain areas were calculated for FLASH fMRI, and numerical counts of pixel clusters in each hemisphere were made for EPI studies. Total pixel cluster counts in localized regions of each hemispheric section were also obtained. In normal subjects, activation generally occurred in left (L) > right (R) brain hemisphere in response to banana and peppermint odor imagination and to smell of corresponding odors of amyl acetate and menthone. Whereas there were no overall hemispheric differences for pyridine odor, activation in men was R > L hemisphere. Although absolute activation in both L and R hemispheres in response to banana odor imagination and amyl acetate smell was men > women, the ratio of L to R activation was women > men. In hyposmic patients studied by FLASH fMRI, activation to banana odor imagination and amyl acetate smell was L > R hemisphere both before and after

  8. Hemispheric Lateralization of Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Anterior Insula: Association with Age, Gender, and a Novelty-Seeking Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Sarah; Zhang, Sheng; Manza, Peter; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is widely used to examine cerebral functional organization. The imaging literature has described lateralization of insula activations during cognitive and affective processing. Evidence appears to support a role of the right-hemispheric insula in attentional orientation to salient stimulus, interoception, and physiological arousal, and a role of the left-hemispheric insula in cognitive and affective control, as well as perspective taking. In this study, in a large data set of healthy adults, we examined lateralization of the rsFC of the anterior insula (AI) by computing a laterality index (LI) of connectivity with 54 regions from the Automated Anatomic Labeling atlas. At a corrected threshold (p lateralized in connectivity with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, inferior frontal cortex, and posterior orbital gyrus and right lateralized in connectivity with the postcentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and superior parietal lobule. In gender differences, women, but not men, showed right-lateralized connectivity to the thalamus. Furthermore, in a subgroup of participants assessed by the tridimensional personality questionnaire, novelty seeking is correlated with the extent of left lateralization of AI connectivity to the pallidum and putamen in men and with the extent of right lateralization of AI connectivity to the parahippocampal gyrus in women. These findings support hemispheric functional differentiation of the AI. PMID:27604154

  9. fNIRS Evidence of Prefrontal Regulation of Frustration in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Susan B.; Luna, Beatriz; Hein, Tyler C.; Huppert, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    The experience of frustration is common in early childhood, yet some children seem to possess a lower tolerance for frustration than others. Characterizing the biological mechanisms underlying a wide range of frustration tolerance observed in early childhood may inform maladaptive behavior and psychopathology that is associated with this construct. The goal of this study was to measure prefrontal correlates of frustration in 3–5 year-old children, who are not readily adaptable for typical neuroimaging approaches, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). fNIRS of frontal regions were measured as frustration was induced in children through a computer game where a desired and expected prize was “stolen” by an animated dog. A fNIRS general linear model (GLM) was used to quantify the correlation of brain regions with the task and identify areas that were statistically different between the winning and frustrating test conditions. A second-level voxel-based ANOVA analysis was then used to correlate the amplitude of each individual’s brain activation with measure of parent-reported frustration. Experimental results indicated increased activity in the middle prefrontal cortex during winning of a desired prize, while lateral prefrontal cortex activity increased during frustration. Further, activity increase in lateral prefrontal cortex during frustration correlated positively with parent-reported frustration tolerance. These findings point to the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex as a potential region supporting the regulation of emotion during frustration. PMID:23624495

  10. fNIRS evidence of prefrontal regulation of frustration in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Susan B; Luna, Beatriz; Hein, Tyler C; Huppert, Theodore J

    2014-01-15

    The experience of frustration is common in early childhood, yet some children seem to possess a lower tolerance for frustration than others. Characterizing the biological mechanisms underlying a wide range of frustration tolerance observed in early childhood may inform maladaptive behavior and psychopathology that is associated with this construct. The goal of this study was to measure prefrontal correlates of frustration in 3-5-year-old children, who are not readily adaptable for typical neuroimaging approaches, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). fNIRS of frontal regions were measured as frustration was induced in children through a computer game where a desired and expected prize was "stolen" by an animated dog. A fNIRS general linear model (GLM) was used to quantify the correlation of brain regions with the task and identify areas that were statistically different between the winning and frustrating test conditions. A second-level voxel-based ANOVA analysis was then used to correlate the amplitude of each individual's brain activation with measure of parent-reported frustration. Experimental results indicated increased activity in the middle prefrontal cortex during winning of a desired prize, while lateral prefrontal cortex activity increased during frustration. Further, activity increase in lateral prefrontal cortex during frustration correlated positively with parent-reported frustration tolerance. These findings point to the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex as a potential region supporting the regulation of emotion during frustration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mindful attention to breath regulates emotions via increased amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Anselm; Hölzel, Britta K; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Boucard, Christine C; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness practice is beneficial for emotion regulation; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The current study focuses on effects of attention-to-breath (ATB) as a basic mindfulness practice on aversive emotions at behavioral and brain levels. A key finding across different emotion regulation strategies is the modulation of amygdala and prefrontal activity. It is unclear how ATB relevant brain areas in the prefrontal cortex integrate with amygdala activation during emotional stimulation. We proposed that, during emotional stimulation, ATB down-regulates activation in the amygdala and increases its integration with prefrontal regions. To address this hypothesis, 26 healthy controls were trained in mindfulness-based attention-to-breath meditation for two weeks and then stimulated with aversive pictures during both attention-to-breath and passive viewing while undergoing fMRI. Data were controlled for breathing frequency. Results indicate that (1) ATB was effective in regulating aversive emotions. (2) Left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex was associated with ATB in general. (3) A fronto-parietal network was additionally recruited during emotional stimulation. (4) ATB down regulated amygdala activation and increased amygdala-prefrontal integration, with such increased integration being associated with mindfulness ability. Results suggest amygdala-dorsal prefrontal cortex integration as a potential neural pathway of emotion regulation by mindfulness practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting risk-taking behavior from prefrontal resting-state activity and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Studer

    Full Text Available Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants' trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers' brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior.

  13. Left fronto-temporal dynamics during agreement processing: evidence for feature-specific computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barber, Horacio A; Pérez, Alejandro; Parkkonen, Lauri; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Grammatical agreement is a widespread language phenomenon that indicates formal syntactic relations between words; however, it also conveys basic lexical (e.g. grammatical gender) or semantic (e.g. numerosity) information about a discourse referent. In this study, we focus on the reading of Spanish noun phrases, violating either number or gender determiner-noun agreement compared to grammatical controls. Magnetoencephalographic activity time-locked to the onset of the noun in both types of violation revealed a left-lateralized brain network involving anterior temporal regions (~220 ms) and, later in time, ventro-lateral prefrontal regions (>300 ms). These activations coexist with dependency-specific effects: in an initial step (~170 ms), occipito-temporal regions are employed for fine-grained analysis of the number marking (in Spanish, presence or absence of the suffix '-s'), while anterior temporal regions show increased activation for gender mismatches compared to grammatical controls. The semantic relevance of number agreement dependencies was mainly reflected by left superior temporal increased activity around 340 ms. These findings offer a detailed perspective on the multi-level analyses involved in the initial computation of agreement dependencies, and theoretically support a derivational approach to agreement computation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Right brain, left brain in depressive disorders: Clinical and theoretical implications of behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J

    2017-07-01

    The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information. Dichotic listening and visual hemifield findings for non-verbal or emotional processing have revealed abnormal perceptual asymmetry in depressive disorders, and electrophysiological findings have shown reduced right-lateralized responsivity to emotional stimuli in occipitotemporal or parietotemporal cortex. We discuss models of neural networks underlying these alterations. Of clinical relevance, individual differences among depressed patients on measures of right-left brain function are related to diagnostic subtype of depression, comorbidity with anxiety disorders, and clinical response to antidepressants or cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prefrontal cortex and executive function in young children: A review of NIRS studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eMoriguchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive function refers to the higher-order cognitive control process for the attainment of a specific goal. There are several subcomponents of executive function, such as inhibition, cognitive shifting, and working memory. Extensive neuroimaging research in adults has revealed that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in executive function. Developmental studies have reported behavioral evidence showing that executive function changes significantly during preschool years. However, the neural mechanism of executive function in young children is still unclear. This article reviews recent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS research that examined the relationship between the development of executive function and the lateral prefrontal cortex. Specifically, this review focuses on cognitive shifting, inhibitory control, and working memory in young children. Research has consistently shown significant prefrontal activation during tasks in typically developed children, but this activation may be abnormal in children with developmental disorders. Finally, methodological issues and future directions are discussed.

  16. Effects of induced placental and fetal growth restriction, size at birth and early neonatal growth on behavioural and brain structural lateralization in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Damien Seth; Hazel, Susan J; Kind, Karen L; Liu, Hong; Marini, Danila; Giles, Lynne C; De Blasio, Miles J; Owens, Julie A; Pitcher, Julia B; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2017-09-01

    Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F). PR did not affect lateralization direction, but 40-week-old PR females had greater lateralization strength than CON (P = .021). Behavioural lateralization measures were not correlated with perinatal growth. PR did not alter brain morphology. In males, cross-sectional areas of the prefrontal cortex and left hemisphere correlated positively with skull width at birth, and white matter area correlated positively with neonatal growth rate of the skull (all P programming, and suggest that restricting in utero growth has relatively mild effects on gross brain structural or behavioural lateralization in sheep.

  17. Functional co-activation within the prefrontal cortex supports the maintenance of behavioural performance in fear-relevant situations before an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge in participants with spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, S; Notzon, S; Kroczek, A; Rosenbaum, D; Haeussinger, F B; Diemer, J; Domschke, K; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C; Zwanzger, P

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies/meta-analyses reported moderate antidepressant effects of activating repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regarding the treatment of anxiety, study outcomes are inconsistent, probably because of the heterogenity of anxiety disorders/study designs. To specifically evaluate the impact of rTMS on emotion regulation in fear-relevant situations we applied a sham-controlled activating protocol (intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation/iTBS) over the left PFC (F3) succeeded by a virtual reality (VR) challenge in n=41 participants with spider phobia and n=42 controls. Prior to/after iTBS and following VR prefrontal activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy during an emotional Stroop paradigm. Performance (reaction times/error rates) was evaluated. Stimuli were rated regarding valence/arousal at both measurements. We found diminished activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of participants with spider phobia compared to controls, particularly elicited by emotionally-irrelevant words. Simultaneously, a functional connectivity analysis showed increased co-activation between the left IFG and the contra-lateral hemisphere. Behavioural performance was unimpaired. After iTBS/VR no significant differences in cortical activation between the phobic and control group remained. However, verum-iTBS did not cause an additional augmentation. We interpreted our results in terms of a prefrontal network which gets activated by emotionally-relevant stimuli and supports the maintenance of adequate behavioural reactions. The missing add-on effects of iTBS might be due to a ceiling effect of VR, thereby supporting its potential during exposure therapy. Concurrently, it implies that the efficient application of iTBS in the context of emotion regulation still needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Doallo

    Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.

  19. Brain injury impairs working memory and prefrontal circuit function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin James Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 2.5 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI each year. Even mild to moderate traumatic brain injury causes long-lasting neurological effects. Despite its prevalence, no therapy currently exists to treat the underlying cause of cognitive impairment suffered by TBI patients. Following lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI, the most widely used experimental model of TBI, we investigated alterations in working memory and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in the prefrontal cortex. LFPI impaired working memory as assessed with a T-maze behavioral task. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials recorded in the prefrontal cortex were reduced in slices derived from brain-injured mice. Spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were more frequent in slices derived from LFPI mice while inhibitory currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were smaller after LFPI. Additionally, an increase in action potential threshold and concomitant decrease in firing rate was observed in layer 2/3 neurons in slices from injured animals. Conversely, no differences in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic transmission onto layer 5 neurons were observed; however, layer 5 neurons demonstrated a decrease in input resistance and action potential duration after LFPI. These results demonstrate synaptic and intrinsic alterations in prefrontal circuitry that may underlie working memory impairment caused by TBI.

  20. Prefrontal Dopamine in Associative Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M. Victoria; Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulate associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063

  1. Increased perceived stress is related to decreased prefrontal cortex volumes among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Georgina L; Bruss, Joel; Denburg, Natalie L

    2017-05-01

    Several of the brain regions vulnerable to increased levels of stress (i.e., hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) are also known to undergo disproportionate decline during normal aging. To date, surprisingly little research has examined the effects of stress on the brain among healthy human populations, much less in the elderly. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between chronic stress and brain morphometry in regions known for their involvement in the stress response, namely the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, in a sample of healthy older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were collected in 28 older adult individuals aged 65 to 90 years. Gray and white matter volumes in various regions of interest in the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobes were calculated using semiautomated segmentation tools. Perceived stress was negatively correlated with overall prefrontal cortex (PFC) volume, specifically in overall white matter volume of the PFC. Additionally, perceived stress was negatively correlated with gray and white matter volumes in lateral regions of the PFC, specifically, in the ventrolateral and dorsolateral PFC. Perceived stress was not significantly related to medial temporal lobe volumes. These findings suggest that among healthy older adults, there is a salient relationship between prefrontal cortex volumes and levels of perceived stress. This research fills a critical gap in the current literature and provides initial groundwork for future studies investigating the relationship between perceived stress and the prefrontal cortex in the context of healthy aging.

  2. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  3. Serial pathways from primate prefrontal cortex to autonomic areas may influence emotional expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Subhash

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing emotions engages high-order orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal areas, and expressing emotions involves low-level autonomic structures and peripheral organs. How is information from the cortex transmitted to the periphery? We used two parallel approaches to map simultaneously multiple pathways to determine if hypothalamic autonomic centres are a key link for orbitofrontal areas and medial prefrontal areas, which have been associated with emotional processes, as well as low-level spinal and brainstem autonomic structures. The latter innervate peripheral autonomic organs, whose activity is markedly increased during emotional arousal. Results We first determined if pathways linking the orbitofrontal cortex with the hypothalamus overlapped with projection neurons directed to the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, with the aid of neural tracers injected in these disparate structures. We found that axons from orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices converged in the hypothalamus with neurons projecting to brainstem and spinal autonomic centers, linking the highest with the lowest levels of the neuraxis. Using a parallel approach, we injected bidirectional tracers in the lateral hypothalamic area, an autonomic center, to label simultaneously cortical pathways leading to the hypothalamus, as well as hypothalamic axons projecting to low-level brainstem and spinal autonomic centers. We found densely distributed projection neurons in medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices leading to the hypothalamus, as well as hypothalamic axonal terminations in several brainstem structures and the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, which innervate peripheral autonomic organs. We then provided direct evidence that axons from medial prefrontal cortex synapse with hypothalamic neurons, terminating as large boutons, comparable in size to the highly efficient thalamocortical system. The interlinked orbitofrontal

  4. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  5. Distinct contributions of the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex during emotion regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Golkar

    Full Text Available The lateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices have both been implicated in emotion regulation, but their distinct roles in regulation of negative emotion remain poorly understood. To address this issue we enrolled 58 participants in an fMRI study in which participants were instructed to reappraise both negative and neutral stimuli. This design allowed us to separately study activations reflecting cognitive processes associated with reappraisal in general and activations specifically related to reappraisal of negative emotion. Our results confirmed that both the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC contribute to emotion regulation through reappraisal. However, activity in the DLPFC was related to reappraisal independently of whether negative or neutral stimuli were reappraised, whereas the lateral OFC was uniquely related to reappraisal of negative stimuli. We suggest that relative to the lateral OFC, the DLPFC serves a more general role in emotion regulation, perhaps by reflecting the cognitive demand that is inherent to the regulation task.

  6. Prefrontal cortex volume reductions and tic inhibition are unrelated in uncomplicated GTS adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Kühn, Simone; Kahl, Ursula; Schunke, Odette; Brandt, Valerie; Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Haggard, Patrick; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) are repetitive patterned movements, resembling spontaneous motor behaviour, but escaping voluntary control. Previous studies hypothesised relations between structural alterations in prefrontal cortex of GTS adults and tic severity using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), but could not demonstrate a significant association. The relation between prefrontal cortex structure and tic inhibition has not been investigated. Here, we used VBM to examine 14 GTS adults without associated comorbidities, and 15 healthy controls. We related structural alterations in GTS to clinical measures of tic severity and tic control. Grey matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left frontal pole were reduced in patients relative to healthy controls. These changes were not related to tic severity and tic inhibition. Prefrontal grey matter volume reductions in GTS adults are not related to state measures of tic phenomenology. © 2013.

  7. A portable, multi-channel fNIRS system for prefrontal cortex: Preliminary study on neurofeedback and imagery tasks (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Seung-ho; Kim, Beop-Min

    2016-03-01

    fNIRS is a neuroimaging technique which uses near-infrared light source in the 700-1000 nm range and enables to detect hemodynamic changes (i.e., oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, blood volume) as a response to various brain processes. In this study, we developed a new, portable, prefrontal fNIRS system which has 12 light sources, 15 detectors and 108 channels with a sampling rate of 2 Hz. The wavelengths of light source are 780nm and 850nm. ATxmega128A1, 8bit of Micro controller unit (MCU) with 200~4095 resolution along with MatLab data acquisition algorithm was utilized. We performed a simple left and right finger movement imagery tasks which produced statistically significant changes of oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) areas. We observed that the accuracy of the imagery tasks can be improved by carrying out neurofeedback training, during which a real-time feedback signal is provided to a participating subject. The effects of the neurofeedback training was later visually verified using the 3D NIRfast imaging. Our portable fNIRS system may be useful in non-constraint environment for various clinical diagnoses.

  8. Studying hemispheric lateralization during a Stroop task through near-infrared spectroscopy-based connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Sun, Bailei; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing and promising functional brain imaging technology. Developing data analysis methods to effectively extract meaningful information from collected data is the major bottleneck in popularizing this technology. In this study, we measured hemodynamic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a color-word matching Stroop task using NIRS. Hemispheric lateralization was examined by employing traditional activation and novel NIRS-based connectivity analyses simultaneously. Wavelet transform coherence was used to assess intrahemispheric functional connectivity. Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between behavioral performance and activation/functional connectivity, respectively. In agreement with activation analysis, functional connectivity analysis revealed leftward lateralization for the Stroop effect and correlation with behavioral performance. However, functional connectivity was more sensitive than activation for identifying hemispheric lateralization. Granger causality was used to evaluate the effective connectivity between hemispheres. The results showed increased information flow from the left to the right hemispheres for the incongruent versus the neutral task, indicating a leading role of the left PFC. This study demonstrates that the NIRS-based connectivity can reveal the functional architecture of the brain more comprehensively than traditional activation, helping to better utilize the advantages of NIRS.

  9. Subclinical delusional thinking predicts lateral temporal cortex responses during social reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Benjamin K; Coombs, Garth; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J; Moran, Joseph M; Holt, Daphne J

    2014-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated associations between delusions in psychotic disorders and abnormalities of brain areas involved in social cognition, including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, and lateral temporal cortex (LTC). General population studies have linked subclinical delusional thinking to impaired social cognition, raising the question of whether a specific pattern of brain activity during social perception is associated with delusional beliefs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that subclinical delusional thinking is associated with changes in neural function, while subjects made judgments about themselves or others ['social reflection' (SR)]. Neural responses during SR and non-social tasks, as well as resting-state activity, were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 22 healthy subjects. Delusional thinking was measured using the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Delusional thinking was negatively correlated with responses of the left LTC during SR (r = -0.61, P = 0.02, Bonferroni corrected), and connectivity between the left LTC and left ventral MPFC, and was positively correlated with connectivity between the left LTC and the right middle frontal and inferior temporal cortices. Thus, delusional thinking in the general population may be associated with reduced activity and aberrant functional connectivity of cortical areas involved in SR.

  10. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, phunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  12. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  13. Decreased prefrontal functional brain response during memory testing in women with Cushing's syndrome in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, Oskar; Stomby, Andreas; Dahlqvist, Per; Evang, Johan A; Ryberg, Mats; Olsson, Tommy; Bollerslev, Jens; Nyberg, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-08-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is an important feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our hypothesis was that patients with CS in remission have decreased functional brain responses in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during memory testing. In this cross-sectional study we included 19 women previously treated for CS and 19 controls matched for age, gender, and education. The median remission time was 7 (IQR 6-10) years. Brain activity was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic- and working-memory tasks. The primary regions of interest were the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. A voxel-wise comparison of functional brain responses in patients and controls was performed. During episodic-memory encoding, patients displayed lower functional brain responses in the left and right prefrontal gyrus (pmemory retrieval, the patients displayed lower functional brain responses in several brain areas with the most predominant difference in the right prefrontal cortex (pmemory task, patients had lower response in the prefrontal cortices bilaterally (pmemory task compared with a simpler one. In conclusion, women with CS in long-term remission have reduced functional brain responses during episodic and working memory testing. This observation extends previous findings showing long-term adverse effects of severe hypercortisolaemia on brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Timing of emotion representation in right and left occipital region: Evidence from combined TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Rosanova, Mario; Casali, Adenauer G; Papagno, Costanza; Romero Lauro, Leonor J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies provide evidence of hemispheric differences in processing faces and, in particular, emotional expressions. However, the timing of emotion representation in the right and left hemisphere is still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) was used to explore cortical responsiveness during behavioural tasks requiring processing of either identity or expression of faces. Single-pulse TMS was delivered 100ms after face onset over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier; right premotor cortex (rPMC) was also stimulated as control site. The same face stimuli with neutral, happy and fearful expressions were presented in separate blocks and participants were asked to complete either a facial identity or facial emotion matching task. Analyses performed on posterior face specific EEG components revealed that mPFC-TMS reduced the P1-N1 component. In particular, only when an explicit expression processing was required, mPFC-TMS interacted with emotion type in relation to hemispheric side at different timing; the first P1-N1 component was affected in the right hemisphere whereas the later N1-P2 component was modulated in the left hemisphere. These findings support the hypothesis that the frontal cortex exerts an early influence on the occipital cortex during face processing and suggest a different timing of the right and left hemisphere involvement in emotion discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social cognition and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a working memory task in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Yamada, Sayaka; Masai, Mieko; Miura, Akihiko; Yamauchi, Takahira; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Roberts, David L; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Social cognition is an important determinant of functional impairment in schizophrenia, but its relationship with the prefrontal functional abnormalities associated with the condition is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between social cognition and prefrontal function in patients with schizophrenia using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical regions were assessed during a working memory task using NIRS. Social cognition was assessed using the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ). The observed hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the frontopolar cortex, and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia compared to HCs. Additionally, lateral PFC hemodynamic responses assessed during the working memory task demonstrated a strong positive correlation with the SCSQ theory of mind (ToM) subscale score even after controlling for working memory performance. These results suggest that ToM integrity is closely related to lateral PFC functional abnormalities found in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, this study provides evidence to suggest that NIRS could be used to identify biomarkers of social cognition function in subjects with schizophrenia.

  16. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  17. Increased prefrontal and parahippocampal activation with reduced dorsolateral prefrontal and insular cortex activation to food images in obesity: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Brooks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is emerging as the most significant health concern of the twenty-first century. A wealth of neuroimaging data suggest that weight gain might be related to aberrant brain function, particularly in prefrontal cortical regions modulating mesolimbic addictive responses to food. Nevertheless, food addiction is currently a model hotly debated. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data, examining the most common functional differences between normal-weight and obese participants in response to food stimuli. DATA SOURCE: We conducted a search using several journal databases and adhered to the 'Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses' (PRISMA method. To this aim, 10 studies were found with a total of 126 obese participants, 129 healthy controls, equaling 184 foci (146 increased, 38 decreased activation using the Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE technique. Out of the 10 studies, 7 investigated neural responses to food versus non-food images. RESULTS: In response to food images, obese in comparison to healthy weight subjects had increased activation in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right anterior cingulate cortex, and reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left insular cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Prefrontal cortex areas linked to cognitive evaluation processes, such as evaluation of rewarding stimuli, as well as explicit memory regions, appear most consistently activated in response to images of food in those who are obese. Conversely, a reduced activation in brain regions associated with cognitive control and interoceptive awareness of sensations in the body might indicate a weakened control system, combined with hypo-sensitivity to satiety and discomfort signals after eating in those who are prone to overeat.

  18. Is the self special in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex? An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, several neuroimaging studies have suggested that the neural basis of the self-referential process1 is special, especially in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). However, it remains controversial whether activity of the MPFC (and other related brain regions) appears only during the self-referential process. We investigated the neural correlates during the processing of references to the self, close other (friend), and distant other (prime minister) using fMRI. In comparison with baseline findings, referential processing to the three kinds of persons defined above showed common activation patterns in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), left middle temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and right cerebellum. Additionally, percent changes in BOLD signal in five regions of interest demonstrated the same findings. The result indicated that DMPFC was not special for the self-referential process, while there are common neural bases for evaluating the personalities of the self and others.

  19. Lesions to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex selectively impair reasoning about emotional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Lam, Elaine; Smith, Kathleen W; Goel, Amit; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2017-05-01

    While it is widely accepted that lesions to orbital prefrontal cortex lead to emotion related disruptions and poor decision-making, there is very little patient data on this issue involving actual logical reasoning tasks. We tested patients with circumscribed, focal lesions largely confined to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex (BA 10 & 11) (N=17) on logical reasoning tasks involving neutral and emotional content, and compared their performance to that of an age and education-matched normal control group (N=22) and a posterior lesion control group (N=24). Our results revealed a significant group by content interaction driven by a selective impairment in the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex group compared to healthy normal controls and to the parietal patient group, in the emotional content reasoning trials. Subsequent analyses of congruent and incongruent reasoning trials indicated that this impairment was driven by the poor performance of patients with polar/orbital lesions in the incongruent trials. We conclude that the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in filtering emotionally charged content from the material before it is passed on to the reasoning system in lateral/dorsal regions of prefrontal cortex. Where unfiltered content is passed to the reasoning engine, either as a result of pathology (as in the case of our patients) or as a result of individual differences, reasoning performance suffers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral effects of congenital ventromedial prefrontal cortex malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boes Aaron D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurological and psychiatric sequelae stemming from focal cortical malformation of the left vmPFC. Case Presentation B.W.'s behavior has been characterized through extensive review Patience of clinical and personal records along with behavioral and neuropsychological testing. A central feature of the behavioral profile is severe antisocial behavior. He is aggressive, manipulative, and callous; features consistent with psychopathy. Other problems include: egocentricity, impulsivity, hyperactivity, lack of empathy, lack of respect for authority, impaired moral judgment, an inability to plan ahead, and poor frustration tolerance. Conclusions The vmPFC has a profound contribution to the development of human prosocial behavior. B.W. demonstrates how a congenital lesion to this cortical region severely disrupts this process.

  1. Working Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2017-04-27

    The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand. Recent neurophysiological studies have attempted to reveal how prefrontal neurons achieve the functions of the central executive. For example, the neural mechanisms of memory control have been examined using the interference effect in a dual-task paradigm. It has been shown that this interference effect is caused by the competitive and overloaded recruitment of overlapping neural populations in the prefrontal cortex by two concurrent tasks and that the information-processing capacity of a single neuron is limited to a fixed level, can be flexibly allocated or reallocated between two concurrent tasks based on their needs, and enhances behavioral performance when its allocation to one task is increased. Further, a metamemory task requiring spatial information has been used to understand the neural mechanism for monitoring its own operations, and it has been shown that monitoring the quality of spatial information represented by prefrontal activity is an important factor in the subject's choice and that the strength of spatially selective delay-period activity reflects confidence in decision-making. Although further studies are needed to elucidate how the prefrontal cortex controls memory resource and supervises other systems, some important mechanisms related to the central executive have been identified.

  2. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany ePlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  3. Working Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Funahashi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley’s working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand. Recent neurophysiological studies have attempted to reveal how prefrontal neurons achieve the functions of the central executive. For example, the neural mechanisms of memory control have been examined using the interference effect in a dual-task paradigm. It has been shown that this interference effect is caused by the competitive and overloaded recruitment of overlapping neural populations in the prefrontal cortex by two concurrent tasks and that the information-processing capacity of a single neuron is limited to a fixed level, can be flexibly allocated or reallocated between two concurrent tasks based on their needs, and enhances behavioral performance when its allocation to one task is increased. Further, a metamemory task requiring spatial information has been used to understand the neural mechanism for monitoring its own operations, and it has been shown that monitoring the quality of spatial information represented by prefrontal activity is an important factor in the subject's choice and that the strength of spatially selective delay-period activity reflects confidence in decision-making. Although further studies are needed to elucidate how the prefrontal cortex controls memory resource and supervises other systems, some important mechanisms related to the central executive have been identified.

  4. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition. PMID:25100931

  5. Task alters category representations in prefrontal but not high-level visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugatus, Lior; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-07-15

    A central question in neuroscience is how cognitive tasks affect category representations across the human brain. Regions in lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC), ventral temporal cortex (VTC), and ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLFPC) constitute the extended "what" pathway, which is considered instrumental for visual category processing. However, it is unknown (1) whether distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPFC explicitly represent category, task, or some combination of both, and (2) in what way representations across these subdivisions of the extended 'what' pathway may differ. To fill these gaps in knowledge, we scanned 12 participants using fMRI to test the effect of category and task on distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPFC. Results reveal that task and category modulate responses in both high-level visual regions, as well as prefrontal cortex. However, we found fundamentally different types of representations across the brain. Distributed responses in high-level visual regions are more strongly driven by category than task, and exhibit task-independent category representations. In contrast, distributed responses in prefrontal cortex are more strongly driven by task than category, and contain task-dependent category representations. Together, these findings of differential representations across the brain support a new idea that LOTC and VTC maintain stable category representations allowing efficient processing of visual information, while prefrontal cortex contains flexible representations in which category information may emerge only when relevant to the task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attention, emotion, and deactivation of default activity in inferior medial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2008-01-01

    significantly lowered blood flow (rCBF) in left IMPC, left and right insula, and right amygdala, and significantly raised blood flow in motor cortex and right precuneus. Restricted searches of rCBF changes by emotion, at coordinates of significant effect in previous studies of the medial prefrontal and temporal...... cortices, revealed significant activation in the fusiform gyrus, independently of the task. In contrast, we found no effect of emotional content in the IMPC, where emotions failed to override the effect of the task. The results are consistent with a role of the IMPC in the selection among competitive...

  7. TV commercial and rTMS: can brain lateralization give us information about consumer preference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Leanza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed at investigating the brain lateralization effect in response to TV advertising of different commercial sectors. This study explored the effects of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC stimulation on subjective evaluation (semantic differential, in response to some consumer goods. We adopted rTMS (low-frequency 1Hz on left and right DLPFC to modulate the consumers’ (N=thirty-three response during the vision of five commercials. After three hours from the first evaluation of TV commercials without stimulation, rTMS was delivered in brain frontal areas (F3 and F4 areas before the vision of each stimulus. Following the stimulation, subjects evaluated advertising a second time by using the same semantic differential. An increase of TV commercials preference occurred in subjects who were inhibited on right DLPFC; while a decrease of advertising preference was shown in subjects who were inhibited on left DLPFC. These results reveal the important role of DLPFC for emotions’ elaboration. In particular, the left and right DLPFC seem to be related respectively to positive and negative evaluation of emotional stimuli.

  8. Associations between the CNTNAP2 gene, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and cognitive performance on the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Lei, Xuemei; Wang, Yunxin; Li, Jin; Moyzis, Robert K; Li, Jun; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde

    2017-02-20

    The CNTNAP2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2) gene, highly expressed in the human prefrontal cortex, has been linked with autism and language impairment. Potential relationships between CNTNAP2, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and cognition have been suggested by previous clinical studies, but have not been directly examined in the same study. The current study collected structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data in 317 healthy Chinese adults, and examined associations between CNTNAP2 variants, DLPFC, and cognitive performance (measured by the Stroop task). After controlling for intracranial volume, sex, and age, the CNTNAP2 genetic polymorphism at SNP rs7809486 had the strongest association with bilateral DLPFC volume (p=0.00015 and 0.00014 for left and right DLPFC volumes, respectively), with GG homozygotes having greater bilateral DLPFC volumes and surface areas than the other genotypes. Furthermore, TT homozygotes of CNTNAP2 rs4726946 (a nearby SNP that had moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs7809486) had greater left DLPFC volume and surface area, and better cognitive performance than the other genotypes. Subjects with greater left DLPFC surface area had better cognitive performance. Importantly, the left DLPFC surface area mediated the association between the CNTNAP2 rs4726946 genotype and cognitive performance. This study provides the first evidence for associations among the CNTNAP2 gene, left DLPFC structure, and cognitive control. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluative vs. trait representation in intergroup social judgments: distinct roles of anterior temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J; Swencionis, Jillian K; Amodio, David M

    2012-12-01

    When interacting with someone from another social group, one's responses may be influenced by both stereotypes and evaluations. Given behavioral results suggesting that stereotypes and evaluative associations operate independently, we used fMRI to test whether these biases are mediated by distinct brain systems. White participants viewed pairs of Black or White faces and judged them based on an evaluation (who would you befriend?) or a stereotype-relevant trait (who is more likely to enjoy athletic activities?). Multi-voxel pattern analysis revealed that a predominantly occipital network represented race in a context-invariant manner. However, lateral orbitofrontal cortex preferentially represented race during friendship judgments, whereas anterior medial prefrontal cortex preferentially represented race during trait judgments. Furthermore, representation of race in left temporal pole correlated with a behavioral measure of evaluative bias during friendship judgments and, independently, a measure of stereotyping during trait judgments. Whereas early sensory regions represent race in an apparently invariant manner, representations in higher-level regions are multi-componential and context-dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  11. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  12. The impact of rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A; Torii, T; Nakahara, Y; Iwahashi, M; Itoh, Y; Iramina, K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use event-related potentials (ERP) to clarify the effect of magnetic stimulation on cognitive processing. A figure eight-shaped flat repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) coil was used to stimulate either the region over the left or the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is considered to be the origin of the P300 component. Stimulus frequencies were 1.00, 0.75 and 0.50 Hz rTMS. The strength of the magnetic stimulation was set at 80% of the motor threshold for each participant. The auditory oddball task was used to elicit P300s before and shortly after rTMS, and comprised a sequence of sounds containing standard (1 kHz pure tone, 80% of trials) and deviant (2 kHz pure tone, 20% of trials) stimuli. We found that a 1.00 Hz rTMS pulse train over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increased P300 latencies by 8.50 ms at Fz, 12.85 ms at Cz, and 11.25 ms at Pz. In contrast, neither 0.75 and 0.50 Hz rTMS pulse trains over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex nor 1.00, 0.75 and 0.50 Hz rTMS pulse trains over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex altered P300 latencies. These results indicate that rTMS frequency affects cognitive processing. Thus, we suggest that the effects of rTMS vary according to the activity of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the cerebral cortex.

  13. The neural correlates of biomechanical constraints in hand laterality judgment task performed from other person's perspective: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Meng

    Full Text Available Previous studies, mainly using a first-person perspective (1PP, have shown that the judgments of the hand laterality judgment (HLJ task are dependent on biomechanical constraints (BC. Specifically, differing reaction times (RT for hand pictures rotated medially or laterally around the mid sagittal plane are attributed to the BC effect on motor imagery. In contrast, we investigated whether the HLJ task is also subject to BC when performed from a third-person perspective (3PP as well as 1PP using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to measure the brain activity of prefrontal cortex (PFC in right-handed participants assigned to 1PP or 3PP groups. The 1PP group judged whether a presented hand was their own left or right hand, and the 3PP group whether it was the other's left or right hand. Using their HLJ task error rates, the 1PP and 3PP groups were subdivided into an Error Group (EG and No Error Group (NEG. For the 1PP group, both EG and NEG showed a significant Hand Laterality × Orientation interaction for RT, indicating the BC effect on motor imagery. For the 3PP group, however, neither EG nor NEG showed the interaction, even though EG showed a significantly longer RT than NEG. These results suggest that the 3PP EG appropriately followed the 3PP task instruction, while the NEG might have taken 1PP. However, the 3PP EG NIRS profile of left PFC showed a significant Hand Laterality × Orientation interaction, while the 1PP EG did not. More noteworthy is that the left PFC activation of EG showed an interaction between the 1PP and 3PP groups when the left hand was presented. Furthermore, in the NEG, the PFC activation was not influenced by the BC in either the 1PP or 3PP condition. These results indicate that BC interferes with the HLJ task performed from the 1PP and 3PP.

  14. The neural correlates of biomechanical constraints in hand laterality judgment task performed from other person's perspective: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shuang; Oi, Misato; Saito, Godai; Saito, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies, mainly using a first-person perspective (1PP), have shown that the judgments of the hand laterality judgment (HLJ) task are dependent on biomechanical constraints (BC). Specifically, differing reaction times (RT) for hand pictures rotated medially or laterally around the mid sagittal plane are attributed to the BC effect on motor imagery. In contrast, we investigated whether the HLJ task is also subject to BC when performed from a third-person perspective (3PP) as well as 1PP using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the brain activity of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in right-handed participants assigned to 1PP or 3PP groups. The 1PP group judged whether a presented hand was their own left or right hand, and the 3PP group whether it was the other's left or right hand. Using their HLJ task error rates, the 1PP and 3PP groups were subdivided into an Error Group (EG) and No Error Group (NEG). For the 1PP group, both EG and NEG showed a significant Hand Laterality × Orientation interaction for RT, indicating the BC effect on motor imagery. For the 3PP group, however, neither EG nor NEG showed the interaction, even though EG showed a significantly longer RT than NEG. These results suggest that the 3PP EG appropriately followed the 3PP task instruction, while the NEG might have taken 1PP. However, the 3PP EG NIRS profile of left PFC showed a significant Hand Laterality × Orientation interaction, while the 1PP EG did not. More noteworthy is that the left PFC activation of EG showed an interaction between the 1PP and 3PP groups when the left hand was presented. Furthermore, in the NEG, the PFC activation was not influenced by the BC in either the 1PP or 3PP condition. These results indicate that BC interferes with the HLJ task performed from the 1PP and 3PP.

  15. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm 2 in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  16. Asymmetric activation in the prefrontal cortex by sound-induced affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wuon-Shik; Yoon, Young-Ro; Kim, Kyo-Heon; Jho, Moon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Tae

    2003-12-01

    This study is based on previous information regarding asymmetric activation in the prefrontal cortex by film-induced affects, as well as the inverse proportionality of prefrontal cortex activity to power in the alpha band of EEG. To search for a specific EEG band where the asymmetric activation in the prefrontal cortex by sound-induced affects is mainly reflected, we measured 32 college students' EEGs; 11 bands ranged from 6.5 to 35.0 Hz, at Fp1 and Fp2 sites. The power in the alpha band (8.0 to 13.0 Hz) at Fp2, especially in the alpha-2 band (9.0 to 11.0 Hz) increased while the students listened to music, during which participants reported positive affect. In contrast, the power at Fp1 increased while the students listened to noise, during which participants reported negative affect. These results imply that sound-induced positive affect increases relative left-sided activation in the prefrontal cortex, whereas induced negative affect elicits the opposite pattern of asymmetric activation.

  17. Increased functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and reward system in pathological gambling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Koehler

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum. PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder.

  18. Prefrontal lobotomy on Evita was done for behavior/personality modification, not just for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijensohn, Daniel E

    2015-07-01

    Eva Perón, best known as Evita, underwent a prefrontal lobotomy in 1952. Although the procedure was said to have been performed to relieve the pain of metastatic cancer, the author carried out a search for evidence that suggests that the procedure was prescribed to decrease violence and to modify Evita's behavior and personality, and not just for pain control. To further elucidate the circumstances surrounding the treatment of this well-known historic figure, the author reviewed the development of the procedure known as prefrontal lobotomy and its three main indications: management of psychiatric illness, control of intractable pain from terminal cancer, and mind control and behavior/personality modification. The role of pioneering neurosurgeons in the development of prefrontal lobotomy, particularly in Connecticut and at Yale University, was also studied, and the political and historical conditions in Argentina in 1952 and to the present were analyzed. Evita was the wife of Juan Perón, who was the supreme leader of the Peronist party as well as president of Argentina. In 1952, however, the Peronist government in Argentina was bicephalic because Evita led the left wing of the party and ran the Female Peronist Party and the Eva Perón Foundation. She was followed by a group of hardcore loyalists interested in accelerating the revolution. Evita was also suffering from metastatic cervical cancer, and her illness increased her anxiety and moved her to purchase weapons to start training workers' militias. Although the apparent purpose was to fight her husband's enemies, this was done without his knowledge. She delivered fiery political speeches and wrote incendiary documents that would have led to a fierce clash in the country at that time. Notwithstanding the disreputable connotation of conspiracy theories, evidence was found of a potentially sinister political conspiracy, led by General Perón, to quiet down his wife Evita and modify her behavior/personality to

  19. I find you more attractive … after (prefrontal cortex) stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, C.; Lega, C.; Tamietto, M.; Nadal, M.; Cattaneo, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Facial attractiveness seems to be perceived immediately. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the appraisal of facial attractiveness is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical regions, mainly encompassing the reward circuit, but also including prefrontal cortices. The prefrontal cortex is

  20. REPETITIVE TMS ON LEFT CEREBELLUM AFFECTS IMPULSIVITY IN BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER : A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Zelda De Vidovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The borderline personality disorder (BPD is characterized by a severe pattern of instability in emotional regulation, interpersonal relationships, identity, and impulse control. These functions are related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and since PFC shows a rich anatomical connectivity with the cerebellum, the functionality of the cerebellar-PFC axis may impact on BPD. In this study we investigated the potential involvement of cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections in impulsive reactions through a pre/post stimulation design. BPD patients (n=8 and healthy controls (HC; n=9 performed an Affective Go/No-Go task (AGN assessing information processing biases for positive and negative stimuli before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS; 1 Hz/10 min, 80% RMT over the left lateral cerebellum. The AGN task consisted of four blocks requiring associative capacities of increasing complexity. BPD patients performed significantly worse than the HC, especially when cognitive demands was high (3rd and 4th block, but their performace approached that of HC after rTMS (rTMS was almost ineffective in HC. The more evident effect of rTMS in complex associative tasks might have occurred since the cerebellum is deeply involved in integration and coordination of different stimuli. We hypothesize that, in BPD patients, cerebello-thalamo-cortical communication is altered, resulting in emotional dysregulation and disturbed impulse control. The rTMS over the left cerebellum might have interfered with existing functional connections exerting a facilitating effect on PFC control.

  1. Repetitive TMS on Left Cerebellum Affects Impulsivity in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vidovich, Giulia Zelda; Muffatti, Riccardo; Monaco, Jessica; Caramia, Nicoletta; Broglia, Davide; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Barale, Francesco; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    The borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a severe pattern of instability in emotional regulation, interpersonal relationships, identity and impulse control. These functions are related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and since PFC shows a rich anatomical connectivity with the cerebellum, the functionality of the cerebellar-PFC axis may impact on BPD. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections in impulsive reactions through a pre/post stimulation design. BPD patients ( n = 8) and healthy controls (HC; n = 9) performed an Affective Go/No-Go task (AGN) assessing information processing biases for positive and negative stimuli before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS; 1 Hz/10 min, 80% resting motor threshold (RMT) over the left lateral cerebellum. The AGN task consisted of four blocks requiring associative capacities of increasing complexity. BPD patients performed significantly worse than the HC, especially when cognitive demands were high (third and fourth block), but their performance approached that of HC after rTMS (rTMS was almost ineffective in HC). The more evident effect of rTMS in complex associative tasks might have occurred since the cerebellum is deeply involved in integration and coordination of different stimuli. We hypothesize that in BPD patients, cerebello-thalamo-cortical communication is altered, resulting in emotional dysregulation and disturbed impulse control. The rTMS over the left cerebellum might have interfered with existing functional connections exerting a facilitating effect on PFC control.

  2. Prefrontal cortex and executive function in young children: a review of NIRS studies

    OpenAIRE

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Executive function refers to the higher-order cognitive control process for the attainment of a specific goal. There are several subcomponents of executive function, such as inhibition, cognitive shifting, and working memory. Extensive neuroimaging research in adults has revealed that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in executive function. Developmental studies have reported behavioral evidence showing that executive function changes significantly during preschool years. ...

  3. Women with Premenstrual Dysphoria Lack the Seemingly Normal Premenstrual Right-Sided Relative Dominance of 5-HTP-Derived Serotonergic Activity in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices - A Possible Cause of Disabling Mood Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Olle; Wall, Anders; Olsson, Ulf; Marteinsdottir, Ina; Holstad, Maria; Ågren, Hans; Hartvig, Per; Långström, Bengt; Naessén, Tord

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in brain serotonergic activity between women with Premenstrual Dysphoria (PMD) and asymptomatic controls. Serotonin-augmenting drugs alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms in the majority of women with PMD while serotonin-depleting diets worsen PMD symptoms, both indicating intrinsic differences in brain serotonergic activity in women with PMD compared to asymptomatic women. Positron-emission tomography with the immediate precursor of serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), radiolabelled by 11C in the beta-3 position, was performed in the follicular and luteal phases for 12 women with PMD and 8 control women. Brain radioactivity-a proxy for serotonin precursor uptake and synthesis-was measured in 9 regions of interest (ROIs): the right and left sides of the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus, and the single "whole brain". There were no significant quantitative differences in brain 5-HTP-derived activity between the groups in either of the menstrual phases for any of the 9 ROIs. However, multivariate analysis revealed a significant quantitative and qualitative difference between the groups. Asymptomatic control women showed a premenstrual right sided relative increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 5-HTP derived activity, whereas PMD women displayed the opposite (p = 0.0001). Menstrual phase changes in this asymmetry (premenstrual-follicular) correlated with changes in self ratings of 'irritability' for the entire group (rs = -0.595, p = 0.006). The PMD group showed a strong inverse correlation between phase changes (premenstrual-follicular) in plasma levels of estradiol and phase changes in the laterality (dx/sin) of radiotracer activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal ROI (rs = -0.635; 0.027). The control group showed no such correlation. Absence of increased premenstrual right-sided relative 5-HTP-derived activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal

  4. Women with Premenstrual Dysphoria Lack the Seemingly Normal Premenstrual Right-Sided Relative Dominance of 5-HTP-Derived Serotonergic Activity in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices - A Possible Cause of Disabling Mood Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Eriksson

    Full Text Available To investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in brain serotonergic activity between women with Premenstrual Dysphoria (PMD and asymptomatic controls.Serotonin-augmenting drugs alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms in the majority of women with PMD while serotonin-depleting diets worsen PMD symptoms, both indicating intrinsic differences in brain serotonergic activity in women with PMD compared to asymptomatic women.Positron-emission tomography with the immediate precursor of serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, radiolabelled by 11C in the beta-3 position, was performed in the follicular and luteal phases for 12 women with PMD and 8 control women. Brain radioactivity-a proxy for serotonin precursor uptake and synthesis-was measured in 9 regions of interest (ROIs: the right and left sides of the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus, and the single "whole brain".There were no significant quantitative differences in brain 5-HTP-derived activity between the groups in either of the menstrual phases for any of the 9 ROIs. However, multivariate analysis revealed a significant quantitative and qualitative difference between the groups. Asymptomatic control women showed a premenstrual right sided relative increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 5-HTP derived activity, whereas PMD women displayed the opposite (p = 0.0001. Menstrual phase changes in this asymmetry (premenstrual-follicular correlated with changes in self ratings of 'irritability' for the entire group (rs = -0.595, p = 0.006. The PMD group showed a strong inverse correlation between phase changes (premenstrual-follicular in plasma levels of estradiol and phase changes in the laterality (dx/sin of radiotracer activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal ROI (rs = -0.635; 0.027. The control group showed no such correlation.Absence of increased premenstrual right-sided relative 5-HTP-derived activity of the dorsolateral

  5. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  6. Common and dissociable prefrontal loci associated with component mechanisms of analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soohyun; Moody, Teena D; Fernandino, Leonardo; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A; Cannon, Tyrone D; Knowlton, Barbara J; Holyoak, Keith J

    2010-03-01

    The ability to draw analogies requires 2 key cognitive processes, relational integration and resolution of interference. The present study aimed to identify the neural correlates of both component processes of analogical reasoning within a single, nonverbal analogy task using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants verified whether a visual analogy was true by considering either 1 or 3 relational dimensions. On half of the trials, there was an additional need to resolve interference in order to make a correct judgment. Increase in the number of dimensions to integrate was associated with increased activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex as well as lateral frontal pole in both hemispheres. When there was a need to resolve interference during reasoning, activation increased in the lateral prefrontal cortex but not in the frontal pole. We identified regions in the middle and inferior frontal gyri which were exclusively sensitive to demands on each component process, in addition to a partial overlap between these neural correlates of each component process. These results indicate that analogical reasoning is mediated by the coordination of multiple regions of the prefrontal cortex, of which some are sensitive to demands on only one of these 2 component processes, whereas others are sensitive to both.

  7. Sensitive Dependence of Mental Function on Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Alen J Salerian

    2015-01-01

    This study offers evidence to suggest that both normalcy and psychiatric illness are sensitively dependent upon prefrontal cortex function. In general, the emergence of psychiatric symptoms coincide with diminished influence of prefrontal cortex function. The mediating influence of prefrontal cortex may be independent of molecular and regional brain dysfunctions contributory to psychiatric illness.

  8. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2010-10-08

    The degree of behavioral control that an organism has over an aversive event is well known to modulate the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of exposure to the event. Here we review recent research that suggests that the experience of control over a potent stressor alters how the organism responds to future aversive events as well as to the stressor being controlled. More specifically, subjects that have experienced control show blunted behavioral and neurochemical responses to subsequent stressors occurring days to months later. Indeed, these subjects respond as if a later uncontrollable stressor is actually controllable. Further, we review research indicating that the stress resistance induced by control depends on control-induced activation of ventral medial prefrontal cortical (vmPFC) inhibitory control over brainstem and limbic structures. Furthermore, there appears to be plasticity in these circuits such that the experience of control alters the vmPFC in such a way that later uncontrollable stressors now activate the vmPFC circuitry, leading to inhibition of stress-responsive limbic and brainstem structures, i.e., stressor resistance. This controllability-induced proactive stressor resistance generalizes across very different stressors and may be involved in determining individual difference in reactions to traumatic events. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural modeling of prefrontal executive function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Brain executive function is based in a distributed system whereby prefrontal cortex is interconnected with other cortical. and subcortical loci. Executive function is divided roughly into three interacting parts: affective guidance of responses; linkage among working memory representations; and forming complex behavioral schemata. Neural network models of each of these parts are reviewed and fit into a preliminary theoretical framework.

  10. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riga, D.; Matos, R.M.; Glas, A.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.; van den Oever, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and

  11. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  12. Acute pharmacogenetic activation of medial prefrontal cortex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in anxiety-like behaviour. In rodent models, perturbations of mPFCneuronal activity through pharmacological manipulations, optogenetic activation of mPFC neurons or cell-type specificpharmacogenetic inhibition of somatostatin interneurons indicate conflicting effects on ...

  13. Susceptibility to social pressure following ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Rusch, Michelle L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-11-01

    Social pressure influences human behavior including risk taking, but the psychological and neural underpinnings of this process are not well understood. We used the human lesion method to probe the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in resisting adverse social pressure in the presence of risk. Thirty-seven participants (11 with vmPFC damage, 12 with brain damage outside the vmPFC and 14 without brain damage) were tested in driving simulator scenarios requiring left-turn decisions across oncoming traffic with varying time gaps between the oncoming vehicles. Social pressure was applied by a virtual driver who honked aggressively from behind. Participants with vmPFC damage were more likely to select smaller and potentially unsafe gaps under social pressure, while gap selection by the comparison groups did not change under social pressure. Participants with vmPFC damage also showed prolonged elevated skin conductance responses (SCR) under social pressure. Comparison groups showed similar initial elevated SCR, which then declined prior to making left-turn decisions. The findings suggest that the vmPFC plays an important role in resisting explicit and immediately present social pressure with potentially negative consequences. The vmPFC appears to contribute to the regulation of emotional responses and the modulation of decision making to optimize long-term outcomes. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal cortex under an ego-blocking frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation.

  15. Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal cortex under an ego-blocking frustration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Minamoto

    Full Text Available Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive, while others punish themselves (intropunitive. Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9 showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9 showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation.

  16. Extrapunitive and Intropunitive Individuals Activate Different Parts of the Prefrontal Cortex under an Ego-Blocking Frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation. PMID:24454951

  17. Where vision meets memory: prefrontal-posterior networks for visual object constancy during categorization and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendan, Haline E; Stern, Chantal E

    2008-07-01

    Objects seen from unusual relative to more canonical views require more time to categorize and recognize, and, according to object model verification theories, additionally recruit prefrontal processes for cognitive control that interact with parietal processes for mental rotation. To test this using functional magnetic resonance imaging, people categorized and recognized known objects from unusual and canonical views. Canonical views activated some components of a default network more on categorization than recognition. Activation to unusual views showed that both ventral and dorsal visual pathways, and prefrontal cortex, have key roles in visual object constancy. Unusual views activated object-sensitive and mental rotation (and not saccade) regions in ventrocaudal intraparietal, transverse occipital, and inferotemporal sulci, and ventral premotor cortex for verification processes of model testing on any task. A collateral-lingual sulci "place" area activated for mental rotation, working memory, and unusual views on correct recognition and categorization trials to accomplish detailed spatial matching. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and object-sensitive lateral occipital sulcus activated for mental rotation and unusual views on categorization more than recognition, supporting verification processes of model prediction. This visual knowledge framework integrates vision and memory theories to explain how distinct prefrontal-posterior networks enable meaningful interactions with objects in diverse situations.

  18. Effective amygdala-prefrontal connectivity predicts individual differences in successful emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Carmen; Bode, Stefan; Baudewig, Juergen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2017-04-01

    The ability to voluntarily regulate our emotional response to threatening and highly arousing stimuli by using cognitive reappraisal strategies is essential for our mental and physical well-being. This might be achieved by prefrontal brain regions (e.g. inferior frontal gyrus, IFG) down-regulating activity in the amygdala. It is unknown, to which degree effective connectivity within the emotion-regulation network is linked to individual differences in reappraisal skills. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we examined changes in inter-regional connectivity between the amygdala and IFG with other brain regions during reappraisal of emotional responses and used emotion regulation success as an explicit regressor. During down-regulation of emotion, reappraisal success correlated with effective connectivity between IFG with dorsolateral, dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC). During up-regulation of emotion, effective coupling between IFG with anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial and ventromedial PFC as well as the amygdala correlated with reappraisal success. Activity in the amygdala covaried with activity in lateral and medial prefrontal regions during the up-regulation of emotion and correlated with reappraisal success. These results suggest that successful reappraisal is linked to changes in effective connectivity between two systems, prefrontal cognitive control regions and regions crucially involved in emotional evaluation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Right prefrontal cortex specialization for visuospatial working memory and developmental alterations in prefrontal cortex recruitment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Kita, Yosuke; Oi, Yuhei; Okumura, Yasuko; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Inagaki, Masumi

    2018-02-12

    The right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an essential role in active processing within visuospatial working memory (VSWM). The aim of this study was to examine developmental changes in the recruitment patterns of the PFC during visuospatial memory tasks in school-age participants. We recruited 80 school-age children who were classified into three age groups: 7- to 8-year-old, 9- to 10-year-old, and 11- to 12-year-old children. We used near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure PFC activity during visuospatial memory task. Memory stimuli were presented either sequentially or simultaneously. In all three groups, right-lateralized PFC activity was observed during sequential presentation, suggesting specialization of the right PFC for VSWM. During simultaneous presentation, right-lateralized PFC activity was not observed in 7- to 8-year-old children or 9- to 10-year-old children. In contrast, PFC activity was right-lateralized in 11- to 12-year-old children. We suggest that specialization of the right PFC for VSWM is already present before school-age, but widely distributed activity in response to visuospatial memory tasks changes to more focal activity in VSWM-specific regions during the early school years. Using NIRS, we showed developmental changes in the recruitment patterns of the PFC during visuospatial memory tasks. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Causal role of prefrontal cortex in the threshold for access to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cul, A; Dehaene, S; Reyes, P; Bravo, E; Slachevsky, A

    2009-09-01

    What neural mechanisms support our conscious perception of briefly presented stimuli? Some theories of conscious access postulate a key role of top-down amplification loops involving prefrontal cortex (PFC). To test this issue, we measured the visual backward masking threshold in patients with focal prefrontal lesions, using both objective and subjective measures while controlling for putative attention deficits. In all conditions of temporal or spatial attention cueing, the threshold for access to consciousness was systematically shifted in patients, particular after a lesion of the left anterior PFC. The deficit affected subjective reports more than objective performance, and objective performance conditioned on subjective visibility was essentially normal. We conclude that PFC makes a causal contribution to conscious visual perception of masked stimuli, and outline a dual-route signal detection theory of objective and subjective decision making.

  1. Prefrontal cortical GABAergic signaling and impaired behavioral flexibility in aged F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beas, B S; McQuail, J A; Ban Uelos, C; Setlow, B; Bizon, J L

    2017-03-14

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for the ability to flexibly adapt established patterns of behavior in response to a change in environmental contingencies. Impaired behavioral flexibility results in maladaptive strategies such as perseveration on response options that no longer produce a desired outcome. Pharmacological manipulations of prefrontal cortical GABAergic signaling modulate behavioral flexibility in animal models, and prefrontal cortical interneuron dysfunction is implicated in impaired behavioral flexibility that accompanies neuropsychiatric disease. As deficits in behavioral flexibility also emerge during the normal aging process, the goal of this study was to determine the role of GABAergic signaling, specifically via prefrontal cortical GABA(B) receptors, in such age-related deficits. Young and aged rats were trained in a set shifting task performed in operant chambers. First, rats learned to discriminate between two response levers to obtain a food reward on the basis of a cue light illuminated above the correct lever. Upon acquisition of this initial discrimination, the contingencies were shifted such that rats had to ignore the cue light and respond on the levers according to their left/right positions. Both young and aged rats acquired the initial discrimination similarly; however, aged rats were impaired relative to young following the set shift. Among aged rats, GABA(B) receptor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was strongly correlated with set shifting, such that lower expression was associated with worse performance. Subsequent experiments showed that intra-mPFC administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen enhanced set shifting performance in aged rats. These data directly link GABAergic signaling via GABA(B) receptors to impaired behavioral flexibility associated with normal aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of prefrontal cortex damage on emotion understanding: EEG and behavioural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anat; Saunders, Samantha N; Stiso, Jennifer; Dewar, Callum; Lubell, Jamie; Meling, Torstein R; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Knight, Robert T

    2017-04-01

    Humans are highly social beings that interact with each other on a daily basis. In these complex interactions, we get along by being able to identify others' actions and infer their intentions, thoughts and feelings. One of the major theories accounting for this critical ability assumes that the understanding of social signals is based on a primordial tendency to simulate observed actions by activating a mirror neuron system. If mirror neuron regions are important for action and emotion recognition, damage to regions in this network should lead to deficits in these domains. In the current behavioural and EEG study, we focused on the lateral prefrontal cortex including dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex and utilized a series of task paradigms, each measuring a different aspect of recognizing others' actions or emotions from body cues. We examined 17 patients with lesions including (n = 8) or not including (n = 9) the inferior frontal gyrus, a core mirror neuron system region, and compared their performance to matched healthy control subjects (n = 18), in behavioural tasks and in an EEG observation-execution task measuring mu suppression. Our results provide support for the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex in understanding others' emotions, by showing that even unilateral lesions result in deficits in both accuracy and reaction time in tasks involving the recognition of others' emotions. In tasks involving the recognition of actions, patients showed a general increase in reaction time, but not a reduction in accuracy. Deficits in emotion recognition can be seen by either direct damage to the inferior frontal gyrus, or via damage to dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex regions, resulting in deteriorated performance and less EEG mu suppression over sensorimotor cortex. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Friberg, L

    1991-01-01

    blood flow distribution was depicted by single photon emission computed tomography at rest and during activation with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. A significant relative activation deficit in the left inferior-prefrontal region was revealed during the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in the patient group......To measure prefrontal and subcortical activity during a cognitive task, we examined 19 newly diagnosed schizophrenics and patients with schizophreniform psychosis. Seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The patients were drug naive or had received neuroleptics for a few days only. Cerebral....... Furthermore, the patients had impaired striatal suppression on the left side during the cognitive task. The test performance was significantly impaired in the patients. The inability to reduce striatal activity may be due to a lack of corticostriatal feedback during prefrontal activation....

  4. Recurrent Moderate Hypoglycemia Suppresses Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex and Impairs Sensorimotor Gating in the Posthypoglycemic Period in Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Raghavendra; Ennis, Kathleen; Mitchell, Eugena P; Tran, Phu V; Gewirtz, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia is common in infants and children. In developing rat models, recurrent moderate hypoglycemia leads to neuronal injury in the medial prefrontal cortex. To understand the effects beyond neuronal injury, 3-week-old male rats were subjected to 5 episodes of moderate hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration, approx. 30 mg/dl for 90 min) once daily from postnatal day 24 to 28. Neuronal injury was determined using Fluoro-Jade B histochemistry on postnatal day 29. The effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) expression, which is critical for prefrontal cortex development, were determined on postnatal day 29 and at adulthood. The effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated function were determined by assessing the prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex on postnatal day 29 and 2 weeks later, and by testing for fear-potentiated startle at adulthood. Recurrent hypoglycemia led to neuronal injury confined primarily to the medial prefrontal cortex. BDNF/TrkB expression in the prefrontal cortex was suppressed on postnatal day 29 and was accompanied by lower prepulse inhibition, suggesting impaired sensorimotor gating. Following the cessation of recurrent hypoglycemia, the prepulse inhibition had recovered at 2 weeks. BDNF/TrkB expression in the prefrontal cortex had normalized and fear-potentiated startle was intact at adulthood. Recurrent moderate hypoglycemia during development has significant adverse effects on the prefrontal cortex in the posthypoglycemic period. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Prefrontal system dysfunction and credit card debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2004-10-01

    Credit card use often involves a disadvantageous allocation of finances because they allow for spending beyond means and buying on impulse. Accordingly they are associated with increased bankruptcy, anxiety, stress, and health problems. Mounting evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical studies implicates prefrontal-subcortical systems in processing financial information. This study examined the relationship of credit card debt and executive functions using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FRSBE). After removing the influences of demographic variables (age, sex, education, and income), credit card debt was associated with the Executive Dysfunction scale, but not the Apathy or Disinhibition scales. This suggests that processes of conceptualizing and organizing finances are most relevant to credit card debt, and implicates dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction.

  6. The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by remorseless and impulsive antisocial behavior. Given the significant societal costs of the recidivistic criminal activity associated with the disorder, there is a pressing need for more effective treatment strategies, and hence, a better understanding of the psychobiological mechanisms underlying the disorder. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is likely to play an important role in psychopathy. In particular, the ventromedial and anterior cingulate sectors of PFC are theorized to mediate a number of social and affective decision-making functions that appear to be disrupted in psychopathy. This article provides a critical summary of human neuroimaging data implicating prefrontal dysfunction in psychopathy. A growing body of evidence associates psychopathy with structural and functional abnormalities in ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex. Although this burgeoning field still faces a number of methodological challenges and outstanding questions that will need to be resolved by future studies, the research to date has established a link between psychopathy and PFC. PMID:22752782

  7. Capacity-speed relationships in prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Prabhakaran

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity and WM processing speed are simple cognitive measures that underlie human performance in complex processes such as reasoning and language comprehension. These cognitive measures have shown to be interrelated in behavioral studies, yet the neural mechanism behind this interdependence has not been elucidated. We have carried out two functional MRI studies to separately identify brain regions involved in capacity and speed. Experiment 1, using a block-design WM verbal task, identified increased WM capacity with increased activity in right prefrontal regions, and Experiment 2, using a single-trial WM verbal task, identified increased WM processing speed with increased activity in similar regions. Our results suggest that right prefrontal areas may be a common region interlinking these two cognitive measures. Moreover, an overlap analysis with regions associated with binding or chunking suggest that this strategic memory consolidation process may be the mechanism interlinking WM capacity and WM speed.

  8. Dyspnea-Related Cues Engage the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, Mari; Hayen, Anja; Evans, Eleanor; Hardinge, Frances M.; Davies, Robert J.; Wiech, Katja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is the major source of disability in COPD. In COPD, environmental cues (eg, the prospect of having to climb stairs) become associated with dyspnea and may trigger dyspnea even before physical activity commences. We hypothesized that brain activation relating to such cues would be different between patients with COPD and healthy control subjects, reflecting greater engagement of emotional mechanisms in patients. METHODS: Using functional MRI (FMRI), we investigated brain responses to dyspnea-related word cues in 41 patients with COPD and 40 healthy age-matched control subjects. We combined these findings with scores on self-report questionnaires, thus linking the FMRI task with clinically relevant measures. This approach was adapted from studies in pain that enabled identification of brain networks responsible for pain processing despite absence of a physical challenge. RESULTS: Patients with COPD demonstrated activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, which correlated with the visual analog scale (VAS) response to word cues. This activity independently correlated with patient responses on questionnaires of depression, fatigue, and dyspnea vigilance. Activation in the anterior insula, lateral prefrontal cortex, and precuneus correlated with the VAS dyspnea scale but not with the questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that engagement of the emotional circuitry of the brain is important for interpretation of dyspnea-related cues in COPD and is influenced by depression, fatigue, and vigilance. A heightened response to salient cues is associated with increased symptom perception in chronic pain and asthma, and the findings suggest that such mechanisms may be relevant in COPD. PMID:26134891

  9. Single-trial regression elucidates the role of prefrontal theta oscillations in response conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X Cohen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In most cognitive neuroscience experiments there are many behavioral and experimental dynamics, and many indices of brain activity, that vary from trial to trial. For example, in studies of response conflict, conflict is usually treated as a binary variable (i.e., response conflict exists or does not in any given trial, whereas some evidence and intuition suggests that conflict may vary in intensity from trial to trial. Here we demonstrate that single-trial multiple regression of time-frequency electrophysiological activity reveals neural mechanisms of cognitive control that are not apparent in cross-trial averages. We also introduce a novel extension to oscillation phase coherence and synchronization analyses, based on weighted phase modulation, that has advantages over standard coherence measures in terms of linking electrophysiological dynamics to trial-varying behavior and experimental variables. After replicating previous response conflict findings using trial-averaged data, we extend these findings using single trial analytic methods to provide novel evidence for the role of medial frontal-lateral prefrontal theta-band synchronization in conflict-induced response time dynamics, including a role for lateral prefrontal theta-band activity in biasing response times according to perceptual conflict. Given that these methods shed new light on the prefrontal mechanisms of response conflict, they are also likely to be useful for investigating other neurocognitive processes.

  10. Prefrontal connections of the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunkyu; Willis, Bailey S; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2017-07-29

    Knowing how prefrontal regions interact with medial temporal lobe structures is important for understanding memory and cognition. Using anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods in the rat, we report a detailed study of the perirhinal (PER) and postrhinal (POR) connections with the lateral, ventrolateral, and medial orbitofrontal cortices (ORBl, ORBvl, ORBm), infralimbic and prelimbic cortices (IL, PL), ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices (ACAv, ACAd), and secondary motor cortex (MOs). Our analyses included the topography and laminar patterns of these connections. The PER and POR showed reciprocal connectivity with all prefrontal regions examined, but the patterns of connections differed. In general, PER areas 36 and 35 showed patterns of connectivity that were more similar to each other than to those of the POR. Analysis of anterograde tracers showed that PER areas 36 and 35 provide the strongest projections to prefrontal regions. The heaviest fiber labeling was in IL and PL, closely followed by orbital regions. Fiber labeling arising from injections in POR was weaker overall. The strongest POR efferents targeted MOs, ACAv, and ORBvl. For return projections, analysis of retrograde tracers showed that PER areas 36 and 35 receive strong inputs from orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal regions. Interestingly, PER also received substantial inputs from MOs and ACAd. The POR receives a very strong input from MOs, followed by ACAd, and ORBvl. Based on comparison of our findings with those obtained in monkeys, we argue that the rodent ACAd and MOs may be a functional homolog of the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  12. Modulating Memory Performance in Healthy Subjects with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirni, Daniela; Turriziani, Patrizia; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Cipolotti, Lisa; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) in recognition memory has been well documented in lesion, neuroimaging and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the left and the right DLPFC during the delay interval of a non-verbal recognition memory task. 36 right-handed young healthy subjects participated in the study. The experimental task was an Italian version of Recognition Memory Test for unknown faces. Study included two experiments: in a first experiment, each subject underwent one session of sham tDCS and one session of left or right cathodal tDCS; in a second experiment each subject underwent one session of sham tDCS and one session of left or right anodal tDCS. Cathodal tDCS over the right DLPFC significantly improved non verbal recognition memory performance, while cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC had no effect. Anodal tDCS of both the left and right DLPFC did not modify non verbal recognition memory performance. Complementing the majority of previous studies, reporting long term memory facilitations following left prefrontal anodal tDCS, the present findings show that cathodal tDCS of the right DLPFC can also improve recognition memory in healthy subjects.

  13. Reduction of prefrontal thickness in military police officers with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-imaging studies in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD have consistently revealed alterations in brain structure and function and this is correlated to symptomatology. However, few studies have investigated the role of biomarkers in PTSD some specific groups, as police officers. Objective To evaluate prefrontal and limbic volumes, and cortical thickness of police officers exposed to trauma during work who developed post-traumatic stress disorder, resilient matched controls (without PTSD, and compared to healthy civilians. Methods Prefrontal and limbic volumes, and cortical thickness of 12 police officers with PTSD, 12 resilient police officers, and 12 healthy civilians who underwent brain MRI were analyzed. Results Differences in limbic structures volume were not significative after Bonferroni correction. A significant reduction in cortical thickness on right rostral cingulate, right and left middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal, left lingual, calcarine and cuneus were observed in PTSD group in comparison to controls was observed. Discussion Although preliminary, our results suggested not only the association between cortical thickness and PTSD, but also indicated that patients and controls have anatomical differences.

  14. Volumetric Analysis of Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Prefrontal Cortex in Therapy-Naive PTSD Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Starcevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In our study we have hypothesized that volume changes of amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex are more pronounced in male posttraumatic stress disorder participants. Material and Methods. We have conducted a study of 79 male participants who underwent MRI brain scanning. PTSD diagnosis was confirmed in 49 participants. After MRI was taken all scans were software based volume computed and statistically processed. Results. We found that left amygdala is the most significant parameter for distinction between PTSD participants and participants without PTSD. There were no significant differences in volumes of hippocampi and prefrontal cortices. Roc curve method outlined left amygdala AUC = 0.898 (95% CI = 0.830–0.967 and right amygdala AUC = 0.882 (95% CI = 0.810–0.954 in the group of PTSD participants which makes both variables highly statistically significant. Conclusion. The present investigation revealed significant volume decrease of left amygdala in PTSD patients. Concerning important functions of the amygdala and her neuroanatomical connections with other brain structures, we need to increase number of participants to clarify the correlation between impared amygdala and possible other different brain structures in participants with PTSD.

  15. Neural mechanisms of economic commitment in the human medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Wyart, Valentin; Shorkey, S Paul; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-10-21

    Neurobiologists have studied decisions by offering successive, independent choices between goods or gambles. However, choices often have lasting consequences, as when investing in a house or choosing a partner. Here, humans decided whether to commit (by acceptance or rejection) to prospects that provided sustained financial return. BOLD signals in the rostral medial prefrontal cortex (rmPFC) encoded stimulus value only when acceptance or rejection was deferred into the future, suggesting a role in integrating value signals over time. By contrast, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) encoded stimulus value only when participants rejected (or deferred accepting) a prospect. dACC BOLD signals reflected two decision biases-to defer commitments to later, and to weight potential losses more heavily than gains-that (paradoxically) maximised reward in this task. These findings offer fresh insights into the pressures that shape economic decisions, and the computation of value in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  16. A study of 1H-MR spectroscopy in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of heroine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanying; Wang Yarong; Li Qiang; Xiong Xiaoshuang; Wang Wei; Zhao Wei; Bai Yunliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristic findings of 1 H-MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of patients with heroine dependence (HD), and the relationship to total cumulative dose of inhaled heroine. Methods: Fourteen male HD patients and 12 healthy controls (HC) underwent 1 H-MRS at the prefrontal cortex and amygdala regions. The total cumulative in haled heroin dose was (852±341) g in HD. Ratios of N-acetylaspartate/creatine(NAA/Cr) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) were respectively measured in the prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdale regions. The student's t test and the linear correlation were employed for statistical analysis. Results: Compared to HC group, HD patients had a significant lower ratio of NAA/Cr in the prefrontal cortex (1.44±0.46 vs 1.50±0.75, t=1.77, P< 0.05), left amygdala region (1.32±0.08 vs 1.42±0.08, t=3.41, P<0.05), and right amygdala region (1.34±0.09 vs 1.44±0.10, t=2.63, P<0.05), the HD patients had a significant increased ratio of Cho/Cr in the prefrontal cortex (0.92±0.06 vs 0.86±0.08, t=2.31, P<0.05), left amygdala region (1.20±0.12 vs 1.07±0.04, t=3.60, P<0.05) and right amygdala region(1.26±0.15 vs 1.12±0.11, t=2.60, P<0.05). There was a negative linear correlation between the total cumulative inhaled heroine dose and the ratio of NAA/Cr in the prefrontal cortex (r=-0.9159, P<0.01), left amygdala region( r= -0.8756, P<0.01), and right amygdala region (r=-0.9399, P<0.01) respectively. Conclusions: The study indicates that neuronal damage and glial proliferation may occur in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala region, which suggests the abnormalities of executive function and emotion in patients with HD. A relationship exists between the heroin-induced metabolic abnormality and the total cumulative dose of inhaled heroine. (authors)

  17. Differential motor and prefrontal cerebello-cortical network development: Evidence from multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Orr, Joseph M; Mittal, Vijay A

    2016-01-01

    While our understanding of cerebellar structural development through adolescence and young adulthood has expanded, we still lack knowledge of the developmental patterns of cerebellar networks during this critical portion of the lifespan. Volume in lateral posterior cerebellar regions associated with cognition and the prefrontal cortex develops more slowly, reaching their peak volume in adulthood, particularly as compared to motor Lobule V. We predicted that resting state functional connectivity of the lateral posterior regions would show a similar pattern of development during adolescence and young adulthood. That is, we expected to see changes over time in Crus I and Crus II connectivity with the cortex, but no changes in Lobule V connectivity. Additionally, we were interested in how structural connectivity changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter are related to changes in functional connectivity. A sample of 23 individuals between 12 and 21years old underwent neuroimaging scans at baseline and 12months later. Functional networks of Crus I and Crus II showed significant connectivity decreases over 12months, though there were no differences in Lobule V. Furthermore, these functional connectivity changes were correlated with increases in white matter structural integrity in the corresponding cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter tract. We suggest that these functional network changes are due to both later pruning in the prefrontal cortex as well as further development of the white matter tracts linking these brain regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced Prefrontal Cortical Gray Matter Volume in Young Adults Exposed to Harsh Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Suzuki, Hanako; Rabi, Keren; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such as sexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associated with discernible alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods 1,455 young adults (18–25 years) were screened to identify 23 with exposure to HCP (minimum 3 years duration, 12 episodes per year, frequently involving objects) and 22 healthy controls. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were obtained using Siemens 3T trio scanner. Results GMV was reduced by 19.1% in the right medial frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex; MPFC, BA10) (P = 0.037, corrected cluster level), by 14.5% in the left medial frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DLPFC, BA 9) (P = 0.015, uncorrected cluster level) and by 16.9% in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24) (P < 0.001, uncorrected cluster level) of HCP subjects. There were significant correlations between GMV in these identified regions and performance IQ on the WAIS-III. Conclusions Exposing children to harsh HCP may have detrimental effects on trajectories of brain development. However, it is also conceivable that differences in prefrontal cortical development may increase risk of exposure to HCP. PMID:19285558

  19. Reduced prefrontal cortical gray matter volume in young adults exposed to harsh corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Suzuki, Hanako; Rabi, Keren; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H

    2009-08-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such as sexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associated with discernible alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). 1455 young adults (18-25 years) were screened to identify 23 with exposure to HCP (minimum 3 years duration, 12 episodes per year, frequently involving objects) and 22 healthy controls. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were obtained using Siemens 3 T trio scanner. GMV was reduced by 19.1% in the right medial frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex; MPFC, BA10) (P=0.037, corrected cluster level), by 14.5% in the left medial frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DLPFC, BA9) (P=0.015, uncorrected cluster level) and by 16.9% in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (BA24) (P<0.001, uncorrected cluster level) of HCP subjects. There were significant correlations between GMV in these identified regions and performance IQ on the WAIS-III. Exposing children to harsh HCP may have detrimental effects on trajectories of brain development. However, it is also conceivable that differences in prefrontal cortical development may increase risk of exposure to HCP.

  20. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  1. Resting state amygdala-prefrontal connectivity predicts symptom change after cognitive behavioral therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Heide; Keutmann, Michael K; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Shankman, Stewart A; Phan, K Luan

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant amygdala-prefrontal interactions at rest and during emotion processing are implicated in the pathophysiology of generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD), a common disorder characterized by fears of potential scrutiny. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is first-line psychotherapy for gSAD and other anxiety disorders. While CBT is generally effective, there is a great deal of heterogeneity in treatment response. To date, predictors of success in CBT for gSAD include reduced amygdala reactivity and increased activity in prefrontal regulatory regions (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex, "ACC") during emotion processing. However, studies have not examined whether tonic (i.e., at rest) coupling of amygdala and these prefrontal regions also predict response to CBT. Twenty-one patients with gSAD participated in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before 12 weeks of CBT. Overall, symptom severity was significantly reduced after completing CBT; however, the patients varied considerably in degree of symptom change. Whole-brain voxel-wise findings showed symptom improvement after CBT was predicted by greater right amygdala-pregenual ACC ("pgACC") connectivity and greater left amygdala-pgACC coupling encompassing medial prefrontal cortex. In support of their predictive value, area under receiver operating characteristic curve was significant for the left and right amygdala-pgACC in relation to treatment responders. Improvement after CBT was predicted by enhanced resting-state bilateral amygdala-prefrontal coupling in gSAD. Preliminary results suggest baseline individual differences in a fundamental circuitry that may underlie emotion regulation contributed to variation in symptom change after CBT. Findings offer a new approach towards using a biological measure to foretell who will most likely benefit from CBT. In particular, the departure from neural predictors based on illness-relevant stimuli (e.g., socio-emotional stimuli in gSAD) permits

  2. Plasticity in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density) in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions. PMID:25691857

  3. Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan eKolb

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions.

  4. Decreased Left Posterior Insular Activity During Auditory Language in Autism American Journal of Neuroradiology – January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Lange, Nicholas; Froehlich, Alyson; DuBray, Molly B.; Druzgal, T. Jason; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Individuals with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit atypical language patterns including delay of speech onset, literal speech interpretation, and poor recognition of social and emotional cues in speech. We acquired fMRI images during an auditory language task to evaluate for systematic differences in language network activation between control and high-functioning autistic populations. Materials and Methods 41 right-handed male subjects (26 high-functioning autistic, 15 control) were studied using an auditory phrase recognition task, and areas of differential activation between groups were identified. Hand preference, verbal IQ, age, and language function testing were included as covariables in the analysis. Results Control and autistic subjects showed similar language activation networks, with two notable differences. Control subjects showed significantly increased activation in the left posterior insula compared to autistic subjects (p<0.05, FDR), and autistic subjects showed increased bilaterality of receptive language compared to control subjects. Higher receptive language score on standardized testing was associated with greater activation of the posterior aspect of left Wernicke’s area. Higher verbal IQ was associated with greater activation of bilateral Broca’s area and involvement of prefrontal cortex and lateral premotor cortex. Conclusion Control subjects showed greater activation of the posterior insula during receptive language, which may correlate with impaired emotive processing of language in autism. Autism subjects showed greater bilateral activation of receptive language areas that was out of proportion to differences in hand preference in autism and control populations. PMID:19749222

  5. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1987-02-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  6. Right prefrontal TMS disrupts interregional anticipatory EEG alpha activity during shifting of visuospatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSauseng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention can be shifted in space without moving the eyes. Amplitude decrease of rhythmical brain activity around 10 Hz (so called alpha activity at contralateral posterior sites has been reported during covert shifts of visuospatial attention to one visual hemifield. Alpha amplitude increase, on the other hand, can be found at ipsilateral visual cortex. There is some evidence suggesting an involvement of prefrontal brain areas during the control of attention-related anticipatory alpha amplitude asymmetry. However, the exact neural mechanism by which prefrontal cortex influences visual processing has not been completely clear yet. This open question has been studied in detail using a multimodal approach combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and multichannel electroencephalography (EEG in healthy humans. Slow (1 Hz repetitive TMS inducing an inhibitory effect at the stimulation site was delivered either to right frontal eye field or a control site (vertex. Subsequently, participants had to perform a spatial cueing task in which covert shifts of attention were required to either the left or the right visual hemi-field. After stimulation at the vertex (control condition a pattern of anticipatory, attention-related ipsilateral alpha increase / contralateral alpha decrease over posterior recording sites could be obtained. Additionally, there was pronounced coupling between (in particular right FEF and posterior brain sites. When, however, the right prefrontal cortex had been virtually lesioned preceding the task, these EEG correlates of visuospatial attention were attenuated. Notably, the effect of TMS at the right FEF on interregional fronto-parietal alpha coupling predicted the effect on response times. This suggests that visual attention processes associated with posterior EEG alpha activity are at least partly top-down controlled by the prefrontal cortex.

  7. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  8. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Mentalizing ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Zai-Ting; Lo, Chiao-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Dar; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Mentalizing ability is the issue in the social cognition of patients with brain injury that has received the most attention. The present study investigated mentalization ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage. The aims of this study were to investigate: (a) whether patients with prefrontal cortex damage are impaired in mentalizing ability, including theory of mind (ToM) and empathy; (b) whether patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage are impaired in different aspects of ToM; (c) whether patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage are impaired in different aspects of empathy; and (d) whether impairment of mentalizing ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage can be explained by executive dysfunction. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Matrix Reasoning subtest, working memory, executive function, theory of mind, and empathy assessments were conducted on eight patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage, 15 patients with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage, and 19 normal comparisons matched for level of education and intelligence. The results showed that performance on affective and nonverbal theory of mind was significantly lower in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage than in the comparison group. Performance on personal distress items of empathy was significantly lower in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage group than in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage group. In addition, further multiple regression analysis showed that affective theory of mind could be explained by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-Modified (WCST-M), with an explained variance of up to 44%. The present study suggests that the impairment of mentalizing ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage is partially the result of executive dysfunction.

  10. Syntactic processing in left prefrontal cortex is independent of lexical meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indefrey, P.; Hagoort, P.; Herzog, H.; Seitz, R.J.; Brown, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    In language comprehension a syntactic representation is built up even when the input is semantically uninterpretable. We report data on brain activation during syntactic processing, from an experiment on the detection of grammatical errors in meaningless sentences. The experimental paradigm was such

  11. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  12. Sensitivity to cocaine in adult mice is due to interplay between genetic makeup, early environment and later experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Andolina, Diego; Coassin, Alessandra; Accoto, Alessandra; Luchetti, Alessandra; Pascucci, Tiziana; Luzi, Carla; Lizzi, Anna Rita; D'Amato, Francesca R; Ventura, Rossella

    2017-10-01

    Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience. We have recently showed that Repeated Cross Fostering (RCF; RCF pups were fostered by four adoptive mothers from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 4. Pups were left with the last adoptive mother until weaning) experienced by pups affected the response to a negative experience in adulthood in opposite direction in two genotypes leading DBA2/J, but not C57BL/6J mice, toward an "anhedonia-like" phenotype. Here we investigate whether exposure to a rewarding stimulus, instead of a negative one, in adulthood induces an opposite behavioral outcome. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the long-lasting effects of RCF on cocaine sensitivity in C57 and DBA female mice by evaluating conditioned place preference induced by different cocaine doses and catecholamine prefrontal-accumbal response to cocaine using a "dual probe" in vivo microdialysis procedure. Moreover, cocaine-induced c-Fos activity was assessed in different brain regions involved in processing of rewarding stimuli. Finally, cocaine-induced spine changes were evaluated in the prefrontal-accumbal system. RCF experience strongly affected the behavioral, neurochemical and morphological responses to cocaine in adulthood in opposite direction in the two genotypes increasing and reducing, respectively, the sensitivity to cocaine in C57 and DBA mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Contributions to Human Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K.; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in executive control functions for human intelligence, the necessity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) for key competencies of general intelligence and executive function remains to be well established. Here we studied human brain lesion patients with dlPFC lesions to investigate whether this region is computationally necessary for performance on neuropsychological tests of general intelligence and executive function, administering the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and subtests of the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) to three groups: dlPFC lesions (n = 19), non-dlPFC lesions (n = 152), and no brain lesions (n = 55). The key results indicate that: (1) patients with focal dlPFC damage exhibit lower scores, at the latent variable level, than controls in general intelligence (g) and executive function; (2) dlPFC patients demonstrate lower scores than controls in several executive measures; and (3) these latter differences are no longer significant when the pervasive influence of the general factor of intelligence (g) is statistically removed. The observed findings support a central role for the dlPFC in general intelligence and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the WAIS and D-KEFS to the study of high-level cognition in health and disease. PMID:22634247

  14. Recognition Memory and Prefrontal Cortex: Dissociating Recollection and Familiarity Processes Using rTMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Salerno, Silvia; Costanzo, Floriana; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2008-01-01

    Recognition memory can be supported by both the assessment of the familiarity of an item and by the recollection of the context in which an item was encountered. The neural substrates of these memory processes are controversial. To address these issues we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of healthy subjects performing a remember/know task. rTMS disrupted familiarity judgments when applied before encoding of stimuli over both right and left DLPFC. rTMS disrupted recollection when applied before encoding of stimuli over the right DLPFC. These findings suggest that the DLPFC plays a critical role in recognition memory based on familiarity as well as recollection. PMID:18413912

  15. Prefrontal Cortex Networks Shift from External to Internal Modes during Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincat, Scott L; Miller, Earl K

    2016-09-14

    As we learn about items in our environment, their neural representations become increasingly enriched with our acquired knowledge. But there is little understanding of how network dynamics and neural processing related to external information changes as it becomes laden with "internal" memories. We sampled spiking and local field potential activity simultaneously from multiple sites in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus (HPC)-regions critical for sensory associations-of monkeys performing an object paired-associate learning task. We found that in the PFC, evoked potentials to, and neural information about, external sensory stimulation decreased while induced beta-band (∼11-27 Hz) oscillatory power and synchrony associated with "top-down" or internal processing increased. By contrast, the HPC showed little evidence of learning-related changes in either spiking activity or network dynamics. The results suggest that during associative learning, PFC networks shift their resources from external to internal processing. As we learn about items in our environment, their representations in our brain become increasingly enriched with our acquired "top-down" knowledge. We found that in the prefrontal cortex, but not the hippocampus, processing of external sensory inputs decreased while internal network dynamics related to top-down processing increased. The results suggest that during learning, prefrontal cortex networks shift their resources from external (sensory) to internal (memory) processing. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/369739-16$15.00/0.

  16. Adolescent exposure to THC in female rats disrupts developmental changes in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinct regions of prefrontal cortex are associated with the controlled retrieval and selection of social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Badre, David; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-05-01

    Research in social neuroscience has uncovered a social knowledge network that is particularly attuned to making social judgments. However, the processes that are being performed by both regions within this network and those outside of this network that are nevertheless engaged in the service of making a social judgment remain unclear. To help address this, we drew upon research in semantic memory, which suggests that making a semantic judgment engages 2 distinct control processes: A controlled retrieval process, which aids in bringing goal-relevant information to mind from long-term stores, and a selection process, which aids in selecting the information that is goal-relevant from the information retrieved. In a neuroimaging study, we investigated whether controlled retrieval and selection for social information engage distinct portions of both the social knowledge network and regions outside this network. Controlled retrieval for social information engaged an anterior ventrolateral portion of the prefrontal cortex, whereas selection engaged both the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction within the social knowledge network. These results suggest that the social knowledge network may be more involved with the selection of social information than the controlled retrieval of it and incorporates lateral prefrontal regions in accessing memory for making social judgments.

  18. Prefrontal Cortex Networks Shift from External to Internal Modes during Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincat, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    As we learn about items in our environment, their neural representations become increasingly enriched with our acquired knowledge. But there is little understanding of how network dynamics and neural processing related to external information changes as it becomes laden with “internal” memories. We sampled spiking and local field potential activity simultaneously from multiple sites in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus (HPC)—regions critical for sensory associations—of monkeys performing an object paired-associate learning task. We found that in the PFC, evoked potentials to, and neural information about, external sensory stimulation decreased while induced beta-band (∼11–27 Hz) oscillatory power and synchrony associated with “top-down” or internal processing increased. By contrast, the HPC showed little evidence of learning-related changes in either spiking activity or network dynamics. The results suggest that during associative learning, PFC networks shift their resources from external to internal processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT As we learn about items in our environment, their representations in our brain become increasingly enriched with our acquired “top-down” knowledge. We found that in the prefrontal cortex, but not the hippocampus, processing of external sensory inputs decreased while internal network dynamics related to top-down processing increased. The results suggest that during learning, prefrontal cortex networks shift their resources from external (sensory) to internal (memory) processing. PMID:27629722

  19. Impaired prefrontal sleep spindle regulation of hippocampal-dependent learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A; Rao, Vikram; Lu, Brandon; Saletin, Jared M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Jagust, William J; Walker, Matthew P

    2014-12-01

    A hallmark feature of cognitive aging is a decline in the ability to form new memories. Parallel to these cognitive impairments are marked disruptions in sleep physiology. Despite recent evidence in young adults establishing a role for sleep spindles in restoring hippocampal-dependent memory formation, the possibility that disrupted sleep physiology contributes to age-related decline in hippocampal-dependent learning remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that reduced prefrontal sleep spindles by over 40% in older adults statistically mediates the effects of old age on next day episodic learning, such that the degree of impaired episodic learning is explained by the extent of impoverished prefrontal sleep spindles. In addition, prefrontal spindles significantly predicted the magnitude of impaired next day hippocampal activation, thereby determining the influence of spindles on post-sleep learning capacity. These data support the hypothesis that disrupted sleep physiology contributes to age-related cognitive decline in later life, the consequence of which has significant treatment intervention potential. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Negative emotion modulates prefrontal cortex activity during a working memory task: A NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo eOzawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the neural processing underlying the cognitive control of emotions induced by the presentation of task-irrelevant emotional pictures before a working memory task. Previous studies have suggested that the cognitive control of emotion involves the prefrontal regions. Therefore, we measured the hemodynamic responses that occurred in the prefrontal region with a 16-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS system. In our experiment, participants observed two negative or two neutral pictures in succession immediately before a 1-back or 3-back task. Pictures were selected from the International Affective Picture System. We measured the changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb during picture presentation and during the n-back task. The emotional valence of the picture affected the oxyHb changes in anterior parts of the medial prefrontal cortex (located in the left and right superior frontal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus during the n-back task; the oxyHb changes during the task were significantly greater following negative rather than neutral stimulation. As indicated in a number of previous studies, and the time courses of the oxyHb changes in our study, activation in these locations is possibly led by cognitive control of emotion, though we cannot deny it may simply be emotional responses. There were no effects of emotion on oxyHb changes during picture presentation or on n-back task performance. Although further studies are necessary to confirm this interpretation, our findings suggest that NIRS can be used to investigate neural processing during emotional control.

  1. Verbal and visuospatial working memory during pregnancy: EEG correlation between the prefrontal and parietal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza-Sepúlveda, Mayra Linné; Hernández-González, Marisela; Hevia-Orozco, Jorge Carlos; Amezcua-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Guevara, Miguel Angel

    2018-02-01

    Pregnancy is a dynamic process during which significant cognitive changes take place. It has been suggested that working memory (WM) is affected during gestation as a result of functional changes among cortical areas, such as the prefrontal and parietal cortices. This study examined cortical electroencephalographic correlations (rEEG) during performance of WM tasks in each trimester of pregnancy. Forty women were divided into 4 groups: first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) trimester of pregnancy, and a control group of non-pregnant women. Electroencephalographic activity (EEG) was recorded from the frontopolar, dorsolateral and parietal cortices during performance of one verbal and one visuospatial working memory task. Only groups T2 and T3 showed increased onset latency in the visuospatial WM. During the verbal WM task, the T1 group showed a higher correlation between dorsolateral areas in the theta and alpha bands, as well as a lower left prefrontal-parietal correlation in the gamma band. During the visuospatial WM task, the T1 and T3 groups showed a higher left EEG correlation in the delta and alpha1 bands, whereas T2 presented a higher right prefrontal-parietal correlation in the gamma band. Although pregnancy had only a subtle effect on the visuospatial WM task, these different patterns of cortical synchronization in each trimester of pregnancy could represent adaptive mechanisms that enabled the pregnant women to focus their attention and use more cognitive resources and so adequately solve the WM tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Hemodynamic Responses in the Prefrontal Cortex According to Differences in Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Kazuki

    2017-07-01

    Although self-efficacy has been used extensively in the field of nursing (e.g., as an outcome measure of nursing interventions), its underlying nature is poorly understood. Investigation of the relationship between self-efficacy and brain activation will help explain the fundamental nature of self-efficacy. In this study, we compared prefrontal activation measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) across 89 undergraduate students categorized into three groups based on their General Self-Efficacy Scale scores: low self-efficacy ( n = 59), moderate self-efficacy ( n = 17), and high self-efficacy ( n = 13). Changes in the hemoglobin levels of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a verbal fluency task were assessed using two-channel NIRS. Significant differences in the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) level of the left PFC (LPFC) were observed via analysis of variance. Post hoc Tukey's test showed a significant difference only between low self-efficacy and moderate self-efficacy groups. We found a medium between-group effect size in the moderate self-efficacy group versus the low self-efficacy group for the changes in oxy-Hb levels of the LPFC ( d = .78; 95% confidence interval for effect size [0.22, 1.33]). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to changes in the oxy-Hb in the right PFC. The results indicate less left prefrontal activation in the low self-efficacy group than in the moderate self-efficacy group. These findings provide evidence to support the fundamental nature of self-efficacy.

  3. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex implements social priming of mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2015-04-01

    The neural and cognitive mechanisms by which primed constructs can impact on social behavior are poorly understood. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore how scrambled sentence priming can impact on mimicry behavior. Sentences involving pro/antisocial events from a first/third-person point of view were presented in short blocks, followed by a reaction-time assessment of mimicry. Behavioral results showed that both prosociality and viewpoint impact on mimicry, and fMRI analysis showed this effect is implemented by anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC). We suggest that social primes may subtly modulate processing in amPFC in a manner linked to the later behavior, and that this same region also implements the top-down control of mimicry responses. This priming may be linked to processing of self-schemas in amPFC. Our findings demonstrate how social priming can be studied with fMRI, and have important implications for our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of prime-to-behavior effects as well as for current theories in social psychology. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. prefrontal como mecanismo putativo del cambio en psicoterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Silva C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La corteza prefrontal (CPF es definida como la región cerebral cortical que se conecta recíprocamente con el núcleo dorsolateral del tálamo. La visión tradicional en las ciencias del comportamiento atribuye a la CPF un papel en la organización temporal de la conducta. Adicionalmente, estudios convergentes en el campo de la neurociencia afectiva han revelado el papel fundamental que juega la CPF en la determinación del estilo afectivo y en especial de la regulación emocional. El estilo afectivo involucra las diferencias individuales en diferentes parámetros de la reactividad afectiva y el estado de ánimo disposicional (por ejemplo, amplitud de la respuesta emocional, tiempo de recuperación, etc.. Dado que prácticamente todas las alteraciones psicopatológicas incluyen un trastorno en alguno de esos parámetros, proponemos que la modulación de la actividad de la CPF es una variable fundamental del cambio en psicoterapia. Presentamos nuestro modelo putativo, el cual se fundamenta en el control cognitivo en cascada de la CPF. Específicamente, proponemos que la regulación emocional ocurre asociada a la activación de la CPF lateral en un sentido rostralcaudal, donde zonas rostrales involucran formas complejas de control afectivo.

  5. Specialization of the Rostral Prefrontal Cortex for Distinct Analogy Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Benoit, Roland G.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is central to learning and abstract thinking. It involves using a more familiar situation (source) to make inferences about a less familiar situation (target). According to the predominant cognitive models, analogical reasoning includes 1) generation of structured mental representations and 2) mapping based on structural similarities between them. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to specify the role of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in these distinct processes. An experimental paradigm was designed that enabled differentiation between these processes, by temporal separation of the presentation of the source and the target. Within rostral PFC, a lateral subregion was activated by analogy task both during study of the source (before the source could be compared with a target) and when the target appeared. This may suggest that this subregion supports fundamental analogy processes such as generating structured representations of stimuli but is not specific to one particular processing stage. By contrast, a dorsomedial subregion of rostral PFC showed an interaction between task (analogy vs. control) and period (more activated when the target appeared). We propose that this region is involved in comparison or mapping processes. These results add to the growing evidence for functional differentiation between rostral PFC subregions. PMID:20156841

  6. The rostral prefrontal cortex underlies individual differences in working memory capacity: An approach from the hierarchical model of the cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging and behavioral evidence has suggested that the lateral prefrontal cortex is involved in individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC). However, few studies have localized the neural structures that differentiate high and low WMC individuals, considering the functional architecture of the prefrontal cortex. The present study aimed to identify a frontal region that underlies individual differences from the perspective of the hierarchical architecture of the frontal cortex. By manipulating an episodic factor of cognitive control (control in selecting an appropriate task set according to a temporal context) and using a parametric modulation analysis, we found that both high- and low- WMC individuals have similar activation patterns in the premotor cortex (BA6, 8), caudal prefrontal cortex (BA44, 45), and frontopolar cortex (BA10, 11), but differed in the rostral part of the prefrontal cortex (BA46/47); high WMC individuals showed greater activation in the higher episodic control condition, whereas low WMC individuals showed reduced activation when episodic control was required. Similar patterns of activation were found in the right inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices. These results indicate that the rostral prefrontal cortex, which supports episodic cognitive control, possibly by sending a weighting signal toward the inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices that modulate saliency and sensory processing, underlies individual differences in WMC. Episodic control account, which considers the organization of the prefrontal cortex, fits well with previous findings of individual differences in WMC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetoencephalographic signatures of right prefrontal cortex involvement in response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Maike A; Preissl, Hubert; Stingl, Krunoslav T

    2014-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex has a pivotal role in top-down control of cognitive and sensory functions. In complex go-nogo tasks, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is considered to be important for guiding the response inhibition. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics and neurophysiological nature of this activity. To address this issue, we recorded magnetoencephalographic brain activity in 20 women during a visual go-nogo task. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed an increase for the amplitude of the event-related fields and an increase in induced alpha frequency band activity for nogo in comparison to go trials. The peak of this prefrontal activity preceded the mean reaction time of around 360 ms for go trials, and thus supports the proposed role of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in gating the response inhibition and further suggests that right prefrontal alpha band activity might be involved in this gating. However, the results in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were similar for both successful and unsuccessful response inhibition. In these conditions, we instead observed pre- and poststimulus differences in alpha band activity in occipital and central areas. Thus, successful response inhibition seemed to additionally depend on prestimulus anticipatory alpha desynchronization in sensory areas as it was reduced prior to unsuccessful response inhibition. In conclusion, we suggest a role for functional inhibition by alpha synchronization not only in sensory, but also in prefrontal areas. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Monoaminergic modulation of emotional impact in the inferomedial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    a locus in Brodmann's area 11 of the inferomedial prefrontal cortex (IMPC) at which these two separate measures had significant inverse correlation. Thus, under the specific circumstance of positron emission tomography (PET) of a pharmacological challenge, a key region of the inferomedial prefrontal...

  9. Khat distorts the prefrontal cortex histology and function of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khat is a psychoactive herbal drug of pronounced ethno-pharmacological significance often abused due to its unregulated use. It affects many brain centers including the prefrontal cortex which is the anterior most part of the frontal lobe. The prefrontal cortex modulates working memory, planning complex cognitive ...

  10. Similar or different? The role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in similarity detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    Full Text Available Patients with frontal lobe syndrome can exhibit two types of abnormal behaviour when asked to place a banana and an orange in a single category: some patients categorize them at a concrete level (e.g., "both have peel", while others continue to look for differences between these objects (e.g., "one is yellow, the other is orange". These observations raise the question of whether abstraction and similarity detection are distinct processes involved in abstract categorization, and that depend on separate areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We designed an original experimental paradigm for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study involving healthy subjects, confirming the existence of two distinct processes relying on different prefrontal areas, and thus explaining the behavioural dissociation in frontal lesion patients. We showed that: 1 Similarity detection involves the anterior ventrolateral PFC bilaterally with a right-left asymmetry: the right anterior ventrolateral PFC is only engaged in detecting physical similarities; 2 Abstraction per se activates the left dorsolateral PFC.

  11. Transitions between Multiband Oscillatory Patterns Characterize Memory-Guided Perceptual Decisions in Prefrontal Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Klaus; Ramon, Marc; Pasternak, Tatiana; Compte, Albert

    2016-01-13

    Neuronal activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) reflects the structure and cognitive demands of memory-guided sensory discrimination tasks. However, we still do not know how neuronal activity articulates in network states involved in perceiving, remembering, and comparing sensory information during such tasks. Oscillations in local field potentials (LFPs) provide fingerprints of such network dynamics. Here, we examined LFPs recorded from LPFC of macaques while they compared the directions or the speeds of two moving random-dot patterns, S1 and S2, separated by a delay. LFP activity in the theta, beta, and gamma bands tracked consecutive components of the task. In response to motion stimuli, LFP theta and gamma power increased, and beta power decreased, but showed only weak motion selectivity. In the delay, LFP beta power modulation anticipated the onset of S2 and encoded the task-relevant S1 feature, suggesting network dynamics associated with memory maintenance. After S2 onset the difference between the current stimulus S2 and the remembered S1 was strongly reflected in broadband LFP activity, with an early sensory-related component proportional to stimulus difference and a later choice-related component reflecting the behavioral decision buildup. Our results demonstrate that individual LFP bands reflect both sensory and cognitive processes engaged independently during different stages of the task. This activation pattern suggests that during elementary cognitive tasks, the prefrontal network transitions dynamically between states and that these transitions are characterized by the conjunction of LFP rhythms rather than by single LFP bands. Neurons in the brain communicate through electrical impulses and coordinate this activity in ensembles that pulsate rhythmically, very much like musical instruments in an orchestra. These rhythms change with "brain state," from sleep to waking, but also signal with different oscillation frequencies rapid changes

  12. Lucid dreaming and ventromedial versus dorsolateral prefrontal task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T

    2011-06-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for 1 week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lucid Dreaming and Ventromedial versus Dorsolateral Prefrontal Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for one week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. PMID:20829072

  14. Fear Expression Suppresses Medial Prefrontal Cortical Firing in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Giustino

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. On Day 1, rats received either signaled or unsignaled footshocks in the recording chamber; an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS preceded signaled footshocks. Twenty-four hours later, animals were returned to the recording chamber (modified to create a novel context where they received 5 CS-alone trials. After fear conditioning, both signaled and unsignaled rats exhibited high levels of post-shock freezing that was associated with an enduring suppression of mPFC spontaneous firing, particularly in the IL of signaled rats. Twenty-four hours later, CS presentation produced differential conditioned freezing in signaled and unsignaled rats: freezing increased in rats that had received signaled shocks, but decreased in animals in the unsignaled condition (i.e., external inhibition. This group difference in CS-evoked freezing was mirrored in the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in both PL and IL. Interestingly, differences in PL and IL firing rate highly correlated with freezing levels. In other words, in the signaled group IL spontaneous rates were suppressed relative to PL, perhaps limiting IL-mediated suppression of fear and allowing PL activity to dominate performance, resulting in high levels of freezing. This was not observed in the unsignaled group, which exhibited low freezing. These data reveal that the activity of mPFC neurons is modulated by both

  15. Centrality of prefrontal and motor preparation cortices to Tourette Syndrome revealed by meta-analysis of task-based neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Polyanska

    2017-01-01

    The dispersed involvement of multiple cortical regions with differences in functional reactivity may account for heterogeneity in the symptomatic expression of TS and its comorbidities. More specifically for tics and tic severity, the findings reinforce previously proposed contributions of premotor and lateral prefrontal cortices to tic expression.

  16. Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Jacques; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Despite significant scientific advances, the nature of the left-hemispheric systems involved in language (speech and gesture) and manual actions is still unclear. To date, investigations of human laterality focused mainly on non-communication functions. Although gestural laterality data have been published for infants and children, relatively little is known about laterality of human gestural communication. This study investigated human laterality in depth considering non-communication manipulation actions and various gesture types involving hands, feet, face and ears. We constructed an online laterality questionnaire including 60 items related to daily activities. We collected 317 594 item responses by 5904 randomly selected participants. The highest percentages of strong left-lateralized (6.76%) and strong right-lateralized participants (75.19%) were for manipulation actions. The highest percentages of mixed left-lateralized (12.30%) and ambidextrous (50.23%) participants were found for head-related gestures. The highest percentage of mixed right-lateralized participants (55.33%) was found for auditory gestures. Every behavioural category showed a significant population-level right-side bias. More precisely, participants were predominantly right-lateralized for non-communication manual actions, for visual iconic, visual symbolic, visual deictic (with and without speech), tactile and auditory manual gestures as well as for podial and head-related gestures. Our findings support previous studies reporting that humans have left-brain predominance for gestures and complex motor activities such as tool-use. Our study shows that the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire is a useful research instrument to assess and analyse human laterality for both manipulation and communication functions.

  17. Does transcranial direct current stimulation to prefrontal cortex affect mood and emotional memory retrieval in healthy individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen M; Davis, Nick J; Bracewell, R Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of prefrontal cortex to improve symptoms of depression have had mixed results. We examined whether using tDCS to change the balance of activity between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can alter mood and memory retrieval of emotional material in healthy volunteers. Participants memorised emotional images, then tDCS was applied bilaterally to DLPFC while they performed a stimulus-response compatibility task. Participants were then presented with a set of images for memory retrieval. Questionnaires to examine mood and motivational state were administered at the beginning and end of each session. Exploratory data analyses showed that the polarity of tDCS to DLPFC influenced performance on a stimulus-response compatibility task and this effect was dependent on participants' prior motivational state. However, tDCS polarity had no effect on the speed or accuracy of memory retrieval of emotional images and did not influence positive or negative affect. These findings suggest that the balance of activity between left and right DLPFC does not play a critical role in the mood state of healthy individuals. We suggest that the efficacy of prefrontal tDCS depends on the initial activation state of neurons and future work should take this into account.

  18. Association of Oxytocin and Parental Prefrontal Activation during Reunion with Infant: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have revealed the role of oxytocin (OT in parental behavior, the role of OT has not been investigated through the direct assessment of prefrontal brain activation during parenting. By using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to show the relationship between parental [maternal (N = 15 and paternal (N = 21] OT levels and the activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, while holding their infants after separation. Baseline OT levels were measured in the subjects’ saliva samples before the experiment. Prefrontal brain activation was assessed in participants sitting alone on a chair (i.e., separation from their infant for 120 s and during the target period (i.e., holding their infant for 45 s, which was done in triplicate. The oxygen hemoglobin (oxy-Hb dissociation curve significantly increased in 9 out of 22 channels on the PFC when maternal and paternal samples were combined. However, only the fathers showed a correlation between salivary OT and oxy-Hb signal. Furthermore, while holding their infants, high-OT fathers showed left hemispheric dominance compared to low-OT fathers, while high-OT mothers showed right hemispheric dominance compared to low-OT mothers. This study showed that fathers with high-OT levels showed neural activation with left hemispheric dominance, while holding their infants, suggesting that increase of OT level might activate paternal PFC related to parenting behavior, although the same is not true for mothers.

  19. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  20. The Relationship Between Lateral Dominance and Divergent Cognitive Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Barbara B.

    This study was designed to explore the relationship of lateral dominance to divergent cognitive thought. According to the screening results of the Harris Tests of Lateral Dominance, 36 subjects ranging from 9-12 years were divided equally into three groups of left, right, and mixed lateral dominance. In order to measure divergent cognitive…

  1. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  2. Atypical prefrontal cortical responses to joint/non-joint attention in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huilin; Li, Jun; Fan, Yuebo; Li, Xinge; Huang, Dan; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder, characterized by impairments in one’s capacity for joint attention. In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was applied to study the differences in activation and functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children. 21 ASD and 20 TD children were recruited to perform joint and non-joint attention tasks. Compared with TD children, children with ASD showed reduced activation and atypical functional connectivity pattern in the prefrontal cortex during joint attention. The atypical development of left prefrontal cortex might play an important role in social cognition defects of children with ASD. PMID:25798296

  3. Prefrontal cortical dopamine from an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we propose the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) acquired neotenic development as a consequence of mesocortical dopamine (DA) innervation, which in turn drove evolution of the PFC into becoming a complex functional system. Accordingly, from the evolutionary perspective, decreased DA signaling in the PFC associated with such adverse conditions as chronic stress may be considered as an environmental adaptation strategy. Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder may also be understood as environmental adaptation or a by-product of such a process that has emerged through evolution in humans. To investigate the evolutionary perspective of DA signaling in the PFC, domestic animals such as dogs may be a useful model.

  4. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  5. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  6. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Oka

    Full Text Available In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves, but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task. Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections.Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05, but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p < 0.05 in the right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p < 0.05 only in the right frontal eye field.Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  7. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Matsubayashi, Junko; Hamada, Kasumi; Okuhata, Shiho; Yahata, Noriaki; Igarashi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Shingo; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Nobumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kano, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.

  8. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.

  9. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a target of the dorsolateral prefrontal modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; Lopes, Isabela Bittencourt Coutinho; Souza, Rodolpho Albuquerque; Klauss, Jaisa; Batista, Edson Kruger; Conti, Catarine Lima; Moscon, Janine Andrade; de Souza, Rodrigo Stênio Moll

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report some electrophysiologic and imaging effects of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in drug addiction, notably in alcohol and crack-cocaine dependence. The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis obtained through event-related potentials (ERPs) under drug-related cues, more specifically in its P3 segment (300-500 ms) in both, alcoholics and crack-cocaine users, showed that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was the brain area with the largest change towards increasing activation under drug-related cues in those subjects that kept abstinence during and after the treatment with bilateral tDCS (2 mA, 35 cm(2), cathodal left and anodal right) over dlPFC, applied repetitively (five daily sessions). In an additional study in crack-cocaine, which showed craving decreases after repetitive bilateral tDCS, we examined data originating from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and we found increased DTI parameters in the left connection between vmPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), such as the number of voxels, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), in tDCS-treated crack-cocaine users when compared to the sham-tDCS group. This increasing of DTI parameters was significantly correlated with craving decreasing after the repetitive tDCS. The vmPFC relates to the control of drug seeking, possibly by extinguishing this behavior. In our studies, the bilateral dlPFC tDCS reduced relapses and craving to the drug use, and increased the vmPFC activation under drug cues, which may be of a great importance in the control of drug use in drug addiction.

  10. The role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in esthetic appreciation of representational and abstract art: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Gardelli, Chiara; Merabet, Lotfi B; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Nadal, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To explain the biological foundations of art appreciation is to explain one of our species' distinctive traits. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have pointed to the prefrontal and the parietal cortex as two critical regions mediating esthetic appreciation of visual art. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left prefrontal cortex and the right posterior parietal cortex while participants were evaluating whether they liked, and by how much, a particular painting. By depolarizing cell membranes in the targeted regions, TMS transiently interferes with the activity of specific cortical areas, which allows clarifying their role in a given task. Our results show that both regions play a fundamental role in mediating esthetic appreciation. Critically though, the effects of TMS varied depending on the type of art considered (i.e. representational vs. abstract) and on participants' a-priori inclination toward one or the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hemodynamic response in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirosawa R

    2013-07-01

    left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar areas. Results: During the verbal fluency task, significant task-related activation was detected in both the OCD group and the controls. Changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly smaller in the OCD group than in the controls, but were not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: Patients with OCD have reduced prefrontal, especially right dorsolateral prefrontal, cortical hemodynamic responses as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task. These results support the hypothesis that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in the pathophysiology of OCD. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, obsessive-compulsive disorder, prefrontal hemodynamic response, verbal fluency task, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

  12. Both left and right posterior parietal activations contribute to compensatory processes in normal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Mao; Polk, Thad A.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults often exhibit greater brain activation in prefrontal cortex compared to younger adults, and there is some evidence that this increased activation compensates for age-related neural degradation that would otherwise adversely affect cognitive performance. Less is known about aging and compensatory recruitment in the parietal cortex. In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we presented healthy young and old participants with two Stroop-like tasks (number magnitude and physical size). In young, the number magnitude task activated right parietal cortex and the physical size task activated left parietal cortex. In older adults, we observed contralateral parietal recruitment that depended on the task: in the number magnitude task older participants recruited left posterior parietal cortex (in addition to the right parietal activity observed in young) while in the physical size task they recruited right (in addition to left) posterior parietal cortex. In both cases, the additional parietal activity was associated with better performance suggesting that it played a compensatory role. Older adults also recruited left prefrontal cortex during both tasks and this common activation was also associated with better performance. The results provide evidence for task-specific compensatory recruitment in parietal cortex as well as task-independent compensatory recruitment in prefrontal cortex in normal aging. PMID:22063904

  13. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  14. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do. (orig.)

  15. Impact of Prefrontal Theta Burst Stimulation on Clinical Neuropsychological Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Viejo-Sobera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Theta burst stimulation (TBS protocols hold high promise in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Nevertheless, their ability to either decrease (continuous, cTBS or increase (intermittent, iTBS cortical excitability in areas other than the primary motor cortex, and their consistency modulating human behaviors with clinically relevant tasks remain to be fully established. The behavioral effects of TBS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC are particularly interesting given its involvement in working memory (WM and executive functions (EF, often impaired following frontal brain damage. We aimed to explore the ability of cTBS and iTBS to modulate WM and EF in healthy individuals, assessed with clinical neuropsychological tests (Digits Backward, 3-back task, Stroop Test, and Tower of Hanoi. To this end, 36 participants were assessed using the four tests 1 week prior to stimulation and immediately following a single session of either cTBS, iTBS, or sham TBS, delivered to the left dlPFC. No significant differences were found across stimulation conditions in any of the clinical tasks. Nonetheless, in some of them, active stimulation induced significant pre/post performance modulations, which were not found for the sham condition. More specifically, sham stimulation yielded improvements in the 3-back task and the Color, Color-Word, and Interference Score of the Stroop Test, an effect likely caused by task practice. Both, iTBS and cTBS, produced improvements in Digits Backward and impairments in 3-back task accuracy. Moreover, iTBS increased Interference Score in the Stroop Test in spite of the improved word reading and impaired color naming, whereas cTBS decreased the time required to complete the Tower of Hanoi. Differing from TBS outcomes reported for cortico-spinal measures on the primary motor cortex, our analyses did not reveal any of the expected performance differences across stimulation protocols. However, if one considers independently

  16. Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contáctenos Contact Us About Tourette Blog Later in Life Later in Life There are plenty of challenges for those still coping with Tourette Syndrome in later life — and plenty of ways to deal with them. ...

  17. Prefrontal versus motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects on post-surgical opioid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Reeves, Scott T; Milliken, Cole; Carter, Brittan; Epperson, Thomas I; Gunselman, Ryan J; Madan, Alok; Del Schutte, H; Demos, Harry A; George, Mark S

    Pain is often a complaint that precedes total knee arthroplasty (TKA), however the procedure itself is associated with considerable post-operative pain lasting days to weeks which can predict longer-term surgical outcomes. Previously, we reported significant opioid-sparing effects of motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation from a single-blind trial. In the present study, we used double-blind methodology to compare motor cortex tDCS and prefrontal cortex tDCS to both sham and active-control (active electrodes over non-pain modulating brain areas) tDCS. 58 patients undergoing unilateral TKA were randomly assigned to receive 4 20-min sessions (a total of 80 min) of tDCS (2 mA) post-surgery with electrodes placed to create 4 groups: 1) MOTOR (n = 14); anode-motor/cathode-right prefrontal, 2) PREFRONTAL (n = 16); anode-left-prefrontal/cathode-right-sensory, 3) ACTIVE-CONTROL (n = 15); anode-left-temporal-occipital junction/cathode-medial-anterior-premotor-area, and 4) SHAM (n = 13); 0 mA-current stimulation using placements 1 or 2. Patient controlled analgesia (PCA; hydromorphone) use was tracked during the ∼72-h post-surgery. Patients in the sham group and the active-control group used 15.4 mg (SD = 14.1) and 16.0 mg (SD = 9.7) of PCA hydromorphone respectively. There was no difference between the slopes of the cumulative PCA usage curves between these two groups (p = 0.25; ns). Patients in the prefrontal tDCS group used an average of 11.7 mg (SD = 5.0) of PCA hydromporhone, and the slope of the cumulative PCA usage curve was significantly lower than sham (p prefrontal cortex may be a reasonable approach to reducing post-TKA opioid requirements. Given the unexpected finding that motor cortex failed to produce an opioid sparing effect in this follow-up trial, further research in the area of post-operative cortical stimulation is still needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased chloride channel expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney R Sullivan

    Full Text Available Alterations in GABAergic neurotransmission are implicated in several psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia. The Na-K-Cl and K-Cl cotransporters regulate intracellular chloride levels. Abnormalities in cotransporter expression levels could shift the chloride electrochemical gradient and impair GABAergic transmission. In this study, we performed Western blot analysis to investigate whether the Na-K-Cl and K-Cl cotransporter protein is abnormally expressed in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex in patients with schizophrenia versus a control group. We found decreased K-Cl cotransporter protein expression in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, but not the anterior cingulate cortex, in subjects with schizophrenia, supporting the hypothesis of region level abnormal GABAergic function in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Subjects with schizophrenia off antipsychotic medication at the time of death had decreased K-Cl cotransporter protein expression compared to both normal controls and subjects with schizophrenia on antipsychotics. Our results provide evidence for KCC2 protein abnormalities in schizophrenia and suggest that antipsychotic medications might reverse deficits of this protein in the illness.

  19. Left-handed sperm removal by male Calopteryx damselflies (Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia in several insect species are asymmetry in right and left shape. However, the function of such asymmetric male genitalia is still unclear. We found that the male genitalia of the damselfly Calopteryx cornelia (Odonata: Calopterygidae) are morphologically symmetric just after emergence but asymmetric after reproductive maturation. Males remove rival sperm stored in the female bursa copulatrix (single spherical sac) and the following spermatheca (Y-shaped tubular sac) prior to their own ejaculation to prevent sperm competition. Males possess the aedeagus with a recurved head to remove bursal sperm and a pair of spiny lateral processes to remove spermathecal sperm. The right lateral process is less developed than the left, and sperm stored in the right spermathecal tube are rarely removed. Experiments involving surgical cutting of each lateral process demonstrated that only the left process functions in spermathecal sperm removal. Thus, males of C. cornelia are left-handed in their sperm removal behaviour at copulation.

  20. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  1. Longitudinal assessment of grey matter contraction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A tensor based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Federica; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Pagani, Elisabetta; Sala, Stefania; Caputo, Domenico; Perini, Michele; Bartolomei, Ilaria; Fruguglietti, Maria Elena; Filippi, Massimo

    2009-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate grey matter (GM) contraction in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using tensor based morphometry (TBM). Using a 1.5 Tesla scanner, T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained at baseline and at follow-up (mean interval, 9 months) from 16 ALS and 10 controls. Standard TBM procedures in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) were used for image processing and statistical analyses. The frontotemporal cortex and basal ganglia were considered areas of interest, based on pathological studies. Eight patients showed rapid clinical progression of ALS during the follow-up period. Compared to controls, all ALS patients showed progression of GM atrophy in left premotor cortex and right basal ganglia. Patients with rapidly progressing ALS showed GM atrophy changes in a larger motor cortical-subcortical area and in extramotor frontal regions compared to both controls and to non-rapidly progressing cases. Thus, TBM detected longitudinal atrophy changes in the motor network in ALS occurring over less than one year. The faster the clinical progression, the greater was the GM loss in motor and prefrontal areas. Further advances in tracking longitudinal changes in cortical and subcortical regions in ALS may provide an objective marker for monitoring disease progression, and the disease-modifying effect of potential treatments.

  2. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).

  3. Does cerebral lateralization develop? A study using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound assessing lateralization for language production and visuospatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Margriet A; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Badcock, Nicholas A; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2012-05-01

    In the majority of people, language production is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere and visuospatial skills to the right. However, questions remain as to when, how, and why humans arrive at this division of labor. In this study, we assessed cerebral lateralization for language production and for visuospatial memory using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound in a group of 60 typically developing children between the ages of six and 16 years. The typical pattern of left-lateralized activation for language production and right-lateralized activation for visuospatial memory was found in the majority of the children (58%). No age-related change in direction or strength of lateralization was found for language production. In contrast, the strength of lateralization (independent of direction) for visuospatial memory function continued to increase with age. In addition, boys showed a trend for stronger right-hemisphere lateralization for visuospatial memory than girls, but there was no gender effect on language laterality. We tested whether having language and visuospatial functions in the same hemisphere was associated with poor cognitive performance and found no evidence for this "functional crowding" hypothesis. We did, however, find that children with left-lateralized language production had higher vocabulary and nonword reading age-adjusted standard scores than other children, regardless of the laterality of visuospatial memory. Thus, a link between language function and left-hemisphere lateralization exists, and cannot be explained in terms of maturational change.

  4. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  5. Spatial working memory encoding type modulates prefrontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Yuhei; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Okumura, Yasuko; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Shinoda, Haruo; Inagaki, Masumi

    2017-05-03

    Spatial working memory (SWM) involves both simultaneous and sequential encoding, but the differences in their neural correlates are unclear. We investigated the differences in prefrontal cortex activity related to these SWM encoding types. We also examined the patterns of brain activity influencing individual visuospatial abilities (VSA). We conducted SWM tasks with two different conditions, sequential and simultaneous encoding, and examined hemodynamic activity in 39 healthy adults using near-infrared spectroscopy. The bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was activated more strongly in the sequential condition compared with the simultaneous condition. This suggests that prefrontal cortex activity underlying SWM is modulated by the type of encoding. We also found that individuals with high VSA showed weaker activation in the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared with those with lower VSA during the simultaneous condition. This hypoactivation is thought to reflect neural efficiency in the individuals with high ability. These findings are expected to lead to a better understanding of neural substrates for SWM.

  6. Frequency-Specific Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Strength among Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The classical concept that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons is agreed. However, more and more studies have suggested the involvement of some extra-motor regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency-related alteration pattern of intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS at the voxel-wise level in the relatively early-stage of ALS on a whole brain scale. In this study, 21 patients with ALS and 21 well-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled to examine the intrinsic FCS in the different frequencies (slow-4: 0.027–0.073 Hz; slow-5: 0.01–0.027 Hz, and typical band: 0.01–0.1 Hz. Compared with the control subjects, the ALS patients showed a significantly decreased FCS in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus. In the slow-5 band, the patients with ALS showed decreased FCS in the left lingual gyrus, as well as increased FCS in the left postcentral gyrus/paracentral lobule (PoCG/PARC. In the slow-4 band, the ALS patients presented decreased FCS in the left and right ventrolateral PFC. Moreover, the increased FCS in the left PoCG/PARC in the slow-5 band was positively correlated with the ALSFRS-r score (P = 0.015. Our results demonstrated that the FCS changes in ALS were wide spread and frequency dependent. These findings may provide some evidences that ALS patients have the consistent impairment in some extra-motor regions at a relatively early-stage.

  7. Stimulus control of instrumental reflexes in dogs: a comparison of alimentary and avoidance behaviors after prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, J; Kowalska, D; Zieliński, K

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments involving parallel procedures to investigate stimulus generalization in prefrontal dogs under alimentary and defensive reinforcement were compared. Twelve dogs in the alimentary study were trained on a 50 percent partial reinforcement schedule, and 24 dogs were trained to avoid shock with either continuous shock availability and response contingent CS termination or with only 50 percent partial shock availability and response independent CS termination. One third of the subjects received bilateral medial prefrontal lesions, 12 dogs were given bilateral lesions of the lateral prefrontal cortex and the remaining subjects served as nonoperated controls. Generalization along the frequency dimension of the tonal CS was assessed during a sampling procedure within normal acquisition training, during complete extinction and following differentiation training. The results indicate specific effects from both the quality and the contingency of reinforcement. Within the limits of each reinforcement treatment, a dissociation occurred such that medial subjects tended to show heightened sensitivity to reinforcement density, while lateral subjects showed characteristic elevated reactivity during all generalization tests.

  8. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Prefrontal and Limbic Volume and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Casper; Morris, Laurel S.; Kvamme, Timo L.

    2017-01-01

    with matched healthy volunteers (HV). Methods: Structural MRI (MPRAGE) data were collected in 92 subjects (23 CSB males and 69 age-matched male HV) and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Resting state functional MRI data using multi-echo planar sequence and independent components analysis (ME-ICA) were...... prefrontal cortex (whole brain, cluster corrected FWE P motivational salience and emotion processing, and impaired functional connectivity between prefrontal control regulatory and limbic regions...

  9. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  10. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai eRiga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g. thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus, the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders.

  11. Prefrontal control of attention to threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly V Peers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g. trait anxiety and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show, that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience.

  12. Social state representation in prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naotaka; Hihara, Sayaka; Nagasaka, Yasuo; Iriki, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    One of the cardinal mental faculties of humans and other primates is social brain function, the collective name assigned to the distributed system of social cognitive processes that orchestrate our sophisticated adaptive social behavior. These must include processes for recognizing current social context and maintaining an internal representation of the current social state as a reference for decision-making. But how and where the brain processes such social-state information is unknown. To home in on the neural substrates of social-state representation, the activity of 196 prefrontal (PFC) neurons was recorded from two monkeys simultaneously during a food-grab task under varying social conditions. Of PFC neurons, 39% showed activity modulation during movement-free periods and seemed to be representing current social state. The direction of modulation was opposite between the dominant and submissive monkeys: During social engagement, PFC activity increased in the dominant monkey and was suppressed in the submissive monkey. The modulation was consistently observed in additional PFC neurons (27/72) in additional pairings with two other monkeys. Notably, PFC activity in one formerly submissive monkey switched to dominant modulation mode when he was paired with a new monkey of lower social status. These findings suggest that PFC, as part of a larger social brain network, maintains a multistate classification of social context for use as a behavioral reference for social decision-making.

  13. Prefrontal norepinephrine determines attribution of "high" motivational salience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Ventura

    Full Text Available Intense motivational salience attribution is considered to have a major role in the development of different psychopathologies. Numerous brain areas are involved in "normal" motivational salience attribution processes; however, it is not clear whether common or different neural mechanisms also underlie intense motivational salience attribution. To elucidate this a brain area and a neural system had to be envisaged that were involved only in motivational salience attribution to highly salient stimuli. Using intracerebral microdialysis, we found that natural stimuli induced an increase in norepinephrine release in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice proportional to their salience, and that selective prefrontal norepinephrine depletion abolished the increase of norepinephrine release in the medial prefrontal cortex induced by exposure to appetitive (palatable food or aversive (light stimuli independently of salience. However, selective norepinephrine depletion in the medial prefrontal cortex impaired the place conditioning induced exclusively by highly salient stimuli, thus indicating that prefrontal noradrenergic transmission determines approach or avoidance responses to both reward- and aversion-related natural stimuli only when the salience of the unconditioned natural stimulus is high enough to induce sustained norepinephrine outflow. This affirms that prefrontal noradrenergic transmission determines motivational salience attribution selectively when intense motivational salience is processed, as in conditions that characterize psychopathological outcomes.

  14. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Who ... Where can I get more information? What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of ...

  15. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  16. Prefrontal-Amygdala Connectivity and State Anxiety during Fear Extinction Recall in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina E. Ganella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While deficits in fear extinction recall have been suggested to underlie vulnerability to anxiety disorders in adolescents, the neurobiology of these deficits remain underexplored. Here we investigate the functional connectivity (FC of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC underlying extinction recall in healthy adolescents, and assess associations between FC and state/trait anxiety. Adolescents (17 and adults (14, for comparison completed a fear-learning paradigm involving extinction and extinction recall during a functional magnetic resonance imaging session, in which skin conductance response (SCR was recorded. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that during extinction recall there was significant negative connectivity between the vmPFC and amygdala in adults, but not adolescents. vmPFC-amygdala connectivity was positively correlated with SCR. Adolescents showed significant negative FC between the dlPFC and the left and right hippocampus, and the amygdala, which was positively correlated with state anxiety. Recall was also associated with negative connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, posterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pallidum in adolescents. These results demonstrate that fear extinction recall in healthy adolescents is associated with FC between prefrontal and limbic brain regions, and suggest that alterations in connectivity may be associated with vulnerability to anxiety in adolescence.

  17. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain M. Dykes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease.

  18. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex enhances memory-guided responses in a visuospatial working memory task

    OpenAIRE

    Giglia, Giuseppe; Brighina, Filippo; Rizzo, Silvia; Puma, Angela; Indovino, Serena; Maccora, Simona; Baschi, Roberta; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is able to enhance performances on verbal and visual working memory (WM) tasks. Available evidence points to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as a critical area in visual WM, but to date direct comparisons of the effects obtained by stimulating the left versus the right DLPFC in the same subject are lacking.

  19. Auditory conflict resolution correlates with medial-lateral frontal theta/alpha phase synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Samantha; Rossi, Stephanie; Hämäläinen, Matti; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right), sounding out either the letters "A" or "O". They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50%) or incongruent (50%) with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF) and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60-110 Hz) power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance.

  20. Auditory conflict resolution correlates with medial-lateral frontal theta/alpha phase synchrony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Huang

    Full Text Available When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC, work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right, sounding out either the letters "A" or "O". They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50% or incongruent (50% with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60-110 Hz power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance.

  1. Auditory Conflict Resolution Correlates with Medial–Lateral Frontal Theta/Alpha Phase Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Samantha; Rossi, Stephanie; Hämäläinen, Matti; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right), sounding out either the letters “A” or “O”. They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50%) or incongruent (50%) with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF) and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60–110 Hz) power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance. PMID:25343503

  2. A Role for the Left Angular Gyrus in Episodic Simulation and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Thakral, Preston P.; Madore, Kevin P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in c...

  3. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wavelet coherence analysis of prefrontal tissue oxyhaemoglobin signals as measured using near-infrared spectroscopy in elderly subjects with cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyu; Zhang, Ming; Li, Wenhao; Gao, Yuanjin; Xin, Qing; Wang, Yan; Li, Zengyong

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to assess the prefrontal functional connectivity using wavelet coherence analysis of cerebral tissue oxyhaemoglobin concentration (Delta [HbO2]) signals in elderly subjects with cerebral infarction (CI) during the resting state. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained from the left and right prefrontal lobes in 10 subjects with CI (age: 74.4±9.0years) and 18 healthy elderly subjects (age: 69.9±7.3years) during the resting state. The coherence between left and right prefrontal Delta [HbO2] oscillations in four frequency intervals (I, 0.6-2Hz; II, 0.145-0.6Hz; III, 0.052-0.145Hz and IV, 0.021-0.052Hz) was analyzed using wavelet coherence analysis. In healthy elderly subjects, the Delta [HbO2] oscillations were significantly wavelet coherent in intervals I and III (pwavelet phase coherent in intervals from I to IV. In elderly subjects with CI, the left and right Delta [HbO2] oscillations were significantly wavelet coherent and phase coherent in interval I (pwavelet coherence between the healthy elderly and elderly with CI indicates an altered brain functional connectivity in CI patients. This may be useful for assessing the effectiveness of functional recovery following a CI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Altered communicative decisions following ventromedial prefrontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; D'Imperio, Daniela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Toni, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    Damage to the human ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) leads to profound changes in everyday social interactions [1, 2]. Yet, in the lab, vmPFC patients show surprising proficiency in reasoning about other agents [3-8]. These conflicting observations suggest that what vmPFC patients lack in everyday social interactions might be the ability to guide their decisions with knowledge about a social partner [9-13], despite preserved access to that knowledge [2, 14]. Quantification of socially relevant decisions during live interaction with different partners offers the possibility of testing this hypothesis. Eight patients with vmPFC damage, eight patients with brain damage elsewhere, and 15 healthy participants were asked to communicate non-verbally with two different addressees, an adult or a child, in an experimentally controlled interactive setting [15, 16]. In reality, a confederate blindly performed the role of both adult and child addressee, with matched performance and response times, such that the two addressees differed only in terms of the communicator's beliefs. Patients with vmPFC damage were able-and motivated-to generate communicatively effective behaviors. However, unlike patient and healthy controls, vmPFC patients failed to adjust their communicative decisions to the presumed abilities of their addressee. These findings indicate that the human vmPFC is necessarily involved in social interactions, insofar as those interactions need to be tailored toward knowledge about a social partner. In this perspective, the known contribution of this region to disparate domains like value-based decision-making [17-19], schema-based memory-processing [20-22], and person-specific mentalizing [11-13] might be instances of decisions based on contingently updated conceptual knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in impaired social perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Eun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Hyeongrae; Shin, Young Seok; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-04-03

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by impairments in diverse thinking and emotional responses, which are related to social perception dysfunction. This fMRI study was designed to investigate a neurobiological basis of social perception deficits of patients with schizophrenia in various social situations of daily life and their relationship with clinical symptoms and social dysfunction. Seventeen patients and 19 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which participants performed a virtual social perception task, containing an avatar's speech with positive, negative or neutral emotion in a virtual reality space. Participants were asked to determine whether or not the avatar's speech was appropriate to each situation. The significant group×appropriateness interaction was seen in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting from lower activity in patients in the inappropriate condition, and left DLPFC activity was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms and positively correlated with the level of social functioning. The significant appropriateness×emotion interaction observed in the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) was present in controls, but absent in patients, resulting from the existence and absence of a difference between the inappropriate positive and negative conditions, respectively. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the DLPFC-STS network may underlie patients' abnormal social perception in various social situations of daily life. Abnormal functioning of this network may contribute to increases of negative symptoms and decreases of social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  8. Prefrontal cortex and drug abuse vulnerability: translation to prevention and treatment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer L; Joseph, Jane E; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S; Kelly, Thomas H; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and humans. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in prefrontal-limbic function in major depression after 15 months of long-term psychotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchheim

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV unmedicated outpatients (N = 16 and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17 before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

  10. Changes in Prefrontal-Limbic Function in Major Depression after 15 Months of Long-Term Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna; Viviani, Roberto; Kessler, Henrik; Kächele, Horst; Cierpka, Manfred; Roth, Gerhard; George, Carol; Kernberg, Otto F.; Bruns, Georg; Taubner, Svenja

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV) unmedicated outpatients (N = 16) and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17) before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. PMID:22470470

  11. The enigma of the lateral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, F S

    1984-10-01

    It is difficult to summarize an article of this type, in which the author is certain that his case has been presented fairly, but is aware that other views that are contrary could be stated and endorsed by pertinent clinical cases. Bearing this fact in mind, I wish to reiterate the following: Lateral canals are demonstrated in endodontic cases with much less frequency than they exist. This variance rarely, if ever, causes an endodontic failure. Some demonstrated lateral canals may really be other conditions. Preoperative evaluation should include examination of radiographs for lateral, as well as periapical, lesions. Lateral canals may be demonstrated by a variety of filling techniques. Careful canal preparation may enhance the frequency of such demonstration. Cases with necrotic pulps probably yield more frequent demonstration than do cases with vital pulps. Lateral canals harboring inflamed and/or infected material may cause pain during endodontic treatment. They may simulate periodontal disease and may cause problems with treatment if present when a tooth is left open for drainage. Periodontal disease may cause pulp exposure via lateral canals located coronally. Improper use of post room may lead to lateral failure from breakdown of tissue in a lateral canal. The enigma of the lateral canal has been the object of description and discussion in many articles, but no one is truly certain of their exact significance in endodontic therapy for the long haul.

  12. Prefrontal Cortex Structure Predicts Training-Induced Improvements in Multitasking Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Ashika; Garner, K G; Mattingley, Jason B; Dux, Paul E

    2016-03-02

    The ability to perform multiple, concurrent tasks efficiently is a much-desired cognitive skill, but one that remains elusive due to the brain's inherent information-processing limitations. Multitasking performance can, however, be greatly improved through cognitive training (Van Selst et al., 1999, Dux et al., 2009). Previous studies have examined how patterns of brain activity change following training (for review, see Kelly and Garavan, 2005). Here, in a large-scale human behavioral and imaging study of 100 healthy adults, we tested whether multitasking training benefits, assessed using a standard dual-task paradigm, are associated with variability in brain structure. We found that the volume of the rostral part of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) predicted an individual's response to training. Critically, this association was observed exclusively in a task-specific training group, and not in an active-training control group. Our findings reveal a link between DLPFC structure and an individual's propensity to gain from training on a task that taps the limits of cognitive control. Cognitive "brain" training is a rapidly growing, multibillion dollar industry (Hayden, 2012) that has been touted as the panacea for a variety of disorders that result in cognitive decline. A key process targeted by such training is "cognitive control." Here, we combined an established cognitive control measure, multitasking ability, with structural brain imaging in a sample of 100 participants. Our goal was to determine whether individual differences in brain structure predict the extent to which people derive measurable benefits from a cognitive training regime. Ours is the first study to identify a structural brain marker-volume of left hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-associated with the magnitude of multitasking performance benefits induced by training at an individual level. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362638-08$15.00/0.

  13. Rostro-Caudal Organization of Connectivity between Cingulate Motor Areas and Lateral Frontal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary views, the lateral frontal cortex is organized along a rostro-caudal functional axis with increasingly complex cognitive/behavioral control implemented rostrally, and increasingly detailed motor control implemented caudally. Whether the medial frontal cortex follows the same organization remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the functional connectivity of the 3 cingulate motor areas (CMAs in the human brain with the lateral frontal cortex was investigated. First, the CMAs and their representations of hand, tongue, and eye movements were mapped via task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Second, using resting-state fMRI, their functional connectivity with lateral prefrontal and lateral motor cortical regions of interest (ROIs were examined. Importantly, the above analyses were conducted at the single-subject level to account for variability in individual cingulate morphology. The results demonstrated a rostro-caudal functional organization of the CMAs in the human brain that parallels that in the lateral frontal cortex: the rostral CMA has stronger functional connectivity with prefrontal regions and weaker connectivity with motor regions; conversely, the more caudal CMAs have weaker prefrontal and stronger motor connectivity. Connectivity patterns of the hand, tongue and eye representations within the CMAs are consistent with that of their parent CMAs. The parallel rostral-to-caudal functional organization observed in the medial and lateral frontal cortex could likely contribute to different hierarchies of cognitive-motor control.

  14. Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishizawa, Y; Olsen, T S; Larsen, B

    1982-01-01

    1. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during rest and during listening to simple words. The xenon-133 intracarotid technique was used and results were obtained from 254 regions of seven right hemispheres and seven left hemispheres. The measurements were performed just after carotid...... of the entire hemisphere. The focal rCBF increases were localized to the superior part of the temporal regions, the prefrontal regions, the frontal eye fields, and the orbitofrontal regions. Significant asymmetries were found in particular in the superior temporal region with the left side showing a more...

  15. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  16. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates visual attention during facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Richard C; Philippi, Carissa L; Motzkin, Julian C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is known to play a crucial role in regulating human social and emotional behaviour, yet the precise mechanisms by which it subserves this broad function remain unclear. Whereas previous neuropsychological studies have largely focused on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in higher-order deliberative processes related to valuation and decision-making, here we test whether ventromedial prefrontal cortex may also be critical for more basic aspects of orienting attention to socially and emotionally meaningful stimuli. Using eye tracking during a test of facial emotion recognition in a sample of lesion patients, we show that bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage impairs visual attention to the eye regions of faces, particularly for fearful faces. This finding demonstrates a heretofore unrecognized function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex-the basic attentional process of controlling eye movements to faces expressing emotion. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prefrontal Hemodynamic Changes Associated with Subjective Sense of Occlusal Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure prefrontal brain activity accompanying the physical sensation of oral discomfort that arose when healthy young-adult volunteers performed a grinding motion with mild occlusal elevation (96 μm. We simultaneously evaluated various forms of occlusal discomfort using the visual analogue scale (VAS and hemodynamic responses to identify the specific prefrontal activity that occurs with increased occlusal discomfort. The Oxy-Hb responses of selected channels in the bilateral frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices increased in participants who reported increased severity of occlusal discomfort, while they decreased in those who reported no change or decreased occlusal discomfort during grinding. Moreover, the cumulative values of Oxy-Hb response in some of these channels were statistically significant predictive factors for the VAS scores. A generalized linear model analysis of Oxy-Hb signals in a group of participants who reported increased discomfort further indicated significant cerebral activation in the right frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices that overlapped with the results of correlation analyses. Our results suggest that the increased hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal area reflect the top-down control of attention and/or self-regulation against the uncomfortable somatosensory input, which could be a possible marker to detect the subjective sense of occlusal discomfort.

  18. The role of prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in the neural mechanisms of associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M Victoria; Miller, Earl K

    2012-06-07

    Dopamine is thought to play a major role in learning. However, while dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to modulate working memory-related neural activity, their role in the cellular basis of learning is unknown. We recorded activity from multiple electrodes while injecting the D1R antagonist SCH23390 in the lateral PFC as monkeys learned visuomotor associations. Blocking D1Rs impaired learning of novel associations and decreased cognitive flexibility but spared performance of already familiar associations. This suggests a greater role for prefrontal D1Rs in learning new, rather than performing familiar, associations. There was a corresponding greater decrease in neural selectivity and increase in alpha and beta oscillations in local field potentials for novel than for familiar associations. Our results suggest that weak stimulation of D1Rs observed in aging and psychiatric disorders may impair learning and PFC function by reducing neural selectivity and exacerbating neural oscillations associated with inattention and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prefrontal cortex involvement in creative problem solving in middle adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Jolles, Dietsje D; Schel, Margot A; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2013-07-01

    Creative cognition, defined as the generation of new yet appropriate ideas and solutions, serves important adaptive purposes. Here, we tested whether and how middle adolescence, characterized by transformations toward life independency and individuality, is a more profitable phase than adulthood for creative cognition. Behavioral and neural differences for creative problem solving in adolescents (15-17 years) and adults (25-30 years) were measured while performing a matchstick problem task (MPT) in the scanner and the creative ability test (CAT), a visuo-spatial divergent thinking task, outside the scanner. Overall performances were comparable, although MPT performance indicated an advantage for adolescents in creative problem solving. In addition, adolescents showed more activation in lateral prefrontal cortex (ventral and dorsal) during creative problem solving compared to adults. These areas correlated with performances on the MPT and the CAT performance. We discuss that extended prefrontal cortex activation in adolescence is important for exploration and aids in creative cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: effect of aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated dopamine (DA) release in the bilateral striatal regions following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in young subjects. Several lines of evidence support substantial age-related changes in human dopaminergic neurotransmission. One possible explanation is alteration of cortico striatal neural connection with aging. Therefore, we investigated how frontal activation by rTMS influences striatal DA release in the elderly with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I]iodobenzamide (lBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy elderly male subjects (age, 64 3 y) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM. rTMS session consisted of three blocks. In each block, 15 trains of 2 sec duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency and 100% motor threshold. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital)/occipital radioactivity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over left DLPFC induced no significant change in V3' in the right striatum compared with baseline condition (0.91 0.25 vs. 0.96 0.25, P = NS). Interestingly, left striatal V3' showed a significant increase after rTMS over left DLPFC compared with sham condition (1.09 0.33 vs. 0.93 0.27, P < 0.05; 17.0 11.1% increase). These results are discrepant from previous ones from young subjects, who showed frontal rTMS-induced reduction of striatal V3', indicating rTMS-induced striatal DA release. We found no significant striatal DA release induced by rTMS over DLPFC in healthy elderly subjects using in vivo binding competition techniques. These results may support an altered cortico striatal circuit in normal aging.

  1. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  2. The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not conversion symptoms are lateralized. Studies have shown a predominant left-oriented manifestation of symptoms for most somatoform disorders. The reports in the literature on the lateralization of conversion symptoms, however, are

  3. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  4. Interplay of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alison R.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have considerably advanced our understanding of the distinct roles of these brain areas in the encoding and retrieval of memories, and of how they interact in the prolonged process by which new memories are consolidated into our permanent storehouse of knowledge. These studies have led to a new model of how the hippocampus forms and replays memories and how the prefrontal cortex engages representations of the meaningful contexts in which related memories occur, as well as how these areas interact during memory retrieval. Furthermore, they have provided new insights into how interactions between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex support the assimilation of new memories into pre-existing networks of knowledge, called schemas, and how schemas are modified in this process as the foundation of memory consolidation. PMID:24028960

  5. Vergisson 4: a left-handed Neandertal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Silvana; Monge, Janet; Quertelet, Sylvain; Frayer, David W; Combier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Handedness is an important marker for lateralization of humans in the modern and fossil record. For the most part, Neandertals and their ancestors are strongly right-handed. We describe a single tooth from a Neandertal level at Vergisson 4 (Vg 4-83). This left upper central incisor shows all the features typical of Neandertal incisors. It also exhibits a predominance of left-handed striations. Striations on the incisor's labial surface were mapped at 20x magnification using Photoshop. Angulations of the striations were determined from their deviation from the maximum mesio-distal line and were analyzed using NIH's freeware, Image J. Of the 60 labial surface striations, Vg 4-83 shows a strong predominance of left-handed striations (46; 76.7%), which are statistically significantly different (p handed striations. The identification of another left-handed Neandertal adds to our understanding about handedness variation in this fossil hominin. Given the high frequency of right-handed Neandertals, the 90: 10 modern ratio is still preserved in this group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reasoning by analogy requires the left frontal pole: lesion-deficit mapping and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Marika; Bréchemier, Marie-Laure; Garcin, Béatrice; Bendetowicz, David; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Foulon, Chris; Rosso, Charlotte; Clarençon, Frédéric; Dupont, Sophie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    SEE BURGESS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW092 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : Analogical reasoning is at the core of the generalization and abstraction processes that enable concept formation and creativity. The impact of neurological diseases on analogical reasoning is poorly known, despite its importance in everyday life and in society. Neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects and the few studies that have been performed on patients have highlighted the importance of the prefrontal cortex in analogical reasoning. However, the critical cerebral bases for analogical reasoning deficits remain elusive. In the current study, we examined analogical reasoning abilities in 27 patients with focal damage in the frontal lobes and performed voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping and tractography analyses to investigate the structures critical for analogical reasoning. The findings revealed that damage to the left rostrolateral prefrontal region (or some of its long-range connections) specifically impaired the ability to reason by analogies. A short version of the analogy task predicted the existence of a left rostrolateral prefrontal lesion with good accuracy. Experimental manipulations of the analogy tasks suggested that this region plays a role in relational matching or integration. The current lesion approach demonstrated that the left rostrolateral prefrontal region is a critical node in the analogy network. Our results also suggested that analogy tasks should be translated to clinical practice to refine the neuropsychological assessment of patients with frontal lobe lesions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  8. Individual mediodorsal thalamic neurons project to multiple areas of the rat prefrontal cortex: A single neuron-tracing study using virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Eriko; Pan, Shixiu; Furuta, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro R; Iwai, Haruki; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Ohno, Sachi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Goto, Tetsuya; Hioki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has an important role in a variety of cognitive and executive processes, and is generally defined by its reciprocal connections with the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD). The rat MD is mainly subdivided into three segments, the medial (MDm), central (MDc), and lateral (MDl) divisions, on the basis of the cytoarchitecture and chemoarchitecture. The MD segments are known to topographically project to multiple prefrontal areas at the population level: the MDm mainly to the prelimbic, infralimbic, and agranular insular areas; the MDc to the orbital and agranular insular areas; and the MDl to the prelimbic and anterior cingulate areas. However, it is unknown whether individual MD neurons project to single or multiple prefrontal cortical areas. In the present study, we visualized individual MD neurons with Sindbis virus vectors, and reconstructed whole structures of MD neurons. While the main cortical projection targets of MDm, MDc, and MDl neurons were generally consistent with those of previous results, it was found that individual MD neurons sent their axon fibers to multiple prefrontal areas, and displayed various projection patterns in the target areas. Furthermore, the axons of single MD neurons were not homogeneously spread, but were rather distributed to form patchy axon arbors approximately 1 mm in diameter. The multiple-area projections and patchy axon arbors of single MD neurons might be able to coactivate cortical neuron groups in distant prefrontal areas simultaneously. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity of the projection patterns is likely, to recruit the different sets of cortical neurons, and thus contributes to a variety of prefrontal functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:166-185, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in achieving goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Keiji

    2004-04-01

    Achieving goals in changing environments requires the course of action to be selected on the basis of goal expectation and memory of action-outcome contingency. It is often also essential to evaluate action on the basis of immediate outcomes and the discrimination of early action steps from the final step towards the goal. Recently, in single-cell recordings in monkeys, the neuronal activity that appears to underlie these processes has been noted in the medial part of the prefrontal cortex. Medial prefrontal cells were also active when the subjects extracted the rules of a task in a novel environment. The processes described above might play important roles in rule learning.

  11. Role of Prefrontal Persistent Activity in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Mitchell R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is activated during working memory, as evidenced by fMRI results in human studies and neurophysiological recordings in animal models. Persistent activity during the delay period of working memory tasks, after the offset of stimuli that subjects are required to remember, has traditionally been thought of as the neural correlate of working memory. In the last few years several findings have cast doubt on the role of this activity. By some accounts, activity in other brain areas, such as the primary visual and posterior parietal cortex, is a better predictor of information maintained in visual working memory and working memory performance; dynamic patterns of activity may convey information without requiring persistent activity at all; and prefrontal neurons may be ill-suited to represent non-spatial information about the features and identity of remembered stimuli. Alternative interpretations about the role of the prefrontal cortex have thus been suggested, such as that it provides a top-down control of information represented in other brain areas, rather than maintaining a working memory trace itself. Here we review evidence for and against the role of prefrontal persistent activity, with a focus on visual neurophysiology. We show that persistent activity predicts behavioral parameters precisely in working memory tasks. We illustrate that prefrontal cortex represents features of stimuli other than their spatial location, and that this information is largely absent from early cortical areas during working memory. We examine memory models not dependent on persistent activity, and conclude that each of those models could mediate only a limited range of memory-dependent behaviors. We review activity decoded from brain areas other than the prefrontal cortex during working memory and demonstrate that these areas alone cannot mediate working memory maintenance, particularly in the presence of distractors. We finally discuss the discrepancy between

  12. Implantation of a Resynchronization Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in a Patient with Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Antonelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of resynchronization implantable cardioverter defibrillator was performed in a patient with persistent left superior vena cava. A dual coil defibrillation lead was inserted in the right ventricle apex via a small innominate vein. Left ventricular and atrial leads were implanted through persistent left superior vena cava. Left ventricular lead was easily implanted into the postero lateral vein. Pacing thresholds and sensing values were excellent and remained stable at 18 months follow-up. Presence of persistent left superior vena cava generally makes transvenous lead implantation difficult. However when a favorable coronary sinus anatomy is also present, it may facilitate left ventricular lead positioning in the coronary sinus branches.

  13. Ipsilesional deficit of selective attention in left homonymous hemianopia and left unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, Sylvie; Peyrin, Carole; Perez, Céline

    2018-03-15

    Patients with homonymous hemianopia may present a subtle ipsilesional deficit, recently referred to as 'sightblindness' in addition to the contralesional visual field defect. We recently demonstrated that this deficit could be worse in right brain-damaged patients with left hemianopia than in left brain-damaged patients with right hemianopia, confirming right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial and attentional capacities. In the present study we investigate whether this ipsilesional deficit could be attentional in nature and to what extent it is comparable in right brain-damaged (RBD) patients with left hemianopia and in RBD patients with left neglect. The study was also conducted in RBD patients with neither left hemianopia nor left neglect signs in order to test if a right hemisphere lesion per se could be responsible for subtle ipsilesional attentional deficit. To reach this aim, we tested selective attentional capacities in both visual fields of 10 right brain-damaged patients with left neglect (LN), 8 right brain-damaged patients with left homonymous hemianopia (LHH), 8 right brain-damaged patients with no signs of left neglect or left hemianopia (RBD controls), and 17 healthy age-matched participants (Normal controls). A lateralized letter-detection task was used to test if right-brain damaged patients with LN or LH may present a deficit of selective attention in their right, ipsilesional visual field, in comparison to Normal and RBD controls. Participants were asked to detect a target letter in either a single large stimulus (low attentional load) or a small stimulus surrounded by flankers (high attentional load). Stimuli were displayed either in the left or in the right visual field. Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Results on accuracy showed that both LN and LH patients exhibited lower correct responses than Normal controls in their ipsilesional right visual field, suggesting an attentional deficit in their ipsilesional, supposed healthy

  14. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  15. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  16. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-tem aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 hour later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus.

  17. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, María C.; Kramar, Cecilia P.; Tomaiuolo, Micol; Katche, Cynthia; Weisstaub, Noelia; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H.

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 h later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus. PMID:25506318

  18. Reward sensitivity modulates brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, ACC and striatum during task switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fuentes-Claramonte

    Full Text Available Current perspectives on cognitive control acknowledge that individual differences in motivational dispositions may modulate cognitive processes in the absence of reward contingencies. This work aimed to study the relationship between individual differences in Behavioral Activation System (BAS sensitivity and the neural underpinnings involved in processing a switching cue in a task-switching paradigm. BAS sensitivity was hypothesized to modulate brain activity in frontal regions, ACC and the striatum. Twenty-eight healthy participants underwent fMRI while performing a switching task, which elicited activity in fronto-striatal regions during the processing of the switch cue. BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the ventral striatum. Combined with previous results, our data indicate that BAS sensitivity modulates the neurocognitive processes involved in task switching in a complex manner depending on task demands. Therefore, individual differences in motivational dispositions may influence cognitive processing in the absence of reward contingencies.

  19. Focused transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates specific domains of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripfl, Jürgen; Lamm, Claus

    2015-02-01

    Recent neuroscience theories suggest that different kinds of self-regulation may share a common psychobiological mechanism. However, empirical evidence for a domain general self-regulation mechanism is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether focused anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), facilitating the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), acts on a domain general self-regulation mechanism and thus modulates both affective and appetitive self-regulation. Twenty smokers participated in this within-subject sham controlled study. Effects of anodal left, anodal right and sham tDCS over the dlPFC on affective picture appraisal and nicotine craving-cue appraisal were assessed. Anodal right tDCS over the dlPFC reduced negative affect in emotion appraisal, but neither modulated regulation of positive emotion appraisal nor of craving appraisal. Anodal left stimulation did not induce any significant effects. The results of our study show that domain specific self-regulation networks are at work in the prefrontal cortex. Focused tDCS modulation of this specific self-regulation network could probably be used during the first phase of nicotine abstinence, during which negative affect might easily result in relapse. These findings have implications for neuroscience models of self-regulation and are of relevance for the development of brain stimulation based treatment methods for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with self-regulation deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Lateral canthal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung; Goldberg, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    The lateral canthus is a delicate and complicated three-dimensional structure with function relevant to the health of the ocular surface. Dysfunction of the lateral canthus, due to aging changes or iatrogenic trauma, results in ocular morbidity ranging from chronic irritation to tearing to recalcitrant keratopathy. From an aesthetic standpoint, symmetric, normally positioned lateral canthi are cornerstones of youthful periorbital appearance, disruption of which leads to cosmetically significant deformity or asymmetry. Reconstruction of the lateral canthus is important in the rehabilitation of the aging eyelid and an unfortunate necessity after failed lateral canthal surgery. The common methods for improving or maintaining position, tone, and shape of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus use tightening or shortening the lower eyelid horizontally, keeping the canthal angle in an appropriate vertical level, and hugging the ocular surface. Many techniques have been described for the reconstruction of the lateral canthus in functional conditions or for aesthetic purposes. These methods have met with varying success. In this article, we begin with a discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the lateral canthus, followed by clinical examples of lateral canthal abnormalities and underlying pathophysiologies. A review of surgical options for the lateral canthus is presented with concluding remarks on postoperative complications.

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates repetition suppression to unfamiliar faces: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Philippe Lafontaine

    Full Text Available Repeated visual processing of an unfamiliar face suppresses neural activity in face-specific areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. This "repetition suppression" (RS is a primitive mechanism involved in learning of unfamiliar faces, which can be detected through amplitude reduction of the N170 event-related potential (ERP. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC exerts top-down influence on early visual processing. However, its contribution to N170 RS and learning of unfamiliar faces remains unclear. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS transiently increases or decreases cortical excitability, as a function of polarity. We hypothesized that DLPFC excitability modulation by tDCS would cause polarity-dependent modulations of N170 RS during encoding of unfamiliar faces. tDCS-induced N170 RS enhancement would improve long-term recognition reaction time (RT and/or accuracy rates, whereas N170 RS impairment would compromise recognition ability. Participants underwent three tDCS conditions in random order at ∼72 hour intervals: right anodal/left cathodal, right cathodal/left anodal and sham. Immediately following tDCS conditions, an EEG was recorded during encoding of unfamiliar faces for assessment of P100 and N170 visual ERPs. The P3a component was analyzed to detect prefrontal function modulation. Recognition tasks were administered ∼72 hours following encoding. Results indicate the right anodal/left cathodal condition facilitated N170 RS and induced larger P3a amplitudes, leading to faster recognition RT. Conversely, the right cathodal/left anodal condition caused N170 amplitude and RTs to increase, and a delay in P3a latency. These data demonstrate that DLPFC excitability modulation can influence early visual encoding of unfamiliar faces, highlighting the importance of DLPFC in basic learning mechanisms.

  2. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  3. An fNIRS investigation of associative recognition in the prefrontal cortex with a rapid event-related design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, James D; Yennu, Amarnath S; Gandy, Kellen C; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli; Park, Heekyeong

    2014-09-30

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measures hemodynamic changes at the cortical level. The use of fNIRS is growing in popularity for studying cognitive neuroscience in which event-related designs are widely used with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the applicability of event-related designs with fNIRS has not been fully understood. Therefore, the present study employed fNIRS with a rapid-presentation event-related design for investigating prefrontal cortical activity during complex associative recognition. Participants studied a list of word pairs and were later given an associative recognition test. Throughout the experiment, each event was presented rapidly (∼4s). Data were sorted based on accuracy of associative memory judgments and analyzed using the general linear model (GLM) with an event-related design. During retrieval, significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations were observed in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal regions for successful associative recognition. When comparing retrieval to encoding, significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations were also observed in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The current fNIRS results corroborate previous fMRI findings that have demonstrated the involvement of dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in associative recognition. Therefore, the present study validates versatile use of fNIRS with a rapid-presentation event-related design in the investigation of neural mechanisms of associative memory. The findings of this study provide evidence that fNIRS can be a viable research method for investigating complex cognitive processes commonly of interest in cognitive neuroscience. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fNIRS can be a cost-effective and accessible experimental tool for cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Top-Down Control of Motor Cortex Ensembles by Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Laubach, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is critical for the temporal control of behavior. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex might alter neuronal activity in areas such as motor cortex to inhibit temporally inappropriate responses. We tested this hypothesis by recording from neuronal ensembles in rodent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during a delayed-response task. One-third of dorsomedial prefrontal neurons were significantly modulated during the delay period. The activity of many of these neurons was predi...

  5. Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device fitting after left ventricular reconstruction with mitral valve plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Nishimura, Takashi; Itoh, Satoshi; Yuri, Koichi; Kyo, Shunei; Adachi, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    Both left ventricular assist device and left ventricular reconstruction are treatment choices for severe heart failure conditions. Our institution performed a left ventricular assist device installation following a left ventricular reconstruction procedure on a 42-year-old male patient who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy and low cardiac output syndrome. A mitral valve plasty was used to correct the acute mitral valve regurgitation and we performed a Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device installation on post-operative day 14. Due to the left ventricular reconstruction that the patient had in a previous operation, we needed to attach an apical cuff on posterior apex, insert the inflow cannula with a large curve, and shift the skin insertion site laterally to the left. We assessed the angle between the cardiac longitudinal axis and the inflow cannula using computed tomography. The patient did not complain of any subjective symptoms of heart failure. Although Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device installation after left ventricular reconstruction has several difficulties historically, we have experienced a successful case.

  6. Left ventricular noncompaction in a patient presenting with a left ventricular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Anđelkov Anđelka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a congenital disorder characterised by prominent trabeculations in the left ventricular myocardium. This heart condition very often goes completely undetected, or is mistaken for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or coronary disease. Case report. A middle-aged female with a positive family history of coronary disease was admitted with chest pain, electrocardiography (ECG changes in the area of the inferolateral wall and elevation in cardiac specific enzymes. Initially, she was suspected of having acute coronary syndrome. However, in the left ventricular apex, especially alongside the lateral and inferior walls, cardiac ultrasound visualised hypertrabeculation with multiple trabeculae projecting inside the left ventricular cavity. A short-axis view of the heart above the papillary muscles revealed the presence of two layers of the myocardium: a compacted homogeneous layer adjacent to the epicardium and a spongy layer with trabeculae and sinusoids under the endocardium. The thickness ratio between the two layers was 2.2:1. The same abnormalities were corroborated by multislice computed tomography (MSCT of the heart. Conclusion. Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare, usually hereditary cardiomyopathy, which should be considered as a possibility in patients with myocardial hypertrophy. It is very often mistaken for coronary disease owing to ECG changes and elevated cardiac specific enzymes associated with myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure.

  7. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  8. Learned stressor resistance requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Christianson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally controllable stressors confer protection from the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of future uncontrollable stressors, a phenomenon termed behavioral immunization. Recent data implicate neuroplasticity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC as critical to behavioral immunization. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a series of controllable tailshocks and one week later to uncontrollable tailshocks, followed 24h later by social exploration and shuttlebox escape tests. To test the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK cascade in behavioral immunization, either D-AP5 or the MEK inhibitor U0126 was injected to the prelimbic (PL or infralimbic (IL mPFC prior to controllable stress exposure. Phosphorylated ERK and P70S6K, regulators of transcription and translation, were quantified by Western blot or immunohistochemistry after controllable or uncontrollable tailshocks. Prior controllable stress prevented the social exploration and shuttlebox performance deficits caused by the later uncontrollable stressor, and this effect was blocked by injections of D-AP5 into mPFC. A significant increase in phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, but not P70S6K, occurred within the PL and IL in rats exposed to controllable stress, but not to uncontrollable stress. However, U0126 only prevented behavioral immunization when injected to the PL. We provide evidence that NMDAR and ERK dependent plasticity within the PL region is required for behavioral immunization, a learned form of stressor resistance.

  9. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  10. Prefrontal Cortex and Social Cognition in Mouse and Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicks, Lucy K.; Koike, Hiroyuki; Akbarian, Schahram; Morishita, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a complex process that requires the integration of a wide variety of behaviors, including salience, reward-seeking, motivation, knowledge of self and others, and flexibly adjusting behavior in social groups. Not surprisingly, social cognition represents a sensitive domain commonly disrupted in the pathology of a variety of psychiatric disorders including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SCZ). Here, we discuss convergent research from animal models to human disease that implicates the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a key regulator in social cognition, suggesting that disruptions in prefrontal microcircuitry play an essential role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders with shared social deficits. We take a translational perspective of social cognition, and review three key behaviors that are essential to normal social processing in rodents and humans, including social motivation, social recognition, and dominance hierarchy. A shared prefrontal circuitry may underlie these behaviors. Social cognition deficits in animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD and SCZ have been linked to an altered balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I ratio) within the cortex generally, and PFC specifically. A clear picture of the mechanisms by which altered E/I ratio in the PFC might lead to disruptions of social cognition across a variety of behaviors is not well understood. Future studies should explore how disrupted developmental trajectory of prefrontal microcircuitry could lead to altered E/I balance and subsequent deficits in the social domain. PMID:26635701

  11. Histological evaluation of the prefrontal cortex of infantile Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to nicotine in utero is neuroteratogenic, predisposing the developing brain to cell injury and many forms of neurological and neurobehavioural problems that persist after birth. The current study examined some of the histological effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on the prefrontal cortex of infantile rats.

  12. Neural mechanisms of memory retrieval: role of the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, I

    2000-01-01

    In the primate brain, long-term memory is stored in the neocortical association area which is also engaged in sensory perception. The coded representation of memory is retrieved via interactions of hierarchically different cortical areas along bottom-up and top-down anatomical connections. The functional significance of the fronto-cortical top-down neuronal projections has been relevantly assessed in a new experimental paradigm using posterior-split-brain monkeys. When the splenium of the corpus callosum and the anterior commissure were selectively split, the bottom-up visual signal originating from the unilateral striate cortex could not reach the contralateral visual cortical areas. In this preparation, long-term memory acquired through visual stimulus-stimulus association learning was prevented from transferring across hemispheres. Nonetheless, following the presentation of a visual cue to one hemisphere, the prefrontal cortex could instruct the contralateral hemisphere to retrieve the correct stimulus specified by the cue. These results support the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex can regulate memory recall in the absence of bottom-up sensory input. In humans, functional neuroimaging studies have revealed activation of a distributed neural network, including the prefrontal cortex, during memory retrieval tasks. Thus, the prefrontal cortex is consistently involved in retrieval of long-term memory in primates.

  13. Prefrontal dysfunction in early and continuously treated phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerdink, N.B.A.; Molen, M.W. van der; Kalverboer, A.F.; Meere, J.J. van der; Huisman, J.; Jong, L.W. de; Slijper, F.M.E.; Verkerk, P.H.; Spronsen, F.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that patients with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria (PKU) are selectively impaired in cognitive functions dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) over a wide age range. Thirty-six patients with PKU between 8 and 20 years of age and 36 controls

  14. The impact of social disparity on prefrontal function in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Sheridan

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC develops from birth through late adolescence. This extended developmental trajectory provides many opportunities for experience to shape the structure and function of the PFC. To date, a few studies have reported links between parental socioeconomic status (SES and prefrontal function in childhood, raising the possibility that aspects of environment associated with SES impact prefrontal function. Considering that behavioral measures of prefrontal function are associated with learning across multiple domains, this is an important area of investigation. In this study, we used fMRI to replicate previous findings, demonstrating an association between parental SES and PFC function during childhood. In addition, we present two hypothetical mechanisms by which SES could come to affect PFC function of this association: language environment and stress reactivity. We measured language use in the home environment and change in salivary cortisol before and after fMRI scanning. Complexity of family language, but not the child's own language use, was associated with both parental SES and PFC activation. Change in salivary cortisol was also associated with both SES and PFC activation. These observed associations emphasize the importance of both enrichment and adversity-reduction interventions in creating good developmental environments for all children.

  15. Social cognition in patients following surgery to the prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, L.M.; Andrewes, D.G.; Nicholas, C.L.; Drummond, K.J.; Moffat, B.A.; Phal, P.; Desmond, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired social cognition, including emotion recognition, may explain dysfunctional emotional and social behaviour in patients with lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the VMPFC is a large, poorly defined area that can be sub-divided into orbital and medial sectors. We

  16. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  17. The role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.

    2011-01-01

    System-level memory consolidation theory posits that the hippocampus initially links the neocortical representations, followed by a shift to a hippocampus-independent neocortical network. With consolidation, an increase in activity in the human subgenual ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has

  18. khat distorts the prefrontal cortex histology and function of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... The prefrontal cortex modulates working memory, planning complex cognitive behaviors however; it is linked to many psychological disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and memory loss. We studied the effects exerted by khat on the PFC cytoarchitecture and functions since this part of the brain is ...

  19. Neuroticism and extraversion mediate the association between loneliness and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xia; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Cun, Lingli; Xue, Song; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is an unpleasant and distressing feeling that a person experiences when he/she perceives that his/her social relationships are lacking in someway, either quantitatively or qualitatively; this can be linked to anxiety, depression, and suicide risk. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits (which are temporally stable and heritable) are predictors of loneliness. However, little empirical evidence is available on the brain structures associated with loneliness, as well as how personality traits impact the relationship between loneliness and brain structure. Thus, the current study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain structures underlying individual differences in loneliness (as measured by the UCLA Loneliness Scale) in a large sample, and then, applied multiple mediation analyses to explore the nature of the influence of personality traits on the relationship between loneliness and brain structure. The results showed that lonely individuals had greater regional gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which might reflect immature functioning in terms of emotional regulation. More importantly, we found that neuroticism and extraversion partially mediated the relationship between the left DLPFC and loneliness. In summary, through morphometric and multiple mediation analyses, this paper further validates the influence of both neuroticism and extraversion on loneliness.

  20. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation increases alpha absolute power in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lial, Lysnara; Moreira, Rayele; Correia, Luan; Andrade, Alzira; Pereira, Ane Caroline; Lira, Ricardo; Figueiredo, Rogério; Silva-Júnior, Fernando; Orsini, Marco; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Cagy, Maurício; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2017-09-01

    The physiotherapist's clinical practice includes proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), which is a treatment concept that accelerates the response of neuromuscular mechanisms through spiral and diagonal movements. The adaptations that occur in the nervous system following PNF are still poorly described in the literature. Thus, this study had a goal to investigate the electrophysiological changes in the fronto-parietal circuit during PNF and movement in sagittal and diagonal patterns. This study included 30 female participants, who were divided into three groups (control, PNF, and flexion groups). Electroencephalogram measurements were determined before and after tasks were performed by each group. For the statistical analysis, a two-way ANOVA was performed for the factors group and time. Interactions between the two factors were investigated using a one-way ANOVA. A value of p < 0.004 was considered significant. The results showed an increase in alpha absolute power in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and upper left parietal cortex of the PNF group, suggesting these areas work together to execute a motor action. The PNF group showed a greater alpha absolute power compared with the other groups, indicating a specific cortical demand for planning and attention, reinforcing its use for the rehabilitation of individuals.

  1. Analogical reasoning and prefrontal cortex: evidence for separable retrieval and integration mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Silvia A; Wendelken, Carter; Badre, David; Wagner, Anthony D

    2005-03-01

    The present study examined the contributions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregions to two component processes underlying verbal analogical reasoning: semantic retrieval and integration. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while subjects performed propositional analogy and semantic decision tasks. On each trial, subjects viewed a pair of words (pair 1), followed by an instructional cue and a second word pair (pair 2). On analogy trials, subjects evaluated whether pair 2 was semantically analogous to pair 1. On semantic trials, subjects indicated whether the pair 2 words were semantically related to each other. Thus, analogy--but not semantic--trials required integration across multiple retrieved relations. To identify regions involved in semantic retrieval, we manipulated the associative strength of pair 1 words in both tasks. Anterior left inferior PFC (aLIPC) was modulated by associative strength, consistent with a role in controlled semantic retrieval. Left frontopolar cortex was insensitive to associative strength, but was more sensitive to integration demands than was aLIPC, consistent with a role in integrating the products of semantic retrieval to evaluate whether distinct representations are analogous. Right dorsolateral PFC exhibited a profile consistent with a role in response selection rather than retrieval or integration. These findings indicate that verbal analogical reasoning depends on multiple, PFC-mediated computations.

  2. On the Effect of Sex on Prefrontal and Cerebellar Neurometabolites in Healthy Adults: An MRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Endres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In neuropsychiatric research, the aspects of sex have received increasing attention over the past decade. With regard to the neurometabolic differences in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum of both men and women, we performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS study of a large group of healthy subjects. For neurometabolic measurements, we used single-voxel proton MRS. The voxels of interest were placed in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Absolute quantification of creatine (Cre, total choline (t-Cho, glutamate and glutamine (Glx, N-acetylaspartate, and myo-inositol (mI was performed. Thirty-three automatically matched ACCs and 31 cerebellar male–female pairs were statistically analyzed. We found no significant neurometabolic differences in the pACC region (Wilks’ lambda: p=0.657. In the left cerebellar region, we detected significant variations between the male and female groups (p=0.001. Specifically, we detected significantly higher Cre (p=0.005 and t-Cho (p=0.000 levels in men. Additionally, males tended to have higher Glx and mI concentrations. This is the first study to report neurometabolic sex differences in the cerebellum. The effects of sexual hormones might have influenced our findings. Our data indicates the importance of adjusting for the confounding effects of sex in MRS studies.

  3. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  4. Current Perspectives in Cardiac Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Campione

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first organ to break symmetry in the developing embryo and onset of dextral looping is the first indication of this event. Looping is a complex process that progresses concomitantly to cardiac chamber differentiation and ultimately leads to the alignment of the cardiac regions in their final topology. Generation of cardiac asymmetry is crucial to ensuring proper form and consequent functionality of the heart, and therefore it is a highly regulated process. It has long been known that molecular left/right signals originate far before morphological asymmetry and therefore can direct it. The use of several animal models has led to the characterization of a complex regulatory network, which invariably converges on the Tgf-β signaling molecule Nodal and its downstream target, the homeobox transcription factor Pitx2. Here, we review current data on the cellular and molecular bases of cardiac looping and laterality, and discuss the contribution of Nodal and Pitx2 to these processes. A special emphasis will be given to the morphogenetic role of Pitx2 and to its modulation of transcriptional and functional properties, which have also linked laterality to atrial fibrillation.

  5. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  6. Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. III: Estimating historical rates of left-handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Moore, James; Freegard, Matthew; Rawles, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The BBC television programme Right Hand, Left Hand, broadcast in August 1953, used a postal questionnaire to ask viewers about their handedness. Respondents were born between 1864 and 1948, and in principle therefore the study provides information on rates of left-handedness in those born in the nineteenth century, a group for which few data are otherwise available. A total of 6,549 responses were received, with an overall rate of left-handedness of 15.2%, which is substantially above that expected for a cohort born in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Left-handers are likely to respond preferentially to surveys about handedness, and the extent of over-response can be estimated in modern control data obtained from a handedness website, from the 1953 BBC data, and from Crichton-Browne's 1907 survey, in which there was also a response bias. Response bias appears to have been growing, being relatively greater in the most modern studies. In the 1953 data there is also evidence that left-handers were more common among later rather than early responders, suggesting that left-handers may have been specifically recruited into the study, perhaps by other left-handers who had responded earlier. In the present study the estimated rate of bias was used to correct the nineteenth-century BBC data, which was then combined with other available data as a mixture of two constrained Weibull functions, to obtain an overall estimate of handedness rates in the nineteenth century. The best estimates are that left-handedness was at its nadir of about 3% for those born between about 1880 and 1900. Extrapolating backwards, the rate of left-handedness in the eighteenth century was probably about 10%, with the decline beginning in about 1780, and reaching around 7% in about 1830, although inevitably there are many uncertainties in those estimates. What does seem indisputable is that rates of left-handedness fell during most of the nineteenth century, only subsequently to rise in

  7. Long-Term Synaptic Changes in Two Input Pathways into the Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala Underlie Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junchol; Choi, June-Seek

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity in two input pathways into the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the sensory thalamus, have been suggested to underlie extinction, suppression of a previously acquired conditioned response (CR) following repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS). However, little is known about…

  8. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  9. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  10. Psychophysiological correlates of dissociation, handedness, and hemispheric lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Joel; Ciorciari, Joseph; Stough, Con

    2008-05-01

    Dissociation involves a disruption of typically integrated functions including consciousness, information perception, and memory; however, dissociation may not always be of a pathologic nature. Increasingly, studies are identifying relations between inconsistent handedness, mixed hemispheric lateralization, and dissociative symptomatology in both clinical and nonclinical populations. The current study explored whether a nonclinical sample of individuals scoring high in dissociation would display an inconsistent handedness in conjunction with a left hemispheric lateralization as measured by electroencephalography. Twenty-seven participants (12 males and 15 females) aged between 20 and 59 years (M = 29.1 year, SD = 11.2 years), completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale and Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire Revised after determining laterality. As predicted, inconsistently handed participants scoring high in dissociation displayed left hemispheric lateralization across frontal, central, and parietal regions. Conversely, right lateralization was found within Delta frequency band across temporal regions. The study provides a good framework for future research investigating the neurophysiological correlates underpinning dissociative symptomatology.

  11. Increased low- and high-frequency oscillatory activity in the prefrontal cortex of fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyoel eLim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent human neuroimaging studies have suggested that fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic widespread pain disorder, exhibits altered thalamic structure and function. Since the thalamus has extensive reciprocal connection with the cortex, structural and functional thalamic alterations in FM might be linked to aberrant thalamocortical oscillation. This study investigated the presence of abnormal brain rhythmicity in low- and high-frequency bands during resting state in patients with FM and their relationship to clinical pain symptom. Spontaneous magnetoencephalography activity was recorded in 18 females with FM and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The most remarkable finding was that FM patients had general increases in theta, beta and gamma power along with a slowing of the dominant alpha peak. Increased spectral powers in the theta-band were primarily localized to the left dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC. Beta and gamma over-activation were localized to insular, primary motor and primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, as well as the DLPFC and OFC. Furthermore, enhanced high-frequency oscillatory activities in the DLPFC and OFC were associated with higher affective pain scores in patients with FM. Our results demonstrate that FM patients feature enhanced low- and high-frequency oscillatory activity in the brain areas related to cognitive and emotional modulation of pain. Increased low- and high-frequency activity of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to persistent perception of pain in FM. Therapeutic intervention based on manipulating neural oscillation to restore normal thalamocortical rhythmicity may be beneficial to pain relief in FM.

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  14. Differences in prefrontal blood oxygenation during an acute multitasking stressor in ecstasy polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C A; Wetherell, M A; Fisk, J E; Montgomery, C

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are well documented in ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) users, with such deficits being taken as evidence of dysregulation of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system. More recently neuroimaging has been used to corroborate these deficits. The present study aimed to assess multitasking performance in ecstasy polydrug users, polydrug users and drug-naive individuals. It was predicted that ecstasy polydrug users would perform worse than non-users on the behavioural measure and this would be supported by differences in cortical blood oxygenation. In the study, 20 ecstasy-polydrug users, 17 polydrug users and 19 drug-naive individuals took part. On day 1, drug use history was taken and questionnaire measures were completed. On day 2, participants completed a 20-min multitasking stressor while brain blood oxygenation was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). There were no significant differences between the three groups on the subscales of the multitasking stressor. In addition, there were no significant differences on self-report measures of perceived workload (NASA Task Load Index). In terms of mood, ecstasy users were significantly less calm and less relaxed compared with drug-naive controls. There were also significant differences at three voxels on the fNIRS, indicating decreased blood oxygenation in ecstasy users compared with drug-naive controls at voxel 2 (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), voxel 14 and voxel 16 (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and compared with polydrug controls at V14. The results of the present study provide support for changes in brain activation during performance of demanding tasks in ecstasy polydrug users, which could be related to cerebral vasoconstriction.

  15. Nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation results in insula and prefrontal activation: a large animal FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Knight

    Full Text Available Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAc has previously been investigated clinically for the treatment of several psychiatric conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder and treatment resistant depression. However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic benefit of DBS, including the brain areas that are activated, remains largely unknown. Here, we utilized 3.0 T functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI changes in Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD signal to test the hypothesis that NAc/internal capsule DBS results in global neural network activation in a large animal (porcine modelAnimals (n = 10 were implanted in the NAc/internal capsule with DBS electrodes and received stimulation (1, 3, and 5 V, 130 Hz, and pulse widths of 100 and 500 µsec. BOLD signal changes were evaluated using a gradient echo-echo planar imaging (GRE-EPI sequence in 3.0 T MRI. We used a normalized functional activation map for group analysis and applied general linear modeling across subjects (FDR<0.001. The anatomical location of the implanted DBS lead was confirmed with a CT scanWe observed stimulation-evoked activation in the ipsilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, cingulate and bilateral parahippocampal region along with decrease in BOLD signal in the ipsilateral dorsal region of the thalamus. Furthermore, as the stimulation voltage increased from 3 V to 5 V, the region of BOLD signal modulation increased in insula, thalamus, and parahippocampal cortex and decreased in the cingulate and prefrontal cortex. We also demonstrated that right and left NAc/internal capsule stimulation modulates identical areas ipsilateral to the side of the stimulationOur results suggest that NAc/internal capsule DBS results in modulation of psychiatrically important brain areas notably the prefrontal cortex, cingulate, and insular cortex, which may underlie the therapeutic effect of NAc DBS in psychiatric disorders. Finally, our fMRI setup in the large

  16. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  17. Age-Dependent Mesial Temporal Lobe Lateralization in Language FMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N.; Berl, Madison M.; Wilke, Marko; You, Xiaozhen; Mehta, Meera; Xu, Benjamin; Inati, Sara; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Austermuehle, Alison; Theodore, William H.; Gaillard, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective FMRI activation of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) may be important for epilepsy surgical planning. We examined MTL activation and lateralization during language fMRI in children and adults with focal epilepsy. Methods 142 controls and patients with left hemisphere focal epilepsy (Pediatric: epilepsy, n = 17, mean age = 9.9 ± 2.0; controls, n = 48; mean age = 9.1 ± 2.6; Adult: epilepsy, n = 20, mean age = 26.7 ± 5.8; controls, n = 57, mean age = 26.2 ± 7.5) underwent 3T fMRI using a language task (auditory description decision task). Image processing and analyses were conducted in SPM8; ROIs included MTL, Broca’s area, and Wernicke’s area. We assessed group and individual MTL activation, and examined degree of lateralization. Results Patients and controls (pediatric and adult) demonstrated group and individual MTL activation during language fMRI. MTL activation was left lateralized for adults but less so in children (p’s < 0.005). Patients did not differ from controls in either age group. Stronger left-lateralized MTL activation was related to older age (p = 0.02). Language lateralization (Broca’s and Wernicke’s) predicted 19% of the variance in MTL lateralization for adults (p = 0.001), but not children. Significance Language fMRI may be used to elicit group and individual MTL activation. The developmental difference in MTL lateralization and its association with language lateralization suggests a developmental shift in lateralization of MTL function, with increased left lateralization across the age span. This shift may help explain why children have better memory outcomes following resection compared to adults. PMID:26696589

  18. The anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Alan A; Selva, Dinesh; Hardy, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Brett

    2014-10-01

    To determine the anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas (OCH). Retrospective case series. The records of 104 patients with OCH were analyzed. The anatomical location of each OCH defined by the location of a point at the centre of the lesion, and its laterality. There were 104 patients included in the study. No patient had more than one lesion. Sixteen (15.4%) were located in the anterior third of the orbit, 74 (71.2%) were in the middle third, and 14 (13.5%) in the posterior third. In the middle third, 10 of 74 (13.5%) were extraconal and 64 intraconal (86.5%), with 30 of 64 (46.9%) middle third intraconal lesions lying lateral to the optic nerve. Of 104 lesions, 56 (53.8%) were left sided, showing a trend towards a predilection for the left side (p = 0.065). If data from other published series which included data on laterality is added to our own data and analysed, 270 of 468 (57.7%) OCH occurred in the left orbit (p lateral to the optic nerve. This may reflect an origin of these lesions from th