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Sample records for left lateral margin

  1. Wrong to be Right: Margin Laterality is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Failure After Radical Prostatectomy.

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    Kang, Jung J; Reiter, Robert E; Kummer, Nicolas; DeKernion, Jean; Steinberg, Michael L; King, Christopher R

    2018-01-01

    To examine the impact of positive surgical margin (PSM) laterality on failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). A PSM can influence local recurrence and outcomes after salvage radiation. Unlike intrinsic risk factors, a PSM is caused by intervention and thus iatrogenic failures may be elucidated by analyzing margin laterality as surgical approach is itself lateralized. We reviewed 226 RP patients between 1991 and 2013 with PSM. Data includes operation type, pre/postoperative PSA, surgical pathology, and margin type (location, focality, laterality). The median follow-up was 47 months. Biochemical recurrence after RP was defined as PSA≥0.1 ng/mL or 2 consecutive rises above nadir. Ninety-two patients received salvage radiation therapy (SRT). Failure after SRT was defined as any PSA≥0.2 ng/mL or greater than presalvage. Kaplan-Meier and Cox multivariate analyses compared relapse rates. The majority of PSM were iatrogenic (58%). Laterality was associated with differences in median relapse: right 20 versus left 51 versus bilateral 14 months (PRight-sided margins were more likely to progress than left (hazard ratio, 1.67; P=0.04). More right-sided margins were referred for SRT (55% right vs. 23% left vs. 22% bilateral), but were equally salvaged. Only T-stage and pre-SRT PSA independently influenced SRT success. Most PSM are iatrogenic, with right-sided more likely to progress (and sooner) than left sided. Margin laterality is a heretofore unrecognized independent predictor of biochemical relapse and hints at the need to modify the traditional unilateral surgical technique.

  2. Lateral chest radiographic findings in lobar collapse of the left lung : the distance between both upper lobe bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G. H.; Sung, D. W.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the distance between both upper love bronchi on lateral radiographs and its change in left upper or lower lobe collapse. 144 true lateral radiographs were analyzed on which both upper lobe bronchi were clearly identified. They included 116 normal cases, 11 cases of left upper lobe collapse, 13 of left lower lobe collapse, and 4 cases of left lower lobe lobectomy. Line A was drawn parallel to the vertebral end plate through the upper margin of the lift upper lobe bronchus. Line B was drawn parallel to line A through the upper margin of the right upper love bronchus. The shortest distance between line A and line B was measured as the distance between both upper lobe bronchi. In normal cases, the mean value of the distance was 2.19 cm ± S.D. 0.37 cm on right and on right and 2.16 cm ± S.D. 0.40 cm on left lateral radiographs ; these results were not significantly different(P=0.79). In cases of collapse, the mean value of the distance was 0.43 cm ± S.D. 0.99 cm in upper lobe collapse and 3.56 cm ± S.D. 0.72 cm in lower lobe collapse, results which were significantly different from those of normal cases(p<0.01). In eight cases(73%) of left upper lobe collapse, the distance was less than 1 cm and in 10 cases(77%) of left lower lobe collapse, the distance was more than 3 cm. The distance between both upper lobe bronchi varies markedly in case of lobar collapse. A distance of less than 1 cm suggests collapse of the left upper lobe and a distance more than 3 cm suggests collapse of the left lower lobe

  3. Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

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    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  4. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

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    Florian Loffing

    Full Text Available In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing, for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  5. Small atrial septal defect associated with heart failure in an infant with a marginal left ventricle

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    Sandra D.K. Kingma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Atrial septal defect (ASD is usually asymptomatic in infancy, unless pulmonary hypertension or severe co-morbidity is present. We report a case of a 4-week-old infant with moderate- sized ASD, small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and a borderline sized left ventricle that developed heart failure. Despite the relatively small diameter of the ASD, this defect influenced the mechanism of heart failure significantly. After surgical closure of both PDA and ASD, the signs of pulmonary hypertension resolved and the patient developed a normal sized left ventricle. This report illustrates that the presence of a small ASD in combination with a marginal left ventricle may result in inadequate left ventricular filling, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.

  6. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

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    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  7. Validity of PRV margins around lung and heart during left breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Planning organ at risk volumes (PRV) has a minor use in radiotherapy treatment planning. During left breast irradiation two critical volumes are of special importance the lung and the heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in volume doses after adding appropriate margins around these organs at risk and compare them with the effect that the systematic positioning error has on the volume doses. Methods: Treatment plans for 44 patients with left breast cancer were analyzed. Two changes for each plan were made, and dose-volume histogram values for hearts and lungs volumes were recorded. In the first case margins of 5 mm to hearts and lungs were added. Volumes that were enclosed by 30% isodose for hearts and volumes that were enclosed by 20% isodose of lungs were recorded. In the second case plans were made with a systematic error of 5 mm employed, depicting a translation of isocenter posterior and to the right. In this second case, monitor units were taken from the original plan. The critical volumes for hearts and lungs were recorded as in the first case. Results: Our policy for breast cancer irradiation demands that the lung volume receiving 20 Gy should be kept under 25% of the whole left-lung volume, and no more than 10% of the heart volume should receive more than 30 Gy. The first case simulation showed that 23% of the patients have a heart overdose while 11% of them have a lung overdose according to the criteria above. Simulation of the second kind showed that the systematic error in isocenter positioning of 5 mm gives bigger a volume of the heart (in average 0.69% of heart volume) to be enclosed in critical isodose than in PRV case. For the lung the situation was opposite; namely in PRV case the lung volume that is encompassed with critical isodose is greater (in average 1.47% of lung volume) than in a case of displaced isocenter. Conclusions: Adding PRV margins around the heart and the lung does not give straightforward and unambiguous result

  8. Language and Memory Improvements following tDCS of Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

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    Erika K Hussey

    Full Text Available Recent research demonstrates that performance on executive-control measures can be enhanced through brain stimulation of lateral prefrontal regions. Separate psycholinguistic work emphasizes the importance of left lateral prefrontal cortex executive-control resources during sentence processing, especially when readers must override early, incorrect interpretations when faced with temporary ambiguity. Using transcranial direct current stimulation, we tested whether stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex had discriminate effects on language and memory conditions that rely on executive-control (versus cases with minimal executive-control demands, even in the face of task difficulty. Participants were randomly assigned to receive Anodal, Cathodal, or Sham stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex while they (1 processed ambiguous and unambiguous sentences in a word-by-word self-paced reading task and (2 performed an n-back memory task that, on some trials, contained interference lure items reputed to require executive-control. Across both tasks, we parametrically manipulated executive-control demands and task difficulty. Our results revealed that the Anodal group outperformed the remaining groups on (1 the sentence processing conditions requiring executive-control, and (2 only the most complex n-back conditions, regardless of executive-control demands. Together, these findings add to the mounting evidence for the selective causal role of left lateral prefrontal cortex for executive-control tasks in the language domain. Moreover, we provide the first evidence suggesting that brain stimulation is a promising method to mitigate processing demands encountered during online sentence processing.

  9. Multiple Marginal Tissue Recession Treated with a Simplified Lateral Sliding Flap Technique

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    Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; de Morais-Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Fernandes, José Marcos Alves; Pires, Juliana Rico; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias

    2014-01-01

    Marginal tissue recession is a common esthetic problem that is usually accompanied by dentin sensitivity, and patients frequently report a fear of dental loss. Lateral sliding flaps have been used for localized recession, but they are rarely used for multiple recessions. The aim of this paper was to report a case of coverage of multiple marginal tissue recessions by means of a lateral sliding flap associated with a connective tissue graft. This was a modification of Nelson's technique, which was originally described as the combination of the double papilla technique, lateral sliding flap, and connective tissue graft. In the present case, double papilla was not performed, rendering the maneuver less complicated. After surgery on teeth #23 to #25, total root coverage, decreased dentin sensitivity, and increased keratinized tissue band and gingival thickness were achieved. In the present case, modified Nelson technique proved to be a more simple procedure for the treatment of multiple recessions in one session, resulting in adequate healing, predictable root coverage, and, more importantly, esthetic and functional success. PMID:25400955

  10. Persistence of the embryonic lateral marginal vein: report of two cases

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    Rojas Martinez Raúl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Congenital venous malformations of the lower limbs represent a particular challenge for the vascular surgeon. Persistence of fetal veins is a rare malformation, and the most common is the persistence of the lateral marginal vein usually observed in patients with Klippel-Trenaunnay Syndrome. The persistence of this embryonic vein as an isolated venous malformation without the other characteristics of the Klippel-Trenaunnay Syndrome has not yet been reported. This paper describes two cases. METHODS: Two patients, a 17-year-old male patient and a 16-year-old female, have had since their birth a large venous trunk in the lateral aspect of the right leg and thigh. The limbs underwent duplex scanning and phlebography. The surgical removal of the lateral marginal vein was performed. RESULTS: Surgical treatment resulted in very good functional and aesthetic results. Follow-up at 26 months showed no evidence of varicose vein recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: To achieve good results, surgical intervention may be indicated in cases of orthopedic deformity, hemorrhage, symptomatic, and unaesthetic lesions.

  11. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

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    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  12. Left laterality is an independent prognostic factor for metastasis in N3 stage breast cancer.

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    Karatas, Fatih; Sahin, Sanja; Erdem, Gokmen U; Ates, Ozturk; Babacan, Taner; Akin, Serkan; Sever, Ali R; Ozisik, Yavuz; Altundag, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    Development of metastasis in patients with breast cancer (BC) is the most important negative prognostic factor and this process mainly begins with lymphatic involvement. Therefore, axillary, subclavicular, internal mammary or supraclavicular nodal involvement is a crucial step before metastasis. Anatomical differences between the right and left lymphatic drainages of the breasts may significantly affect the rate, site and time to development of distant metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate if laterality is an independent prognostic factor for metastasis in N3 breast cancer patients. From a total of 4215 BC patients diagnosed between 1994 and 2015 in our center, 305 non-metastatic women with pathological N3 (pN3) nodal status at presentation were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: left and right BC. Analysis of overall survival (OS) and time to first metastasis (TTM) was performed according to Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. The median number of lymph node involvement and lymph node ratio (number of positive lymph nodes / total number of excised lymph nodes) between the two groups was equal (14 and 0,66 respectively). Recurrence was observed in 123 patients [53 (35%) right vs 70 (44%) left group]. Patients with left BC had significantly higher rate of axial bone metastases compared with the right BC group (55.7 vs 35.8%, p<0.02, respectively). TTM was significantly shorter in the left BC group [49.1 months (95% CI 36.5-61.8) vs 103.6 months (95% CI 47.0-160); p7equals;0.03, respectively]. Median OS did not differ between the groups, however, there was a trend towards lower OS in patients with left BC (p=0.68). Left laterality in patients with pN3 non-metastatic BC is an independent prognostic factor associated with shorter TTM, increased risk of distant metastases and axial bone involvement compared with right laterality.

  13. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

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    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  14. Marginal artery stump pressure in left colic artery-preserving rectal cancer surgery: a clinical trial.

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    Guo, Yuchen; Wang, Daguang; He, Liang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Shishun; Zhang, Luyao; Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate the influence of high and low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery with apical lymph node dissection on the anastomotic blood supply, lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate in rectal cancer surgery. A total of 57 Chinese patients were randomly distributed into group A and group B and underwent radical resection of rectal cancer. Patients in group A underwent high ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, and patients in group B underwent apical lymph node resection around the root of the inferior mesenteric artery with preservation of the left colic artery. The marginal artery stump pressure was measured after colon and artery reconstruction. Systemic pressure, distal colon length, operative time and lymph node retrieval rate were measured and recorded. The results were analysed and related to patient characteristics and post-operative complications. The anastomotic blood supply negatively and linearly correlated with age and distal colon length and showed a positive linear correlation with systemic pressure. Patients who received low ligation with apical lymph node dissection had a better anastomotic blood supply than those who received high ligation. No differences were found in lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate. Anastomotic leakage was associated with a worse anastomotic blood supply. Low ligation with apical lymph node dissection in rectal cancer treatment provides better anastomotic blood supply but is not associated with differences in node retrieval rate or operation time. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. Left lateral decubitus position on patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure

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    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Ramasamy, Mouli

    2017-04-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a cardiovascular disease that affects about 5.7 million people in the US. The most prevalent comorbidity to CHF is Atrial Fibrillation (AF). These two pathologies present in a mutually worsening manner in that patients diagnosed with CHF are more likely to develop AF and patients who are diagnosed with AF are more likely to develop CHF. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied for several years and the most recent efforts are in the cellular and molecular basis. In this paper, we focus on manifestation of CHF and AF symptoms as influenced by the posture assumed by a patient. We consider three postures - Left lateral decubitus, right lateral decubitus and supine. We review the clinical evidence gathered thus far relating enhanced sympathetic activity to the left lateral decubitus and supine positions with equivalent evidence on the enhanced vagal activity when the right lateral decubitus posture is assumed. We conclude with a compilation of all the hypotheses on the mechanism by which the right lateral decubitus posture alleviates the symptoms of CHF and AF, and future avenues for investigation.

  16. Holocene earthquakes and right-lateral slip on the left-lateral Darrington-Devils Mountain fault zone, northern Puget Sound, Washington

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    Personius, Stephen F.; Briggs, Richard W.; Nelson, Alan R.; Schermer, Elizabeth R; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Sherrod, Brian; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Bradley, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Sources of seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region of northwestern Washington include deep earthquakes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, and shallow earthquakes associated with some of the numerous crustal (upper-plate) faults that crisscross the region. Our paleoseismic investigations on one of the more prominent crustal faults, the Darrington–Devils Mountain fault zone, included trenching of fault scarps developed on latest Pleistocene glacial sediments and analysis of cores from an adjacent wetland near Lake Creek, 14 km southeast of Mount Vernon, Washington. Trench excavations revealed evidence of a single earthquake, radiocarbon dated to ca. 2 ka, but extensive burrowing and root mixing of sediments within 50–100 cm of the ground surface may have destroyed evidence of other earthquakes. Cores in a small wetland adjacent to our trench site provided stratigraphic evidence (formation of a laterally extensive, prograding wedge of hillslope colluvium) of an earthquake ca. 2 ka, which we interpret to be the same earthquake documented in the trenches. A similar colluvial wedge lower in the wetland section provides possible evidence for a second earthquake dated to ca. 8 ka. Three-dimensional trenching techniques revealed evidence for 2.2 ± 1.1 m of right-lateral offset of a glacial outwash channel margin, and 45–70 cm of north-side-up vertical separation across the fault zone. These offsets indicate a net slip vector of 2.3 ± 1.1 m, plunging 14° west on a 286°-striking, 90°-dipping fault plane. The dominant right-lateral sense of slip is supported by the presence of numerous Riedel R shears preserved in two of our trenches, and probable right-lateral offset of a distinctive bedrock fault zone in a third trench. Holocene north-side-up, right-lateral oblique slip is opposite the south-side-up, left-lateral oblique sense of slip inferred from geologic mapping of Eocene and older rocks along the fault zone. The cause of this slip reversal is

  17. Independent representations of verbs and actions in left lateral temporal cortex.

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    Peelen, Marius V; Romagno, Domenica; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    Verbs and nouns differ not only on formal linguistic grounds but also in what they typically refer to: Verbs typically refer to actions, whereas nouns typically refer to objects. Prior neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions in the left lateral temporal cortex (LTC), including the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), respond selectively to action verbs relative to object nouns. Other studies have implicated the left pMTG in action knowledge, raising the possibility that verb selectivity in LTC may primarily reflect action-specific semantic features. Here, using functional neuroimaging, we test this hypothesis. Participants performed a simple memory task on visually presented verbs and nouns that described either events (e.g., "he eats" and "the conversation") or states (e.g., "he exists" and "the value"). Verb-selective regions in the left pMTG and the left STS were defined in individual participants by an independent localizer contrast between action verbs and object nouns. Both regions showed equally strong selectivity for event and state verbs relative to semantically matched nouns. The left STS responded more to states than events, whereas there was no difference between states and events in the left pMTG. Finally, whole-brain group analysis revealed that action verbs, relative to state verbs, activated a cluster in pMTG that was located posterior to the verb-selective pMTG clusters. Together, these results indicate that verb selectivity in LTC is independent of action representations. We consider other differences between verbs and nouns that may underlie verb selectivity in LTC, including the verb property of predication.

  18. White-matter microstructure and language lateralization in left-handers: a whole-brain MRI analysis.

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    Perlaki, Gabor; Horvath, Reka; Orsi, Gergely; Aradi, Mihaly; Auer, Tibor; Varga, Eszter; Kantor, Gyongyi; Altbäcker, Anna; John, Flora; Doczi, Tamas; Komoly, Samuel; Kovacs, Norbert; Schwarcz, Attila; Janszky, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    Most people are left-hemisphere dominant for language. However the neuroanatomy of language lateralization is not fully understood. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we studied whether language lateralization is associated with cerebral white-matter (WM) microstructure. Sixteen healthy, left-handed women aged 20-25 were included in the study. Left-handers were targeted in order to increase the chances of involving subjects with atypical language lateralization. Language lateralization was determined by fMRI using a verbal fluency paradigm. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI data was applied to test for WM microstructural correlates of language lateralization across the whole brain. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were used as indicators of WM microstructural organization. Right-hemispheric language dominance was associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left-sided parietal lobe WM. In left-handed women, reduced integrity of the left-sided language related tracts may be closely linked to the development of right hemispheric language dominance. Our results may offer new insights into language lateralization and structure-function relationships in human language system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiovascular responses to the change from the left lateral to the upright position in pregnant hypertensives.

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    Dyer, R A; Anthony, J; Ledeboer, Q; James, M F

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate by non-invasive means, the autonomically mediated changes in heart rate and blood pressure in response to postural change in pregnancy. Ninety-one patients were studied, of whom 17 were non-pregnant controls, 21 were normotensive parturients, 22 had non-proteinuric hypertension, and 31 were pre-eclamptics. In all patients the heart rate and blood pressure response to the change from the left lateral to the erect position was measured non-invasively, during the third trimester in the pregnant groups. The change from the left lateral to the erect position induced significantly greater mean changes (increases) in systolic blood pressure in the normotensive pregnant (PC) women than all other groups (Pchanges when comparing the PC, NP and H groups. The PE group exhibited a significantly greater increase in heart rate on adopting the erect position than all other groups. Pre-eclamptics exhibit smaller changes in blood pressure than normotensive pregnant patients and non-proteinuric hypertensives on standing, while producing an exaggerated heart rate response, indicating altered autonomic compensatory mechanisms in these patients.

  20. Left lateralization in autobiographical memory: an fMRI study using the expert archival paradigm.

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    Campitelli, Guillermo; Parker, Amanda; Head, Kay; Gobet, Fernand

    2008-02-01

    In brain-imaging and behavioral research, studies of autobiographical memory have higher ecological validity than controlled laboratory memory studies. However, they also have less controllability over the variables investigated. This article presents a novel technique - the expert archival paradigm - that increases controllability while maintaining ecological validity. Stimuli were created from games played by two international-level chess masters. The two players were asked to perform a memory task with stimuli generated from their own games and stimuli generated from other players' games while they were scanned using fMRI. The study found a left lateralized pattern of brain activity that was very similar in both masters. The brain areas activated were the left temporo-parietal junction and left frontal areas. The expert archival paradigm has the advantage of not requiring an interview to assess the participants' autobiographical memories, and affords the possibility of measuring their accuracy of remembering as well as their brain activity related to remote and recent memories. It can also be used in any field of expertise, including arts, sciences, and sports, in which archival data are available.

  1. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

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    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  2. Left-Lateral Strike-Slip Faulting in the East Alborz, NE Iran

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    Hollingsworth, J.; Walker, R.; Jackson, J.; Bolourchi, M. J.; Eshraghi, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    The East Alborz mountains of NE Iran are actively deforming as a result of Arabia-Eurasia collision. We combine observations of the geomorphology made using high resolution satellite, topographic and field data, with historical and recent seismicity to map major active faults in this poorly studied region. Deformation on the north side of the range occurs by range-normal shortening on the Khazar thrust fault, which separates Central Iran from the South Caspian. South of the range, deformation involves both left-lateral slip on the previously undocumented Shahrud fault system, which comprises several range-bounding fault segments, and shortening on (probably minor) thrust faults. Faulting south of the range is responsible for major historical earthquakes at Damghan (856AD) and Shahrud (1890). Deformation accommodated across the East Alborz is estimated from the difference in GPS velocities north and south of the range. South of the Alborz, northward GPS velocities across Central Iran decrease eastwards and the strike of the deforming belt changes to become more sub-parallel to the direction of South Caspian- Iran relative motion. This reduces the shortening component across the East Alborz, resulting in lower elevations between 54--57°E. West of 55.5°E, the more arc-normal shortening is achieved by partitioning of deformation onto the Khazar thrust (~1 mm/yr) and the Astaneh and Firuzkuh strike-slip faults (~3 mm/yr). East of 55.5°E, the Khazar fault ends and East Alborz deformation is accommodated primarily on the left-lateral Shahrud fault system, which may slip up to 3~mm/yr. Due to the long gap in seismicity along the eastern Shahrud fault system, the city of Jajarm (15,000 pop.) is considered at high risk from future earthquakes.

  3. Renoportal Anastomosis in Left Lateral Lobe Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Pediatric Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ogasawara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In adult liver transplantation, renoportal anastomosis (RPA has been introduced as a useful technique for patients with grade 4 portal vein thrombosis and a splenorenal shunt. Here, we report a pediatric case in which RPA allowed a left lateral lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT despite portal vein thrombosis and a large splenorenal shunt. At 36 days old, the patient underwent a Kasai operation for biliary atresia. At 17 months old, she underwent LDLT because of repetitive cholangitis. Pretransplant examinations revealed a large splenorenal shunt and portal vein thrombosis. Simple end-to-end portal reconstruction and clamping of the collateral route after removing the thrombosis were unsuccessful. Thus, RPA was performed using a donor superficial femoral vein as an interpositional graft. The portal vein pressure was 20 mm Hg after arterial reperfusion. Ligation of the splenic artery reduced the portal vein pressure. Although she developed severe acute cellular rejection and chylous ascites, there were no signs of portal vein complications. She was discharged 73 days after transplantation without any signs of renal dysfunction. The patient’s condition was good at her last follow-up, 22 months after transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case of RPA in pediatric left lateral lobe LDLT. Additionally, this is the first case of RPA with splenic artery ligation and using the donor’s superficial femoral vein as the venous graft for RPA. Although long-term follow-up is necessary, RPA could be a salvage option in LDLT in infants if other methods are unsuccessful.

  4. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

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    Maria Sitnikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.

  5. Linkage analysis in a Dutch population isolate shows no major gene for left-handedness or atypical language lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Aukes, Maartje F; Cantor, Rita M; Boks, Marco P; Dauwan, Meenakshi; de Visser, Kees L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E

    2015-06-10

    Cerebral dominance of language function and hand preference are suggested to be heritable traits with possible shared genetic background. However, joined genetic studies of these traits have never been conducted. We performed a genetic linkage study in 37 multigenerational human pedigrees of both sexes (consisting of 355 subjects) enriched with left-handedness in which we also measured language lateralization. Hand preference was measured with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and language lateralization was measured with functional transcranial Doppler during language production. The estimated heritability of left-handedness and language lateralization in these pedigrees is 0.24 and 0.31, respectively. A parametric major gene model was tested for left-handedness. Nonparametric analyses were performed for left-handedness, atypical lateralization, and degree of language lateralization. We did not observe genome-wide evidence for linkage in the parametric or nonparametric analyses for any of the phenotypes tested. However, multiple regions showed suggestive evidence of linkage. The parametric model showed suggestive linkage for left-handedness in the 22q13 region [heterogeneity logarithm of odds (HLOD) = 2.18]. Nonparametric multipoint analysis of left-handedness showed suggestive linkage in the same region [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 2.80]. Atypical language lateralization showed suggestive linkage in the 7q34 region (LODMax = 2.35). For strength of language lateralization, we observed suggestive linkage in the 6p22 (LODMax = 2.54), 7q32 (LODMax = 1.93), and 9q33 (LODMax = 2.10) regions. We did not observe any overlap of suggestive genetic signal between handedness and the extent of language lateralization. The absence of significant linkage argues against the presence of a major gene coding for both traits; rather, our results are suggestive of these traits being two independent polygenic complex traits. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358730-07$15.00/0.

  6. Distinctive laterality of neural networks supporting action understanding in left- and right-handed individuals: An EEG coherence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rachel; Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that perspective and handedness of observed actions can affect action understanding differently in right and left-handed persons, suggesting potential differences in the neural networks underlying action understanding between right and left-handed individuals. We sought to evaluate potential differences in these neural networks using electroencephalography (EEG). Right- and left-handed participants observed images of tool-use actions from egocentric and allocentric perspectives, with right- and left-handed actors performing the actions. Participants judged the outcome of the observed actions, and response accuracy and latency were recorded. Behaviorally, the highest accuracy and shortest latency was found in the egocentric perspective for right- and left-handed observers. Handedness of subject showed an effect on accuracy and latency also, where right-handed observers were faster to respond than left-handed observers, but on average were less accurate. Mu band (8-10 Hz) cortico-cortical coherence analysis indicated that right-handed observers have coherence in the motor dominant left parietal-premotor networks when looking at an egocentric right or allocentric left hands. When looking in an egocentric perspective at a left hand or allocentric right hand, coherence was lateralized to right parietal-premotor areas. In left-handed observers, bilateral parietal-premotor coherence patterns were observed regardless of actor handedness. These findings suggest that the cortical networks involved in understanding action outcomes are dependent on hand dominance, and notably right handed participants seem to utilize motor systems based on the limb seen performing the action. The decreased accuracy for right-handed participants on allocentric images could be due to asymmetrical lateralization of encoding action and motoric dominance, which may interfere with translating allocentric limb action outcomes. Further neurophysiological studies will

  7. Gesture subtype-dependent left lateralization of praxis planning: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlhalter, S; Hattori, N; Wheaton, L; Fridman, E; Shamim, E A; Garraux, G; Hallett, M

    2009-06-01

    Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder mainly of praxis planning, and the deficit is typically more evident in pantomiming transitive (tool related) than intransitive (communicative) gestures. The goal of the present study was to assess differential hemispheric lateralization of praxis production using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based analysis demonstrated significant activations in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and premotor cortex (PMC) association areas, which were predominantly left hemispheric, regardless of whether planning occurred for right or left hand transitive or intransitive pantomimes. Furthermore, region of interest-based calculation of mean laterality index (LI) revealed a significantly stronger left lateralization in PPC/PMC clusters for planning intransitive (LI = -0.49 + 0.10, mean + standard deviation [SD]) than transitive gestures (-0.37 + 0.08, P = 0.02, paired t-tests) irrespective of the hand involved. This differential left lateralization for planning remained significant in PMC (LI = -0.47 + 0.14 and -0.36 + 0.13, mean + SD, P = 0.04), but not in PPC (-0.56 + 0.11 and -0.45 + 0.12, P = 0.11), when both regions were analyzed separately. In conclusion, the findings point to a left-hemispheric specialization for praxis planning, being more pronounced for intransitive gestures in PMC, possibly due to their communicative nature.

  8. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M H; Jones, 'Ōiwi Parker; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2015-09-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug-kettle) than unrelated (car-teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A description of the lumbar interfascial triangle and its relation with the lateral raphe: anatomical constituents of load transfer through the lateral margin of the thoracolumbar fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenke, M D; Vleeming, A; Van Hoof, T; Willard, F H

    2012-01-01

    Movement and stability of the lumbosacral region is contingent on the balance of forces distributed through the myofascial planes associated with the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). This structure is located at the common intersection of several extremity muscles (e.g. latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus), as well as hypaxial (e.g. ventral trunk muscles) and epaxial (paraspinal) muscles. The mechanical properties of the fascial constituents establish the parameters guiding the dynamic interaction of muscle groups that stabilize the lumbosacral spine. Understanding the construction of this complex myofascial junction is fundamental to biomechanical analysis and implementation of effective rehabilitation in individuals with low back and pelvic girdle pain. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to describe the anatomy of the lateral margin of the TLF, and specifically the interface between the fascial sheath surrounding the paraspinal muscles and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis (TA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles. The lateral margin of the TLF was exposed via serial reduction dissections from anterior and posterior approaches. Axial sections (cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging) were examined to characterize the region between the TA and IO aponeurosis and the paraspinal muscles. It is confirmed that the paraspinal muscles are enveloped by a continuous paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS), formed by the deep lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF. The PRS extends from the spinous process to transverse process, and is distinct from both the superficial lamina of the posterior layer and middle layer of the TLF. As the aponeurosis approaches the lateral border of the PRS, it appears to separate into two distinct laminae, which join the anterior and posterior walls of the PRS. This configuration creates a previously undescribed fat-filled lumbar interfascial triangle situated along the lateral border of the paraspinal muscles from the 12th

  10. Prevalence and clinical significance of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease: observations at MR imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, V O

    2013-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease in patients with anterior knee pain and to correlate it with patient demographics, patellar shape, and patellofemoral alignment.

  11. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Y. Flugelman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years.

  12. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y, E-mail: anna.peregon@nies.go.j [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr{sup -1}. It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  13. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y

    2009-01-01

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr -1 . It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  14. Cerebral lateralization for the processing of spatial coordinates and categories in left-and right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAENG, B; PETERS, M

    1995-04-01

    Subjects judged whether a tachistoscopially lateralized drawing was identical or different to a drawing seen immediately before in free vision. The drawings depicted natural objects (e.g. animals). On half of the trials the tachistoscopic drawing presented the same objects but either the categorical or the coordinate spatial relations (according to Kosslyn's definitions [23]) between the objects were transformed. In the first experiment 38 right-handed subjects (half males and half females) were tested. Categorical judgements were faster when the match drawing appeared in the right visual field, whereas coordinate judgements were faster when the match drawing appeared in the left visual field. In the second experiment 26 right-handed and 40 left-handed subjects participated. Almost all the subjects were female. Right-handed subjects replicated the findings of the subjects in the first experiment. However, the LHs did not show any difference in response times between spatial conditions and visual fields. These findings support Kosslyn's hypothesis that the left and right hemispheres are specialized respectively for processing categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Moreover, they also suggest that this lateralization pattern is not typical of left-handers.

  15. You talkin' to me? Communicative talker gaze activates left-lateralized superior temporal cortex during perception of degraded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Jasmin, Kyle; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Josephs, Oliver J; Calder, Andrew J; Jessop, Rosemary; Lawson, Rebecca P; Spielmann, Mona; Scott, Sophie K

    2017-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies of speech perception have consistently indicated a left-hemisphere dominance in the temporal lobes' responses to intelligible auditory speech signals (McGettigan and Scott, 2012). However, there are important communicative cues that cannot be extracted from auditory signals alone, including the direction of the talker's gaze. Previous work has implicated the superior temporal cortices in processing gaze direction, with evidence for predominantly right-lateralized responses (Carlin & Calder, 2013). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the lateralization of responses to talker gaze differs in an auditory communicative context. Participants in a functional MRI experiment watched and listened to videos of spoken sentences in which the auditory intelligibility and talker gaze direction were manipulated factorially. We observed a left-dominant temporal lobe sensitivity to the talker's gaze direction, in which the left anterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus and temporal pole showed an enhanced response to direct gaze - further investigation revealed that this pattern of lateralization was modulated by auditory intelligibility. Our results suggest flexibility in the distribution of neural responses to social cues in the face within the context of a challenging speech perception task. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Pathological left-handedness revisited: origins and later life health outcorigins outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramadhani, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Investigations to explore human handedness have been conducted for ages. It is still uncertain what causes people to use the left or the right hand. Clues supporting the genetic origin of handedness have been accumulating and provide the best evidence. Nevertheless, in some populations there are

  17. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J M; Ramsey, N; Rutten, G J

    2015-12-01

    Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MRI can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on the ratio between left and right brain activity in a specific region associated with language. Nearly all fMRI language studies show language-related activity in both hemispheres, and as a result the LI shows a large range of values. The clinical significance of the variation in language laterality as measured with the LI is still under debate. In this study, we tested two hypotheses in relation to the LI, measured in Broca's region, and it's right hemisphere homologue: 1: the level of activity in Broca's and it's right hemisphere homologue is mirrored for subjects with an equal but opposite LI; 2: the whole brain language activation pattern differs between subjects with an equal but opposite LI. One hundred sixty-three glioma and meningioma patients performed a verb generation task as part of a standard clinical protocol. We calculated the LI in the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, referred to as Broca's region from here on. In our database, 21 patients showed right lateralized activity, with a moderate average level (-0.32). A second group of 21 patients was selected from the remaining group, for equal but opposite LI (0.32). We compared the level and distribution of activity associated with language production in the left and right hemisphere in these two groups. Patients with left sided laterality showed a significantly higher level of activity in Broca's region than the patients with right sided laterality. However, both groups showed no difference in level of activity in Broca's homologue region in the right hemisphere. Also, we did not see any difference in the pattern of activity between patients with left

  18. Lesions to the left lateral prefrontal cortex impair decision threshold adjustment for lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Royce; Riès, Stéphanie; Van Maanen, Leendert; Alario, F-Xavier

    Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data. We also compare the results to healthy speakers. Analysis of the cognitive parameters indicates an impairment of the PFC patients to appropriately adjust their decision threshold, in order to handle the increased item difficulty that is introduced by semantic interference. Also, the modelling contributes to other topics in psycholinguistic theory, in which specific effects are observed on the cognitive parameters according to item familiarization, and the opposing effects of priming (lower threshold) and semantic interference (lower drift) which are found to depend on repetition. These results are developed for the blocked-cyclic picture naming paradigm, in which pictures are presented within semantically homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (HET) blocks, and are repeated several times per block. Overall, the results are in agreement with a role of the left PFC in adjusting the decision threshold for lexical selection in language production.

  19. Left Hippocampal Pathology Is Associated with Atypical Language Lateralization in Patients with Focal Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernd; Wellmer, Jorg; Reuber, Markus; Mormann, Florian; Weis, Susanne; Urbach, Horst; Ruhlmann, Jurgen; Elger, Christian E.; Fernandez, Guillen

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognized that the incidence of atypical language lateralization is increased in patients with focal epilepsy. The hypothesis that shifts in language dominance are particularly likely when epileptic lesions are located in close vicinity to the so-called language-eloquent areas rather than in more remote brain regions such as the…

  20. Left hippocampal pathology is associated with atypical language lateralization in patients with focal epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Wellmer, J.; Reuber, M.; Mormann, F.; Weis, S.; Urbach, H.; Ruhlmann, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognized that the incidence of atypical language lateralization is increased in patients with focal epilepsy. The hypothesis that shifts in language dominance are particularly likely when epileptic lesions are located in close vicinity to the so-called language-eloquent areas rather

  1. Lateralization in the invertebrate brain: left-right asymmetry of olfaction in bumble bee, Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Anfora

    Full Text Available Brain and behavioural lateralization at the population level has been recently hypothesized to have evolved under social selective pressures as a strategy to optimize coordination among asymmetrical individuals. Evidence for this hypothesis have been collected in Hymenoptera: eusocial honey bees showed olfactory lateralization at the population level, whereas solitary mason bees only showed individual-level olfactory lateralization. Here we investigated lateralization of odour detection and learning in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris L., an annual eusocial species of Hymenoptera. By training bumble bees on the proboscis extension reflex paradigm with only one antenna in use, we provided the very first evidence of asymmetrical performance favouring the right antenna in responding to learned odours in this species. Electroantennographic responses did not reveal significant antennal asymmetries in odour detection, whereas morphological counting of olfactory sensilla showed a predominance in the number of olfactory sensilla trichodea type A in the right antenna. The occurrence of a population level asymmetry in olfactory learning of bumble bee provides new information on the relationship between social behaviour and the evolution of population-level asymmetries in animals.

  2. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  3. Extensional and compressional regime driven left-lateral shear in southwestern Anatolia (eastern Mediterranean): The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Aktuğ, Bahadır

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic framework of the eastern Mediterranean presented in this paper is based on an active subduction and small underwater hills/mountains on the oceanic crust moving toward the north. The Hellenic Arc, the Anaximander Mountains, the Rhodes and Finike basins, the compressional southern regions of the Western Taurides, and the extensional western Anatolian graben are the main interrelated tectonic structures that are shaped by the complex tectonic regimes. There are still heated debates regarding the structural properties and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Anatolia. GPS velocities and focal mechanisms of earthquakes demonstrate the absence of a single transform fault across the Burdur-Fethiye region; however, hundreds of small faults showing normal and left-lateral oblique slip indicate the presence of a regionally extensive shear zone in southwestern Turkey, which plays an important role in the eastern Mediterranean tectonics. The 300-km-long, 75-90-km-wide NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone developed during the formation of Aegean back-arc extensional system and the thrusting of Western Taurides. Today, the left-lateral differential motion across the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone varies from 3 to 4 mm/yr in the north to 8-10 mm/yr in the south. This finding could be attributed to the fact that while the subduction of the African Plate is relatively fast beneath the western Anatolia at the Hellenic Trench, it is slow or locked beneath the Western Taurides. Therefore, the GPS vectors and their distributions on land indicate remarkable velocity differences and enable us to determine the left-lateral shear zone located between the extensional and compressional blocks. Furthermore, this active tectonic regime creates differences in topography. This study also demonstrates how deep structures, such as the continuation of the subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs in the continental area, can come into play

  4. LEFT LATERAL POSITIONING WITH HEAD ELEVATION INCREASE THE PARTIAL PRESSURE OF OXYGEN ON PATIENTS WITH MECHANICAL VENTILATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmiza Karmiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breathing literally means the movement of oxygen from the atmosphere and reach the cells and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 is one of the important components in the process of respiration, especially in patients with mechanical ventilation. There are several interventions that can be performed in an effort to improve the ventilation, one of them is patients positioning: left lateral position with 30 degrees head elevation. This study aimed to determine the effect of left lateral position with 30 degrees head elevation to the value of partial pressure of oxygen in patients with mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit RSUP DR. M. Djamil Padang. Method: This study was Pra Experiments with one group pretest posttest design. 15 samples taken by purposive sampling method. Data obtained by blood gasses analysis and it was conducted since May 8th untill June 5th, 2013. Univariate data presented in frequency distribution table, while the bivariate data using the paired T test. Result: Univariate analysis showed the value of the partial pressure of oxygen ( pO2 before intervention between 119-228 mmHg , while the value of the partial pressure of oxygen ( pO2 after intervention between 132-269 mmHg . Paired T test results showed a signifi cant difference between the value of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 before and after intervention (p = 0.040, p < 0.05 . Discussion: The left lateral position with 30 degrees head elevation could increase the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 in patients with mechanical ventilation. The results of this study can be used for increasing the nursingcare quality of patients with mechanical ventilation in order to reduce the time of hospitalization. Further research on these positioning interventions can be developed for patients with primary respiratory problems or lung disease. Keywords: left lateral position, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, mechanical ventilation

  5. Slip rate and slip magnitudes of past earthquakes along the Bogd left-lateral strike-slip fault (Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Rizza, M.; Ritz, J.F.; Baucher, R.; Vassallo, R.; Mahan, S.

    2011-01-01

    We carried out morphotectonic studies along the left-lateral strike-slip Bogd Fault, the principal structure involved in the Gobi-Altay earthquake of 1957 December 4 (published magnitudes range from 7.8 to 8.3). The Bogd Fault is 260 km long and can be subdivided into five main geometric segments, based on variation in strike direction. West to East these segments are, respectively: the West Ih Bogd (WIB), The North Ih Bogd (NIB), the West Ih Bogd (WIB), the West Baga Bogd (WBB) and the East Baga Bogd (EBB) segments. Morphological analysis of offset streams, ridges and alluvial fans—particularly well preserved in the arid environment of the Gobi region—allows evaluation of late Quaternary slip rates along the different faults segments. In this paper, we measure slip rates over the past 200 ka at four sites distributed across the three western segments of the Bogd Fault. Our results show that the left-lateral slip rate is∼1 mm yr–1 along the WIB and EIB segments and∼0.5 mm yr–1 along the NIB segment. These variations are consistent with the restraining bend geometry of the Bogd Fault. Our study also provides additional estimates of the horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake along the western part of the Bogd rupture, complementing previously published studies. We show that the mean horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake decreases progressively from 5.2 m in the west to 2.0 m in the east, reflecting the progressive change of kinematic style from pure left-lateral strike-slip faulting to left-lateral-reverse faulting. Along the three western segments, we measure cumulative displacements that are multiples of the 1957 coseismic offset, which may be consistent with a characteristic slip. Moreover, using these data, we re-estimate the moment magnitude of the Gobi-Altay earthquake at Mw 7.78–7.95. Combining our slip rate estimates and the slip distribution per event we also determined a mean recurrence interval of∼2500

  6. Multimodal connectivity mapping of the human left anterior and posterior lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Andrew T; Bzdok, Danilo; Langner, Robert; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Amunts, Katrin; Eickhoff, Simon B; Eickhoff, Claudia R

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is essential for many of our distinctly human abilities, including reasoning, problem solving, and planning. Research spanning many decades has helped to refine our understanding of this high-level function as comprising several hierarchically organized components, some which maintain information in the conscious mind, and others which manipulate and reorganize this information in useful ways. In the neocortex, these processes are likely implemented by a distributed frontoparietal network, with more posterior regions serving to maintain volatile information, and more anterior regions subserving the manipulation of this information. Recent meta-analytic findings have identified the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex, in particular, as being generally engaged by working memory tasks, while the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex was more strongly associated with the cognitive load required by these tasks. These findings suggest specific roles for these regions in the cognitive control processes underlying working memory. To further characterize these regions, we applied three distinct seed-based methods for determining cortical connectivity. Specifically, we employed meta-analytic connectivity mapping across task-based fMRI experiments, resting-state BOLD correlations, and VBM-based structural covariance. We found a frontoparietal pattern of convergence which strongly resembled the working memory networks identified in previous research. A contrast between anterior and posterior parts of the lateral prefrontal cortex revealed distinct connectivity patterns consistent with the idea of a hierarchical organization of frontoparietal networks. Moreover, we found a distributed network that was anticorrelated with the anterior seed region, which included most of the default mode network and a subcomponent related to social and emotional processing. These findings fit well with the internal attention model of working memory, in which representation of

  7. Treatment of large lumbar disc herniation with percutaneous ozone injection via the posterior-lateral route and inner margin of the facet joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Li, Yan-Hao; He, Xiao-Feng

    2010-03-28

    To evaluate the effects of percutaneous ozone injection via the posterior-lateral route and inner margin of the facet joint in the treatment of large lumbar disc herniation. Fifty-eight patients with large lumbar disc herniation were treated with percutaneous injection of ozone via the posterior-lateral route and inner margin of the facet joint under digital subtraction angiography. Second injections were performed 5 d after the initial injection. All patients were followed up for 6-18 mo. A modified Macnab method was used for assessing clinical outcomes after oxygen-ozone therapy. Successful puncture was obtained in all patients. The overall efficacy was 91.4%; the outcome was the excellent in 37 cases (63.8%), good in 16 cases (27.6%) and fair/poor in 5 cases (8.6%) according to the Macnab criteria. No severe complications were found throughout this study. Percutaneous intradiscal ozone injection via the posterior-lateral route and inner margin of the facet joint is effective and safe for treatment of large lumbar disc herniation.

  8. Effect of the left lateral recumbent position compared with the supine and upright positions on placental blood flow in normal late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonio, S; Simpanen, A L; Olkkonen, H; Haring, P

    1976-02-01

    The placental blood flow was assessed by the 99mTc accumulation method in 10 normal pregnancies in the left lateral recumbent position accomplished by a 15 degree wedge and in the supine position. The postural change caused a 17% decrease in the mean placental accumulation rate, which was not statistically significant. Ten patients were moved from the left lateral recumbent position to the upright position, which caused a statistically significant 23% decrease in the mean accumulation rate. Other haemodynamic variables studied were the maternal heart rate and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The clinical significance of the haemodynamic changes produced by alterations in posture are briefly discussed.

  9. Lateralization of spatial rather than temporal attention underlies the left hemifield advantage in rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanowicz, Dariusz; Kruse, Lena; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting. In the unilateral task, the targets were presented block-wise in the LVF or RVF only, such that no spatial orienting was needed for target identification. Temporal attention was manipulated in both tasks by varying the T1-T2 lag. The results showed that the LVF advantage disappeared when involvement of stimulus-driven spatial orienting was eliminated, whereas the manipulation of temporal attention had no effect on the asymmetry. In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention, and provide further evidence that the LVF advantage reflects right hemisphere predominance in stimulus-driven orienting of spatial attention. These conclusions fit evidence that temporal attention is implemented by bilateral parietal areas and spatial attention by the right-lateralized ventral frontoparietal network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Zic3 is required in the extra-cardiac perinodal region of the lateral plate mesoderm for left-right patterning and heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengxin; Zhu, Lirong; Hu, Lingyun; Slesnick, Timothy C; Pautler, Robia G; Justice, Monica J; Belmont, John W

    2013-03-01

    Mutations in ZIC3 cause human X-linked heterotaxy and isolated cardiovascular malformations. A mouse model with targeted deletion of Zic3 demonstrates an early role for Zic3 in gastrulation, CNS, cardiac and left-right axial development. The observation of multiple malformations in Zic3(null) mice and the relatively broad expression pattern of Zic3 suggest its important roles in multiple developmental processes. Here, we report that Zic3 is primarily required in epiblast derivatives to affect left-right patterning and its expression in epiblast is necessary for proper transcriptional control of embryonic cardiac development. However, cardiac malformations in Zic3 deficiency occur not because Zic3 is intrinsically required in the heart but rather because it functions early in the establishment of left-right body axis. In addition, we provide evidence supporting a role for Zic3 specifically in the perinodal region of the posterior lateral plate mesoderm for the establishment of laterality. These data delineate the spatial requirement of Zic3 during left-right patterning in the mammalian embryo, and provide basis for further understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interaction of Zic3 with signaling pathways involved in the early establishment of laterality.

  11. The laterality of stop and go processes of the motor response in left-handed and right-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Igawa, Kyudo; Kashiwagi, Mina; Nakahara, Chisato; Oshima, Yuki; Takakura, Yu

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the stop and go processes of the motor response are asymmetrical and whether the asymmetries are dependent on handedness and the response selection process that is engaged. Both right-handed and left-handed participants abducted either the left or right index finger in response to an imperative cue in the choice reaction time (choice RT) or the simple RT task. A stop cue was presented after the imperative cue with a probability of .25. When the stop cue was presented, the participants withheld the prepared response. On the choice RT task, left-handed participants had significantly shorter RT and stop signal reaction time (SSRT) with the left versus the right hand, whereas right-handers showed no difference between hands on either measure. In the simple RT task, the RT and SSRT were not significantly different between the groups or the response sides. These results indicate that both the stop and go processes of the prepared left-hand response are completed earlier than those of the right-hand response in left-handed individuals when the stimulus-response process involves a response selection process.

  12. Shifting from right to left: the combined effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on behavioural lateralization in a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenici

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that elevated CO2 can affect the behaviour of larval and juvenile fishes. In particular, behavioural lateralization, an expression of brain functional asymmetries, is affected by elevated CO2 in both coral reef and temperate fishes. However, the potentially interacting effects of rising temperatures and CO2 on lateralization are unknown. Here, we tested the combined effect of near-future elevated-CO2 concentrations (930 µatm and temperature variation on behavioural lateralization of a marine damselfish, Pomacentrus wardi. Individuals exposed to one of four treatments (two CO2 levels and two temperatures were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. Individuals exposed to current CO2 and ambient temperature levels showed a significant right-turning bias at the population level. This biased was reversed (i.e. to the left side in fish exposed to the elevated-CO2 treatment. Increased temperature attenuated this effect, resulting in lower values of relative lateralization. Consequently, rising temperature and elevated CO2 may have different and interactive effects on behavioural lateralization and therefore future studies on the effect of climate change on brain functions need to consider both these critical variables in order to assess the potential consequences for the ecological interactions of marine fishes.

  13. Selective hypertrophy of the lobus caudatus as a novel approach enabling extended right hepatectomy in the presence of a non-perfused left lateral liver lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Thelen, Armin; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Krenzien, Felix; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Moche, Michael; Jonas, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a well-established technique to enhance functional hepatic reserves of segments II and III before curative extended right hepatectomy for tumors of the right liver lobe. However, an adequate hepatopetal flow of the left lateral portal vein branches is required for a sufficient PVE-associated hypertrophy. Here, we report a 65-year old patient suffering from a locally advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the right liver lobe and segment IV. A curative extended right hepatectomy after preoperative PVE of liver segments IV-VIII was initially impossible because of partial thrombosis of the left lateral portal vein branches resulting in an ischemic-type atrophy of segments II and III. However, due to a massive hypertrophy of the caudate lobe following PVE of liver segments IV-VIII, subsequent extended right hepatectomy with intraoperative thrombectomy of segments II and III was made possible. To our knowledge this is the first case in which an extended right hepatectomy for a liver malignancy, in the presence of atrophic left lateral section, was made possible by a massive PVE-associated hypertrophy of the caudate lobe.

  14. Lateralized hippocampal volume increase following high-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Motoaki; Noda, Yoshihiro; Izuno, Takuji; Saeki, Takashi; Iwanari, Hideo; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied as a treatment for patients with treatment-resistant depression in recent years, and a large body of evidence has demonstrated its therapeutic efficacy through stimulating neuronal plasticity. The aim of this study was to investigate structural alterations in the hippocampus (HIPP) and amygdala (AM) following conventional rTMS in patients with depression. Twenty-eight patients with depression underwent 10 daily 20-Hz left prefrontal rTMS over 2 weeks. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was identified using magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation prior to stimulation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained at baseline and after the completion of rTMS sessions. The therapeutic effects of rTMS were evaluated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D 17 ), and the volumes of the HIPP and AM were measured by a manual tracing method. Statistical analyses revealed a significant volume increase in the left HIPP (+3.4%) after rTMS but no significant volume change in the AM. No correlation was found between the left HIPP volume increase and clinical improvement, as measured by the HAM-D 17 . The present study demonstrated that conventional left prefrontal rTMS increases the HIPP volume in the stimulated side, indicating a remote neuroplastic effect through the cingulum bundle. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  16. Cerebral lateralization of the face-cortical network in left-handers: only the FFA does not get it right

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Henryk; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine; Hanseeuw; Dricot, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Face processing is a function that is highly lateralized in humans, as supported by original evidence from brain lesion studies (Hecaen & Anguerlergues, 1962), followed by studies using divided visual field presentations (Heller & Levy, 1981), neuroimaging (Sergent et al., 1992) and event-related potentials (Bentin et al., 1996). Studies in non-human primates (Perrett et al., 1988; Zangenehpour & Chaudhuri, 2005), or other mammals (Peirce & Kendrick, 2001) support the right lateralization of ...

  17. Cosmetic appreciation of lateralization of peripheral facial palsy: 'preference for left or right, true or mirror image?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, Sjaak; Ingels, Koen; van Heerbeek, Niels; Beurskens, Carien

    2014-09-01

    There have been several studies in the past depicting asymmetry in 'normal' human faces. Evidence supports the fact that the right hemisphere is superior in the recognition of emotions expressed by the human face and indicates a right hemispheric specialization for processing emotional information. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in cosmetic appreciation of a left peripheral facial palsy compared to a right peripheral facial palsy? Pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House-Brackmann II-VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Forty-two patients and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. The primary 'end' point was the most attractive side in the pictures chosen by medical professionals and patients. The secondary 'end' points consisted of the preferences for the mirror or true image, and influences of the House-Brackmann score and age. Medical professionals preferred the photographs from patients with a right and left peripheral facial palsy (PFP) in, respectively, a mean of 44 % (41-48 %) and 56 % (52-59 %) of the pictures (p = 0.02). When comparing mirror and true image, patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror and true image as most attractive in 90 and 10 %, respectively (p 0.05). Subanalysis of patients with a PFP House-Brackmann score V and VI showed that medical professionals did not have a significant preference for a left nor right-sided facial palsy. Patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror image in all cases and patients with a right-sided palsy chose their mirror and true image in resp. 33 and 67 %. The House-Brackmann score (p = 0.52) and age (p = 0.73) of the patients did not influence preferences. This study, demonstrating that medical professionals find a right-sided facial palsy cosmetically less attractive than a left-sided, has

  18. Left ventricular filling pressure by septal and lateral E/e' equally predict cardiovascular events in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Joanna Nan; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There exists no consensus on the site of E/e' measurement. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of septal and lateral E/e' along with the importance of their intra-individual difference. METHODS: In 1775 persons from the general population, peak early diastolic velocity (e...... no predictive value (p = 0.79). E/e'septal was generally higher than E/e'lateral, thus age- and sex-specific normal values were reported for both sites for a population free of cardiac events during 10 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Septal and lateral E/e' are equally useful in predicting cardiac events...... in the general population. Measuring both sites provides no further predictive value than measuring a single site....

  19. The lateralized arcuate fasciculus in developmental pitch disorders among mandarin amusics: left for speech and right for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xizhuo; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Li, Jiaqi; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2018-05-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics. Compared to age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched controls, amusics demonstrated increased connectivity as reflected by the increased fractional anisotropy in the right posterior AF but decreased connectivity as reflected by the decreased volume in the right anterior AF. Moreover, greater fractional anisotropy in the left direct AF was correlated with worse performance in speech tone perception among amusics. This study is the first to examine the neural connectivity of AF in the neurodevelopmental condition of amusia as a result of disrupted music pitch and speech tone processing. We found abnormal white matter structural connectivity in the right AF for the amusic individuals. Moreover, we demonstrated that the white matter microstructural properties of the left direct AF is modulated by lexical tone deficits among the amusic individuals. These data support the notion of distinctive pitch processing systems between music and speech.

  20. Rapid-Sequence Intubation in the Left-Lateral Tilt Position in a Pregnant Woman with Premature Placental Abruption Utilizing a Videolaryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Nakao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Case - A 24-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital with decreased fetal heart rate. Obstetric examination revealed premature placental abruption; emergent caesarean section was planned under general anesthesia. On entering the operating room, the patient showed severe vital sign deterioration (blood pressure, 75/45 mm Hg; heart rate, 142 beats per minute. As left uterine displacement may worsen the premature placental abruption, the patient was placed in the left-lateral tilt position by rotating the operating table to release compression on the inferior vena cava by theuterus. To avoid circulatory collapse, rapid-sequence intubation was performed in this position. Tracheal intubation was performed with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS videolaryngoscope, AWS; HOYA, Japan to obtain a good laryngeal view and minimize stress from laryngoscopy. After sufficient oxygenation, 120 mg of thiopental was administered. A second anesthesiologist performed cricoid pressure and 50 mg of rocuronium was administered after confirming loss of consciousness. This was followed by insertion of the AWS with a thin intlock into the mouth. Tracheal intubation was performed uneventfully. Discussion - Rapid-sequence intubation in the left-lateral tilted position with the AWS videolaryngoscope may be beneficial for pregnant women with vital sign deterioration.

  1. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J. M.; Ramsey, N.; Rutten, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MM can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on

  2. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional stroop study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional

  3. A case of a resected benign myxoma-like hemorrhagic cyst, which later recurred as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the left atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Choi, Seo-Won; Min, Daniel; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Woo-In; Moon, Jae Youn; Sung, Jung Hoon; Kim, In Jai; Lim, Sang-Wook; Cha, Dong-Hun; Moon, Byung; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Won-Jang

    2017-04-01

    An intracardiac cystic mass is a rare type of mass found in the left atrium. The differential diagnosis of an intracardiac cystic mass includes hydatid cysts, bronchogenic cysts, intracardiac varices, and hemorrhages in some tumor types, including myxoma. We present the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with episodic dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed the presence of a left atrial mass mimicking myxoma. However, in postoperative findings, it was determined that the mass was actually a hemorrhagic cyst. Eighteen months later, the patient presented with recurrent exertional dyspnea and TTE revealed the recurrence of a left atrial mass. Computed tomography showed that the mass extended into the right atrium, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus. After re-operation, the final histological diagnosis was determined to be an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the left atrium. An intracardiac hemorrhagic cyst was suspected during the operation of a benign-looking LA mass. As such, we recommend that other rare etiologies be considered and more biopsies be performed when possible.

  4. Long-Term Excessive Body Weight and Adult Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Are Linked Through Later-Life Body Size and Blood Pressure: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijie; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Guo, Yajun; Shen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia A; Urbina, Elaine M; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-05-12

    Childhood adiposity is associated with cardiac structure in later life, but little is known regarding to what extent childhood body weight affects adult left ventricular geometric patterns through adult body size and blood pressure (BP). Determine quantitatively the mediation effect of adult body weight and BP on the association of childhood body mass index (BMI) with adult left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. This longitudinal study consisted of 710 adults, aged 26 to 48 years, who had been examined for BMI and BP measured ≥4× during childhood and ≥2× during adulthood, with a mean follow-up period of 28.0 years. After adjusting for age, race, and sex, adult BMI had a significant mediation effect (76.4%; P adult LV mass index association. The mediation effects of adult systolic BP (15.2%), long-term burden (12.1%), and increasing trends of systolic BP (7.9%) were all significant ( P adult LV hypertrophy, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. Importantly, the mediation effects of adult BMI were all significantly stronger than those of adult systolic BP on LV mass index, LV hypertrophy, and LV remodeling patterns ( P adult cardiac structure, and early life excessive body weight and adult LV hypertrophy are linked through later life excessive body weight and elevated BP. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Endomyocardial biopsies in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and a common Chinese later-onset fabry mutation (IVS4 + 919G > A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In Taiwan, DNA-based newborn screening showed a surprisingly high incidence of a cardiac Fabry mutation (IVS4 + 919G > A). The prevalence of this mutation is too high to be believed that it is a real pathogenic mutation. The purpose of this study is to identify the cardiac pathologic characteristics in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and this mutation Methods and results Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained in 22 patients (Median age: 61, males: 17; females: 5) with left ventricular hypertrophy and the IVS4 + 919G > A mutation; five patients had not received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) before biopsy, while the other 17 patients had received ERT from 8 months to 51 months. Except for three patients who had received ERT for more than 3 years, all other patients showed significant pathological change and globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) accumulation in their cardiomyocytes. In contrast to classical Fabry patients, no Gb3 accumulation was found in the capillary endothelial cells of any of our patients. Fourteen patients (63.6%) were found to have myofibrillolysis. Conclusions All of the untreated and most of the treated IVS4 + 919G > A patients showed typical pathological changes of Fabry disease in their cardiomyocytes. No endothelial accumulation of Gb3 was found, which is similar to the findings of several previous reports regarding later-onset Fabry disease. This result highly suggests that the IVS4 + 919G > A is a real pathogenic later-onset Fabry mutation. PMID:24980630

  6. Speech-induced striatal dopamine release is left lateralized and coupled to functional striatal circuits in healthy humans: A combined PET, fMRI and DTI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Herscovitch, Peter; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been recently made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying speech and language control. However, the neurochemical underpinnings of normal speech production remain largely unknown. We investigated the extent of striatal endogenous dopamine release and its influences on the organization of functional striatal speech networks during production of meaningful English sentences using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand [11C]raclopride and functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, we used diffusion tensor tractography (DTI) to examine the extent of dopaminergic modulatory influences on striatal structural network organization. We found that, during sentence production, endogenous dopamine was released in the ventromedial portion of the dorsal striatum, in its both associative and sensorimotor functional divisions. In the associative striatum, speech-induced dopamine release established a significant relationship with neural activity and influenced the left-hemispheric lateralization of striatal functional networks. In contrast, there were no significant effects of endogenous dopamine release on the lateralization of striatal structural networks. Our data provide the first evidence for endogenous dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during normal speaking and point to the possible mechanisms behind the modulatory influences of dopamine on the organization of functional brain circuits controlling normal human speech. PMID:23277111

  7. Role of the offshore Pedro Banks left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in the plate tectonic evolution of the northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.; Saunders, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous workers, mainly mapping onland active faults on Caribbean islands, defined the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone as a 200-km-wide bounded by two active and parallel strike-slip faults: the Oriente fault along the northern edge of the Cayman trough with a GPS rate of 14 mm/yr, and and the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) with a rate of 5-7 mm/yr. In this study we use 5,000 km of industry and academic data from the Nicaraguan Rise south and southwest of the EPGFZ in the maritime areas of Jamaica, Honduras, and Colombia to define an offshore, 700-km-long, active, left-lateral strike-slip fault in what has previously been considered the stable interior of the Caribbean plate as determined from plate-wide GPS studies. The fault was named by previous workers as the Pedro Banks fault zone because a 100-km-long segment of the fault forms an escarpment along the Pedro carbonate bank of the Nicaraguan Rise. Two fault segments of the PBFZ are defined: the 400-km-long eastern segment that exhibits large negative flower structures 10-50 km in width, with faults segments rupturing the sea floor as defined by high resolution 2D seismic data, and a 300-km-long western segment that is defined by a narrow zone of anomalous seismicity first observed by previous workers. The western end of the PBFZ terminates on a Quaternary rift structure, the San Andres rift, associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism and thickening trends indicating initial rifting in the Late Miocene. The southern end of the San Andreas rift terminates on the western Hess fault which also exhibits active strands consistent with left-lateral, strike-slip faults. The total length of the PBFZ-San Andres rift-Southern Hess escarpment fault is 1,200 km and traverses the entire western end of the Caribbean plate. Our interpretation is similar to previous models that have proposed the "stable" western Caribbean plate is broken by this fault whose rate of displacement is less than the threshold

  8. Construction and Deployment of Tilt Sensors along the Lateral Margins of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska to improve understanding of the Deformation Regime of Wet-Based Polythermal Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I. R.; Hawley, R. L.; Clemens-Sewall, D.; Campbell, S. W.; Waszkiewicz, M.; Bernsen, S.; Gerbi, C. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Koons, P. O.

    2017-12-01

    Most studies of natural ice have been on bodies of ice with frozen beds which experience minimal lateral shear strain, to the exclusion of polythermal ice sheets & glaciers which due to their mixed basal thermal regime have wet-based beds. The deficiency in knowledge and understanding of the operative deformation mechanisms of wet-based bodies of ice results in uncertainty in the constitutive flow law of ice. Given that the flow law was derived experimentally under assumptions more conducive to bodies of ice with frozen-based beds, it is necessary to calibrate the flow law when applied to different bodies of ice such as wet-based polythermal glaciers. To this end, Dartmouth and the University of Maine have collaborated to carry out research on Jarvis Glacier in Alaska, a geometrically simple, wet-based glacier. Here, we constructed and deployed an array of 25 tilt sensors into 3 boreholes drilled along the glacier's shear margin. Our goal is to obtain 3D strain measurements to calculate the full velocity field & create deformation regime maps in the vicinity of the boreholes, as well as to support numerical modeling. The tilt sensors were developed in-lab: Each tilt sensor comes equipped with an LSM303C chip (embedded with a 3-axis accelerometer and magnetometer) and Arduino Pro-Mini mounted on a custom-made printed circuit board encased within a watertight aluminum tube. The design concept was to produce a sensor string, consisting of tilt sensors spaced apart at pre-calculated intervals, to be lowered into a borehole and frozen-in over months to collect strain data through a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger. Three surface-to-bed boreholes were successfully installed with tilt sensor strings. Given the lack of prior in-situ borehole geophysics studies on polythermal glaciers, deliberate consideration on factors such as strain relief and waterproofing electrical components was necessary in the development of the sensor system. On-site challenges also arose due

  9. Passive margins through earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2008-12-01

    Passive margins have existed somewhere on Earth almost continually since 2740 Ma. They were abundant at 1900-1890, 610-520, and 150-0 Ma, scarce at ca. 2445-2300, 1600-1000, and 300-275 Ma, and absent before ca. 3000 Ma and at 1740-1600. The fluctuations in abundance of passive margins track the first-order fluctuations of the independently derived seawater 87Sr/ 86Sr secular curve, and the compilation thus appears to be robust. The 76 ancient passive margins for which lifespans could be measured have a mean lifespan of 181 m.y. The world-record holder, with a lifespan of 590 m.y., is the Mesoproterozoic eastern margin of the Siberian craton. Subdivided into natural age groups, mean lifespans are 186 m.y. for the Archean to Paleoproterozoic, 394 m.y. for the Mesoproterozoic, 180 m.y. for the Neoproterozoic, 137 m.y. for the Cambrian to Carboniferous, and 130 m.y. for the Permian to Neogene. The present-day passive margins, which are not yet finished with their lifespans, have a mean age of 104 m.y. and a maximum age of 180 m.y. On average, Precambrian margins thus had longer, not shorter, lifespans than Phanerozoic ones—and this remains the case even discounting all post-300 Ma margins, most of which have time left. Longer lifespans deeper in the past is at odds with the widely held notion that the tempo of plate tectonics was faster in the Precambrian than at present. It is entirely consistent, however, with recent modeling by Korenaga [Korenaga, J., 2004. Archean geodynamics and thermal evolution of Earth. Archean Geodynamics and Environments, AGU Geophysical Monograph Series 164, 7-32], which showed that plate tectonics was more sluggish in the Precambrian. The abundance of passive margins clearly tracks the assembly, tenure, and breakup of Pangea. Earlier parts of the hypothesized supercontinent cycle, however, are only partly consistent with the documented abundance of passive margins. The passive-margin record is not obviously consistent with the proposed

  10. Less cost by using hanging maneuver and Pringle maneuver in left lateral hepatectomy through small laparotomy wound--experience of Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Lung; Alikhanov, Ruslan; Kuo, Sheng-Chih; Li, Wei-Feng; Chen, Chao-Long; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Chih-Che; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Wang, Chih-Chi

    2016-01-08

    Laparoscopic segmentectomy for liver tumor located in the left lateral segment (LLS) is thought to be a standard protocol nowadays with several advantages, such as small wound, few blood loss, and short hospital stay. However, there are still many disadvantages during executing laparoscopic LLS segmentectomy. This manuscript aims to present the technique to execute LLS segmentectomy with small incision, hanging maneuver without Pringle maneuver in patients with tumor at LLS of the liver. Between November 2010 and July 2011, hepatectomies through small incision for nine patients with benign and malignant tumors were performed at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. Perioperative and postoperative results, such as operation time, blood loss, incisional width, and postoperative stay were used to determine consequents for this technique. Results demonstrated that modified LLS segmentectomy by the author's team was performed successfully in patient with liver tumor with fewer blood loss, smaller incisional width, and lower hospital cost than traditional open surgery. In addition, the instrument cost and blood loss in our series were less than that in laparoscopic LLS segmentectomy in published literature. Authors concluded that minimally incisional segmentectomy, with less cost and technical demanding, could be an alternative choice in patient with liver tumor at LLS.

  11. Cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda Myocardial revascularization surgery through left anterolateral minithoracotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Filho

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1995 a fevereiro de 1996, 16 pacientes selecionados foram submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda. Em todos os casos a artéria torácica interna esquerda foi dissecada, para posterior anastomose com o ramo interventricular anterior (RIA sem a utilização de circulação extracorpórea. A idade variou de 43 a 77, com média de 60 anos. Sessenta e dois por cento dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Não houve complicações tais como: hemorragias, acidente vascular cerebral, insuficiência renal aguda, mediastinite ou infarto agudo do miocárdio. Não houve mortalidade no grupo em questão. Em 4 (25% pacientes foi realizado estudo hemodinâmico, que demostrou uma normalidade da anastomose da artéria torácica interna para o ramo interventricular anterior. Devido aos excelentes resultados iniciais, acreditamos que este procedimento possa ser empregado com maior freqüência e com a familiarização dos grupos cirúrgicos, e que as artérias diagonais e marginais da circunflexa possam ser beneficiadas com este tipo de procedimento.Between October 1995 and February 1996, sixteen patients were selected to undergo to surgical myocardial revascularization through left anterolateral minithoracotomy. The left internal thoracic artery was dissected in all patients, for consecutive anastomosis with interventricular anterior artery, without using extracorporeal circulation. Patients age ranged from 43 to 77, average 60 years. Sixty-two percent of them were men. There were no complications such as: acute myocardial infarction, mediastinitis, acute renal failure, hemorrhagy or stroke. There were no deaths. Four (25% patients were submitted to cardiac catheterization that showed patency of grafts and grafted native arteries. Due to excellent initial results, the authors believe that this technique can be employed with greater frequency and that its use can be

  12. Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalati, Moutaz

    Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from

  13. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  14. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  15. Appositional bone formation in marginal defects at implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, Daniele; Berglundh, Tord; Buser, Daniel; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-02-01

    In a previous experiment, it was demonstrated that a wide marginal defect around an implant can heal with a high degree of osseointegration. The present experiment was performed to evaluate the degree and quality of de novo bone formation and osseointegration in marginal defects adjacent to submerged titanium implants. All mandibular premolars and 1st molars were extracted in four Labrador dogs. Four experimental sites were identified in the right side of the mandible. In two sites, custom-made implants with a sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface were installed without further ostectomy (control sites). In the two remaining sites (test sites), a specially designed step drill was used to widen the marginal 5 mm of the canal. A barrier membrane was used to cover the implants in the defect sites. All implants were submerged. One month later, an identical procedure, including site preparation and implant installation, was performed in the left side of the mandible. Two months following the first implant installation procedure, biopsies were collected and prepared for sectioning. Ostectomy and implant installation in the control location resulted in a series of bone tissue alterations which eventually allowed newly formed bone to establish contact with the SLA surface. The marginal defect lateral to the implant in the test locations gradually became filled with newly formed bone. De novo bone formation started within the walls of the surgically prepared defect. Bone-to-implant contact was first established in the apical portion of the gap. This new bone tissue was in the coronal direction continuous with a dense, non-mineralized 'implant attached' soft tissue which, over time, also became mineralized to increase the height of the zone of bone-to-implant contact. The results suggest that healing of a wide marginal defect around an implant is characterized by appositional bone growth from the lateral and apical bone walls of the defect.

  16. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Teimournezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    margin: 0in 0in 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in; text-align: justify;">The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critical concepts such as handedness and its main features, the theoretical bases for this phenomenon, the nature and functions of lateralization, and the relationship between these two concepts have been shed light on for a better understanding. Finally, the general differences between the left-handers vs. right-handers have been drawn into consideration.

  17. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  18. Laterality of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, Michael; Simons, Kurt; Kraker, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    To determine the frequency of unilateral amblyopia in right versus left eyes among children younger than 18 years. Analysis of data collected in randomized clinical trials conducted by the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. The laterality of the amblyopic eye was analyzed in 2635 subjects younger than 18 years who participated in 9 multicenter prospective, randomized treatment trials. Eligibility criteria for these clinical trials included unilateral amblyopia associated with strabismus, anisometropia, or both, with visual acuity between 20/40 and 20/400. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of baseline and demographic factors with the laterality of amblyopia. Among subjects with anisometropic amblyopia (with or without strabismus), amblyopia was present more often in left than right eyes, with a relative prevalence of 59% in left eyes (95% confidence interval, 57% to 62%; P amblyopia, there was no laterality predilection (relative prevalence of 50% in left eyes; 95% confidence interval, 47% to 54%; P = .94). Anisometropic amblyopia, with or without strabismus, occurs more often in left eyes than right eyes. This finding of amblyopia laterality may be related to microtropia, sighting dominance, or other forms of ocular dominance; developmental or neurological factors; laterality in the development of refractive error; or a combination thereof. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detrital zircon and sandstone provenance analysis from Permian and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary units to constrain total and incremental left-lateral offset along the East Gobi Fault Zone, southeastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, M.; Johnson, C.; Webb, L.; Taylor, J.

    2008-12-01

    This study presents initial U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology results coupled with sandstone provenance point-counting to constrain sedimentary basin evolution along the East Gobi Fault Zone (EGFZ), southeastern Mongolia. These results fingerprint potential piercing points in sedimentary units argued here to have once been part of the same depositional basins, now offset by the strike-slip fault zone. Detrital zircon samples were collected and analyzed using LA-ICPMS from two sets of proposed offset-basin systems: Permian fluvial and marine units at Bulgan Uul and Nomgon, and Cretaceous fluvial units at Tavan Har and Ulgay Khid (11 sandstone samples total). The age probability plots for Bulgan Uul and Nomgon, as well as Tavan Har and Ulgay Khid, show very convincing correlations with significant implications. The Late Permian Lugyn Gol units at Nomgon are currently ~270 km northeast of those Late Permian Onch Uul samples at Bulgan Uul, and provide similar age probability plots, with most significant peaks at ~280 Ma and ~440 Ma, for zircons of igneous origins based on U/Th ratios. Lower Cretaceous strata from Tavan Har and Ulgay Khid are currently located ~90 km left-laterally off-set from each other, and also show strong correlation with significant age probability peaks centered at ~280 Ma and ~120 Ma, also with igneous origins. As the detrital zircon data are not intended to stand alone, 23 samples including all the zircon samples were point-counted for establishing provenance. QFL ternary plots indicate semi-mature, recycled orogen and arc sources for samples collected at Bulgan Uul, Nomgon, and Ulgay Khid. Tavan Har, however, primarily plotted in the dissected arc field. The results presented here argue for the following three main findings: First, detrital zircon analysis shows a clear connection of Bulgan Uul and Nomgon, as well as Ulgay Khid and Tavan Har. These cross-fault stratigraphic connections are further supported in most cases by the provenance

  20. Late Quaternary slip history of the Mill Creek strand of the San Andreas fault in San Gorgonio Pass, southern California: The role of a subsidiary left-lateral fault in strand switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Katherine J.; Matti, Jonathan; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The fault history of the Mill Creek strand of the San Andreas fault (SAF) in the San Gorgonio Pass region, along with the reconstructed geomorphology surrounding this fault strand, reveals the important role of the left-lateral Pinto Mountain fault in the regional fault strand switching. The Mill Creek strand has 7.1–8.7 km total slip. Following this displacement, the Pinto Mountain fault offset the Mill Creek strand 1–1.25 km, as SAF slip transferred to the San Bernardino, Banning, and Garnet Hill strands. An alluvial complex within the Mission Creek watershed can be linked to palinspastic reconstruction of drainage segments to constrain slip history of the Mill Creek strand. We investigated surface remnants through detailed geologic mapping, morphometric and stratigraphic analysis, geochronology, and pedogenic analysis. The degree of soil development constrains the duration of surface stability when correlated to other regional, independently dated pedons. This correlation indicates that the oldest surfaces are significantly older than 500 ka. Luminescence dates of 106 ka and 95 ka from (respectively) 5 and 4 m beneath a younger fan surface are consistent with age estimates based on soil-profile development. Offset of the Mill Creek strand by the Pinto Mountain fault suggests a short-term slip rate of ∼10–12.5 mm/yr for the Pinto Mountain fault, and a lower long-term slip rate. Uplift of the Yucaipa Ridge block during the period of Mill Creek strand activity is consistent with thermochronologic modeled uplift estimates.

  1. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  2. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  3. Areas of Active Tectonic Uplift Are Sensitive to Small Changes in Fold Orientations within a Broad Zone of Left-lateral Transpression and Shearing, Dominican Republic and Haiti (Hispaniola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosius, I.; Mann, P.

    2014-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown that the island of Hispaniola is a 250 km-wide zone of active, east-west, left-lateral shearing along two major strike-slip zones: the Septentrional-Oriente fault zone through the northern part of the island and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) through the southern part of the island. The total interplate rate distributed on both faults is 21 mm/yr. Using a high-resolution DEM, we constructed fluvial channel profiles across transpression-related folds of late Miocene to recent age in the area of central and southern Dominican Republic and Haiti to determine controls of areas of relatively high, moderate, and slow uplift inferred from fluvial channel profiles. Fold axes in this area extend for 50-150 km and exhibit two different trends: 1) folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Neiba-Chaine des Matheux north of the Enriquillo-Cul-de-Sac Valley and EPGFZ and folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Bahoruco-Massif de la Selle all exhibit more east-west fold axes trending 110; 2) folds that occupy the area northwest of the EPGFZ in the western Chaine des Matheux and Sierra de Neiba all exhibit fold axes with more northwest trends of 125. River channel profiles show that the second group of more northwesterly-trending fold axes show relatively higher rates of tectonic uplift based on their convex-upward river profiles. Our interpretation for regional variations in river profiles and inferred uplift is that uplift is more pronounced on fold axes trending 15 degrees more to the northwest because their axes are more oblique to the interplate direction of east-west shearing. Longterm uplift rates previously measured from a stairstep of late Quaternary coral terraces at the plunging nose of the westernmost Chaine des Matheux have been previously shown to be occurring at a rate of 0.19 mm/yr. Onland exposures of Holocene corals are found only on one locality within the southern area of folds 30 km west of the epicenter

  4. Lateralization of brain activation to imagination and smell of odors using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): left hemispheric localization of pleasant and right hemispheric localization of unpleasant odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, R I; Levy, L M

    2001-01-01

    Our goal was to use functional MRI (fMRI) of brain to reveal activation in each cerebral hemisphere in response to imagination and smell of odors. FMRI brain scans were obtained in 24 normal subjects using multislice fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI in response to imagination of banana and peppermint odors and in response to smell of corresponding odors of amyl acetate and menthone, respectively, and of pyridine. Three coronal sections selected from anterior to posterior brain regions were used. Similar studies were obtained in two patients with hyposmia using FLASH MRI and in one patient with hyposmia using echo planar imaging (EPI) both before and after theophylline treatment that returned smell function to or toward normal in each patient and in two patients with birhinal phantosmia (persistent foul odor) and global phantogeusia (persistent foul taste) with FLASH and EPI fMRI before and after treatment with neuroleptic drugs that inhibited their phantosmia and phantogeusia. Activation images were derived using correlation analysis. Ratios of hemispheric areas of brain activation to total hemispheric brain areas were calculated for FLASH fMRI, and numerical counts of pixel clusters in each hemisphere were made for EPI studies. Total pixel cluster counts in localized regions of each hemispheric section were also obtained. In normal subjects, activation generally occurred in left (L) > right (R) brain hemisphere in response to banana and peppermint odor imagination and to smell of corresponding odors of amyl acetate and menthone. Whereas there were no overall hemispheric differences for pyridine odor, activation in men was R > L hemisphere. Although absolute activation in both L and R hemispheres in response to banana odor imagination and amyl acetate smell was men > women, the ratio of L to R activation was women > men. In hyposmic patients studied by FLASH fMRI, activation to banana odor imagination and amyl acetate smell was L > R hemisphere both before and after

  5. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  6. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  7. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  8. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  9. Evaluation and diagnosis of the cathodic protection of ducts in the left margin of the Tonala River of the Superintendencia General de Ductos Minatitlan; Evaluacion y diagnostico de la proteccion catodica en la margen izquierda del Rio Tonala de la Superintendencia General de Ductos Minatitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez N, Miguel A; Malo T, Jose M; Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Uruchurtu C, Jorge; Castrejon G, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sanchez G, Luis; Algarra M, Raul; Abreu L, Emilio [Gerencia de Mantenimiento, Pemex (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present study contains the measurements obtained as a part of the evaluation of the protection system of ducts located in the left margin of the Tonal River, made by the Gerencia de Materiales y Procesos Quimicos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) during the last trimester of year 2001. Also, the measurements of potential in conditions of instantaneous ignition and extinguished in measuring posts of the duct in Rights of Way (DDV) Tonala-Nudo Teapa 23 are studied, in order to determine the real protection level reached by the cathodic protection system, the possible unprotected zones and the possible corrective measures that lead to a safe operation of the ducts. [Spanish] El presente estudio contiene las mediciones obtenidas como parte de la evaluacion del sistema de proteccion de los ductos ubicados en la margen izquierda del rio Tonala, realizadas por la Gerencia de Materiales y Procesos Quimicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) durante el ultimo trimestre del ano 2001. Asimismo, se tratan las mediciones de potencial en condiciones de encendido y apagado instantaneo en postes de medicion del ducto en los Derechos De Via (DDV) Tonala-Nudo Teapa 23, con el proposito de determinar el nivel real de proteccion alcanzado por el sistema de proteccion catodica, las posibles zonas desprotegidas y las posibles medidas correctivas que conduzcan a una operacion segura de los ductos.

  10. Marginalization of the Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization.......The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization....

  11. Matthew and marginality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis C. Duling

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores marginality theory as it was first proposed in  the social sciences, that is related to persons caught between two competing cultures (Park; Stonequist, and, then, as it was developed in sociology as related to the poor (Germani and in anthropology as it was related to involuntary marginality and voluntary marginality (Victor Turner. It then examines a (normative scheme' in antiquity that creates involuntary marginality at the macrosocial level, namely, Lenski's social stratification model in an agrarian society, and indicates how Matthean language might fit with a sample inventory  of socioreligious roles. Next, it examines some (normative schemes' in  antiquity for voluntary margi-nality at the microsocial level, namely, groups, and examines how the Matthean gospel would fit based on indications of factions and leaders. The article ,shows that the author of the Gospel of Matthew has an ideology of (voluntary marginality', but his gospel includes some hope for (involuntary  marginals' in  the  real world, though it is somewhat tempered. It also suggests that the writer of the Gospel is a (marginal man', especially in the sense defined by the early theorists (Park; Stone-quist.

  12. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  13. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  14. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm 2 in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  15. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  16. "We call ourselves marginalized"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nanna Jordt

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, indigenous knowledge has been added to the environmental education agenda in an attempt to address the marginalization of non-western perspectives. While these efforts are necessary, the debate is often framed in terms of a discourse of victimization that overlooks the agency o...... argue that researchers not only need to pay attention to how certain voices are marginalized in Environmental Education research and practice, but also to how learners as agents respond to, use and negotiate the marginalization of their perspectives.......In recent decades, indigenous knowledge has been added to the environmental education agenda in an attempt to address the marginalization of non-western perspectives. While these efforts are necessary, the debate is often framed in terms of a discourse of victimization that overlooks the agency...

  17. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The most important biogeochemical transformations and boundary exchanges in the Indian Ocean seem to occur in the northern region, where the processes originating at the land-ocean boundary extend far beyond the continental margins. Exchanges across...

  18. Areaplanning in marginal areas

    OpenAIRE

    Janneau, Thibaut; Arborg, Pernille; Sandberg, Rina

    2007-01-01

    This project is also a comparative analysis between two cases: Lolland Kommune and Venise Verte, having both a marginal characteristic. The analyze of these two marginal areas makes us able to found out some dilemmas showing the crucial issues of planners between economic development, social equity, cultural evolution and finally environmental enhancer. We also tried to see the different views of nature between two paradigms: widleness of nature and cultural landscapes as well as graduate dif...

  19. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  20. Pickering seismic safety margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.; Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has sufficient seismic safety margin over its design basis to assure plant safety. In this review process, it is possible to identify the weak links which might limit the seismic performance of critical structures, systems and components. The proposed methodology is a modification the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) approach. The methodology includes: the characterization of the site margin earthquake, the definition of the performance criteria for the elements of a success path, and the determination of the seismic withstand capacity. It is proposed that the margin earthquake be established on the basis of using historical records and the regional seismo-tectonic and site specific evaluations. The ability of the components and systems to withstand the margin earthquake is determined by database comparisons, inspection, analysis or testing. An implementation plan for the application of the methodology to the Pickering A NGS is prepared

  1. SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION AND HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Bogdanović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was characterized by special improvement in health. The aim of WHO’s policy EQUITY IN HEALTH is to enable equal accessibility and equal high quality of health care for all citizens. More or less some social groups have stayed out of many social systems even out of health care system in the condition of social marginalization. Phenomenon of social marginalization is characterized by dynamics. Marginalized persons have lack of control over their life and available resources. Social marginalization stands for a stroke on health and makes the health status worse. Low socio-economic level dramatically influences people’s health status, therefore, poverty and illness work together. Characteristic marginalized groups are: Roma people, people with AIDS, prisoners, persons with development disorders, persons with mental health disorders, refugees, homosexual people, delinquents, prostitutes, drug consumers, homeless…There is a mutual responsibility of community and marginalized individuals in trying to resolve the problem. Health and other problems could be solved only by multisector approach to well-designed programs.

  2. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  3. Late Cretaceous Breakup of the Pacific Margin of Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Garcia, J. C.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2006-12-01

    As geological, geophysical and geochemical evidence keeps accumulating over the years, there seems to be a growing general acceptance that the Chortis block (nuclear Central America) occupied a position further to the NW along the present-day margin of southwestern Mexico, sometime between Early Jurassic and Neogene time. The controversy resides no longer in the sense of motion along the coast but on the timing of events and in the latitude that the Chortis block occupied at the time of detachment. Previous studies mainly confined to the northern margin of the Chortis block, confirmed a left-lateral displacement of 130 km in Neogene time. Further studies made northwestward along the Mexican coast provided a better understanding of magmatic and metamorphic processes in the area, and suggested times of detachment increased to 30 Ma (Wadge and Burke, 1983), 40 Ma (Schaaf and others, 1995), and 66 Ma (Herrmann and others, 1994). The pre- detachment westernmost position of the block has changed, depending on the model chosen, from Puerto Vallarta and beyond, to the current position. We contend that several indicators, namely: (1) the truncated nature of the Pacific coast of SW Mexico; (2) the genesis of the Kula-Farallon ridge at 85 Ma; (3) the 2,600 km of northward transport of Baja British Columbia from the present-day latitude of the Baja California Peninsula, beginning at 85 Ma; (4) the paleomagnetic counterclockwise rotations of areas both in the Chortis block and along the Mexican coast, during Late Cretaceous-Paleogene time, and (5) the systematic NW-SE decrease of radiometric dates beginning at 85 Ma in Puerto Vallarta, point to this time and region for the onset of strike- slip drifting of the Chortis block toward its current position.

  4. Neogene tectonic block rotations and margin curvature at the Pampean flat slab segment (28º-33º SL, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S Japas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Available paleomagnetic data from the Pampean flat slab segment reveal a heterogeneous rotation pattern that is interpreted herein as the result of the overprinting of late NNW-WNW left-lateral brittle-ductile megashear zones that would be also responsible for the continental margin bending.La base de datos paleomagnéticos disponible para el segmento de losa plana Pampeano revela un patrón de rotaciones heterogéneo como resultado de la sobreimposición de zonas de cizalla frágil-dúctiles regionales, de desplazamiento lateral izquierdo y rumbo NNO a ONO, las que habrían producido además la curvatura del margen continental.

  5. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  6. Deep continental margin reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  7. Masculinity at the margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses how young marginalized ethnic minority men in Denmark react to the othering they are subject to in the media as well as in the social arenas of every day life. The article is based on theoretically informed ethnographic fieldwork among such young men as well as interviews an...

  8. Maintaining plant safety margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type [boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)], nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports

  9. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    The North Indian Ocean consists of three marginal seas; The Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the west and the Andaman Sea in the east. Oceanographic features of these semi-enclosed basins have been discussed in this article. While circulation...

  10. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  11. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  12. Marginalized Youth. An Introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Kessl, Fabian; Otto, Hans-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The life conduct of marginalized groups has become subject to increasing levels of risk in advanced capitalist societies. In particular, children and young people are confronted with the harsh consequences of a “new poverty” in the contemporary era. The demographic complexion of today’s poverty is youthful, as a number of government reports have once again documented in recent years in Australia, Germany, France, Great Britain, the US or Scandinavian countries. Key youth studies have shown a ...

  13. Rio+20, biodiversity marginalized

    OpenAIRE

    Carrière, Stéphanie M.; Rodary, Estienne; Méral, Philippe; Serpantié, Georges; Boisvert, Valérie; Kull, C.A.; Lestrelin, Guillaume; Lhoutellier, Louise; Moizo, Bernard; Smektala, G.; Vandevelde, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    At the Rio+20 Conference (June 2012), the biodiversity conservation agenda was subsumed into broader environmental issues like sustainable development, “green economy,” and climate change. This shoehorning of biodiversity issues is concomitant with a trend toward market-based instruments and toward standardized biodiversity assessment and monitoring. This article raises concern that these trends can marginalize important and specific aspects of biodiversity governance, including other policy ...

  14. Containment safety margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Riesemann, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Objective of the Containment Safety Margins program is the development and verification of methodologies which are capable of reliably predicting the ultimate load-carrying capability of light water reactor containment structures under accident and severe environments. The program was initiated in June 1980 at Sandia and this paper addresses the first phase of the program which is essentially a planning effort. Brief comments are made about the second phase, which will involve testing of containment models

  15. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1987-02-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  16. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  17. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Amphetamine margin in sports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1981-10-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seem clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both humans and rats. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogs of such performances have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  19. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  20. Marginal bone-level alterations of loaded zirconia and titanium dental implants: an experimental study in the dog mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Daniel S; Benic, Goran I; Muñoz, Fernando; Kohal, Ralf; Sanz Martin, Ignacio; Cantalapiedra, Antonio G; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to test whether or not the marginal bone-level alterations of loaded zirconia implants are similar to the bone-level alterations of a grade 4 titanium one-piece dental implant. In six dogs, all premolars and the first molars were extracted in the mandible. Four months later, three zirconia implants (BPI, VC, ZD) and a control titanium one-piece (STM) implant were randomly placed in each hemimandible and left for transmucosal healing (baseline). Six months later, CAD/CAM crowns were cemented. Sacrifice was scheduled at 6-month postloading. Digital X-rays were taken at implant placement, crowns insertion, and sacrifice. Marginal bone-level alterations were calculated, and intra- and intergroup comparisons performed adjusted by confounding factors. Implants were successfully placed. Until crown insertion, two implants were fractured (one VC, one ZD). At sacrifice, 5 more implants were (partly) fractured (one BPI, four ZD), and one lost osseointegration (VC). No decementation of crowns occurred. All implant systems demonstrated a statistically significant (except VC) loss of marginal bone between baseline and crown insertion ranging from 0.29 mm (VC; P = 0.116) to 0.80 mm (ZD; P = 0.013). The estimated marginal bone loss between baseline and 6 months of loading ranged between 0.19 mm (BPI) and 1.11 mm (VC), being statistically significant for STM and VC only (P implants and control implants (STM vs. BPI P = 0.007; vs. VC P = 0.001; vs. ZD P = 0.011). Zirconia implants were more prone to fracture prior to and after loading with implant-supported crowns compared to titanium implants. Individual differences and variability in the extent of the bone-level changes during the 12-month study period were found between the different implant types and materials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. POLA KEBERAGAMAAN MASYARAKAT MARGINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muttaqin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on sociology of religion, focusing on the issue of religious practices in a local community. Kampung Laut was chosen as the setting of this research for two reasons. First, the rituals of religion practices in the region are different from mainstream practices, which result in label and justification that their religiosity is not a part of or only a fragment of the mainstream religion and tend to be the target of correction. Second, this region raises conflicts among government institutions in relation to the rights of natural resources possession and utilization. The bad image built through this marginalization has formed Kampung Laut community as the one that is resistant and latent. This research used descriptive qualitative method with sociological approach. Rituals of religious practices that are different from the mainstream are explained on the basis of Weber’s theory of behavior categorized into value-oriented rationality. This kind of practices is considered to be more beneficial in the context of struggling for identity among the practices of marginalization experienced by Kampung Laut community. This condition gives a description to public that Kampung Laut community receives unfair treatments for their natural resources. Religious issues is made an entry for its massive, communal, and related to transcendental values.

  2. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  3. Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Jacques; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Despite significant scientific advances, the nature of the left-hemispheric systems involved in language (speech and gesture) and manual actions is still unclear. To date, investigations of human laterality focused mainly on non-communication functions. Although gestural laterality data have been published for infants and children, relatively little is known about laterality of human gestural communication. This study investigated human laterality in depth considering non-communication manipulation actions and various gesture types involving hands, feet, face and ears. We constructed an online laterality questionnaire including 60 items related to daily activities. We collected 317 594 item responses by 5904 randomly selected participants. The highest percentages of strong left-lateralized (6.76%) and strong right-lateralized participants (75.19%) were for manipulation actions. The highest percentages of mixed left-lateralized (12.30%) and ambidextrous (50.23%) participants were found for head-related gestures. The highest percentage of mixed right-lateralized participants (55.33%) was found for auditory gestures. Every behavioural category showed a significant population-level right-side bias. More precisely, participants were predominantly right-lateralized for non-communication manual actions, for visual iconic, visual symbolic, visual deictic (with and without speech), tactile and auditory manual gestures as well as for podial and head-related gestures. Our findings support previous studies reporting that humans have left-brain predominance for gestures and complex motor activities such as tool-use. Our study shows that the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire is a useful research instrument to assess and analyse human laterality for both manipulation and communication functions.

  4. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media

  5. Continental transform margins : state of art and future milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    to be emphasized. There is not only one type of transform margins, but as for divergent margins huge changes from one margin to another in both structure and evolution. Multiple types have to be evidenced together with the various parameters that should control the variability. As for divergent margins, special attention should be paid to conjugated transform margins as a tool to assess symmetrical / asymmetrical processes in the oceanic opening. Attention should also be focused on the three-dimensional structure of the intersections between transform and divergent margins, such as the one where the giant oil field Jubilee was recently discovered. There is almost no 3D data available in these area, and their structures still have to be described. An other key point to develop is the mechanical behavior of the lithosphere in and in the vicinity of transform margins. The classical behaviors (isostasy, elastic flexure) have be tested extensively. The localization of the deformation by the transform fault, and the coupling of continental and oceanic lithosphere across the transform fault have to be adressed to understand the evolution of these margins. Again as for divergent margins, new concepts are needed to explain the variations in the post-rift and post-transform subsidence, that can not always be explained by classical subsidence models. But the most remarkable advance in our understanding of transform margins may be related to the study of interactions between the lithosphere and adjacent envelops : deep interactions with the mantle, as underplating, tectonic erosion, or possible lateral crustal flow ; surficial interactions between structural evolution, erosion and sedimentation processes in transform margins may affect the topography and bathymetry, thus the oceanic circulation with possible effects on regional and global climate.

  6. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  7. The Relationship Between Lateral Dominance and Divergent Cognitive Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Barbara B.

    This study was designed to explore the relationship of lateral dominance to divergent cognitive thought. According to the screening results of the Harris Tests of Lateral Dominance, 36 subjects ranging from 9-12 years were divided equally into three groups of left, right, and mixed lateral dominance. In order to measure divergent cognitive…

  8. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  9. Vertical palatal bone dimensions on lateral cephalometry and cone-beam computed tomography: implications for palatal implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Britta A; Wehrbein, Heinrich; Heuser, Lothar; Kunkel, Martin

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the necessity of three-dimensional imaging (computed tomography [CT]/cone-beam computed tomography [CBCT]) for paramedian insertion of palatal implants. Lateral radiographs and CBCT scans were performed from 18 human skulls. For lateral cephalometry, the nasal floor (right/left) and the oral hard palate of all skulls were lined with a tin foil for contrast enhancement. The quantity of vertical bone as measured on lateral radiographs was compared with CBCT measurements obtained in median and parasagittal planes and at minimum bone height. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were determined for bivariate correlation analysis. The median palatal bone height on CBCT (mean 8.98 mm; standard deviation [SD] 3.4) was markedly higher than the vertical height seen on lateral radiographs (mean 6.6 mm; SD 3.2). Comparing lateral cephalometry with CBCT, the strongest association was observed at the minimum palatal bone height (r=0.926; Pcephalometry reflects the minimum bone height rather than maximum bone in the median plane. Therefore, a preoperative CT or CBCT is only indicated when the lateral cephalometry reveals a marginal quantity of bone. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  11. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  12. A Politics of Marginability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    2015-01-01

    In the end of the 19th century, Indians began settling in East Africa. Most of them left Gujarat because of drought and famine, and they were in search for business opportunities and a more comfortable life. Within the following decades, many of them went from being small-scale entrepreneurs to big...... businessmen, and they came to play an important role in the development of contemporary East Africa. This paper is built on long-term ethnographic fieldworks in a town in Northern Tanzania. I look at how the nativist and socialist discourses in Tanzanian politics influenced the lives of the people of Indian...... origin, and still influence their lives today. Further, I explore in which ways the different religious communities create social and financial security for their members as well as how they preserve certain kinds of ’indianness’ an notions of ’purity’. The Indians’ role and position in the Tanzanian has...

  13. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  14. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do. (orig.)

  15. Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contáctenos Contact Us About Tourette Blog Later in Life Later in Life There are plenty of challenges for those still coping with Tourette Syndrome in later life — and plenty of ways to deal with them. ...

  16. Left-handed sperm removal by male Calopteryx damselflies (Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia in several insect species are asymmetry in right and left shape. However, the function of such asymmetric male genitalia is still unclear. We found that the male genitalia of the damselfly Calopteryx cornelia (Odonata: Calopterygidae) are morphologically symmetric just after emergence but asymmetric after reproductive maturation. Males remove rival sperm stored in the female bursa copulatrix (single spherical sac) and the following spermatheca (Y-shaped tubular sac) prior to their own ejaculation to prevent sperm competition. Males possess the aedeagus with a recurved head to remove bursal sperm and a pair of spiny lateral processes to remove spermathecal sperm. The right lateral process is less developed than the left, and sperm stored in the right spermathecal tube are rarely removed. Experiments involving surgical cutting of each lateral process demonstrated that only the left process functions in spermathecal sperm removal. Thus, males of C. cornelia are left-handed in their sperm removal behaviour at copulation.

  17. Quantifying motion for pancreatic radiotherapy margin calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, Gillian; Jain, Pooja; Green, Melanie; Watkins, Gillian; Henry, Ann; Stratford, Julie; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Thomas; Moore, Christopher; Price, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Pancreatic radiotherapy (RT) is limited by uncertain target motion. We quantified 3D patient/organ motion during pancreatic RT and calculated required treatment margins. Materials and methods: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and orthogonal fluoroscopy images were acquired post-RT delivery from 13 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Bony setup errors were calculated from CBCT. Inter- and intra-fraction fiducial (clip/seed/stent) motion was determined from CBCT projections and orthogonal fluoroscopy. Results: Using an off-line CBCT correction protocol, systematic (random) setup errors were 2.4 (3.2), 2.0 (1.7) and 3.2 (3.6) mm laterally (left–right), vertically (anterior–posterior) and longitudinally (cranio-caudal), respectively. Fiducial motion varied substantially. Random inter-fractional changes in mean fiducial position were 2.0, 1.6 and 2.6 mm; 95% of intra-fractional peak-to-peak fiducial motion was up to 6.7, 10.1 and 20.6 mm, respectively. Calculated clinical to planning target volume (CTV–PTV) margins were 1.4 cm laterally, 1.4 cm vertically and 3.0 cm longitudinally for 3D conformal RT, reduced to 0.9, 1.0 and 1.8 cm, respectively, if using 4D planning and online setup correction. Conclusions: Commonly used CTV–PTV margins may inadequately account for target motion during pancreatic RT. Our results indicate better immobilisation, individualised allowance for respiratory motion, online setup error correction and 4D planning would improve targeting.

  18. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  19. Does cerebral lateralization develop? A study using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound assessing lateralization for language production and visuospatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Margriet A; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Badcock, Nicholas A; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2012-05-01

    In the majority of people, language production is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere and visuospatial skills to the right. However, questions remain as to when, how, and why humans arrive at this division of labor. In this study, we assessed cerebral lateralization for language production and for visuospatial memory using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound in a group of 60 typically developing children between the ages of six and 16 years. The typical pattern of left-lateralized activation for language production and right-lateralized activation for visuospatial memory was found in the majority of the children (58%). No age-related change in direction or strength of lateralization was found for language production. In contrast, the strength of lateralization (independent of direction) for visuospatial memory function continued to increase with age. In addition, boys showed a trend for stronger right-hemisphere lateralization for visuospatial memory than girls, but there was no gender effect on language laterality. We tested whether having language and visuospatial functions in the same hemisphere was associated with poor cognitive performance and found no evidence for this "functional crowding" hypothesis. We did, however, find that children with left-lateralized language production had higher vocabulary and nonword reading age-adjusted standard scores than other children, regardless of the laterality of visuospatial memory. Thus, a link between language function and left-hemisphere lateralization exists, and cannot be explained in terms of maturational change.

  20. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...

  1. Rifting kinematics along the Arabian Margin, Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Schettino, Antonio; Zanoni, Davide; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    left-lateral pull-apart basins characterized the separation of Arabia from Nubia, as suggested by some authors and by a preliminary analysis of remote sensing data. The necessity of performing structural observations along a wide area along the eastern margin of the northern and central Red Sea led us to select 30 sites where the preliminary morpho-structural analysis of ASTER-GDEM data and geological maps suggested the possibility to study the overprint of younger NE-SW structures on pre-existing N-S strike-slip faults. For each survey site, a number of stations were established to measure kinematic indicators. Most of the mapped structures are E-W and NW-SE normal faults or N-S and NE-SW high-angle strike-slip faults. These different faults belong to the older N-S/E-W system and the younger NW-SE/NE-SW system. Field evidence shows that the second system cuts the first one.

  2. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  3. How to define a positive circumferential resection margin in t3 adenocarcinoma of the esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, Roy J. J.; Zandvoort, Herman J. A.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) is associated with poor survival after esophagectomy for cancer. The Royal College of Pathologists (RCP) defines a CRM when tumor is found <1 mm of the lateral margin whereas the College of American Pathologists (CAP) defines CRM when tumor cells are

  4. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  5. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Who ... Where can I get more information? What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of ...

  6. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  7. Evolution of Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The north-trending, 550-km-long Nevada segment of the Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, which fringed western North America, evidences the complex interaction of paleotectonics, eustasy, biotic changes, and bolide impact-related influences. Margin reconstruction is complicated by mid-Paleozoic to Paleogene compressional tectonics and younger extensional and strike-slip faulting. Reports published during the past three decades identify 12 important events that influenced development of shelf-margin settings; in chronological order, these are: (1) Early Devonian inheritance of Silurian stable shelf inargin, (2) formation of Early to early Middle 'Devonian shelf-margin basins, (3) propradation of later Middle Devonian shelf margin, (4) late Middle Devonian Taghanic ondap and continuing long-term Frasnian transgression, (5) initiation of latest Middle Devonian to early Frasnian proto-Antler orogenic forebulge, (6) mid-Frasnian Alamo Impact, (7) accelerated development of proto-Antler forebulge and backbulge Pilot basin, (8) global late Frasnian sentichatovae sea-level rise, (9) end-Frasnian sea-level fluctuations and ensuing mass extinction, (10) long-term Famennian regression and continept-wide erosion, (11) late Famennian emergence: of Ahtler orogenic highlands, and (12) end-Devonian eustatic sea-level fall. Although of considerable value for understanding facies relationships and geometries, existing standard carbonate platform-margin models developed for passive settings else-where do not adequately describe the diverse depositional and, structural settings along the Nevada Devonian platform margin. Recent structural and geochemical studies suggest that the Early to Middle Devonian-shelf-margin basins may have been fault-bound and controlled by inherited Precambrian structure. Subsequently, the migrating latest Middle to Late Devonian Antler orogenic forebulge exerted a dominant control on shelf-margin position, morphology, and sedimentation. ??Geological Society of

  8. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain M. Dykes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease.

  9. The influence of a biomaterial on the closure of a marginal hard tissue defect adjacent to implants. An experimental study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, Daniele; Berglundh, Tord; Lindhe, Jan

    2004-06-01

    The present experiment was performed to determine the influence of Bio-Oss on hard tissue formation at sites that, following implant installation, presented a 1-1.25 mm wide marginal defect. Four Labrador dogs were used. The premolars and first molars on both sides of the mandible were extracted. After 3 months, mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated and three experimental sites were prepared for implant installation in each side of the mandible. A step drill was used to widen the marginal 5 mm of the canal. Thus, following the placement of the implant (3.3 x 10 mm, SLA surface, Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland) a circumferential gap, about 1-1.25 wide and 5 mm deep, remained lateral to the titanium rod. The test sites in the left side of the mandible were first filled with a deproteinized cancellous bone mineral (Bio-Oss). The defect sites in the right side of the mandible (control sites) were left for spontaneous healing. A resorbable barrier membrane (Bio-Gide) was placed to cover the implant and the bone tissue in two sites of each quadrant, while the third site was left without membrane placement. The flaps were repositioned to cover all defect sites and were sutured. After 4 months of healing, block biopsies of each implant site were dissected and processed for ground sectioning. It was demonstrated that at 4 months, all types of defects were filled with newly formed bone and that the biomaterial placed in the marginal defect in conjunction with implant installation during healing became incorporated in the newly formed bone tissue. A high degree of contact was established between the Bio-Oss particles and the newly formed bone. Bio-Oss became integrated with the newly formed bone. In the model used, Bio-Oss did not enhance the process of bone formation and defect closure.

  10. Pushing the Margins of Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoni de Sio, Filippo; Di Nucci, Ezio

    2018-01-01

    marginal responsibility in three steps: we first deny that Parks acts involuntarily as traditionally claimed in the legal literature; we then propose to extend Shoemaker’s analysis of marginal responsibility based on quality of will so as to include two other dimensions: the moral status of the agent......David Shoemaker has claimed that a binary approach to moral responsibility leaves out something important, namely instances of marginal agency, cases where agents seem to be eligible for some responsibility responses but not others. In this paper we endorse and extend Shoemaker’s approach...... by presenting and discussing one more case of marginal agency not yet covered by Shoemaker or in the other literature on moral responsibility. Our case is that of Kenneth Parks, a Canadian man who drove a long way to his mother-in-law’s and killed her in a state of somnambulism. We support our claim about Parks...

  11. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  12. The enigma of the lateral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, F S

    1984-10-01

    It is difficult to summarize an article of this type, in which the author is certain that his case has been presented fairly, but is aware that other views that are contrary could be stated and endorsed by pertinent clinical cases. Bearing this fact in mind, I wish to reiterate the following: Lateral canals are demonstrated in endodontic cases with much less frequency than they exist. This variance rarely, if ever, causes an endodontic failure. Some demonstrated lateral canals may really be other conditions. Preoperative evaluation should include examination of radiographs for lateral, as well as periapical, lesions. Lateral canals may be demonstrated by a variety of filling techniques. Careful canal preparation may enhance the frequency of such demonstration. Cases with necrotic pulps probably yield more frequent demonstration than do cases with vital pulps. Lateral canals harboring inflamed and/or infected material may cause pain during endodontic treatment. They may simulate periodontal disease and may cause problems with treatment if present when a tooth is left open for drainage. Periodontal disease may cause pulp exposure via lateral canals located coronally. Improper use of post room may lead to lateral failure from breakdown of tissue in a lateral canal. The enigma of the lateral canal has been the object of description and discussion in many articles, but no one is truly certain of their exact significance in endodontic therapy for the long haul.

  13. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  14. Rat cardiovascular telemetry: Marginal distribution applied to positive control drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, M V; Troncy, E; Abtout, S; Ascah, A; Maghezzi, S; Authier, S

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects are considered frequent during drug safety testing. This investigation aimed to characterize the pharmacological response of the conscious telemetered rat in vivo model to known cardiovascular active agents. These effects were analyzed using statistical analysis and cloud representation with marginal distribution curves for the contractility index and heart rate as to assess the effect relationship between cardiac variables. Arterial blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, electrocardiogram and body temperature were monitored. The application of data cloud with marginal distribution curves to heart rate and contractility index provided an interesting tactic during the interpretation of drug-induced changes particularly during selective time resolution (i.e. marginal distribution curves restricted to Tmax). Taken together, the present data suggests that marginal distribution curves can be a valuable interpretation strategy when using the rat cardiovascular telemetry model to detect drug-induced cardiovascular effects. Marginal distribution curves could also be considered during the interpretation of other inter-dependent parameters in safety pharmacology studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Sinaloa: the geography of marginalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1993-01-01

    Sinaloa's State Population Program for 1993-98 contains the objective of promoting integration of demographic criteria into the planning process. The action program calls for establishing indicators of economic and social inequality so that conditions of poverty and margination can be identified. To further these goals, the State Population Council used data from the National Population Council project on regional inequality and municipal margination in Mexico to analyze margination at the state level. Nine indicators of educational status, housing conditions, spatial distribution, and income provide information that allows the definition of municipios and regions that should receive priority in economic and social development programs. The index of municipal margination (IMM) is a statistical summary of the nine indicators, which are based on information in the 1990 census. As of March 1990, 9.9% of Sinaloa's population over age 15 was illiterate and 37.4% had incomplete primary education. 91.0% had electricity, but 18.7% lacked indoor toilet facilities and 19.4% had no piped water. 23.7% of houses had dirt floors. 60% of households were crowded, defined as having more than two persons per bedroom. 43.5% of the state population lived in localities with fewer than 5000 inhabitants, where service delivery is difficult and costly. 55.6% of the economically active population was judged to earn less than the amount needed to satisfy essential needs. All except one municipio bordering the Pacific ocean had low or very low indicators of margination, while all those in the sierra had a medium or high degree of margination. Sinaloa's statewide IMM was eighteenth among Mexico's 32 federal entities, with Chiapas showing the highest degree of margination and the Federal District the lowest.

  16. Endoscope-assisted breast reconstruction. 1. Immediate breast reconstruction after lateral quadrantectomy with endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi muscle flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Takamitsu; Kurihara, Kazunao; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kim, Shiei; Wakamatsu, Shingo.

    1996-01-01

    Breast conserving therapy (BCT) now is widely accepted in Japan. Quadrantectomy has been chosen from among the several available breast conserving operations for its minimal recurrence rate. Quadrantectomy, or excision of one-quarter volume of the breast, leaves a moderate degree of deformity which diminishes the quality of life. The authors have introduced immediate post-ectomy breast reconstruction utilizing an endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle flap which results in a minimal donor site scar. Five cases of endoscope-assisted LD muscle reconstruction of a quadrantectomized breast have been followed by irradiation therapy. Prior to reconstruction, with the patient in the supine position, quadrantectomy and dissection of axillary lymphnodes are performed through an incision extending from the anterior axillary to the inflamammary line. The patient then is placed in the lateral supine position. LD muscle flap dissection by electrocautery begins through the initial incision. Dissections of posterior portions of the muscle continue, under endoscopic visualization, through one or two ports along the anterior margin of the muscle. Moderate amount of adipose tissue is left attached to the muscle to obtain full augmentation. The raised flap then is transferred and secured to the post-quandrantectomy defect. Some post-irradiation shrinkage of the inserted LD muscle has been a common occurrence of breast reconstruction. An ample amount of adipose tissue left attached to the muscle margin will solve this matter since fatty tissue is more resistant to post-irradiation atrophy. (J.P.N.)

  17. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  18. The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not conversion symptoms are lateralized. Studies have shown a predominant left-oriented manifestation of symptoms for most somatoform disorders. The reports in the literature on the lateralization of conversion symptoms, however, are

  19. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  20. Vergisson 4: a left-handed Neandertal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Silvana; Monge, Janet; Quertelet, Sylvain; Frayer, David W; Combier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Handedness is an important marker for lateralization of humans in the modern and fossil record. For the most part, Neandertals and their ancestors are strongly right-handed. We describe a single tooth from a Neandertal level at Vergisson 4 (Vg 4-83). This left upper central incisor shows all the features typical of Neandertal incisors. It also exhibits a predominance of left-handed striations. Striations on the incisor's labial surface were mapped at 20x magnification using Photoshop. Angulations of the striations were determined from their deviation from the maximum mesio-distal line and were analyzed using NIH's freeware, Image J. Of the 60 labial surface striations, Vg 4-83 shows a strong predominance of left-handed striations (46; 76.7%), which are statistically significantly different (p handed striations. The identification of another left-handed Neandertal adds to our understanding about handedness variation in this fossil hominin. Given the high frequency of right-handed Neandertals, the 90: 10 modern ratio is still preserved in this group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  2. Implantation of a Resynchronization Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in a Patient with Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Antonelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of resynchronization implantable cardioverter defibrillator was performed in a patient with persistent left superior vena cava. A dual coil defibrillation lead was inserted in the right ventricle apex via a small innominate vein. Left ventricular and atrial leads were implanted through persistent left superior vena cava. Left ventricular lead was easily implanted into the postero lateral vein. Pacing thresholds and sensing values were excellent and remained stable at 18 months follow-up. Presence of persistent left superior vena cava generally makes transvenous lead implantation difficult. However when a favorable coronary sinus anatomy is also present, it may facilitate left ventricular lead positioning in the coronary sinus branches.

  3. Ipsilesional deficit of selective attention in left homonymous hemianopia and left unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, Sylvie; Peyrin, Carole; Perez, Céline

    2018-03-15

    Patients with homonymous hemianopia may present a subtle ipsilesional deficit, recently referred to as 'sightblindness' in addition to the contralesional visual field defect. We recently demonstrated that this deficit could be worse in right brain-damaged patients with left hemianopia than in left brain-damaged patients with right hemianopia, confirming right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial and attentional capacities. In the present study we investigate whether this ipsilesional deficit could be attentional in nature and to what extent it is comparable in right brain-damaged (RBD) patients with left hemianopia and in RBD patients with left neglect. The study was also conducted in RBD patients with neither left hemianopia nor left neglect signs in order to test if a right hemisphere lesion per se could be responsible for subtle ipsilesional attentional deficit. To reach this aim, we tested selective attentional capacities in both visual fields of 10 right brain-damaged patients with left neglect (LN), 8 right brain-damaged patients with left homonymous hemianopia (LHH), 8 right brain-damaged patients with no signs of left neglect or left hemianopia (RBD controls), and 17 healthy age-matched participants (Normal controls). A lateralized letter-detection task was used to test if right-brain damaged patients with LN or LH may present a deficit of selective attention in their right, ipsilesional visual field, in comparison to Normal and RBD controls. Participants were asked to detect a target letter in either a single large stimulus (low attentional load) or a small stimulus surrounded by flankers (high attentional load). Stimuli were displayed either in the left or in the right visual field. Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Results on accuracy showed that both LN and LH patients exhibited lower correct responses than Normal controls in their ipsilesional right visual field, suggesting an attentional deficit in their ipsilesional, supposed healthy

  4. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  5. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  6. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Margin account. 220.4 Section 220.4 Banks and... BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.4 Margin account. (a) Margin transactions. (1) All transactions not specifically authorized for inclusion in another account shall be recorded in the margin account...

  7. 17 CFR 41.45 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 41.45 Section... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.45 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each security futures intermediary shall determine the required margin for the security futures and related...

  8. Lateral canthal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung; Goldberg, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    The lateral canthus is a delicate and complicated three-dimensional structure with function relevant to the health of the ocular surface. Dysfunction of the lateral canthus, due to aging changes or iatrogenic trauma, results in ocular morbidity ranging from chronic irritation to tearing to recalcitrant keratopathy. From an aesthetic standpoint, symmetric, normally positioned lateral canthi are cornerstones of youthful periorbital appearance, disruption of which leads to cosmetically significant deformity or asymmetry. Reconstruction of the lateral canthus is important in the rehabilitation of the aging eyelid and an unfortunate necessity after failed lateral canthal surgery. The common methods for improving or maintaining position, tone, and shape of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus use tightening or shortening the lower eyelid horizontally, keeping the canthal angle in an appropriate vertical level, and hugging the ocular surface. Many techniques have been described for the reconstruction of the lateral canthus in functional conditions or for aesthetic purposes. These methods have met with varying success. In this article, we begin with a discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the lateral canthus, followed by clinical examples of lateral canthal abnormalities and underlying pathophysiologies. A review of surgical options for the lateral canthus is presented with concluding remarks on postoperative complications.

  9. Variable planning margin approach to account for locoregional variations in setup uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinzhong; Garden, Adam S; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To develop a method for creating variable planning margins around a clinical treatment volume (CTV) and to evaluate its application in head and neck cancer radiotherapy in accounting for locoregional variations of nonrigid setup uncertainties. Ten computed tomography (CT) images (with a resolution of 0.68 × 0.68 × 2.5 mm(3)) of a head and neck cancer patient were acquired from the first two weeks of treatment for this study. Five rigid structures (the C2, C5, and caudal C7 vertebrae, mandible, and jugular notch) were used as the landmarks for creating variable local margins. At different CTV locations, local margins were calculated as the weighted average of margins determined at different landmark points from previous studies. The weight was determined by a Gaussian falloff function of the distance between the current location and each landmark point. The CTV delineated on the planning CT image, spanning from the upper portion of the mouth to the lower part of the neck, was expanded to form the planning treatment volume (PTV) with either variable or the conventional constant margins. To evaluate the target coverage, the original planning CTV was deformably mapped to each daily treatment CT using a deformable image registration method. We examined the overlap of the deformed CTV and the rigidly aligned PTV for each margin design strategy and compared the efficacy of the variable margin with the constant margin approach. For the variable margin approach with a baseline C2 margin of 2.5 mm in the left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, an average of 99.2% of the CTV was within the PTV, and for the approach with a constant 2.5 mm margin, an average of 97.9% of the CTV was within the PTV. With a baseline margin of 2.0 mm, the variable margin approach had an average coverage of 97.8%, similar to that of the constant 2.5 mm margin approach. However, its average nonoverlapped PTV proportion was 32.4%, smaller than that of the constant 2.5 mm

  10. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  11. Technique for histological control of surgical margins in lip cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoru; Hata, Hiroo; Homma, Erina; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    To preserve oral function and achieve acceptable cosmetic results, intraoperative control of surgical margins with frozen section evaluation may help to determine surgical technique in lip cancer. However, frozen section analysis is usually limited to suspicious areas and has not been systematically performed among surgeons. The accuracy of such analysis for detecting histological surgical margins is highly dependent on the methods used to obtain and analyze the margins. Improving the pathodiagnostic reliability of conventional intraoperative frozen section evaluation is the most important goal of surgical management in our method. We describe the successful use of the "double-blade method" in lip cancer treatment. The technique we describe has the advantage of histologically confirming clear margins in lip cancer. This method appears to be time-saving and easy to apply with existing surgical systems. In addition, this method may be used as an alternative to complete evaluation of lateral surgical margins that is important in planning a suitable surgical reconstruction procedure in lip cancer at many institutions where Mohs micrographic surgery is difficult to perform. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  13. Ethnographies of marginality [Review article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuving, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Africanist discourse today displays a strong, widespread and growing sense of optimism about Africa's economic future. After decades of decline and stagnation in which Africa found itself reduced to the margins of the global economic stage, upbeat Afro-optimism seems fully justified. One only needs

  14. Marginality and Variability in Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Edmund

    This paper discusses Esperanto as a planned language and refutes three myths connected to it, namely, that Esperanto is achronical, atopical, and apragmatic. The focus here is on a synchronic analysis. Synchronic variability is studied with reference to the structuralist determination of "marginality" and the dynamic linguistic…

  15. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  16. Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device fitting after left ventricular reconstruction with mitral valve plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Nishimura, Takashi; Itoh, Satoshi; Yuri, Koichi; Kyo, Shunei; Adachi, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    Both left ventricular assist device and left ventricular reconstruction are treatment choices for severe heart failure conditions. Our institution performed a left ventricular assist device installation following a left ventricular reconstruction procedure on a 42-year-old male patient who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy and low cardiac output syndrome. A mitral valve plasty was used to correct the acute mitral valve regurgitation and we performed a Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device installation on post-operative day 14. Due to the left ventricular reconstruction that the patient had in a previous operation, we needed to attach an apical cuff on posterior apex, insert the inflow cannula with a large curve, and shift the skin insertion site laterally to the left. We assessed the angle between the cardiac longitudinal axis and the inflow cannula using computed tomography. The patient did not complain of any subjective symptoms of heart failure. Although Nipro extra-corporeal left ventricular assist device installation after left ventricular reconstruction has several difficulties historically, we have experienced a successful case.

  17. Modelling passive margin sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M.S.; Reynolds, D.; Coakley, B.; Swift, B.A.; Jarrard, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    We have modelled stratigraphic sequences to aid in deciphering the sedimentary response to sea-level change. Sequence geometry is found to be most sensitive to sea level, but other factors, including subsidence rate and sediment supply, can produce similar changes. Sediment loading and compaction also play a major role in generating accommodation, a factor often neglected in sequence-stratigraphic models. All of these parameters can control whether a type 1 or type 2 sequence boundary is produced. The models indicate that variations in margin characteristics produce systematic shifts in sequence boundary timing and systems tract distribution. The timing of the sequence boundary formation and systems tracts may differ by up to one-half of a sea-level cycle. Thus correlative sequence boundaries will not be synchronous. While rates of sea-level change may exceed the rate of thermal subsidence, isostasy and compaction may amplify the rate of total subsidence to several times greater than the thermal subsidence. Thus, total subsidence does not vary uniformly across the margin since it is modified by the sediment load. The amplitude of sea-level changes cannot be determined accurately without accounting for the major processes that affect sediment accumulation. Backstripping of a seismic line on the New Jersey margin is used to reconstruct continental margin geometry. The reconstructions show that the pre-existing ramp-margin geometry, rather than sea level, controls clinoform heights and slopes and sedimentary bypass. Backstripping also reveals progressive deformation of sequences due to compaction. Further work is still needed to understand quantitatively the role of sea level and the tectonic and sedimentary processes controlling sequence formation and influencing sequence architecture.

  18. Left ventricular noncompaction in a patient presenting with a left ventricular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Anđelkov Anđelka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a congenital disorder characterised by prominent trabeculations in the left ventricular myocardium. This heart condition very often goes completely undetected, or is mistaken for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or coronary disease. Case report. A middle-aged female with a positive family history of coronary disease was admitted with chest pain, electrocardiography (ECG changes in the area of the inferolateral wall and elevation in cardiac specific enzymes. Initially, she was suspected of having acute coronary syndrome. However, in the left ventricular apex, especially alongside the lateral and inferior walls, cardiac ultrasound visualised hypertrabeculation with multiple trabeculae projecting inside the left ventricular cavity. A short-axis view of the heart above the papillary muscles revealed the presence of two layers of the myocardium: a compacted homogeneous layer adjacent to the epicardium and a spongy layer with trabeculae and sinusoids under the endocardium. The thickness ratio between the two layers was 2.2:1. The same abnormalities were corroborated by multislice computed tomography (MSCT of the heart. Conclusion. Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare, usually hereditary cardiomyopathy, which should be considered as a possibility in patients with myocardial hypertrophy. It is very often mistaken for coronary disease owing to ECG changes and elevated cardiac specific enzymes associated with myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure.

  19. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  20. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  1. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  2. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  3. Current Perspectives in Cardiac Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Campione

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first organ to break symmetry in the developing embryo and onset of dextral looping is the first indication of this event. Looping is a complex process that progresses concomitantly to cardiac chamber differentiation and ultimately leads to the alignment of the cardiac regions in their final topology. Generation of cardiac asymmetry is crucial to ensuring proper form and consequent functionality of the heart, and therefore it is a highly regulated process. It has long been known that molecular left/right signals originate far before morphological asymmetry and therefore can direct it. The use of several animal models has led to the characterization of a complex regulatory network, which invariably converges on the Tgf-β signaling molecule Nodal and its downstream target, the homeobox transcription factor Pitx2. Here, we review current data on the cellular and molecular bases of cardiac looping and laterality, and discuss the contribution of Nodal and Pitx2 to these processes. A special emphasis will be given to the morphogenetic role of Pitx2 and to its modulation of transcriptional and functional properties, which have also linked laterality to atrial fibrillation.

  4. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  5. Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. III: Estimating historical rates of left-handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Moore, James; Freegard, Matthew; Rawles, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The BBC television programme Right Hand, Left Hand, broadcast in August 1953, used a postal questionnaire to ask viewers about their handedness. Respondents were born between 1864 and 1948, and in principle therefore the study provides information on rates of left-handedness in those born in the nineteenth century, a group for which few data are otherwise available. A total of 6,549 responses were received, with an overall rate of left-handedness of 15.2%, which is substantially above that expected for a cohort born in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Left-handers are likely to respond preferentially to surveys about handedness, and the extent of over-response can be estimated in modern control data obtained from a handedness website, from the 1953 BBC data, and from Crichton-Browne's 1907 survey, in which there was also a response bias. Response bias appears to have been growing, being relatively greater in the most modern studies. In the 1953 data there is also evidence that left-handers were more common among later rather than early responders, suggesting that left-handers may have been specifically recruited into the study, perhaps by other left-handers who had responded earlier. In the present study the estimated rate of bias was used to correct the nineteenth-century BBC data, which was then combined with other available data as a mixture of two constrained Weibull functions, to obtain an overall estimate of handedness rates in the nineteenth century. The best estimates are that left-handedness was at its nadir of about 3% for those born between about 1880 and 1900. Extrapolating backwards, the rate of left-handedness in the eighteenth century was probably about 10%, with the decline beginning in about 1780, and reaching around 7% in about 1830, although inevitably there are many uncertainties in those estimates. What does seem indisputable is that rates of left-handedness fell during most of the nineteenth century, only subsequently to rise in

  6. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  7. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  8. Geological development of the Central and South Vietnamese margin: Implications for the establishment of the South China Sea, Indochinese escape tectonics and Cenozoic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhn, Michael B. W.; Boldreel, Lars O.; Nielsen, Lars H.

    2009-12-01

    The Vietnamese margin forms a key region to the understanding of escape tectonics and the development of the South China Sea (SCS). The existing geological reconstructions of the region are restricted to studies of single basins, are based on limited amounts of geophysical data or analysis of onshore geological features. These models are critically assessed on the basis of interpretation of the most comprehensive 2-D digital seismic database published to date within the area combined with a thorough analysis of existing literature, and a new model is presented. The Vietnamese margin is underlain by a series of Paleogene rift basins established through southeastward extrusion of Indochina. The East Vietnam Boundary Fault (EVBF) forms the almost 1000 km long seaward continuation of the left-lateral Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone (ASRRSZ). Toward the southern half of the Phu Khanh Basin the EVBF breaks up into discrete segments and splays into the SE-directed Tua Hoa Fault Zone. Paleogene faults splayed from the EVBF and the Mae Ping Shear Zone and accommodated the coeval motion of these two major left-lateral structural lineaments. During the late Oligocene, basin inversions offshore occurred contemporaneously with initial right-lateral inversion along the Mae Ping Shear Zone and the onset of major uplift of the metamorphic core complexes along the ASRRSZ. It is suggested that a dramatic change of the regional stress pattern occurred in response to the northward movement of India and the effective coupling of the West Burma Block and India, the later resulting in broadening of the indenting continental mass. After the mid-Oligocene, left-lateral movements across the offshore EVBF decreased and eventually ceased. Later, onshore sinistral movements were accommodated by internal shortening and local clockwise block rotations within the Shan-Thai Terrain. Renewed rifting offshore south Vietnam resulted from the jump of the SCS spreading axis and subsequent Neogene

  9. Psychophysiological correlates of dissociation, handedness, and hemispheric lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Joel; Ciorciari, Joseph; Stough, Con

    2008-05-01

    Dissociation involves a disruption of typically integrated functions including consciousness, information perception, and memory; however, dissociation may not always be of a pathologic nature. Increasingly, studies are identifying relations between inconsistent handedness, mixed hemispheric lateralization, and dissociative symptomatology in both clinical and nonclinical populations. The current study explored whether a nonclinical sample of individuals scoring high in dissociation would display an inconsistent handedness in conjunction with a left hemispheric lateralization as measured by electroencephalography. Twenty-seven participants (12 males and 15 females) aged between 20 and 59 years (M = 29.1 year, SD = 11.2 years), completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale and Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire Revised after determining laterality. As predicted, inconsistently handed participants scoring high in dissociation displayed left hemispheric lateralization across frontal, central, and parietal regions. Conversely, right lateralization was found within Delta frequency band across temporal regions. The study provides a good framework for future research investigating the neurophysiological correlates underpinning dissociative symptomatology.

  10. A case of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery presenting with acute myocardial infarction and cardiovascular collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliku, Twalib O; Lubega, Sulaiman; Lwabi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Though a rare clinical entity, anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) a common cause of myocardial infarction in children. Unrecognized and untreated it leads to progressive left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. In settings of high infectious burden, ALCAPA may erroneously be diagnosed as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy or other common childhood disorders. We present the case of a 10 weeks old male infant who presented to the inpatient unit with marked restlessness and irritability. He was inconsolable, had marked respiratory distress, cool extremities, central and peripheral cyanosis oxygen. The radial and brachial pulses were absent. The mean arterial pressure was 65mmHg, Heart rate of 160 beats per minute with a third heart sound. The liver was enlarged 4cm below the costal margin and tender, with a splenomegaly. He had an elevated Creatinine Kinase-MB of 112.5 u/L. ECG revealed deep Q waves in leads I, aVL, V5, V6 with ST elevation in the anterolateral leads. Echo showed a dilated left ventricle LVEDd of 40mm, with paradoxical interventricular septal motion, severe LV systolic dysfunction (FS=15%, EF=28%), LV anterolateral wall echo brightness and flow reversal in the Left coronary artery with its origin from the pulmonary trunk. He was admitted to the coronary care unit as a case of acute myocardial infarction with cardiovascular collapse. He received fluid resuscitation, inotropic support and standard management of heart failure. Six days later he was discharged home with a plan to refer abroad. He died at home after one week. A combination of a high index of suspicion, typical ECG and echocardiographic findings in a young infant presenting with LV dysfunction could lead to an earlier diagnosis of ALCAPA.

  11. Wave-Ice interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone: Toward a Wave-Ocean-Ice Coupled Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave-Ice interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone: Toward a...scattering of waves by interaction with ice in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). The wave model physics developed here will later be part of an operational...10.5670/oceanog.2014.73. Liu, A.K., B. Holt, and P.W. Vachon, 1991: Wave propagation in the Marginal Ice Zone: Model predictions and comparisons

  12. Emission computer tomography of the left ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmler, W.; Felix, R.; Calder, D.; Golde, G.; Botsch, H.

    1983-10-01

    Tomographic studies and time-dependent tomograms on phantoms and patients were carried out using a 7-pinhole collimator in order to study the clinical value of ECG-triggered tomographic radionuclid ventriculography. A suitable computer programme has been developed. The results have shown that it is possible to evaluate local contraction abnormalities by this method. Using a left oblique position of the collimator (LAO (45/sup 0/) - cranial (15/sup 0/)), emission computer tomography is aligned with the longitudinal axis for the heart. In this way, a single projection is sufficient to show the montility of the anterior and posterior walls and of the septum. Hypokinesis, akinesis or dyskinesis can be recognised visually. The localisation and extent of the defect can be determined through the 7-pinhole collimator. Reconstructed images of the triggered radionuclide scintigrams show excellent marginal definition. In the RAO projection the left ventricle can be seen without superimposition and images obtained which equal those of a first-pass technique.

  13. The Margins of Medieval Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Kavčič

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the mid-thirteenth century, various images began to fill the margins in both religious and secular texts. Many factors influenced the emergence of this type of manuscript decoration, but it has generally been attributed to the revived interest in nature and the Gothic inclination for humorous and anecdotic detail. After highlighting other possible reasons for the occurrence of marginal illumination, this paper introduces two manuscripts from the Archiepiscopal Archives in Ljubljana. The manuscripts show numerous facial drawings affixed to some of the letters. This article addresses how to interpret such drawings and stresses that they do not necessarily function as symbolic images or images with any specific didactic value. Quite the opposite, these drawings seem not to have any meaning and are oft en merely indications of an illuminator’s sense of humor. Because of their exaggerated facial expressions, these drawings could be perceived as the true predecessors of modern caricature.

  14. Margins related to equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Safety margins related to design of reactor equipment are defined according to safety regulations. Advanced best estimate methods are proposed including some examples which were computed and compared to experimental results. Best estimate methods require greater computation effort and more material data but give better variable accuracy and need careful experimental validation. Simplified methods compared to the previous are less sensitive to material data, sometimes are more accurate but very long to elaborate

  15. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  16. Age-Dependent Mesial Temporal Lobe Lateralization in Language FMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N.; Berl, Madison M.; Wilke, Marko; You, Xiaozhen; Mehta, Meera; Xu, Benjamin; Inati, Sara; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Austermuehle, Alison; Theodore, William H.; Gaillard, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective FMRI activation of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) may be important for epilepsy surgical planning. We examined MTL activation and lateralization during language fMRI in children and adults with focal epilepsy. Methods 142 controls and patients with left hemisphere focal epilepsy (Pediatric: epilepsy, n = 17, mean age = 9.9 ± 2.0; controls, n = 48; mean age = 9.1 ± 2.6; Adult: epilepsy, n = 20, mean age = 26.7 ± 5.8; controls, n = 57, mean age = 26.2 ± 7.5) underwent 3T fMRI using a language task (auditory description decision task). Image processing and analyses were conducted in SPM8; ROIs included MTL, Broca’s area, and Wernicke’s area. We assessed group and individual MTL activation, and examined degree of lateralization. Results Patients and controls (pediatric and adult) demonstrated group and individual MTL activation during language fMRI. MTL activation was left lateralized for adults but less so in children (p’s < 0.005). Patients did not differ from controls in either age group. Stronger left-lateralized MTL activation was related to older age (p = 0.02). Language lateralization (Broca’s and Wernicke’s) predicted 19% of the variance in MTL lateralization for adults (p = 0.001), but not children. Significance Language fMRI may be used to elicit group and individual MTL activation. The developmental difference in MTL lateralization and its association with language lateralization suggests a developmental shift in lateralization of MTL function, with increased left lateralization across the age span. This shift may help explain why children have better memory outcomes following resection compared to adults. PMID:26696589

  17. The anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Alan A; Selva, Dinesh; Hardy, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Brett

    2014-10-01

    To determine the anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas (OCH). Retrospective case series. The records of 104 patients with OCH were analyzed. The anatomical location of each OCH defined by the location of a point at the centre of the lesion, and its laterality. There were 104 patients included in the study. No patient had more than one lesion. Sixteen (15.4%) were located in the anterior third of the orbit, 74 (71.2%) were in the middle third, and 14 (13.5%) in the posterior third. In the middle third, 10 of 74 (13.5%) were extraconal and 64 intraconal (86.5%), with 30 of 64 (46.9%) middle third intraconal lesions lying lateral to the optic nerve. Of 104 lesions, 56 (53.8%) were left sided, showing a trend towards a predilection for the left side (p = 0.065). If data from other published series which included data on laterality is added to our own data and analysed, 270 of 468 (57.7%) OCH occurred in the left orbit (p lateral to the optic nerve. This may reflect an origin of these lesions from the arterial side of the circulation, as there are more small arteries in the intraconal space lateral to the optic nerve than in other locations. A predilection for the left orbit remains unexplained.

  18. Lateralization of mother-infant interactions in wild horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenina, Karina; Giljov, Andrey; Malashichev, Yegor

    2018-03-01

    The manifestation of behavioural lateralization has been shown to be modified by environmental conditions, life experiences, and selective breeding. This study tests whether the lateralization recently found in feral domestic horse (Equus caballus) is evident in undomesticated horses. Mother-offspring interactions were investigated in Przewalski's horse (E. ferus przewalskii) living in their natural habitat in Mongolia. Lateral position preferences during mare-foal spontaneous reunions were used as a behavioural marker of visual lateralization. Preferences were separately assessed for foals' approaches to their mothers and mares' approaches to their foals. Preference to keep the mother in the visual field of the left eye was found in various types of foals' behaviour. In slow travelling, Przewalski's foals showed stronger preference for the left eye use than feral horse foals. Population-level left-eye bias was also found in mothers approaching their foals. Our results indicate right-hemispheric dominance for control of mother-offspring interactions in Przewalski's horses, similar to what has been reported for other mammals including humans. Benefits conferred by the lateralized social processing of and responding to social stimuli may explain that the left-lateralized social behaviour is a robust trait of equine behaviour, not modified by domestication or specific environmental conditions of the population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PCR, exit stage left ...

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989. The Prévessin Control Room (PCR) was recently engulfed in a wave of nostalgia. The PCR, scene of some of the greatest moments in CERN's history, is being dismantled to prepare for a complete overhaul. In February 2006, a new combined control centre for all the accelerators will open its doors on the same site, together with a new building currently under construction (see Bulletin issue 27/2004 of 28 June 2004). This marks the end of an important chapter in CERN's history. The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event 28 years ago when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world. Today the 80 terminals and PCs have b...

  20. Tiago Marques Aipobureu: um bororo marginal Tiago Marques Aipobureu: a Bororo on the margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florestan Fernandes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa a biografia de um membro da tribo dos Bororo, Tiago Marques Aipobureu, que, nascido no planalto oriental de Mato Grosso, foi levado pelos missionários para estudar em Cuiabá e depois viajou pela Europa. Quando de seu retorno ao Brasil, foi empregado como professor, mas não conseguiu adaptar-se à nova vida. Casado com uma mulher de sua tribo, buscou então reintegrar-se aos Bororo, igualmente sem sucesso. Permanecia, desse modo, no meio do caminho, incapaz de integrar-se plenamente tanto à sociedade e cultura "civilizadas" como à sociedade e cultura indígenas. O desajustamento de Tiago evidencia a situação do homem marginal, daquele que se situa na divisa de duas raças, na margem de duas culturas sem conseguir pertencer integralmente a nenhuma delas.The text analyzes the biography of a member of the Bororo tribe, Tiago Marques Aipobureu. Born on the eastern plateau of Mato Grosso, he was taken by missionaries to study in Cuiabá and later travelled through Europe. On returning to Brazil, he was employed as a teacher, but was unable to adapt to his new life. Married to a woman from his tribe, he tried to rejoin the Bororo, likewise without success. Thus he found himself midway between worlds, unable to join fully either 'civilized' society and culture, or indigenous society and culture. Tiago's maladjustment exemplifies the situation of the marginal person, someone situated on the dividing line between two races, on the margin of two cultures, unable to belong wholly to either.

  1. PORTRAIT GRAFFITI IN MARGINS OF ANTIQUE LITHUANIAN BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burba, Domininkas

    2006-12-01

    discharge. The marginal portraits in personal books are more artistical and their composition is more relaxed. Overall the GDL marginal portraits reveal quite a few similarities to the graffiti (in italian scarabocchi left in the documents by the workers of Naples bank archive. They were properly examined and classified by the artist and archivist Giuseppe Zevola. According to him this documental graffiti was born out of opposition to the grey everyday routine and experience of “pleasure of anxiety”.

  2. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  3. Closing the North American Carbon Budget: Continental Margin Fluxes Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Benway, H. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Cai, W. J.; Coble, P. G.; Cross, J. N.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Goni, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Mathis, J. T.; McKinley, G. A.; Pilskaln, C. H.; Smith, R. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, continental margins are regions of intense carbon and nutrient processing, export and exchange, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles. In response to recommendations for regional synthesis and carbon budget estimation for North America put forth in the North American Continental Margins workshop report (Hales et al., 2008), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and North American Carbon Program (NACP) began coordinating a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) research activities in five coastal regions of North America (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Laurentian Great Lakes) to improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget. CCARS workshops and collaborative research activities have resulted in the development of regional coastal carbon budgets based on recent literature- and model-based estimates of major carbon fluxes with estimated uncertainties. Numerous peer-reviewed papers and presentations by involved researchers have highlighted these findings and provided more in-depth analyses of processes underlying key carbon fluxes in continental margin systems. As a culminating outcome of these synthesis efforts, a comprehensive science plan highlights key knowledge gaps identified during this synthesis and provides explicit guidance on future research and observing priorities in continental margin systems to help inform future agency investments in continental margins research. This presentation will provide an overview of regional and flux-based (terrestrial inputs, biological transformations, sedimentary processes, atmospheric exchanges, lateral carbon transport) synthesis findings and key recommendations in the science plan, as well as a set of overarching priorities and recommendations on observations and modeling approaches for continental margin systems.

  4. Possible evolutionary origins of cognitive brain lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Rogers, L J; Bisazza, A

    1999-08-01

    Despite the substantial literature on the functional architecture of the asymmetries of the human brain, which has been accumulating for more than 130 years since Dax and Broca's early reports, the biological foundations of cerebral asymmetries are still poorly understood. Recent advances in comparative cognitive neurosciences have made available new animal models that have started to provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary origins and neuronal mechanisms of cerebral asymmetries. Animal model-systems, particularly those provided by the avian brain, highlight the interrelations of genetic, hormonal and environmental events to produce neural and behavioural asymmetries. Novel evidences showing that functional and structural lateralization of the brain is widespread among vertebrates (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) have accumulated rapidly. Perceptual asymmetries, in particular, seem to be ubiquitous in everyday behaviour of most species of animals with laterally placed eyes; in organisms with wider binocular overlap (e.g., amphibians), they appear to be retained for initial detection of stimuli in the extreme lateral fields. We speculate that adjustment of head position and eye movements may play a similar role in mammals with frontal vision as does the choice for right or left lateral visual fields in animals with laterally placed eyes. A first attempt to trace back the origins of brain asymmetry to early vertebrates is presented, based on the hypothesis that functional incompatibility between the logical demands associated with very basic cognitive functions is central to the phenomenon of cerebral lateralization.

  5. Re-Engaging Marginalized Youth through Digital Music Production: Performance, Audience and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, Andy; Luke, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This article presents two case studies of marginalized youth experimenting with digital music production in flexible education settings. The cases were drawn from a 3-year study of alternative assessment in flexible learning centres for youth who have left formal schooling in Queensland, Australia. The educational issues are framed by reference to…

  6. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  7. Role of local to regional-scale collisions in the closure history of the Southern Neotethys, exemplified by tectonic development of the Kyrenia Range active margin/collisional lineament, N Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair; Kinnaird, Tim; McCay, Gillian; Palamakumbura, Romesh; Chen, Guohui

    2016-04-01

    . Further S-directed compression took place during Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene (stage 3) in an oblique left-lateral stress regime, probably influenced by the collision of the Tauride and Arabian continents to the east. Strong uplift of the active margin lineament then took place during the Pleistocene, related to incipient continental collision (stage 4). The uplift is documented by a downward-younging flight of marine and continental terrace deposits on both flanks of the Kyrenia Range. The geological record of the S Neotethyan active continental margin, based on regional to global plate kinematic reconstructions, appears to have been dominated by on-going convergence (with possible temporal changes), punctuated by the effects of relatively local to regional-scale collisional events. Similar processes are likely to have affected other S Neotethyan segments and other convergent margins.

  8. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  9. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H

    1997-11-15

    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  10. The Left-Handed Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  11. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  12. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  13. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J

    2010-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right...... during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic...... and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over...

  14. Ostial left main coronary stenosis in a frequent flyer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, John F

    2009-05-15

    A 52 year old gentleman presented with chest pain, after a long distance flight from India; he had made long haul flights every 2 weeks over the last 5 years as part of his job. His ECG revealed T wave inversion in leads V1-3. Cardiac biomarkers including troponin were negative; we proceeded to exercise stress testing (EST). This revealed 2 mm ST depression at 2 min of the standard Bruce protocol, associated with chest pain. He was taken immediately to the coronary catheterization laboratory; engagement of the left main caused pressure damping with 6 French, then 5 French diagnostic Judkins left 4 catheters. An ostial left main stenosis was seen; the right and left coronary trees otherwise had no significant stenoses. He had normal LV function. He underwent inpatient CABG 7 days later.

  15. Oblique basin inversion and strain partitioning in back-arc context: example from the Moroccan Alboran Margin (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Manfred; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabaute, Alain; Tomas Vazquez, Juan; Estrada, Ferran; Galindo-Zaldivar, Jesús; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belén; Gorini, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Neogene and Quaternary directions of extension recorded in the Mediterranean back-arc basins are oblique to the Africa-Eurasia convergence direction (Jolivet and Faccenna, 2000). In those basins, particularly in the Alboran basin, strike-slip tectonics is favored by the obliquity of coeval extension and compressional deformations, first with a transtensive style that switches to a transpressive mode during the Quaternary. Northwards the Betic Cordillera and southward, the Rifian and the Atlas belts bound the Alboran domain. Transtensional and transpressional episodes deform the Alboran domain and create rotating micro-blocks delimited by a major left lateral NE-SW Miocene transtensional shear zone, a.k.a. the Trans Alboran Shear Zone (TASZ). We present new evidences of strain partitioning affecting the South Alboran Margin (Western Mediterranean) during the end of the Neogene and Quaternary. We use seismic data and high-resolution bathymetry (EM710 multibeam echo sounder) from the MARLBORO-1 (12-channel streamer and Air Gun source), SARAS (single channel Sparker and TOPAS systems) and MARLBORO-2 (single channel Sparker source) surveys. The pre-Messinian deformation and the geometry of the Messinian Erosional Surface (MES) and Plio-Quaternary deposits in the deep basin, developed during a regional extensional back-arc setting, evidence late Miocene to Quaternary folding and left-lateral shearing along the South Alboran Ridge. Around 2.58-1.81 My, the sedimentary shelves of volcanic edifices near the Boudinar and Nekor peripheral sub-basins highlight localized subsidence. At present-day, the NNE-SSW left-lateral Al-Idrissi shear zone delimits westwards the youngest micro-block boundary. Non-cylindrical hinge axes of Pliocene folds are interpreted as evidences of a wrench component of the deformation, which seems maximum to the northern flank of the South Alboran Ridge and decreases toward the Nekor Fault. The observed basin geometries and inversion process could

  16. Pathways of lateral spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A critical appraisal of circumferential resection margins in esophageal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultrum, Bareld B; Honing, Judith; Smit, Justin K; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Groen, Henk; Hollema, Harry; Plukker, John Th M

    2010-03-01

    In esophageal cancer, circumferential resection margins (CRMs) are considered to be of relevant prognostic value, but a reliable definition of tumor-free CRM is still unclear. The aim of this study was to appraise the clinical prognostic value of microscopic CRM involvement and to determine the optimal limit of CRM. To define the optimal tumor-free CRM we included 98 consecutive patients who underwent extended esophagectomy with microscopic tumor-free resection margins (R0) between 1997 and 2006. CRMs were measured in tenths of millimeters with inked lateral margins. Outcome of patients with CRM involvement was compared with a statistically comparable control group of 21 patients with microscopic positive resection margins (R1). A cutoff point of CRM at 1.0 mm appeared to be an adequate marker for survival and prognosis (both P 0 mm was equal to that in patients with CRM of 0 mm (P = 0.43). CRM involvement was an independent prognostic factor for both recurrent disease (P = 0.001) and survival (P CRM is CRM is >1.0 mm. Patients with unfavorable CRM should be approached as patients with R1 resection with corresponding outcome.

  18. Silenced, Silence, Silent: Motherhood in the Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lorelei; Austin, Helena

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the experiences of women who mother children with ADHD. The authors use the metaphor of the text and the margin. The text is the "motherhood myth" that describes a particular sort of "good" mothering. The margin is the space beyond that text. This marginal space is inhabited by some or all of the mothers they spoke with, some…

  19. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of a margin deficiency without effecting personal contact with the leverage customer. If a leverage...

  20. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  1. Physiological Laterality of Superficial Cerebral Veins on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Gomi, Taku; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether laterality of the superficial cerebral veins can be seen on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in patients with no intracranial lesions that affect venous visualization. We retrospectively evaluated 386 patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including SWI in our institute. Patients with a lesion with the potential to affect venous visualization on SWI were excluded. Two neuroradiologists visually evaluated the findings and scored the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins. Of the 386 patients, 315 (81.6%) showed no obvious laterality on venous visualization, 64 (16.6%) showed left-side dominant laterality, and 7 (1.8%) showed right-side dominant laterality. Left-side dominant physiological laterality exists in the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI. Therefore, when recognizing left-side dominant laterality of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI, the radiologist must also consider the possibility of physiological laterality.

  2. Managing margins through physician engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas J

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals should take the following steps as they seek to engage physicians in an enterprisewide effort to effectively manage margins: Consider physicians' daily professional practice requirements and demands for time in balancing patient care and administrative duties. Share detailed transactional supply data with physicians to give them a behind-the-scenes look at the cost of products used for procedures. Institute physician-led management and monitoring of protocol compliance and shifts in utilization to promote clinical support for change. Select a physician champion to provide the framework for managing initiatives with targeted, efficient communication.

  3. Differences between left- and right-sided neglect revisited: A large cohort study across multiple domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, Antonia F; Verwer, Jurre H; Biesbroek, J Matthijs; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2017-09-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a syndrome that can occur after right- and left-hemisphere damage. It is generally accepted that left-sided USN is more severe than right-sided USN. Evidence for such a difference in other domains is lacking. Primary aims were to compare frequency, severity, region specificity, cognition, physical functioning, and physical independence between left and right USN. Secondary aims were to compare lesion characteristics. A total of 335 stroke patients admitted for inpatient rehabilitation were included. The severity of the lateralized attentional deficit was measured with a shape cancellation and line bisection test (in peripersonal and extrapersonal space) and the Catherine Bergego scale. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Stichting Afasie Nederland score, search organization (i.e., best R and intersections rate), Motricity Index, balance, mobility, and self-care were assessed. Measures were statistically compared between left, right, and no USN patients. Lesion overlay plots were compared with lesion subtraction analyses. Left USN (15.82%) was more frequent than right USN (9.25%). Demographic and stroke characteristics were comparable between groups. The lateralized attentional deficit was most severe in left USN. USN in both peripersonal and extrapersonal space was more frequently left-sided in nature. Search efficiency was lower in left USN. Balance was poorer in right USN. No differences between left and right USN were found for cognitive ability, communication, motor strength, mobility, and self-care. Most patients with left USN had right-hemispheric lesions, whereas patients with right USN could have lesions in either the left or the right hemisphere. To conclude, left and right USN are both common after stroke. Although the lateralized attention deficit is worse in left than in right USN, consequences at the level of physical functioning and physical independence are largely comparable. From a clinical perspective, it is

  4. Verification of the patient positioning for evaluation of PTV margins in radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohlich, B.F.; Peron, T.M.; Scheid, A.M.; Cardoso, F.; Alves, F.; Alves, M.S.; Dias, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    The work aimed to verify the relative displacements between the patient and the isocenters of the device based on the reproducibility of positioning, and estimates a PTV margins of radiotherapy treatments for prostate cancer. The results of displacements were obtained from a sample of 30 patient and showed values in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions -0.03 ± 0.48 cm, 0.12 ± 0.47 cm and 0.02 ± 0.53 cm, respectively. PTV margins were calculated resulting in 0.97 cm for vertical direction, 0.85 cm for longitudinal, and 0.98 cm for lateral. (author)

  5. Technical modifications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy by the left-handed surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Segura, Antonio; López-Tomassetti Fernández, Eudaldo M; Medina-Arana, Vicente

    2007-10-01

    There is a complete paucity of literature for left-handed surgeons. Some studies revealed that left-handed surgical residents have lesser operating skills and some surgeons have considered leaving surgery at some point in their career owing to laterality-related frustrations. Most important, whereas minimally invasive surgical techniques have had a profound impact on the treatment of diseased gallbladder, these procedures do not eliminate laterality related to the discomfort of left-handed surgeons. Usually, left-handed surgeons must teach themselves a procedure. They must make modifications and learn some technical tips to make a more comfortable, convenient, and safe intervention. The aim of this study was to describe some modifications made by a left-handed surgeon to perform 52 safe laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard right-handed instruments in our hospital. These surgical steps could be used in a reproducible way to minimize the recurring difficulties of left-handed learners in a surgical residency program.

  6. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu [Government Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra, Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [SCTIMST, Department of Imaging Science and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm{sup 3}) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm{sup 3}) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  7. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.; James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm 3 ) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm 3 ) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  8. Are there excitability changes in the hand motor cortex during speech in left-handed subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimura, Hiroshi; Tokimura, Yoshika; Arita, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Hemispheric dominance was investigated in left-handed subjects using single transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess the possible effect of forced change in the dominant hand. Single transcranial magnetic stimuli were delivered randomly over the hand area of the left or right motor cortex of 8 Japanese self-declared left-handed adult volunteers. Electromyographic responses were recorded in the relaxed first dorsal interosseous muscle while the subjects read aloud. Laterality quotient calculated by the Edinburgh Inventory ranged from -100 to -5.26 and laterality index calculated from motor evoked potentials ranged from -86.2 to 38.8. There was no significant correlation between laterality quotient and laterality index. Mean data values across all 8 subjects indicated significant increases only in the left hand. Our ratio analysis of facilitation of the hand motor potentials showed that 2 each of the 8 self-declared left-handers were right- and left-hand dominant and the other 4 were bilateral-hand dominant. Speech dominancy was localized primarily in the right cerebral hemisphere in left-handed subjects, but some individuals exhibited bilateral or left dominance, possibly attributable to the forced change of hand preference for writing in childhood. Our findings suggest changes in the connections between the speech and hand motor areas.

  9. A Test of Some Models of Hemispheric Speech Organization in the Left- and Right-Handed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A new method generates specific predictions concerning the expected frequencies of aphasia after unilateral injury to the brain in the left- and right-handed. These predictions are then compared with the observed data for all known studies between 1935 and 1973 to derive the best-fitting model of hemispheric speech lateralization in the left- and…

  10. Value of intraoperative true lateral radiograph of C2 pedicle for C1-2 transarticular screw insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayong; Shafiq, Qaiser; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Karkare, Nakul; Asaad, Malak; Woldenberg, Lee; Yeasting, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    ), p>or=.23. On 30 degrees sagittal CT scan views, the height of pedicles was 7.84+/-1.00 mm (right) and 7.76+/-1.02 mm (left), p>or=.27. The p value was >or=.78, >or=.56, and >or=.49 for true lateral radiographic view and sagittal CT scan view, true lateral radiographic view and 30 degrees sagittal CT scan view, and sagittal CT scan view and 30 degrees sagittal CT scan views, respectively. On lateral view of cervical spine, the decline angle of the transarticular screw was 51.3+/-0.50 degrees (right) and 50.68+/-0.41 degrees (left), p>or=.17. Mean decline angle was 51+/-0.43 degrees . On the anteroposterior (AP) view, radiograph median angle was 6.87+/-0.53 degrees (right) and 6.0+/-0.59 degrees (left), p>or=.25. Mean median angle was 6.44+/-0.62 degrees. True lateral radiographic views of the pedicles provide useful information for defining screw trajectory intraoperatively. Using this view along with AP and lateral view of cervical spine and preoperative three-dimensional CT scan may narrow the margin of error in this delicate area.

  11. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined. Objective. The aim of the study was: (a re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order, and (b examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods. Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth putative agents are examined. Results. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6 can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively. The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Conclusion. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  12. What are volcanic passive margins? A discussion based on seismic and field examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalan, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic or magma-rich passive margins are continental margins whose underlying rift basins, developed during the stretching and thinning phases that affected the continental crust before breakup, are totally or predominantly filled by volcanic and volcanic-derived rocks. The type of magma is usually fissural tholeiitic basalts, eventually bi-modal basaltic-rhyolitic. This is in strong contrast with the definition of sedimentary or magma-poor passive margins, whose rift basins are predominantly filled with sedimentary rocks. As the name states, magma-poor margins may display a certain amount of magmatism, but which is clearly secondary with respect to the dominant sedimentary nature of the syn-rift filling. These are two end-members in the classification of passive margins, and as such, transitional members represented by passive margins displaying characteristics of both extremes are recognizable. The significant difference in the nature of the syn-rift strata gives rise to strikingly different seismic facies in seismic sections that cross the entire width of passive margins, allowing a relatively easy visual distinction between the end-members, as well as of the transitional members. Typical growth volcanic strata dip seawards and fill grabens controlled by landward dipping listric faults, giving rise to the well known laterally accreted wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR). The amount of magmatism in volcanic margins is so high that it impacts a large area surrounding the continental margin, thus, also easing the recognition of this end-member through the analysis of the neighboring surface geology. Volcanic margins are characterized by Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) that present pre-rift (lava deltas, tabular lava flows, trap-stage), syn-rift (seaward-dipping growth strata, extrusive centers, SDR-stage) and post-rift (volcanos, punctual lava flows) magmatism. Breakup of the continental crust takes place at the climax of the SDR-stage. Volcanism is

  13. Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2010-01-01

    . The treetop buds remaining after bud excision experienced an immediate decrease in most cytokinins, followed, however, by a large surplus later in the season. The following spring this high level persisted in the leader bud of destipitated trees, but not in whorl buds of decapitated trees. Conspicuous growth...... pattern changes followed from destipitation, but few from decapitation. Growth reactions suggest that resource allocation to main branch buds inhibits leader growth in normal trees, a kind of “lateral control.” Auxin and ABA content in buds and stems was largely unaffected by treatments. Data suggest...

  14. Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

    2009-06-01

    A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits.

  15. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  16. Laterality in dogs in response to odour of human stress

    OpenAIRE

    Teien, Maren Helene Burdahl

    2015-01-01

    Can dogs smell that humans are stressed? Lateralization of behaviour and neural functions is found among humans and non-human animals like mammals, amphibians, birds, fishes and reptiles. The structures in the right hemisphere tend to be more active in response to to novel stimuli, and intense emotions like fear, escape behaviour and aggression, while those in the left hemisphere tend to be more active in response to familiar stimuli and learning of systematic rules. Lateralization studies on...

  17. Behavioral lateralization in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Chapman, Kate M; Frances, Candice; Bauer, Gordon B

    2016-01-01

    We examined side preferences in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) through observations of limb use (right and left flipper) in 123 wild and 16 captive individuals.  We also analyzed archival data on wild manatees to develop an index of boat-caused body scars to determine lateralization of evasive action.  Wild and captive manatees displayed flipper lateralization at the individual, but not the population level for several behaviors including substrate touches, sculling, and...

  18. Lingular pneumonia obscured by implanted cardioverter-defibrillator: Lateral thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Laura; Harries, Ivan; Chandrasekaran, Barinathan

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator was admitted with a short history suggestive of a diagnosis of pneumonia. An AP radiograph did not identify an area of consolidation. A subsequent lateral radiograph highlighted an extensive left-lingular-lobe consolidation that had been obscured by the cardiac device. This case highlights the fact that large devices can obscure significant pathology, and that lateral or cross-sectional imaging may be helpful in reaching a diagnosis.

  19. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  1. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar

    2015-09-01

    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  2. Flexural rigidity and loading mechanisms across the Irish Atlantic margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E.; Brown, C.; Stark, C.; Tiberi, C.; Ebinger, C.

    2003-04-01

    Lithospheric rheology is known to exert a significant control on tectonic style, yet it has not been assessed across the Irish Atlantic margin. The effective elastic thickness Te of the lithosphere provides a good measure of the lateral variability in rheology without requiring detailed information on lithospheric composition, strain rate, etc. Through the analysis of the isostatic mechanism, its spatial variability is examined across the Irish Atlantic margin. A new mathematical technique employing Multi-Resolution Analysis (wavelets) provides a significant improvement in the spatial resolution of Te variations compared with standard spectral analysis techniques for computing coherence. Variations in the distribution of loading mechanisms have been shown to have profound effects on estimated Te values and the rheology of the continental lithosphere. In the Rockall Basin a 3d seismically constrained gravity inversion showed the presence of surface and subsurface loading mechanisms. However the surface load due to sedimentation dominates. The load ratio f generated as part of the wavelet coherence method corroborates with the results of the gravity inversion, thus lending further evidence to the geological meaning and relevance of f, and therefore the need to incorporate f in a spectral based analysis of the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere. Overall Te is low across the margin (5-16 km) following a NE-SW Caledonian trend. The weakest lithosphere is in the southern Rockall Basin, Porcupine Bank and Porcupine Basin and the strongest lithosphere is along the Hatton-Rockall region. The correlation between the Te variation and the Euler depth solutions and analytic signal values along the eastern Rockall Bank indicate that there is clear geological and rheological divide between the Rockall-Hatton region to the NW and the Rockall Basin to the SE. On a global scale the estimated Te values are consistent with the results from other passive margins. The reason

  3. Context-dependent lateralized feeding strategies in blue whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, Ari S; Herbert-Read, James E; Hazen, Elliott L; Cade, David E; Calambokidis, John; Southall, Brandon L; Stimpert, Alison K; Goldbogen, Jeremy A

    2017-11-20

    Lateralized behaviors benefit individuals by increasing task efficiency in foraging and anti-predator behaviors [1-4]. The conventional lateralization paradigm suggests individuals are left or right lateralized, although the direction of this laterality can vary for different tasks (e.g. foraging or predator inspection/avoidance). By fitting tri-axial movement sensors to blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), and by recording the direction and size of their rolls during lunge feeding events, we show how these animals differ from such a paradigm. The strength and direction of individuals' lateralization were related to where and how the whales were feeding in the water column. Smaller rolls (≤180°) predominantly occurred at depth (>70 m), with whales being more likely to rotate clockwise around their longest axis (right lateralized). Larger rolls (>180°), conversely, occurred more often at shallower depths (feeding strategies may enhance foraging efficiency in environments with heterogeneous prey distributions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laterality enhances numerical skills in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that cerebral lateralization can significantly enhance cognition and that this was one of the primary selective forces shaping its wide-spread evolution amongst vertebrate taxa. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the link between cerebral lateralization and numerical discrimination. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were sorted into left, right and non-lateralized groups using a standard mirror test and their numerical discrimination abilities tested in both natural shoal choice and abstract contexts. Our results show that strongly lateralized guppies have enhanced numerical abilities compared to non-lateralized guppies irrespective of context. These data provide further credence to the notion that cerebral lateralization can enhance cognitive efficiency

  5. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  6. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  7. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a validation study of a previously published method of sex determination from the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle method for the internal acoustic canal for accurately determining the sex of human skeletal remains usi...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  9. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Shashiraj

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile amytrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS) is a type of motor neuron disease presenting before 25 years of age. It is characterized by a combination of upper and lower motor signs. It may be familial or sporadic. We are reporting a sporadic case of JALS with onset of symptoms at 4 years of age. Diagnostic criteria and a brief review of literature are presented.

  10. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  11. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  12. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Front Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The left front wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's front hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  13. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  14. Controlling marginally detached divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Barton, J. L.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Moser, A. L.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    A new control system at DIII-D has stabilized the inter-ELM detached divertor plasma state for H-mode in close proximity to the threshold for reattachment, thus demonstrating the ability to maintain detachment with minimal gas puffing. When the same control system was instead ordered to hold the plasma at the threshold (here defined as T e  =  5 eV near the divertor target plate), the resulting T e profiles separated into two groups with one group consistent with marginal detachment, and the other with marginal attachment. The plasma dithers between the attached and detached states when the control system attempts to hold at the threshold. The control system is upgraded from the one described in Kolemen et al (2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186) and it handles ELMing plasmas by using real time D α measurements to remove during-ELM slices from real time T e measurements derived from divertor Thomson scattering. The difference between measured and requested inter-ELM T e is passed to a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller to determine gas puff commands. While some degree of detachment is essential for the health of ITER’s divertor, more deeply detached plasmas have greater radiative losses and, at the extreme, confinement degradation, making it desirable to limit detachment to the minimum level needed to protect the target plate (Kolemen et al 2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186). However, the observed bifurcation in plasma conditions at the outer strike point with the ion B   ×  \

  15. Space availability influence laterality in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Paolo; Cerri, Francesco; Carluccio, Augusto; Baciadonna, Luigi

    2011-09-01

    Cerebral lateralization is the portioning of the cognitive functions between the two cerebral hemispheres. Several factors, like embryological manipulations, light exposure, health conditions, sex and age can influence the left-right brain asymmetries and contribute to increasing the variability in the strength and direction of laterality within most species. We investigated the influence of an environmental constraint, namely space availability, as a new source of variation on laterality in an adult vertebrate model, the donkey. In a baseline condition we tested whether donkeys show a motor lateralization bias at population level, while in an experimental condition we manipulated space availability to verify if a reduction in this parameter could represent a new source of variation in laterality. Results show that donkeys are lateralized at population level with a strong bias to standing with the right forelimb advanced over the left and that a reduction of space availability is an important source of variation in the laterality strength and direction within this species. The comparative analysis of the environmental and developmental factors that give origin to neural and behavioural laterality in animal models will be very important for a better understanding of the evolutionary origin of such multifaceted phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anisotropic Margin Expansions in 6 Anatomic Directions for Oropharyngeal Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yock, Adam D.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.; Beadle, Beth M.; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the expansions in 6 anatomic directions that produced optimal margins considering nonrigid setup errors and tissue deformation for patients receiving image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: For 20 patients who had received IGRT to the head and neck, we deformably registered each patient's daily images acquired with a computed tomography (CT)-on-rails system to his or her planning CT. By use of the resulting vector fields, the positions of volume elements within the clinical target volume (CTV) (target voxels) or within a 1-cm shell surrounding the CTV (normal tissue voxels) on the planning CT were identified on each daily CT. We generated a total of 15,625 margins by dilating the CTV by 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 mm in the posterior, anterior, lateral, medial, inferior, and superior directions. The optimal margins were those that minimized the relative volume of normal tissue voxels positioned within the margin while satisfying 1 of 4 geometric target coverage criteria and 1 of 3 population criteria. Results: Each pair of geometric target coverage and population criteria resulted in a unique, anisotropic, optimal margin. The optimal margin expansions ranged in magnitude from 1 to 5 mm depending on the anatomic direction of the expansion and on the geometric target coverage and population criteria. Typically, the expansions were largest in the medial direction, were smallest in the lateral direction, and increased with the demand of the criteria. The anisotropic margin resulting from the optimal set of expansions always included less normal tissue than did any isotropic margin that satisfied the same pair of criteria. Conclusions: We demonstrated the potential of anisotropic margins to reduce normal tissue exposure without compromising target coverage in IGRT to the head and neck

  17. Cardiac pacing in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block: impact of pacing site for optimizing left ventricular resynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappone, C; Rosanio, S; Oreto, G; Tocchi, M; Gulletta, S; Salvati, A; Dicandia, C; Santinelli, V; Mazzone, P; Veglia, F; Ding, J; Sallusti, L; Spinelli, J; Vicedomini, G

    2000-07-01

    Acute left ventricular pacing has been associated with hemodynamic improvement in patients with congestive heart failure and wide QRS complex. We hypothesized that pacing two left ventricular sites simultaneously would produce faster activation and better systolic function than single-site pacing. We selected 14 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class III or IV) in normal sinus rhythm with left bundle branch block and QRS > 150 ms. An 8F dual micromanometer catheter was placed in the aorta for measuring +dP/dt (mmHg/s), aortic pulse pressure (mmHg), and end-diastolic pressure (mmHg). Pacing leads were positioned via coronary veins at the posterior base and lateral wall. Patients were acutely paced VDD at the posterior base, lateral wall, and both sites (dual-site) with 5 atrioventricular delays (from 8 ms to PR -30 ms). Pacing sequences were executed in randomized order using a custom external computer (FlexStim, Guidant CRM). Dual-site pacing increased peak +dP/dt significantly more than posterior base and lateral wall pacing. Dual-site and posterior base pacing raised aortic pulse pressure significantly more than lateral wall pacing. Dual-site pacing shortened QRS duration by 22 %, whereas posterior base and lateral wall pacing increased it by 2 and 12%, respectively (p = 0.006). In heart failure patients with left bundle branch block, dual-site pacing improves systolic function more than single-site stimulation. Improved ventricular activation synchrony, expressed by paced QRS narrowing, may account for the additional benefit of dual- vs single-site pacing in enhancing contractility. This novel approach deserves consideration for future heart failure pacing studies.

  18. Left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamoto, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Takuya; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2017-12-01

    Repeat hepatectomy is beneficial for selected patients with recurrence of liver malignancies. However, the operative procedure becomes technically demanding when the previous hepatectomy was complex, with hepatic veins and stump of portal pedicles exposed on the liver transection surface. We performed left hepatectomy after right paramedian sectoriectomy (RPMS) for three patients. Here, we describe our surgical technique and the postoperative outcomes achieved. This procedure allowed for safe adhesiolysis between the middle and right hepatic veins by following a fibrous plane. The mean operative time was 8.7 h, including 4.9 h of adhesiolysis. The mean remnant liver volume (right lateral sector and the caudate lobe) was calculated as 704 ml, being 62% of total liver volume. There was no postoperative liver failure or mortality. In conclusion, left hepatectomy after RPMS is a feasible procedure for patients with sufficient remnant liver volume, even though the middle and right hepatic veins run side by side after liver regeneration.

  19. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  20. Marginal cost application in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twardy, L.; Rusak, H.

    1994-01-01

    Two kind of marginal costs, the short-run and the long-run, are defined. The former are applied in conditions when the load increase is not accompanied neither by the increase of the transmission capacity not the installed capacity while the latter assume new investments to expand the power system. The long-run marginal costs be used to forecast optimized development of the system. They contain two main components: the marginal costs of capacity and the marginal costs of energy. When the long-run marginal costs are calculated, each component is considered for particular voltage levels, seasons of the year, hours of the day - selected depending on the system reliability factor as well as on its load level. In the market economy countries the long-run marginal costs can be used for setting up the electric energy tariffs. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs

  1. Differences in cerebral cortical anatomy of left- and right-handers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, T.M.; Willems, R.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Hoogman, M.; Hagoort, P.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.

    2014-01-01

    The left and right sides of the human brain are specialized for different kinds of information processing, and much of our cognition is lateralized to an extent toward one side or the other. Handedness is a reflection of nervous system lateralization. Roughly ten percent of people are mixed- or

  2. Lateral posterior fossa venous sinus relationships to surface landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Emel; Kocaogullar, Yalcin; Fossett, Damirez; Caputy, Anthony

    2003-05-01

    Knowing the location of the venous sinuses in the combined lateral posterior fossa and lateral cranial base approach is important to prevent their inadvertent injury. The identification of surface landmarks related to these structures is useful in planning such surgical approaches. Twelve injected adult cadaver specimens and 10 dried skulls were used to study the relationship of the venous sinuses to various surface anatomic structures. The asterion was not clearly seen in 60% of the studied cadaver sides. The asterion was always clearly seen in the dry skull preparations. The upper margin of the superior nuchal line was found to range from 1.5 mm to 14 mm inferior to the lower margin of the lateral transverse sinus. In 85% of our specimens, the mastoid groove was found to completely overlie the sigmoid sinus. The asterion was found to be variable in its anatomic relations to other identifiable structures. This variability in relation to other posterior fossa bony landmarks limits its overall usefulness as a consistently stable marker for intracranial structures. The first and most superolateral burr hole for lateral posterior fossa procedures can be safely placed 1 cm below the superior nuchal line and 1 cm medial to the top of the mastoid groove. A burr hole in this location will avoid the transverse and sigmoid sinuses, as well as the transverse-sigmoid junction, yet will be high enough and lateral enough to provide easy exposure of these venous sinuses for all lateral posterior fossa procedures.

  3. Marginal Bone Level Evaluation after Functional Loading Around Two Different Dental Implant Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Ning Ho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate peri-implant alveolar bone changes using periapical radiographs before and after prosthetic delivery in submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. Methods. Digital periapical films of 60 ITI Straumann nonsubmerged dental implants and 60 Xive Dentsply submerged dental implants were taken before, immediately after, and 12 and 24 weeks after the prosthetic restoration was delivered. Results. The 60-nonsubmerged dental implant group showed mean marginal bone resorption at baseline of 0.10 ± 0.23 mm and 24 weeks later, marginal bone resorption was 0.16 ± 0.25 mm. The submerged dental implant group showed a significantly higher distal marginal bone resorption over the mesial side. Mean marginal bone resorption at baseline was 0.16 ± 0.32 on the mesial and 0.41 ± 0.56 on the distal side. Twenty-four weeks later, it was 0.69 ± 0.69 mm on the mesial and 0.99 ± 0.90 mm on the distal side. Conclusion. First, it was possible to determine that submerged implants had a higher mean marginal bone resorption and less bone-to-implant contact than nonsubmerged implants. And second, the distal side of submerged dental implants presented higher marginal bone loss than the mesial side.

  4. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders...under the ice and in the marginal ice zone. The project specific goals are to develop biogeochemical and optical proxies for glider optics; to use the...water, in the marginal ice zone, and under the ice; to use glider optical measurements to compute fields of rates of photosynthetic carbon fixation

  5. Planning target volume margins for prostate radiotherapy using daily electronic portal imaging and implanted fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarsgard, David; Cadman, Pat; El-Gayed, Ali; Pearcey, Robert; Tai, Patricia; Pervez, Nadeem; Wu, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Fiducial markers and daily electronic portal imaging (EPI) can reduce the risk of geographic miss in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to estimate CTV to PTV margin requirements, without and with the use of this image guidance strategy. 46 patients underwent placement of 3 radio-opaque fiducial markers prior to prostate RT. Daily pre-treatment EPIs were taken, and isocenter placement errors were corrected if they were ≥ 3 mm along the left-right or superior-inferior axes, and/or ≥ 2 mm along the anterior-posterior axis. During-treatment EPIs were then obtained to estimate intra-fraction motion. Without image guidance, margins of 0.57 cm, 0.79 cm and 0.77 cm, along the left-right, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior axes respectively, are required to give 95% probability of complete CTV coverage each day. With the above image guidance strategy, these margins can be reduced to 0.36 cm, 0.37 cm and 0.37 cm respectively. Correction of all isocenter placement errors, regardless of size, would permit minimal additional reduction in margins. Image guidance, using implanted fiducial markers and daily EPI, permits the use of narrower PTV margins without compromising coverage of the target, in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer

  6. Delayed Tamponade after Traumatic Wound with Left Ventricular Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Almehmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed cardiac tamponade after a penetrating chest injury is a rare complication. The clinical diagnosis of tamponade is facilitated with imaging. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male who was brought to emergency after multiple stab wounds to the chest. After resuscitation and repair of laceration of right internal mammary artery and right ventricle, he was discharged but later returned with shortness of breath. Echocardiography revealed a rare case of delayed pericardial tamponade causing left ventricular collapse. The pericardial effusion was treated with emergent pericardiocentesis and later required a thoracoscopy guided pericardial window for definitive management.

  7. Delayed Tamponade after Traumatic Wound with Left Ventricular Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehmadi, Fahad; Chandy, Mark; Connelly, Kim A; Edwards, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Delayed cardiac tamponade after a penetrating chest injury is a rare complication. The clinical diagnosis of tamponade is facilitated with imaging. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male who was brought to emergency after multiple stab wounds to the chest. After resuscitation and repair of laceration of right internal mammary artery and right ventricle, he was discharged but later returned with shortness of breath. Echocardiography revealed a rare case of delayed pericardial tamponade causing left ventricular collapse. The pericardial effusion was treated with emergent pericardiocentesis and later required a thoracoscopy guided pericardial window for definitive management.

  8. Lateral flow assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea

    2016-06-30

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Lateral flow assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  10. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left

  11. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. Methods: In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9% patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1% with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0% with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3% patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0% had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7% had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18% compared with unilateral (28% and metachronous primaries (90%. There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%, opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%, and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163. This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1% or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689. There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5

  12. The marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of the marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions are on important input to the decision how much society would want to spend on greenhouse gas emission reduction. Marginal cost estimates in the literature range between $5 and $25 per ton of carbon. Using similar assumptions, the FUND model finds marginal costs of $9--23/tC, depending on the discount rate. If the aggregation of impacts over countries accounts for inequalities in income distribution or for risk aversion, marginal costs would rise by about a factor of 3. Marginal costs per region are an order of magnitude smaller than global marginal costs. The ratios between the marginal costs of CO 2 and those of CH 4 and N 2 O are roughly equal to the global warming potentials of these gases. The uncertainty about the marginal costs is large and right-skewed. The expected value of the marginal costs lies about 35% above the best guess, the 95-percentile about 250%

  13. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  14. Optimizing Surgical Margins in Breast Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Preya; Balci, Fatih Levent; Crowe, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate surgical margins in breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer have traditionally been viewed as a predictor of local recurrence rates. There is still no consensus on what constitutes an adequate surgical margin, however it is clear that there is a trade-off between widely clear margins and acceptable cosmesis. Preoperative approaches to plan extent of resection with appropriate margins (in the setting of surgery first as well as after neoadjuvant chemotherapy,) include mammography, US, and MRI. Improvements have been made in preoperative lesion localization strategies for surgery, as well as intraoperative specimen assessment, in order to ensure complete removal of imaging findings and facilitate margin clearance. Intraoperative strategies to accurately assess tumor and cavity margins include cavity shave techniques, as well as novel technologies for margin probes. Ablative techniques, including radiofrequency ablation as well as intraoperative radiation, may be used to extend tumor-free margins without resecting additional tissue. Oncoplastic techniques allow for wider resections while maintaining cosmesis and have acceptable local recurrence rates, however often involve surgery on the contralateral breast. As systemic therapy for breast cancer continues to improve, it is unclear what the importance of surgical margins on local control rates will be in the future. PMID:23304479

  15. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Optimizing Surgical Margins in Breast Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preya Ananthakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate surgical margins in breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer have traditionally been viewed as a predictor of local recurrence rates. There is still no consensus on what constitutes an adequate surgical margin, however it is clear that there is a trade-off between widely clear margins and acceptable cosmesis. Preoperative approaches to plan extent of resection with appropriate margins (in the setting of surgery first as well as after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, include mammography, US, and MRI. Improvements have been made in preoperative lesion localization strategies for surgery, as well as intraoperative specimen assessment, in order to ensure complete removal of imaging findings and facilitate margin clearance. Intraoperative strategies to accurately assess tumor and cavity margins include cavity shave techniques, as well as novel technologies for margin probes. Ablative techniques, including radiofrequency ablation as well as intraoperative radiation, may be used to extend tumor-free margins without resecting additional tissue. Oncoplastic techniques allow for wider resections while maintaining cosmesis and have acceptable local recurrence rates, however often involve surgery on the contralateral breast. As systemic therapy for breast cancer continues to improve, it is unclear what the importance of surgical margins on local control rates will be in the future.

  17. [Resection margins in conservative breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Fernández, Francisco Javier; Ayllón Terán, María Dolores; Lombardo Galera, María Sagrario; Rioja Torres, Pilar; Bascuñana Estudillo, Guillermo; Rufián Peña, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Conservative breast cancer surgery is facing a new problem: the potential tumour involvement of resection margins. This eventuality has been closely and negatively associated with disease-free survival. Various factors may influence the likelihood of margins being affected, mostly related to the characteristics of the tumour, patient or surgical technique. In the last decade, many studies have attempted to find predictive factors for margin involvement. However, it is currently the new techniques used in the study of margins and tumour localisation that are significantly reducing reoperations in conservative breast cancer surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  19. The lateral atlantooccipital ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Stetler, William; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Hansasuta, Ake; Liechty, Peter; Acakpo-Satchivi, Leslie; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-04-01

    Stability of the atlantooccipital joint is of vital importance. The ligaments of this region, for the most part, have been thoroughly investigated, except for the lateral atlantooccipital ligament (LAO), which is not described in most modern texts. The authors examined 20 adult cadaveric specimens to observe the morphology of the LAO. All specimens were found to have an LAO, bilaterally, immediately posterior to the rectus capitis lateralis muscle with a fiber direction more or less opposite to this muscle. The LAO was found in intimate contact with the vertebral artery posteriorly and with the contents of the jugular foramen anteriorly. In all specimens, the origin of this ligament was from the anterolateral aspect of the transverse process of the atlas and the insertion onto the jugular process of the occipital bone. The fibers of the LAO had a mean angle of 26 degrees from the midline. The mean length and width of this ligament was 2.2 and 0.5 cm, respectively. The mean thickness of the LAO was 2 mm. The average tensile strength of this band was 37.5 degrees N. The LAO remained lax with flexion and extension of the craniocervical junction. With contralateral lateral flexion of the craniocervical junction, the LAO became fully taut at a mean of 8 degrees . Partial, but never complete, tautness was observed with rotation of the occipital on the atlas bilaterally. Following sectioning of the LAO, approximately an additional 3 degrees -5 degrees of contralateral lateral flexion was observed. The LAO is a constant anatomical structure of the craniocervical junction that might be of concern to the clinician. This ligament inhibits lateral flexion of the atlantooccipital joint and its disruption appears to add to instability at this articulation.

  20. Lateralization of the Avian Magnetic Compass: Analysis of Its Early Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gehring

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In European Robins, Erithacus rubecula, the magnetic compass is lateralized in favor of the right eye/left hemisphere of the brain. This lateralization develops during the first winter and initially shows a great plasticity. During the first spring migration, it can be temporarily removed by covering the right eye. In the present paper, we used the migratory orientation of robins to analyze the circumstances under which the lateralization can be undone. Already a period of 1½ h being monocularly left-eyed before tests began proved sufficient to restore the ability to use the left eye for orientation, but this effect was rather short-lived, as lateralization recurred again within the next 1½ h. Interpretable magnetic information mediated by the left eye was necessary for removing the lateralization. In addition, monocularly, the left eye seeing robins could adjust to magnetic intensities outside the normal functional window, but this ability was not transferred to the “right-eye system”. Our results make it clear that asymmetry of magnetic compass perception is amenable to short-term changes, depending on lateralized stimulation. This could mean that the left hemispheric dominance for the analysis of magnetic compass information depends on lateralized interhemispheric interactions that in young birds can swiftly be altered by environmental effects.

  1. Individual performance and leader's laterality in interactive contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2017-05-01

    Left-handedness is known to provide an intrinsic and tactical advantage at top level in many sports involving interactive contests. Again, most of the renowned leaders of the world are known to have been left-handed. Leadership plays an important role in politics, sports and mentorship. In this paper we show that Cricket captains who bat left-handed have a strategic advantage over the right-handed captains in One Day International (ODI) and Test matches. The present study involving 46 left-handed captains and 148 right-handed captains in ODI matches, reveal a strong relation between leader's laterality and team member performance, demonstrating the critical importance of left-handedness and successful leadership. The odds for superior batting performance in an ODI match under left-handed captains are 89% higher than the odds under right-handed captains. Our study shows that left-handed captains are more successful in extracting superior performance from the batsmen and bowlers in ODI and Test matches; perhaps indicating left-handed leaders are better motivators as leaders when compared to right-handed captains.

  2. The Connection between Emotion, Brain Lateralization, and Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    inducing Stroop color word task. ANS reactivity was evaluated using heart rate variability analysis, and CNS reactivity was evaluated using...frequency HRV (parasympathetic activation) as well as increased left frontal brain lateralization. Negative emotions during the Stroop task were... cognitive , and behavioral responses (Taylor, 1991). Among these physiological responses are alterations in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration

  3. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  4. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  5. Tectonic evolution of the eastern margin of the Thaumasia Plateau (Mars) as inferred from detailed structural mapping and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borraccini, F.; Di Achille, G.; Ori, G. G.; Wezel, F. C.

    2007-05-01

    The eastern margin of the Thaumasia Plateau (EMTP) is characterized by a diversity of tectonic features, which recorded its complex, and still controversial, tectonic history. A detailed structural survey and analyses have been carried out in order to assess the kinematics and relative age of the main deformational events. Combining results from statistics of lineament orientations and density of fault length for each geologic unit and taking into account crosscutting relationships among tectonic structures, three main deformational events have been recognized. The early stage of the tectonic evolution of EMTP is recorded by Noachian units at the southern edge of Melas Dorsa and is represented by N-S oriented grabens sutured by Early Hesperian formations. Starting from Late Noachian, the extensional stress field became NE-SW oriented and resulted in the formation of NW-SE striking sets of grabens. At the boundary between Noachian and Hesperian, the most important change in tectonic regime occurred. The Hesperian tectonics are characterized by an E-W shortening possibly related to an eastward motion of the Thaumasia Plateau. This tectonic phase likely produced a N-S-oriented wrinkle ridges as well as regional folds and thrust faults. E-W-oriented preexisting tectonic lineaments could have been reactivated forming regional transfer zones. In this scenario, Coprates Rise, Melas Dorsa, and Thaumasia Ridge could be interpreted as mountain belts resulting from buckling and thrust faulting of the eastern and southern margins of the Thaumasia plateau. The proto-Valles Marineris could have experienced a left-lateral component of displacement and played a role of a transfer shear zone.

  6. Rapid growth of left atrial myxoma after radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Alvarez, José; Martinez de Alegria, Anxo; Sierra Quiroga, Juan; Adrio Nazar, Belen; Rubio Taboada, Carola; Martinez Comendador, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Atrial myxoma is the most common benign tumor of the heart, but its appearance after radiofrequency ablation is very rare. We report a case in which an asymptomatic, rapidly growing cardiac myxoma arose in the left atrium after radiofrequency ablation. Two months after the procedure, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, performed to evaluate the right ventricular anatomy, revealed a 10 × 10-mm mass (assumed to be a thrombus) attached to the patient's left atrial septum. Three months later, transthoracic echocardiography revealed a larger mass, and the patient was diagnosed with myxoma. Two days later, a 20 × 20-mm myxoma weighing 37 g was excised. To our knowledge, the appearance of an atrial myxoma after radiofrequency ablation has been reported only once before. Whether tumor development is related to such ablation or is merely a coincidence is uncertain, but myxomas have developed after other instances of cardiac trauma.

  7. Lateralization Pattern in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rajneesh Gupta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to see the incidence of peripheral laterality in schizophrenics and depressed patients. A total of 147 male subjects (29 schizophrenics, 38 depressed, 80 non-patient controls were asked to indicate their preferences for hand, foot, eye, and ear on the Sidedness Bias Schedule. The correlations among the laterality quotients (LQ in all the three groups were positive and highly significant except the foot-eye correlation in the non-patient controls. The left and mixed-handed schizophrenics and depressed subjects exhibited extreme left and mixed preference for foot, eye, and ear, respectively. Hand and ear preferences emerged as the predictors of schizophrenia and depression in the logistic regression analysis. The findings indicate a possible relationship between psychopathology and extreme left-mixed dominance.

  8. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli.

  9. Breeding drought tolerant wheat for the marginal areas of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the National Plant Breeding Research Center (NPBRC - Njoro) has been involved in developing wheat varieties for the marginal areas of Kenya with the aim of introducing wheat in the non- traditional region of the country. During this period four varieties tolerant to drought have been released. These include varieties such as Duma, Ngamia, Chozi and the newly released Njoro BW1. At the moment the released varieties are of low yielding and so there is need to develop higher yielding varieties if we are to produce at an economic level. This study was aimed at developing and evaluating some of the germplasm, which have been developed or introduced over the years over their suitability for production in the marginal areas of of Kenya. Over 600 introductions were screened in the screening nursery in Njoro while segregating populations in F2-F8 were selected and advanced to the next generation. A National Dryland Wheat Performance Trial (NDL WPT) was conducted for 10 introduced lines, 3 mutants, 1 Kenya seed line and Duma and Chozi as check varieties. KM14 has been released as a marginal area variety for its high protein content. Line R965 showed higher performance in both yield and hectolitre weight and will be entered for the second NDLWPT in 2002 and may be released as variety later. (author)

  10. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  11. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  12. Grounding-zone wedges and lateral moraines of palaeo-ice streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, C.; Dowdeswell, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The landforms that are preserved at the beds of former marine-terminating ice streams provide information about ice-sheet dynamics and the processes that are operating beneath contemporary ice streams. Sedimentary landforms, including grounding-zone wedges (GZWs), can build up during still-stands or re-advances of the frontal grounding zone of ice streams. Significant sedimentary depocentres, termed ice-stream lateral moraines (ISLMs), can also be formed at ice-stream lateral margins. We present an inventory of GZWs and ISLMs that is compiled from available studies and independent analysis of seismic-reflection and swath-bathymetric data. We discuss the geomorphic and acoustic characteristics of these landforms and their implications for ice dynamics. GZWs indicate episodic ice stream retreat and probably form mainly where floating ice shelves constrain vertical accommodation space beyond the grounding zone. Many GZWs occur at vertical or lateral pinning points, where cross-shelf troughs either shallow or constrict, which encourage grounding-zone stability through increasing basal and lateral drag and reducing mass flow across the grounding zone. We identify two different types of ISLMs. Lateral shear-moraines form subglacially in the shear zone between ice streams and slower-flowing ice. They are up to 3.5 km wide and 60 m thick, and maintain a relatively constant width, thickness and cross-sectional shape along their length. Lateral marginal-moraines form at the lateral boundary between ice streams and seafloor terrain that was free of grounded ice. They are up to 50 km wide and 300 m thick, and exhibit a seaward increase in width and thickness. Lateral marginal-moraines have a similar volume and acoustic character to GZWs. However, whereas GZWs are formed by the ice-flow parallel delivery of sediment to the grounding zone, lateral marginal-moraines are produced when sediment is delivered to the ice-stream lateral margin at an oblique angle to the ice

  13. Evaluation of surgical margins according to the histological type of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Charles Antonio Pires de; Neta, Alice Lima de Oliveira; Leão, Sofia Silveira de Souza; Dantas, Raul Lima; Carvalho, Valeska Oliveira Fonseca; Silva, Samuel Freire da

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical margin of basal cell carcinoma and correlate this with its histologic subtype. A retrospective analysis of pathology laboratory records from 1990 to 2000 was performed and the following data was collected: age, sex, race, anatomical location, histological type, and state of the excision margins in 1,428 histopathological reports of basal cell carcinoma. Ages ranged from 6 to 99 years, with an average of 57. There was a slight predominance of lesions in white women patients, and the most common histological subtype was the nodular, followed by the superficial. The most common locations were in the head and neck, with highest prevalence appeared in the nose. Surgical margins revealed a lateral involvement of 20.14% and a deep involvement of 12.47%. The fibrosing basal cell carcinoma is the histological type that most often presented positive surgical margins.

  14. Can pro-marriage policies work? An analysis of marginal marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Policies to promote marriage are controversial, and it is unclear whether they are successful. To analyze such policies, one must distinguish between a marriage that is created by a marriage-promoting policy (marginal marriage) and a marriage that would have been formed even in the absence of a state intervention (average marriage). We exploit the suspension of a cash-on-hand marriage subsidy in Austria to examine the differential behavior of marginal and average marriages. The announcement of an impending suspension of this subsidy led to an enormous marriage boom among eligible couples that allows us to locate marginal marriages. Applying a difference-in-differences approach, we show that marginal marriages are surprisingly as stable as average marriages but produce fewer children, children later in marriage, and children who are less healthy at birth.

  15. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chick marginal retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Lima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The retina is a highly differentiated tissue with a complex layered structure that has been extensively characterized. However, most of the previous studies focused on the histology of the central retina while little is known about the cellular composition, organization and function of the marginal retina. Recent research has identified a subpopulation of multipotential progenitor cells in the marginal regions of the retina, closest to the ciliary body ("ciliary marginal zone". These cells are capable of differentiation in response to an appropriate stimulus. Thus, it is possible that the structure and composition of the marginal retina are distinct from those of the central retina to accommodate the potential addition of newly formed neurons. To characterize the cellular profile of the chick marginal retina, we labeled it immunohistochemically for markers whose staining pattern is well established in the central retina: calbindin, calretinin, protein kinase C, and choline acetyltransferase. Calbindin was present at very low levels in the marginal retina putative photoreceptor layer. Calretinin-positive horizontal cells were also sparse close to the ciliary marginal zone. The bipolar cells in the marginal outer plexiform layer were positive for anti-protein kinase C antibodies, but the density of labeling was also decreased in relation to the central retina. In contrast, the marginal starburst cholinergic amacrine cell pattern was very similar to the central retina. From these data we conclude that the structure of the marginal retina is significantly different from that of the central retina. In particular, the expression of late retina markers in the marginal retina decreased in comparison to the central retina.

  16. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and "pull of the north" are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts.

  17. Local tissue interactions across the dorsal midline of the forebrain establish CNS laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Miguel L; Russell, Claire; Regan, Jennifer C; Tawk, Marcel; Sidi, Samuel; Gilmour, Darren T; Kapsimali, Marika; Sumoy, Lauro; Goldstone, Kim; Amaya, Enrique; Kimelman, David; Nicolson, Teresa; Gründer, Stefan; Gomperts, Miranda; Clarke, Jonathan D W; Wilson, Stephen W

    2003-07-31

    The mechanisms that establish behavioral, cognitive, and neuroanatomical asymmetries are poorly understood. In this study, we analyze the events that regulate development of asymmetric nuclei in the dorsal forebrain. The unilateral parapineal organ has a bilateral origin, and some parapineal precursors migrate across the midline to form this left-sided nucleus. The parapineal subsequently innervates the left habenula, which derives from ventral epithalamic cells adjacent to the parapineal precursors. Ablation of cells in the left ventral epithalamus can reverse laterality in wild-type embryos and impose the direction of CNS asymmetry in embryos in which laterality is usually randomized. Unilateral modulation of Nodal activity by Lefty1 can also impose the direction of CNS laterality in embryos with bilateral expression of Nodal pathway genes. From these data, we propose that laterality is determined by a competitive interaction between the left and right epithalamus and that Nodal signaling biases the outcome of this competition.

  18. The heterotaxy gene GALNT11 glycosylates Notch to orchestrate cilia type and laterality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boskovski, Marko T; Yuan, Shiaulou; Pedersen, Nis Borbye

    2013-01-01

    Heterotaxy is a disorder of left-right body patterning, or laterality, that is associated with major congenital heart disease. The aetiology and mechanisms underlying most cases of human heterotaxy are poorly understood. In vertebrates, laterality is initiated at the embryonic left-right organizer...... of motile and immotile cilia at the left-right organizer. galnt11 or notch1 depletion increases the ratio of motile cilia at the expense of immotile cilia and produces a laterality defect reminiscent of loss of the ciliary sensor Pkd2. By contrast, Notch overexpression decreases this ratio, mimicking...... the ciliopathy primary ciliary dyskinesia. Together our data demonstrate that Galnt11 modifies Notch, establishing an essential balance between motile and immotile cilia at the left-right organizer to determine laterality, and reveal a novel mechanism for human heterotaxy....

  19. Reliability of a novel paradigm for determining hemispheric lateralization of visuospatial function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitehouse, A.J.O.; Badcock, N.A.; Groen, M.A.; Bishop, D.V.M.

    2009-01-01

    In most individuals, language production and visuospatial skills are subserved predominantly by the left and right hemispheres, respectively. Functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD) provides a noninvasive and relatively low-cost method for measuring functional lateralization. However, while the

  20. Atypical white matter microstructure in left-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Nicole S; Iwabuchi, Sarina J; Häberling, Isabelle S; Corballis, Michael C; Kirk, Ian J

    2017-05-01

    Information regarding anatomical connectivity in the human brain can be gathered using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) is the most commonly derived value, and reflects how strongly directional are the underlying tracts. Differences in FA are thus associated with differences in the underlying microstructure of the brain. The relationships between these differences in microstructure and functional differences in corresponding regions have also been examined. Previous studies have found an effect of handedness on functional lateralization in the brain and corresponding microstructural differences. Here, using tract-based spatial statistics to analyse DTI-derived FA values, we further investigated the structural white matter architecture in the brains of right- and left-handed males. We found significantly higher FA values for left-handed, relatively to right-handed, individuals, in all major lobes, and in the corpus callosum. In support of previous suggestions, we find that there is a difference in the microstructure of white matter in left- and right-handed males that could underpin reduced lateralization of function in left-handed individuals.

  1. Discordance between location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Ham, Dong Yeub; Paick, Sung Hyun; Lho, Yong Soo; Choi, Woo Suk

    2015-10-01

    We compared location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin (PSM) following radical prostatectomy. This retrospective analysis included patients who were diagnosed as prostate cancer by standard 12-core transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy, and who have PSM after radical prostatectomy. After exclusion of number of biopsy cores location data, 46 patients with PSM were identified. Locations of PSM in pathologic specimen were reported as 6 difference sites (apex, base and lateral in both sides). Discordance of biopsy result and PSM was defined when no positive cores in biopsy was identified at the location of PSM. Most common location of PSM were right apex (n=21) and left apex (n=15). Multiple PSM was reported in 21 specimens (45.7%). In 32 specimens (69.6%) with PSM, one or more concordant positive biopsy cores were identified, but 14 specimens (28%) had no concordant biopsy cores at PSM location. When discordant rate was separated by locations of PSM, right apex PSM had highest rate of discordant (38%). The discordant group had significantly lower prostate volume and lower number of positive cores in biopsy than concordant group. This study showed that one fourth of PSM occurred at location where tumor was not detected at biopsy and that apex PSM had highest rate of discordant. Careful dissection to avoid PSM should be performed in every location, including where tumor was not identified in biopsy.

  2. Causes of rapid uplift and exceptional topography of Gongga Shan on the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen L.; Hovius, Niels; Wittmann, Hella; Heimsath, Arjun M.; Lee, Yuan-Hsi

    2018-01-01

    Erosion and tectonic uplift are widely thought to be coupled through feedbacks involving orographic precipitation, relief development, and crustal weakening. In many orogenic systems, it can be difficult to distinguish whether true feedbacks exist, or whether observed features are a consequence of tectonic forcing. To help elucidate these interactions, we examine Gongga Shan, a 7556 m peak on the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau where cosmogenic 10Be basin-wide erosion rates reach >5 mm/yr, defining a region of localized rapid erosion associated with a restraining bend in the left-lateral Xianshuihe Fault. Erosion rates are consistent with topography, thermochronometry, and geodetic data, suggesting a stable pattern of uplift and exhumation over at least the past 2-3 My. Transpression along the Xianshuihe Fault, orographically enhanced precipitation, thermally weakened crust, and substantial local relief all developed independently in the Gongga region and existed there prior to the uplift of Gongga Shan. However, only where all of these conditions are present do the observed topographic and erosional extremes exist, and their relative timing indicates that these conditions are not a consequence of rapid uplift. We conclude that their collocation at 3-4 Ma set into motion a series of feedbacks between erosion and uplift that has resulted in the exceptionally high topography and rapid erosion rates observed today.

  3. Eye laterality: a comprehensive analysis in refractive surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Stephan J; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Steinberg, Johannes; Richard, Gisbert; Katz, Toam

    2013-08-01

    To explore eye laterality (higher refractive error in one eye) and its association with refractive state, spherical/astigmatic anisometropia, age and sex in refractive surgery candidates. Medical records of 12 493 consecutive refractive surgery candidates were filtered. Refractive error (subjective and cycloplegic) was measured in each subject and correlated with eye laterality. Only subjects with corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of >20/22 in each eye were enrolled to exclude amblyopia. Associations between eye laterality and refractive state were analysed by means of t-test, chi-squared test, Spearman's correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in spherical equivalent between right (-3.47 ± 2.76 D) and left eyes (-3.47 ± 2.76 D, p = 0.510; Pearson's r = 0.948, p laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D in myopic (-5.64 ± 2.5 D versus -4.92 ± 2.6 D; p = 0.001) and in hyperopic (4.44 ± 1.69 D versus 3.04 ± 1.79 D; p = 0.025) subjects, (II) a tendency for left eye cylindrical laterality in myopic subjects, and (III) myopic male subjects had a higher prevalence of left eye laterality. (IV) Age did not show any significant impact on laterality. Over the full refractive spectrum, this study confirmed previously described strong interocular refractive correlation but revealed a statistically significant higher rate of right eye laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D. In general, our results support the use of data from one eye only in studies of ocular refraction. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  4. The clinical study of the early soft tissue healing and marginal bone resorption after non-submerged implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Anchen; Yang Desheng; Hu Bei; Leng Bin; Zhang Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first three months after non-submerged implants and to explore the relationship between the amount of early marginal bone resorption and the soft tissue healing in the first month. Method: ITI with non-submerged implants were implanted in 33 patients. Digital panoramic radiographs were taken during the operation, one month and three months later. The amount of marginal bone resorption was measured in the first, second and the third month after implant operation. The soft tissue healing was observed after 10 days. Results: There was significant difference (P<0.01) in the amount of early marginal bone resorption between one month and three months later. The early marginal bone resorption in the first month after implantation kept correlation with the soft tissue healing on 10th day(r=0.794, P<0.01). Conclusion: The amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month exceeds that in the second and the third months after implant operation, and the soft tissue healing affects the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month. Biological seal is the critical factor influencing the early marginal bone resorption. (authors)

  5. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Gabella, Maxime [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Graña, Mariana [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 05, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-27

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS{sub 5} flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS{sub 5} flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  6. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, Anthony; Gabella, Maxime; Graña, Mariana; Petrini, Michela; Waldram, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS 5 flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS 5 flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  7. Technical specification improvement through safety margin considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.C.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an approach for utilizing safety analysis margin considerations to improve plant operability through technical specification revision. This approach relies on the identification and use of parameter interrelations and sensitivities to identify acceptable operating envelopes. This paper summarizes technical specification activities to date and presents the use of safety margin considerations as another viable method to obtain technical specification improvement

  8. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin... of a customer in a securities account or futures account as set forth in this section. (b) Required... be twenty (20) percent of the current market value of such security future. (2) Offsetting positions...

  9. Laterality and mental disorders in the postgenomic age--A closer look at schizophrenia and language lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hirnstein, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Most people are right-handed and show left-hemispheric language lateralization, but a minority exhibits left-handedness and right-hemispheric language lateralization. This atypical laterality pattern is observed significantly more often in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, which led several authors to conclude that there is a genetic link between laterality and schizophrenia. It has even been suggested that a failure in the lateralization process, orchestrated by genes, could be the primary cause of schizophrenia. However, the molecular genetic evidence for a link between laterality and schizophrenia is weak. Recent genetic evidence indicates that schizophrenia is not a single disorder but a group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks leading to distinct clinical symptoms. To uncover the link between schizophrenia and laterality we therefore suggest a paradigm shift where genetics are not mapped on schizophrenia as a whole but on discrete schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, we provide a critical evaluation of current theories on the genetic link between schizophrenia and brain asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using a continuous index of laterality to determine how laterality is related to interhemispheric transfer and bimanual coordination in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, Jacqueline; Corroyer, Denis

    2003-07-01

    We sought to determine whether laterality is related to interhemispheric transfer and bimanual coordination during development. Children between 3 and 8 years of age were observed. In the first part of the experiment, we devised a continuous index to order the subjects according to their laterality. The laterality index included evaluation of hand and eye preference, and the right-left performance difference. In the second part of the experiment, we used this single index to determine whether laterality is related to interhemispheric transfer and bimanual coordination. Interhemispheric transfer was assessed by means of two tactile transfer tasks and one visuo-manual transfer task. We assessed bimanual coordination using the tapping task and the bimanual crank-rotation task. Results showed that right- and left-hand writers overlap on certain measures of laterality. They confirmed the improvement of interhemispheric transfer at around age 5 years, earlier progress in bimanual coordination with mirror than with parallel movements, and the existence of a relationship between visuo-manual interhemispheric transfer and bimanual coordination. The laterality index was not related to interhemispheric transfer, but it was related to the younger subjects' performance on the bimanual crank-rotation task: the less right handed, the better the bimanual coordination. In addition, on the same bimanual task, crossed hand-eye laterality was associated with better performance. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 43: 44-56, 2003.

  11. Evolution of the Red Sea volcanic margin, western Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Martin; Baker, Joel; Chazot, Gilles; Al'Kadasi, Mohamed

    The temporal relationships between rifting processes associated with the breakup of the Afro-Arabian Plate and the opening of the Red Sea have been studied on the uplifted volcanic margin in western Yemen. Excellent exposure allows for the application of absolute and relative dating techniques. Magmatism: 40Ar/39Ar dating of feldspars in the volcanic rocks indicates that (a) volcanism began at 29-31 Ma, (b) a change from basic to silicic volcanism occurred at ca. 29 Ma, (c) large volume volcanism lasted until 26.5 Ma, and (d) eruption rates decreased with time. Exhumation: fission track (FT) analyses of apatites from basement metamorphic and sedimentary rocks reveal that the volcanic margin was rapidly and deeply exhumed, at the earliest, in the Oligo-Miocene. This result is consistent with a major erosional break in the volcanic stratigraphy, bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dating as having formed between 26 and 19 Ma. Extension: field evidence indicates that extension was largely post-volcanic because the volcanic stratigraphy is devoid of major faults. In highly extended terranes 40Ar/39Ar ages of "hanging wall" volcanic rocks and apatite FT ages of "footwall" basement rocks demonstrate that extension occurred in the late Oligocene-early Miocene. Surface uplift: field evidence for surface uplift may exist in the change from marine to continental sedimentation found in the pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks (>31 Ma). Exhumation, the presumed response to surface uplift, occurred some 6 m.y. later, allowing that amount of time for the volcanic margin to be uplifted by >2-3 km. Integration of field and laboratory data reveals that the Red Sea volcanic margin evolved in response to contemporaneous surface uplift and volcanism that predated extension and exhumation by as much as 5 m.y.

  12. Social marginalization of overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Richard S; Pollack, Harold A

    2003-08-01

    Overweight is the most common health problem that faces children and adolescents. Although the correlation among overweight, low self-esteem, and depression is well known, social isolation among overweight children and adolescents has not been studied. To investigate social networks of overweight and normal-weight adolescents in a large, nationally representative sample. Cross-sectional, nationally representative cohort study. Population A total of 90 118 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years who were enrolled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, of which a 1:5 subsample was selected for detailed in-home assessment, including height and weight measurements (n = 17 557). Overweight was defined according to body mass index (>95th percentile for age and sex). This analysis focuses on the number of friendship nominations each adolescent received from other adolescents. The number of friendship nominations and other social network measures were calculated using statistical software. Overweight adolescents were more likely to be socially isolated and to be peripheral to social networks than were normal-weight adolescents. Although overweight adolescents listed similar numbers of friends as normal-weight adolescents, overweight adolescents received significantly fewer friendship nominations from others than were received by normal-weight adolescents (mean [SE] number of friendship nominations, 3.39 [0.08] vs 4.79 [0.04]; POverweight adolescents were also more likely to receive no friendship nominations than were normal-weight adolescents (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.20). Decreased television viewing (Poverweight and normal-weight adolescents. Many overweight adolescents are socially marginalized. Such isolation may aggravate the social and emotional consequences of overweight in this age group.

  13. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  14. MARGINS: Toward a novel science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, John C.

    A science plan to study continental margins has been in the works for the past 3 years, with almost 200 Earth scientists from a wide variety of disciplines gathering at meetings and workshops. Most geological hazards and resources are found at continental margins, yet our understanding of the processes that shape the margins is meager.In formulating this MARGINS research initiative, fundamental issues concerning our understanding of basic Earth-forming processes have arisen. It is clear that a business-as-usual approach will not solve the class of problems defined by the MARGINS program; the solutions demand approaches different from those used in the past. In many cases, a different class of experiment will be required, one that is well beyond the capability of individual principle investigators to undertake on their own. In most cases, broadly based interdisciplinary studies will be needed.

  15. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  16. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant "margin premium" in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  17. Lateralizing value of semiology in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S; Samson, Y; Nguyen-Michel, V-H; Zavanone, C; Navarro, V; Baulac, M; Adam, C

    2015-12-01

    Analysing the clinical characteristics of seizures constitutes a fundamental aspect of the presurgical evaluation of patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), the most frequent form of focal epilepsy accessible to surgery. We sought to retrospectively determine whether objective manifestations could have a reliable lateralizing value in a large population of MTLE-HS patients and if their presence could help to identify those patients who would be seizure free after surgery. We analysed the frequency and predictive lateralizing value of objective ictal and postictal signs in 391 patients with MTLE-HS (183 left/208 right). Data were derived from chart review and not from blinded videoEEG analysis. Correlation between the presence of reliable lateralizing signs and postoperative outcome was performed in a subgroup of 302 patients who underwent surgery. Contralateral dystonic posturing was the most frequent and reliable lateralizing sign that correctly lateralized the focus in 96% of patients. Unilateral head/eye deviation was noted in 42% of the patients and predicted unilateral focus in 67%. Ipsilateral postictal nose wiping, contralateral clonus and hypokinesia correctly lateralized the focus in 75%, 81%, respectively, and 100 of patients but were less frequently depicted. Postictal aphasia was a strong lateralizing sign for left MLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs was not a predictor of seizure freedom. Seizure semiology is a simple tool that may permit reliable lateralization of the seizure focus in MTLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs is not associated with a better postoperative outcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  19. Brainmining emotive lateral solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Scaltsas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BrainMining is a theory of creative thinking that shows how we should exploit the mind’s spontaneous natural disposition to use old solutions to address new problems – our Anchoring Cognitive Bias. BrainMining develops a simple and straightforward method to transform recalcitrant problems into types of problems which we have solved before, and then apply an old type of solution to them. The transformation makes the thinking lateral by matching up disparate types of problem and solution. It emphasises the role of emotive judgements that the agent makes, when she discerns whether a change of the values or the emotions and feelings in a situation, which would expand the space of solutions available for the problem at hand, would be acceptable or appropriate in the situation. A lateral solution for an intractable problem is thus spontaneously brainmined from the agent’s old solutions, to solve a transformed version of the intractable problem, possibly involving changes in the value system or the emotional profile of the situation, which the agent judges, emotively, will be acceptable, and even appropriate in the circumstances.

  20. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with a review of relevant anatomy, assessment and treatment. Also included is a discussion of the efficacy of manual therapy in the treatment of ankle sprain. Discussion: A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the ankle as well as the early recognition of factors that may delay the rate of healing are important considerations when developing a management plan for inversion sprains of the ankle. This area appears to be under-researched however it was found that movement therapy and its various forms appear to be the most efficient and most effective method of treating uncomplicated ankle injury. Future investigations should involve a study to determine the effect chiropractic treatment (manipulation) may have on the injured ankle. PMID:17987171

  1. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Hs 224, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ridder, Dirk de [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-08-15

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P{sub corrected} < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  2. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Marion; Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan; Ridder, Dirk de

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P corrected < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  3. The Role of Seminal Vesicle Motion in Target Margin Assessment for Online Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jian; Wu Qiuwen; Yan Di

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer, the seminal vesicles (SVs) are included in the clinical target volume (CTV). The purposes of this study are to investigate interfraction motion characteristics of the SVs and determine proper margins for online computed tomography image guidance. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients, each with 16 daily helical computed tomography scans, were included in this study. A binary image mask was used for image registration to determine daily organ motion. Two online image-guided radiotherapy strategies (prostate only and prostate + SVs) were simulated in a hypofractionated scheme. Three margin designs were studied for both three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). In prostate-only guidance, Margin A was uniformly applied to the whole CTV, and Margin B was applied to the SVs with a fixed 3-mm prostate margin. In prostate plus SV guidance, Margin C was uniformly applied to the CTV. The minimum margins were sought to satisfy the criterion that minimum cumulative CTV dose be more than those of the planning target volume in the plan for greater than 95% of patients. Results: The prostate and SVs move significantly more in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior than right-left directions. The anterior-posterior motion of the prostate and SVs correlated (R 2 = 0.7). The SVs move significantly more than the prostate. The minimum margins found were 2.5 mm for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 4.5, 4.5, and 3.0 mm for Margins A, B, and C for IMRT, respectively. Margins for IMRT were larger, but the irradiated volume and doses to critical structures were smaller. Minimum margins of 4.5 mm to the SVs and 3 mm to the prostate are recommended for IMRT with prostate-only guidance. Conclusions: The SVs move independently from the prostate gland, and additional margins are necessary for image-guided radiotherapy

  4. Voices from the Margins: Policy Advocacy and Marginalized Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria DeSantis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore policy advocacy processes facilitated by social service nonprofit organizations (NPOs using a social justice lens. Qualitative interview results from 39 NPOs from 18 communities provide a deeper understanding of advocacy, revealing that NPOs perceive that policy advocacy is not a discrete phenomenon, that advocacy activity differs in visibility and scale, and that advocacy strategies are clearly informed by NPOs' front-line service delivery work. A typology of policy advocacy showing different advocacy types and their fluid nature is presented. The results also show that marginalized people's involvement varies depending on a diversity of influential conditions. Conclusions and implications focus on social inclusion/exclusion, the varied and fluid nature of policy advocacy, challenges for practitioners, and the complex nature of "advocacy chill. / "Les organismes sans but lucratif (OSBL de services sociaux ont pour mission de préserver la santé des communautés au moyen de défense de politiques sociales. Toutefois, peu d'études concrètes au Canada portent sur la nature des processus en cause, en particulier lorsqu'il s'agit de politiques mises en œuvre au sein de collectivités marginalisées. Cet article a pour but d'explorer sous l'angle de la justice sociale la nature des processus défense des politiques tels qu'ils sont pratiqués par les OSBL de services sociaux. Un entretien qualitatif avec 39 OSBL issues de 18 collectivités permet une meilleure compréhension des processus. Les OSBL ne conçoivent pas défense des politiques comme un phénomène discret; les activités qui y sont reliées varient en visibilité et en étendue, et les stratégies employées sont clairement influencées par les services de première ligne qu'offrent les OSBL. Nous proposons une typologie des processus défense des politiques exposant les différents types d'approches et leur nature changeante. Les résultats indiquent

  5. Minimally invasive radical pancreatectomy for left-sided pancreatic cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Sung Hwan; Lee, Woo Jung

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy has been regarded as a safe and effective treatment for benign and borderline malignant pancreatic lesions. However, its application for left-sided pancreatic cancer is still being debated. The clinical evidence for radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS)-based minimally invasive approaches for left-sided pancreatic cancer was reviewed. Potential indications and surgical concepts for minimally invasive RAMPS were suggested. Despite the limited clinical evidence for minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy in left-sided pancreatic cancer, the currently available clinical evidence supports the use of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy under oncologic principles in well-selected left sided pancreatic cancers. A pancreas-confined tumor with an intact fascia layer between the pancreas and left adrenal gland/kidney positioned more than 1 or 2 cm away from the celiac axis is thought to constitute a good condition for the use of margin-negative minimally invasive RAMPS. The use of minimally invasive (laparoscopic or robotic) anterior RAMPS is feasible and safe for margin-negative resection in well-selected left-sided pancreatic cancer. The oncologic feasibility of the procedure remains to be determined; however, the currently available interim results indicate that even oncologic outcomes will not be inferior to those of open radical distal pancreatosplenectomy. PMID:24605031

  6. Effect of Margin Designs on the Marginal Adaptation of Zirconia Copings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Rashid Habib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of Shoulder versus Chamfer margin design on the marginal adaptation of zirconia (Zr copings. Materials and Methods: 40 extracted molar teeth were mounted in resin and prepared for zirconia crowns with two margin preparation designs (20=Shoulder and 20=Chamfer. The copings were manufactured by Cercon® (DeguDent GmbH, Germany using the CAD/CAM system for each tooth. They were tried on each tooth, cemented, thermocycled, re-embedded in resin and were subsequently cross sectioned centrally into two equal mesial and distal halves. They were examined under electron microscope at 200 X magnification and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points in micrometers (µm. Results: The overall mean marginal gap for the two groups was found to be 206.98+42.78µm with Shoulder margin design (Marginal Gap=199.50+40.72µm having better adaptation compared to Chamfer (Marginal Gap=214.46+44.85µm. The independent-samples t-test showed a statistically non-significant difference (p=.113 between the means of marginal gap for Shoulder and Chamfer margin designs and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points for the two groups. Conclusions: The Chamfer margin design appeared to offer the same adaptation results as the Shoulder margin design.

  7. Effect of Margin Designs on the Marginal Adaptation of Zirconia Copings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ajmi, Mohammed Ginan; Al Dhafyan, Mohammed; Jomah, Abdulrehman; Abualsaud, Haytham; Almashali, Mazen

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of Shoulder versus Chamfer margin design on the marginal adaptation of zirconia (Zr) copings. Materials and Methods 40 extracted molar teeth were mounted in resin and prepared for zirconia crowns with two margin preparation designs (20=Shoulder and 20=Chamfer). The copings were manufactured by Cercon® (DeguDent GmbH, Germany) using the CAD/CAM system for each tooth. They were tried on each tooth, cemented, thermocycled, re-embedded in resin and were subsequently cross sectioned centrally into two equal mesial and distal halves. They were examined under electron microscope at 200 X magnification and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points in micrometers (µm). Results The overall mean marginal gap for the two groups was found to be 206.98+42.78µm with Shoulder margin design (Marginal Gap=199.50+40.72µm) having better adaptation compared to Chamfer (Marginal Gap=214.46+44.85µm). The independent-samples t-test showed a statistically non-significant difference (p=.113) between the means of marginal gap for Shoulder and Chamfer margin designs and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points for the two groups. Conclusions The Chamfer margin design appeared to offer the same adaptation results as the Shoulder margin design. PMID:29225358

  8. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described.

  9. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Placement of the Left Side AED Pad is Poor: Training on the Left Compared to the Right Side of a Manikin Does Not Improve Pad Placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Mathilde; Bødtker, Henrik; Rahbek, Søren

    2015-01-01

    participating in a first aid course were randomized to learn automated external defibrillation sitting on the left or right side of a manikin during AED training. After course completion participants operated a training AED (Lifepak® CR-T AED Trainer, PhysioControl) and placed AED pads according to instructions...... to reach the left mid-axillary line. In addition, the left arm of the victim may hamper access to the left lateral side of the thorax.Hypothesis: Training automated external defibrillation sitting on the left side of a manikin improves AED pad placement compared to sitting to the right.Methods: Laypeople...... from the AED. Pads were placed on an anatomically realistic male resuscitation torso with arms (AMBU® Man, AMBU). Participants were instructed to sit on the same side of the manikin as trained. The distance from the center of AED pads to the recommended pad position was measured.Results: In total, 30...

  11. Laterality of suckling behaviour in three zebra species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluháček, Jan; Olléová, Michaela; Bartošová, Jitka; Pluháčková, Jana; Bartoš, Luděk

    2013-01-01

    Although side preference while suckling is an easily characterised lateralised behaviour, few studies have been conducted. We observed laterality in suckling behaviour in three captive zebra species to test two hypotheses: laterality affected by the foal (motor laterality) and laterality affected by the mother. In total we observed 35 foals of Grevy's, plains, and mountain zebra in two zoos and recorded 5128 successful suckling bouts and 9095 unsuccessful suckling attempts. At the population level the only factor affecting side preference of suckling bouts and attempts was the identity of the individual foal. Ten foals showed individual preferences: seven foals preferred suckling from the left side of the mother, three preferred suckling from the right side of the mother. The individual preferences increased with increasing age of the foal. Only one foal was refused more often from the opposite side than the preferred side used for suckling whereas three other foals were refused from the preferred side. Foals that preferred suckling either from left or right side were refused by the mare more often than foals which showed non-preference. Thus lateral preferences in suckling behaviour of zebra foals seem to be in line with the motor laterality hypotheses.

  12. Laterality influences schooling position in rainbowfish, Melanotaenia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a widespread trait among animals, is often manifested as side biases in behaviour (laterality) and has been suggested to provide fitness benefits. Here we examined the influence of laterality on the organisation of fish schools using rainbowfish (Melanotaenia spp) as model species. The pattern and strength of laterality for each individual was determined by examining eye preferences whilst examining their reflection in a mirror. Schools of four fish of known laterality were then created and the preferred position for each fish within the school was repeatedly observed in a flume. Fish which showed right eye preferences in the mirror test preferentially adopted a position on the left side of the school. Conversely, fish that showed left eye preferences in the mirror test or where non-lateralised preferentially adopted a position slightly to the right side of the school. However, this general pattern varied depending on the species and sex of the school. Our results strongly implicate individual laterality in the geometry of school formation.

  13. Right-ear precedence and vocal emotion contagion: The role of the left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Cornmell, Louise; Smith, Bethany; de Sa, Sabrina Lauren; Borwick, Ciara; Belfon-Thompson, Elisha

    2018-05-01

    Much evidence suggests that the processing of emotions is lateralized to the right hemisphere of the brain. However, under some circumstances the left hemisphere might play a role, particularly for positive emotions and emotional experiences. We explored whether emotion contagion was right-lateralized, lateralized valence-specifically, or potentially left-lateralized. In two experiments, right-handed female listeners rated to what extent emotionally intoned pseudo-sentences evoked target emotions in them. These sound stimuli had a 7 ms ear lead in the left or right channel, leading to stronger stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere. In both experiments, the results revealed that right ear lead stimuli received subtly but significantly higher evocation scores, suggesting a left hemisphere dominance for emotion contagion. A control experiment using an emotion identification task showed no effect of ear lead. The findings are discussed in relation to prior findings that have linked the processing of emotional prosody to left-hemisphere brain regions that regulate emotions, control orofacial musculature, are involved in affective empathy processing areas, or have an affinity for processing emotions socially. Future work is needed to eliminate alternative interpretations and understand the mechanisms involved. Our novel binaural asynchrony method may be useful in future work in auditory laterality.

  14. Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Nevus of the Eyelid Margin Mimicking a Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Echchaoui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nevi are a benign skin lesions commonly found on the eyelid margin, these tumors are usually pigmented and have thickness. Nevi are not typically visible at birth; they appear during childhood and often exhibit a more rapid increase in pigmentation about the time of puberty. Most eyelid nevi can be diagnosed by clinical examination; suspicious lesions should be biopsied when rapid growth, loss of eyelashes or discoloration of the nevus is noted. Eyelid nevi require treatment if malignant transformation and/or cosmetically bothersome to the patient. We report a case of a 37-year-old female patient exhibited a single cutaneous tumor at the free margin of the lower left eyelid, she noticed a dark spot on their eyelid since childhood. It was a brown, fleshy, thickened, and nodular well-circumscribed exophytic mass, measuring 6 mm in diameter; its clinical appearance argued for a possible nodular melanoma. Excisional-biopsy was performed using a full-thickness pentagonal wedge excision technique. Histopathology showed that the lesion was a benign melanocytic nevocellular nevus. The post-operative courses were uneventful with excellent cosmetic and functional result. Preventive measures (cap, sunglasses... and regular monitoring of the lesion by assessing ABCDE criteria (asymmetry, irregular borders, multiple colors, diameter ≥ 6 mm, and enlargement remain necessary to detect and rule out a possible risk of malignant melanoma.

  16. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  17. Long-Term Follow-Up of Lateral Canthal Resuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sathyadeepak; Gupta, Adit; Rootman, Daniel Benson; Goldberg, Robert Alan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of lateral canthal resuspension over time. A cohort study of adults (n = 25, 45 eyelids) undergoing lateral canthal resuspension. Marginal reflex distance 2 (MRD2), inferior scleral show, lateral canthal height, lateral canthal angle, horizontal palpebral aperture, and lateral scleral triangle area were measured preoperatively and at postoperative week 1, month 3, and the final follow-up visit. Minimum follow-up time was 6 months (mean, 15.1 months). At the final follow-up visit, MRD2 decreased by 0.41 ± 0.14 mm, inferior scleral show decreased by 0.27 ± 0.05 mm, and lateral canthal height increased by 0.81 ± 0.15 mm. The overall function of time was found to be significant for change in MRD2 (P < 0.01). In multiple comparisons, all time point values were significantly different from one another (Bonferroni corrected, P < 0.05), except for 3 months and the final position, which were not. Similarly, the overall effect of time on lateral canthus position was also significant (P < 0.01). All time points were significantly different from one another (Bonferroni corrected, P < 0.05). The overall effect of time on inferior scleral show was also significant (P < 0.01). Differences were significant from preoperative to final postoperative position, although the other time points were not significant (Bonferroni corrected, P < 0.05). No complications were noted. Minimally invasive lateral canthal resuspension provides durable, albeit modest, improvements in MRD2, inferior scleral show, and lateral canthal height without significantly changing lateral canthal angle, horizontal palpebral aperture, or lateral scleral triangle area. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  18. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    This thesis is the first comprehensive research work conducted on the Beirut based TV station, an important representative of the post-2011 generation of Arab satellite news media. The launch of al-Mayadeen in June 2012 was closely linked to the political developments across the Arab world...... members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...

  19. An IGRT margin concept for pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groher, M.; Kopp, P.; Deutschmann, H.; Sedlmayer, F.; Wolf, Frank; Drerup, M.

    2017-01-01

    Gold-marker-based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the prostate allows to correct for inter- and intrafraction motion and therefore to safely reduce margins for the prostate planning target volume (PTV). However, pelvic PTVs, when coadministered in a single plan (registered to gold markers [GM]), require reassessment of the margin concept since prostate movement is independent from the pelvic bony anatomy to which the lymphatics are usually referenced to. We have therefore revisited prostate translational movement relative to the bony anatomy to obtain adequate margins for the pelvic PTVs compensating mismatch resulting from referencing pelvic target volumes to GMs in the prostate. Prostate movement was analyzed in a set of 28 patients (25 fractions each, totaling in 684 fractions) and the required margins calculated for the pelvic PTVs according to Van Herk's margin formula M = 2.5 Σ + 1.64 (σ ' -σ p ). The overall mean prostate movement relative to bony anatomy was 0.9 ± 3.1, 0.6 ± 3.4, and 0.0 ± 0.7 mm in anterior/posterior (A/P), inferior/superior (I/S) and left/right (L/R) direction, respectively. Calculated margins to compensate for the resulting mismatch to bony anatomy were 9/9/2 mm in A/P, I/S, and L/R direction and 10/11/6 mm if an additional residual error of 2 mm was assumed. GM-based IGRT for pelvic PTVs is feasible if margins are adapted accordingly. Margins could be reduced further if systematic errors which are introduced during the planning CT were eliminated. (orig.) [de

  20. Spine lateral flexion strength development differences between exercises with pelvic stabilization and without pelvic stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straton, Alexandru; Gidu, Diana Victoria; Micu, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Poor lateral flexor muscle strength can be an important source of lumbar/thoracic back pain in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pelvic stabilization (PS) and no pelvic stabilization (NoPS) lateral flexion strength exercise training on the development of isolated right and left lateral flexion strength. Isometric torque of the isolated right and left lateral flexion muscles was measured at two positions (0° and 30° opposed angle range of motion) on 42 healthy women before and after 8 weeks of PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise training. Subjects were assigned in three groups, the first (n=14) trained 3 times/week with PS lateral flexion strength exercise, the second (n=14) trained 3 times/week with NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise and the third (control, n=14) did not train. Post training isometric strength values describing PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength improved in greater extent for the PS lateral flexion strength exercise group and in lesser extent for the NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise group, in both angles (pstrength exercises; NoPS lateral flexion strength exercises can be an effective way of training for the spine lateral flexion muscles, if there is no access to PS lateral flexion strength training machines.

  1. Paleogene continental margin truncation in southwestern Mexico: Geochronological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Peter; MoráN-Zenteno, Dante; HernáNdez-Bernal, Maria Del Sol; SolíS-Pichardo, Gabriela; Tolson, Gustavo; KöHler, Hermann

    1995-12-01

    observations and paleomagnetic data do not give strong support for large-scale right-lateral displacements of crustal blocks like the Baja California. Given the isotopic data presented, the continental margin truncation in SW Mexico seems to be the consequence of an interaction of mechanisms. Of these, we regard tectonic erosion associated with the subduction process to be the most important in the northwestern segment. On the other hand, the lateral removal of material associated with the displacement of Chortis is more important in the southeastern segment.

  2. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  3. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  4. The cortical signature of symptom laterality in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Santamaria, Pamela M; Gendelman, Howard E; Wilson, Tony W

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with unilateral motor symptoms that eventually spread to the other side. This symptom lateralization is diagnostically important, as it serves to distinguish PD from other motor disorders with overlapping symptom profiles. Further, recent studies have shown that the side of symptom onset is important for prognosis, as there are differences in the rate of disease progression and the incidence of secondary symptoms between right- and left-dominant (RD, LD) patients. Physiologically, previous studies have shown asymmetrical decline in structure and metabolism throughout the basal ganglia, although connecting this directly to motor function has been difficult. To identify the neurophysiological basis of symptom laterality in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) during left- and right-hand movement paradigms in patients with PD who exhibited either RD or LD symptomatology. The beta oscillations serving these movements were then imaged using beamforming methods, and we extracted the time series of the peak voxel in the left and right primary motor cortices for each movement. In addition, each patient's symptom asymmetry was quantitated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which allowed the relationship between symptom asymmetry and neural asymmetry to be assessed. We found that LD patients had stronger beta suppression during movement, as well as greater post-movement beta rebound compared to patients with RD symptoms, independent of the hand that was moved. Interestingly, the asymmetry of beta activity during right-hand movement uniquely correlated with symptom asymmetry, such that the more LD the symptom profile, the more left-lateralized (i.e., contralateral to movement) the beta response; conversely, the more RD the symptom profile, the more right-lateralized (i.e., ipsilateral to movement) the beta response. This study is the first to directly probe the relationship between symptom

  5. Mental Depreciation and Marginal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath; Fennema

    1996-11-01

    We propose that individuals practice "mental depreciation," that is, they implicitly spread the fixed costs of their expenses over time or use. Two studies explore how people spread fixed costs on durable goods. A third study shows that depreciation can lead to two distinct errors in marginal decisions: First, people sometimes invest too much effort to get their money's worth from an expense (e.g., they may use a product a lot to spread the fixed expense across more uses). Second, people sometimes invest too little effort to get their money's worth: When people add a portion of the fixed cost to the current costs, their perceived marginal (i.e., incremental) costs exceed their true marginal costs. In response, they may stop investing because their perceived costs surpass the marginal benefits they are receiving. The latter effect is supported by two field studies that explore real board plan decisions by university students.

  6. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    In mid 1970's the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India prepared a plan for systematic regional, geological and geophysical surveys of the continental margins of India. This involved over 75,000 km of underway (bathymetric, side scan sonar...

  7. Variability of the geothermal gradient across two differently aged magma-rich continental rifted margins of the Atlantic Ocean: the Southwest African and the Norwegian margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamrezaie, Ershad; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Sippel, Judith; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the shallow thermal field differences for two differently aged passive continental margins by analyzing regional variations in geothermal gradient and exploring the controlling factors for these variations. Hence, we analyzed two previously published 3-D conductive and lithospheric-scale thermal models of the Southwest African and the Norwegian passive margins. These 3-D models differentiate various sedimentary, crustal, and mantle units and integrate different geophysical data such as seismic observations and the gravity field. We extracted the temperature-depth distributions in 1 km intervals down to 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. The geothermal gradient was then calculated for these intervals between the upper thermal boundary condition and the respective depth levels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition). According to our results, the geothermal gradient decreases with increasing depth and shows varying lateral trends and values for these two different margins. We compare the 3-D geological structural models and the geothermal gradient variations for both thermal models and show how radiogenic heat production, sediment insulating effect, and thermal lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth influence the shallow thermal field pattern. The results indicate an ongoing process of oceanic mantle cooling at the young Norwegian margin compared with the old SW African passive margin that seems to be thermally equilibrated in the present day.

  8. Variability of the geothermal gradient across two differently aged magma-rich continental rifted margins of the Atlantic Ocean: the Southwest African and the Norwegian margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gholamrezaie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the shallow thermal field differences for two differently aged passive continental margins by analyzing regional variations in geothermal gradient and exploring the controlling factors for these variations. Hence, we analyzed two previously published 3-D conductive and lithospheric-scale thermal models of the Southwest African and the Norwegian passive margins. These 3-D models differentiate various sedimentary, crustal, and mantle units and integrate different geophysical data such as seismic observations and the gravity field. We extracted the temperature–depth distributions in 1 km intervals down to 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. The geothermal gradient was then calculated for these intervals between the upper thermal boundary condition and the respective depth levels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. According to our results, the geothermal gradient decreases with increasing depth and shows varying lateral trends and values for these two different margins. We compare the 3-D geological structural models and the geothermal gradient variations for both thermal models and show how radiogenic heat production, sediment insulating effect, and thermal lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB depth influence the shallow thermal field pattern. The results indicate an ongoing process of oceanic mantle cooling at the young Norwegian margin compared with the old SW African passive margin that seems to be thermally equilibrated in the present day.

  9. Fault Orientations at Obliquely Rifted Margins: Where? When? Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    setup is very simple (horizontally layered, no inherited faults, constant extension velocity and direction), its evolution exhibits a variety of fault orientations that are solely caused by the three-dimensionality of oblique rift systems. Allowing new insights on fault patterns of the proximal and distal margins, the model shows that individual fault populations are activated in a characteristic multi-phase evolution driven by lateral density variations of the evolving rift system. Moreover, the model depicts strain partitioning between rift-parallel and rift-perpendicular far-field velocity components that are accommodated by strike-slip faults in the rift centre and normal faults at the rift sides, respectively. Oblique extensional systems worldwide differ in many aspects and clearly one suit of models cannot explain all rifted margin structures at the same time. However, the distinct pattern of fault populations discussed in this study and their sequence of activity compares very well to previous studies of the Gulf of Aden and holds implications for many other rifted margins worldwide. Note that in nature, the resulting stress and fault pattern will also be affected by inherited heterogeneities, surface processes, as well as melting and dyke dynamics.

  10. Concomitant hypohyperdontia: simultaneous occurrence of a mesiodens and agenesis of a maxillary lateral incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J J; Jiménez-Rubio, A

    1998-10-01

    A 13-year-old boy appeared for evaluation with a missing maxillary left lateral incisor. He also had an abnormally shaped tooth in the midline between his maxillary central incisors. This mesiodens had an incompletely developed root. The unusual association of these 2 anomalies is discussed as a possible transposition of the lateral incisor to the mesiodens position.

  11. Age-Related Sex Differences in Language Lateralization: A Magnetoencephalography Study in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y.; MacDonald, Matt J.; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N.; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with…

  12. How should I treat a coronary "traffic jam"? A triple kissing balloon in distal left main trifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Luca; Bedogni, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    A 60-year-old man with relapsing unstable angina a year aftger an anterior acute myocardial infarction treated with PCI to proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and proximal intermediate branch (IB), resulting in a severely impaired LV function. Physical examination, laboratorytest, transthoracic echocardiogram, rest ECG, coronary angiography. Severe in-stent restenosis to IB, with a bulky plaque involving distal left main, obtuse marginal and proximal circumflex. Percutaneous coronary intervention/coronary artery bypass grafting.

  13. Marketing margins and agricultural technology in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman

    2000-01-01

    Improvements in agricultural productivity and reductions in marketing costs in Mozambique are analysed using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model incorporates detailed marketing margins and separates household demand for marketed and home-produced goods. Individual simulations...... of improved agricultural technology and lower marketing margins yield welfare gains across the economy. In addition, a combined scenario reveals significant synergy effects, as gains exceed the sum of gains from the individual scenarios. Relative welfare improvements are higher for poor rural households...

  14. In silico particle margination in blood flow

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    A profound knowledge of margination, the migration of blood components to the vessel wall in blood flow, is required in order to understand the genesis of various diseases, as e.g., cardiovascular diseases or bleeding disorders. Margination of particles is a pre-condition for potential adhesion. Adhesion to the vessel wall is required for platelets, the protein von Willebrand factor (VWF), but also for drug and imaging agent carriers in order to perform their particular tasks. In the haemosta...

  15. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...

  16. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  17. Wintertime phytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supported by continental margin iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2004-01-01

    Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996 in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North Pacific Ocean, a region that is thought to be iron-limited. Here we provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in the subarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from the continental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincident with the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was used to describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of iron in size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis reveals that discrete micron-sized iron-rich hotspots are ubiquitous in the upper 200m at OSP, more than 900km from the closest coast. The specifics of the chemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to the continental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hotspots are a marker for the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm the delivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an ocean general circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at the continental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental margin stimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLC condition

  18. Professional Commitment and Professional Marginalism in Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov A.I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession which can be expressed both in professional commitment and in professional marginalism. The dominance of professional marginalism could affect destructively the students as well as the teacher’s personality, hence the issues related to the content of personal position of a marginal and the rate of marginalism among teachers. It was suggested that marginalism could be revealed in the study of professional commitment. The study involved 81 teachers of Sverdlovsk secondary schools aged 21—60 years with work experience ranging from 1 month to 39 years. The Professional Commitment Questionnaire was used as the study technique. The results showed that negative emotional attitude towards the profession and reluctance to leave the profession were grouped as a separate factor. The dispersion factor was 12,5%. The factor loadings ranged from 0.42 to 0.84. The study proved that professional marginalism in teachers includes dissatisfaction with work, feelings of resentment against profession and an unwillingness to leave the profession.

  19. NRC Seismic Design Margins Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, G.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Recent studies estimate that seismically induced core melt comes mainly from earthquakes in the peak ground acceleration range from 2 to 4 times the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) acceleration used in plant design. However, from the licensing perspective of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, there is a continuing need for consideration of the inherent quantitative seismic margins because of, among other things, the changing perceptions of the seismic hazard. This paper discusses a Seismic Design Margins Program Plan, developed under the auspices of the US NRC, that provides the technical basis for assessing the significance of design margins in terms of overall plant safety. The Plan will also identify potential weaknesses that might have to be addressed, and will recommend technical methods for assessing margins at existing plants. For the purposes of this program, a general definition of seismic design margin is expressed in terms of how much larger that the design basis earthquake an earthquake must be to compromise plant safety. In this context, margin needs to be determined at the plant, system/function, structure, and component levels. 14 refs., 1 fig

  20. Investigating language lateralization during phonological and semantic fluency tasks using functional transcranial Doppler sonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a critical role in language processing, some questions remain. Here we examine the influence of overt versus covert speech production on lateralization, the relationship between lateralization and behavioural measures of language performance and the strength of lateralization across the subcomponents of language. The present study used functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) to investigate lateralization of phonological and semantic fluency during both overt and covert word generation in right-handed adults. The laterality index (LI) was left lateralized in all conditions, and there was no difference in the strength of LI between overt and covert speech. This supports the validity of using overt speech in fTCD studies, another benefit of which is a reliable measure of speech production. PMID:24875468

  1. Behavioural laterality as a factor in emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempala, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who perform a variety of tasks using one side of their bodies (i.e., high-dominance people) are thought to differ from individuals who perform a variety of tasks with both sides of their body (i.e., low-dominance people) in several neurological and cognitive characteristics. We examined whether behavioural laterality predicted the efficacy of different emotional regulation strategies. Specifically, we thought that behavioural laterality would influence verbal strategies (associated with left hemisphere activation) when regulating anxiety (associated with right hemisphere activation). In three studies participants presented in front of small audiences. Behavioural laterality (as measured by a modified handedness inventory) positively correlated with presentation anxiety, such that "low-dominance" participants reported less anxiety than "high-dominance" participants, but only when using cognitive reappraisal (a verbal strategy), not attention deployment or response modulation (behavioural strategies). These results provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in behavioural laterality mediate the efficacy of certain emotional regulation strategies.

  2. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  3. Influence of a proximal margin elevation technique on marginal adaptation of ceramic inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruba, M; Göhring, T N; Wegehaupt, F J; Attin, T

    2013-03-01

    Evaluating the effect of a proximal margin elevation technique on marginal adaptation of ceramic inlays. Class II MOD-cavities were prepared in 40 human molars and randomly distributed to four groups (n = 10). In group EN (positive control) proximal margins were located in enamel, 1 mm above the cementoenamel junction, while 2 mm below in groups DE-1In, DE-2In and DE. The groups DE-1In, DE-2In and DE simulated subgingival location of the cervical margin. In group DE-1In one 3 mm and in group DE-2In two 1.5 mm composite layers (Tetric) were placed for margin elevation of the proximal cavities using Syntac classic as an adhesive. The proximal cavities of group DE remained untreated and served as a negative control. In all groups, ceramic inlays (Cerec 3D) were adhesively inserted. Replicas were taken before and after thermomechanical loading (1.200.000 cycles, 50/5°C, max. load 49 N). Marginal integrity (tooth-composite, composite-inlay) was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (200×). Percentage of continuous margin (% of total proximal margin length) was compared between groups before and after cycling using ANOVA and Scheffé post-hoc test. After thermomechanical loading, no significant differences were observed between the different groups with respect to the interface composite-inlay and tooth-composite with margins in dentin. The interface tooth-composite in enamel of group EN was significantly better compared to group DE-2In, which was not different to the negative control group DE and DE-1In. Margin elevation technique by placement of a composite filling in the proximal box before insertion of a ceramic inlay results in marginal integrities not different from margins of ceramic inlays placed in dentin.

  4. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 114 and 137 pliers with a controlled force (0.2 N and then 30 secondary photos were taken in the same conditions. The circumference of crown margins in primary (group A and secondary (group B photos were assessed by a digitizer system. Comparing the circumferences of crown margins in primary and secondary photos showed a significant decrease after crimping. Thickness of 30 random points on the crown margins of a crown similar to mentioned cases was measured by SEM (×150. Then similar procedures including taking a primary photo, crimping and taking a secondary photo was done for the sample crown. After significant reduction in margin circumference, thickness of 30 other random points on the crown margin were measured by SEM. Data were analyzed by paired sample t-test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns was reduced by 7.3% which was significant (P<0.001. On the other hand the mean marginal thickness of sample stainless steel crown showed 18µ increase. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns (3M, Ni-Cr showed a significant decrease after crimping. It is concluded that crimping the stainless steel crowns even for precrimped ones seems necessary.

  5. Orienting asymmetries and lateralized processing of sounds in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rübsamen Rudolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateralized processing of speech is a well studied phenomenon in humans. Both anatomical and neurophysiological studies support the view that nonhuman primates and other animal species also reveal hemispheric differences in areas involved in sound processing. In recent years, an increasing number of studies on a range of taxa have employed an orienting paradigm to investigate lateralized acoustic processing. In this paradigm, sounds are played directly from behind and the direction of turn is recorded. This assay rests on the assumption that a hemispheric asymmetry in processing is coupled to an orienting bias towards the contralateral side. To examine this largely untested assumption, speech stimuli as well as artificial sounds were presented to 224 right-handed human subjects shopping in supermarkets in Germany and in the UK. To verify the lateralized processing of the speech stimuli, we additionally assessed the brain activation in response to presentation of the different stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Results In the naturalistic behavioural experiments, there was no difference in orienting behaviour in relation to the stimulus material (speech, artificial sounds. Contrary to our predictions, subjects revealed a significant left bias, irrespective of the sound category. This left bias was slightly but not significantly stronger in German subjects. The fMRI experiments confirmed that the speech stimuli evoked a significant left lateralized activation in BA44 compared to the artificial sounds. Conclusion These findings suggest that in adult humans, orienting biases are not necessarily coupled with lateralized processing of acoustic stimuli. Our results – as well as the inconsistent orienting biases found in different animal species – suggest that the orienting assay should be used with caution. Apparently, attention biases, experience, and experimental conditions may all affect head turning

  6. Left Lateralized Enhancement of Orofacial Somatosensory Processing Due to Speech Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takayuki; Johns, Alexis R.; Ostry, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Somatosensory information associated with speech articulatory movements affects the perception of speech sounds and vice versa, suggesting an intimate linkage between speech production and perception systems. However, it is unclear which cortical processes are involved in the interaction between speech sounds and orofacial somatosensory…

  7. Ectopic thyroid mass in the left lateral neck and anterior mediastinum: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ectopic thyroid is characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue in a site other than in its usual pretracheal region. It is a rare condition among the thyroid diseases. Dural ectopic thyroid present in the cervical and anterior mediastinal has not been reported. Case presentation A 45-year-old Chinese woman presented with a nonfunctional ectopic thyroid located both in the cervical and anterior mediastinum. The ectopic thyroid was removed under video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery using a transverse neck incision and her postoperative period has been uneventful thus far. Conclusions Ectopic thyroid is a rare condition among the thyroid diseases, and its location in the anterior mediastinum is even more uncommon. Less than 15 cases have been reported in the last four decades. This is the first case of ectopic thyroid to appear in both the cervical and anterior mediastinum at same time. Masses in the anterior mediastinal are usually thymoma, lymphoma, pheochromocytoma and germ cell tumors. Ectopic thyroid in this area is quite rare so this case enhances our understanding of the diagnosis of mediastinal masses. PMID:25335650

  8. Negative “gossip” stimuli modulate left-lateralized P1 component while viewing neutral faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel

    Language allows us to operate more efficiently in the world. By hearing about others’ experiences, we are able to orient toward things that could be beneficial to us, and avoid hazards. This sharing of experiences is particularly prominent in the social realm. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, ...... to the influence of gossip, an effect of negative social information was measured at 100 ms. after stimulus onset....

  9. Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to left lateral position in non-obese young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, M; Pump, B; Gabrielsen, A

    2001-01-01

    through peripheral vasodilatation induced by cardiopulmonary low-pressure receptor stimulation. Twelve non-obese young males were investigated. The location of the mid-aorta between the aortic valves was used as the hydrostatic reference point for the arterial pressure measurements. It was determined...... is located one third of the antero-posterior chest diameter below the sternum in SUP and 2.5 cm below the midsternal level in LAT in non-obese young males....

  10. Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to left lateral position in non-obese young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, M; Pump, B; Gabrielsen, A

    2001-01-01

    through peripheral vasodilatation induced by cardiopulmonary low-pressure receptor stimulation. Twelve non-obese young males were investigated. The location of the mid-aorta between the aortic valves was used as the hydrostatic reference point for the arterial pressure measurements. It was determined...

  11. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  12. Opalski syndrome caused by vertebral artery compression of the lateral surface of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Tomohisa; Tanahashi, Norio

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old man presented with vertigo, nystagmus, and gait ataxia followed by left hemiparesis (Opalski syndrome). T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed vascular compression of the left lateral side of the medulla oblongata by the left vertebral artery. On diffusion tensor imaging, the level of fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left corticospinal fibers caudal to the pyramidal decussation was lower than that observed in the right corticospinal fibers. Opalski syndrome caused by vascular compression is very rare. This is the first reported case of Opalski syndrome that was imaged on FA.

  13. Late Quaternary Normal Faulting and Hanging Wall Basin Evolution of the Southwestern Rift Margin from Gravity and Geology, B.C.S., MX and Exploring the Influence of Text-Figure Format on Introductory Geology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Melanie M. D.

    2011-01-01

    An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely…

  14. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  15. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: Panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Pillai Devu; Varma, Nilambur Kovilakam Sapna; Ajith, Vallikat Velath [Dept. of Orthodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging in measuring the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles with the angles determined using a lateral cephalogram of adult patients with class I malocclusion. The gonial angles of 50 class I malocclusion patients (25 males and 25 females; mean age: 23 years) were measured using both a lateral cephalogram and a panoramic radiograph. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane. In the panoramic radiographs, the gonial angle was measured by drawing a line tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle on both sides. The data obtained from both radiographs were statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was observed between the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms and that determined using the panoramic radiographs. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in the measured gonial angle with respect to gender. The results also showed a statistically insignificant difference in the mean of the right and the left gonial angles measured using the panoramic radiographs. As the gonial angle measurements using panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms showed no statistically significant difference, panoramic radiography can be considered in orthodontics for measuring the gonial angle without any interference due to superimposed images.

  16. Opposite brain laterality in analogous auditory and visual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Leif; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding. Brain Cogn, 53(2), 393-397] found opposite laterality for visual and auditory language tasks. We adapted an experimental paradigm based on a dichotic listening and VHF approach, and applied the combined language paradigm in two separate experiments, including fMRI in the second experiment to measure brain activation in addition to behavioural data. The first experiment showed a right-ear advantage for the auditory task, but a left half-field advantage for the visual task. The second experiment, confirmed the findings, with opposite laterality effects for the visual and auditory tasks. In conclusion, we replicate the finding by Voyer and Boudreau (2003) and support their interpretation that these visual and auditory language tasks measure different cognitive processes.

  17. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedging on knee loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    -dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analyzed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full length laterally wedged insole. Results: Similar, significant reductions in the peak knee adduction moment with lateral...... wedges were observed in all three types of shoes. However, differences between shoe design were of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for lateral hamstrings during barefoot toe-out walking and gastrocnemius when using the Oxford wedged...

  18. Particle flux across the mid-European continental margin

    CERN Document Server

    Antia, A N; Peinert, R

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented from particle flux studies using sediment trap and current meter moorings along a transect at the European continental margin at 49 degrees N within the Ocean Margin Exchange (OMEX) project. Two moorings were placed, at the mid- and outer slope in water depths of 1500 and 3660 m, with traps at 600 and 1050 m and at 580, 1440 and 3220 m, respectively. Residual currents at the mid- slope follow the slope contour, whereas seasonal off-slope flow was registered at the outer slope. At 600 m on the slope fluxes are similar to those in the abyssal North Atlantic. The flux of all components (bulk dry weight, particulate organic and inorganic carbon, lithogenic matter and opal) increased with water depth. Highest fluxes were recorded at 1440 m at the outer slope, where off- slope residual currents mediate particle export. The injection of biogenic and lithogenic particles below the depth of winter mixing results in the export of particles from shallower waters. Calculated lateral fluxes of partic...

  19. Lingular pneumonia obscured by implanted cardioverter-defibrillator: Lateral thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sewell, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old female with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator was admitted with a short history suggestive of a diagnosis of pneumonia. An AP radiograph did not identify an area of consolidation. A subsequent lateral radiograph highlighted an extensive left-lingular-lobe consolidation that had been obscured by the cardiac device. This case highlights the fact that large devices can obscure significant pathology, and that lateral or cross-sectional imaging may be helpful in reaching a diagnosis.

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  1. Left handedness and spine deformities in early adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkovic, Sanja; Kocijancic, Radojka; Belojevic, Goran

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between laterality and spine deformities in early adolescence, with special reference to sex differences. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and clinical examinations of body posture were carried out on a sample of 2546 schoolchildren, aged from 11 to 14 years, in seven elementary schools in the centre of Belgrade. Possible confounding factors (age, sex, body weight and body height) were controlled for. The overall prevalence of spine deformities (scoliosis and/or thoracic hyperkyphosis) in the investigated population was 11.8%, out of which there were 7.8% adolescents with scoliosis, 4.0% with thoracic hyperkyphosis, and 0.3% with both spine deformities. The prevalence of scoliosis was 2.7 times higher in girls compared to boys (11.7% vs. 4.3%) while the prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis was 1,6 higher among boys (5.0% vs. 3.2%). We found 7.6% of the schoolchildren examined to be left-handed. Left handedness was significantly related to scoliosis in girls (crude OR=1.60 and 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.54). Multivariate analysis showed that significant independent factors for scoliosis were female sex (p < 0.001), age (p=0.01) and left handedness (p=0.02). We did not find any appreciable relation between left handedness and thoracic hyperkyphosis in both sexes

  2. Apraxia and spatial inattention dissociate in left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpert, David C; Weiss, Peter H; Vossel, Simone; Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R

    2015-10-01

    Theories of lateralized cognitive functions propose a dominance of the left hemisphere for motor control and of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Accordingly, spatial attention deficits (e.g., neglect) are more frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke, whereas apraxia is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Clinical reports of spatial attentional deficits after left hemisphere (LH) stroke also exist, but are often neglected. By applying parallel analysis (PA) and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to data from a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of 74 LH stroke patients, we here systematically investigate the relationship between spatial inattention and apraxia and their neural bases. PA revealed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits loaded on one common component, while deficits in attention tests were explained by another independent component. Statistical lesion analyses with the individual component scores showed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits were significantly associated with lesions of the left superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF). Data suggest that in LH stroke spatial attention deficits dissociate from apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits. These findings contribute to models of lateralised cognitive functions in the human brain. Moreover, our findings strongly suggest that LH stroke patients should be assessed systematically for spatial attention deficits so that these can be included in their rehabilitation regime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of language lateralization mechanism by Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belin, Pascal

    1997-01-01

    As language lateralization in the brain left hemisphere is one of the most well known but less understood characteristics of the human brain, this research thesis reports the use of brain functional imaging to address some specific aspects of this lateralization. In a first part, the author reports the study of mechanisms of recovery from aphasia after a left hemisphere lesion within a population of aphasic right-handers. Based on a contrast between patients with a persistent aphasia despite usual language therapies, and patients with a significant recovery after a melodic and rhythmic therapy (TMR), a PET-based (positron emission tomography) activation study has been developed, based on the opposition between usual language stimuli and stimuli accentuated by TMR. In the second part, the author explored more systematically on sane patients the influence of some physical characteristics of auditory stimulation on the induced functional asymmetry [fr

  4. Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance.

  5. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  6. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    and second peak knee adduction moments. However, the variability of this moment between shoe designs was of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for gastrocnemius when walking with the wedged Oxford shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral...

  7. Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schlueter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The proepicardium (PE is a cluster of cells that forms on the cardiac inflow tract and gives rise to the epicardium and connective tissue and largely contributes to the coronary vasculature. In many vertebrates, the PE undergoes left-right asymmetrical development. While PE cells and marker genes can be initially found on both sides, only the right-sided PE will fully develop and ultimately deliver cells to the heart. Several signalling inputs, like FGF and BMP signals, are involved in PE induction in the lateral plate mesoderm, as well as during inflow tract formation and, also, control asymmetric PE development. These signalling events will be put into the context of embryonic left-right asymmetry determination. Finally, it will be discussed whether PE development may serve as a readout for asymmetric inflow tract morphogenesis.

  8. Marginal inherited structures impact on the oblique convergent N American Plate/ Central Caribbean plate-boundary in the Northern Caribbean. The tectonic evolution since Miocene times based on Haiti data acquired onshore and offshore since 2012- a step toward an ADP Drilling Proposal (Haiti-DRILL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouz, N.; Hamon, Y.; Deschamps, R.; Battani, A.; Wessels, R.; Boisson, D.; Prepetit, C.; Momplaisir, R.

    2017-12-01

    Since Early Paleogene times, the North Caribbean plate is colliding obliquely with the south continental part of the old N. American Margins, which is represented by various segments from West to East, inherited from Jurassic times. Location, amount of displacement, rotation and the structural deformation of these margin segments, resulting from the dislocation of the continental N American margin, are not clearly yet established. At present, the plate limits are marked either by two left lateral faults west and inside Haiti (OSF in the North and EPGF in the South), oblique collision front (further west in Cuba), oblique subducted segments (to the East, Porto-Rico). From our recent works operated both offshore (Haiti-SIS and Haiti-BGF surveys 2012-2015) and onshore (field campaigns 2013-2017) in Haitian zone, the position of the present-day and paleo major limits have been redefined. These paleolimits have been reconstructed up to early Miocene times, based on: restoration of regional structural cross-sections, sedimentology and on paleoenvironement studies. In a preliminary way, we analyzed the complexity of the tectonic heritage with possible nature, heterogeneity of the crustal fragments and associated margins close to Haiti (age, structure, environment, location of the dislocated blocks through times) which profoundly impact the partitioning of the deformation along this complex transformed margin. The change in the structure wavelength, decollement level variations are primary constraints in the restoration of the main units and do impose a deep connection along specific segments either related to strike-slip or to splay faults. The asymmetry on the repartition of the fault activity tend to prove that the past motion related to "EPGF transfer zone" is mainly partitioned in Haiti to the North of the present-day EPGF position. At present, these results are still coherent with the distribution of the aftershoks registered after 2010, and with the present

  9. Ferritin associates with marginal band microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infante, Anthony A.; Infante, Dzintra; Chan, M.-C.; How, P.-C.; Kutschera, Waltraud; Linhartova, Irena; Muellner, Ernst W.; Wiche, Gerhard; Propst, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    We characterized chicken erythrocyte and human platelet ferritin by biochemical studies and immunofluorescence. Erythrocyte ferritin was found to be a homopolymer of H-ferritin subunits, resistant to proteinase K digestion, heat stable, and contained iron. In mature chicken erythrocytes and human platelets, ferritin was localized at the marginal band, a ring-shaped peripheral microtubule bundle, and displayed properties of bona fide microtubule-associated proteins such as tau. Red blood cell ferritin association with the marginal band was confirmed by temperature-induced disassembly-reassembly of microtubules. During erythrocyte differentiation, ferritin co-localized with coalescing microtubules during marginal band formation. In addition, ferritin was found in the nuclei of mature erythrocytes, but was not detectable in those of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. These results suggest that ferritin has a function in marginal band formation and possibly in protection of the marginal band from damaging effects of reactive oxygen species by sequestering iron in the mature erythrocyte. Moreover, our data suggest that ferritin and syncolin, a previously identified erythrocyte microtubule-associated protein, are identical. Nuclear ferritin might contribute to transcriptional silencing or, alternatively, constitute a ferritin reservoir

  10. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  11. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  12. Lateral thinkers are not so laterally minded: hemispheric asymmetry, interaction, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2011-07-01

    The biological basis of creativity remains a topic of contention. A long-held view suggests that whereas the left hemisphere is intelligent and analytic, the right hemisphere is the source of all creativity. Consequently, activating the right hemisphere should enhance creative thinking, prompting a plethora of popular books hawking a right hemisphere solution to topics ranging from drawing, to money management, to sex. More recently, an alternate proposal has suggested that creativity is not a lateralised function; instead, creativity is argued to stem from the interaction and integration of information across both the left and right hemispheres. According to this view, individuals with greater interhemispheric communication and/or less-lateralised brains will evidence enhanced creative ability. This paper reviews the neural basis of creativity to determine whether creativity stems from activation of the right hemisphere, or from the interaction of both hemispheres. The relationship between creativity and psychopathology is also examined, evaluating the evidence for a causal link between disorders such as schizophrenia, hemispheric activation, and enhanced creativity. Although the research reviewed indicates greater right hemisphere activity during creative tasks, the interaction between many varied, often distant, cortical regions across both the left and right hemispheres is also a crucial component of creativity. This interaction facilitates the integration of a variety of separate cognitive abilities, fostering creative thinking. As such, creativity is better conceptualised as a distributed, rather than a purely lateralised, function; more lateral thinkers have less lateralised brains.

  13. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  14. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  15. Dual origin of the left vertebral artery: extracranial MRA and CTA findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, W Oliver

    2012-02-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with a posterior circulation stroke secondary to left lateral medullary infarction. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) revealed 40-45% intracranial left vertebral artery stenosis, likely atherosclerotic in nature. CEMRA and subsequent computed tomography angiography also identified a duplicate origin of the left vertebral artery. The importance of recognition of this rare anatomical variant, its potential contribution to stroke aetiology, and the advantage of non-invasive vascular imaging prior to catheter angiography is emphasised.

  16. Heart failure due to giant left atrial myxoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuston Mendoza-Chuctaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are frequent cardiac tumors that are mostly located in the left atrium. Their signs and symptoms are very varied and nonspecific, and depend on their behavior. We report the case of a 41-year-old female patient with a disease period of approximately 3 months, and a clinical picture suggesting heart failure characterized by respiratory difficulty at rest, chest pain, general malaise and edema on lower limbs. The EKG suggested left atrial growth, where transthoracic echocardiography was a key test for the diagnosis of a myxoma filling the entire left atrium, which was later excised by surgery and confirmed by pathological anatomy

  17. Maxillary lateral incisor agenesis; a retrospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Ziad Arandi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of congenitally missing lateral incisors in a sample of 2662 dental patients in Palestine. Methods: A total of 2662 digital panoramic radiographs were retrospectively examined for the presence of congenitally missing permanent lateral incisors. The radiographs were obtained from the archival records of patients attending a local dental center at the city of Nablus in Palestine. Results: The prevalence of missing lateral incisors among the examined population (n = 2662 was found to be 1.91%. Unilateral agenesis accounted for 66.6% of the total cases that showed at least one missing lateral incisor. Around 79% of the unilateral cases were on the left side while 21% were on the right side. Bilateral agenesis accounted for 33.3% of 34 cases that had at least one congenitally missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor. Conclusion: The prevalence of missing maxillary lateral incisors in this study population was 1.91% which was within the range reported in different populations. Keywords: Tooth agenesis, Permanent maxillary lateral incisors, Retrospective, Prevalence

  18. Tbx5 Buffers Inherent Left/Right Asymmetry Ensuring Symmetric Forelimb Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Sulaiman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The forelimbs and hindlimbs of vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric. The mechanisms that ensure symmetric limb formation are unknown but they can be disrupted in disease. In Holt-Oram Syndrome (HOS, caused by mutations in TBX5, affected individuals have left-biased upper/forelimb defects. We demonstrate a role for the transcription factor Tbx5 in ensuring the symmetric formation of the left and right forelimb. In our mouse model, bilateral hypomorphic levels of Tbx5 produces asymmetric forelimb defects that are consistently more severe in the left limb than the right, phenocopying the left-biased limb defects seen in HOS patients. In Tbx hypomorphic mutants maintained on an INV mutant background, with situs inversus, the laterality of defects is reversed. Our data demonstrate an early, inherent asymmetry in the left and right limb-forming regions and that threshold levels of Tbx5 are required to overcome this asymmetry to ensure symmetric forelimb formation.

  19. Percutaneous MR-guided focal cryoablation for recurrent prostate cancer following radiation therapy. Retrospective analysis of iceball margins and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overduin, Christiaan G.; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F.M.; Bomers, Joyce G.R. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sedelaar, J.P.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Urology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Technical Medicine, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate iceball margins after magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focal salvage prostate cryoablation and determine the correlation with local outcome. A retrospective review was performed on 47 patients that underwent percutaneous MR-guided focal cryoablation for biopsy-proven locally recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy. Preprocedural diagnostic and intraprocedural MR images were analysed to derive three-directional iceball margins. Local tumour progression after cryoablation was defined as evident tumour recurrence on follow-up MRI, positive MR-guided biopsy or biochemical failure without radiological evidence of metastatic disease. Mean iceball margins were 8.9 mm (range -7.1 to 16.2), 10.1 mm (range 1.1-20.3) and 12.5 mm (range -1.5 to 22.2) in anteroposterior, left-right and craniocaudal direction respectively. Iceball margins were significantly smaller for tumours that were larger (P =.008) or located in the posterior gland (P =.047). Significantly improved local progression-free survival at 1 year post focal cryoablation was seen between patients with iceball margin >10 mm (100%), 5-10 mm (84%) and <5 mm (15%) (P <.001). Iceball margins appear to correlate with local outcome following MR-guided focal salvage prostate cryoablation. Our initial data suggest that freezing should be applied at minimum 5 mm beyond the border of an MR-visible recurrent prostate tumour for successful ablation, with a wider margin appearing desirable. (orig.)

  20. Effectiveness of an infiltrant on sealing of composite restoration margins with/without artificial caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunoglu, Ozlem; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim Fevzi; Antonson, Sibel A; Campillo-Funollet, Marc; Antonson, Donald; Munoz-Viveros, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a resin infiltrant (ICON) on marginal sealing ability of class II resin restorations with/without-caries. Forty-eight noncarious human pre-molar teeth were embedded and MO and DO preparations of standard dimensions were prepared. The left side of dentin margins of the cavities were left nonbonded (UB) while the right side were bonded using total etch-bonding agent and all restored with a Nanohybrid composite. The teeth were thermocycled and half of the specimens in the UB and B groups were subjected to an artificial caries process. ICON was applied to caries and noncaries subgroups following the manufacturer's directions. Impressions were made at each step: after the restorations were completed, thermocycling, artificial caries procedures, and infiltrant application and the silicone tag lengths were measured with a stereomicroscope. The specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine at 37° C for 24 hours, sectioned and microleakage was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Selected samples and their replicas were assessed for marginal quality under a stereomicroscope and SEM. Statistical evaluation of the data were made using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Sign Rank tests. While bonding application did not create a meaningful difference, the thermocycling and artificial caries significantly increased the gap length and microleakage (p < 0.05). ICON application was decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps which were previously occurred at the same cavities (p < 0.05). A resin infiltrant (ICON) application decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps, which previously occurred at the same cavities. Approximal application of resin infiltrant may increase the success of the class II composite restorations also reduced the risk of needing more complex restoration therapy.

  1. Digital Margins : How spatially and socially marginalized communities deal with digital exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of the Internet as a means of communication has transformed economies and societies. For spatially and socially marginalized communities, this transformation has resulted in digital exclusion and further marginalization. This book presents a study of two kinds of

  2. Stroke Laterality Bias in the Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gavin; Wade, Carrie; McKee, Jacqueline; McCarron, Peter; McVerry, Ferghal; McCarron, Mark O

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the impact of stroke laterality on the management process and outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Consecutive patients admitted to a general hospital over 1 year with supratentorial AIS were eligible for inclusion in the study. Baseline characteristics and risk factors, delays in hospital admission, imaging, intrahospital transfer to an acute stoke unit, stroke severity and classification, length of hospital admission, as well as 10-year mortality were measured and compared among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. There were 141 patients (77 men, 64 women; median age 73 [interquartile range 63-79] years), There were 71 patients with left hemisphere AIS and 70 with right hemisphere AIS. Delays to hospital admission from stroke onset to neuroimaging were similar among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. Delay in transfer to an acute stroke unit (ASU) following hospital admission was on average 14 hours more for right hemisphere compared to left hemisphere AIS patients (P = .01). Laterality was not associated with any difference in 10-year survival. Patients with mild and nondominant AIS merit particular attention to minimize their intrahospital transfer time to an ASU. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Refining prices and margins in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.; Baudoin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia

  4. Tract-Specific Diffusion Tensor Imaging Reveals Laterality of Neurological Symptoms in Patients with Cervical Compression Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Satoshi; Koda, Masao; Saito, Junya; Takahashi, Sho; Inada, Taigo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Iijima, Yasushi; Masuda, Yoshitada; Matsumoto, Koji; Kojima, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Obata, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2016-12-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy (CCM) generally present bilateral neurological symptoms in their extremities. However, a substantial portion of patients with CCM exhibit laterality of neurological symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between intrinsic structural damage and laterality of symptoms using spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corticospinal tract. We enrolled 10 healthy volunteers and 40 patients with CCM in this study. We evaluated motor function using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score for left and right extremities. For DTI acquisitions, a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system with diffusion-weighted spin-echo sequence was used. Regions-of-interest in the lateral column tracts were determined. We determined the correlations between fractional anisotropy (FA) and ASIA motor scores. An FA asymmetry index was calculated using left and right regions-of-interest. Four patients exhibited laterality of symptoms in their extremities, for which left and right ASIA scores correlated moderately with FA in the left and right lateral columns, respectively (left: ρ = 0.64, P laterality of symptoms. Using tract-specific DTI, we demonstrated that microstructural damages in the left and right corticospinal tracts correlated with corresponding neurological symptoms in the ipsilateral side and the FA asymmetry index could indicate laterality in neurological symptoms of patients with CCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  6. Laterality of the lower limbs and carving turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Vaverka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discover whether the lateral preference of the lower limbs influences the execution of successive carving turns or not. Six skilled skiers (men, right lower limb preference, age 26.5±1.61 years old, height 1.80±0.04 m, body weight 78.83±5.46 kg executed 30 (18 left, 12 right symmetrical carving turns. Kinetic analysis of the final vertical component of reaction force FZ(t measured dynamometrically provided the information about the time of initiation and steering phases of the turn and the maximum force, average force and force impulse. Differences between right and left turns are not statistically significant. Factual analyses of the magnitude of measured variables confirmed that left turns were found to have a longer duration, a shorter initiation and longer steering phase, and higher level of produced force and force impulse in comparison with right turns. Based on the results it can be concluded that the turns where the outer leg is the preferred limb are preferentially used to regulate the speed of the ride. The study of laterality in symmetrical carving turns has proven that lateral preference of lower extremities influences the execution of the turn also by expert skiers.

  7. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathiak Krystyna A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring quality of life (QOL helps to delineate mechanisms underlying the interaction of disease and psychosocial factors. In adults, epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe led to lower QOL and higher depression and anxiety as compared to the right-sided foci. No study addressed the development of QOL disturbances depending on the lateralization of epileptogenic focus. The objective of our study was to examine QOL in children with lateralized epileptiform discharges. Methods Thirty-one parents of children with epilepsy filled the Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE. Fifteen children had foci in the left hemisphere and sixteen in the right, as verified with Electroencephalography (EEG examinations. Results We found a significant correlation between foci lateralization and reduced QOL (Spearman's rho = 0.361, p Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time that in children left- and right-hemispheric foci were associated with discordant QOL scores. Unlike in adults, foci in the right hemisphere led to worse emotional and social functioning demonstrating that seizures impact the brain differentially during development.

  8. Detour behaviour, imprinting and visual lateralization in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Pagni, P

    1999-01-01

    Detour behaviour was studied in chicks faced with a vertical-bar barrier behind where an imprinting object (a red ball) was located. Right-eyed chicks took less time to detour the barrier than left-eyed chicks, and binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the left side, thus maintaining visual contact with the imprinting object using the lateral field of the right eye, while circling around the barrier. In males, the asymmetries were consistent all along the first two weeks of life, whereas in females they disappeared on days 8 and 11. When tested with a slightly novel version of the original imprinting object (i.e., a ball of a different color), binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the right side, thus showing preferential use of the left eye. The same bias occurred when unfamiliar conspecifics were used as goal-objects. Results suggest that cerebral lateralization in birds can directly affect visually-guided motor responses through selective use of the lateral field of vision of the eye contralateral to the hemisphere which has to be put in charge of control of overt behaviour. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Twenty-degree-tilt radiography for evaluation of lateral humeral condylar fracture in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hideaki; Tanaka, Ryuji; Itoh, Yohei; Kishi, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of '20 -tilt anteroposterior (A-P) radiography' in the assessment of lateral condylar fractures of the distal humerus. Eighteen children with lateral humeral condylar fractures were studied. Every child underwent conventional A-P and lateral radiography, and six children underwent multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). For the investigation of 20 -tilt radiography, ten children with lateral humeral condylar fractures had conventional and 20 -tilt A-P and lateral radiography both preoperatively and postoperatively. Fragment dislocation was measured at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture on both the conventional A-P and 20 -tilt A-P radiographs. The lateral condylar fragment was triangular and was most prominent posteriorly. The fracture line was typically tilted approximately 20 to a reference line perpendicular to the long axis of the humerus in the lateral view. The extent of dislocation at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture site by 20 -tilt A-P radiography (9.3 ± 3.6 mm and 5.6 ± 2.5 mm) was significantly wider than that measured by the conventional method (6.8 ± 4.1 mm and 2.0 ± 1.5 mm), which may influence treatment. Twenty-degree-tilt A-P radiography may more precisely demonstrate fragment dislocation than standard radiographs and may influence patient treatment. (orig.)

  10. Multimodality Imaging of Left Circumflex Artery to Coronary Sinus Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Tan Ling; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Abu Bakar, Norzailin; Mohd Sani, Fadhli; Oemar, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a rare anomaly of the coronary artery. Patients with this condition are usually asymptomatic. However, cardiac failure may occur later in life due to progressive enlargement of the fistula. Diagnosis is traditionally made by echocardiogram and conventional angiogram. However with the advantage of new technologies such as computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography, the course and communications of these fistulae can be delineated non-invasively and with greater accuracy. We report a case of a left circumflex artery fistula to the coronary sinus which was suspected on echocardiogram and the diagnosis was clinched on ECG-gated CT. PMID:25793089

  11. Lateralization of eye use in cuttlefish: opposite direction for anti-predatory and predatory behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerstin Schnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e. vigilant scanning. To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional

  12. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Alexandra K; Hanlon, Roger T; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  13. On probabilistically defined margins in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papiez, Lech; Langer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Margins about a target volume subject to external beam radiation therapy are designed to assure that the target volume of tissue to be sterilized by treatment is adequately covered by a lethal dose. Thus, margins are meant to guarantee that all potential variation in tumour position relative to beams allows the tumour to stay within the margin. Variation in tumour position can be broken into two types of dislocations, reducible and irreducible. Reducible variations in tumour position are those that can be accommodated with the use of modern image-guided techniques that derive parameters for compensating motions of patient bodies and/or motions of beams relative to patient bodies. Irreducible variations in tumour position are those random dislocations of a target that are related to errors intrinsic in the design and performance limitations of the software and hardware, as well as limitations of human perception and decision making. Thus, margins in the era of image-guided treatments will need to accommodate only random errors residual in patient setup accuracy (after image-guided setup corrections) and in the accuracy of systems designed to track moving and deforming tissues of the targeted regions of the patient's body. Therefore, construction of these margins will have to be based on purely statistical data. The characteristics of these data have to be determined through the central limit theorem and Gaussian properties of limiting error distributions. In this paper, we show how statistically determined margins are to be designed in the general case of correlated distributions of position errors in three-dimensional space. In particular, we show how the minimal margins for a given level of statistical confidence are found. Then, how they are to be used to determine geometrically minimal PTV that provides coverage of GTV at the assumed level of statistical confidence. Our results generalize earlier recommendations for statistical, central limit theorem

  14. Random Marginal and Random Removal values

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    We propose two variations of the non-cooperative bargaining model for games in coalitional form, introduced by Hart and Mas-Colell (1996a). These strategic games implement, in the limit, two new NTU-values: The random marginal and the random removal values. The main characteristic of these proposals is that they always select a unique payoff allocation in NTU-games. The random marginal value coincides with the Consistent NTU-value (Maschler and Owen, 1989) for hyperplane games, and with the S...

  15. On probabilistically defined margins in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papiez, Lech; Langer, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2006-08-21

    Margins about a target volume subject to external beam radiation therapy are designed to assure that the target volume of tissue to be sterilized by treatment is adequately covered by a lethal dose. Thus, margins are meant to guarantee that all potential variation in tumour position relative to beams allows the tumour to stay within the margin. Variation in tumour position can be broken into two types of dislocations, reducible and irreducible. Reducible variations in tumour position are those that can be accommodated with the use of modern image-guided techniques that derive parameters for compensating motions of patient bodies and/or motions of beams relative to patient bodies. Irreducible variations in tumour position are those random dislocations of a target that are related to errors intrinsic in the design and performance limitations of the software and hardware, as well as limitations of human perception and decision making. Thus, margins in the era of image-guided treatments will need to accommodate only random errors residual in patient setup accuracy (after image-guided setup corrections) and in the accuracy of systems designed to track moving and deforming tissues of the targeted regions of the patient's body. Therefore, construction of these margins will have to be based on purely statistical data. The characteristics of these data have to be determined through the central limit theorem and Gaussian properties of limiting error distributions. In this paper, we show how statistically determined margins are to be designed in the general case of correlated distributions of position errors in three-dimensional space. In particular, we show how the minimal margins for a given level of statistical confidence are found. Then, how they are to be used to determine geometrically minimal PTV that provides coverage of GTV at the assumed level of statistical confidence. Our results generalize earlier recommendations for statistical, central limit theorem

  16. Cleft palate lateral synechia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybil, Deborah; Sagtani, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate are the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly in humans. The presence of oral synechia along with cleft palate is a rare syndrome. We encountered one case that had a cleft palate accompanied by congenital oral synechia due to a membranous adhesion between the floor of the mouth and the free margin of the cleft palate.

  17. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with Stroop-type tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu J Ruiz

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task. Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment. Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms, a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults.

  18. A Rare Case of Painful Trigeminal Neuropathy Secondary to Lateral Medullary Infarct: Neuroimaging and Electrophysiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Tang; Lo, Chung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Chu; Tu, Min-Chien

    2015-06-01

    To report a rare case of painful trigeminal neuropathy after lateral medullary infarct and probe its underlying pathogenesis on the basis of neuroimaging and electrophysiological study. A 45-year-old man presented acute onset of unsteady gait followed by paroxysmal and electric shock-like headache in the distribution of ophthalmic branch of left trigeminal nerve in 2 days. Neurological examinations showed hypoesthesia in the distribution of mandibular branch of left trigeminal nerve and left appendicular ataxia. Muscle powers and deep tendon reflexes were normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarct within the left cerebellum and middle portion of dorsolateral medulla. Vascular compression at the root entry zone of trigeminal nerve was excluded. Painful trigeminal neuropathy secondary to lateral medullary infarct was diagnosed. Ancillary blink reflex study 3 days after the stroke event showed abnormal late responses (R2), either ipsilateral or contralateral, after stimulation of left supraorbital nerve, suggesting left medullary lesion. Followup study 3 weeks later demonstrated normalization in absolute latencies of bilateral late responses, in line with remission of pain paroxysms on low-dose gabapentin treatment. Painful trigeminal neuropathy attributed to lateral medullary infarct is a unique disease entity. Ophthalmic branch involvement, coexisting sensory deficits, absence of triggers, and rapid evolvement and remission are its characteristics. Our neuroimaging study delineated ischemic stroke pathology within descending tract and spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve. Serial electrophysiological studies provide evidences supporting ephaptic transmission as the main pathogenesis concordant with dynamics of neuropathic pain and therapeutic implications.

  19. Anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve in relation to the lateral epicondyle and cephalic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkerdsook, Wachara; Agthong, Sithiporn; Amarase, Chavarin; Yotnuengnit, Pattarapol; Huanmanop, Thanasil; Chentanez, Vilai

    2011-01-01

    The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) is the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve supplying the lateral aspect of forearm. Because of its close proximity to the biceps brachii tendon (BBT), the lateral epicondyle (LE), and the cephalic vein (CV), surgery and venipuncture in the cubital fossa can injure the LACN. Measurement data regarding the relative anatomy of LACN are scarce. We, therefore, dissected 96 upper extremities from 26 males and 22 females to expose the LACN in the cubital fossa and forearm. The LACN consistently emerged from the lateral margin of BBT. It then pierced the deep fascia distal to the interepicondylar line (IEL) in 84.4% with mean distances of 1.8 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 0.9 cm (male and female, respectively). At the level of IEL, the LACN in all cases was medial to the LE (5.9 ± 1.1 cm male and 5.2 ± 0.9 cm female). Two types of branching were observed: single trunk (78.1%) and bifurcation (21.9%). Asymmetry in the branching pattern was observed in 6 males and 1 female. Concerning the relationship to the CV, the LACN ran medially within 1 cm at the level of IEL in 78.7%. Moreover, in 10 specimens, the LACN was directly beneath the CV. In the forearm, the LACN tends to course medial to the CV. Significant differences in the measurement data between genders but not sides were found in some parameters. These data are important for avoiding LACN injury and locating the LACN during relevant medical procedures. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. 17 CFR 41.47 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of margin. 41.47... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.47 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer... deposited as margin for positions in an account may be withdrawn, provided that the equity in the account...

  1. 17 CFR 242.405 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of margin. 242.405...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.405 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer. Except as otherwise...

  2. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  3. The tectonic significance of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain in the SE Brazilian margin: a Paleoproterozoic through Cretaceous saga of a reworked continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain is composed of a Paleoproterozoic basement tectonically interleaved with Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Buzios-Palmital successions. It is in contact with the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Ribeira Orogen along the SE Brazilian coast. The basement was part of at least three continental margins: (a 1.97 Ga; (b 0.59 - 0.53 Ga; (c 0.14 Ga to today. It consists of continental magmatic arc rocks of 1.99 to 1.94 Ga. Zircon cores show a 2.5 - 2.6 Ga inheritance from the ancient margin of the Congo Craton. During the Ediacaran, this domain was thinned and intruded by tholeiitic mafic dykes during the development of an oceanic basin at ca. 0.59 Ma. After the tectonic inversion, these basin deposits reached high P-T metamorphic conditions, by subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, and were later exhumed as nappes over the basement. The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain collided with the arc domain of the Ribeira Orogen at ca. 0.54 Ga. It is not an exotic block, but the eastern transition between this orogen and the Congo Craton. Almost 400 m.y. later, the South Atlantic rift zone followed roughly this suture, not coincidently. It shows how the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain was reactivated as a continental margin in successive extensional and convergent events through geological time.

  4. Vertebrate Left-Right Asymmetry: What Can Nodal Cascade Gene Expression Patterns Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickert, Axel; Ott, Tim; Kurz, Sabrina; Tingler, Melanie; Maerker, Markus; Fuhl, Franziska; Blum, Martin

    2017-12-29

    Laterality of inner organs is a wide-spread characteristic of vertebrates and beyond. It is ultimately controlled by the left-asymmetric activation of the Nodal signaling cascade in the lateral plate mesoderm of the neurula stage embryo, which results from a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluids at the left-right organizer. This scenario is widely accepted for laterality determination in wildtype specimens. Deviations from this norm come in different flavors. At the level of organ morphogenesis, laterality may be inverted (situs inversus) or non-concordant with respect to the main body axis (situs ambiguus or heterotaxia). At the level of Nodal cascade gene activation, expression may be inverted, bilaterally induced, or absent. In a given genetic situation, patterns may be randomized or predominantly lacking laterality (absence or bilateral activation). We propose that the distributions of patterns observed may be indicative of the underlying molecular defects, with randomizations being primarily caused by defects in the flow-generating ciliary set-up, and symmetrical patterns being the result of impaired flow sensing, on the left, the right, or both sides. This prediction, the reasoning of which is detailed in this review, pinpoints functions of genes whose role in laterality determination have remained obscure.

  5. Exploring laterality and memory effects in the haptic discrimination of verbal and non-verbal shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoycheva, Polina; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2018-03-14

    The brain's left hemisphere often displays advantages in processing verbal information, while the right hemisphere favours processing non-verbal information. In the haptic domain due to contra-lateral innervations, this functional lateralization is reflected in a hand advantage during certain functions. Findings regarding the hand-hemisphere advantage for haptic information remain contradictory, however. This study addressed these laterality effects and their interaction with memory retention times in the haptic modality. Participants performed haptic discrimination of letters, geometric shapes and nonsense shapes at memory retention times of 5, 15 and 30 s with the left and right hand separately, and we measured the discriminability index d'. The d' values were significantly higher for letters and geometric shapes than for nonsense shapes. This might result from dual coding (naming + spatial) or/and from a low stimulus complexity. There was no stimulus-specific laterality effect. However, we found a time-dependent laterality effect, which revealed that the performance of the left hand-right hemisphere was sustained up to 15 s, while the performance of the right-hand-left hemisphere decreased progressively throughout all retention times. This suggests that haptic memory traces are more robust to decay when they are processed by the left hand-right hemisphere.

  6. Anatomicosurgical segmentectomy of the left ventricle for systematized partial resection of the heart: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberato John Alphonse DI DIO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A surgical experimental investigation is being carried out in an attempt to provide a viable alternative to the current approaches to cardiac resection of the left ventricular myocardium in cases of cardiomyopathies with dilated ventricle. The experiments are based upon the presence of anatomicosurgical segments in the dog's heart similar to those existing in the atria and ventricles of humans. So far three mongrel dogs (weight 15 kg were submitted to cardiac catheterism to evaluate the anatomy of the coronary arteries and their branches, the function and cavity of the left ventricle (LV. A lateral thoracotomy on the left side was performed to expose the heart. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB of each animal was established through the right atrium and the femoral artery (4 mg/kg Heparin, at 32°C, intermittent aorta cross-clamping. The left marginal artery and veins were ligated, causing an area of acute myocardial infarction, showing well-defined sharp limits. Such an area was then resected and the left ventricle was reconstructed. The animals were weaned from CPB, one dog having remained in a stable condition during a 7-day period of observation. The second was sacrificed after 4-day period of observation and the third dog died four hours after CPB owing to an excessive reduction of the LV chamber related to an anatomical variation. Pre and post operation transthoracic echocardiograms were obtained after undergoing cardiac catheterism. The echocardiogram revealed discrete mitral insufficiency, reduction of the diameter of the left ventricle with approximation of the papillary muscles, a dysfunction and an impressive reduction of the cavity of the left ventricle. Peri-sutural areas of infarction were not observed. The orientation given by the anatomicosurgical segmentation of the coronary circulation is an important alternative to the present surgical treatment of cardiomyopathies with dilated ventricle.Uma investigação experimental cir

  7. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - I. Historical statistics and model framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Experts may disagree on when world oil production will peak, but there is general agreement that marginal fields will contribute a greater percentage of world supply in the future. As fields mature and operations transition into the later stages of their production cycle, decreasing revenue streams, higher operating costs, and fewer upside opportunities lead to declining profitability. Eventually, all properties are abandoned when cost exceeds the revenue of production. In this two-part paper on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, the number of marginal structures in the gulf and their expected contribution to future production is forecast using established economic models. In Part 1, a historical perspective on producing assets is provided and the inventory of committed assets is modeled and categorized. We operationalize the definition of marginal production based on a structure's economic limit. The model framework to identify marginal assets in the Gulf of Mexico is discussed and a step-by-step description of the methodology is provided. In Part 2, the results of the model are described. (author)

  8. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - I. Historical statistics and model framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Experts may disagree on when world oil production will peak, but there is general agreement that marginal fields will contribute a greater percentage of world supply in the future. As fields mature and operations transition into the later stages of their production cycle, decreasing revenue streams, higher operating costs, and fewer upside opportunities lead to declining profitability. Eventually, all properties are abandoned when cost exceeds the revenue of production. In this two-part paper on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, the number of marginal structures in the gulf and their expected contribution to future production is forecast using established economic models. In Part 1, a historical perspective on producing assets is provided and the inventory of committed assets is modeled and categorized. We operationalize the definition of marginal production based on a structure's economic limit. The model framework to identify marginal assets in the Gulf of Mexico is discussed and a step-by-step description of the methodology is provided. In Part 2, the results of the model are described. (author)

  9. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno

    2008-07-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  10. Evolution of the Mariana Convergent Plate Margin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Patricia

    1996-02-01

    volcano chains extending from the base of the fault westward into the back arc basin. The western boundary is the West Mariana Ridge, the western portion of the volcanic arc active prior to formation of the Mariana Trough. The trough evolved in a two-stage extension process of rifting and subsequent seafloor spreading. The back arc basin varies along strike from rifted arc lithosphere with scattered volcanoes but no real spreading center in the north to a complex mid-ocean-type spreading center south of 20°N. The change from initial rifting to true seafloor spreading is also evident across the Mariana Trough from rifted topography near the West Mariana Ridge to spreading ridges in the central to eastern basin south of 20°N. This morphologic change indicates an early stage of extension with basin-and-range-type topography predominant and volcanism restricted to fissure eruptions along fault block boundaries. The spreading ridges and abyssal hill morphology evolved later as new lithosphere was generated at elongate volcanic ridges located in the center of rift valleys. The center of extension intersects the active volcanic front differently at either end of the Mariana Trough. In the north, extension is by rifting of arc lithosphere where it intersects the arc. In the south a major strike-slip fault extends from the trench axis across the forearc, through the volcanic arc, and into the back arc basin. Arc magmas apparently leak along this fault zone into the forearc and the back arc spreading center. The complexity of interrelated tectonism and magmatism in this convergent margin is daunting, but studies of arc systems such as this provide the best hope of interpreting many of the exposed terranes accreted to continents. Comparison of subaerial terranes with recent studies of intraoceanic convergent margins will add to our understanding of plate interactions and of the evolution of the volcanic arcs and extensional back arc basins generated within such environments.

  11. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  12. Constraining Lithosphere Deformation Modes during Continental Breakup for the Iberia-Newfoundland Conjugate Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Mohn, G.; Manatschal, G.

    2014-12-01

    How the lithosphere and asthenosphere deforms during continental rifting leading to breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation is poorly understood. Observations at present-day and fossil analogue rifted margins show a complex OCT architecture which cannot be explained by a single simplistic lithosphere deformation modes. This OCT complexity includes hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, detachments faults, exhumed mantle, continental slivers and scattered embryonic oceanic crust. We use a coupled kinematic-dynamic model of lithosphere and asthenosphere deformation to determine the sequence of lithosphere deformation modes leading to continental breakup for Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margin profiles. We quantitatively calibrate the models using observed present-day water loaded subsidence and crustal thickness, together with subsidence history and the age of melt generation. Flow fields, representing a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FE-Margin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FE-Margin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the upper 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling below. Buoyancy enhanced upwelling (Braun et al. 2000) is also kinematically included. Melt generation by decompressional melting is predicted using the methodology of Katz et al., 2003. The extension magnitudes used in the lithosphere deformation models are taken from Sutra et al (2013). The best fit calibrated models of lithosphere deformation evolution for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins require (i) an initial broad region of lithosphere deformation and passive upwelling, (ii) lateral migration of deformation, (iii) an increase in extension rate with time, (iv) focussing of deformation and (v) buoyancy induced upwelling. The preferred calibrated models predict faster extension rates and earlier continental crustal rupture and

  13. Fatal stroke after completion pneumonectomy for torsion of left upper lobe following left lower lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolakis Efstratios

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lobar torsion after lung surgery is a rare complication with an incidence of 0.09 to 0.4 %. It may occur after twisting of the bronchovascular pedicle of the remaining lobe after lobectomy, usually on the right side. The 180-degree rotation of the pedicle produces an acute obstruction of the lobar bronchus (atelectasis and of the lobar vessels as well. Without prompt treatment it progresses to lobar ischemia, pulmonary infarction and finally fatal gangrene. Case Presentation A 62 years old female patient was admitted for surgical treatment of lung cancer. She underwent elective left lower lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma (pT2 N0. The operation was unremarkable, and the patient was extubated in the operating room. After eight hours the patient established decrease of pO2 and chest x-ray showed atelectasis of the lower lobe. To establish diagnosis, bronchoscopy was performed, demonstrating obstructed left lobar bronchus. The patient was re-intubated, and admitted to the operating room where reopening of the thoracotomy was performed. Lobar torsion was diagnosed, with the diaphragmatic surface of the upper lobe facing in an anterosuperior orientation. A completion pneumonectomy was performed. At the end of the procedure the patient developed a right pupil dilatation, presumably due to a cerebral embolism. A subsequent brain angio-CT scan established the diagnosis. She died at the intensive care unit 26 days later. Conclusion The thoracic surgeon should suspect this rare early postoperative complication after any thoracic operation in every patient with atelectasis of the neighboring lobe. High index of suspicion and prompt diagnosis may prevent catastrophic consequences, such as, infarction or gangrene of the pulmonary lobe. During thoracic operations, especially whenever the lung or lobe hilum is full mobilized, fixation of the remaining lobe may prevent this life threatening complication.

  14. Early math intervention for marginalized students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    2016-01-01

    This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...

  15. Marginal adaptation of ceramic inserts after cementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Pfeiffer, P; Nergiz, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    The advantage of using ceramic inserts is to prevent major drawbacks of composite resins such as polymerization shrinkage, wear and microleakage. This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation of two approximal ceramic insert systems after cementation to the cavities opened with ultrasonic

  16. Mundhulens mikroflora hos patienter med marginal parodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2011-01-01

    ikke dyrkes. Viden om samspillet mellem bakterierne i plakken, som er en biofilm, er ligeledes under hastig udvikling. Dette betyder, at vi i de kommende år løbende må revidere vores forståelse af marginal parodontitis’ mikrobiologi. I nærværende oversigtsartikel præsenteres den eksisterende viden...

  17. Mundhulens mikroflora hos patienter med marginal parodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Viden om marginal parodontitis’ mikrobiologi tog for alvor fart for ca. 40 år siden. Den tidlige viden var baseret på mikroskopiske og dyrkningsmæssige undersøgelser af den subgingivale plak. Anvendelsen af de nyere molekylærbiologiske metoder har betydet, at vor viden om de ætiologiske faktorer ...

  18. Marginal Strength of Collarless Metal Ceramic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikka Swati

    2010-01-01

    fracture strength at margins of metal ceramic crowns cemented to metal tooth analogs. Crowns evaluated with different marginal configurations, shoulder and shoulder bevel with 0 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm, and 1.5 mm, were selected. Methods. Maxillary right canine typhodont tooth was prepared to receive a metal ceramic crown with shoulder margin. This was duplicated to get 20 metal teeth analogs. Then the same tooth was reprepared to get shoulder bevel configuration. These crowns were then cemented onmetal teeth analogs and tested for fracture strength atmargin on an Instron testing machine. A progressive compressive load was applied using 6.3 mm diameter rod with crosshead speed of 2.5 mm per minute. Statisticaly analysis was performed with ANOVA, Student's “t” test and “f” test. Results. The fracture strength of collarless metal ceramic crowns under study exceeded the normal biting force. Therefore it can be suggested that collarless metal ceramic crowns with shoulder or shoulder bevel margins up to 1.5 mm framework reduction may be indicated for anteriormetal ceramic restorations. Significance. k Collarless metal ceramic crowns have proved to be successful for anterior fixed restorations. Hence, it may be subjected to more clinical trials.

  19. The marginal costs of climate changing emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Downing, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the marginal costs of the emissions of a selected number of radiatively-active gases, three uniformly-mixed gases – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide – and two region-specific gases – nitrogen (from aircraft) and sulphur, which influence ozone and sulphate aerosol

  20. Environmental Degradation, Social Marginalization and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Environmental Degradation, Social Marginalization and the Dynamics of Vulnerability in the Earthquake of October 2005 (Pakistan). On 8 October 2005, an earthquake registering 7.6 on the Richter scale struck northeast Pakistan. Although concentrated in a small area, the damage was severe. At least 73 000 people were ...

  1. Structure and tectonics of convergent plate margins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš (ed.); Čadek, O. (ed.); Engdahl, E. R. (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 4 (2004), s. 241 ISSN 0031-9201 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Keywords : tectonics * subduction * convergent margins Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.370, year: 2004

  2. Marketing margins and agricultural technology in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman

    2000-01-01

    of improved agricultural technology and lower marketing margins yield welfare gains across the economy. In addition, a combined scenario reveals significant synergy effects, as gains exceed the sum of gains from the individual scenarios. Relative welfare improvements are higher for poor rural households...

  3. Policy Implementation, Role Conflict and Marginalization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    The Stool Land Revenue (SLR) shared among Traditional Authorities (TAs) is only 7 per cent of the District Assemblies Common Fund (Grants). The District Assemblies receive 55 per cent of the. SLR plus DACF. The political structures, taxation authority, distribution of SLR, and Grants are used as tools to marginalize the ...

  4. Large margin image set representation and classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    In this paper, we propose a novel image set representation and classification method by maximizing the margin of image sets. The margin of an image set is defined as the difference of the distance to its nearest image set from different classes and the distance to its nearest image set of the same class. By modeling the image sets by using both their image samples and their affine hull models, and maximizing the margins of the images sets, the image set representation parameter learning problem is formulated as an minimization problem, which is further optimized by an expectation - maximization (EM) strategy with accelerated proximal gradient (APG) optimization in an iterative algorithm. To classify a given test image set, we assign it to the class which could provide the largest margin. Experiments on two applications of video-sequence-based face recognition demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art image set classification methods in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency.

  5. Sustainable biomass production on Marginal Lands (SEEMLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Federica; Baumgarten, Wibke; Pelikan, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable biomass production on Marginal Lands (SEEMLA) The main objective of the H2020 funded EU project SEEMLA (acronym for Sustainable Exploitation of Biomass for Bioenergy from Marginal Lands in Europe) is the establishment of suitable innovative land-use strategies for a sustainable production of plant-based energy on marginal lands while improving general ecosystem services. The use of marginal lands (MagL) could contribute to the mitigation of the fast growing competition between traditional food production and production of renewable bio-resources on arable lands. SEEMLA focuses on the promotion of re-conversion of MagLs for the production of bioenergy through the direct involvement of farmers and forester, the strengthening of local small-scale supply chains, and the promotion of plantations of bioenergy plants on MagLs. Life cycle assessment is performed in order to analyse possible impacts on the environment. A soil quality rating tool is applied to define and classify MagL. Suitable perennial and woody bioenergy crops are selected to be grown in pilot areas in the partner countries Ukraine, Greece and Germany. SEEMLA is expected to contribute to an increasing demand of biomass for bioenergy production in order to meet the 2020 targets and beyond.

  6. Behavioral laterality in Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platto, Sara; Zhang, C; Pine, Matthew K; Feng, W K; Yang, L G; Irwin, A; Wang, D

    2017-07-01

    The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is a critically endangered species with less than 1000 individuals expected to be left in the wild. While many studies have been conducted on laterality among several cetacean species, no studies investigating the Yangtze finless porpoise have been conducted. Using event sampling methods, several behaviors such as flipper-body touching, object touching, barrel-rolls, side swimming, and swimming direction were recorded from six captive porpoises (three males and three females). Analyses of 360 observations recorded over two months revealed that, at group level, porpoises showed laterality in swimming behaviors. Porpoises swam preferentially with their right pectoral fin upward and their left pectoral fin downward with a clockwise swimming direction and also displayed a consistent bias for a counterclockwise barrel-roll direction. No significant differences were reported for flipper use either during the interaction with conspecifics or with objects. The results from the current study provide novel insight into the cerebral asymmetry in a species previously ignored within the literature, thus improving our understanding on the extent of laterality in cetaceans and on the evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality for vertebrates in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 12 CFR 220.11 - Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks. 220.11 Section 220.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... (REGULATION T) § 220.11 Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin... paragraph (f) of this section, OTC margin stock shall meet the following requirements: (1) Four or more...

  8. Efficacy of Minor Lateral Tarsorrhaphy in Conjunction with Levator Muscle Recession in Improvement of Superior Lid Retraction of Thyroid Ophthalmopathic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Attarzade

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of minor lateral tarsorrhaphy in conjunction with levator muscle recession in thyroid ophthalmopathic patients with severe lid retraction in order to correct the temporal flare in these patients Methods: In a before-after clinical trial study, 22 eyelids of 12 patients with severe lid retraction underwent surgery by this method and the lid height in a 6 months follow up was evaluated. Lid height before and after operation were measured on basis of Margin Reflex distance (MRD1 and recorded in a special form for analysis. All of these patients were in the silent phase of disease and if a strabismus or orbital surgery was indicated, it was performed before the study. Results: After a six months follow-up, mean MRD1 decreased in the right eye from 7.76±0.55 to 4.86±0.32 mm and in the left eye from 7.81±0.64 to 4.75±0.35mm (p<0.0001. In all patients, satisfactory response was achieved and corneal surface discomfort was relieved. No serious complication was seen. Conclusion: Minor lateral tarsorrhaphy in conjunction with levator recession procedure in thyroid ophthalmic patients can have satisfactory results and result in correction of temporal flare.

  9. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  10. Eye-hand laterality and right thoracic idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Jean-François; Guyot, Marc-Alexandre; Agnani, Olivier; Demaille, Samantha; Kolanowski, Elisabeth; Donze, Cécile

    2014-06-01

    The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) pathogenesis remains unknown. Certain studies have shown that there is a correlation between manual laterality and scoliotic deviation. A full study of manual laterality needs to be paired with one for visual dominance. With the aim of physiopathological research, we have evaluated the manual and visual laterality in AIS. A retrospective study from prospective data collection is used to evaluate the distribution of eye-hand laterality (homogeneous or crossed) of 65 right thoracic AIS (mean age 14.8 ± 1.8 years; mean Cobb angle: 32.8°) and a control group of 65 sex and age-matched (mean age 14.6 ± 1.8 years). The manual laterality was defined by the modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The evaluation of the visual laterality is done using three tests (kaleidoscope test, hole-in-the-card test, distance-hole-in-the-card test). The group of right thoracic AIS presents a significantly higher frequency of crossed eye-hand laterality (63 %) than the control group (63 vs. 29.2 %; p laterality is "right hand dominant-left eye dominant" (82.9 %). There is no relationship with the Cobb angle. Those with right thoracic AIS show a higher occurrence of crossed eye-hand laterality. This could point physiopathological research of AIS towards functional abnormality of the optic chiasma through underuse of cross visual pathways, and in particular accessory optic pathways. It would be useful to explore this by carrying out research on AISs through neuroimaging and neurofunctional exploration.

  11. Microvascular Decompression of Facial Nerve and Pexy of the Left Vertebral Artery for Left Hemifacial Spasm: 3-Dimensional Operative Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun-Yu; Shetty, Rakshith; Martinez, Vicente; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2018-03-29

    A 73-yr-old man presented with intractable left hemifacial spasm of 4 yr duration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed significant compression of left facial nerve by the left vertebral artery (VA) and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA).The patient underwent a left retrosigmoid craniotomy and a microvascular decompression of the cranial nerve (CN) VII. Intraoperatively, we found that the distal AICA had a protracted subarcuate extradural course.1 This was relieved by intra/extradural dissection. The left VA and the AICA loop were compressing the root exit zone of CN VII. The VA was mobilized, and pexy into the petrosal dura was done with 8-0 nylon sutures (Ethilon Nylon Suture, Ethicon Inc, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, Somerville, New Jersey). Once this was done, the lateral spread disappeared.2 The AICA loop was decompressed with 2 pieces of Teflon felt (Bard PTFE felt, Bard peripheral Vascular Inc, a subsidiary of CR Bard Inc, Temp, Arizona). After this, wave V of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) disappeared completely, with no recovery despite the application of the nicardipine on the internal auditory artery (IAA). The IAA appeared to be stretched by the microvascular decompression. Arachnoidal dissection was done to release the CN VIII and an additional felt piece was placed to elevate the AICA loop; the BAEP recovered completely. The patient had a complete disappearance of the hemifacial spasm postoperatively, and hearing was unchanged.This 3-D video shows the technical nuances of performing a vertebropexy, release of the AICA from its extradural subarcuate course, and the surgical maneuvers in the event of an unexpected change in neuromonitoring response. The suture technique of vertebropexy is preferred to a loop technique, to avoid kinking of the VA.3Informed consent was obtained from the patient prior to the surgery that included videotaping of the procedure and its distribution for educational purposes. All relevant

  12. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lateralization of splay posture in reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoke, Joseph T

    2017-02-01

    Motor laterality is quite often studied in non-human primates, but rarely has been investigated within ungulates. The aim of the study was to use the naturally occurring splay behavior in giraffe as a method to look for the presence of laterality. Four male giraffes housed at Zoo Atlanta were watched for three months, recording their first leg moved to begin the splay posture and the total number of leg movements to achieve a secure stance. All four giraffe significantly moved their left leg first to begin the stance, which suggests at least individual level laterality. However, using the number of leg movements overall, the last leg moved was only significant in one individual. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A neural network model of lateralization during letter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, N; Reggia, J A

    1999-03-01

    The causes of cerebral lateralization of cognitive and other functions are currently not well understood. To investigate one aspect of function lateralization, a bihemispheric neural network model for a simple visual identification task was developed that has two parallel interacting paths of information processing. The model is based on commonly accepted concepts concerning neural connectivity, activity dynamics, and synaptic plasticity. A combination of both unsupervised (Hebbian) and supervised (Widrow-Hoff) learning rules is used to train the model to identify a small set of letters presented as input stimuli in the left visual hemifield, in the central position, and in the right visual hemifield. Each visual hemifield projects onto the contralateral hemisphere, and the two hemispheres interact via a simulated corpus callosum. The contribution of each individual hemisphere to the process of input stimuli identification was studied for a variety of underlying asymmetries. The results indicate that multiple asymmetries may cause lateralization. Lateralization occurred toward the side having larger size, higher excitability, or higher learning rate parameters. It appeared more intensively with strong inhibitory callosal connections, supporting the hypothesis that the corpus callosum plays a functionally inhibitory role. The model demonstrates clearly the dependence of lateralization on different hemisphere parameters and suggests that computational models can be useful in better understanding the mechanisms underlying emergence of lateralization.

  15. Rolling Hinge Formation of S and Overlying Crustal Blocks at the Galicia Rifted Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Pappano, P.; Henning, A. T.

    2003-12-01

    The last stage of continental breakup in the Galicia Bank Basin and Iberia Abyssal Plain appears to have involved "rolling hinge" style extension in forming the S detachment and the allocthonous continental blocks that overly S. We support this assertion using seismic examples from the Iberia Seismic Experiment, conducted in 1997 by U.S., German, Portuguese, and Spanish scientists, using the R/V Ewing's 4 km streamer and deep penetration airgun array. Profile ISE-5 is a north/south strike line across the Galicia Bank basin and over the area where S is well developed and studied. S is clearly seen, but is not the relatively simple, laterally continuous, reflector seen in dip lines. It is offset by one or more north-dipping mantle-penetrating faults and its reflection character changes at several points along the profile. Fault bounded blocks interpreted to consist of continental crust, prerift sediments, and postrift sediments overly S. In one location it appears that S may be directly overlain by postrift sediment. In strike cross-section, the continental blocks have a "pod-like" shape, thick (1-3 km) in the center and pinching out to both sides. The continental crustal section over S varies laterally and consists of a stack of one to three of these overlapping pods. In dip-section these blocks are bounded top and bottom by down-to-the-west normal faults that sole into S. We suggest that this geometry is consistent with margin formation as a rolling hinge detachment. The detachment had two major parts. To the west, the detachment fault dipped at high angle to the west into the upper mantle. The roughly horizontal detachment, imaged as the reflector S, is the continuation of this fault to the east. The upper mantle rocks forming the footwall of the detachment fault were pulled to the east, out from under the hanging wall along the high angle portion of the fault. They were then flexed and rotated so that the detachment became roughly horizontal. As substantial

  16. Pitx2 confers left morphological, molecular, and functional identity to the sinus venosus myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirabile, Grazia; Tessari, Alessandra; Pignataro, Viviana; Szumska, Dorota; Sutera Sardo, Fabio; Benes, Jiri; Balistreri, Mariangela; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Sedmera, David; Campione, Marina

    2012-02-01

    The sinus venous myocardium, comprising the sinoatrial node (SAN) and sinus horns (SH), is a region subject to congenital malformations and cardiac arrhythmias. It differentiates from symmetric bilateral mesenchymal precursors, but morphological, molecular, and functional left/right differences are progressively established through development. The role of the laterality gene Pitx2 in this process is unknown. We aimed to elucidate the molecular events driving left/right patterning in the sinus venosus (SV) myocardium by using a myocardial Pitx2 knockout mouse. We generated a myocardial specific Pitx2 knockout model (cTP mice). cTP embryos present several features of Pitx2 null, including right atrial isomerism with bilateral SANs and symmetric atrial entrance of the systemic veins. By in situ hybridization and optical mapping analysis, we compared throughout development the molecular and functional properties of the SV myocardium in wt and mutant embryos. We observed that Pitx2 prevents the expansion of the left-SAN primordium at the onset of its differentiation into myocardium; Pitx2 promotes expansion of the left SH through development; Pitx2 dose-dependently represses the autorhythmic properties of the left SV myocardium at mid-gestation (E14.5); Pitx2 modulates late foetal gene expression at the left SH-derived superior caval vein. Pitx2 drives left/right patterning of the SV myocardium through multiple developmental steps. Overall, Pitx2 plays a crucial functional role by negatively modulating a nodal-type programme in the left SV myocardium.

  17. Compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justich, E.

    1982-04-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed.

  18. Right-lateral shear and rotation as the explanation for strike-slip faulting in eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Philip; Molnar, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Bounds are placed here on the rate of rotation proposed by Cobbold and Davy (1988) for the major strike-slip faults in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. It is also concluded here that the image of lateral transport on such faults, known also as continental escape, extrusion, or expulsion, is an illusion, and that instead the left-lateral slip on east-striking plates in eastern Tibet is a manifestation of north-striking right-lateral simple shear. If this conclusion is correct, the east-striking left-lateral faults and the crustal blocks between them are rotating clockwise at 1-2 deg/Myr, the east-west dimension of eastern Tibet is shortening at 10-20 mm/yr, and little material is moving eastward out of India's path into Eursasia by left-lateral simple shear.

  19. A case of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery presenting with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Left coronary artery with its origin from the pulmonary trunk. He was admitted to the coronary care unit as a case of acute myocardial infarction with cardiovascular collapse. He received fluid resuscitation, inotropic support and standard management of heart failure. Six days later he was discharged home with a plan to ...

  20. Cued Dichotic Listening with Right-Handed, Left-Handed, Bilingual and Learning-Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, John E.; And Others

    This study used cued dichotic listening to investigate differences in language lateralization among right-handed (control), left handed, bilingual, and learning disabled children. Subjects (N=60) ranging in age from 7-13 years were administered a consonant-vowel-consonant dichotic paradigm with three experimental conditions (free recall, directed…

  1. Left Ventricular Aneurysm Presenting as a Late Complication of Childhood Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braghadheeswar Thyagarajan

    2015-01-01

    a rare and a dangerous complication which is particularly challenging in diagnosis requiring a high index of suspicion and periodic imaging. We present a case of a young Caucasian male with a past medical history of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia status after chemotherapy during his childhood diagnosed with left ventricular aneurysm several years later.

  2. Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. III; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%

  3. Chronic lateral epiphyseal separation of the proximal tibia causes late-onset tibia vara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sachi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Masaki; Mishima, Kenichi; Kadono, Izumi; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akiko; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    An adolescent obese boy showed late-onset unilateral tibia vara associated with physeal separation (slipped epiphysis) of the lateral proximal tibia and physeal widening of the lateral distal femur. These affected physes showed normal signal intensities by MRI. He was treated with lateral hemiepiphysiodesis of the left proximal tibia and the distal femur using two parallel eight-Plates, and varus deformity rapidly improved postoperatively without recurrence. This is the first case of late-onset tibia vara caused by lateral physeal separation of the proximal tibia. Normal growth of the medial physes around the knee would contribute toward significant correction after surgery.

  4. Arachnoid Pit and Extensive Sinus Pnematization as the Cause of Spontaneous Lateral Intrasphenoidal Encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AlMontasheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral sphenoid encephalocele, especially within the lateral aspect of the sphenoid sinus, when the sphenoid sinus has pneumatized extensively into the pterygoid recess, are considered exceedingly rare. We report a rare case of lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele with spontaneous cerebral spinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea. Computed tomography demonstrated bilateral arachnoid pit, extensive sphenoid sinus pneumatization, and a defect in the superior wall of the left lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated anteromedial temporal lobe herniating through the bony defect.

  5. Multiplicativity of left centralizers forcing additivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed Tammam El-Sayiad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiplicative left centralizer for an associative ring R is a map satisfying T(xy = T\\(xy for all x,y in R. T is not assumed to be additive. In this paper we deal with the additivity of the multiplicative left centralizers in a ring which contains an idempotent element. Specially, we study additivity for multiplicative left centralizers in prime and semiprime rings which contain an idempotent element.

  6. Partial Nephrectomy in a Patient with a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules P. Manger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular assist device (LVAD use has increased as a bridge to heart transplant as well as destination therapy in patients with severe heart failure. Presence of LVAD is not a contraindication to noncardiac surgery but does present special challenges to the surgical, anesthesia, and cardiac teams. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with idiopathic cardiomyopathy necessitating LVAD who underwent left partial nephrectomy for a renal mass. She had undergone three nondiagnostic percutaneous image-guided biopsies. Left partial nephrectomy was performed. Perioperative care was without incident due to careful oversight by a multidisciplinary team. Pathology revealed high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC with negative margins. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE bolsters were misidentified six months postoperatively on computed tomography (CT at an outside institution as a retained laparotomy sponge. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a partial nephrectomy performed in a patient with LVAD.

  7. Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

  8. Anarchy, socialism and a Darwinian left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen

    2006-03-01

    In A Darwinian left Peter Singer aims to reconcile Darwinian theory with left wing politics, using evolutionary game theory and in particular a model proposed by Robert Axelrod, which shows that cooperation can be an evolutionarily successful strategy. In this paper I will show that whilst Axelrod's model can give support to a kind of left wing politics, it is not the kind that Singer himself envisages. In fact, it is shown that there are insurmountable problems for the idea of increasing Axelrodian cooperation within a welfare state. My surprising conclusion will be that a Darwinian left worthy of the name would be anarchistic.

  9. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  10. [A case of malignant lymphoma with a metastasis to the lateral rectus muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoji, H; Nakamura, S; Ikeda, T

    1997-06-01

    We reported a 75-year-old woman with malignant lymphoma who had a metastasis to the right lateral rectus muscle. She was well until two months earlier, when a tumor in the left thigh began to enlarge. Ten days before admission, she noticed medial deviation of the right eyeball. Neurological examination showed the right esotropia with isolated paralysis of the right lateral gaze. She denied double vision. MR imaging demonstrated a swelling of the right lateral rectus muscle. Gallium scanning revealed abnormal accumulation in the right orbit and the left thigh. The tumor in the left thigh was histologically diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, diffuse large cell type. Discrete extraocular muscle metastasis is rare and unreported for malignant lymphoma. Reported cases of breast and thyroid cancers metastatic to the extraocular muscles did not develop diplopia similar to our case. The rapid growth of metastases to the extraocular muscles produces a large visual axes deviation, therefore no diplopia may be elicited.

  11. The marginal band system in nymphalid butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Kinjo, Seira; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns are highly complex and diverse, but they are believed to be derived from the nymphalid groundplan, which is composed of several color pattern systems. Among these pattern systems, the marginal band system, including marginal and submarginal bands, has rarely been studied. Here, we examined the color pattern diversity of the marginal band system among nymphalid butterflies. Marginal and submarginal bands are usually expressed as a pair of linear bands aligned with the wing margin. However, a submarginal band can be expressed as a broken band, an elongated oval, or a single dot. The marginal focus, usually a white dot at the middle of a wing compartment along the wing edge, corresponds to the pupal edge spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots that signify the locations of color pattern organizing centers. A marginal band can be expressed as a semicircle, an elongated oval, or a pair of eyespot-like structures, which suggest the organizing activity of the marginal focus. Physical damage at the pupal edge spot leads to distal dislocation of the submarginal band in Junonia almana and in Vanessa indica, suggesting that the marginal focus functions as an organizing center for the marginal band system. Taken together, we conclude that the marginal band system is developmentally equivalent to other symmetry systems. Additionally, the marginal band is likely a core element and the submarginal band a paracore element of the marginal band system, and both bands are primarily specified by the marginal focus organizing center.

  12. On the use of marginal posteriors in marginal likelihood estimation via importance-sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Perrakis, K.; Ntzoufras, I.; Tsionas, E. G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the efficiency of a marginal likelihood estimator where the product of the marginal posterior distributions is used as an importance-sampling function. The approach is generally applicable to multi-block parameter vector settings, does not require additional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and is not dependent on the type of MCMC scheme used to sample from the posterior. The proposed approach is applied to normal regression models, finite normal mixtures and longitudin...

  13. Thallium-201 scintigraphy in complete left bundle branch block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirzel, H.O.; Senn, M.; Nuesch, K.; Buettner, C.; Pfeiffer, A.; Hess, O.M.; Krayenbuehl, H.P.

    1984-03-01

    Nineteen symptomatic patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) were examined by thallium-201 (TI-201) exercise scintigraphy and selective coronary arteriography. All elicited significant anteroseptal perfusion defects in the exercise scintigrams, but in only 4 was coronary artery disease (CAD) involving the left anterior descending coronary artery present. To further elucidate the effect of LBBB on septal TI-201 uptake in the absence of CAD, TI-201 scintigrams combined with regional myocardial blood flow measurements using radioactive microspheres were carried out in 7 dogs during right atrial and right ventricular pacing (LBBB in the ECG) at similar heart rates. During right atrial pacing, TI-201 uptake was homogeneous in the entire left ventricle, as were tissue flows. During right ventricular pacing, TI-201 activity was reduced to 69% of maximal TI-201 activity within the septum, whereas it averaged 90% in the lateral wall (p less than 0.05) in 6 dogs. Correspondingly, regional myocardial blood flow was lower within the septum as compared with that in the lateral wall, averaging 89 and 120 ml/min/100 g, respectively (p less than 0.005). In 1 dog, normal TI-201 distribution and tissue flows were found in both studies. Thus, symptomatic patients with LBBB may elicit abnormal TI-201 exercise scintigrams, suggesting anteroseptal ischemia despite normal coronary arteries. The electrical induction of LBBB in dogs results, in most instances, in a comparable reduction in septal TI-201 uptake associated with diminished septal blood flow. Therefore, exercise-induced septal perfusion defects in the presence of LBBB do not necessarily indicate CAD even in symptomatic patients, but may reflect functional ischemia due to asynchronous septal contraction.

  14. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... with larger left ventricular diameter and higher left ventricular mass index (both P hypertrophy was greater (84 vs. 64%; P ..., transmitral peak E velocities and peak A velocities; and lower E/A ratio (all P hypertrophy, but normal left ventricular chamber systolic function with increased...

  15. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  16. Terrien's marginal degeneration accompanied by latticed stromal opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Jia, Hui

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of Terrien's marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen.

  17. Terrien’s Marginal Degeneration Accompanied by Latticed Stromal Opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Jia, Hui

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We report a case of Terrien’s marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. Case Report A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. Conclusions This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen. PMID:24681833

  18. Laterality in the first Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Ballesteros, Eder; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro

    2015-05-01

    Laterality is a quality, widespread throughout the vertebrate kingdom. It consists in assigning different roles to each side of the body by granting predominance to one of the sides. Humans too display this quality and the specialization of each hemisphere in our brain was already present in the first vertebrates. We usually refer to right-handed and left-handed people depending on the upper limb that is assigned the dominant role. For a long time, it has been thought that the proportion of left-handed people in a population has remained constant in all cultures and during our evolution. However, laterality is affected by sociocultural influences and varies geographically and chronologically. Using archaeological remains, it is possible to obtain information about the laterality of our ancestors and determine laterality indices for past populations. We developed an experimental programme to determine which characteristics of a polished axe indicate the laterality of its maker. We describe a method based on the orientation of the edge and we study the Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia to evaluate the laterality in those populations. The right/left laterality ratio for the Neolithic and Chalcolithic populations is very similar to the range detected for modern non-industrial societies.

  19. Distributions with given marginals and statistical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Fortiana, Josep; Rodriguez-Lallena, José

    2002-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the meeting `Distributions with given marginals and statistical modelling', held in Barcelona (Spain), July 17-20, 2000. In 24 chapters, this book covers topics such as the theory of copulas and quasi-copulas, the theory and compatibility of distributions, models for survival distributions and other well-known distributions, time series, categorical models, definition and estimation of measures of dependence, monotonicity and stochastic ordering, shape and separability of distributions, hidden truncation models, diagonal families, orthogonal expansions, tests of independence, and goodness of fit assessment. These topics share the use and properties of distributions with given marginals, this being the fourth specialised text on this theme. The innovative aspect of the book is the inclusion of statistical aspects such as modelling, Bayesian statistics, estimation, and tests.

  20. The marginal cost of public funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the theory and measurement of the marginal cost of public funds (MCF) to account for labor force participation responses. Our work is motivated by the emerging consensus in the empirical literature that extensive (participation) responses are more important than intensive (hours...... of work) responses. In the modelling of extensive responses, we argue that it is crucial to account for the presence of non-convexities created by fixed work costs. In a non-convex framework, tax and transfer reforms give rise to discrete participation responses generating first-order effects...... on government revenue. These revenue effects make the marginal cost of funds higher and we show numerically that the implications for MCF tend to be substantial...

  1. Slope failure of chalk channel margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.; Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The importance of mass transport and bottom currents is now widely recognized in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group of Northern Europe. The detailed dynamics and interaction of the two phenomena are difficult to study as most evidence is based on seismic data and drill core. Here, field observations...... the south, here interpreted as gravitational settling of the chalk immediately adjacent to the channel margin. Detailed biostratigraphic studies and sedimentological observations provide evidence for at least two discrete collapse events and suggest the slumping to be the result of channel margin...... oversteepening rather than evidence for a regional tectonic phase. The described example thus serves as an analogue for processes commonly only inferred from subsurface data....

  2. Marginal Loss Calculations for the DCOPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, Brent [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); O' Neill, Richard P. [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Castillo, Andrea R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The purpose of this paper is to explain some aspects of including a marginal line loss approximation in the DCOPF. The DCOPF optimizes electric generator dispatch using simplified power flow physics. Since the standard assumptions in the DCOPF include a lossless network, a number of modifications have to be added to the model. Calculating marginal losses allows the DCOPF to optimize the location of power generation, so that generators that are closer to demand centers are relatively cheaper than remote generation. The problem formulations discussed in this paper will simplify many aspects of practical electric dispatch implementations in use today, but will include sufficient detail to demonstrate a few points with regard to the handling of losses.

  3. Some Effects of Crosswind on the Lateral Dynamics of a Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Schwab

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The bicycle, being unstable at low speed and marginally stable at high speed, is sensitive to lateral perturbations. One of the major lateral perturbations is crosswind, which can lead to accidents and fatalities. Here we investigate the effect of crosswind on the lateral dynamics and control of the bicycle in a wide range of forward speeds and various crosswinds, by means of computer model analysis and simulation. A low dimensional bicycle model is used together with experimentally identified rider control parameters. The crosswind forces are obtained from a recent experimental study. Analysis and simulation show that crosswind decreases the stability of the bicycle and is clearly a safety issue.

  4. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  5. Systems considerations in seismic margin evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermer, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Increasing knowledge in the geoscience field has led to the understanding that, although highly unlikely, it is possible for a nuclear power plant to be subjected to earthquake ground motion greater than that for which the plant was designed. While it is recognized that there are conservatisms inherent in current design practices, interest has developed in evaluating the seismic risk of operating plants. Several plant-specific seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRA) have been completed to address questions related to the seismic risk of a plant. The results from such SPRAs are quite informative, but such studies may entail a considerable amount of expensive analysis of large portions of the plant. As an alternative to an SPRA, it may be more practical to select an earthquake level above the design basis for which plant survivability is to be demonstrated. The principal question to be addressed in a seismic margin evaluation is: At what ground motion levels does one have a high confidence that the probability of seismically induced core damage is sufficiently low? In a seismic margin evaluation, an earthquake level is selected (based on site-specific geoscience considerations) for which a stable, long-term safe shutdown condition is to be demonstrated. This prespecified earthquake level is commonly referred to as the seismic margin earthquake (SME). The Electric Power Research Institute is currently supporting a research project to develop procedures for use by the utilities to allow them to perform nuclear plant seismic margin evaluations. This paper describes the systems-related aspects of these procedures

  6. Evolved dispersal strategies at range margins

    OpenAIRE

    Dytham, Calvin

    2009-01-01

    Dispersal is a key component of a species's ecology and will be under different selection pressures in different parts of the range. For example, a long-distance dispersal strategy suitable for continuous habitat at the range core might not be favoured at the margin, where the habitat is sparse. Using a spatially explicit, individual-based, evolutionary simulation model, the dispersal strategies of an organism that has only one dispersal event in its lifetime, such as a plant or sessile anima...

  7. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  8. Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and Early Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during Early or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and early sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.

  9. Ocean Margins Programs, Phase I research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verity, P. [ed.

    1994-08-01

    During FY 1992, the DOE restructured its regional coastal-ocean programs into a new Ocean Margins Program (OMP), to: Quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that affect the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; Define ocean-margin sources and sinks in global biogeochemical cycles, and; Determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior ocean. Currently, the DOE Ocean Margins Program supports more than 70 principal and co-principal investigators, spanning more than 30 academic institutions. Research funded by the OMP amounted to about $6.9M in FY 1994. This document is a collection of abstracts summarizing the component projects of Phase I of the OMP. This phase included both research and technology development, and comprised projects of both two and three years duration. The attached abstracts describe the goals, methods, measurement scales, strengths and limitations, and status of each project, and level of support. Keywords are provided to index the various projects. The names, addresses, affiliations, and major areas of expertise of the investigators are provided in appendices.

  10. Marginalized Student Access to Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtcu, Wanda M.

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a teacher can disrupt an established curriculum that continues the cycle of inequity of access to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculum by students in alternative education. For this paper, I will focus on the technology components of the STEM curriculum. Technology in the United States, if not the world economy, is developing at a rapid pace. Many areas of day to day living, from applying for a job to checking one's bank account online, involve a component of science and technology. The 'gap' in technology education is emphasized between the 'haves and have-nots', which is delineated along socio-economic lines. Marginalized students in alternative education programs use this equipment for little else than remedial programs and credit recovery. This level of inequity further widens in alternative education programs and affects the achievement of marginalized students in credit recovery or alternative education classes instead of participation technology classes. For the purposes of this paper I focus on how can I decrease the inequity of student access to 21st century technology education in an alternative education program by addressing the established curriculum of the program and modifying structural barriers of marginalized student access to a technology focused curriculum.

  11. Pricing district heating by marginal cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difs, Kristina; Trygg, Louise

    2009-01-01

    A vital measure for industries when redirecting the energy systems towards sustainability is conversion from electricity to district heating (DH). This conversion can be achieved for example, by replacing electrical heating with DH and compression cooling with heat-driven absorption cooling. Conversion to DH must, however, always be an economically attractive choice for an industry. In this paper the effects for industries and the local DH supplier are analysed when pricing DH by marginal cost in combination with industrial energy efficiency measures. Energy audits have shown that the analysed industries can reduce their annual electricity use by 30% and increase the use of DH by 56%. When marginal costs are applied as DH tariffs and the industrial energy efficiency measures are implemented, the industrial energy costs can be reduced by 17%. When implementing the industrial energy efficiency measures and also considering a utility investment in the local energy system, the local DH supplier has a potential to reduce the total energy system cost by 1.6 million EUR. Global carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced by 25,000 tonnes if the industrial energy efficiency measures are implemented and when coal-condensing power is assumed to be the marginal electricity source. (author)

  12. Origin and dynamics of depositionary subduction margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason P.; Silver, Eli A.; Kluesner, Jared W.

    2016-06-01

    Here we propose a new framework for forearc evolution that focuses on the potential feedbacks between subduction tectonics, sedimentation, and geomorphology that take place during an extreme event of subduction erosion. These feedbacks can lead to the creation of a "depositionary forearc," a forearc structure that extends the traditional division of forearcs into accretionary or erosive subduction margins by demonstrating a mode of rapid basin accretion during an erosive event at a subduction margin. A depositionary mode of forearc evolution occurs when terrigenous sediments are deposited directly on the forearc while it is being removed from below by subduction erosion. In the most extreme case, an entire forearc can be removed by a single subduction erosion event followed by depositionary replacement without involving transfer of sediments from the incoming plate. We need to further recognize that subduction forearcs are often shaped by interactions between slow, long-term processes, and sudden extreme events reflecting the sudden influences of large-scale morphological variations in the incoming plate. Both types of processes contribute to the large-scale architecture of the forearc, with extreme events associated with a replacive depositionary mode that rapidly creates sections of a typical forearc margin. The persistent upward diversion of the megathrust is likely to affect its geometry, frictional nature, and hydrogeology. Therefore, the stresses along the fault and individual earthquake rupture characteristics are also expected to be more variable in these erosive systems than in systems with long-lived megathrust surfaces.

  13. Origin and dynamics of depositionary subduction margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason P.; Silver, Eli; Kluesner, Jared W.

    2016-01-01

    Here we propose a new framework for forearc evolution that focuses on the potential feedbacks between subduction tectonics, sedimentation, and geomorphology that take place during an extreme event of subduction erosion. These feedbacks can lead to the creation of a “depositionary forearc,” a forearc structure that extends the traditional division of forearcs into accretionary or erosive subduction margins by demonstrating a mode of rapid basin accretion during an erosive event at a subduction margin. A depositionary mode of forearc evolution occurs when terrigenous sediments are deposited directly on the forearc while it is being removed from below by subduction erosion. In the most extreme case, an entire forearc can be removed by a single subduction erosion event followed by depositionary replacement without involving transfer of sediments from the incoming plate. We need to further recognize that subduction forearcs are often shaped by interactions between slow, long-term processes, and sudden extreme events reflecting the sudden influences of large-scale morphological variations in the incoming plate. Both types of processes contribute to the large-scale architecture of the forearc, with extreme events associated with a replacive depositionary mode that rapidly creates sections of a typical forearc margin. The persistent upward diversion of the megathrust is likely to affect its geometry, frictional nature, and hydrogeology. Therefore, the stresses along the fault and individual earthquake rupture characteristics are also expected to be more variable in these erosive systems than in systems with long-lived megathrust surfaces.

  14. Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2013-09-01

    In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

  15. Marginal historiography: on Stekel's account of things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jaap

    2005-01-01

    Psychoanalytic historiography has been, and to a certain extent still is, written mainly from the victor's (Freud's) perspective. One of the first attempts to deliver an alternative account was published in 1926 by Wilhelm Stekel in a little-known paper entitled "On the History of the Analytical Movement," which he wrote in response to Freud's (1925) "An Autobiographical Study" as an attempt to supplement or even counter Freud's version. This paper offers a dialogical reading of Stekel's paper, focusing not on the question of whether or not Stekel was right, but on the problem of marginalization itself. What discursive processes contributed to the marginalization of Stekel's position, and in what sense could Stekel's paper be called an instance of self-marginalization? Analysing various intertextual links between Freud's and Stekel's accounts, the author finds that the two accounts were caught up in an antagonistic dialectic from which it was impossible to escape. Following this paper, an English translation of Stekel's 1926 account is presented here for the first time.

  16. Is trustworthiness lateralized in the face? Evidence from a trust game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Daniel J; Thomas, Nicole A; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2018-01-01

    A turn of the head can be used to convey or conceal emotion, as the left side of the face is more expressive than the right. As the left cheek moves more when smiling, the present study investigated whether perceived trustworthiness is lateralized to the left cheek, using a trust game paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to share money with male and female "virtual partners." Left-left or right-right composite faces were used to represent the partners. There were no differences in the amount shared based on composite face, suggesting trustworthiness is not lateralized in the face. However, there was a robust effect whereby female partners were perceived to be significantly more trustworthy than males. In Experiment 2, the virtual partners presented either the left or the right cheek prominently. As in Experiment 1, the amount shared with the partners did not change depending on the cheek presented. Interestingly, female partners were again sent significantly more money than males. We found no support for lateralized trustworthiness in the face, suggesting that asymmetries in the face are not large enough to influence trustworthiness judgements. Instead, more stable facial features, such as sex-typical characteristics, appear to influence perceived trustworthiness.

  17. Environmental Degradation, Social Marginalization and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On 8 October 2005, an earthquake registering 7.6 on the Richter scale struck northeast Pakistan. Although concentrated in a small area, the damage was severe. At least 73 000 people were killed, 70 000 were injured, and 2.8 million were left homeless and susceptible to further injury. So far, little attention has been paid to ...

  18. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  19. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Bhambhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  20. Left ventricular hypertrophy, geometric patterns and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy can be due to various reasons including hypertension. It constitutes an increased cardiovascular risk. Various left ventricular geometric patterns occur in hypertension and may affect the cardiovascular risk profile of hypertensive subjects. Methods: One hundred and eighty eight ...