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Sample records for left lateral margin

  1. Evaluation of lateral margin of left lobe of the liver on CT scan : focus on perisplenic extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Chang Hye; Cha, Seong Sook; Lee, Byung Jin; Choi, Jae Young; Choi, Seok Jin; Eun, Choong Ki

    1996-01-01

    The perisplenic extension of the left lobe of the liver can be misinterpreted as a splenic or perisplenic lesion on ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT). The purpose of our study is to classify the lateral margin of the left lobe of the liver into three types and to evaluate the incidence and the relationship between each type and abnormal liver on CT scan. A total of 515 abdominal CT scans from patients over 15 years old were retrospectively evaluated. Liver contours were divided into three types on the basis of degree of the left lateral extension of the left lobe of the liver. Type A was defined as the lateral extension of the left lobe of liver to the medial portion of the stomach, type C as the perisplenic portion, and type B as between the two types. Each type was further divided into normal and abnormal liver groups based on clinical, CT, surgical and patholigic findings and evaluated on its ratio of normal and abnormal liver, intrahepatic diseases associated with an abnormal liver and statistical significance between a normal and abnormal liver. The incidence of the three types of liver among the 515 patients was 360(69.9%), 121(23.5%) and 34(6.6%) patients in type A, B and C, respectively. Type C showed normal liver in six patients, which was 2.7% of all normal livers(221/515) and abnormal liver in 28 patients, which was 9.5% of all abnormal livers(294/515). Type A showed normal liver in 49.7%, abnormal liver in 50.3% and there was not statistically significant difference between normal and abnormal liver(p>0.05). Type B showed normal liver in 29.8% and abnormal liver in 70.2%;type C showed normal liver in 17.6%, abnormal liver in 82.4% and there was a statistically significant difference between normal and abnormal liver(P<0.001). The space occupying lesion(SOL) was most common(52.6%) in all the abnormal livers and hepatoma was the most common disease in the SOL(47.2%). In the abnormal type C liver, SOL(58%) and diffuse hepatopathy(32.8%) were

  2. Wrong to be Right: Margin Laterality is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Failure After Radical Prostatectomy.

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    Kang, Jung J; Reiter, Robert E; Kummer, Nicolas; DeKernion, Jean; Steinberg, Michael L; King, Christopher R

    2018-01-01

    To examine the impact of positive surgical margin (PSM) laterality on failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). A PSM can influence local recurrence and outcomes after salvage radiation. Unlike intrinsic risk factors, a PSM is caused by intervention and thus iatrogenic failures may be elucidated by analyzing margin laterality as surgical approach is itself lateralized. We reviewed 226 RP patients between 1991 and 2013 with PSM. Data includes operation type, pre/postoperative PSA, surgical pathology, and margin type (location, focality, laterality). The median follow-up was 47 months. Biochemical recurrence after RP was defined as PSA≥0.1 ng/mL or 2 consecutive rises above nadir. Ninety-two patients received salvage radiation therapy (SRT). Failure after SRT was defined as any PSA≥0.2 ng/mL or greater than presalvage. Kaplan-Meier and Cox multivariate analyses compared relapse rates. The majority of PSM were iatrogenic (58%). Laterality was associated with differences in median relapse: right 20 versus left 51 versus bilateral 14 months (PRight-sided margins were more likely to progress than left (hazard ratio, 1.67; P=0.04). More right-sided margins were referred for SRT (55% right vs. 23% left vs. 22% bilateral), but were equally salvaged. Only T-stage and pre-SRT PSA independently influenced SRT success. Most PSM are iatrogenic, with right-sided more likely to progress (and sooner) than left sided. Margin laterality is a heretofore unrecognized independent predictor of biochemical relapse and hints at the need to modify the traditional unilateral surgical technique.

  3. Left-handedness and language lateralization in children.

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    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Schapiro, Mark B; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-01-18

    This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and righthanded children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemispheric lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right-hemispheric lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%), respectively. Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy with the use of Habib 4X: technical aspects.

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    Zacharoulis, Dimitris; Sioka, Eleni; Tzovaras, George; Jiao, Long R; Habib, Nagy

    2013-06-01

    Various techniques and energy-based devices have been used to minimize the blood loss during transection of the liver parenchyma laparoscopically. The laparoscopic Habib™ 4X sealer (Rita Medical Systems, Inc., Fremont, CA) is a promising device using bipolar radiofrequency energy. The purpose of the study was to test the safety and the efficiency of the device in laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy. Five patients underwent laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy using the laparoscopic Habib 4X in a period of 12 months. Indications for liver resection were hepatocellular carcinoma in 2 cirrhotic patients and colorectal cancer liver metastasis in 3 patients. Technical aspects were analyzed. All the patients underwent formal laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy. The Pringle maneuver was not applied in any of the patients. Mean operative time was 75 minutes (range, 60-90 minutes). Bleeding control along the transection line was satisfactory. No conversion to laparotomy was required. Operative blood loss was minimal. No blood transfusion was recorded. The postoperative period was uneventful. Median hospital stay was 3 days (range, 2-5 days). Histopathology revealed that the margins were disease free. Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy with the use of Habib 4X proved safe and efficient. This technique may be an initial step for surgeons shifting to laparoscopic liver surgery provided they have previous experience in laparoscopic and liver surgery. Well-designed controlled randomized studies are needed in order to evaluate further the role of the device used in the present study in minimally invasive liver surgery.

  5. LAPAROSCOPIC LEFT LATERAL SECTIONECTOMY IN LIVING LIVER DONOR

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    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Living donor liver transplantation has proved to be an effective, safe and radical treatment modality for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Left lateral section (LLS of donor’s liver is used in pediatric recipients. Laparoscopic LLS procurement was fi rst described by D. Cherqui in 2002. At present, this technique is routinely used only by 5 hospitals in the world. However, up to date, some authors consider it to be a new standard to perform such a surgery in living donors.Aim. To analyze the fi rst Russian experience in laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LapLLS in living related donor.Materials and methods. From May to September 2016 fi ve LapLLS were performed in living donors. In all cases donors were women (mothers in 4 cases and aunt in 1 case. Recipients were children aged from 6 months through 3 years with body mass from 5.6 to 12.5 kg. Liver transection was carried out under conditions of maintained blood supply. Parenchymal transection was performed using a harmonic scalpel, bipolar coagulation and ultrasound dissection.Results. Average donor age was 32 ± 5 years. Average operation time was 287 ± 16 min. Average LLS graft weight was 220 ± 16 g. Intraoperative blood loss did not exceed 100 ml (95 ± 5 ml. Donors were discharged on the 3rd–4th post-op day. There were no postoperative complications in donors. Recipients were also characterized by a standard course of the postoperative period.Conclusion. LapLLS is an effective and safe method with several advantages. Primarily, these are early rehabilitation of the donors and shortening of the hospital stay, which are important for the quick return to normal way of live. Excellent visualization of anatomical structures, including vascular and biliary ones, allows performing precise selection. In addition, good cosmetic effect is also an important aspect.

  6. Lateral chest radiographic findings in lobar collapse of the left lung : the distance between both upper lobe bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G. H.; Sung, D. W.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the distance between both upper love bronchi on lateral radiographs and its change in left upper or lower lobe collapse. 144 true lateral radiographs were analyzed on which both upper lobe bronchi were clearly identified. They included 116 normal cases, 11 cases of left upper lobe collapse, 13 of left lower lobe collapse, and 4 cases of left lower lobe lobectomy. Line A was drawn parallel to the vertebral end plate through the upper margin of the lift upper lobe bronchus. Line B was drawn parallel to line A through the upper margin of the right upper love bronchus. The shortest distance between line A and line B was measured as the distance between both upper lobe bronchi. In normal cases, the mean value of the distance was 2.19 cm ± S.D. 0.37 cm on right and on right and 2.16 cm ± S.D. 0.40 cm on left lateral radiographs ; these results were not significantly different(P=0.79). In cases of collapse, the mean value of the distance was 0.43 cm ± S.D. 0.99 cm in upper lobe collapse and 3.56 cm ± S.D. 0.72 cm in lower lobe collapse, results which were significantly different from those of normal cases(p<0.01). In eight cases(73%) of left upper lobe collapse, the distance was less than 1 cm and in 10 cases(77%) of left lower lobe collapse, the distance was more than 3 cm. The distance between both upper lobe bronchi varies markedly in case of lobar collapse. A distance of less than 1 cm suggests collapse of the left upper lobe and a distance more than 3 cm suggests collapse of the left lower lobe

  7. Gigantism of the lower limb in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome: anatomy of the lateral marginal vein.

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    Abdul-Rahman, N R; Mohammad, K F; Ibrahim, S

    2009-06-01

    The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a combination of venous and capillary malformations associated with soft tissue and/or bony limb hypertrophy, with or without lymphatic malformations. Although persistent foetal veins are rare, the persistence of the lateral marginal vein is a common association in this syndrome. It results in venous hypertension, which gives rise to venous varicosities, which are commonly seen in this syndrome. This is a case report of a 28-year-old man with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, with persistence of the lateral marginal vein, affecting his right lower limb. He was treated with an above-knee amputation. The amputated limb was dissected to demonstrate the anatomy of the lateral marginal vein. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the gross anatomy of the lateral marginal vein has not been previously reported.

  8. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

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    Florian Loffing

    Full Text Available In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing, for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  9. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

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    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the verification of

  10. Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  11. Small atrial septal defect associated with heart failure in an infant with a marginal left ventricle

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    Sandra D.K. Kingma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Atrial septal defect (ASD is usually asymptomatic in infancy, unless pulmonary hypertension or severe co-morbidity is present. We report a case of a 4-week-old infant with moderate- sized ASD, small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and a borderline sized left ventricle that developed heart failure. Despite the relatively small diameter of the ASD, this defect influenced the mechanism of heart failure significantly. After surgical closure of both PDA and ASD, the signs of pulmonary hypertension resolved and the patient developed a normal sized left ventricle. This report illustrates that the presence of a small ASD in combination with a marginal left ventricle may result in inadequate left ventricular filling, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.

  12. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

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    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  13. Socintigraphic evaluation of lateral segment of the left lobe of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Sanshin; Kogure, Takashi; Hirakawa, Ken; Akaike, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Lateral segment of left lobe of the liver is clearly demarcated on sup(99m) Tc-labeled cholescintigram. With analysis of 112 sup(99m) Tc-pyridoxylideneisoleucine scintigrams about lateral border of left lobe, there are some variants in 22 cases (19.7%) in shape in lateral segment of Type 4 left lobe in morphologic classification. Of lateral segment of left lobe, there are classified into five types in the anterior view according to the degeneration; Type 1 is gradually elongated tapered type in 8 cases (36.4%), Type 2 is laterally elongated type as rod shape or island shape in 5 cases (22.7%), Type 3 is lobulated type in 1 case (4.6%), Type 4 is narrowing type in 5 cases (22.7%), Type 5 is indentation type in 3 cases (13.6%). Using colloidal radiopharmaceuticals in liver scintigraphy, lateral segment of left lobe often overlapps with the spleen, which disturb to interpret the abnormality in left lobe of the liver and in the spleen. This analysis depends upon the recent advances in sup(99m) Tc-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals and equipment, and there has never discussed about the shape of lateral segment of left lobe in roentgenologic and scintigraphic evaluations. (author)

  14. The evolutionary psychology of left and right: costs and benefits of lateralization.

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    Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2006-09-01

    Why do the left and right sides of the vertebrate brain play different functions? Having a lateralized brain, in which each hemisphere carries out different functions, is ubiquitous among vertebrates. The different specialization of the left and right side of the brain may increase brain efficiency--and some evidence for that is reported here. However, lateral biases due to brain lateralization (such as preferences in the use of a limb or, in animals with laterally placed eyes, of a visual hemifield) usually occur at the population level, with most individuals showing similar direction of bias. Individual brain efficiency does not require the alignment of lateralization in the population. Why then are not left--and right-type individuals equally common? Not only humans, but most vertebrates show a similar pattern. For instance, in the paper I report evidence that most toads, chickens, and fish react faster when a predator approaches from the left. I argue that invoking individual brain efficiency (lateralization may increase fitness), evolutionary chance or direct genetic mechanisms cannot explain this widespread pattern. Instead, using concepts from mathematical theory of games, I show that alignment of lateralization at the population level may arise as an "evolutionarily stable strategy" when individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. Thus, the population structure of lateralization may result from genes specifying the direction of asymmetries which have been selected under "social" pressures.

  15. Validity of PRV margins around lung and heart during left breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Planning organ at risk volumes (PRV) has a minor use in radiotherapy treatment planning. During left breast irradiation two critical volumes are of special importance the lung and the heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in volume doses after adding appropriate margins around these organs at risk and compare them with the effect that the systematic positioning error has on the volume doses. Methods: Treatment plans for 44 patients with left breast cancer were analyzed. Two changes for each plan were made, and dose-volume histogram values for hearts and lungs volumes were recorded. In the first case margins of 5 mm to hearts and lungs were added. Volumes that were enclosed by 30% isodose for hearts and volumes that were enclosed by 20% isodose of lungs were recorded. In the second case plans were made with a systematic error of 5 mm employed, depicting a translation of isocenter posterior and to the right. In this second case, monitor units were taken from the original plan. The critical volumes for hearts and lungs were recorded as in the first case. Results: Our policy for breast cancer irradiation demands that the lung volume receiving 20 Gy should be kept under 25% of the whole left-lung volume, and no more than 10% of the heart volume should receive more than 30 Gy. The first case simulation showed that 23% of the patients have a heart overdose while 11% of them have a lung overdose according to the criteria above. Simulation of the second kind showed that the systematic error in isocenter positioning of 5 mm gives bigger a volume of the heart (in average 0.69% of heart volume) to be enclosed in critical isodose than in PRV case. For the lung the situation was opposite; namely in PRV case the lung volume that is encompassed with critical isodose is greater (in average 1.47% of lung volume) than in a case of displaced isocenter. Conclusions: Adding PRV margins around the heart and the lung does not give straightforward and unambiguous result

  16. [Left lateral gaze paresis due to subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus].

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    Sato, K; Takamori, M

    1998-03-01

    We report a case of transient left lateral gaze paresis due to a hemorrhagic lesion restricted in the right precentral gyrus. A 74-year-old female experienced a sudden clumsiness of the left upper extremity. A neurological examination revealed a left central facial paresis, distal dominant muscle weakness in the left upper limb and left lateral gaze paresis. There were no other focal neurological signs. Laboratory data were all normal. Brain CTs and MRIs demonstrated a subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus. The neurological symptoms and signs disappeared over seven days. A recent physiological study suggested that the human frontal eye field (FEF) is located in the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 8) and the precentral gyrus around the precentral sulcus. More recent studies stressed the role of the precentral sulcus and the precentral gyrus. Our case supports those physiological findings. The hematoma affected both the FEF and its underlying white matter in our case. We assume the lateral gaze paresis is attributable to the disruption of the fibers from the FEF. It is likely that fibers for motor control of the face, upper extremity, and lateral gaze lie adjacently in the subcortical area.

  17. Persistence of the embryonic lateral marginal vein: report of two cases

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    Rojas Martinez Raúl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Congenital venous malformations of the lower limbs represent a particular challenge for the vascular surgeon. Persistence of fetal veins is a rare malformation, and the most common is the persistence of the lateral marginal vein usually observed in patients with Klippel-Trenaunnay Syndrome. The persistence of this embryonic vein as an isolated venous malformation without the other characteristics of the Klippel-Trenaunnay Syndrome has not yet been reported. This paper describes two cases. METHODS: Two patients, a 17-year-old male patient and a 16-year-old female, have had since their birth a large venous trunk in the lateral aspect of the right leg and thigh. The limbs underwent duplex scanning and phlebography. The surgical removal of the lateral marginal vein was performed. RESULTS: Surgical treatment resulted in very good functional and aesthetic results. Follow-up at 26 months showed no evidence of varicose vein recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: To achieve good results, surgical intervention may be indicated in cases of orthopedic deformity, hemorrhage, symptomatic, and unaesthetic lesions.

  18. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

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    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  19. [Effects of acupuncture at left and right Hegu (LI 4) for cerebral function laterality].

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    Wang, Linying; Xu, Chunsheng; Zhu, Yifang; Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    To explore the cerebral function laterality of acupuncture at left and right Hegu (LI 4) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and provide objective evidences for side selection of Hegu (LI 4) in the clinical application. Eighty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into a left-acupoint group and a right-acupoint group, and they were treated with acupuncture at left Hegu (LI 4) and right Hegu (LI 4) respectively. After the arrival of qi, the task-state fMRI data in both groups was collected, and analysis of functional neuroimages (AFNI) software was used to perform intra-group and between-group comparisons. After acupuncture, acupuncture feelings were recorded and MGH acupuncture sensation scale (MASS) was recorded. The difference of MASS between the two groups was not significant (P>0. 05). The result of left-acupoint group showed an increased signal on right cerebral hemisphere, while the right-acupoint group showed extensive signal changes in both cerebral hemispheres. The analysis between left-acupoint group and retroflex right-acupoint group showed differences in brain areas. The central effect of acupuncture at left and right Hegu (LI 4) is dissymmetry, indicating right hemisphere laterality. The right lobus insularis and cingulate gyrus may be the key regions in the acupuncture at Hegu (LI 4).

  20. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

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    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  1. Marginal artery stump pressure in left colic artery-preserving rectal cancer surgery: a clinical trial.

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    Guo, Yuchen; Wang, Daguang; He, Liang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Shishun; Zhang, Luyao; Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate the influence of high and low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery with apical lymph node dissection on the anastomotic blood supply, lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate in rectal cancer surgery. A total of 57 Chinese patients were randomly distributed into group A and group B and underwent radical resection of rectal cancer. Patients in group A underwent high ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, and patients in group B underwent apical lymph node resection around the root of the inferior mesenteric artery with preservation of the left colic artery. The marginal artery stump pressure was measured after colon and artery reconstruction. Systemic pressure, distal colon length, operative time and lymph node retrieval rate were measured and recorded. The results were analysed and related to patient characteristics and post-operative complications. The anastomotic blood supply negatively and linearly correlated with age and distal colon length and showed a positive linear correlation with systemic pressure. Patients who received low ligation with apical lymph node dissection had a better anastomotic blood supply than those who received high ligation. No differences were found in lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate. Anastomotic leakage was associated with a worse anastomotic blood supply. Low ligation with apical lymph node dissection in rectal cancer treatment provides better anastomotic blood supply but is not associated with differences in node retrieval rate or operation time. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. Bilateral generic working memory circuit requires left-lateralized addition for verbal processing.

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    Ray, Manaan Kar; Mackay, Clare E; Harmer, Catherine J; Crow, Timothy J

    2008-06-01

    According to the Baddeley-Hitch model, phonological and visuospatial representations are separable components of working memory (WM) linked by a central executive. The traditional view that the separation reflects the relative contribution of the 2 hemispheres (verbal WM--left; spatial WM--right) has been challenged by the position that a common bilateral frontoparietal network subserves both domains. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is a generic WM circuit that recruits additional specialized regions for verbal and spatial processing. We designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to elicit activation in the WM circuit for verbal and spatial information using identical stimuli and applied this in 33 healthy controls. We detected left-lateralized quantitative differences in the left frontal and temporal lobe for verbal > spatial WM but no areas of activation for spatial > verbal WM. We speculate that spatial WM is analogous to a "generic" bilateral frontoparietal WM circuit we inherited from our great ape ancestors that evolved, by recruitment of additional left-lateralized frontal and temporal regions, to accommodate language.

  3. Left hemispheric dominance of vestibular processing indicates lateralization of cortical functions in rats.

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    Best, Christoph; Lange, Elena; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Reuss, Stefan; Dieterich, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Lateralization of cortical functions such as speech dominance, handedness and processing of vestibular information are present not only in humans but also in ontogenetic older species, e.g. rats. In human functional imaging studies, the processing of vestibular information was found to be correlated with the hemispherical dominance as determined by the handedness. It is located mainly within the right hemisphere in right handers and within the left hemisphere in left handers. Since dominance of vestibular processing is unknown in animals, our aim was to study the lateralization of cortical processing in a functional imaging study applying small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and galvanic vestibular stimulation in an in vivo rat model. The cortical and subcortical network processing vestibular information could be demonstrated and correlated with data from other animal studies. By calculating a lateralization index as well as flipped region of interest analyses, we found that the vestibular processing in rats follows a strong left hemispheric dominance independent from the "handedness" of the animals. These findings support the idea of an early hemispheric specialization of vestibular cortical functions in ontogenetic older species.

  4. [Right extremities pain caused by a malacia lesion in the left putamen:a resting functional magnetic resonance imaging of the marginal division of the human brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Ye; Ma, Lin

    2014-04-01

    To explore the role of marginal division of the human brain in the pain modulation. Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied in a patient with right extremities pain caused by a malacia lesion in the left putamen and in 8 healthy volunteers. Marginal division was defined using manual drawing on structure images, and was applied to the computation of fuctional connectivity maps. The functional connectivities in the left marginal division showed an evident decrease in the patient when compared with healthy controls. These connectivities were mainly located in the bilateral head of caudate nucleus, putamen, and left globus pallidus. The marginal division may be involved in the pain modulation.

  5. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Stephanie K.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Knight, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes—lexical activation and lexical selection—and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation. PMID:26766393

  6. Lateral view dissection of the prostato-urethral junction to reduce positive apical margin in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Miki, Jun; Kimura, Takahiro; Sanuki, Kunitaro; Miki, Kenta; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shin

    2009-08-01

    To assess the impact of lateral view apical dissection in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) on the reduction of positive surgical margin rates and recovery of postoperative continence. One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients underwent LRP from October 2004 to March 2008. Lateral view dissection of the prostato-urethral junction was conducted in 76 of them (Group 2). Standard dissection was used in the remaining patients (Group 1). The effect of this technical modification on the reduction of positive surgical margin rates and postoperative recovery of urinary continence was assessed in the two groups. Overall, the incidence of positive margins decreased from 23 (35.9%) in Group 1 to 16 cases (21.9%) in Group 2 (P = 0.07). Positive margin rates in pT2 decreased from 30.6% to 6.5% (P = 0.006). Apical and dorso-apical margins were reduced from 26.5% to 4.3% (P = 0.009) and from 10.2% to 0% (P Lateral view dissection of the prostato-urethral junction is an easily applicable technical modification. It provides better visualization of apical anatomy substantially contributing to the reduction of positive surgical margin rates, especially at the level of prostatic apex.

  7. Investigation of left and right lateral fluid percussion injury in C57BL6/J mice: In vivo functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurman, Lesley D; Smith, Terry L; Morales, Anthony J; Lee, Nancy N; Reeves, Thomas M; Phillips, Linda L; Lichtman, Aron H

    2017-07-13

    Although rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) reliably produce cognitive and motor disturbances, behavioral characterization resulting from left and right hemisphere injuries remains unexplored. Here we examined the functional consequences of targeting the left versus right parietal cortex in lateral fluid percussion injury, on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial memory tasks (fixed platform and reversal) and neurological motor deficits (neurological severity score and rotarod). In the MWM fixed platform task, right lateral injury produced a small delay in acquisition rate compared to left. However, injury to either hemisphere resulted in probe trial deficits. In the MWM reversal task, left-right performance deficits were not evident, though left lateral injury produced mild acquisition and probe trial deficits compared to sham controls. Additionally, left and right injury produced similar neurological motor task deficits, impaired righting times, and lesion volumes. Injury to either hemisphere also produced robust ipsilateral, and modest contralateral, morphological changes in reactive microglia and astrocytes. In conclusion, left and right lateral TBI impaired MWM performance, with mild fixed platform acquisition rate differences, despite similar motor deficits, histological damage, and glial cell reactivity. Thus, while both left and right lateral TBI produce cognitive deficits, laterality in mouse MWM learning and memory merits consideration in the investigation of TBI-induced cognitive consequences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy for metachronic metastases of small intestine adenocarcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais-Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatectomy has been the standard treatment for metachronic metastases of non-colorectal (NCR origin, mainly when the disease-free interval is more than two years. Laparoscopic hepatectomy has become the golden standard mainly for left side resections, due to lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, early recovery and good cosmetic outcome. The authors report the case of a female patient with two metachronic metastases (ten years of disease-free survival, of non-colorectal origin (adenocarcinoma of small intestine, treated by laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy (left hepatic lobectomy with success. The postoperative progress was satisfactory. To date, the patient has presented no tumoral recurrence (six months of follow-up period. Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy can be satisfactorily performed in selected cases of hepatic metastasis. This approach presents low morbidity and good cosmetic result. The lack of alternative treatments and the poor prognosis of untreated cases have justified surgical resection in order to increase overall survival. Nevertheless, this approach should be performed by hepatic surgery expertise teams trained on advanced laparoscopic procedures.A hepatectomia tem sido o tratamento padrão para metástase de origem não colorretal (NCR metacrônica, principalmente quando o intervalo livre de doença é maior do que dois anos. A hepatectomia por laparoscopia tem se tornado padrão principalmente para as ressecções à esquerda, haja vista a menor morbidade, menor tempo de internação, reabilitação precoce e melhor resultado estético. Os autores relatam um caso de paciente com duas metástases metacrônicas (10 anos de sobrevida livre de doença, de etiologia não colorretal (adenocarcinoma de intestino delgado, tratada com segmentectomia lateral esquerda (lobectomia hepática esquerda laparoscópica. Paciente apresentou boa evolução pós-operatória sem recidiva (seis meses de seguimento. Segmentectomia

  9. [Deficit of verbal recall caused by left dorso-lateral thalamic infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, M; Cabaret, M; Benaim, C; Steinling, M

    1995-01-01

    A case of amnesia with preferential disorder of verbal recall, associated to a limited infarct of the left superior, external and anterior thalamus, is reported. This lesion involved the anterior and middle dorso-lateral nuclei and the centrolateral nucleus, sparing most of the structures classically incriminated in diencephalic amnesia. At the initial stage, the patient presented discrete language impairment and severe deficit of semantic processing, which later recovered. At the late stage, the anterograde and retrograde amnesia principally concerned the recall of verbal information used in daily life, verbal learning using short-term and long-term recall, questionnaires evaluating retrograde memory and requiring the evocation of proper names. Verbal priming was also affected. Verbal recognition was preserved. Evocation of the most recent events of the personal life was also impaired. Confrontation of this case with others previously reported suggests that various thalamic amnesias may be described, associated to different cognitive deficits, in relation with the preferential situation of lesions.

  10. White-matter microstructure and language lateralization in left-handers: a whole-brain MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlaki, Gabor; Horvath, Reka; Orsi, Gergely; Aradi, Mihaly; Auer, Tibor; Varga, Eszter; Kantor, Gyongyi; Altbäcker, Anna; John, Flora; Doczi, Tamas; Komoly, Samuel; Kovacs, Norbert; Schwarcz, Attila; Janszky, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    Most people are left-hemisphere dominant for language. However the neuroanatomy of language lateralization is not fully understood. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we studied whether language lateralization is associated with cerebral white-matter (WM) microstructure. Sixteen healthy, left-handed women aged 20-25 were included in the study. Left-handers were targeted in order to increase the chances of involving subjects with atypical language lateralization. Language lateralization was determined by fMRI using a verbal fluency paradigm. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI data was applied to test for WM microstructural correlates of language lateralization across the whole brain. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were used as indicators of WM microstructural organization. Right-hemispheric language dominance was associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left-sided parietal lobe WM. In left-handed women, reduced integrity of the left-sided language related tracts may be closely linked to the development of right hemispheric language dominance. Our results may offer new insights into language lateralization and structure-function relationships in human language system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular responses to the change from the left lateral to the upright position in pregnant hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, R A; Anthony, J; Ledeboer, Q; James, M F

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate by non-invasive means, the autonomically mediated changes in heart rate and blood pressure in response to postural change in pregnancy. Ninety-one patients were studied, of whom 17 were non-pregnant controls, 21 were normotensive parturients, 22 had non-proteinuric hypertension, and 31 were pre-eclamptics. In all patients the heart rate and blood pressure response to the change from the left lateral to the erect position was measured non-invasively, during the third trimester in the pregnant groups. The change from the left lateral to the erect position induced significantly greater mean changes (increases) in systolic blood pressure in the normotensive pregnant (PC) women than all other groups (Pchanges when comparing the PC, NP and H groups. The PE group exhibited a significantly greater increase in heart rate on adopting the erect position than all other groups. Pre-eclamptics exhibit smaller changes in blood pressure than normotensive pregnant patients and non-proteinuric hypertensives on standing, while producing an exaggerated heart rate response, indicating altered autonomic compensatory mechanisms in these patients.

  12. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  13. Modulating phonemic fluency performance in healthy subjects with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left or right lateral frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirni, Daniela; Turriziani, Patrizia; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Bracco, Martina; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2017-07-28

    A growing body of evidence have suggested that non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can improve the performance of aphasic patients in language tasks. For example, application of inhibitory rTMS or tDCs over the right frontal lobe of dysphasic patients resulted in improved naming abilities. Several studies have also reported that in healthy controls (HC) tDCS application over the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) improve performance in naming and semantic fluency tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate in HC, for the first time, the effects of inhibitory repetitive TMS (rTMS) over left and right lateral frontal cortex (BA 47) on two phonemic fluency tasks (FAS or FPL). 44 right-handed HCs were administered rTMS or sham over the left or right lateral frontal cortex in two separate testing sessions, with a 24h interval, followed by the two phonemic fluency tasks. To account for possible practice effects, an additional 22 HCs were tested on only the phonemic fluency task across two sessions with no stimulation. We found that rTMS-inhibition over the left lateral frontal cortex significantly worsened phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. In contrast, rTMS-inhibition over the right lateral frontal cortex significantly improved phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. These results were not accounted for practice effects. We speculated that rTMS over the right lateral frontal cortex may induce plastic neural changes to the left lateral frontal cortex by suppressing interhemispheric inhibitory interactions. This resulted in an increased excitability (disinhibition) of the contralateral unstimulated left lateral frontal cortex, consequently enhancing phonemic fluency performance. Conversely, application of rTMS over the left lateral frontal cortex may induce a temporary, virtual lesion, with effects similar to those reported in left frontal

  14. Left hemisphere lateralization for lexical and acoustic pitch processing in Cantonese speakers as revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Zhang, Caicai; Hu, Axu; Zhao, Guoping

    2013-12-01

    For nontonal language speakers, speech processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and musical processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., function-dependent brain asymmetry). On the other hand, acoustic temporal processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and spectral/pitch processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry). In this study, we examine whether the hemispheric lateralization of lexical pitch and acoustic pitch processing in tonal language speakers is consistent with the patterns of function- and acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry in nontonal language speakers. Pitch contrast in both speech stimuli (syllable /ji/ in Experiment 1) and nonspeech stimuli (harmonic tone in Experiment 1; pure tone in Experiment 2) was presented to native Cantonese speakers in passive oddball paradigms. We found that the mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by lexical pitch contrast was lateralized to the left hemisphere, which is consistent with the pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., left hemisphere lateralization for speech processing) in nontonal language speakers. However, the MMN elicited by acoustic pitch contrast was also left hemisphere lateralized (harmonic tone in Experiment 1) or showed a tendency for left hemisphere lateralization (pure tone in Experiment 2), which is inconsistent with the pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., right hemisphere lateralization for acoustic pitch processing) in nontonal language speakers. The consistent pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry and the inconsistent pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry between tonal and nontonal language speakers can be explained by the hypothesis that the acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry is the consequence of a carryover effect from function-dependent brain asymmetry. Potential evolutionary implication of this hypothesis is discussed. © 2013.

  15. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sitnikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.

  16. A description of the lumbar interfascial triangle and its relation with the lateral raphe: anatomical constituents of load transfer through the lateral margin of the thoracolumbar fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenke, M D; Vleeming, A; Van Hoof, T; Willard, F H

    2012-01-01

    Movement and stability of the lumbosacral region is contingent on the balance of forces distributed through the myofascial planes associated with the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). This structure is located at the common intersection of several extremity muscles (e.g. latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus), as well as hypaxial (e.g. ventral trunk muscles) and epaxial (paraspinal) muscles. The mechanical properties of the fascial constituents establish the parameters guiding the dynamic interaction of muscle groups that stabilize the lumbosacral spine. Understanding the construction of this complex myofascial junction is fundamental to biomechanical analysis and implementation of effective rehabilitation in individuals with low back and pelvic girdle pain. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to describe the anatomy of the lateral margin of the TLF, and specifically the interface between the fascial sheath surrounding the paraspinal muscles and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis (TA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles. The lateral margin of the TLF was exposed via serial reduction dissections from anterior and posterior approaches. Axial sections (cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging) were examined to characterize the region between the TA and IO aponeurosis and the paraspinal muscles. It is confirmed that the paraspinal muscles are enveloped by a continuous paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS), formed by the deep lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF. The PRS extends from the spinous process to transverse process, and is distinct from both the superficial lamina of the posterior layer and middle layer of the TLF. As the aponeurosis approaches the lateral border of the PRS, it appears to separate into two distinct laminae, which join the anterior and posterior walls of the PRS. This configuration creates a previously undescribed fat-filled lumbar interfascial triangle situated along the lateral border of the paraspinal muscles from the 12th

  17. Embryonic left-right separation mechanism allows confinement of mutation-induced phenotypes to one lateral body half of bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun

    2013-12-01

    A fundamental question in developmental biology is how a chimeric animal such as a bilateral gynandromorphic animal can have different phenotypes confined to different lateral body halves, and how mutation-induced phenotypes, such as genetic diseases, can be confined to one lateral body half in patients. Here, I propose that embryos of many, if not all, bilaterian animals are divided into left and right halves at a very early stage (which may vary among different types of animals), after which the descendants of the left-sided and right-sided cells will almost exclusively remain on their original sides, respectively, throughout the remaining development. This embryonic left-right separation mechanism allows (1) mutations and the mutation-induced phenotypes to be strictly confined to one lateral body half in animals and humans; (2) mothers with bilateral hereditary primary breast cancer to transmit their disease to their offspring at twofold of the rate compared to mothers with unilateral hereditary breast cancer; and (3) a mosaic embryo carrying genetic or epigenetic mutations to develop into either an individual with the mutation-induced phenotype confined unilaterally, or a pair of twins displaying complete, partial, or mirror-image discordance for the phenotype. Further, this left-right separation mechanism predicts that the two lateral halves of a patient carrying a unilateral genetic disease can each serve as a case and an internal control, respectively, for genetic and epigenetic comparative studies to identify the disease causations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence and clinical significance of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease: observations at MR imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, V O

    2013-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease in patients with anterior knee pain and to correlate it with patient demographics, patellar shape, and patellofemoral alignment.

  19. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Y. Flugelman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years.

  20. Lateral variations in foreland flexure of a rifted continental margin: The Aquitaine Basin (SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrand, P.; Ford, M.; Watts, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of the inherited Aptian to Cenomanian rift on crustal rheology and evolution of the Late Cretaceous to Neogene flexural Aquitaine foreland basin, northern Pyrenees. We use surface and subsurface geological data to define the crustal geometry and the post-rift thermal subsidence, and Bouguer gravity anomalies and flexural modeling to study the lateral variation of the elastic thickness, flexure of the European plate and controlling loads. The Aquitaine foreland can be divided along-strike into three sectors. The eastern foreland is un-rifted and is associated with a simple flexural subsidence. The central sector is affected by crustal stretching and the observed foreland base is modeled by combining topographic and buried loads, with post-rift thermal subsidence. In the western sector the foreland basin geometry is mainly controlled by post-rift thermal subsidence. These three sectors are separated by major lineaments, which affect both crustal and foreland geometry. These lineaments seem to be part of a larger structural pattern that includes the Toulouse and Pamplona Faults. The European foreland shows lateral variations in flexural behavior: the relative role of surface and sub-surface (i.e., buried) loading varies along-strike and the elastic thickness values decrease from the north-east to the south-west where the plate is the most stretched. We suggest that foreland basins are influenced by the thermal state of the underlying lithosphere if it was initiated soon after rifting and that thermal cooling can contribute significantly to subsidence.

  1. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y

    2009-01-01

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr -1 . It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  2. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y, E-mail: anna.peregon@nies.go.j [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr{sup -1}. It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  3. Cerebral lateralization for the processing of spatial coordinates and categories in left-and right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAENG, B; PETERS, M

    1995-04-01

    Subjects judged whether a tachistoscopially lateralized drawing was identical or different to a drawing seen immediately before in free vision. The drawings depicted natural objects (e.g. animals). On half of the trials the tachistoscopic drawing presented the same objects but either the categorical or the coordinate spatial relations (according to Kosslyn's definitions [23]) between the objects were transformed. In the first experiment 38 right-handed subjects (half males and half females) were tested. Categorical judgements were faster when the match drawing appeared in the right visual field, whereas coordinate judgements were faster when the match drawing appeared in the left visual field. In the second experiment 26 right-handed and 40 left-handed subjects participated. Almost all the subjects were female. Right-handed subjects replicated the findings of the subjects in the first experiment. However, the LHs did not show any difference in response times between spatial conditions and visual fields. These findings support Kosslyn's hypothesis that the left and right hemispheres are specialized respectively for processing categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Moreover, they also suggest that this lateralization pattern is not typical of left-handers.

  4. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J M; Ramsey, N; Rutten, G J

    2015-12-01

    Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MRI can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on the ratio between left and right brain activity in a specific region associated with language. Nearly all fMRI language studies show language-related activity in both hemispheres, and as a result the LI shows a large range of values. The clinical significance of the variation in language laterality as measured with the LI is still under debate. In this study, we tested two hypotheses in relation to the LI, measured in Broca's region, and it's right hemisphere homologue: 1: the level of activity in Broca's and it's right hemisphere homologue is mirrored for subjects with an equal but opposite LI; 2: the whole brain language activation pattern differs between subjects with an equal but opposite LI. One hundred sixty-three glioma and meningioma patients performed a verb generation task as part of a standard clinical protocol. We calculated the LI in the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, referred to as Broca's region from here on. In our database, 21 patients showed right lateralized activity, with a moderate average level (-0.32). A second group of 21 patients was selected from the remaining group, for equal but opposite LI (0.32). We compared the level and distribution of activity associated with language production in the left and right hemisphere in these two groups. Patients with left sided laterality showed a significantly higher level of activity in Broca's region than the patients with right sided laterality. However, both groups showed no difference in level of activity in Broca's homologue region in the right hemisphere. Also, we did not see any difference in the pattern of activity between patients with left

  5. Left or right? Lateralizing temporal lobe epilepsy by dynamic amygdala fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives-Deliperi, Victoria; Butler, James Thomas; Jokeit, Hennric

    2017-05-01

    In this case series, the findings of 85 functional MRI studies employing a dynamic fearful face paradigm are reported. Previous findings have shown the paradigm to generate bilateral amygdala activations in healthy subjects and unilateral activations in patients with MTLE, in the contralateral hemisphere to seizure origin. Such findings suggest ipsilateral limbic pathology and offer collateral evidence in lateralizing MTLE. The series includes 60 patients with TLE, 12 patients with extra-temporal lobe epilepsy, and 13 healthy controls. Functional MRI studies using a 1.5T scanner were conducted over a three-year period at a single epilepsy center and individual results were compared with EEG findings. In the cohort of unilateral TLE patients, lateralized activations of the amygdala were concordant with EEG findings in 76% of patients (77% lTLE, 74% rTLE). The differences in the mean lateralized indices of the lTLE, rTLE, and healthy control groups were all statistically significant. Lateralized amygdala activations were concordant with EEG findings in only 31% of the 12 patients with extra-temporal lobe epilepsy and bilateral amygdala activations were generated in all but one of the healthy control subjects. This case series further endorses the utility of the dynamic fearful face functional MRI paradigm using the widely available 1.5T as an adjunctive investigation to lateralize TLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lesions to the left lateral prefrontal cortex impair decision threshold adjustment for lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Royce; Riès, Stéphanie; Van Maanen, Leendert; Alario, F-Xavier

    Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data. We also compare the results to healthy speakers. Analysis of the cognitive parameters indicates an impairment of the PFC patients to appropriately adjust their decision threshold, in order to handle the increased item difficulty that is introduced by semantic interference. Also, the modelling contributes to other topics in psycholinguistic theory, in which specific effects are observed on the cognitive parameters according to item familiarization, and the opposing effects of priming (lower threshold) and semantic interference (lower drift) which are found to depend on repetition. These results are developed for the blocked-cyclic picture naming paradigm, in which pictures are presented within semantically homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (HET) blocks, and are repeated several times per block. Overall, the results are in agreement with a role of the left PFC in adjusting the decision threshold for lexical selection in language production.

  7. Evidence for Mojave-Sonora megashear-Systematic left-lateral offset of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies, western United States and northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Major successions as well as individual units of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies appear to be systematically offset left laterally from eastern California and western Nevada in the western United States to Sonora, Mexico. This pattern is most evident in units such as the "Johnnie oolite," a 1- to 2-m-thick oolite of the Neoproterozoic Rainstorm Member of the Johnnie Formation in the western United States and of the Clemente Formation in Sonora. The pattern is also evident in the Lower Cambrian Zabriskie Quartzite of the western United States and the correlative Proveedora Quartzite in Sonora. Matching of isopach lines of the Zabriskie Quartzite and Proveedora Quartzite suggests ???700-800 km of left-lateral offset. The offset pattern is also apparent in the distribution of distinctive lithologic types, unconformities, and fossil assemblages in other rocks ranging in age from Neoproterozoic to Early Jurassic. In the western United States, the distribution of facies in Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata indicates that the Cordilleran miogeocline trends north-south. A north-south trend is also suggested in Sonora, and if so is compatible with offset of the miogeocline but not with the ideas that the miogeocline wrapped around the continental margin and trends east-west in Sonora. An imperfect stratigraphic match of supposed offset segments along the megashear is apparent. Some units, such as the "Johnnie oolite" and Zabriskie-Proveedora, show almost perfect correspondence, but other units are significantly different. The differences seem to indicate that the indigenous succession of the western United States and offset segments in Mexico were not precisely side by side before offset but were separated by an area-now buried, eroded, or destroyed-that contained strata of intermediate facies. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  8. Lateralization in the invertebrate brain: left-right asymmetry of olfaction in bumble bee, Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Anfora

    Full Text Available Brain and behavioural lateralization at the population level has been recently hypothesized to have evolved under social selective pressures as a strategy to optimize coordination among asymmetrical individuals. Evidence for this hypothesis have been collected in Hymenoptera: eusocial honey bees showed olfactory lateralization at the population level, whereas solitary mason bees only showed individual-level olfactory lateralization. Here we investigated lateralization of odour detection and learning in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris L., an annual eusocial species of Hymenoptera. By training bumble bees on the proboscis extension reflex paradigm with only one antenna in use, we provided the very first evidence of asymmetrical performance favouring the right antenna in responding to learned odours in this species. Electroantennographic responses did not reveal significant antennal asymmetries in odour detection, whereas morphological counting of olfactory sensilla showed a predominance in the number of olfactory sensilla trichodea type A in the right antenna. The occurrence of a population level asymmetry in olfactory learning of bumble bee provides new information on the relationship between social behaviour and the evolution of population-level asymmetries in animals.

  9. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  10. Case report 400: Unilateral fusion of odontoid to lateral mass of C1 with pseudoarthrosis on left

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyska, M; Margulies, J Y; Gomori, J M; Beauvoir, G

    1986-11-01

    A case is described of a 19-year-old woman who presented with pain in the neck of several months duration. Torticolis and limitation of rotation of the head and neck to the right were observed. Plain films of the cervical spine were interpreted as normal, but plain film tomography and CT studies demonstrated an unusual anomaly, consisting of fusion of the odontoid process to the right lateral mass of C1 and a pseudoarthrosis in the anterior mass on the left side. (orig./SHA).

  11. Strong rightward lateralization of the dorsal attentional network in left-handers with right sighting-eye: an evolutionary advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Laurent; Zago, Laure; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for spatial attention and its relationships with manual preference strength and eye preference were studied in a sample of 293 healthy individuals balanced for manual preference. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map this large sample while performing visually guided saccadic eye movements. This activated a bilateral distributed cortico-subcortical network in which dorsal and ventral attentional/saccadic pathways elicited rightward asymmetrical activation depending on manual preference strength and sighting eye. While the ventral pathway showed a strong rightward asymmetry irrespective of both manual preference strength and eye preference, the dorsal frontoparietal network showed a robust rightward asymmetry in strongly left-handers, even more pronounced in left-handed subjects with a right sighting-eye. Our findings brings support to the hypothesis that the origin of the rightward hemispheric dominance for spatial attention may have a manipulo-spatial origin neither perceptual nor motor per se but rather reflecting a mechanism by which a spatial context is mapped onto the perceptual and motor activities, including the exploration of the spatial environment with eyes and hands. Within this context, strongly left-handers with a right sighting-eye may benefit from the advantage of having the same right hemispheric control of their dominant hand and visuospatial attention processing. We suggest that this phenomenon explains why left-handed right sighting-eye athletes can outperform their competitors in sporting duels and that the prehistoric and historical constancy of the left-handers ratio over the general population may relate in part on the hemispheric specialization of spatial attention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Exposure to lateral collision in signalized intersections with protected left turn under different traffic control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midenet, Sophie; Saunier, Nicolas; Boillot, Florence

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposes an original definition of the exposure to lateral collision in signalized intersections and discusses the results of a real world experiment. This exposure is defined as the duration of situations where the stream that is given the right-of-way goes through the conflict zone while road users are waiting in the cross-traffic approach. This measure, obtained from video sensors, makes it possible to compare different operating conditions such as different traffic signal strategies. The data from a real world experiment is used, where the adaptive real-time strategy CRONOS (ContRol Of Networks by Optimization of Switchovers) and a time-plan strategy with vehicle-actuated ranges alternately controlled an isolated intersection near Paris. Hourly samples with similar traffic volumes are compared and the exposure to lateral collision is different in various areas of the intersection and various traffic conditions for the two strategies. The total exposure under peak hour traffic conditions drops by roughly 5 min/h with the CRONOS strategy compared to the time-plan strategy, which occurs mostly on entry streams. The results are analyzed through the decomposition of cycles in phase sequences and recommendations are made for traffic control strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and clinical significance of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease: observations at MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, V O; Moran, D E; Mwangi, I; Eustace, S J

    2013-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease in patients with anterior knee pain and to correlate it with patient demographics, patellar shape, and patellofemoral alignment. Retrospective study over a 1-year period reviewing the MR knee examinations of all patients who were referred for assessment of anterior knee pain. Only patients with isolated lateral patellofemoral disease were included. Age, gender, distribution of lateral patellofemoral chondromalacia, and grade of cartilaginous defects were documented for each patient. Correlation between the distribution of lateral patellofemoral chondromalacia and patient demographics, patellar shape, and indices of patellar alignment (femoral sulcus angle and modified Q angle) was then ascertained. There were 50 patients (22 males, 28 females) with anterior knee pain and isolated patellofemoral disease. The majority of the patients (78 %) had co-existent disease with grade 1 chondromalacia. No significant correlation was found between patients with chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle and age, gender, patellar shape, or modified Q angle (p > 0.05). However, patients with chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle had a shallower femoral sulcus angle (mean 141.8°) compared to the patients with lateral patellar facet disease (mean 133.8°) (p = 0.002). A small percentage of patients with anterior knee pain have chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle. This was associated with a shallower femoral sulcus angle.

  14. Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces after left lateral temporo-occipital venous infarction: a double dissociation with prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Mohr, Christine; Valenza, Nathalie; Wetzel, Corinne; Landis, Theodor

    2003-04-01

    Right hemisphere dominance in face processing is well established and unilateral right inferior temporo-occipital damage can result in prosopagnosia. Here, we describe a 21-year-old right-handed woman with acute impairment in face recognition that selectively concerned unfamiliar faces, following a focal left lateral temporo-occipital venous infarct. She was severely impaired in discerning that unknown people seen in everyday life were unfamiliar, although she had no difficulty recognizing familiar people. Thus, she had no prosopagnosia, but abnormal 'hyperfamiliarity' for unknown faces. Her difficulty was not accompanied by delusions or deficits in discrimination, identification or memory for faces. Standard neuropsychological testing showed that her recognition of familiar faces was entirely normal. By contrast, her sense of personally knowing faces was severely impaired when unknown faces evoked weak signals of familiarity based on spurious cues, to the extent that she would misattribute fame to faces that were unknown but to which she had been incidentally exposed on a prior occasion. Priming experiments also revealed that, unlike normal subjects, she made familiarity judgements without accessing semantic identity representations. Moreover, in face recognition tests, she generally showed bias in that she relied more on right-hemisphere strategies to identify global traits and less on left-hemisphere processes compared with healthy subjects. This case provides novel evidence for a differential contribution of the two hemispheres to face recognition. Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces might arise from an imbalance between reciprocal hemispheric functions in face recognition, with relative hypoactivation of left hemisphere processes but hyperactivation of right-hemisphere processes for retrieving stored associations about people, linking seen faces to representations of affective and personal relevance. Hence, abnormal bias in attributing some personal meaning to

  15. Tempering Proactive Cognitive Control by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Right (but Not the Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroimaging data support the distinction of two different modes of cognitive control: proactive, which involves the active and sustained maintenance of task-relevant information to bias behavior in accordance with internal goals; and reactive, which entails the detection and resolution of interference at the time it occurs. Both control modes may be flexibly deployed depending on a variety of conditions (i.e., age, brain alterations, motivational factors, prior experience. Critically, and in line with specific predictions derived from the dual mechanisms of control account (Braver, 2012, findings from neuroimaging studies indicate that the same lateral prefrontal regions (i.e., left dorsolateral cortex and right inferior frontal junction may implement different control modes on the basis of temporal dynamics of activity, which would be modulated in response to external or internal conditions. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether transcraneal direct current stimulation over either the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the right inferior frontal junction would differentially modulate performance on the AX-CPT, a well-validated task that provides sensitive and reliable behavioral indices of proactive/reactive control. The study comprised six conditions of real stimulation [3 (site: left dorsolateral, right dorsolateral and right inferior frontal junction × 2 (polarity: anodal and cathodal], and one sham condition. The reference electrode was always placed extracephalically. Performance on the AX-CPT was assessed through two blocks of trials. The first block took place while stimulation was being delivered, whereas the second block was administered after stimulation completion. The results indicate that both offline cathodal stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and online anodal stimulation of the right inferior frontal junction led participants to be much less proactive, with such a dissociation

  16. Effect of Smaller Left Ventricular Capture Threshold Safety Margins to Improve Device Longevity in Recipients of Cardiac Resynchronization-Defibrillation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Waks, Jonathan W; Collins, Robert; Kleckner, Karen; Kramer, Daniel B; Zimetbaum, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    Device longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is affected by the pacing capture threshold (PCT) and programmed pacing amplitude of the left ventricular (LV) pacing lead. The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of LV pacing thresholds in a nationwide sample of CRT defibrillator recipients and to determine potential longevity improvements associated with a decrease in the LV safety margin while maintaining effective delivery of CRT. CRT defibrillator patients in the Medtronic CareLink database were eligible for inclusion. LV PCT stability was evaluated using ≥2 measurements over a 14-day period. Separately, a random sample of 7,250 patients with programmed right atrial and right ventricular amplitudes ≤2.5 V, LV thresholds ≤ 2.5 V, and LV pacing ≥90% were evaluated to estimate theoretical battery longevity improvement using LV safety margins of 0.5 and 1.5 V. Threshold stability analysis in 43,256 patients demonstrated LV PCT stability of 1 V had the greatest increases in battery life (mean increase 0.86 years, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.87). In conclusion, nearly all CRT defibrillator patients had LV PCT stability <1.0 V. Decreasing the LV safety margin from 1.5 to 0.5 V provided consistent delivery of CRT for most patients and significantly improved battery longevity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Are marginalized women being left behind? A population-based study of institutional deliveries in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Paul C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While India has made significant progress in reducing maternal mortality, attaining further declines will require increased skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery among marginalized and difficult to reach populations. Methods A population-based survey was carried out among 16 randomly selected rural villages in rural Mysore District in Karnataka, India between August and September 2008. All households in selected villages were enumerated and women with children 6 years of age or younger underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire on antenatal care and institutional delivery. Results Institutional deliveries in rural areas of Mysore District increased from 51% to 70% between 2002 and 2008. While increasing numbers of women were accessing antenatal care and delivering in hospitals, large disparities were found in uptake of these services among different castes. Mothers belonging to general castes were almost twice as likely to have an institutional birth as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. Mothers belonging to other backward caste or general castes had 1.8 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.21, 2.89 of having an institutional delivery as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. In multivariable analysis, which adjusted for inter- and intra-village variance, Below Poverty Line status, caste, and receiving antenatal care were all associated with institutional delivery. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that while the Indian Government has made significant progress in increasing antenatal care and institutional deliveries among rural populations, further success in lowering maternal mortality will likely hinge on the success of NRHM programs focused on serving marginalized groups. Health interventions which target SC/ST may also have to address both perceived and actual stigma and discrimination, in addition to providing needed services. Strategies for overcoming these barriers may include

  18. Effect of the left lateral recumbent position compared with the supine and upright positions on placental blood flow in normal late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonio, S; Simpanen, A L; Olkkonen, H; Haring, P

    1976-02-01

    The placental blood flow was assessed by the 99mTc accumulation method in 10 normal pregnancies in the left lateral recumbent position accomplished by a 15 degree wedge and in the supine position. The postural change caused a 17% decrease in the mean placental accumulation rate, which was not statistically significant. Ten patients were moved from the left lateral recumbent position to the upright position, which caused a statistically significant 23% decrease in the mean accumulation rate. Other haemodynamic variables studied were the maternal heart rate and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The clinical significance of the haemodynamic changes produced by alterations in posture are briefly discussed.

  19. Lateralization of spatial rather than temporal attention underlies the left hemifield advantage in rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanowicz, Dariusz; Kruse, Lena; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting. In the unilateral task, the targets were presented block-wise in the LVF or RVF only, such that no spatial orienting was needed for target identification. Temporal attention was manipulated in both tasks by varying the T1-T2 lag. The results showed that the LVF advantage disappeared when involvement of stimulus-driven spatial orienting was eliminated, whereas the manipulation of temporal attention had no effect on the asymmetry. In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention, and provide further evidence that the LVF advantage reflects right hemisphere predominance in stimulus-driven orienting of spatial attention. These conclusions fit evidence that temporal attention is implemented by bilateral parietal areas and spatial attention by the right-lateralized ventral frontoparietal network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  1. Escape tectonism in the Gulf of Thailand: Paleogene left-lateral pull-apart rifting in the Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H

    2010-01-01

    The Malay Basin represents one of the largest rift basins of SE Asia. Based on a comprehensive 2-D seismic database tied to wells covering mainly Vietnamese acreage, the evolution of the Vietnamese part of the basin is outlined and a new tectonic model is proposed for the development of the basin....... The Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin comprises a large and deep Paleogene pull-apart basin formed through Middle or Late Eocene to Oligocene left-lateral strike-slip along NNW-trending fault zones. The Tho Chu Fault Zone constitutes a significant Paleogene left-lateral strike-slip zone most likely associated......–Strending faults in the central part of the basin. However, the lack of inversion in Vietnamese territory only seems to merit a few kilometers of dextral inversion....

  2. Attention that covers letters is necessary for the left-lateralization of an early print-tuned ERP in Japanese hiragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2015-03-01

    Extensive experience with reading develops expertise in acquiring information from print, and this is reflected in specific enhancement of the left-lateralized N170 component in event-related potentials. The N170 is generally considered to reflect visual/orthographic processing; while modulations of its left-lateralization related to phonological processes have also been indicated. However, in our previous study, N170-like response to Hiragana strings lacked left-lateralization when the stimuli were completely task-irrelevant in rapid-presentation sequences [Okumura et al. (2014). Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings. Neuroreport 25, 410-414]. This suggests that, despite the highly transparent character-to-syllable correspondence, the phonological mapping of Hiragana strings requires some kind of attention toward print. To verify this notion, the present study examined ERPs under the same experimental condition as in the previous study, except that the task required attention to a stimulus attribute (i.e., color). As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited left-lateralized negative deflection in the occipito-temporal region during 130-170ms post-stimulus in comparison to symbol strings, but only when the print had a narrow intercharacter spacing. Moreover, we observed the enhancement of very early occipital ERP in response to words during 70-100ms. The present results suggest that visual attention plays a role in early print processing, which may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie expert as well as impaired reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective hypertrophy of the lobus caudatus as a novel approach enabling extended right hepatectomy in the presence of a non-perfused left lateral liver lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Thelen, Armin; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Krenzien, Felix; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Moche, Michael; Jonas, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a well-established technique to enhance functional hepatic reserves of segments II and III before curative extended right hepatectomy for tumors of the right liver lobe. However, an adequate hepatopetal flow of the left lateral portal vein branches is required for a sufficient PVE-associated hypertrophy. Here, we report a 65-year old patient suffering from a locally advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the right liver lobe and segment IV. A curative extended right hepatectomy after preoperative PVE of liver segments IV-VIII was initially impossible because of partial thrombosis of the left lateral portal vein branches resulting in an ischemic-type atrophy of segments II and III. However, due to a massive hypertrophy of the caudate lobe following PVE of liver segments IV-VIII, subsequent extended right hepatectomy with intraoperative thrombectomy of segments II and III was made possible. To our knowledge this is the first case in which an extended right hepatectomy for a liver malignancy, in the presence of atrophic left lateral section, was made possible by a massive PVE-associated hypertrophy of the caudate lobe.

  4. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  5. Left ventricular filling pressure by septal and lateral E/e' equally predict cardiovascular events in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Joanna Nan; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk

    2017-01-01

    /e'lateral were equally strong predictors of cardiac events; in age- and sex-adjusted models they did not differ in AUC (septal: 0.8385, lateral: 0.8389; p = 0.94) or in continuous NRI (p = 0.84). Models using E/e'average did not improve AUC or NRI, and the intra-individual difference between sites had...... no predictive value (p = 0.79). E/e'septal was generally higher than E/e'lateral, thus age- and sex-specific normal values were reported for both sites for a population free of cardiac events during 10 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Septal and lateral E/e' are equally useful in predicting cardiac events...

  6. Cerebral lateralization of the face-cortical network in left-handers: only the FFA does not get it right

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Henryk; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine; Hanseeuw; Dricot, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Face processing is a function that is highly lateralized in humans, as supported by original evidence from brain lesion studies (Hecaen & Anguerlergues, 1962), followed by studies using divided visual field presentations (Heller & Levy, 1981), neuroimaging (Sergent et al., 1992) and event-related potentials (Bentin et al., 1996). Studies in non-human primates (Perrett et al., 1988; Zangenehpour & Chaudhuri, 2005), or other mammals (Peirce & Kendrick, 2001) support the right lateralization of ...

  7. Cosmetic appreciation of lateralization of peripheral facial palsy: 'preference for left or right, true or mirror image?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, Sjaak; Ingels, Koen; van Heerbeek, Niels; Beurskens, Carien

    2014-09-01

    There have been several studies in the past depicting asymmetry in 'normal' human faces. Evidence supports the fact that the right hemisphere is superior in the recognition of emotions expressed by the human face and indicates a right hemispheric specialization for processing emotional information. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in cosmetic appreciation of a left peripheral facial palsy compared to a right peripheral facial palsy? Pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House-Brackmann II-VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Forty-two patients and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. The primary 'end' point was the most attractive side in the pictures chosen by medical professionals and patients. The secondary 'end' points consisted of the preferences for the mirror or true image, and influences of the House-Brackmann score and age. Medical professionals preferred the photographs from patients with a right and left peripheral facial palsy (PFP) in, respectively, a mean of 44 % (41-48 %) and 56 % (52-59 %) of the pictures (p = 0.02). When comparing mirror and true image, patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror and true image as most attractive in 90 and 10 %, respectively (p 0.05). Subanalysis of patients with a PFP House-Brackmann score V and VI showed that medical professionals did not have a significant preference for a left nor right-sided facial palsy. Patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror image in all cases and patients with a right-sided palsy chose their mirror and true image in resp. 33 and 67 %. The House-Brackmann score (p = 0.52) and age (p = 0.73) of the patients did not influence preferences. This study, demonstrating that medical professionals find a right-sided facial palsy cosmetically less attractive than a left-sided, has

  8. Coronary perfusion pressure and compression quality in maternal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in supine and left-lateral tilt positions: A prospective, crossover study using mannequins and swine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Satoshi; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Matsuoka, Ryu; Seo, Kohei; Nagatsuka, Masaaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2017-09-01

    The risk of maternal and fetal mortality is high if cardiopulmonary arrest occurs during pregnancy. To assess the best position for maternal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), a prospective randomized crossover study was undertaken, involving basic life support mannequin-based simulation (BLS-MS) and a swine model of pulseless electrical activity (an unstable cardiac state) incorporating a fetal mannequin (PEA-FM). The BLS-MS (performed by certified rescuers) served to evaluate the quality of chest compressions in 30° left lateral tilt (LLT) and supine positions. Based on a 5-point scale, each rescuer subjectively graded their experience. The PEA-FM model was used to compare coronary perfusion pressure readings during CPR in supine, supine with left uterine displacement, 30° LLT, and 30° right lateral tilt positions. Compression rate and correctness of hand position, compression depth, and recoil were measures of compression quality (BLS-MS). Compared with LLT position, supine position enabled correct hand position (rate: 0.99 vs 0.88; p<0.05) and compression depth (rate: 0.76 vs 0.36; p<0.001) significantly more often. Moreover, BLS-MS rescuers found chest compressions significantly easier to perform with the mannequin in supine (vs LLT) position (difficulty score: 1.75 vs 3.95; p<0.001). In the PEA-FM study arm, supine position with left uterine displacement and right lateral tilt positions had the highest and lowest recorded coronary perfusion pressure readings, respectively. Supine position with left uterine displacement is optimal for maternal CPR. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The lateralized arcuate fasciculus in developmental pitch disorders among mandarin amusics: left for speech and right for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xizhuo; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Li, Jiaqi; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2018-05-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics. Compared to age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched controls, amusics demonstrated increased connectivity as reflected by the increased fractional anisotropy in the right posterior AF but decreased connectivity as reflected by the decreased volume in the right anterior AF. Moreover, greater fractional anisotropy in the left direct AF was correlated with worse performance in speech tone perception among amusics. This study is the first to examine the neural connectivity of AF in the neurodevelopmental condition of amusia as a result of disrupted music pitch and speech tone processing. We found abnormal white matter structural connectivity in the right AF for the amusic individuals. Moreover, we demonstrated that the white matter microstructural properties of the left direct AF is modulated by lexical tone deficits among the amusic individuals. These data support the notion of distinctive pitch processing systems between music and speech.

  10. Rapid-Sequence Intubation in the Left-Lateral Tilt Position in a Pregnant Woman with Premature Placental Abruption Utilizing a Videolaryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Nakao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Case - A 24-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital with decreased fetal heart rate. Obstetric examination revealed premature placental abruption; emergent caesarean section was planned under general anesthesia. On entering the operating room, the patient showed severe vital sign deterioration (blood pressure, 75/45 mm Hg; heart rate, 142 beats per minute. As left uterine displacement may worsen the premature placental abruption, the patient was placed in the left-lateral tilt position by rotating the operating table to release compression on the inferior vena cava by theuterus. To avoid circulatory collapse, rapid-sequence intubation was performed in this position. Tracheal intubation was performed with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS videolaryngoscope, AWS; HOYA, Japan to obtain a good laryngeal view and minimize stress from laryngoscopy. After sufficient oxygenation, 120 mg of thiopental was administered. A second anesthesiologist performed cricoid pressure and 50 mg of rocuronium was administered after confirming loss of consciousness. This was followed by insertion of the AWS with a thin intlock into the mouth. Tracheal intubation was performed uneventfully. Discussion - Rapid-sequence intubation in the left-lateral tilted position with the AWS videolaryngoscope may be beneficial for pregnant women with vital sign deterioration.

  11. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J. M.; Ramsey, N.; Rutten, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MM can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on

  12. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional stroop study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional

  13. Experimental study of essential hypertension related to neurovascular compression established by fixation of balloon at the left lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jialin; Xu Jianrong; Luo Qizhong; Zhang Xiaohua; Li Shanquan; Chen Kemin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possible mechanisms of neurogenic hypertension. Methods: With the guide of modern imaging, the hypertensive animal model of pulsatile neurovascular compression was established by fixation of balloon at the entry zone of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves of the left ventrolateral medulla oblongata. Blood pressure and heart rate data were collected at preoperation and one hour, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks of postoperation. Results: The results showed that SBP at postoperation rose by 27.3%, 26.1%, 25.4% and 27.4%, respectively; DBP rose by 18.8%, 20.8%, 20.0% and 20.2%, respectively; MAP rose by 24.2%, 24.1%, 23.2% and 24.8%, respectively; HR rose by 34.9%, 26.7%, 26.9% and 26.1% respectively. Statistically, SBP, DAP, MAP and HR of postoperation significantly increased compared with that of preoperation in hypertension group (F = 9.044, 12,679, 11.306, 16.536, P 0.05). Conclusion: Essential hypertension may by caused by neurovascular compression of ninth and tenth cranial nerves of the left ventrolateral medulla oblongata at the REZ

  14. Left dorso-lateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects cortical excitability and functional connectivity, but does not impair cognition in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajahan, Polash M; Glabus, Mike F; Steele, J Douglas; Doris, Alan B; Anderson, Kay; Jenkins, Jenny A; Gooding, Patricia A; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2002-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for over a decade to investigate cortical function. More recently, it has been employed to treat conditions such as major depression. This study was designed to explore the effects of differential treatment parameters, such as stimulation frequency. In addition, the data were examined to determine whether a change in connectivity occurred following TMS. Fifteen patients with major depression were entered into a combined imaging and treatment experiment with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain perfusion during a verbal fluency task was compared between pre- and poststimulation conditions. Patients were then treated with 80% of motor threshold for a total of 10 days, using 5000 stimuli at 5, 10 or 20 Hz. Tests of cortical excitability and neuropsychological tests were done throughout the trial. Patients generally improved with treatment. There was no perceptible difference between stimulation frequencies, which may have reflected low study power. An increase in rostral anterior cingulate activation after the treatment day was associated with increased functional connectivity in the dorso-lateral frontal loop on the left and the limbic loop on both sides. No noticeable deterioration in neuropsychological function was observed. TMS at the stimulation frequencies used seems to be safe over a course of 5000 stimuli. It appears to have an activating effect in anterior limbic structures and increase functional connectivity in the neuroanatomical networks under the stimulation coil within an hour of stimulation.

  15. Comparative study of body surface isopotential map, left ventriculogram and thallium-201 myocardial scintigram in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    1988-01-01

    In 16 patients with old lateral myocardial infarction, body surface isopotential maps and 12 lead electrocardiograms were compared with left ventriculographic findings. In addition 8 of these subjects were performed thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in order to determine the location and extent of myocardial necrosis. Common 12 lead electrocardiographic findings of the subjects were initial Q waves more than 30 msec and inverted T waves in only aVL lead. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to the location and extent of ventricular wall motion abnormalities group I (6 cases) showed hypokinesis in the anterior segment, group II (5 cases): akinesis in the anterior segment and hypokinesis in the seg. 6, group III (4 cases): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 7, group IV (1 case): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 4, 7. And each of the 4 groups demonstrated characteristic findings of surface isopotential maps. Group II with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 6 showed surface isopotential maps additional pattern of anterior myocardial infarction, and group III with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 7 showed additional patterns of posterior myocardial infarction. The classification according to the abnormality of ventricular wall motion was also conformed with the thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphic findings except one case. These results suggest that body surface isopotential map is more useful than the 12 lead electrocardiogram in detecting the location and extent of left ventricular wall motion abnormality in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction. (author) 53 refs

  16. Multiple sclerosis: Left advantage for auditory laterality in dichotic tests of central auditory processing and relationship of psychoacoustic tests with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale-EDSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza López, Yolanda Rebeca; Orozco Peña, Xóchitl Daisy; Pérez Ruiz, Santiago Jesús

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the central auditory processing disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis, emphasizing auditory laterality by applying psychoacoustic tests and to identify their relationship with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale (EDSS) functions. Depression scales (HADS), EDSS, and 9 psychoacoustic tests to study CAPD were applied to 26 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 controls. Correlation tests were performed between the EDSS and psychoacoustic tests. Seven out of 9 psychoacoustic tests were significantly different (P<.05); right or left (14/19 explorations) with respect to control. In dichotic digits there was a left-ear advantage compared to the usual predominance of RDD. There was significant correlation in five psychoacoustic tests and the specific functions of EDSS. The left-ear advantage detected and interpreted as an expression of deficient influences of the corpus callosum and attention in multiple sclerosis should be investigated. There was a correlation between psychoacoustic tests and specific EDSS functions. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased spatial granularity of left brain activation and unique age/gender signatures: a 4D frequency domain approach to cerebral lateralization at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agcaoglu, O; Miller, R; Mayer, A R; Hugdahl, K; Calhoun, V D

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a well-studied topic. However, most of the research to date in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been carried out on hemodynamic fluctuations of voxels, networks, or regions of interest (ROIs). For example, cerebral differences can be revealed by comparing the temporal activation of an ROI in one hemisphere with the corresponding homotopic region in the other hemisphere. While this approach can reveal significant information about cerebral organization, it does not provide information about the full spatiotemporal organization of the hemispheres. The cerebral differences revealed in literature suggest that hemispheres have different spatiotemporal organization in the resting state. In this study, we evaluate cerebral lateralization in the 4D spatiotemporal frequency domain to compare the hemispheres in the context of general activation patterns at different spatial and temporal scales. We use a gender-balanced resting fMRI dataset comprising over 600 healthy subjects ranging in age from 12 to 71, that have previously been studied with a network specific voxel-wise and global analysis of lateralization (Agcaoglu, et al. NeuroImage, 2014). Our analysis elucidates significant differences in the spatiotemporal organization of brain activity between hemispheres, and generally more spatiotemporal fluctuation in the left hemisphere especially in the high spatial frequency bands, and more power in the right hemisphere in the low and middle spatial frequencies. Importantly, the identified effects are not visible in the context of a typical assessment of voxelwise, regional, or even global laterality, thus our study highlights the value of 4D spatiotemporal frequency domain analyses as a complementary and powerful tool for studying brain function.

  18. Speech-induced striatal dopamine release is left lateralized and coupled to functional striatal circuits in healthy humans: A combined PET, fMRI and DTI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Herscovitch, Peter; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been recently made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying speech and language control. However, the neurochemical underpinnings of normal speech production remain largely unknown. We investigated the extent of striatal endogenous dopamine release and its influences on the organization of functional striatal speech networks during production of meaningful English sentences using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand [11C]raclopride and functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, we used diffusion tensor tractography (DTI) to examine the extent of dopaminergic modulatory influences on striatal structural network organization. We found that, during sentence production, endogenous dopamine was released in the ventromedial portion of the dorsal striatum, in its both associative and sensorimotor functional divisions. In the associative striatum, speech-induced dopamine release established a significant relationship with neural activity and influenced the left-hemispheric lateralization of striatal functional networks. In contrast, there were no significant effects of endogenous dopamine release on the lateralization of striatal structural networks. Our data provide the first evidence for endogenous dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during normal speaking and point to the possible mechanisms behind the modulatory influences of dopamine on the organization of functional brain circuits controlling normal human speech. PMID:23277111

  19. Timing of metamorphism of the Lansang gneiss and implications for left-lateral motion along the Mae Ping (Wang Chao) strike-slip fault, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, R. M.; Searle, M. P.; Morley, C. K.; Charusiri, P.; Horstwood, M. S. A.; Roberts, N. M. W.

    2013-10-01

    The Mae Ping fault (MPF), western Thailand, exhibits dominantly left-lateral strike-slip motion and stretches for >600 km, reportedly branching off the right-lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and extending southeast towards Cambodia. Previous studies have suggested that the fault assisted the large-scale extrusion of Sundaland that occurred during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, with a geological offset of ˜120-150 km estimated from displaced high-grade gneisses and granites of the Chiang Mai-Lincang belt. Exposures of high-grade orthogneiss in the Lansang National Park, part of this belt, locally contain strong mylonitic textures and are bounded by strike-slip ductile shear zones and brittle faults. Geochronological analysis of monazite from a sample of sheared biotite-K-feldspar orthogneiss suggests two episodes of crystallization, with core regions documenting Th-Pb ages between c. 123 and c. 114 Ma and rim regions documenting a significantly younger age range between c. 45-37 Ma. These data are interpreted to represent possible magmatic protolith emplacement for the Lansang orthogneiss during the Early Cretaceous, with a later episode of metamorphism occurring during the Eocene. Textural relationships provided by in situ analysis suggest that ductile shearing along the MPF occurred during the latter stages of, or after, this metamorphic event. In addition, monazite analyzed from an undeformed garnet-two-mica granite dyke intruding metamorphic units at Bhumipol Lake outside of the Mae Ping shear zone produced a Th-Pb age of 66.2 ± 1.6 Ma. This age is interpreted to date the timing of dyke emplacement, implying that the MPF cuts through earlier formed magmatic and high-grade metamorphic rocks. These new data, when combined with regional mapping and earlier geochronological work, show that neither metamorphism, nor regional cooling, was directly related to strike-slip motion.

  20. Construction and Deployment of Tilt Sensors along the Lateral Margins of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska to improve understanding of the Deformation Regime of Wet-Based Polythermal Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I. R.; Hawley, R. L.; Clemens-Sewall, D.; Campbell, S. W.; Waszkiewicz, M.; Bernsen, S.; Gerbi, C. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Koons, P. O.

    2017-12-01

    Most studies of natural ice have been on bodies of ice with frozen beds which experience minimal lateral shear strain, to the exclusion of polythermal ice sheets & glaciers which due to their mixed basal thermal regime have wet-based beds. The deficiency in knowledge and understanding of the operative deformation mechanisms of wet-based bodies of ice results in uncertainty in the constitutive flow law of ice. Given that the flow law was derived experimentally under assumptions more conducive to bodies of ice with frozen-based beds, it is necessary to calibrate the flow law when applied to different bodies of ice such as wet-based polythermal glaciers. To this end, Dartmouth and the University of Maine have collaborated to carry out research on Jarvis Glacier in Alaska, a geometrically simple, wet-based glacier. Here, we constructed and deployed an array of 25 tilt sensors into 3 boreholes drilled along the glacier's shear margin. Our goal is to obtain 3D strain measurements to calculate the full velocity field & create deformation regime maps in the vicinity of the boreholes, as well as to support numerical modeling. The tilt sensors were developed in-lab: Each tilt sensor comes equipped with an LSM303C chip (embedded with a 3-axis accelerometer and magnetometer) and Arduino Pro-Mini mounted on a custom-made printed circuit board encased within a watertight aluminum tube. The design concept was to produce a sensor string, consisting of tilt sensors spaced apart at pre-calculated intervals, to be lowered into a borehole and frozen-in over months to collect strain data through a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger. Three surface-to-bed boreholes were successfully installed with tilt sensor strings. Given the lack of prior in-situ borehole geophysics studies on polythermal glaciers, deliberate consideration on factors such as strain relief and waterproofing electrical components was necessary in the development of the sensor system. On-site challenges also arose due

  1. A comparison of prone SPET and left lateral (decubitus) planar imaging for inferior wall attenuation artefact in 201Tl myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, M.; Jenkin, B.; Van Every, B.; Kelly, M.J.; Kalff, V.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Inferior wall attenuation artefacts are a major problem in supine SPET (S-S) myocardial perfusion imaging. SPET imaging with the patient lying in the prone position (P-S) and left lateral planar imaging with the patient lying in the right lateral decubitus position (LL) ameliorate this artefact. This study attempts to define the clinical role of P-S and LL imaging in characterizing S-S inferior wall defects. 21 patients with an inferior wall defect on S-S then had LL and rapid P-S imaging. All images were performed with a GE Optima NX gamma camera using GENIE acquisition and processing. All SPETs used 16 stops (32 frames) through 90 deg, with 40 s per stop for SS and 14 s per stop for P-S. LL images were acquired for 150 s. All images were assessed for adequacy and inferior wall scored for 0 = no, 1 mild, 2 moderate and 3 = severe defects. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for matched pairs. All images were adequate for analysis. Significantly fewer defects were seen in P-S vs S-S, LL vs S-S (P 0.88); however; there was a difference (P < 0.05) in the subgroup (n = 7) with moderate defects on S-S imaging but no LL defect. In conclusion, most inferior wall defects seen on S-S imaging can be attributed to either attenuation or true perfusion defects with the use of LL imaging. Prone imaging may only be helpful where the inferior defect is of moderate severity but no LL defect is seen

  2. Cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda Myocardial revascularization surgery through left anterolateral minithoracotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Filho

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1995 a fevereiro de 1996, 16 pacientes selecionados foram submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda. Em todos os casos a artéria torácica interna esquerda foi dissecada, para posterior anastomose com o ramo interventricular anterior (RIA sem a utilização de circulação extracorpórea. A idade variou de 43 a 77, com média de 60 anos. Sessenta e dois por cento dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Não houve complicações tais como: hemorragias, acidente vascular cerebral, insuficiência renal aguda, mediastinite ou infarto agudo do miocárdio. Não houve mortalidade no grupo em questão. Em 4 (25% pacientes foi realizado estudo hemodinâmico, que demostrou uma normalidade da anastomose da artéria torácica interna para o ramo interventricular anterior. Devido aos excelentes resultados iniciais, acreditamos que este procedimento possa ser empregado com maior freqüência e com a familiarização dos grupos cirúrgicos, e que as artérias diagonais e marginais da circunflexa possam ser beneficiadas com este tipo de procedimento.Between October 1995 and February 1996, sixteen patients were selected to undergo to surgical myocardial revascularization through left anterolateral minithoracotomy. The left internal thoracic artery was dissected in all patients, for consecutive anastomosis with interventricular anterior artery, without using extracorporeal circulation. Patients age ranged from 43 to 77, average 60 years. Sixty-two percent of them were men. There were no complications such as: acute myocardial infarction, mediastinitis, acute renal failure, hemorrhagy or stroke. There were no deaths. Four (25% patients were submitted to cardiac catheterization that showed patency of grafts and grafted native arteries. Due to excellent initial results, the authors believe that this technique can be employed with greater frequency and that its use can be

  3. Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalati, Moutaz

    Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from

  4. Network-wise cerebral blood flow redistribution after 20 Hz rTMS on left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuan-Qi; Xie, Jun; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Chang, Da; Wang, Ze

    2018-04-01

    The repetitive application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been consistently shown to be beneficial for treating various neuropsychiatric or neuropsychological disorders, but its neural mechanisms still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of high-frequency left DLPFC rTMS using cerebral blood flow (CBF) collected from 40 young healthy subjects before and after applying 20 Hz left DLPFC rTMS or SHAM stimulations. Relative CBF (rCBF) changes before and after 20 Hz rTMS or SHAM were assessed with paired-t test. The results show that 20 Hz DLPFC rTMS induced CBF redistribution in the default mode network, including increased rCBF in left medial temporal cortex (MTC)/hippocampus, but reduced rCBF in precuneus and cerebellum. Meanwhile, SHAM stimulation didn't produce any rCBF changes. After controlling SHAM effects, only the rCBF increase in MTC/hippocampus remained. Those data suggest that the beneficial effects of high-frequency rTMS may be through a within-network rCBF redistribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Left is where the L is right. Significantly delayed reaction time in limb laterality recognition in both CRPS and phantom limb pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Haarmeyer, Golo Sung; Blankenburg, Markus; Frettlöh, Jule; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Maier, Christoph

    2010-12-17

    The body schema is based on an intact cortical body representation. Its disruption is indicated by delayed reaction times (RT) and high error rates when deciding on the laterality of a pictured hand in a limb laterality recognition task. Similarities in both cortical reorganisation and disrupted body schema have been found in two different unilateral pain syndromes, one with deafferentation (phantom limb pain, PLP) and one with pain-induced dysfunction (complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS). This study aims to compare the extent of impaired laterality recognition in these two groups. Performance on a test battery for attentional performance (TAP 2.0) and on a limb laterality recognition task was evaluated in CRPS (n=12), PLP (n=12) and healthy subjects (n=38). Differences between recognising affected and unaffected hands were analysed. CRPS patients and healthy subjects additionally completed a four-day training of limb laterality recognition. Reaction time was significantly delayed in both CRPS (2278±735.7ms) and PLP (2301.3±809.3ms) compared to healthy subjects (1826.5±517.0ms), despite normal TAP values in all groups. There were no differences between recognition of affected and unaffected hands in both patient groups. Both healthy subjects and CRPS patients improved during training, but RTs of CRPS patients (1874.5±613.3ms) remain slower (pCRPS patients, uninfluenced by attention and pain and cannot be fully reversed by training alone. This suggests the involvement of complex central nervous system mechanisms in the disruption of the body schema. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  7. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  8. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Teimournezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    margin: 0in 0in 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in; text-align: justify;">The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critical concepts such as handedness and its main features, the theoretical bases for this phenomenon, the nature and functions of lateralization, and the relationship between these two concepts have been shed light on for a better understanding. Finally, the general differences between the left-handers vs. right-handers have been drawn into consideration.

  9. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  10. Comparisons of the Pentax-AWS, Glidescope, and Macintosh Laryngoscopes for Intubation Performance during Mechanical Chest Compressions in Left Lateral Tilt: A Randomized Simulation Study of Maternal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Rapid advanced airway management is important in maternal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. This study aimed to compare intubation performances among Pentax-AWS (AWS, Glidescope (GVL, and Macintosh laryngoscope (MCL during mechanical chest compression in 15° and 30° left lateral tilt. Methods. In 19 emergency physicians, a prospective randomized crossover study was conducted to examine the three laryngoscopes. Primary outcomes were the intubation time and the success rate for intubation. Results. The median intubation time using AWS was shorter than that of GVL and MCL in both tilt degrees. The time to visualize the glottic view in GVL and AWS was significantly lower than that of MCL (all P<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between the two video laryngoscopes (in 15° tilt, P=1; in 30° tilt, P=0.71. The progression of tracheal tube using AWS was faster than that of MCL and GVL in both degrees (all P<0.001. Intubations using AWS and GVL showed higher success rate than that of Macintosh laryngoscopes. Conclusions. The AWS could be an appropriate laryngoscope for airway management of pregnant women in tilt CPR considering intubation time and success rate.

  11. A Politics of Marginability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    2015-01-01

    always been contested and to some extent vulnerable. However, the Indian communities are strong socially and economically, and the vast majority of its people have great international networks and several potential plans or strategies for the future, should the political climate in Tanzania become......In the end of the 19th century, Indians began settling in East Africa. Most of them left Gujarat because of drought and famine, and they were in search for business opportunities and a more comfortable life. Within the following decades, many of them went from being small-scale entrepreneurs to big...... hostile towards them. I argue that this migrant group is unique being marginalized and strong at the same time, and I explain this uniqueness by several features in the Indian migrants’ cultural and religious background, in colonial and post-colonial Tanzania, and in the Indians’ role as middlemen between...

  12. Late Quaternary slip history of the Mill Creek strand of the San Andreas fault in San Gorgonio Pass, southern California: The role of a subsidiary left-lateral fault in strand switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Katherine J.; Matti, Jonathan; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The fault history of the Mill Creek strand of the San Andreas fault (SAF) in the San Gorgonio Pass region, along with the reconstructed geomorphology surrounding this fault strand, reveals the important role of the left-lateral Pinto Mountain fault in the regional fault strand switching. The Mill Creek strand has 7.1–8.7 km total slip. Following this displacement, the Pinto Mountain fault offset the Mill Creek strand 1–1.25 km, as SAF slip transferred to the San Bernardino, Banning, and Garnet Hill strands. An alluvial complex within the Mission Creek watershed can be linked to palinspastic reconstruction of drainage segments to constrain slip history of the Mill Creek strand. We investigated surface remnants through detailed geologic mapping, morphometric and stratigraphic analysis, geochronology, and pedogenic analysis. The degree of soil development constrains the duration of surface stability when correlated to other regional, independently dated pedons. This correlation indicates that the oldest surfaces are significantly older than 500 ka. Luminescence dates of 106 ka and 95 ka from (respectively) 5 and 4 m beneath a younger fan surface are consistent with age estimates based on soil-profile development. Offset of the Mill Creek strand by the Pinto Mountain fault suggests a short-term slip rate of ∼10–12.5 mm/yr for the Pinto Mountain fault, and a lower long-term slip rate. Uplift of the Yucaipa Ridge block during the period of Mill Creek strand activity is consistent with thermochronologic modeled uplift estimates.

  13. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  14. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  15. Geomorphology and Neogene tectonic evolution of the Palomares continental margin (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de la Peña, Laura; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Muñoz, Araceli; Acosta, Juan; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; R. Ranero, César; Uchupi, Elazar

    2016-10-01

    The Palomares continental margin is located in the southeastern part of Spain. The margin main structure was formed during Miocene times, and it is currently part of the wide deformation zone characterizing the region between the Iberian and African plates, where no well-defined plate boundary occurs. The convergence between these two plates is here accommodated by several structures, including the left lateral strike-slip Palomares Fault. The region is characterized by sparse, low to moderate magnitude (Mw shallow instrumental earthquakes, although large historical events have also occurred. To understand the recent tectonic history of the margin we analyze new high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and re-processed three multichannel seismic reflection profiles crossing the main structures. The analysis of seafloor morphology and associated subsurface structure provides new insights of the active tectonic features of the area. In contrast to other segments of the southeastern Iberian margin, the Palomares margin contains numerous large and comparatively closely spaced canyons with heads that reach near the coast. The margin relief is also characterized by the presence of three prominent igneous submarine ridges that include the Aguilas, Abubacer and Maimonides highs. Erosive processes evidenced by a number of scars, slope failures, gullies and canyon incisions shape the present-day relief of the Palomares margin. Seismic images reveal the deep structure distinguishing between Miocene structures related to the formation of the margin and currently active features, some of which may reactivate inherited structures. The structure of the margin started with an extensional phase accompanied by volcanic accretion during the Serravallian, followed by a compressional pulse that started during the Latemost Tortonian. Nowadays, tectonic activity offshore is subdued and limited to few, minor faults, in comparison with the activity recorded onshore. The deep Algero

  16. Effect of post-implant edema on prostate brachytherapy treatment margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Daniel R.; Wallner, Kent; Ford, Eric; Mueller, Amy; Merrick, Gregory; Maki, Jeffrey; Sutlief, Steven; Butler, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if postimplant prostate brachytherapy treatment margins calculated on Day 0 differ substantially from those calculated on Day 30. Methods: Thirty patients with 1997 American Joint Commission on Cancer clinical stage T1-T2 prostatic carcinoma underwent prostate brachytherapy with I-125 prescribed to 144 Gy. Treatment planning methods included using loose seeds in a modified peripheral loading pattern and treatment margins (TMs) of 5-8 mm. Postimplant plain radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance scans were obtained 1-4 hours after implantation (Day 0). A second set of imaging studies was obtained at 30 days after implantation (Day 30) and similarly analyzed. Treatment margins were measured as the radial distance in millimeters from the prostate edge to the 100% isodose line. The TMs were measured and tabulated at 90 o intervals around the prostate periphery at 0.6-cm intervals. Each direction was averaged to obtain the mean anterior, posterior, left, and right margins. Results: The mean overall TM increased from 2.6 mm (±2.3) on Day 0 to 3.5 mm (±2.4) on Day 30. The mean anterior margin increased from 1.2 mm on Day 0 to 1.8 mm on Day 30. The posterior margin increased from 1.2 mm on Day 0 to 2.8 mm on Day 30. The lateral treatment margins increased most over time, with mean right treatment margin increasing from 3.9 mm on Day 0 to 4.7 mm on Day 30. Conclusion: Treatment margins appear to be durable in the postimplant period, with a clinically insignificant increase from Day 0 to Day 30

  17. Time Safety Margin: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Air Education and Training Command Handbook 99-107, T-38 Road to Wings, Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, July 2013. 65 This page was intentionally left...412TW-TIH-16-01 TIME SAFETY MARGIN: THEORY AND PRACTICE WILLIAM R. GRAY, III Chief Test Pilot USAF Test Pilot School SEPTEMBER 2016... Safety Margin: The01y and Practice) was submitted by the Commander, 4 I 2th Test Wing, Edwards AFB, Ca lifornia 93524-6843. Foreign announcement and

  18. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  19. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  20. Convexity and Marginal Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Norde, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we construct sets of marginal vectors of a TU game with the property that if the marginal vectors from these sets are core elements, then the game is convex.This approach leads to new upperbounds on the number of marginal vectors needed to characterize convexity.An other result is that

  1. "We call ourselves marginalized"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nanna Jordt

    2014-01-01

    of the people we refer to as marginalized. In this paper, I discuss how young secondary school graduates from a pastoralist community in Kenya use and negotiate indigeneity, marginal identity, and experiences of marginalization in social navigations aimed at broadening their current and future opportunities. I...

  2. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  3. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  4. Digital evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy: A comparison of ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional and digital techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shanshan; Yuan, Fusong; Luo, Xu; Yu, Zhuoren; Tang, Zhihui

    2018-04-05

    Marginal discrepancy is key to evaluating the accuracy of fixed dental prostheses. An improved method of evaluating marginal discrepancy is needed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional and digital methods with a digital method for the quantitative evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy. The novel method was based on 3-dimensional scanning, iterative closest point registration techniques, and reverse engineering theory. Six standard tooth preparations for the right maxillary central incisor, right maxillary second premolar, right maxillary second molar, left mandibular lateral incisor, left mandibular first premolar, and left mandibular first molar were selected. Ten conventional ceramic crowns and 10 CEREC crowns were fabricated for each tooth preparation. A dental cast scanner was used to obtain 3-dimensional data of the preparations and ceramic crowns, and the data were compared with the "virtual seating" iterative closest point technique. Reverse engineering software used edge sharpening and other functional modules to extract the margins of the preparations and crowns. Finally, quantitative evaluation of the absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns was obtained from the 2-dimensional cross-sectional straight-line distance between points on the margin of the ceramic crowns and the standard preparations based on the circumferential function module along the long axis. The absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional methods was 115 ±15.2 μm, and 110 ±14.3 μm for those fabricated using the digital technique was. ANOVA showed no statistical difference between the 2 methods or among ceramic crowns for different teeth (P>.05). The digital quantitative evaluation method for the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns was established. The evaluations determined that the absolute marginal discrepancies were

  5. Evaluation and diagnosis of the cathodic protection of ducts in the left margin of the Tonala River of the Superintendencia General de Ductos Minatitlan; Evaluacion y diagnostico de la proteccion catodica en la margen izquierda del Rio Tonala de la Superintendencia General de Ductos Minatitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez N, Miguel A; Malo T, Jose M; Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Uruchurtu C, Jorge; Castrejon G, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sanchez G, Luis; Algarra M, Raul; Abreu L, Emilio [Gerencia de Mantenimiento, Pemex (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present study contains the measurements obtained as a part of the evaluation of the protection system of ducts located in the left margin of the Tonal River, made by the Gerencia de Materiales y Procesos Quimicos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) during the last trimester of year 2001. Also, the measurements of potential in conditions of instantaneous ignition and extinguished in measuring posts of the duct in Rights of Way (DDV) Tonala-Nudo Teapa 23 are studied, in order to determine the real protection level reached by the cathodic protection system, the possible unprotected zones and the possible corrective measures that lead to a safe operation of the ducts. [Spanish] El presente estudio contiene las mediciones obtenidas como parte de la evaluacion del sistema de proteccion de los ductos ubicados en la margen izquierda del rio Tonala, realizadas por la Gerencia de Materiales y Procesos Quimicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) durante el ultimo trimestre del ano 2001. Asimismo, se tratan las mediciones de potencial en condiciones de encendido y apagado instantaneo en postes de medicion del ducto en los Derechos De Via (DDV) Tonala-Nudo Teapa 23, con el proposito de determinar el nivel real de proteccion alcanzado por el sistema de proteccion catodica, las posibles zonas desprotegidas y las posibles medidas correctivas que conduzcan a una operacion segura de los ductos.

  6. Refining margins and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  7. Marginalization of the Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization.......The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization....

  8. On marginal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    On applying the marginal regeneration concept to the drainage of free liquid films, problems are encountered: the films do not show a "neck" of minimum thickness at the film/border transition; and the causes of the direction dependence of the marginal regeneration are unclear. Both problems can be

  9. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A

    in the latter two areas. Some of these fluxes are expected to be substantial in the case of Indonesian continental margins and probably also across the eastern coasts of Africa not covered in this chapter. However, a dearth of information makes these margins...

  10. Matthew and marginality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis C. Duling

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores marginality theory as it was first proposed in  the social sciences, that is related to persons caught between two competing cultures (Park; Stonequist, and, then, as it was developed in sociology as related to the poor (Germani and in anthropology as it was related to involuntary marginality and voluntary marginality (Victor Turner. It then examines a (normative scheme' in antiquity that creates involuntary marginality at the macrosocial level, namely, Lenski's social stratification model in an agrarian society, and indicates how Matthean language might fit with a sample inventory  of socioreligious roles. Next, it examines some (normative schemes' in  antiquity for voluntary margi-nality at the microsocial level, namely, groups, and examines how the Matthean gospel would fit based on indications of factions and leaders. The article ,shows that the author of the Gospel of Matthew has an ideology of (voluntary marginality', but his gospel includes some hope for (involuntary  marginals' in  the  real world, though it is somewhat tempered. It also suggests that the writer of the Gospel is a (marginal man', especially in the sense defined by the early theorists (Park; Stone-quist.

  11. Fixing soft margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kofman (Paul); A. Vaal, de (Albert); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNon-parametric tolerance limits are employed to calculate soft margins such as advocated in Williamson's target zone proposal. In particular, the tradeoff between softness and zone width is quantified. This may be helpful in choosing appropriate margins. Furthermore, it offers

  12. Stamina in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  13. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  14. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  15. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm 2 in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  16. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  17. Margins for treatment planning of proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Simon J

    2006-01-01

    For protons and other charged particles, the effect of set-up errors on the position of isodoses is considerably less in the direction of the incident beam than it is laterally. Therefore, the margins required between the clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) can be less in the direction of the incident beam than laterally. Margins have been calculated for a typical head plan and a typical prostate plan, for a single field, a parallel opposed and a four-field arrangement of protons, and compared with margins calculated for photons, assuming identical geometrical uncertainties for each modality. In the head plan, where internal motion was assumed negligible, the CTV-PTV margin reduced from approximately 10 mm to 3 mm in the axial direction for the single field and parallel opposed plans. For a prostate plan, where internal motion cannot be ignored, the corresponding reduction in margin was from 11 mm to 7 mm. The planning organ at risk (PRV) margin in the axial direction reduced from 6 mm to 2 mm for the head plan, and from 7 mm to 4 mm for the prostate plan. No reduction was seen on the other axes, or for any axis of the four-field plans. Owing to the shape of proton dose distributions, there are many clinical cases in which good dose distributions can be obtained with one or two fields. When this is done, it is possible to use smaller PTV and PRV margins. This has the potential to convert untreatable cases, in which the PTV and PRV overlap, into cases with a gap between PTV and PRV of adequate size for treatment planning

  18. SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION AND HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Bogdanović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was characterized by special improvement in health. The aim of WHO’s policy EQUITY IN HEALTH is to enable equal accessibility and equal high quality of health care for all citizens. More or less some social groups have stayed out of many social systems even out of health care system in the condition of social marginalization. Phenomenon of social marginalization is characterized by dynamics. Marginalized persons have lack of control over their life and available resources. Social marginalization stands for a stroke on health and makes the health status worse. Low socio-economic level dramatically influences people’s health status, therefore, poverty and illness work together. Characteristic marginalized groups are: Roma people, people with AIDS, prisoners, persons with development disorders, persons with mental health disorders, refugees, homosexual people, delinquents, prostitutes, drug consumers, homeless…There is a mutual responsibility of community and marginalized individuals in trying to resolve the problem. Health and other problems could be solved only by multisector approach to well-designed programs.

  19. Pickering seismic safety margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.; Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has sufficient seismic safety margin over its design basis to assure plant safety. In this review process, it is possible to identify the weak links which might limit the seismic performance of critical structures, systems and components. The proposed methodology is a modification the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) approach. The methodology includes: the characterization of the site margin earthquake, the definition of the performance criteria for the elements of a success path, and the determination of the seismic withstand capacity. It is proposed that the margin earthquake be established on the basis of using historical records and the regional seismo-tectonic and site specific evaluations. The ability of the components and systems to withstand the margin earthquake is determined by database comparisons, inspection, analysis or testing. An implementation plan for the application of the methodology to the Pickering A NGS is prepared

  20. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  1. CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation

  2. The rifted margin of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, J. S.; Orcutt, J. A.

    The structure of rifted continental margins has always been of great scientific interest, and now, with dwindling economic oil deposits, these complex geological features assume practical importance as well. The ocean-continent transition is, by definition, laterally heterogeneous and likely to be extremely complicated. The southernmost shotpoints (4, 5, and 6) in the U.S. Geological Survey seismic refraction profile in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia lie within a transition region and thus provide a testing ground for methods that treat wave propagation in laterally heterogeneous media. This portion of the profile runs from the Farasan Islands in the Red Sea across the coast line and the Hijaz-Asir escarpment into the Hijaz-Asir tectonic province. Because the southernmost shotpoint is within the margin of the Saudi sub-continent, the full transition region is not sampled. Furthermore, such an experiment is precluded by the narrowness of the purely oceanic portion of the Red Sea.

  3. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  4. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...... upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  5. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Komorbiditet ved marginal parodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian; Olsen, Ingar

    2017-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende væsentligste viden om sammenhængen mellem marginal parodontitis og en række medicinske sygdomme, herunder hjerte-kar-sygdomme, diabetes mellitus, reumatoid arthritis, osteoporose, Parkinsons sygdom, Alzheimers sygdom, psoriasis og...

  7. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  8. Deep continental margin reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  9. Marginalization and School Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia Ann

    2004-01-01

    The concept of marginalization was first analyzed by nursing researchers Hall, Stevens, and Meleis. Although nursing literature frequently refers to this concept when addressing "at risk" groups such as the homeless, gays and lesbians, and those infected with HIV/AIDS, the concept can also be applied to nursing. Analysis of current school nursing…

  10. Dissociated language functions: a matter of atypical language lateralization or cerebral plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acioly, Marcus Andre; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Zimmermann, Christoph; Erb, Michael; Heckl, Stefan; Tatagiba, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The left hemisphere is generally considered to harbor language functions. Atypical cortical language lateralization is mainly demonstrated in left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, whereas dissociated language functions have been reported in association with brain injuries as a part of the reorganization process. We present a thoughtful discussion on the underlying mechanisms of dissociated language functions through an illustrative case of dissociated expressive language. A 31-year-old left-handed woman presented with a recurrent left frontal glioma. Preoperative language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) panel revealed right-sided dominance for two different language tasks (verbal fluency and visual naming), and the word chain task demonstrated maximal activation in the left hemisphere at the posterior margin of the tumor. The patient was operated on awake to assess language functions intraoperatively. Preoperative fMRI findings were confirmed revealing a task-specific dissociation of expressive language functions. Surgical resection was taken to the functional boundaries. Postoperatively, no language dysfunction occurred. Dissociated language functions are prone to occur in long-standing lesions. Different patterns of dissociation may be encountered due to interindividual particularities and cerebral plasticity. The presented patient is unique by demonstrating new insight into expressive language dissociation, emphasizing the role of a preoperative language fMRI panel and the capability of intraoperative language mapping for identifying special language networks. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Neogene tectonic block rotations and margin curvature at the Pampean flat slab segment (28º-33º SL, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S Japas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Available paleomagnetic data from the Pampean flat slab segment reveal a heterogeneous rotation pattern that is interpreted herein as the result of the overprinting of late NNW-WNW left-lateral brittle-ductile megashear zones that would be also responsible for the continental margin bending.La base de datos paleomagnéticos disponible para el segmento de losa plana Pampeano revela un patrón de rotaciones heterogéneo como resultado de la sobreimposición de zonas de cizalla frágil-dúctiles regionales, de desplazamiento lateral izquierdo y rumbo NNO a ONO, las que habrían producido además la curvatura del margen continental.

  12. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  13. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  14. Middlemen Margins and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab Bardhan; Dilip Mookherjee; Masatoshi Tsumagari

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theory of trading middlemen or entrepreneurs who perform financing, quality supervision and marketing roles for goods produced by suppliers or workers. Brand-name reputations are necessary to overcome product quality moral hazard problems; middlemen margins represent reputational incentive rents. We develop a two sector North-South model of competitive equilibrium, with endogenous sorting of agents with heterogenous entrepreneurial abilities into sectors and occupations. The Sout...

  15. Containment safety margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Riesemann, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Objective of the Containment Safety Margins program is the development and verification of methodologies which are capable of reliably predicting the ultimate load-carrying capability of light water reactor containment structures under accident and severe environments. The program was initiated in June 1980 at Sandia and this paper addresses the first phase of the program which is essentially a planning effort. Brief comments are made about the second phase, which will involve testing of containment models

  16. Marginalized Youth. An Introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Kessl, Fabian; Otto, Hans-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The life conduct of marginalized groups has become subject to increasing levels of risk in advanced capitalist societies. In particular, children and young people are confronted with the harsh consequences of a “new poverty” in the contemporary era. The demographic complexion of today’s poverty is youthful, as a number of government reports have once again documented in recent years in Australia, Germany, France, Great Britain, the US or Scandinavian countries. Key youth studies have shown a ...

  17. Marginal Models for Categorial Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, W.P.; Rudas, T.

    2002-01-01

    Statistical models defined by imposing restrictions on marginal distributions of contingency tables have received considerable attention recently. This paper introduces a general definition of marginal log-linear parameters and describes conditions for a marginal log-linear parameter to be a smooth

  18. Masculinity at the margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2010-01-01

    and other types of material. Taking the concepts of othering, intersectionality and marginality as point of departure the article analyses how these young men experience othering and how they react to it. One type of reaction, described as stylization, relies on accentuating the latently positive symbolic...... of critique although in a masculinist way. These reactions to othering represent a challenge to researchers interested in intersectionality and gender, because gender is reproduced as a hierarchical form of social differentiation at the same time as racism is both reproduced and resisted....

  19. Aetiological factors in left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateralisation associates the extremities and senses of one side of the body, which are connected by afferent and efferent pathways, with the primary motor and sensory areas of the hemisphere on the opposite side. Dominant laterality denotes the appearance of a dominant extremity or sense in the performance of complex psychomotor activities. Laterality is manifested both as right-handedness or left-handedness, which are functionally equivalent and symmetrical in the performance of activities. Right-handedness is significantly more common than left-handedness. Genetic theory is most widely accepted in explaining the onset of lateralisation. According to this theory, the models of brain organisation asymmetry (anatomical, functional, and biochemical are strongly, genetically determined. However, the inability to clearly demonstrate the association between genetic factors and left-handedness has led researchers to investigate the effects of the environment on left-handedness. Of particular interest are the intrauterine environment and the factors influencing foetal development, of which hormones and ultrasound exposure are the most significant. It has been estimated that an extra five cases of nonright-handed lateralisation can be expected in every 100 males who were exposed to ultrasound in utero compared to those who were not. Socio-cultural pressure on left-handed individuals was much more severe in the past, which is confirmed by scientific findings that left-handedness is present in 13% of individuals in their twenties, while in less than 1% of individuals in their eighties.

  20. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  2. Marginal bone-level alterations of loaded zirconia and titanium dental implants: an experimental study in the dog mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Daniel S; Benic, Goran I; Muñoz, Fernando; Kohal, Ralf; Sanz Martin, Ignacio; Cantalapiedra, Antonio G; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to test whether or not the marginal bone-level alterations of loaded zirconia implants are similar to the bone-level alterations of a grade 4 titanium one-piece dental implant. In six dogs, all premolars and the first molars were extracted in the mandible. Four months later, three zirconia implants (BPI, VC, ZD) and a control titanium one-piece (STM) implant were randomly placed in each hemimandible and left for transmucosal healing (baseline). Six months later, CAD/CAM crowns were cemented. Sacrifice was scheduled at 6-month postloading. Digital X-rays were taken at implant placement, crowns insertion, and sacrifice. Marginal bone-level alterations were calculated, and intra- and intergroup comparisons performed adjusted by confounding factors. Implants were successfully placed. Until crown insertion, two implants were fractured (one VC, one ZD). At sacrifice, 5 more implants were (partly) fractured (one BPI, four ZD), and one lost osseointegration (VC). No decementation of crowns occurred. All implant systems demonstrated a statistically significant (except VC) loss of marginal bone between baseline and crown insertion ranging from 0.29 mm (VC; P = 0.116) to 0.80 mm (ZD; P = 0.013). The estimated marginal bone loss between baseline and 6 months of loading ranged between 0.19 mm (BPI) and 1.11 mm (VC), being statistically significant for STM and VC only (P implants and control implants (STM vs. BPI P = 0.007; vs. VC P = 0.001; vs. ZD P = 0.011). Zirconia implants were more prone to fracture prior to and after loading with implant-supported crowns compared to titanium implants. Individual differences and variability in the extent of the bone-level changes during the 12-month study period were found between the different implant types and materials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varix draining via the left inferior phrenic vein into the left hepatic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibukuro, Kenji; Mori, Koichi; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Yukako; Tagawa, Kazumi

    1999-01-01

    We encountered a patient with gastric varix draining not via the usual left suprarenal vein but via the left inferior phrenic vein joining the left hepatic vein. Transfemoral balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of the varix was performed under balloon occlusion of the left inferior phrenic vein via the left hepatic vein and retrograde injection of the sclerosing agent (5% of ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix. Disappearance of the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic examination 2 months later.

  4. Continental transform margins : state of art and future milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    to be emphasized. There is not only one type of transform margins, but as for divergent margins huge changes from one margin to another in both structure and evolution. Multiple types have to be evidenced together with the various parameters that should control the variability. As for divergent margins, special attention should be paid to conjugated transform margins as a tool to assess symmetrical / asymmetrical processes in the oceanic opening. Attention should also be focused on the three-dimensional structure of the intersections between transform and divergent margins, such as the one where the giant oil field Jubilee was recently discovered. There is almost no 3D data available in these area, and their structures still have to be described. An other key point to develop is the mechanical behavior of the lithosphere in and in the vicinity of transform margins. The classical behaviors (isostasy, elastic flexure) have be tested extensively. The localization of the deformation by the transform fault, and the coupling of continental and oceanic lithosphere across the transform fault have to be adressed to understand the evolution of these margins. Again as for divergent margins, new concepts are needed to explain the variations in the post-rift and post-transform subsidence, that can not always be explained by classical subsidence models. But the most remarkable advance in our understanding of transform margins may be related to the study of interactions between the lithosphere and adjacent envelops : deep interactions with the mantle, as underplating, tectonic erosion, or possible lateral crustal flow ; surficial interactions between structural evolution, erosion and sedimentation processes in transform margins may affect the topography and bathymetry, thus the oceanic circulation with possible effects on regional and global climate.

  5. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media

  6. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media.

  7. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Koski, Lisa; Zaidel, Eran; Mazziotta, John; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-03-15

    A cortical network consisting of the inferior frontal, rostral inferior parietal, and posterior superior temporal cortices has been implicated in representing actions in the primate brain and is critical to imitation in humans. This neural circuitry may be an evolutionary precursor of neural systems associated with language. However, language is predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere, whereas the degree of lateralization of the imitation circuitry in humans is unclear. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of imitation of finger movements with lateralized stimuli and responses. During imitation, activity in the inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal cortex, although fairly bilateral, was stronger in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual stimulus and response hand. This ipsilateral pattern is at variance with the typical contralateral activity of primary visual and motor areas. Reliably increased signal in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was observed for both left-sided and right-sided imitation tasks, although subthreshold activity was also observed in the left STS. Overall, the data indicate that visual and motor components of the human mirror system are not left-lateralized. The left hemisphere superiority for language, then, must be have been favored by other types of language precursors, perhaps auditory or multimodal action representations.

  8. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  9. Is performance better when brain functions are typically lateralized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Reint; Zickert, Nele; Beking, Tess; Groothuis, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    Lateralization refers to the dominant involvement of one homologous region of the brain over the other in functional task performance. Direction and strength of lateralization depend on the functional task. It is well known that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere, even in most

  10. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  11. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  12. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  13. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illu...

  14. The Seismicity of Two Hyperextended Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Tim; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2013-04-01

    , loads generated by escarpment erosion, offshore sedimentary deposition, and post-glacial rebound have been periodically superimposed throughout the Neogene. Their vertical stress patterns are mutually-reinforcing during deglaciation. However, compared to the post-glacial dome the pattern of maximum uplift/unloading generated by escarpment erosion will be longer, more linear, and located atop the emergent proximal margin. The pattern of offshore maximum deposition/loading will be similar. This may help explain the asymmetric expenditure of Fennoscandia's annual seismic energy budget. It may also help explain the obvious Conundrum: if stress generated by erosion and deposition is sufficiently great, fault reactivation and consequent seismicity can occur at any hyperextended passive margin sector regardless of its glacial history. Onshore Scandinavia, episodic footwall uplift and escarpment rejuvenation may have been driven by just such a mechanism throughout much of the later Cretaceous and Cenozoic. SE Brasil offers a glimpse of how Norway's hyperextended margin might manifest itself seismically in the absence of post-glacial rebound. Compilations suggest two seismic belts may exist. One, offshore, follows the thinned crust of the ultra-deep, hyperextended Campos and Santos basins. Onshore, earthquakes occur more commonly in the elevated highlands of the escarpments, and track especially the long, linear ranges such as the Serra de Mantiquiera and Serra do Espinhaço. Seismicity is more rare in the coastal lowlands, and largely absent in the Brasilian hinterland. Although never glaciated since the time of hyperextension and characterized by significantly fewer earthquakes in toto, SE Brasil's pattern of seismicity closely mimics Scandinavia. Commencing after perhaps just a few tens of millions of years of 'sag' basin infill, accommodation phase fault reactivation and footwall uplift at passive margins is the inexorable product of hyperextension. CITATIONS Redfield, T

  15. Analysis of intra-fraction prostate motion and derivation of duration-dependent margins for radiotherapy using real-time 4D ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pei Ping Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: During radiotherapy, prostate motion changes over time. Quantifying and accounting for this motion is essential. This study aimed to assess intra-fraction prostate motion and derive duration-dependent planning margins for two treatment techniques. Material and methods: A four-dimension (4D transperineal ultrasound Clarity® system was used to track prostate motion. We analysed 1913 fractions from 60 patients undergoing volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT to the prostate. The mean VMAT treatment duration was 3.4 min. Extended monitoring was conducted weekly to simulate motion during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT treatment (an additional seven minutes. A motion-time trend analysis was conducted and the mean intra-fraction motion between VMAT and IMRT treatments compared. Duration-dependent margins were calculated and anisotropic margins for VMAT and IMRT treatments were derived. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean intra-fraction motion between VMAT and the simulated IMRT duration in the inferior (0.1 mm versus 0.3 mm and posterior (−0.2 versus −0.4 mm directions respectively (p ≪ 0.01. An intra-fraction motion trend inferiorly and posteriorly was observed. The recommended minimum anisotropic margins are 1.7 mm/2.7 mm (superior/inferior; 0.8 mm (left/right, 1.7 mm/2.9 mm (anterior/posterior for VMAT treatments and 2.9 mm/4.3 mm (superior/inferior, 1.5 mm (left/right, 2.8 mm/4.8 mm (anterior/posterior for IMRT treatments. Smaller anisotropic margins were required for VMAT compared to IMRT (differences ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 mm superiorly/inferiorly, 0.7 mm laterally and 1.1–1.9 mm anteriorly/posteriorly. Conclusions: VMAT treatment is preferred over IMRT as prostate motion increases with time. Larger margins should be employed in the inferior and posterior directions for both treatment durations. Duration-dependent margins should

  16. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  17. Effect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage function and thrombotic potential in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçelik, Muhammed Bora; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçekcioğlu, Hülya; Uçar, Özgül; Duran, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage functions, spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In 58 patients with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrilation and preserved left ventricular systolic function, left atrial appendage functions, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast grading and left ventricular diastolic functions were evaluated using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiogram. Patients divided in two groups: Group D (n=30): Patients with diastolic dysfunction, Group N (n=28): Patients without diastolic dysfunction. Categorical variables in two groups were evaluated with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The significance of the lineer correlation between the degree of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and clinical measurements was evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Peak pulmonary vein D velocity of the Group D was significantly higher than the Group N (p=0.006). However, left atrial appendage emptying velocity, left atrial appendage lateral wall velocity, peak pulmonary vein S, pulmonary vein S/D ratio were found to be significantly lower in Group D (p=0.028, patrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities respectively (r=-0.438, r=-0.328, r=-0.233, r=-0.447). Left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities were significantly lower in SEC 2-3-4 than SEC 1 (p=0.003, p=0.029, patrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial appendage functions are decreased in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may constitute a potential risk for formation of thrombus and stroke.

  18. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do. (orig.)

  19. Quantifying motion for pancreatic radiotherapy margin calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, Gillian; Jain, Pooja; Green, Melanie; Watkins, Gillian; Henry, Ann; Stratford, Julie; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Thomas; Moore, Christopher; Price, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Pancreatic radiotherapy (RT) is limited by uncertain target motion. We quantified 3D patient/organ motion during pancreatic RT and calculated required treatment margins. Materials and methods: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and orthogonal fluoroscopy images were acquired post-RT delivery from 13 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Bony setup errors were calculated from CBCT. Inter- and intra-fraction fiducial (clip/seed/stent) motion was determined from CBCT projections and orthogonal fluoroscopy. Results: Using an off-line CBCT correction protocol, systematic (random) setup errors were 2.4 (3.2), 2.0 (1.7) and 3.2 (3.6) mm laterally (left–right), vertically (anterior–posterior) and longitudinally (cranio-caudal), respectively. Fiducial motion varied substantially. Random inter-fractional changes in mean fiducial position were 2.0, 1.6 and 2.6 mm; 95% of intra-fractional peak-to-peak fiducial motion was up to 6.7, 10.1 and 20.6 mm, respectively. Calculated clinical to planning target volume (CTV–PTV) margins were 1.4 cm laterally, 1.4 cm vertically and 3.0 cm longitudinally for 3D conformal RT, reduced to 0.9, 1.0 and 1.8 cm, respectively, if using 4D planning and online setup correction. Conclusions: Commonly used CTV–PTV margins may inadequately account for target motion during pancreatic RT. Our results indicate better immobilisation, individualised allowance for respiratory motion, online setup error correction and 4D planning would improve targeting.

  20. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...

  1. Phase image characterization of ventricular contraction in left anterior hemiblock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akifumi; Mizuno, Haruyoshi; Tahara, Yorio; Ishikawa, Kyozo

    1991-01-01

    We investigated whether or not left anterior hemiblock is present in patients with left axis deviation using first-harmonic Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool images. Gated blood-pool images were taken in 50 patients without contraction abnormality. They included 14 normal subjects, 8 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB), 20 with left axis deviation (LAD) and 8 with both RBBB and LAD (RBBB+LAD). ECG gated blood-pool scans were acquired in the anterior and 'best septal' left anterior oblique projections. First, the phase images were displayed cinematically as a continuous-loop movie. Next, for quantitative analysis of the phase image, the whole left ventricular and left ventricular high lateral regions of interest were drawn. The 'regional phase shift' (RPS) was then defined as {RPS=A-a} where 'A' is the mean value of the whole left ventricular phase angles and 'a' is that of phase angles in the high lateral region. The left ventricular phase changes and the RPSs in the RBBB and LAD groups were similar to those in the normal group. In the RBBB+LAD group, the latest phase changes occurred in the high anterolateral region. The RPSs of this group were significantly lower than those in the other 3 groups (p<0.01). These data suggest that left anterior hemiblock might coexist with RBBB in patients with RBBB+LAD, whereas left anterior hemiblock might not exist in the majority of patients with LAD alone. (author)

  2. Margin improvement initiatives: realistic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, P.K.; Paquette, S. [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept., Kingston, ON (Canada); Cunning, T.A. [Department of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada); French, C.; Bonin, H.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept., Kingston, ON (Canada); Pandey, M. [Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Murchie, M. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing, Port Hope, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    With reactor core aging, safety margins are particularly tight. Two realistic and practical approaches are proposed here to recover margins. The first project is related to the use of a small amount of neutron absorbers in CANDU Natural Uranium (NU) fuel bundles. Preliminary results indicate that the fuelling transient and subsequent reactivity peak can be lowered to improve the reactor's operating margins, with minimal impact on burnup when less than 1000 mg of absorbers is added to a fuel bundle. The second project involves the statistical analysis of fuel manufacturing data to demonstrate safety margins. Probability distributions are fitted to actual fuel manufacturing datasets provided by Cameco Fuel Manufacturing, Inc. They are used to generate input for ELESTRES and ELOCA. It is found that the fuel response distributions are far below industrial failure limits, implying that margin exists in the current fuel design. (author)

  3. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  4. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  5. Migration of cochlear lateral wall cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, George; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Armour, Gary; Whitworth, Craig; Rybak, Leonard

    2003-03-01

    The role of apoptosis and proliferation in maintenance of cochlear lateral wall cells was examined. The methods employed for detection of apoptosis were the Hoechst fluorescence stain and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labeling) assay, and proliferations were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and presence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The incidence of apoptosis in the strial marginal cell was 50% greater (32.9+/-3.7%) than strial intermediate and basal cells but similar to spiral ligament cells. Although division of marginal strial cells was rarely detected, a significant number of proliferating cells in the remaining stria vascularis and spiral ligament were observed. These data implied that replacement of marginal cells arose elsewhere and could be followed by a BrdU-deoxythymidine pulse-chase study. At 2 h post injection, nuclear BrdU in marginal cells was not detected; however, by 24 h post injection, 20-25% of marginal cell nuclei were BrdU-positive. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that marginal cells were replaced by underlying cells. Cell migration appears to be an important mechanism for preserving the function and structure of the stria vascularis.

  6. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump during zebrafish gastrulation affects left-right asymmetry of the heart and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Jill A; Balantac, Zaneta L; Crawford, Andrew R; Ren, Yuexin; Toure, Jamal; Zchut, Sigalit; Kochilas, Lazaros; Creton, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos generate striking Ca(2+) patterns, which are unique regulators of dynamic developmental events. In the present study, we used zebrafish embryos as a model system to examine the developmental roles of Ca(2+) during gastrulation. We found that gastrula stage embryos maintain a distinct pattern of cytosolic Ca(2+) along the dorsal-ventral axis, with higher Ca(2+) concentrations in the ventral margin and lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the dorsal margin and dorsal forerunner cells. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump with 0.5 microM thapsigargin elevates cytosolic Ca(2+) in all embryonic regions and induces a randomization of laterality in the heart and brain. Affected hearts, visualized in living embryos by a subtractive imaging technique, displayed either a reversal or loss of left-right asymmetry. Brain defects include a left-right reversal of pitx2 expression in the dorsal diencephalon and a left-right reversal of the prominent habenular nucleus in the brain. Embryos are sensitive to inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during early and mid gastrulation and lose their sensitivity during late gastrulation and early segmentation. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during gastrulation inhibits expression of no tail (ntl) and left-right dynein related (lrdr) in the dorsal forerunner cells and affects development of Kupffer's vesicle, a ciliated organ that generates a counter-clockwise flow of fluid. Previous studies have shown that Ca(2+) plays a role in Kupffer's vesicle function, influencing ciliary motility and translating the vesicle's counter-clockwise flow into asymmetric patterns of gene expression. The present results suggest that Ca(2+) plays an additional role in the formation of Kupffer's vesicle.

  7. [Successful transcatheter ablation of fascicular potential in pediatric patients with left posterior fascicular tachycardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-ying; Shi, Ji-jun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-wei; Li, Yu-fen

    2010-08-01

    To simplify the methods of transcatheter mapping and ablation in the pediatric patients with left posterior fascicular tachycardia. While in sinus rhythm, the fascicular potential can be mapped at the posterior septal region (1 - 2 cm below inferior margin of orifice of coronary sinus vein), which display a biphasic wave before ventricular wave, and exist equipotential lines between them. When the fascicular potential occurs 20 ms later than the bundle of His' potential, radiofrequency was applied. Before applying radiofrequency, catheter position must be observed using double angle viewing (LAO 45°RAO 30°), and it should be made sure that the catheter is not at His' bundle. If the electrocardiogram displays left posterior fascicular block, the correct region is identified and ablation can continue for 60 s. Electrocardiogram monitoring should continue for 24 - 48 hours after operation, and notice abnormal repolarization after termination of ventricular tachycardia. Aspirin [2 - 3 mg/(kg·d)] was used for 3 months, and antiarrhythmic drug was discontinued. Surface electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and ultrasound cardiography were rechecked 1 d after operation. Follow-up was made at 1 month and 3 months post-discharge. Recheck was made half-yearly or follow-up was done by phone from then on. Fifteen pediatric patients were ablated successfully, and their electrocardiograms all displayed left posterior fascicular block after ablation. None of the patients had recurrences during the 3 to 12 months follow-up period. In one case, the electrocardiogram did not change after applying radiofrequency ablation and the ventricular tachycardia remained; however, on second attempt after remapping, the electrocardiogram did change. The radiofrequency lasted for 90 seconds and ablation was successful. This case had no recurrences at 6 months follow-up. Transcatheter ablation of the fascicular potential in pediatric patients with left posterior fascicular tachycardia can simplify

  8. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  9. The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett

    2012-01-01

    This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…

  10. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  11. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  12. Dual Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Draining into the Left Adrenal Vein and Left Inferior Phrenic Vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Norifumi; Ninoi, Teruhisa; Kitayama, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Akira; Sakai, Yukimasa; Sato, Kimihiko; Hamuro, Masao; Nakamura, Kenji; Inoue, Yuichi; Yamada, Ryusaku

    2004-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with a gastric varix, draining into a dilated left adrenal vein and a left inferior phrenic vein, was treated with dual balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Under balloon occlusion of the left adrenal vein and the left inferior phrenic vein, retrograde injection of a sclerosant (5% ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix was performed. Two weeks later, disappearance of flow in the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic ultrasound examination

  13. Learning Convex Inference of Marginals

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical models trained using maximum likelihood are a common tool for probabilistic inference of marginal distributions. However, this approach suffers difficulties when either the inference process or the model is approximate. In this paper, the inference process is first defined to be the minimization of a convex function, inspired by free energy approximations. Learning is then done directly in terms of the performance of the inference process at univariate marginal prediction. The main ...

  14. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  15. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Iain M.

    2018-01-01

    Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease. PMID:29755990

  16. The lateralization of motor cortex activation to action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eHauk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What determines the laterality of activation in motor cortex for words whose meaning is related to bodily actions? It has been suggested that the neuronal representation of the meaning of action-words is shaped by individual experience. However, core language functions are left-lateralized in the majority of both right- and left-handers. It is still an open question to what degree connections between left-hemispheric core language areas and right-hemispheric motor areas can play a role in semantics. We investigated laterality of brain activation using fMRI in right- and left-handed participants in response to visually presented hand-related action-words, namely uni- and bi-manual actions (such as "throw" and "clap". These stimulus groups were matched with respect to general (hand-action-relatedness, but differed with respect to whether they are usually performed with the dominant hand or both hands. We may expect generally more left-hemispheric motor-cortex activation for hand-related words in both handedness groups, with possibly more bilateral activation for bimanual words as well as left-handers. In our study, both participant groups activated motor cortex bilaterally for bi-manual words. Interestingly, both groups also showed a left-lateralized activation pattern to uni-manual words. We argue that this reflects the effect of left-hemispheric language dominance on the formation of semantic brain circuits on the basis of Hebbian correlation learning.

  17. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  18. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  19. Prolonged lateral steep position impairs respiratory mechanics during continuous lateral rotation therapy in respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellongowski, Peter; Losert, Heidrun; Locker, Gottfried J; Laczika, Klaus; Frass, Michael; Holzinger, Ulrike; Bojic, Andja; Staudinger, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    To establish whether prolonged lateral steep position during continuous rotation therapy leads to improvement on pulmonary gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome undergoing continuous rotation therapy. Blood gas analysis, static lung compliance, blood pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary shunt fraction were measured in supine as well as in left and right lateral steep position at 62 degrees during continuous rotation therapy (phase I). Rotation was then stopped for 30 min with the patients in supine position, left and right lateral steep position, and the same measurements were performed every 10 min (phase II). Phase I and II revealed no significant changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary shunt fraction, or cardiac index. Significantly lower static compliance was observed in lateral steep position than in supine position (pposition than in left and right lateral steep position (ppositioning impairs the compliance of the respiratory system. Prolonged lateral steep position does not lead to benefits with respect to oxygenation or hemodynamics. Individual response to the different positions is unpredictable. The pauses in "extreme" positions should be as short as possible.

  20. Endoscope-assisted breast reconstruction. 1. Immediate breast reconstruction after lateral quadrantectomy with endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi muscle flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Takamitsu; Kurihara, Kazunao; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kim, Shiei; Wakamatsu, Shingo.

    1996-01-01

    Breast conserving therapy (BCT) now is widely accepted in Japan. Quadrantectomy has been chosen from among the several available breast conserving operations for its minimal recurrence rate. Quadrantectomy, or excision of one-quarter volume of the breast, leaves a moderate degree of deformity which diminishes the quality of life. The authors have introduced immediate post-ectomy breast reconstruction utilizing an endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle flap which results in a minimal donor site scar. Five cases of endoscope-assisted LD muscle reconstruction of a quadrantectomized breast have been followed by irradiation therapy. Prior to reconstruction, with the patient in the supine position, quadrantectomy and dissection of axillary lymphnodes are performed through an incision extending from the anterior axillary to the inflamammary line. The patient then is placed in the lateral supine position. LD muscle flap dissection by electrocautery begins through the initial incision. Dissections of posterior portions of the muscle continue, under endoscopic visualization, through one or two ports along the anterior margin of the muscle. Moderate amount of adipose tissue is left attached to the muscle to obtain full augmentation. The raised flap then is transferred and secured to the post-quandrantectomy defect. Some post-irradiation shrinkage of the inserted LD muscle has been a common occurrence of breast reconstruction. An ample amount of adipose tissue left attached to the muscle margin will solve this matter since fatty tissue is more resistant to post-irradiation atrophy. (J.P.N.)

  1. Endoscope-assisted breast reconstruction. 1. Immediate breast reconstruction after lateral quadrantectomy with endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi muscle flap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Takamitsu; Kurihara, Kazunao; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kim, Shiei [Kawaguchi Municipal Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Wakamatsu, Shingo

    1996-08-01

    Breast conserving therapy (BCT) now is widely accepted in Japan. Quadrantectomy has been chosen from among the several available breast conserving operations for its minimal recurrence rate. Quadrantectomy, or excision of one-quarter volume of the breast, leaves a moderate degree of deformity which diminishes the quality of life. The authors have introduced immediate post-ectomy breast reconstruction utilizing an endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle flap which results in a minimal donor site scar. Five cases of endoscope-assisted LD muscle reconstruction of a quadrantectomized breast have been followed by irradiation therapy. Prior to reconstruction, with the patient in the supine position, quadrantectomy and dissection of axillary lymphnodes are performed through an incision extending from the anterior axillary to the inflamammary line. The patient then is placed in the lateral supine position. LD muscle flap dissection by electrocautery begins through the initial incision. Dissections of posterior portions of the muscle continue, under endoscopic visualization, through one or two ports along the anterior margin of the muscle. Moderate amount of adipose tissue is left attached to the muscle to obtain full augmentation. The raised flap then is transferred and secured to the post-quandrantectomy defect. Some post-irradiation shrinkage of the inserted LD muscle has been a common occurrence of breast reconstruction. An ample amount of adipose tissue left attached to the muscle margin will solve this matter since fatty tissue is more resistant to post-irradiation atrophy. (J.P.N.)

  2. The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not conversion symptoms are lateralized. Studies have shown a predominant left-oriented manifestation of symptoms for most somatoform disorders. The reports in the literature on the lateralization of conversion symptoms, however, are

  3. Left regular bands of groups of left quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1988-10-01

    A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs

  4. Passive margins getting squeezed in the mantle convection vice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Becker, Thorsten W.; Pedoja, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Passive margins often exhibit uplift, exhumation and tectonic inversion. We speculate that the compression in the lithosphere gradually increased during the Cenozoic. In the same time, the many mountain belts at active margins that accompany this event seem readily witness this increase. However, how that compression increase affects passive margins remains unclear. In order to address this issue, we design a 2D viscous numerical model wherein a lithospheric plate rests above a weaker mantle. It is driven by a mantle conveyor belt, alternatively excited by a lateral downwelling on one side, an upwelling on the other side, or both simultaneously. The lateral edges of the plate are either free or fixed, representing the cases of free convergence, and collision or slab anchoring, respectively. This distinction changes the upper boundary condition for mantle circulation and, as a consequence, the stress field. Our results show that between these two regimes, the flow pattern transiently evolves from a free-slip convection mode towards a no-slip boundary condition above the upper mantle. In the second case, the lithosphere is highly stressed horizontally and deforms. For an equivalent bulk driving force, compression increases drastically at passive margins provided that upwellings are active. Conversely, if downwellings alone are activated, compression occurs at short distances from the trench and extension prevails elsewhere. These results are supported by Earth-like 3D spherical models that reveal the same pattern, where active upwellings are required to excite passive margins compression. These results support the idea that compression at passive margins, is the response to the underlying mantle flow, that is increasingly resisted by the Cenozoic collisions.

  5. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  6. Neutrosophic Left Almost Semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the theory of neutrosophy to study left almost semigroup shortly LAsemigroup. We generalize the concepts of LA-semigroup to form that for neutrosophic LA-semigroup. We also extend the ideal theory of LA-semigroup to neutrosophy and discuss different kinds of neutrosophic ideals. We also find some new type of neutrosophic ideal which is related to the strong or pure part of neutrosophy. We have given many examples to illustrate the theory of neutrosophic LA-semigroup and display many properties of neutrosophic LA-semigroup in this paper.

  7. The Marginal Source of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the ongoingdebate on which view of equity, traditional or new, that best describes firm behavior. According to the traditional view, the marginal source of finance is new equity, whereas under to the new view, marginal financing comes from retained earnings. In the theoretical part, we set up a model where the firm faces a cost of adjusting the dividend level because of an aggravated free cash flow problem. The existence of such a cost - which has been used in arguing the...

  8. Mississippian lamprophyre dikes in western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: Evidence of transtensional tectonics along the SW margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Federico; Canelo, Horacio N.; Dávila, Federico M.; de Hollanda, María Helena M.; Teixeira, Wilson

    2018-04-01

    In the Famatina range, Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina (SW Gondwana), subvertical calc-alkaline lamprophyric dike swarms crop out through >300 km. The dikes cut Ordovician units with a prominent NW-SE trending and are covered by continental sedimentary successions of Pennsylvanian to Permian age. The dikes show a strong structural control associated with Riedel fault systems. Detailed field analysis suggested a ∼N-S opening direction oblique to the attitude of dike walls and a left-lateral transtensional tectonics during the emplacement. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of a lamprophyric sample defined a crystallization age (plateau; whole rock) of 357.1 ± 7.1 Ma (MSWD = 2.3). Coetaneous ductile zones with dominant strike-slip motion, documented along western Argentina for >600 km, suggest a regional event in SW Gondwana during the Mississippian. We propose that this deformation was the result of the counterclockwise fast rotation of Gondwana between 365 and 345 Ma, when the Famatina range and western Argentina occupied a sub-polar position. A transform margin along SW Gondwana better explains our (and others) data rather than a subduction margin. This scenario is also consistent with the occurrence of A-type granites and normal-fault basins within the foreland as well as bimodal volcanics.

  9. Characterizing Convexity of Games using Marginal Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Norde, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the relation between convexity of TU games and marginal vectors.We show that if specfic marginal vectors are core elements, then the game is convex.We characterize sets of marginal vectors satisfying this property, and we derive the formula for the minimum number of marginal

  10. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  11. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  12. TECNOLOGÍA LÍTICA EN LA MARGEN IZQUIERDA DEL PARANÁ MEDIO: LOS MATERIALES RECUPERADOS EN JURISDICCIÓN GOYA (CORRIENTES, ARGENTINA / Lithic technology along the left margin of the Paraná river: the assemblages from Goya (Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V. Píccoli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de las investigaciones arqueológicas iniciadas en el año 2007 en la margen izquierda del curso medio del río Paraná, en el sector de su llanura aluvial comprendido en la jurisdicción Goya (Corrientes, Argentina, se identificaron distintas concentraciones arqueológicas en las que el material lítico constituye uno de los ítems menos representados. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis tecnológico de la totalidad del conjunto lítico hasta ahora recuperado en las distintas instancias de trabajo de campo realizadas en el sector mencionado. Se efectuó la caracterización macroscópica del mismo para identificar los diversos estadios de la cadena de producción lítica. Asimismo, se evalúan los resultados en relación con la disponibilidad de las materias primas. El análisis realizado permite sostener que en los sitios no se llevaron a cabo las primeras etapas de la confección de artefactos líticos. Asimismo, para tales fines se utilizó principalmente una de las dos únicas materias primas procedentes de la región del Paraná Medio, factibles de ser utilizadas (areniscas. Palabras clave: material lítico; análisis tecnológico; río Paraná; Holoceno tardío.    Abstract As a result of the archaeological research began in 2007 on the left bank of Middle Paraná River, Goya (Corrientes, Argentina, lithic material was recovered in low frequency. This paper presents the technological analysis of the lithic assemblage recovered. The analysis was based on the macroscopic characteristics to identify different stages of stone tool production. It also includes geological references to provide a context for understanding lithic raw material availability in the area. The analysis reflects that initial stages of production occurred off-site. Also, the preferential use of one specific local raw material was observed (sandstone. Keywords: lithic material, technological analysis, Paraná River, Late Holocene

  13. Increased opacity of left pericardiac area on chest radiograph : correlation with CT findings and its frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ik; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwak, Jin Young; Ryu, Chang Woo; Yoon, Sam Hyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of extrapericardial fat in the left cardiac border, and with regard to left extrapericardial fat, to correlate chest radiographs with CT scans. This study involved 132 consecutive patients who underwent chest PA and lateral radiographs, and chest CT scans. According to the results of chest PA radiograph, patients were divided into three groups: those with a clear left cardiac border; those with an indistinct left cardiac border; and those with an indistinct left cardiac border with increased density; cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph, the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs was evaluated. On the basis of the results of CT scanning, patients were classified into four groups according to the amount of left extrapericardial fat : negative, minimum, moderate, and maximum. Left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, was correlated with the conspicuity of left cardiac border seen on PA radiograph and the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph. The conspicuousness of the left cardiac border, as seen on PA chest radiograph, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, and was related to the amount of left extrapericardial fat. Increased density of the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat on CT, but the absence of increased density on lateral radiograph corresponds to the absence or a minimal amount of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  14. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  15. Marginality and Variability in Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Edmund

    This paper discusses Esperanto as a planned language and refutes three myths connected to it, namely, that Esperanto is achronical, atopical, and apragmatic. The focus here is on a synchronic analysis. Synchronic variability is studied with reference to the structuralist determination of "marginality" and the dynamic linguistic…

  16. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  17. Ethnographies of marginality [Review article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuving, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Africanist discourse today displays a strong, widespread and growing sense of optimism about Africa's economic future. After decades of decline and stagnation in which Africa found itself reduced to the margins of the global economic stage, upbeat Afro-optimism seems fully justified. One only needs

  18. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  19. Pushing the Margins of Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoni de Sio, Filippo; Di Nucci, Ezio

    2018-01-01

    David Shoemaker has claimed that a binary approach to moral responsibility leaves out something important, namely instances of marginal agency, cases where agents seem to be eligible for some responsibility responses but not others. In this paper we endorse and extend Shoemaker’s approach by pres...

  20. Annular subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C; Filho, A S; Esteves, J P; Abreu, W N; Vinhaes, L A; de Almeida Souza, J A; Machado, A

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of left ventricular aneurysm, a 16-year-old black boy and a 23-year-old white girl, from Bahia, Brazil, are presented. In both patients there was enlargement of the cardiac silhouette and a prominent bulge of the left inferior border. On the right oblique view a ring of calcium at the ventricular opening of the aneurysms was visualized. A left ventriculogram showed a huge aneurysm in the first case and a bulge on the lateral wall of the left ventricle in the other. Cardiac catheterization showed a rise in left and right ventricular end-diastolic pressures and in the mean pulmonary artery pressure. In the first case the contour of the right ventricular pressure curve showed a restrictive pattern. The similarities of these aneurysms with the annular submitral type described in young black Africans are stressed.

  1. Anosognosia for hemiparesis after left-sided stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Vucurevic, Goran; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Glassl, Oliver; Geber, Christian; Dieterich, Marianne; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2014-12-01

    In patients with left-sided lesions, anosognosia for hemiparesis (AHP) seems to be a rare phenomenon. It has been discussed whether this rareness might be due to an inevitable bias due to language dysfunction and whether the left hemisphere's role for our self-awareness of motor actions thus is underestimated. By applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined whether patients with AHP following a left hemisphere stroke show a regular, left-sided or a reversed, right-sided lateralization of language functions. Only the former observation would argue for an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. In a consecutive series of 44 acute left-sided stroke patients, only one patient (=2%) was identified showing AHP. In this case, we could verify by using fMRI that lateralization of AHP and spatial neglect on the one hand and of language functions on the other hand were reversed. The present single case observation thus argues against an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. We discuss the data in the context of previous observations in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rectal volvulus following laparoscopic left hemicolectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul Anthony; Lee, Han Sian; Din, Islah; Vimalachandran, Dale

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old lady with a history of Dukes B2 (T3N0M0) colorectal cancer presented some 2 years following a laparoscopic left hemicolectomy with a 4-day history of absolute constipation. A plain radiograph demonstrated large bowel obstruction, and subsequent CT of the abdomen showed the level of the obstruction to be at the rectum. Initially the aetiology was believed to be recurrence at the site of the anastomosis; however, subsequent review of the imaging and indeed endoscopic examination of the rectum showed it to be volvulus. This was initially treated with endoscopic decompression and later by the insertion of a flatus tube to good effect. The patient was discharged 3 days later with no recurrence of her symptoms at 2 months. PMID:23608861

  3. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  4. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  5. Cerebral Lateralization of Face-Selective and Body-Selective Visual Areas Depends on Handedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Peelen, M.V.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    The left-hemisphere dominance for language is a core example of the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. The degree of left-hemisphere dominance for language depends on hand preference: Whereas the majority of right-handers show left-hemispheric language lateralization, this number

  6. Cerebral lateralization of face-selective and body-selective visual areas depends on handedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Peelen, M.V.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    The left-hemisphere dominance for language is a core example of the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. The degree of left-hemisphere dominance for language depends on hand preference: Whereas the majority of right-handers show left-hemispheric language lateralization, this number

  7. Major zircon megacryst suites of the Indo-Pacific lithospheric margin (ZIP) and their petrogenetic and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lin; Graham, Ian; Yaxley, Gregory; Armstrong, Richard; Giuliani, Gaston; Hoskin, Paul; Nechaev, Victor; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Zircon megacrysts (± gem corundum) appear in basalt fields of Indo-Pacific origin over a 12,000 km zone (ZIP) along West Pacific continental margins. Age-dating, trace element, oxygen and hafnium isotope studies on representative zircons (East Australia-Asia) indicate diverse magmatic sources. The U-Pb (249 to 1 Ma) and zircon fission track (ZFT) ages (65 to 1 Ma) suggest thermal annealing during later basalt transport, with < 1 to 203 Ma gaps between the U-Pb and ZFT ages. Magmatic growth zonation and Zr/Hf ratios (0.01-0.02) suggest alkaline magmatic sources, while Ti—in—zircon thermometry suggests that most zircons crystallized within ranges between 550 and 830 °C. Chondrite-normalised multi-element plots show variable enrichment patterns, mostly without marked Eu depletion, indicating little plagioclase fractionation in source melts. Key elements and ratios matched against zircons from magmatic rocks suggest a range of ultramafic to felsic source melts. Zircon O-isotope ratios (δ18O in the range 4 to 11‰) and initial Hf isotope ratios (ɛHf in the range +2 to +14) encompass ranges for both mantle and crustal melts. Calculated Depleted Mantle (TDM 0.03-0.56 Ga) and Crustal Residence (0.20-1.02 Ga) model ages suggest several mantle events, continental break-ups (Rodinia and Gondwana) and convergent margin collisions left imprints in the zircon source melts. East Australian ZIP sites reflect prolonged intraplate magmatism (~85 Ma), often during times of fast-migrating lithosphere. In contrast, East Asian-Russian ZIP sites reflect later basaltic magmatism (<40 Ma), often linked to episodes of back-arc rifting and spreading, slow-migrating lithosphere and slab subduction.

  8. Margins related to equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Safety margins related to design of reactor equipment are defined according to safety regulations. Advanced best estimate methods are proposed including some examples which were computed and compared to experimental results. Best estimate methods require greater computation effort and more material data but give better variable accuracy and need careful experimental validation. Simplified methods compared to the previous are less sensitive to material data, sometimes are more accurate but very long to elaborate

  9. Indigenous women's voices: marginalization and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Struthers, Roxanne

    2005-10-01

    Marginalization may affect health care delivery. Ways in which indigenous women experienced marginalization were examined. Data from 57 indigenous women (18 to 65 years) were analyzed for themes. Three themes emerged: historical trauma as lived marginalization, biculturalism experienced as marginalization, and interacting within a complex health care system. Experienced marginalization reflected participants' unique perspective and were congruent with previous research. It is necessary for health care providers to assess the detrimental impact of marginalization on the health status of individuals and/or communities.

  10. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  11. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  12. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  13. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  14. Evaluation of left ventricular function using digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozuka, Takahiro; Ohta, Mitsushige

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion images, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 45 patients with ischemic heart disease. Validity of the technique was compared with data obtained from cine left ventriculogram in all patients and 201 T1 myocardial images in 20 patients. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) calculated from DSA were correlated closely with those from cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.92, r = 0.94 and r = 0.86, respectively). Regional contractility at the antero-lateral wall of the left ventricle, assessed by DSA, was also correlated well with cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.75). Evaluation of the inferior wall motion showed less correlation in both procedures (r = 0.68). Phase and amplitude analysis with the same technique with radionuclide cardiac angiography was successfully applied in left ventriculogram obtained by DSA. The procedure seems to be helpful for objective evaluation of the left ventricular wall motion. Myocardial perfusion image, obtained with modified Radtke's technique, showed good coincidence with 201 T1 images. Thus, DSA is applicable for evaluation of function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion in patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  15. Tiago Marques Aipobureu: um bororo marginal Tiago Marques Aipobureu: a Bororo on the margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florestan Fernandes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa a biografia de um membro da tribo dos Bororo, Tiago Marques Aipobureu, que, nascido no planalto oriental de Mato Grosso, foi levado pelos missionários para estudar em Cuiabá e depois viajou pela Europa. Quando de seu retorno ao Brasil, foi empregado como professor, mas não conseguiu adaptar-se à nova vida. Casado com uma mulher de sua tribo, buscou então reintegrar-se aos Bororo, igualmente sem sucesso. Permanecia, desse modo, no meio do caminho, incapaz de integrar-se plenamente tanto à sociedade e cultura "civilizadas" como à sociedade e cultura indígenas. O desajustamento de Tiago evidencia a situação do homem marginal, daquele que se situa na divisa de duas raças, na margem de duas culturas sem conseguir pertencer integralmente a nenhuma delas.The text analyzes the biography of a member of the Bororo tribe, Tiago Marques Aipobureu. Born on the eastern plateau of Mato Grosso, he was taken by missionaries to study in Cuiabá and later travelled through Europe. On returning to Brazil, he was employed as a teacher, but was unable to adapt to his new life. Married to a woman from his tribe, he tried to rejoin the Bororo, likewise without success. Thus he found himself midway between worlds, unable to join fully either 'civilized' society and culture, or indigenous society and culture. Tiago's maladjustment exemplifies the situation of the marginal person, someone situated on the dividing line between two races, on the margin of two cultures, unable to belong wholly to either.

  16. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  17. Age-Dependent Mesial Temporal Lobe Lateralization in Language FMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N.; Berl, Madison M.; Wilke, Marko; You, Xiaozhen; Mehta, Meera; Xu, Benjamin; Inati, Sara; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Austermuehle, Alison; Theodore, William H.; Gaillard, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective FMRI activation of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) may be important for epilepsy surgical planning. We examined MTL activation and lateralization during language fMRI in children and adults with focal epilepsy. Methods 142 controls and patients with left hemisphere focal epilepsy (Pediatric: epilepsy, n = 17, mean age = 9.9 ± 2.0; controls, n = 48; mean age = 9.1 ± 2.6; Adult: epilepsy, n = 20, mean age = 26.7 ± 5.8; controls, n = 57, mean age = 26.2 ± 7.5) underwent 3T fMRI using a language task (auditory description decision task). Image processing and analyses were conducted in SPM8; ROIs included MTL, Broca’s area, and Wernicke’s area. We assessed group and individual MTL activation, and examined degree of lateralization. Results Patients and controls (pediatric and adult) demonstrated group and individual MTL activation during language fMRI. MTL activation was left lateralized for adults but less so in children (p’s < 0.005). Patients did not differ from controls in either age group. Stronger left-lateralized MTL activation was related to older age (p = 0.02). Language lateralization (Broca’s and Wernicke’s) predicted 19% of the variance in MTL lateralization for adults (p = 0.001), but not children. Significance Language fMRI may be used to elicit group and individual MTL activation. The developmental difference in MTL lateralization and its association with language lateralization suggests a developmental shift in lateralization of MTL function, with increased left lateralization across the age span. This shift may help explain why children have better memory outcomes following resection compared to adults. PMID:26696589

  18. Marginalism, quasi-marginalism and critical phenomena in micellar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reatto, L.

    1986-01-01

    The observed nonuniversal critical behaviour of some micellar solutions is interpreted in terms of quasi-marginalism, i.e. the presence of a coupling which scales with an exponent very close to the spatial dimensionality. This can give rise to a preasymptotic region with varying effective critical exponents with a final crossover to the Ising ones. The reduced crossover temperature is estimated to be below 10 -6 . The exponents β and γ measured in C 12 e 5 are in good agreement with the scaling law expected to hold for the effective exponents. The model considered by Shnidman is found unable to explain the nonuniversal critical behaviour

  19. PORTRAIT GRAFFITI IN MARGINS OF ANTIQUE LITHUANIAN BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burba, Domininkas

    2006-12-01

    discharge. The marginal portraits in personal books are more artistical and their composition is more relaxed. Overall the GDL marginal portraits reveal quite a few similarities to the graffiti (in italian scarabocchi left in the documents by the workers of Naples bank archive. They were properly examined and classified by the artist and archivist Giuseppe Zevola. According to him this documental graffiti was born out of opposition to the grey everyday routine and experience of “pleasure of anxiety”.

  20. Topographic distribution of inguinal lymph nodes metastasis: significance in determination of treatment margin for elective inguinal lymph nodes irradiation of low pelvic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.; Chin, Y.Y.; Leung, Stephen Wan; Chen, H.C.; Sun, L.M.; Fang, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the distribution of gross inguinal lymph node metastasis and, in particular, its correlation with major pelvic bony structures on a simulation film. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven cases of low pelvic tumors having gross inguinal lymph node metastasis that were treated with radiation therapy between November 1987 and December 1992 were segregated for study. The patient's nodes were palpated and marked with lead wire before the simulation film was taken. The geometric center of the usually round or elliptical node on the film was assumed to be the origin of the previously uninfested node. A total of 84 such labeled nodes was obtained from these 37 cases. These centers were transferred to and mapped collectively on a new simulation film showing major pelvic bony structures of left hemipelvis and upper femur. Results: Distribution of gross inguinal lymph nodes was found confined to the following area, as related to major pelvic bony structure: laterally, just abutting the tangential line that passes through lateral border of the femoral head; medially: 3 cm away from the body's midline axis; superiorly: 1 cm below the line that joins both upper borders of the femoral head; inferiorly: 2.5 cm below the low borders of ischial tuberosity. According to this rectangular boundary, three nodes were out of field, nine nodes near the border less than 1 cm margin. This area adequately covered 86% (72 of 84) of the studied nodes. Conclusion: Distribution study is important in determining the treatment margin. In general, an additional 1-2 cm beyond the area described above is the recommended treatment margin for elective inguinal lymph nodes irradiation with high confidence level of coverage.

  1. The anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Alan A; Selva, Dinesh; Hardy, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Brett

    2014-10-01

    To determine the anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas (OCH). Retrospective case series. The records of 104 patients with OCH were analyzed. The anatomical location of each OCH defined by the location of a point at the centre of the lesion, and its laterality. There were 104 patients included in the study. No patient had more than one lesion. Sixteen (15.4%) were located in the anterior third of the orbit, 74 (71.2%) were in the middle third, and 14 (13.5%) in the posterior third. In the middle third, 10 of 74 (13.5%) were extraconal and 64 intraconal (86.5%), with 30 of 64 (46.9%) middle third intraconal lesions lying lateral to the optic nerve. Of 104 lesions, 56 (53.8%) were left sided, showing a trend towards a predilection for the left side (p = 0.065). If data from other published series which included data on laterality is added to our own data and analysed, 270 of 468 (57.7%) OCH occurred in the left orbit (p lateral to the optic nerve. This may reflect an origin of these lesions from the arterial side of the circulation, as there are more small arteries in the intraconal space lateral to the optic nerve than in other locations. A predilection for the left orbit remains unexplained.

  2. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  3. Possible evolutionary origins of cognitive brain lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Rogers, L J; Bisazza, A

    1999-08-01

    Despite the substantial literature on the functional architecture of the asymmetries of the human brain, which has been accumulating for more than 130 years since Dax and Broca's early reports, the biological foundations of cerebral asymmetries are still poorly understood. Recent advances in comparative cognitive neurosciences have made available new animal models that have started to provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary origins and neuronal mechanisms of cerebral asymmetries. Animal model-systems, particularly those provided by the avian brain, highlight the interrelations of genetic, hormonal and environmental events to produce neural and behavioural asymmetries. Novel evidences showing that functional and structural lateralization of the brain is widespread among vertebrates (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) have accumulated rapidly. Perceptual asymmetries, in particular, seem to be ubiquitous in everyday behaviour of most species of animals with laterally placed eyes; in organisms with wider binocular overlap (e.g., amphibians), they appear to be retained for initial detection of stimuli in the extreme lateral fields. We speculate that adjustment of head position and eye movements may play a similar role in mammals with frontal vision as does the choice for right or left lateral visual fields in animals with laterally placed eyes. A first attempt to trace back the origins of brain asymmetry to early vertebrates is presented, based on the hypothesis that functional incompatibility between the logical demands associated with very basic cognitive functions is central to the phenomenon of cerebral lateralization.

  4. PCR, exit stage left ...

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989. The Prévessin Control Room (PCR) was recently engulfed in a wave of nostalgia. The PCR, scene of some of the greatest moments in CERN's history, is being dismantled to prepare for a complete overhaul. In February 2006, a new combined control centre for all the accelerators will open its doors on the same site, together with a new building currently under construction (see Bulletin issue 27/2004 of 28 June 2004). This marks the end of an important chapter in CERN's history. The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event 28 years ago when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world. Today the 80 terminals and PCs have b...

  5. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shohreh Teimournezhad; Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2011-01-01

    margin: 0in 0in 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in; text-align: justify;">The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critic...

  6. Reliabilityy and operating margins of LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, A.A.; Lindquist, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    The margins to fuel thermal operating limits under normal and accident conditions are key to plant operating flexibility and impact on availability and capacity factor. Fuel performance problems that do not result in clad breach, can reduce these margins. However, most have or can be solved with design changes. Regulatory changes have been major factors in eroding these margins. Various methods for regaining the margins are discussed

  7. Later zaaien kost opbrengst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.

    2000-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van het zaaitijdstip op de gewasproductie en op opbrengstderving, bijvoorbeeld doordat de grond later bewerkt kan worden door een hogere grondwaterstand als gevolg van peilverhoging

  8. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  9. Silenced, Silence, Silent: Motherhood in the Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lorelei; Austin, Helena

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the experiences of women who mother children with ADHD. The authors use the metaphor of the text and the margin. The text is the "motherhood myth" that describes a particular sort of "good" mothering. The margin is the space beyond that text. This marginal space is inhabited by some or all of the mothers they spoke with, some…

  10. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY... securities. The required margin on a net long or net short commitment in a when-issued security is the margin...) Interest charged on credit maintained in the margin account; (ii) Premiums on securities borrowed in...

  11. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  12. Ostial left main coronary stenosis in a frequent flyer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, John F

    2009-05-15

    A 52 year old gentleman presented with chest pain, after a long distance flight from India; he had made long haul flights every 2 weeks over the last 5 years as part of his job. His ECG revealed T wave inversion in leads V1-3. Cardiac biomarkers including troponin were negative; we proceeded to exercise stress testing (EST). This revealed 2 mm ST depression at 2 min of the standard Bruce protocol, associated with chest pain. He was taken immediately to the coronary catheterization laboratory; engagement of the left main caused pressure damping with 6 French, then 5 French diagnostic Judkins left 4 catheters. An ostial left main stenosis was seen; the right and left coronary trees otherwise had no significant stenoses. He had normal LV function. He underwent inpatient CABG 7 days later.

  13. Physiological Laterality of Superficial Cerebral Veins on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Gomi, Taku; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether laterality of the superficial cerebral veins can be seen on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in patients with no intracranial lesions that affect venous visualization. We retrospectively evaluated 386 patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including SWI in our institute. Patients with a lesion with the potential to affect venous visualization on SWI were excluded. Two neuroradiologists visually evaluated the findings and scored the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins. Of the 386 patients, 315 (81.6%) showed no obvious laterality on venous visualization, 64 (16.6%) showed left-side dominant laterality, and 7 (1.8%) showed right-side dominant laterality. Left-side dominant physiological laterality exists in the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI. Therefore, when recognizing left-side dominant laterality of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI, the radiologist must also consider the possibility of physiological laterality.

  14. Verification of the patient positioning for evaluation of PTV margins in radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohlich, B.F.; Peron, T.M.; Scheid, A.M.; Cardoso, F.; Alves, F.; Alves, M.S.; Dias, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    The work aimed to verify the relative displacements between the patient and the isocenters of the device based on the reproducibility of positioning, and estimates a PTV margins of radiotherapy treatments for prostate cancer. The results of displacements were obtained from a sample of 30 patient and showed values in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions -0.03 ± 0.48 cm, 0.12 ± 0.47 cm and 0.02 ± 0.53 cm, respectively. PTV margins were calculated resulting in 0.97 cm for vertical direction, 0.85 cm for longitudinal, and 0.98 cm for lateral. (author)

  15. Safety margins in deterministic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of safety margins has acquired certain prominence in the attempts to demonstrate quantitatively the level of the nuclear power plant safety by means of deterministic analysis, especially when considering impacts from plant ageing and discovery issues. A number of international or industry publications exist that discuss various applications and interpretations of safety margins. The objective of this presentation is to bring together and examine in some detail, from the regulatory point of view, the safety margins that relate to deterministic safety analysis. In this paper, definitions of various safety margins are presented and discussed along with the regulatory expectations for them. Interrelationships of analysis input and output parameters with corresponding limits are explored. It is shown that the overall safety margin is composed of several components each having different origins and potential uses; in particular, margins associated with analysis output parameters are contrasted with margins linked to the analysis input. While these are separate, it is possible to influence output margins through the analysis input, and analysis method. Preserving safety margins is tantamount to maintaining safety. At the same time, efficiency of operation requires optimization of safety margins taking into account various technical and regulatory considerations. For this, basic definitions and rules for safety margins must be first established. (author)

  16. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.; James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm 3 ) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm 3 ) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  17. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu [Government Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra, Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [SCTIMST, Department of Imaging Science and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm{sup 3}) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm{sup 3}) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  18. Combined reflectance confocal microscopy-optical coherence tomography for delineation of basal cell carcinoma margins: an ex vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Peterson, Gary; Chang, Ernest W.; Maguluri, Gopi; Fox, William; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) approach, integrated within a single optical layout, for diagnosis of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and delineation of margins. While RCM imaging detects BCC presence (diagnoses) and its lateral spreading (margins) with measured resolution of ˜1 μm, OCT imaging delineates BCC depth spreading (margins) with resolution of ˜7 μm. When delineating margins in 20 specimens of superficial and nodular BCCs, depth could be reliably determined down to ˜600 μm, and agreement with histology was within about ±50 μm.

  19. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Nielsen

    Full Text Available Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area, whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields. Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right

  20. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jared A; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ferguson, Michael A; Lainhart, Janet E; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction) and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area), whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields). Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right-brained" network strength

  1. Differential neuropsychological test sensitivity to left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Strauss, Esther; Hermann, Bruce P; Barr, William B; Perrine, Kenneth; Trenerry, Max R; Chelune, Gordon; Westerveld, Michael; Lee, Gregory P; Meador, Kimford J; Bowden, Stephen C

    2008-05-01

    We examined the sensitivity of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), and Multilingual Aphasia Examination Visual Naming subtest (MAE VN) to lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in patients who subsequently underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. For the AVLT (n = 189), left TLE patients performed more poorly than their right TLE counterparts [left TLE = 42.9 (10.6), right TLE = 47.7 (9.9); p LTE = 40.7 (11.1), right TLE = 43.8 (9.9); (p measures of confrontation naming ability [BNT: left LTE = 43.1 (8.9), right TLE = 48.1 (8.9); p < .001 (Cohen's d = .56); MAE VN: left TLE = 42.2, right TLE = 45.6, p = .02 (Cohen's d = .36)]. When these data were modeled in independent logistic regression analyses, the AVLT and BNT both significantly predicted side of seizure focus, although the positive likelihood ratios were modest. In the subset of 108 patients receiving both BNT and AVLT, the AVLT was the only significant predictor of seizure laterality, suggesting individual patient variability regarding whether naming or memory testing may be more sensitive to lateralized TLE.

  2. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiak Krystyna A; Łuba Małgorzata; Mathiak Klaus; Karzel Katarzyna; Wolańczyk Tomasz; Szczepanik Elżbieta; Ostaszewski Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Measuring quality of life (QOL) helps to delineate mechanisms underlying the interaction of disease and psychosocial factors. In adults, epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe led to lower QOL and higher depression and anxiety as compared to the right-sided foci. No study addressed the development of QOL disturbances depending on the lateralization of epileptogenic focus. The objective of our study was to examine QOL in children with lateralized epileptiform discharges. ...

  3. Behavioral lateralization in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Chapman, Kate M; Frances, Candice; Bauer, Gordon B

    2016-01-01

    We examined side preferences in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) through observations of limb use (right and left flipper) in 123 wild and 16 captive individuals.  We also analyzed archival data on wild manatees to develop an index of boat-caused body scars to determine lateralization of evasive action.  Wild and captive manatees displayed flipper lateralization at the individual, but not the population level for several behaviors including substrate touches, sculling, and...

  4. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined. Objective. The aim of the study was: (a re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order, and (b examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods. Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth putative agents are examined. Results. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6 can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively. The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Conclusion. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  5. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragović, Milan; Milenković, Sanja; Kocijancić, Dusica; Zlatko, Sram

    2013-01-01

    Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control) are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness) with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome) implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined). The aim of the study was: (a) re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order), and (b) examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy). Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females) from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order) and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth) putative agents are examined. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6) can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively).The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  6. Controlling marginally detached divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Barton, J. L.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Moser, A. L.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    A new control system at DIII-D has stabilized the inter-ELM detached divertor plasma state for H-mode in close proximity to the threshold for reattachment, thus demonstrating the ability to maintain detachment with minimal gas puffing. When the same control system was instead ordered to hold the plasma at the threshold (here defined as T e  =  5 eV near the divertor target plate), the resulting T e profiles separated into two groups with one group consistent with marginal detachment, and the other with marginal attachment. The plasma dithers between the attached and detached states when the control system attempts to hold at the threshold. The control system is upgraded from the one described in Kolemen et al (2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186) and it handles ELMing plasmas by using real time D α measurements to remove during-ELM slices from real time T e measurements derived from divertor Thomson scattering. The difference between measured and requested inter-ELM T e is passed to a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller to determine gas puff commands. While some degree of detachment is essential for the health of ITER’s divertor, more deeply detached plasmas have greater radiative losses and, at the extreme, confinement degradation, making it desirable to limit detachment to the minimum level needed to protect the target plate (Kolemen et al 2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186). However, the observed bifurcation in plasma conditions at the outer strike point with the ion B   ×  \

  7. Case of congenital absence of the left pericardium. In special reference to diagnostic significance of echocardiography and thoracic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Genji; Katayama, Tomoyuki; Honda, Yukiharu; Eguchi, Keisuke [Nagasaki City Hospital (Japan); Mori, Hideki; Oku, Yasuhiko

    1983-11-01

    In a 24-year-old female patient with complete congenital absence of the left pericardium, M mode echocardiography revealed that excessive motility of the left posterior ventricular wall observed in a supine position became more conspicuous in the left lateral position. In this postural position, a systolic notch in the posterior left ventricular wall, which was attributed to a large displacement of the heart to the left posteriorly in the early systolic phase, was observed. Thoracic CT visualized an extensive defect of the left pericardium even in a supine position by combination of artificial pneumothorax. In the left lateral position, CT clearly visualized the remaining end of the left pericardium in defect on 2 slices, front and back.

  8. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  9. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  10. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  11. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  12. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  13. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anisotropic Margin Expansions in 6 Anatomic Directions for Oropharyngeal Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yock, Adam D.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.; Beadle, Beth M.; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the expansions in 6 anatomic directions that produced optimal margins considering nonrigid setup errors and tissue deformation for patients receiving image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: For 20 patients who had received IGRT to the head and neck, we deformably registered each patient's daily images acquired with a computed tomography (CT)-on-rails system to his or her planning CT. By use of the resulting vector fields, the positions of volume elements within the clinical target volume (CTV) (target voxels) or within a 1-cm shell surrounding the CTV (normal tissue voxels) on the planning CT were identified on each daily CT. We generated a total of 15,625 margins by dilating the CTV by 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 mm in the posterior, anterior, lateral, medial, inferior, and superior directions. The optimal margins were those that minimized the relative volume of normal tissue voxels positioned within the margin while satisfying 1 of 4 geometric target coverage criteria and 1 of 3 population criteria. Results: Each pair of geometric target coverage and population criteria resulted in a unique, anisotropic, optimal margin. The optimal margin expansions ranged in magnitude from 1 to 5 mm depending on the anatomic direction of the expansion and on the geometric target coverage and population criteria. Typically, the expansions were largest in the medial direction, were smallest in the lateral direction, and increased with the demand of the criteria. The anisotropic margin resulting from the optimal set of expansions always included less normal tissue than did any isotropic margin that satisfied the same pair of criteria. Conclusions: We demonstrated the potential of anisotropic margins to reduce normal tissue exposure without compromising target coverage in IGRT to the head and neck

  15. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  16. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Marginal cost application in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twardy, L.; Rusak, H.

    1994-01-01

    Two kind of marginal costs, the short-run and the long-run, are defined. The former are applied in conditions when the load increase is not accompanied neither by the increase of the transmission capacity not the installed capacity while the latter assume new investments to expand the power system. The long-run marginal costs be used to forecast optimized development of the system. They contain two main components: the marginal costs of capacity and the marginal costs of energy. When the long-run marginal costs are calculated, each component is considered for particular voltage levels, seasons of the year, hours of the day - selected depending on the system reliability factor as well as on its load level. In the market economy countries the long-run marginal costs can be used for setting up the electric energy tariffs. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs

  18. Cardiac pacing in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block: impact of pacing site for optimizing left ventricular resynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappone, C; Rosanio, S; Oreto, G; Tocchi, M; Gulletta, S; Salvati, A; Dicandia, C; Santinelli, V; Mazzone, P; Veglia, F; Ding, J; Sallusti, L; Spinelli, J; Vicedomini, G

    2000-07-01

    Acute left ventricular pacing has been associated with hemodynamic improvement in patients with congestive heart failure and wide QRS complex. We hypothesized that pacing two left ventricular sites simultaneously would produce faster activation and better systolic function than single-site pacing. We selected 14 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class III or IV) in normal sinus rhythm with left bundle branch block and QRS > 150 ms. An 8F dual micromanometer catheter was placed in the aorta for measuring +dP/dt (mmHg/s), aortic pulse pressure (mmHg), and end-diastolic pressure (mmHg). Pacing leads were positioned via coronary veins at the posterior base and lateral wall. Patients were acutely paced VDD at the posterior base, lateral wall, and both sites (dual-site) with 5 atrioventricular delays (from 8 ms to PR -30 ms). Pacing sequences were executed in randomized order using a custom external computer (FlexStim, Guidant CRM). Dual-site pacing increased peak +dP/dt significantly more than posterior base and lateral wall pacing. Dual-site and posterior base pacing raised aortic pulse pressure significantly more than lateral wall pacing. Dual-site pacing shortened QRS duration by 22 %, whereas posterior base and lateral wall pacing increased it by 2 and 12%, respectively (p = 0.006). In heart failure patients with left bundle branch block, dual-site pacing improves systolic function more than single-site stimulation. Improved ventricular activation synchrony, expressed by paced QRS narrowing, may account for the additional benefit of dual- vs single-site pacing in enhancing contractility. This novel approach deserves consideration for future heart failure pacing studies.

  19. Multislice CT imaging of ruptured left sinus of Valsalva aneurysm with fistulous track between left sinus and right atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampapati, Praveenkumar; Rao, Hejmadi Tati Gururaj; Radhesh, Srinivasan; Anand, Hejjaji Krishnamurthy; Praveen, Lokkur Srinivasamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Sinus of valsalva aneurysm is a rare condition arising from any of the three aortic sinuses. Among them, an aneurysm arising from the left coronary sinus is the rarest. Most of these cases were earlier diagnosed using echocardiography and conventional angiography. But with the availability of advanced imaging modalities like 64 slice cardiac CT and MR modalities, this condition can be accurately assessed noninvasively. We report a case of ruptured aneurysm originating from the left coronary sinus with a long windsock type of fistulous track between the aneurysm and right atrium evaluated by 64 slice cardiac CT imaging. This was later confirmed perioperatively.

  20. The laterality of the gallop gait in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Cully

    Full Text Available Laterality can be observed as side biases in locomotory behaviour which, in the horse, manifest inter alia as forelimb preferences, most notably in the gallop. The current study investigated possible leading-leg preferences at the population and individual level in Thoroughbred racehorses (n = 2095 making halt-to-gallop transitions. Videos of flat races in the UK (n = 350 were studied to record, for each horse, the lead-leg preference of the initial stride into gallop from the starting stalls. Races from clockwise (C and anti-clockwise (AC tracks were chosen alternately at random to ensure equal representation. Course direction, horse age and sex, position relative to the inside rail and finishing position were also noted. On C courses, the left/right ratio was 1.15, which represents a significant bias to the left (z = -2.29, p = 0.022, while on AC courses it was 0.92 (z = 0.51, p = 0.610. In both course directions, there was no significant difference between winning horses that led with the left leading leg versus the right (C courses, z = -1.32, p = 0.19 and AC courses, z = -0.74, p = 0.46. Of the 2,095 horses studied 51.26% led with their L fore and 48.74% with their R, with no statistically significant difference (z = -1.16, p = 0.25. Therefore, there was no evidence of a population level motor laterality. Additionally, 22 male and 22 female horses were randomly chosen for repeated measures of leading leg preference. A laterality index was calculated for each of the 44 horses studied using the repeated measures: 22 exhibited right laterality (of which two were statistically significant and 21 exhibited left laterality (eight being statistically significant; one horse was ambilateral. Using these data, left lateralized horses were more strongly lateralized on an individual level than the right lateralized horses (t = 2.28, p = 0.03, DF = 34 and mares were more left lateralized than males (t = 2.4, p = 0.03, DF = 19.

  1. The laterality of the gallop gait in Thoroughbred racehorses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Paulette; Lancaster, Bryony

    2018-01-01

    Laterality can be observed as side biases in locomotory behaviour which, in the horse, manifest inter alia as forelimb preferences, most notably in the gallop. The current study investigated possible leading-leg preferences at the population and individual level in Thoroughbred racehorses (n = 2095) making halt-to-gallop transitions. Videos of flat races in the UK (n = 350) were studied to record, for each horse, the lead-leg preference of the initial stride into gallop from the starting stalls. Races from clockwise (C) and anti-clockwise (AC) tracks were chosen alternately at random to ensure equal representation. Course direction, horse age and sex, position relative to the inside rail and finishing position were also noted. On C courses, the left/right ratio was 1.15, which represents a significant bias to the left (z = –2.29, p = 0.022), while on AC courses it was 0.92 (z = 0.51, p = 0.610). In both course directions, there was no significant difference between winning horses that led with the left leading leg versus the right (C courses, z = –1.32, p = 0.19 and AC courses, z = –0.74, p = 0.46). Of the 2,095 horses studied 51.26% led with their L fore and 48.74% with their R, with no statistically significant difference (z = -1.16, p = 0.25). Therefore, there was no evidence of a population level motor laterality. Additionally, 22 male and 22 female horses were randomly chosen for repeated measures of leading leg preference. A laterality index was calculated for each of the 44 horses studied using the repeated measures: 22 exhibited right laterality (of which two were statistically significant) and 21 exhibited left laterality (eight being statistically significant); one horse was ambilateral. Using these data, left lateralized horses were more strongly lateralized on an individual level than the right lateralized horses (t = 2.28, p = 0.03, DF = 34) and mares were more left lateralized than males (t = 2.4, p = 0.03, DF = 19). PMID:29883459

  2. 左右侧脑电生物反馈治疗广泛性焦虑的随机对照开放研究%A randomized controlled open-label study of right and left lateral EEG biofeedback treatment of generalized anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯月; 王玉平; 詹淑琴; 李宁; 黄朝阳; 王黎

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback training of alpha activity over the parietal lobe in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and to compare the effects of training of alpha activity over the left parietal lobe and right parietal lobe in patients with GAD. Methods: Twenty-six female patients with GAD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, DSM-IV) criteria for GAD were included in this study, and these patients were randomized into two groups: the left parietal lobe training group (n = 13) and the right parietal lobe training group (n = 13). Patients received a total of 10 times training, in which each training consisted of a 40 minutes training session every three days. The degree of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms before the first time training, after the fifth time training and after the last time training were evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Results: In the left parietal lobe training group, the scores of STAI-S[(38. 7 ±8. 8), (35. 2 ±9. 2) vs. (47. 2 ± 10. 7), P <0. 05] and ISI[(13.0 ±5. 2),(8.4 ±4.7) vs. (17.5 ±5. 3), P <0. 05] decreased after 5 and 10 times of training. In the right parietal lobe training group, the scores of STAI-S[(37. 3 ± 6. 4), (29. 9 ± 6. 2) vs. (44. 9 ± 12. 4), P < 0. 05], STAI-T[ (40.9 ±6.4),(36.9 ±6.9) vs. (47. 8 ±7. 5), P<0. 05]and ISI[ (10. 2 ±5.1), (6. 9 ±3. 1) vs. (15.5 ±6.9),P< 0. 05] decreased after 5 and 10 times of training. The BDI-II scores [ (10. 3 ± 6. 0) vs. (17. 7 ±7. 2), P <0. 05] decreased after 10 times of training. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that EEG biofeedback training of alpha activity over the parietal lobe could improve the anxiety and insomnia symptom in patients with GAD. EEG biofeedback training of alpha activity over the right parietal lobe could

  3. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicles...... was transversally cut while the other fascicle and the fascicular membrane were kept intact. Cycle 3: both fascicles were cut in opposite ends while the fascicular membrane was left intact. A decline in peak force of 45% and 55% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and 93% and 92% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed...... in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. A decline in stiffness of 39% and 60% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and of 93% and 100% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. The present data demonstrate that lateral force transmission between...

  4. Tectonic signatures on active margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Leah Jolynn

    High-resolution Compressed High-Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) surveys offshore of La Jolla in southern California and the Eel River in northern California provide the opportunity to investigate the role of tectonics in the formation of stratigraphic architecture and margin morphology. Both study sites are characterized by shore-parallel tectonic deformation, which is largely observed in the structure of the prominent angular unconformity interpreted as the transgressive surface. Based on stratal geometry and acoustic character, we identify three sedimentary sequences offshore of La Jolla: an acoustically laminated estuarine unit deposited during early transgression, an infilling or "healing-phase" unit formed during the transgression, and an upper transparent unit. The estuarine unit is confined to the canyon edges in what may have been embayments during the last sea-level rise. The healing-phase unit appears to infill rough areas on the transgressive surface that may be related to relict fault structures. The upper transparent unit is largely controlled by long-wavelength tectonic deformation due to the Rose Canyon Fault. This unit is also characterized by a mid-shelf (˜40 m water depth) thickness high, which is likely a result of hydrodynamic forces and sediment grain size. On the Eel margin, we observe three distinct facies: a seaward-thinning unit truncated by the transgressive surface, a healing-phase unit confined to the edges of a broad structural high, and a highly laminated upper unit. The seaward-thinning wedge of sediment below the transgressive surface is marked by a number of channels that we interpret as distributary channels based on their morphology. Regional divergence of the sequence boundary and transgressive surface with up to ˜8 m of sediment preserved across the interfluves suggests the formation of subaerial accommodation during the lowstand. The healing-phase, much like that in southern California, appears to infill rough areas in the

  5. Aspects of marginal expenditures in energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojchev, D.; Kynev, K.

    1994-01-01

    Technical and economical problems of marginal analysis methodology, its application procedure in energy sector and marginal expenditures determination are outlined. A comparative characteristics of the application is made for different periods of time. The differences in calculation of the marginal expenditures and prices are discussed. The operational costs, investments and inflation are analyzed. The mechanism of application of this approach in different planing horizon is outlined. The role of the change in the costs in time, the time unit, volume, the scope of application, etc. are determined. The areas of transition from one to other form of marginal expenditures are shown. 4 refs. (orig.)

  6. The marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of the marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions are on important input to the decision how much society would want to spend on greenhouse gas emission reduction. Marginal cost estimates in the literature range between $5 and $25 per ton of carbon. Using similar assumptions, the FUND model finds marginal costs of $9--23/tC, depending on the discount rate. If the aggregation of impacts over countries accounts for inequalities in income distribution or for risk aversion, marginal costs would rise by about a factor of 3. Marginal costs per region are an order of magnitude smaller than global marginal costs. The ratios between the marginal costs of CO 2 and those of CH 4 and N 2 O are roughly equal to the global warming potentials of these gases. The uncertainty about the marginal costs is large and right-skewed. The expected value of the marginal costs lies about 35% above the best guess, the 95-percentile about 250%

  7. On the evaluation of marginal expected shortfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the analysis of systemic risk, Marginal Expected Shortfall may be considered to evaluate the marginal impact of a single stock on the market Expected Shortfall. These quantities are generally computed using log-returns, in particular when there is also a focus on returns conditional distribution....... In this case, the market log-return is only approximately equal to the weighed sum of equities log-returns. We show that the approximation error is large during turbulent market phases, with a subsequent impact on Marginal Expected Shortfall. We then suggest how to improve the evaluation of Marginal Expected...

  8. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  10. [Resection margins in conservative breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Fernández, Francisco Javier; Ayllón Terán, María Dolores; Lombardo Galera, María Sagrario; Rioja Torres, Pilar; Bascuñana Estudillo, Guillermo; Rufián Peña, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Conservative breast cancer surgery is facing a new problem: the potential tumour involvement of resection margins. This eventuality has been closely and negatively associated with disease-free survival. Various factors may influence the likelihood of margins being affected, mostly related to the characteristics of the tumour, patient or surgical technique. In the last decade, many studies have attempted to find predictive factors for margin involvement. However, it is currently the new techniques used in the study of margins and tumour localisation that are significantly reducing reoperations in conservative breast cancer surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  12. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  14. Advantages of later motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  15. Right hemispheric reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient with left hemispheric partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Gina S; McCaslin, Justin; Shamim, Sadat

    2017-04-01

    We report a right-handed 19-year-old girl who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) lateralized to the right hemisphere with simultaneous new-onset left hemispheric seizures. RCVS, typically more diffuse, was lateralized to one of the cerebral hemispheres.

  16. Differences in cerebral cortical anatomy of left- and right-handers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, T.M.; Willems, R.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Hoogman, M.; Hagoort, P.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.

    2014-01-01

    The left and right sides of the human brain are specialized for different kinds of information processing, and much of our cognition is lateralized to an extent toward one side or the other. Handedness is a reflection of nervous system lateralization. Roughly ten percent of people are mixed- or

  17. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  18. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2010-09-21

    Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over the right or left SMG. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence that the right SMG contributes to accurate and efficient phonological decisions in the healthy brain, with no evidence that the left and right SMG can compensate for one another during TMS. Our findings motivate detailed studies of phonological processing in patients with acute or long-term damage of the right SMG.

  19. Marginal cost pricing of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edsbaecker, G.

    1980-01-01

    The discipline is economics and the phenomenon is the power system. The purpose of this system is to produce, transmit and consume electricity in such a way that the sum of consumers and suppliers surplus in maximized. This is accomplished by the means of marginal cost pricing. The concepts of the power system and the relations prevailing between and among them are picked out, defined and analyzed in the frames of economic theory and operations research. Methods are developed aiming at efficient prices so that the short run function of the power system is managed in such a way that the sum of conumers and suppliers surplus is maximized within the framwork of this system, i.e. value of service of the power system is maximized. The task of developing such methods is accomplished subject to mixed production resources, transmission losses, periodic demand and also when there is lack of information concerning future and cost conditions. The main results are methods which take to account the conditions stated above. Methods not only allowing for traditional cost minimizing but also for maximation of value of service including a process of reaching optimum by gradual adaption when demand and cost curves are not known in advance. (author)

  20. Lateralization of the Avian Magnetic Compass: Analysis of Its Early Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gehring

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In European Robins, Erithacus rubecula, the magnetic compass is lateralized in favor of the right eye/left hemisphere of the brain. This lateralization develops during the first winter and initially shows a great plasticity. During the first spring migration, it can be temporarily removed by covering the right eye. In the present paper, we used the migratory orientation of robins to analyze the circumstances under which the lateralization can be undone. Already a period of 1½ h being monocularly left-eyed before tests began proved sufficient to restore the ability to use the left eye for orientation, but this effect was rather short-lived, as lateralization recurred again within the next 1½ h. Interpretable magnetic information mediated by the left eye was necessary for removing the lateralization. In addition, monocularly, the left eye seeing robins could adjust to magnetic intensities outside the normal functional window, but this ability was not transferred to the “right-eye system”. Our results make it clear that asymmetry of magnetic compass perception is amenable to short-term changes, depending on lateralized stimulation. This could mean that the left hemispheric dominance for the analysis of magnetic compass information depends on lateralized interhemispheric interactions that in young birds can swiftly be altered by environmental effects.

  1. Breeding drought tolerant wheat for the marginal areas of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the National Plant Breeding Research Center (NPBRC - Njoro) has been involved in developing wheat varieties for the marginal areas of Kenya with the aim of introducing wheat in the non- traditional region of the country. During this period four varieties tolerant to drought have been released. These include varieties such as Duma, Ngamia, Chozi and the newly released Njoro BW1. At the moment the released varieties are of low yielding and so there is need to develop higher yielding varieties if we are to produce at an economic level. This study was aimed at developing and evaluating some of the germplasm, which have been developed or introduced over the years over their suitability for production in the marginal areas of of Kenya. Over 600 introductions were screened in the screening nursery in Njoro while segregating populations in F2-F8 were selected and advanced to the next generation. A National Dryland Wheat Performance Trial (NDL WPT) was conducted for 10 introduced lines, 3 mutants, 1 Kenya seed line and Duma and Chozi as check varieties. KM14 has been released as a marginal area variety for its high protein content. Line R965 showed higher performance in both yield and hectolitre weight and will be entered for the second NDLWPT in 2002 and may be released as variety later. (author)

  2. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  3. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  4. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.; Postma, A.; Ham, I.J. van der; Klink, P.C.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  5. On the relationship between language lateralization and handedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, several aspects of the relation between hand-preference and language lateralization were investigated by employing meta-analytic, neuroimaging and genetic techniques. To achieve this, we tested whether there is a difference between left- and right-handers with regard to spatial

  6. Individual performance and leader's laterality in interactive contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2017-05-01

    Left-handedness is known to provide an intrinsic and tactical advantage at top level in many sports involving interactive contests. Again, most of the renowned leaders of the world are known to have been left-handed. Leadership plays an important role in politics, sports and mentorship. In this paper we show that Cricket captains who bat left-handed have a strategic advantage over the right-handed captains in One Day International (ODI) and Test matches. The present study involving 46 left-handed captains and 148 right-handed captains in ODI matches, reveal a strong relation between leader's laterality and team member performance, demonstrating the critical importance of left-handedness and successful leadership. The odds for superior batting performance in an ODI match under left-handed captains are 89% higher than the odds under right-handed captains. Our study shows that left-handed captains are more successful in extracting superior performance from the batsmen and bowlers in ODI and Test matches; perhaps indicating left-handed leaders are better motivators as leaders when compared to right-handed captains.

  7. Development of prenatal lateralization: evidence from fetal mouth movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Exley, K

    2014-05-28

    Human lateralized behaviors relate to the asymmetric development of the brain. Research of the prenatal origins of laterality is equivocal with some studies suggesting that fetuses exhibit lateralized behavior and other not finding such laterality. Given that by around 22weeks of gestation the left cerebral hemisphere compared to the right is significantly larger in both male and female fetuses we expected that the right side of the fetal face would show more movement with increased gestation. This longitudinal study investigated whether fetuses from 24 to 36weeks of gestation showed increasing lateralized behaviors during mouth opening and whether lateralized mouth movements are related to fetal age, gender and maternal self-reported prenatal stress. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy fetuses (8 girls) of primagravid mothers were scanned four times from 24 to 36-gestation. Two types of mouth opening movements - upper lip raiser and mouth stretch - were coded in 60 scans for 10min. We modeled the proportion of right mouth opening for each fetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, which takes account of the repeated measures design. There was a significant increase in the proportion of lateralized mouth openings over the period increasing by 11% for each week of gestational age (LRT change in deviance=10.92, 1df; pgender differences were found nor was there any effect of maternally reported stress on fetal lateralized mouth movements. There was also evidence of left lateralization preference in mouth movement, although no evidence of changes in lateralization bias over time. This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the development of lateralized mouth movements from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left

  9. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lateralization Pattern in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rajneesh Gupta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to see the incidence of peripheral laterality in schizophrenics and depressed patients. A total of 147 male subjects (29 schizophrenics, 38 depressed, 80 non-patient controls were asked to indicate their preferences for hand, foot, eye, and ear on the Sidedness Bias Schedule. The correlations among the laterality quotients (LQ in all the three groups were positive and highly significant except the foot-eye correlation in the non-patient controls. The left and mixed-handed schizophrenics and depressed subjects exhibited extreme left and mixed preference for foot, eye, and ear, respectively. Hand and ear preferences emerged as the predictors of schizophrenia and depression in the logistic regression analysis. The findings indicate a possible relationship between psychopathology and extreme left-mixed dominance.

  11. Can pro-marriage policies work? An analysis of marginal marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Policies to promote marriage are controversial, and it is unclear whether they are successful. To analyze such policies, one must distinguish between a marriage that is created by a marriage-promoting policy (marginal marriage) and a marriage that would have been formed even in the absence of a state intervention (average marriage). We exploit the suspension of a cash-on-hand marriage subsidy in Austria to examine the differential behavior of marginal and average marriages. The announcement of an impending suspension of this subsidy led to an enormous marriage boom among eligible couples that allows us to locate marginal marriages. Applying a difference-in-differences approach, we show that marginal marriages are surprisingly as stable as average marriages but produce fewer children, children later in marriage, and children who are less healthy at birth.

  12. Categorical marginal models: quite extensive package for the estimation of marginal models for categorical data

    OpenAIRE

    Wicher Bergsma; Andries van der Ark

    2015-01-01

    A package accompanying the book Marginal Models for Dependent, Clustered, and Longitudinal Categorical Data by Bergsma, Croon, & Hagenaars, 2009. It’s purpose is fitting and testing of marginal models.

  13. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, Yasuji, E-mail: oshiro4211@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Okinawa Hospital, 20-14 Ganeko 3-chome, Ginowan city, Okinawa 901-2214 (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Ohta, Morio [Department of Surgery, Nakagami Hospital, 6-25-5 Chibana, Okinawa-city, Okinawa 904-2195 (Japan); Teruya, Takao [Second Department of Surgery, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung.

  14. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Yasuji; Murayama, Sadayuki; Ohta, Morio; Teruya, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung

  15. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and "pull of the north" are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts.

  16. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and “pull of the north” are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts. PMID:28945773

  17. Technical specification improvement through safety margin considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.C.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an approach for utilizing safety analysis margin considerations to improve plant operability through technical specification revision. This approach relies on the identification and use of parameter interrelations and sensitivities to identify acceptable operating envelopes. This paper summarizes technical specification activities to date and presents the use of safety margin considerations as another viable method to obtain technical specification improvement

  18. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and

  19. Values and marginal preferences in international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; van Hoorn, Andre

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Maseland and van Hoorn argued that values surveys tend to conflate values and marginal preferences. This assertion has been challenged by Brewer and Venaik, who claim that the wording of most survey items does not suggest that these elicit marginal preferences.

  20. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Gabella, Maxime [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Graña, Mariana [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 05, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-27

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS{sub 5} flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS{sub 5} flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  1. Steep microbial boundstone-dominated plaform margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenter, J.A.M.; Harris, P.M.; Della Porta, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Seaward progradation of several kilometers has been documented mostly for leeward margin low-angle carbonate slope systems with a dominant platform top sediment source. However, steep and high-relief margins fronting deep basins can also prograde and as such are somewhat perplexing. Characteristics

  2. An unusual manifestation of acute appendicitis with left flank pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Talanow, MD, PhD

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a case with an unusual presentation of early appendicitis. The patient presented initially with left sided flank pain. Workup for nephrolithiasis, including non-contrast CT of the abdomen and pelvis was negative for renal stones or hydronephrosis. After discharge, the patient presented one week later in the ED with right lower quadrant pain. Contrast enhanced CT of the abdomen revealed perforated appendicitis.

  3. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  4. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  5. Development of continental margins of the Atlantic Ocean and successive breakup of the Pangaea-3 supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative tectonic analysis of passive margins of the Atlantic Ocean has been performed. Tectonotypes of both volcanic and nonvolcanic margins are described, and their comparison with other passive Atlantic margins is given. The structural features of margins, peculiarities of magmatism, its sources and reasons for geochemical enrichment of melts are discussed. The important role of melting of the continental lithosphere in the development of magmatism is demonstrated. Enriched EM I and EM II sources are determined for the lower parts of the volcanic section, and a depleted or poorly enriched source is determined for the upper parts of the volcanic section based on isotope data. The conclusions of the paper relate to tectonic settings of the initial occurrence of magmatism and rifting and breakup during the period of opening of the Mesozoic Ocean. It was found out that breakup and magmatism at proximal margins led only to insignificant structural transformations and reduction of the thickness of the ancient continental crust, while very important magmatic events happened later in the distal zone. New growth of magmatic crust at the stage of continental breakup is determined as a typical feature of distal zones of the margins under study. The relationship of development of margins with the impact of deep plumes as the source of magmatic material or a heat source only is discussed. Progradation of the zone of extension and breakup into the areas of cold lithosphere of the Atlantic and the formation of a single tectonomagmatic system of the ocean are under consideration.

  6. The forgotten view: Chest X-ray - Lateral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M. Ittyachen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With CT (computed tomography chest gaining more importance as a diagnostic tool, chest X-ray especially the lateral view is taken less commonly nowadays. Besides CT chest is also proven to be superior to chest X-ray in patients with major blunt trauma. We are presenting a 68-year old male who was partially treated from outside for a left sided pneumonia. He came to our hospital because of persisting chest pain. Chest X-ray, frontal view (postero-anterior was almost normal except for a mild opacity in the left lower zone. CT scan of the chest revealed a fluid collection posteriorly enclosed within enhancing pleura. Chest X-ray, left lateral view showed a corresponding posterior pleural based opacity. We are presenting this case to highlight the importance of the lateral view of the chest X-ray. In selected cases there is still a role for the lateral view. With the three dimensional visualization provided by the CT, the lateral view of the chest may be easier to understand. Consequent to the initial diagnosis by CT further follow up can be done with the chest X-ray. In a limited way this mitigates unnecessary expenditure and more importantly prevents the patient from exposure to harmful radiation in the form of repeated CT.

  7. Discordance between location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Ham, Dong Yeub; Paick, Sung Hyun; Lho, Yong Soo; Choi, Woo Suk

    2015-10-01

    We compared location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin (PSM) following radical prostatectomy. This retrospective analysis included patients who were diagnosed as prostate cancer by standard 12-core transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy, and who have PSM after radical prostatectomy. After exclusion of number of biopsy cores location data, 46 patients with PSM were identified. Locations of PSM in pathologic specimen were reported as 6 difference sites (apex, base and lateral in both sides). Discordance of biopsy result and PSM was defined when no positive cores in biopsy was identified at the location of PSM. Most common location of PSM were right apex (n=21) and left apex (n=15). Multiple PSM was reported in 21 specimens (45.7%). In 32 specimens (69.6%) with PSM, one or more concordant positive biopsy cores were identified, but 14 specimens (28%) had no concordant biopsy cores at PSM location. When discordant rate was separated by locations of PSM, right apex PSM had highest rate of discordant (38%). The discordant group had significantly lower prostate volume and lower number of positive cores in biopsy than concordant group. This study showed that one fourth of PSM occurred at location where tumor was not detected at biopsy and that apex PSM had highest rate of discordant. Careful dissection to avoid PSM should be performed in every location, including where tumor was not identified in biopsy.

  8. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  9. The clinical study of the early soft tissue healing and marginal bone resorption after non-submerged implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Anchen; Yang Desheng; Hu Bei; Leng Bin; Zhang Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first three months after non-submerged implants and to explore the relationship between the amount of early marginal bone resorption and the soft tissue healing in the first month. Method: ITI with non-submerged implants were implanted in 33 patients. Digital panoramic radiographs were taken during the operation, one month and three months later. The amount of marginal bone resorption was measured in the first, second and the third month after implant operation. The soft tissue healing was observed after 10 days. Results: There was significant difference (P<0.01) in the amount of early marginal bone resorption between one month and three months later. The early marginal bone resorption in the first month after implantation kept correlation with the soft tissue healing on 10th day(r=0.794, P<0.01). Conclusion: The amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month exceeds that in the second and the third months after implant operation, and the soft tissue healing affects the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month. Biological seal is the critical factor influencing the early marginal bone resorption. (authors)

  10. Crustal-Scale Fault Interaction at Rifted Margins and the Formation of Domain-Bounding Breakaway Complexes: Insights From Offshore Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundsen, P. T.; Péron-Pinvidic, G.

    2018-03-01

    The large-magnitude faults that control crustal thinning and excision at rifted margins combine into laterally persistent structural boundaries that separate margin domains of contrasting morphology and structure. We term them breakaway complexes. At the Mid-Norwegian margin, we identify five principal breakaway complexes that separate the proximal, necking, distal, and outer margin domains. Downdip and lateral interactions between the faults that constitute breakaway complexes became fundamental to the evolution of the 3-D margin architecture. Different types of fault interaction are observed along and between these faults, but simple models for fault growth will not fully describe their evolution. These structures operate on the crustal scale, cut large thicknesses of heterogeneously layered lithosphere, and facilitate fundamental margin processes such as deformation coupling and exhumation. Variations in large-magnitude fault geometry, erosional footwall incision, and subsequent differential subsidence along the main breakaway complexes likely record the variable efficiency of these processes.

  11. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  12. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant "margin premium" in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  13. MARGINS: Toward a novel science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, John C.

    A science plan to study continental margins has been in the works for the past 3 years, with almost 200 Earth scientists from a wide variety of disciplines gathering at meetings and workshops. Most geological hazards and resources are found at continental margins, yet our understanding of the processes that shape the margins is meager.In formulating this MARGINS research initiative, fundamental issues concerning our understanding of basic Earth-forming processes have arisen. It is clear that a business-as-usual approach will not solve the class of problems defined by the MARGINS program; the solutions demand approaches different from those used in the past. In many cases, a different class of experiment will be required, one that is well beyond the capability of individual principle investigators to undertake on their own. In most cases, broadly based interdisciplinary studies will be needed.

  14. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  15. Eye laterality: a comprehensive analysis in refractive surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Stephan J; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Steinberg, Johannes; Richard, Gisbert; Katz, Toam

    2013-08-01

    To explore eye laterality (higher refractive error in one eye) and its association with refractive state, spherical/astigmatic anisometropia, age and sex in refractive surgery candidates. Medical records of 12 493 consecutive refractive surgery candidates were filtered. Refractive error (subjective and cycloplegic) was measured in each subject and correlated with eye laterality. Only subjects with corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of >20/22 in each eye were enrolled to exclude amblyopia. Associations between eye laterality and refractive state were analysed by means of t-test, chi-squared test, Spearman's correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in spherical equivalent between right (-3.47 ± 2.76 D) and left eyes (-3.47 ± 2.76 D, p = 0.510; Pearson's r = 0.948, p laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D in myopic (-5.64 ± 2.5 D versus -4.92 ± 2.6 D; p = 0.001) and in hyperopic (4.44 ± 1.69 D versus 3.04 ± 1.79 D; p = 0.025) subjects, (II) a tendency for left eye cylindrical laterality in myopic subjects, and (III) myopic male subjects had a higher prevalence of left eye laterality. (IV) Age did not show any significant impact on laterality. Over the full refractive spectrum, this study confirmed previously described strong interocular refractive correlation but revealed a statistically significant higher rate of right eye laterality for anisometropia >2.5 D. In general, our results support the use of data from one eye only in studies of ocular refraction. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. Analysis of Lateral Buckling of Bar with Axial Force Accumulation in Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanamankong, Nuttapon; Petchsasithon, Arthit; Dhirasedh, Suwat

    2017-06-01

    This research studies the lateral buckling behavior in truss and lateral buckling coefficient of truss. Lateral buckling analysis of truss is performed by simulating the structural model with both end supports being pinned and roller-supports. The analysis is indirectly conducted using Elastic Theory to evaluate the length of lateral buckling by calculating the determinant of the Matrix [K]. Results from the analysis are marginally different from those obtained from finite element program and are considerably less than those obtained from Eurocode standard. This can be concluded that using elastic theory to evaluate lateral buckling coefficient of truss member will result in more economical section.

  17. Behavioural relevance of atypical language lateralization in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, S; Dräger, B; Flöel, A; Lohmann, H; Breitenstein, C; Deppe, M; Henningsen, H; Ringelstein, E B

    2001-08-01

    In most humans, language is lateralized to the left side of the brain. It has been speculated that this hemispheric specialization is a prerequisite for the full realization of linguistic potential. Using standardized questionnaires and performance measures, we attempted to determine if there are behavioural correlates of atypical, i.e. right-hemispheric and bilateral, language lateralization. The side and degree of language lateralization were determined by measuring the hemispheric perfusion differences by functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography during a word generation task in healthy volunteers. Subjects with left (n = 264), bilateral (n = 31) or right (n = 31) hemisphere language representation did not differ significantly with respect to mastery of foreign languages, academic achievement, artistic talents, verbal fluency or (as assessed in a representative subgroup) in intelligence or speed of linguistic processing. These findings suggest that atypical hemispheric specialization for language, i.e. right-hemisphere or bilateral specialization, is not associated with major impairments of linguistic faculties in otherwise healthy subjects.

  18. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Traudt, Joachim; Güntürkün, Onur; Prior, Helmut; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2002-10-01

    Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of the magnetic field. We found that captive migrants tested in cages with the magnetic field as the only available orientation cue were well oriented in their appropriate migratory direction when using their right eye only, but failed to show a significant directional preference when using their left eye. This implies that magnetoreception for compass orientation, assumed to take place in the eyes alongside the visual processes, is strongly lateralized, with a marked dominance of the right eye/left brain hemisphere.

  19. Laterality and mental disorders in the postgenomic age--A closer look at schizophrenia and language lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hirnstein, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Most people are right-handed and show left-hemispheric language lateralization, but a minority exhibits left-handedness and right-hemispheric language lateralization. This atypical laterality pattern is observed significantly more often in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, which led several authors to conclude that there is a genetic link between laterality and schizophrenia. It has even been suggested that a failure in the lateralization process, orchestrated by genes, could be the primary cause of schizophrenia. However, the molecular genetic evidence for a link between laterality and schizophrenia is weak. Recent genetic evidence indicates that schizophrenia is not a single disorder but a group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks leading to distinct clinical symptoms. To uncover the link between schizophrenia and laterality we therefore suggest a paradigm shift where genetics are not mapped on schizophrenia as a whole but on discrete schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, we provide a critical evaluation of current theories on the genetic link between schizophrenia and brain asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...... [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients....

  1. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  2. ''Natural'' left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed

  3. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Hs 224, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ridder, Dirk de [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-08-15

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P{sub corrected} < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  4. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Marion; Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan; Ridder, Dirk de

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P corrected < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  5. The Role of Seminal Vesicle Motion in Target Margin Assessment for Online Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jian; Wu Qiuwen; Yan Di

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer, the seminal vesicles (SVs) are included in the clinical target volume (CTV). The purposes of this study are to investigate interfraction motion characteristics of the SVs and determine proper margins for online computed tomography image guidance. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients, each with 16 daily helical computed tomography scans, were included in this study. A binary image mask was used for image registration to determine daily organ motion. Two online image-guided radiotherapy strategies (prostate only and prostate + SVs) were simulated in a hypofractionated scheme. Three margin designs were studied for both three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). In prostate-only guidance, Margin A was uniformly applied to the whole CTV, and Margin B was applied to the SVs with a fixed 3-mm prostate margin. In prostate plus SV guidance, Margin C was uniformly applied to the CTV. The minimum margins were sought to satisfy the criterion that minimum cumulative CTV dose be more than those of the planning target volume in the plan for greater than 95% of patients. Results: The prostate and SVs move significantly more in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior than right-left directions. The anterior-posterior motion of the prostate and SVs correlated (R 2 = 0.7). The SVs move significantly more than the prostate. The minimum margins found were 2.5 mm for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 4.5, 4.5, and 3.0 mm for Margins A, B, and C for IMRT, respectively. Margins for IMRT were larger, but the irradiated volume and doses to critical structures were smaller. Minimum margins of 4.5 mm to the SVs and 3 mm to the prostate are recommended for IMRT with prostate-only guidance. Conclusions: The SVs move independently from the prostate gland, and additional margins are necessary for image-guided radiotherapy

  6. Differences in graph theory functional connectivity in left and right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Sharon; Stern, John M; Engel, Jerome; Levin, Harvey S; Haneef, Zulfi

    2014-12-01

    To investigate lateralized differences in limbic system functional connectivity between left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using graph theory. Interictal resting state fMRI was performed in 14 left TLE patients, 11 right TLE patients, and 12 controls. Graph theory analysis of 10 bilateral limbic regions of interest was conducted. Changes in edgewise functional connectivity, network topology, and regional topology were quantified, and then left and right TLE were compared. Limbic edgewise functional connectivity was predominantly reduced in both left and right TLE. More regional connections were reduced in right TLE, most prominently involving reduced interhemispheric connectivity between the bilateral insula and bilateral hippocampi. A smaller number of limbic connections were increased in TLE, more so in left than in right TLE. Topologically, the most pronounced change was a reduction in average network betweenness centrality and concurrent increase in left hippocampal betweenness centrality in right TLE. In contrast, left TLE exhibited a weak trend toward increased right hippocampal betweenness centrality, with no change in average network betweenness centrality. Limbic functional connectivity is predominantly reduced in both left and right TLE, with more pronounced reductions in right TLE. In contrast, left TLE exhibits both edgewise and topological changes that suggest a tendency toward reorganization. Network changes in TLE and lateralized differences thereof may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effect of Margin Designs on the Marginal Adaptation of Zirconia Copings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Syed Rashid; Al Ajmi, Mohammed Ginan; Al Dhafyan, Mohammed; Jomah, Abdulrehman; Abualsaud, Haytham; Almashali, Mazen

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of Shoulder versus Chamfer margin design on the marginal adaptation of zirconia (Zr) copings. 40 extracted molar teeth were mounted in resin and prepared for zirconia crowns with two margin preparation designs (20=Shoulder and 20=Chamfer). The copings were manufactured by Cercon® (DeguDent GmbH, Germany) using the CAD/CAM system for each tooth. They were tried on each tooth, cemented, thermocycled, re-embedded in resin and were subsequently cross sectioned centrally into two equal mesial and distal halves. They were examined under electron microscope at 200 X magnification and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points in micrometers (µm). The o verall mean marginal gap for the two groups was found to be 206.98+42.78µm with Shoulder margin design (Marginal Gap=199.50+40.72µm) having better adaptation compared to Chamfer (Marginal Gap=214.46+44.85µm). The independent-samples t-test showed a statistically non-significant difference (p=.113) between the means of marginal gap for Shoulder and Chamfer margin designs and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points for the two groups. The Chamfer margin design appeared to offer the same adaptation results as the Shoulder margin design.

  8. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not

  10. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  11. Laterality influences schooling position in rainbowfish, Melanotaenia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a widespread trait among animals, is often manifested as side biases in behaviour (laterality) and has been suggested to provide fitness benefits. Here we examined the influence of laterality on the organisation of fish schools using rainbowfish (Melanotaenia spp) as model species. The pattern and strength of laterality for each individual was determined by examining eye preferences whilst examining their reflection in a mirror. Schools of four fish of known laterality were then created and the preferred position for each fish within the school was repeatedly observed in a flume. Fish which showed right eye preferences in the mirror test preferentially adopted a position on the left side of the school. Conversely, fish that showed left eye preferences in the mirror test or where non-lateralised preferentially adopted a position slightly to the right side of the school. However, this general pattern varied depending on the species and sex of the school. Our results strongly implicate individual laterality in the geometry of school formation.

  12. Laterality of suckling behaviour in three zebra species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluháček, Jan; Olléová, Michaela; Bartošová, Jitka; Pluháčková, Jana; Bartoš, Luděk

    2013-01-01

    Although side preference while suckling is an easily characterised lateralised behaviour, few studies have been conducted. We observed laterality in suckling behaviour in three captive zebra species to test two hypotheses: laterality affected by the foal (motor laterality) and laterality affected by the mother. In total we observed 35 foals of Grevy's, plains, and mountain zebra in two zoos and recorded 5128 successful suckling bouts and 9095 unsuccessful suckling attempts. At the population level the only factor affecting side preference of suckling bouts and attempts was the identity of the individual foal. Ten foals showed individual preferences: seven foals preferred suckling from the left side of the mother, three preferred suckling from the right side of the mother. The individual preferences increased with increasing age of the foal. Only one foal was refused more often from the opposite side than the preferred side used for suckling whereas three other foals were refused from the preferred side. Foals that preferred suckling either from left or right side were refused by the mare more often than foals which showed non-preference. Thus lateral preferences in suckling behaviour of zebra foals seem to be in line with the motor laterality hypotheses.

  13. Minimally invasive radical pancreatectomy for left-sided pancreatic cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Sung Hwan; Lee, Woo Jung

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy has been regarded as a safe and effective treatment for benign and borderline malignant pancreatic lesions. However, its application for left-sided pancreatic cancer is still being debated. The clinical evidence for radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS)-based minimally invasive approaches for left-sided pancreatic cancer was reviewed. Potential indications and surgical concepts for minimally invasive RAMPS were suggested. Despite the limited clinical evidence for minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy in left-sided pancreatic cancer, the currently available clinical evidence supports the use of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy under oncologic principles in well-selected left sided pancreatic cancers. A pancreas-confined tumor with an intact fascia layer between the pancreas and left adrenal gland/kidney positioned more than 1 or 2 cm away from the celiac axis is thought to constitute a good condition for the use of margin-negative minimally invasive RAMPS. The use of minimally invasive (laparoscopic or robotic) anterior RAMPS is feasible and safe for margin-negative resection in well-selected left-sided pancreatic cancer. The oncologic feasibility of the procedure remains to be determined; however, the currently available interim results indicate that even oncologic outcomes will not be inferior to those of open radical distal pancreatosplenectomy. PMID:24605031

  14. Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  16. An IGRT margin concept for pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groher, M.; Kopp, P.; Deutschmann, H.; Sedlmayer, F.; Wolf, Frank; Drerup, M.

    2017-01-01

    Gold-marker-based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the prostate allows to correct for inter- and intrafraction motion and therefore to safely reduce margins for the prostate planning target volume (PTV). However, pelvic PTVs, when coadministered in a single plan (registered to gold markers [GM]), require reassessment of the margin concept since prostate movement is independent from the pelvic bony anatomy to which the lymphatics are usually referenced to. We have therefore revisited prostate translational movement relative to the bony anatomy to obtain adequate margins for the pelvic PTVs compensating mismatch resulting from referencing pelvic target volumes to GMs in the prostate. Prostate movement was analyzed in a set of 28 patients (25 fractions each, totaling in 684 fractions) and the required margins calculated for the pelvic PTVs according to Van Herk's margin formula M = 2.5 Σ + 1.64 (σ ' -σ p ). The overall mean prostate movement relative to bony anatomy was 0.9 ± 3.1, 0.6 ± 3.4, and 0.0 ± 0.7 mm in anterior/posterior (A/P), inferior/superior (I/S) and left/right (L/R) direction, respectively. Calculated margins to compensate for the resulting mismatch to bony anatomy were 9/9/2 mm in A/P, I/S, and L/R direction and 10/11/6 mm if an additional residual error of 2 mm was assumed. GM-based IGRT for pelvic PTVs is feasible if margins are adapted accordingly. Margins could be reduced further if systematic errors which are introduced during the planning CT were eliminated. (orig.) [de

  17. Variability of Shelf Growth Patterns along the Iberian Mediterranean Margin: Sediment Supply and Tectonic Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Durán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinoform depositional features along the Iberian Mediterranean margin are investigated in this study, with the aim of establishing the causes of their varied shapes and other characteristics. We have analyzed the broad-scale margin physiography and seismic stratigraphic patterns based on high-resolution bathymetric data and previously interpreted seismic data. In addition, we have evaluated regional supply conditions and the uplift-subsidence regime of the different shelf sectors. The upper Quaternary record is strongly dominated by shelf-margin regressive wedges affected by the prevailing 100 ka cyclicity. However, the margins exhibit considerable lateral variability, as the result of the balance between the amount of sediment supply and the uplift-subsidence relationship. Three major shelf sectors with distinct morpho-sedimentary features have been defined. The relatively narrow northern shelves (Roses, La Planassa and Barcelona are supplied by discrete river outlets that collectively constitute a linear source and are mainly affected by tectonic tilting. The wide middle shelves (Ebro Shelf, the Gulf of Valencia, and the Northern Arc receive the sediment supply from the large Ebro River and other medium rivers. Although the tectonic regime changes laterally (strong subsidence in the north and uplift in the south, shelf growth is maintained by lateral advection of sediments. The southern shelves (the Southern Arc and the northern Alboran Shelf are very abrupt and narrow because of the uplifting Betic Cordillera, and the torrential fluvial regimes that determine a very efficient sediment by-pass toward the deep basin. Submarine canyons deeply incised in the continental margin constitute a key physiographic feature that may enhance the transport of sediment to the deep sea or individualize shelf sectors with specific sedimentation patterns, as occurs in the Catalan margin.

  18. Spine lateral flexion strength development differences between exercises with pelvic stabilization and without pelvic stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straton, Alexandru; Gidu, Diana Victoria; Micu, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Poor lateral flexor muscle strength can be an important source of lumbar/thoracic back pain in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pelvic stabilization (PS) and no pelvic stabilization (NoPS) lateral flexion strength exercise training on the development of isolated right and left lateral flexion strength. Isometric torque of the isolated right and left lateral flexion muscles was measured at two positions (0° and 30° opposed angle range of motion) on 42 healthy women before and after 8 weeks of PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise training. Subjects were assigned in three groups, the first (n=14) trained 3 times/week with PS lateral flexion strength exercise, the second (n=14) trained 3 times/week with NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise and the third (control, n=14) did not train. Post training isometric strength values describing PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength improved in greater extent for the PS lateral flexion strength exercise group and in lesser extent for the NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise group, in both angles (pstrength exercises; NoPS lateral flexion strength exercises can be an effective way of training for the spine lateral flexion muscles, if there is no access to PS lateral flexion strength training machines.

  19. Right-ear precedence and vocal emotion contagion: The role of the left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Cornmell, Louise; Smith, Bethany; de Sa, Sabrina Lauren; Borwick, Ciara; Belfon-Thompson, Elisha

    2018-05-01

    Much evidence suggests that the processing of emotions is lateralized to the right hemisphere of the brain. However, under some circumstances the left hemisphere might play a role, particularly for positive emotions and emotional experiences. We explored whether emotion contagion was right-lateralized, lateralized valence-specifically, or potentially left-lateralized. In two experiments, right-handed female listeners rated to what extent emotionally intoned pseudo-sentences evoked target emotions in them. These sound stimuli had a 7 ms ear lead in the left or right channel, leading to stronger stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere. In both experiments, the results revealed that right ear lead stimuli received subtly but significantly higher evocation scores, suggesting a left hemisphere dominance for emotion contagion. A control experiment using an emotion identification task showed no effect of ear lead. The findings are discussed in relation to prior findings that have linked the processing of emotional prosody to left-hemisphere brain regions that regulate emotions, control orofacial musculature, are involved in affective empathy processing areas, or have an affinity for processing emotions socially. Future work is needed to eliminate alternative interpretations and understand the mechanisms involved. Our novel binaural asynchrony method may be useful in future work in auditory laterality.

  20. Lateral atlanto-axial joint block for cervical headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu P Mallick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 32-year-old car mechanic, having chronic headache for three years affecting the left upper lateral part of the neck, suboccipital region, and scalp (VAS: 8/10, having a history of whiplash injury from a car accident three years ago, with a deep cut injury on the scalp. He was complaining of neck stiffness and pain during all neck movements and a burning pain in the entire left side of the neck and scalp. He was treated, using conservative methods, by Orthopedists, Neurologists, as well as Psychiatrists, and all investigations including computed tomography (CT of the brain, X-ray cervical spine, and all related blood reports were within normal limits. He was sent to the Pain Clinic for further assessment. Suspecting sympathetic mediated pain on the left side and upper cervical facet pain, he was given a diagnostic Stellate Ganglion Block, a Third Occipital Nerve block, and a fourth cervical medial branch block (MBB, which gave him good relief; by this the visual analog scale (VAS score reduced to 3/10. Yet, he was complaining of pain on a focal area on the left upper cervical spine corresponding to the C1-2 joint with lateral rotation on the left side. Subsequently it was decided that a diagnostic Atlanto-axial joint block under fluoroscopy would be carried out. This gave him very good relief from the cervicogenic headache.

  1. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    At the height of mass activity on the Left, the ascendancy of the women's liberation movement (WLM), and the beginnings of real social and personal change for men and women, the 1970s are increasingly seen as the decade when sixties permissiveness began to be truly felt in Britain. This article...... draws upon a personal archive of correspondence from this turbulent decade, between two revolutionary women, Di Parkin and Annie Howells. It argues that the women's letters form an important contribution to new understandings about the construction of the post-war gendered self. The letters represent...... an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  2. Time left in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; King, Adam Philip; Gallistel, C R

    2007-02-22

    Evidence suggests that the online combination of non-verbal magnitudes (durations, numerosities) is central to learning in both human and non-human animals [Gallistel, C.R., 1990. The Organization of Learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA]. The molecular basis of these computations, however, is an open question at this point. The current study provides the first direct test of temporal subtraction in a species in which the genetic code is available. In two experiments, mice were run in an adaptation of Gibbon and Church's [Gibbon, J., Church, R.M., 1981. Time left: linear versus logarithmic subjective time. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 7, 87-107] time left paradigm in order to characterize typical responding in this task. Both experiments suggest that mice engaged in online subtraction of temporal values, although the generalization of a learned response rule to novel stimulus values resulted in slightly less systematic responding. Potential explanations for this pattern of results are discussed.

  3. Spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianhua; Hu Weiwen; Wang Xianchun

    2011-01-01

    FFT method can not meet the basic requirements of power spectrum for non-stationary signal and short signal. A new spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum from Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was proposed. The procession of obtaining marginal spectrum in HHT method was given and the linear property of marginal spectrum was demonstrated. Compared with the FFT method, the physical meaning and the frequency resolution of marginal spectrum were further analyzed. Then the Hilbert spectrum estimation algorithm was discussed in detail, and the simulation results were given at last. The theory and simulation shows that under the condition of short data signal and non-stationary signal, the frequency resolution and estimation precision of HHT method is better than that of FFT method. (authors)

  4. Methylation patterns in marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Alberto J; Bertoni, Francesco

    Promoter DNA methylation is a major regulator of gene expression and transcription. The identification of methylation changes is important for understanding disease pathogenesis, for identifying prognostic markers and can drive novel therapeutic approaches. In this review we summarize the current knowledge regarding DNA methylation in MALT lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Despite important differences in the study design for different publications and the existence of a sole large and genome-wide methylation study for splenic marginal zone lymphoma, it is clear that DNA methylation plays an important role in marginal zone lymphomas, in which it contributes to the inactivation of tumor suppressors but also to the expression of genes sustaining tumor cell survival and proliferation. Existing preclinical data provide the rationale to target the methylation machinery in these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathology of nodal marginal zone lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileri, Stefano; Ponzoni, Maurilio

    Nodal marginal zone B cell lymphomas (NMZLs) are a rare group of lymphoid disorders part of the spectrum of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas, which encompass splenic marginal one B-cell lymphoma (SMZL) and extra nodal marginal zone of B-cell lymphoma (EMZL), often of MALT-type. Two clinicopathological forms of NMZL are recognized: adult-type and pediatric-type, respectively. NMZLs show overlapping features with other types of MZ, but distinctive features as well. In this review, we will focus on the salient distinguishing features of NMZL mostly under morphological/immunophenotypical/molecular perspectives in views of the recent acquisitions and forthcoming updated 2016 WHO classification of lymphoid malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Policy Implementation, Role Conflict and Marginalization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    governance, their role has been politically, administratively, and financially ... of marginalization of the Traditional Systems in terms of legal, financial and ..... the President as the Chief Executive Officer of the district is another controlling factor.

  7. Limitations of ''margin'' in qualification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out investigations of polymer radiation degradation behaviors which have brought to light a number of reasons why this concept of margin can break down. First of all, we have found that dose-rate effects vary greatly in magnitude. Thus, based on high dose-rate testing, poor materials with large dose-rate effects may be selected over better materials with small effects. Also, in certain cases, material properties have been found to level out (as with PVC) or reverse trend (as with buna-n) at high doses, so that ''margin'' may be ineffective, misleading, or counterproductive. For Viton, the material properties were found to change in opposite directions at high and low dose rates, making ''margin'' inappropriate. The underlying problem with the concept of ''margin'' is that differences in aging conditions can lead to fundamental differences in degradation mechanisms

  8. Mental Depreciation and Marginal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath; Fennema

    1996-11-01

    We propose that individuals practice "mental depreciation," that is, they implicitly spread the fixed costs of their expenses over time or use. Two studies explore how people spread fixed costs on durable goods. A third study shows that depreciation can lead to two distinct errors in marginal decisions: First, people sometimes invest too much effort to get their money's worth from an expense (e.g., they may use a product a lot to spread the fixed expense across more uses). Second, people sometimes invest too little effort to get their money's worth: When people add a portion of the fixed cost to the current costs, their perceived marginal (i.e., incremental) costs exceed their true marginal costs. In response, they may stop investing because their perceived costs surpass the marginal benefits they are receiving. The latter effect is supported by two field studies that explore real board plan decisions by university students.

  9. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  10. Marketing margins and agricultural technology in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman

    2000-01-01

    of improved agricultural technology and lower marketing margins yield welfare gains across the economy. In addition, a combined scenario reveals significant synergy effects, as gains exceed the sum of gains from the individual scenarios. Relative welfare improvements are higher for poor rural households......Improvements in agricultural productivity and reductions in marketing costs in Mozambique are analysed using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model incorporates detailed marketing margins and separates household demand for marketed and home-produced goods. Individual simulations...

  11. In silico particle margination in blood flow

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    A profound knowledge of margination, the migration of blood components to the vessel wall in blood flow, is required in order to understand the genesis of various diseases, as e.g., cardiovascular diseases or bleeding disorders. Margination of particles is a pre-condition for potential adhesion. Adhesion to the vessel wall is required for platelets, the protein von Willebrand factor (VWF), but also for drug and imaging agent carriers in order to perform their particular tasks. In the haemosta...

  12. Variability of the geothermal gradient across two differently aged magma-rich continental rifted margins of the Atlantic Ocean: the Southwest African and the Norwegian margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gholamrezaie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the shallow thermal field differences for two differently aged passive continental margins by analyzing regional variations in geothermal gradient and exploring the controlling factors for these variations. Hence, we analyzed two previously published 3-D conductive and lithospheric-scale thermal models of the Southwest African and the Norwegian passive margins. These 3-D models differentiate various sedimentary, crustal, and mantle units and integrate different geophysical data such as seismic observations and the gravity field. We extracted the temperature–depth distributions in 1 km intervals down to 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. The geothermal gradient was then calculated for these intervals between the upper thermal boundary condition and the respective depth levels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. According to our results, the geothermal gradient decreases with increasing depth and shows varying lateral trends and values for these two different margins. We compare the 3-D geological structural models and the geothermal gradient variations for both thermal models and show how radiogenic heat production, sediment insulating effect, and thermal lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB depth influence the shallow thermal field pattern. The results indicate an ongoing process of oceanic mantle cooling at the young Norwegian margin compared with the old SW African passive margin that seems to be thermally equilibrated in the present day.

  13. Variability of the geothermal gradient across two differently aged magma-rich continental rifted margins of the Atlantic Ocean: the Southwest African and the Norwegian margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamrezaie, Ershad; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Sippel, Judith; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the shallow thermal field differences for two differently aged passive continental margins by analyzing regional variations in geothermal gradient and exploring the controlling factors for these variations. Hence, we analyzed two previously published 3-D conductive and lithospheric-scale thermal models of the Southwest African and the Norwegian passive margins. These 3-D models differentiate various sedimentary, crustal, and mantle units and integrate different geophysical data such as seismic observations and the gravity field. We extracted the temperature-depth distributions in 1 km intervals down to 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. The geothermal gradient was then calculated for these intervals between the upper thermal boundary condition and the respective depth levels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition). According to our results, the geothermal gradient decreases with increasing depth and shows varying lateral trends and values for these two different margins. We compare the 3-D geological structural models and the geothermal gradient variations for both thermal models and show how radiogenic heat production, sediment insulating effect, and thermal lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth influence the shallow thermal field pattern. The results indicate an ongoing process of oceanic mantle cooling at the young Norwegian margin compared with the old SW African passive margin that seems to be thermally equilibrated in the present day.

  14. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  15. Professional Commitment and Professional Marginalism in Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov A.I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession which can be expressed both in professional commitment and in professional marginalism. The dominance of professional marginalism could affect destructively the students as well as the teacher’s personality, hence the issues related to the content of personal position of a marginal and the rate of marginalism among teachers. It was suggested that marginalism could be revealed in the study of professional commitment. The study involved 81 teachers of Sverdlovsk secondary schools aged 21—60 years with work experience ranging from 1 month to 39 years. The Professional Commitment Questionnaire was used as the study technique. The results showed that negative emotional attitude towards the profession and reluctance to leave the profession were grouped as a separate factor. The dispersion factor was 12,5%. The factor loadings ranged from 0.42 to 0.84. The study proved that professional marginalism in teachers includes dissatisfaction with work, feelings of resentment against profession and an unwillingness to leave the profession.

  16. NRC Seismic Design Margins Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, G.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Recent studies estimate that seismically induced core melt comes mainly from earthquakes in the peak ground acceleration range from 2 to 4 times the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) acceleration used in plant design. However, from the licensing perspective of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, there is a continuing need for consideration of the inherent quantitative seismic margins because of, among other things, the changing perceptions of the seismic hazard. This paper discusses a Seismic Design Margins Program Plan, developed under the auspices of the US NRC, that provides the technical basis for assessing the significance of design margins in terms of overall plant safety. The Plan will also identify potential weaknesses that might have to be addressed, and will recommend technical methods for assessing margins at existing plants. For the purposes of this program, a general definition of seismic design margin is expressed in terms of how much larger that the design basis earthquake an earthquake must be to compromise plant safety. In this context, margin needs to be determined at the plant, system/function, structure, and component levels. 14 refs., 1 fig

  17. A quantitative analysis of transtensional margin width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, Ludovic; Buiter, Susanne J. H.

    2018-06-01

    Continental rifted margins show variations between a few hundred to almost a thousand kilometres in their conjugated widths from the relatively undisturbed continent to the oceanic crust. Analogue and numerical modelling results suggest that the conjugated width of rifted margins may have a relationship to their obliquity of divergence, with narrower margins occurring for higher obliquity. We here test this prediction by analysing the obliquity and rift width for 26 segments of transtensional conjugate rifted margins in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. We use the plate reconstruction software GPlates (http://www.gplates.org) for different plate rotation models to estimate the direction and magnitude of rifting from the initial phases of continental rifting until breakup. Our rift width corresponds to the distance between the onshore maximum topography and the last identified continental crust. We find a weak positive correlation between the obliquity of rifting and rift width. Highly oblique margins are narrower than orthogonal margins, as expected from analogue and numerical models. We find no relationships between rift obliquities and rift duration nor the presence or absence of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs).

  18. Robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John J; Sawin, Robert

    2011-06-01

    A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis when the pancreatic duct is dilated and unable to drain properly. Traditionally, these procedures are performed with open surgery. A minimally invasive approach to the LPJ using rigid handheld nonarticulating instruments is tedious and rarely performed. In fact, there are no prior laparoscopic case reports for LPJ in children and only a small handful of cases in the adult literature. This lack of laparoscopic information may be an indication of the difficulty in performing this complex operation with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments. The advantages of robotic surgery may help overcome these difficulties. We present the first robotic LPJ ever reported in a 14-year-old child with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This case demonstrates the utility of this advanced surgical technology and may lead to a new minimally invasive option for both adults and children with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-Related Sex Differences in Language Lateralization: A Magnetoencephalography Study in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y.; MacDonald, Matt J.; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N.; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with…

  20. On the relationship between degree of hand-preference and degree of language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Boks, Marco P; Fleer, Willemien; de Visser, Kees C L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Aukes, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization and hand-preference show inter-individual variation in the degree of lateralization to the left- or right, but their relation is not fully understood. Disentangling this relation could aid elucidating the mechanisms underlying these traits. The relation between degree of

  1. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  2. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  3. Marginal adaptation of newer root canal sealers to dentin: A SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polineni, Swapnika; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Vemuri, Sayesh; Mallela, Madhusudana; Gandham, Vijaya Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated and compared the marginal adaptation of three newer root canal sealers to root dentin. Thirty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were taken. Teeth were decoronated, and root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) based upon the sealer used. Group 1 - teeth were obturated with epoxy resin sealer (MM-Seal). Group 2 - teeth were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fillapex), Group 3 - teeth were obturated with bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC sealer). Later samples were vertically sectioned using hard tissue microtome and marginal adaptation of sealers to root dentin was evaluated under coronal and apical halves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and marginal gap values were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc test. The highest marginal gap was seen in Group 2 (apical-16680.00 nm, coronal-10796 nm) and the lowest marginal gap was observed in Group 1 (apical-599.42 nm, coronal-522.72 nm). Coronal halves showed superior adaptation compared to apical halves in all the groups under SEM. Within the limitations of this study epoxy resin-based MM-Seal showed good marginal adaptation than other materials tested.

  4. Wintertime phytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supported by continental margin iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2004-01-01

    Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996 in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North Pacific Ocean, a region that is thought to be iron-limited. Here we provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in the subarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from the continental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincident with the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was used to describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of iron in size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis reveals that discrete micron-sized iron-rich hotspots are ubiquitous in the upper 200m at OSP, more than 900km from the closest coast. The specifics of the chemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to the continental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hotspots are a marker for the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm the delivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an ocean general circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at the continental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental margin stimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLC condition

  5. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  6. Left-Right Asymmetry Is Required for the Habenulae to Respond to Both Visual and Olfactory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Dreosti, Elena; Vendrell Llopis, Nuria; Carl, Matthias; Yaksi, Emre; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Left-right asymmetries are most likely a universal feature of bilaterian nervous systems and may serve to increase neural capacity by specializing equivalent structures on left and right sides for distinct roles [1]. However, little is known about how asymmetries are encoded within vertebrate neural circuits and how lateralization influences processing of information in the brain. Consequently, it remains unclear the extent to which lateralization of the nervous system is important fo...

  7. An Evaluation of the Left-Brain vs. Right-Brain Hypothesis with Resting State Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jared A.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Ferguson, Michael A.; Lainhart, Janet E.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from...

  8. Behavioural laterality as a factor in emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempala, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who perform a variety of tasks using one side of their bodies (i.e., high-dominance people) are thought to differ from individuals who perform a variety of tasks with both sides of their body (i.e., low-dominance people) in several neurological and cognitive characteristics. We examined whether behavioural laterality predicted the efficacy of different emotional regulation strategies. Specifically, we thought that behavioural laterality would influence verbal strategies (associated with left hemisphere activation) when regulating anxiety (associated with right hemisphere activation). In three studies participants presented in front of small audiences. Behavioural laterality (as measured by a modified handedness inventory) positively correlated with presentation anxiety, such that "low-dominance" participants reported less anxiety than "high-dominance" participants, but only when using cognitive reappraisal (a verbal strategy), not attention deployment or response modulation (behavioural strategies). These results provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in behavioural laterality mediate the efficacy of certain emotional regulation strategies.

  9. Investigating language lateralization during phonological and semantic fluency tasks using functional transcranial Doppler sonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a critical role in language processing, some questions remain. Here we examine the influence of overt versus covert speech production on lateralization, the relationship between lateralization and behavioural measures of language performance and the strength of lateralization across the subcomponents of language. The present study used functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) to investigate lateralization of phonological and semantic fluency during both overt and covert word generation in right-handed adults. The laterality index (LI) was left lateralized in all conditions, and there was no difference in the strength of LI between overt and covert speech. This supports the validity of using overt speech in fTCD studies, another benefit of which is a reliable measure of speech production. PMID:24875468

  10. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  11. Particle flux across the mid-European continental margin

    CERN Document Server

    Antia, A N; Peinert, R

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented from particle flux studies using sediment trap and current meter moorings along a transect at the European continental margin at 49 degrees N within the Ocean Margin Exchange (OMEX) project. Two moorings were placed, at the mid- and outer slope in water depths of 1500 and 3660 m, with traps at 600 and 1050 m and at 580, 1440 and 3220 m, respectively. Residual currents at the mid- slope follow the slope contour, whereas seasonal off-slope flow was registered at the outer slope. At 600 m on the slope fluxes are similar to those in the abyssal North Atlantic. The flux of all components (bulk dry weight, particulate organic and inorganic carbon, lithogenic matter and opal) increased with water depth. Highest fluxes were recorded at 1440 m at the outer slope, where off- slope residual currents mediate particle export. The injection of biogenic and lithogenic particles below the depth of winter mixing results in the export of particles from shallower waters. Calculated lateral fluxes of partic...

  12. Marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Ahmad Khanfour

    2014-06-01

    Results: Results showed that the (MMBFN arises as a single branch, two branches, and three branches in 36.7%, 43.3% and 20% of specimens, respectively. In 83.3% of cases, one of the main or secondary branches of the marginal mandibular nerve crosses superficial (lateral to the facial vessels. There are communications either between the main or the secondary branches of the marginal mandibular nerve itself in 53.6% of specimens and with the buccal branch of the facial nerve in 40%, also with the anterior branch of the great auricular nerve in 3.3%, and with the transverse cervical nerve in 3.3% of specimens. The relationship of the nerve to the lower border of the mandible at a point midway between the angle of the mandible and symphysis menti is variable; it is either totally above it in most of the specimens 80%, or below it in 10% or at it in the remaining 10% of the specimens. The branches that lie above the lower border of the mandible are always deep into the superficial layer of the parotid fascia, while those branches that lie below the lower border of the mandible are intrafascially. The termination of the nerve is deep into the muscles of the ipsilateral lower lip in all specimens.

  13. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  14. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  15. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  16. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  17. Opposite brain laterality in analogous auditory and visual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Leif; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding. Brain Cogn, 53(2), 393-397] found opposite laterality for visual and auditory language tasks. We adapted an experimental paradigm based on a dichotic listening and VHF approach, and applied the combined language paradigm in two separate experiments, including fMRI in the second experiment to measure brain activation in addition to behavioural data. The first experiment showed a right-ear advantage for the auditory task, but a left half-field advantage for the visual task. The second experiment, confirmed the findings, with opposite laterality effects for the visual and auditory tasks. In conclusion, we replicate the finding by Voyer and Boudreau (2003) and support their interpretation that these visual and auditory language tasks measure different cognitive processes.

  18. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: Panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Pillai Devu; Varma, Nilambur Kovilakam Sapna; Ajith, Vallikat Velath [Dept. of Orthodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging in measuring the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles with the angles determined using a lateral cephalogram of adult patients with class I malocclusion. The gonial angles of 50 class I malocclusion patients (25 males and 25 females; mean age: 23 years) were measured using both a lateral cephalogram and a panoramic radiograph. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane. In the panoramic radiographs, the gonial angle was measured by drawing a line tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle on both sides. The data obtained from both radiographs were statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was observed between the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms and that determined using the panoramic radiographs. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in the measured gonial angle with respect to gender. The results also showed a statistically insignificant difference in the mean of the right and the left gonial angles measured using the panoramic radiographs. As the gonial angle measurements using panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms showed no statistically significant difference, panoramic radiography can be considered in orthodontics for measuring the gonial angle without any interference due to superimposed images.

  19. Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to left lateral position in non-obese young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, M; Pump, B; Gabrielsen, A

    2001-01-01

    by magnetic resonance (n=6) to be 7.0 +/- 0.2 cm below the sternum in SUP (1/3 of anteroposterior chest diameter below the sternum) and 2.5 +/- 0.2 cm below the midsternal level in LAT. Brachial mean (auscultation) and finger mean arterial pressures (infrared photoplethysmography), cardiac output (foreign gas...

  20. Negative “gossip” stimuli modulate left-lateralized P1 component while viewing neutral faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel

    , Anderson et al. (2011) showed that short “gossip” phrases modulated the length of time faces remained perceptually dominant. However, binocular rivalry is measured by self-report. We used EEG to investigate the timing of gossip’s early effect on face perception. Gossip stimuli were those used by Anderson...... et al. (2011), translated to Danish. Neutral faces were taken from the PUT database (Kasiński et al., 2008). Participants (n=30) viewed each face together with the gossip stimuli a total of six times. Following this encoding period, 32 channels of EEG were recorded while participants viewed the faces...... mixed with unfamiliar faces, and performed a distracter task. A post-test checked participants’ memory of the individual faces. We hypothesized that negative gossip would modulate the face-sensitive N170 component at electrodes P7 and P8. No differences were observed in the N170, and no memory effect...

  1. High-resolution mapping and ablation of recurrent left lateral accessory pathway conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Solimene, MD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper localization of the anatomical target during ablation of the accessory pathways (AP and the ability to detect clear AP potentials on the ablation catheter are crucial for successful AP ablation. We report a case of recurring AP conduction that was finally eliminated using a novel ablation catheter equipped with high-resolution mini-electrodes. Smaller and closer electrodes result in high mapping resolution with less signal averaging and cancellation effects. Owing to improved sensitivity, the new catheter seems effective in detecting fragmented and high frequency signals, thus allowing more effective radiofrequency application and improving ablation success.

  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  3. Late Quaternary Normal Faulting and Hanging Wall Basin Evolution of the Southwestern Rift Margin from Gravity and Geology, B.C.S., MX and Exploring the Influence of Text-Figure Format on Introductory Geology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Melanie M. D.

    2011-01-01

    An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely…

  4. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  5. Ferritin associates with marginal band microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infante, Anthony A.; Infante, Dzintra; Chan, M.-C.; How, P.-C.; Kutschera, Waltraud; Linhartova, Irena; Muellner, Ernst W.; Wiche, Gerhard; Propst, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    We characterized chicken erythrocyte and human platelet ferritin by biochemical studies and immunofluorescence. Erythrocyte ferritin was found to be a homopolymer of H-ferritin subunits, resistant to proteinase K digestion, heat stable, and contained iron. In mature chicken erythrocytes and human platelets, ferritin was localized at the marginal band, a ring-shaped peripheral microtubule bundle, and displayed properties of bona fide microtubule-associated proteins such as tau. Red blood cell ferritin association with the marginal band was confirmed by temperature-induced disassembly-reassembly of microtubules. During erythrocyte differentiation, ferritin co-localized with coalescing microtubules during marginal band formation. In addition, ferritin was found in the nuclei of mature erythrocytes, but was not detectable in those of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. These results suggest that ferritin has a function in marginal band formation and possibly in protection of the marginal band from damaging effects of reactive oxygen species by sequestering iron in the mature erythrocyte. Moreover, our data suggest that ferritin and syncolin, a previously identified erythrocyte microtubule-associated protein, are identical. Nuclear ferritin might contribute to transcriptional silencing or, alternatively, constitute a ferritin reservoir

  6. Risk insights from seismic margin reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the information that has been derived from the three seismic-margin reviews conducted so far, and the information that is potentially available from using the seismic-margin method more generally. There are two different methodologies for conducting seismic margin reviews of nuclear power plants, one developed under NRC sponsorship and one developed under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute. Both methodologies will be covered in this paper. The paper begins with a summary of the steps necessary to complete a margin review, and will then outline the key technical difficulties that need to be addressed. After this introduction, the paper covers the safety and operational insights derived from the three seismic-margin reviews already completed: the NRC-sponsored review at Maine Yankee; the EPRI-sponsored review at Catawba; and the joint EPRI/NRC/utility effort at Hatch. The emphasis is on engineering insights, with attention to the aspects of the reviews that are easiest to perform and that provide the most readily available insights

  7. Investigation of language lateralization mechanism by Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belin, Pascal

    1997-01-01

    As language lateralization in the brain left hemisphere is one of the most well known but less understood characteristics of the human brain, this research thesis reports the use of brain functional imaging to address some specific aspects of this lateralization. In a first part, the author reports the study of mechanisms of recovery from aphasia after a left hemisphere lesion within a population of aphasic right-handers. Based on a contrast between patients with a persistent aphasia despite usual language therapies, and patients with a significant recovery after a melodic and rhythmic therapy (TMR), a PET-based (positron emission tomography) activation study has been developed, based on the opposition between usual language stimuli and stimuli accentuated by TMR. In the second part, the author explored more systematically on sane patients the influence of some physical characteristics of auditory stimulation on the induced functional asymmetry [fr

  8. Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance.

  9. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    and second peak knee adduction moments. However, the variability of this moment between shoe designs was of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for gastrocnemius when walking with the wedged Oxford shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral...

  10. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Lateral Mixing Experiment (LATMIX) focused on mixing and...anomalies. LATMIX2 targeted the wintertime Gulf Stream, where deep mixed layers, strong lateral density gradients (Gulf Stream north wall) and the

  11. Apraxia and spatial inattention dissociate in left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpert, David C; Weiss, Peter H; Vossel, Simone; Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R

    2015-10-01

    Theories of lateralized cognitive functions propose a dominance of the left hemisphere for motor control and of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Accordingly, spatial attention deficits (e.g., neglect) are more frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke, whereas apraxia is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Clinical reports of spatial attentional deficits after left hemisphere (LH) stroke also exist, but are often neglected. By applying parallel analysis (PA) and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to data from a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of 74 LH stroke patients, we here systematically investigate the relationship between spatial inattention and apraxia and their neural bases. PA revealed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits loaded on one common component, while deficits in attention tests were explained by another independent component. Statistical lesion analyses with the individual component scores showed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits were significantly associated with lesions of the left superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF). Data suggest that in LH stroke spatial attention deficits dissociate from apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits. These findings contribute to models of lateralised cognitive functions in the human brain. Moreover, our findings strongly suggest that LH stroke patients should be assessed systematically for spatial attention deficits so that these can be included in their rehabilitation regime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Left handedness and spine deformities in early adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkovic, Sanja; Kocijancic, Radojka; Belojevic, Goran

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between laterality and spine deformities in early adolescence, with special reference to sex differences. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and clinical examinations of body posture were carried out on a sample of 2546 schoolchildren, aged from 11 to 14 years, in seven elementary schools in the centre of Belgrade. Possible confounding factors (age, sex, body weight and body height) were controlled for. The overall prevalence of spine deformities (scoliosis and/or thoracic hyperkyphosis) in the investigated population was 11.8%, out of which there were 7.8% adolescents with scoliosis, 4.0% with thoracic hyperkyphosis, and 0.3% with both spine deformities. The prevalence of scoliosis was 2.7 times higher in girls compared to boys (11.7% vs. 4.3%) while the prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis was 1,6 higher among boys (5.0% vs. 3.2%). We found 7.6% of the schoolchildren examined to be left-handed. Left handedness was significantly related to scoliosis in girls (crude OR=1.60 and 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.54). Multivariate analysis showed that significant independent factors for scoliosis were female sex (p < 0.001), age (p=0.01) and left handedness (p=0.02). We did not find any appreciable relation between left handedness and thoracic hyperkyphosis in both sexes

  13. Decoding rule search domain in the left inferior frontal gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the left hemisphere has been thought to extract mainly verbal patterns of information, but recent evidence has shown that the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) is active during inductive reasoning in both the verbal and spatial domains. We aimed to understand whether the left IFG supports inductive reasoning in a domain-specific or domain-general fashion. To do this we used Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis to decode the representation of domain during a rule search task. Thirteen participants were asked to extract the rule underlying streams of letters presented in different spatial locations. Each rule was either verbal (letters forming words) or spatial (positions forming geometric figures). Our results show that domain was decodable in the left prefrontal cortex, suggesting that this region represents domain-specific information, rather than processes common to the two domains. A replication study with the same participants tested two years later confirmed these findings, though the individual representations changed, providing evidence for the flexible nature of representations. This study extends our knowledge on the neural basis of goal-directed behaviors and on how information relevant for rule extraction is flexibly mapped in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:29547623

  14. Marginal inherited structures impact on the oblique convergent N American Plate/ Central Caribbean plate-boundary in the Northern Caribbean. The tectonic evolution since Miocene times based on Haiti data acquired onshore and offshore since 2012- a step toward an ADP Drilling Proposal (Haiti-DRILL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouz, N.; Hamon, Y.; Deschamps, R.; Battani, A.; Wessels, R.; Boisson, D.; Prepetit, C.; Momplaisir, R.

    2017-12-01

    Since Early Paleogene times, the North Caribbean plate is colliding obliquely with the south continental part of the old N. American Margins, which is represented by various segments from West to East, inherited from Jurassic times. Location, amount of displacement, rotation and the structural deformation of these margin segments, resulting from the dislocation of the continental N American margin, are not clearly yet established. At present, the plate limits are marked either by two left lateral faults west and inside Haiti (OSF in the North and EPGF in the South), oblique collision front (further west in Cuba), oblique subducted segments (to the East, Porto-Rico). From our recent works operated both offshore (Haiti-SIS and Haiti-BGF surveys 2012-2015) and onshore (field campaigns 2013-2017) in Haitian zone, the position of the present-day and paleo major limits have been redefined. These paleolimits have been reconstructed up to early Miocene times, based on: restoration of regional structural cross-sections, sedimentology and on paleoenvironement studies. In a preliminary way, we analyzed the complexity of the tectonic heritage with possible nature, heterogeneity of the crustal fragments and associated margins close to Haiti (age, structure, environment, location of the dislocated blocks through times) which profoundly impact the partitioning of the deformation along this complex transformed margin. The change in the structure wavelength, decollement level variations are primary constraints in the restoration of the main units and do impose a deep connection along specific segments either related to strike-slip or to splay faults. The asymmetry on the repartition of the fault activity tend to prove that the past motion related to "EPGF transfer zone" is mainly partitioned in Haiti to the North of the present-day EPGF position. At present, these results are still coherent with the distribution of the aftershoks registered after 2010, and with the present

  15. Carfilzomib With or Without Rituximab in the Treatment of Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia or Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Refractory Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  16. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  17. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  18. Lateralization of brain activity pattern during unilateral movement in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Hallett, Mark; Zhang, Jiarong; Chan, Piu

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the lateralization of brain activity pattern during performance of unilateral movement in drug-naïve Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with only right hemiparkinsonian symptoms. Functional MRI was obtained when the subjects performed strictly unilateral right hand movement. A laterality index was calculated to examine the lateralization. Patients had decreased activity in the left putamen and left supplementary motor area, but had increased activity in the right primary motor cortex, right premotor cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. The laterality index was significantly decreased in PD patients compared with controls (0.41 ± 0.14 vs. 0.84 ± 0.09). The connectivity from the left putamen to cortical motor regions and cerebellum was decreased, while the interactions between the cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and right putamen were increased. Our study demonstrates that in early PD, the lateralization of brain activity during unilateral movement is significantly reduced. The dysfunction of the striatum-cortical circuit, decreased transcallosal inhibition, and compensatory efforts from cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and the less affected striatum are likely reasons contributing to the reduced motor lateralization. The disruption of the lateralized brain activity pattern might be a reason underlying some motor deficits in PD, like mirror movements or impaired bilateral motor coordination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fission product margin in burnup credit analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P.J.; Stenberg, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently working toward the licensing of a methodology for using actinide-only burnup credit for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Important margins are built into this methodology. By using comparisons with a representative experimental database to determine bias factors, the methodology ensures that actinide concentrations and worths are estimated conservatively; furthermore, the negative net reactivity of certain actinides and all fission products (FPs) is not taken into account, thus providing additional margin. A future step of DOE's effort might aim at establishing an actinide and FP burnup credit methodology. The objective of this work is to establish the uncertainty to be applied to the total FP worth in SNF. This will serve two ends. First, it will support the current actinide-only methodology by demonstrating the margin available from FPs. Second, it will identify the major contributions to the uncertainty and help set priorities for future work

  20. Refining prices and margins in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.; Baudoin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia

  1. Digital Margins : How spatially and socially marginalized communities deal with digital exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of the Internet as a means of communication has transformed economies and societies. For spatially and socially marginalized communities, this transformation has resulted in digital exclusion and further marginalization. This book presents a study of two kinds of

  2. Percutaneous MR-guided focal cryoablation for recurrent prostate cancer following radiation therapy. Retrospective analysis of iceball margins and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overduin, Christiaan G.; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F.M.; Bomers, Joyce G.R. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sedelaar, J.P.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Urology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Technical Medicine, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate iceball margins after magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focal salvage prostate cryoablation and determine the correlation with local outcome. A retrospective review was performed on 47 patients that underwent percutaneous MR-guided focal cryoablation for biopsy-proven locally recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy. Preprocedural diagnostic and intraprocedural MR images were analysed to derive three-directional iceball margins. Local tumour progression after cryoablation was defined as evident tumour recurrence on follow-up MRI, positive MR-guided biopsy or biochemical failure without radiological evidence of metastatic disease. Mean iceball margins were 8.9 mm (range -7.1 to 16.2), 10.1 mm (range 1.1-20.3) and 12.5 mm (range -1.5 to 22.2) in anteroposterior, left-right and craniocaudal direction respectively. Iceball margins were significantly smaller for tumours that were larger (P =.008) or located in the posterior gland (P =.047). Significantly improved local progression-free survival at 1 year post focal cryoablation was seen between patients with iceball margin >10 mm (100%), 5-10 mm (84%) and <5 mm (15%) (P <.001). Iceball margins appear to correlate with local outcome following MR-guided focal salvage prostate cryoablation. Our initial data suggest that freezing should be applied at minimum 5 mm beyond the border of an MR-visible recurrent prostate tumour for successful ablation, with a wider margin appearing desirable. (orig.)

  3. Effectiveness of an infiltrant on sealing of composite restoration margins with/without artificial caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunoglu, Ozlem; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim Fevzi; Antonson, Sibel A; Campillo-Funollet, Marc; Antonson, Donald; Munoz-Viveros, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a resin infiltrant (ICON) on marginal sealing ability of class II resin restorations with/without-caries. Forty-eight noncarious human pre-molar teeth were embedded and MO and DO preparations of standard dimensions were prepared. The left side of dentin margins of the cavities were left nonbonded (UB) while the right side were bonded using total etch-bonding agent and all restored with a Nanohybrid composite. The teeth were thermocycled and half of the specimens in the UB and B groups were subjected to an artificial caries process. ICON was applied to caries and noncaries subgroups following the manufacturer's directions. Impressions were made at each step: after the restorations were completed, thermocycling, artificial caries procedures, and infiltrant application and the silicone tag lengths were measured with a stereomicroscope. The specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine at 37° C for 24 hours, sectioned and microleakage was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Selected samples and their replicas were assessed for marginal quality under a stereomicroscope and SEM. Statistical evaluation of the data were made using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Sign Rank tests. While bonding application did not create a meaningful difference, the thermocycling and artificial caries significantly increased the gap length and microleakage (p < 0.05). ICON application was decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps which were previously occurred at the same cavities (p < 0.05). A resin infiltrant (ICON) application decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps, which previously occurred at the same cavities. Approximal application of resin infiltrant may increase the success of the class II composite restorations also reduced the risk of needing more complex restoration therapy.

  4. Deregulated model and locational marginal pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, Yog Raj; Padhy, N.P.; Gupta, H.O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized optimal model that dispatches the pool in combination with privately negotiated bilateral and multilateral contracts while maximizing social benefit has been proposed. This model determines the locational marginal pricing (LMP) based on marginal cost theory. It also determines the size of non-firm transactions as well as pool demand and generations. Both firms as well as non-firm transactions are considered in this model. The proposed model has been applied to IEEE-30 bus test system. In this test system different types of transactions are added for analysis of the proposed model. (author)

  5. Seismic safety margins research program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, F.J.; Smith, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    A multiyear seismic research program has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This program, the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The program is designed to develop a probabilistic systems methodology for determining the seismic safety margins of nuclear power plants. Phase I, extending some 22 months, began in July 1978 at a funding level of approximately $4.3 million. Here we present an overview of the SSMRP. Included are discussions on the program objective, the approach to meet the program goal and objectives, end products, the probabilistic systems methodology, and planned activities for Phase I

  6. Slope failure of chalk channel margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.; Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2015-01-01

    provide evidence for recurring margin collapse of a long-lived Campanian channel. Compressionally deformed and thrust chalk hardgrounds are correlated to thicker, non-cemented chalk beds that form a broad, gentle anticline. These chalks represent a slump complex with a roll-over anticline of expanded, non......-cemented chalk in the head region and a culmination of condensed hardgrounds in the toe region. Observations strongly suggest that the slumping represents collapse of a channel margin. Farther northwards, the contemporaneous succession shows evidence of small-scale penecontemporaneous normal faulting towards...

  7. Evaluation of thermal margin for HANARO core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol; Chae, Hee Taek; Kim Heon Il; Lim, I. C.; Lee, C. S.; Kim, H

    1999-08-01

    During the commissioning and the start-up of the HANARO, various design parameters were confirmed and measured. For safer operation of HANARO and resolution of the CHF penalty issue which is one of unresolved licensing problems, thermal margins for normal and transient conditions were re-evaluated reflecting the commissioning and the start-up test results and the design modifications during operation. The re-evaluation shows that the HANARO meets the design criteria for ONB margin and fuel centerline temperature under normal condition. For upset condition, it also satisfies the safety limits for CHFR and fuel centerline temperature. (Author). 11 refs., 13 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. On probabilistically defined margins in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papiez, Lech; Langer, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2006-08-21

    Margins about a target volume subject to external beam radiation therapy are designed to assure that the target volume of tissue to be sterilized by treatment is adequately covered by a lethal dose. Thus, margins are meant to guarantee that all potential variation in tumour position relative to beams allows the tumour to stay within the margin. Variation in tumour position can be broken into two types of dislocations, reducible and irreducible. Reducible variations in tumour position are those that can be accommodated with the use of modern image-guided techniques that derive parameters for compensating motions of patient bodies and/or motions of beams relative to patient bodies. Irreducible variations in tumour position are those random dislocations of a target that are related to errors intrinsic in the design and performance limitations of the software and hardware, as well as limitations of human perception and decision making. Thus, margins in the era of image-guided treatments will need to accommodate only random errors residual in patient setup accuracy (after image-guided setup corrections) and in the accuracy of systems designed to track moving and deforming tissues of the targeted regions of the patient's body. Therefore, construction of these margins will have to be based on purely statistical data. The characteristics of these data have to be determined through the central limit theorem and Gaussian properties of limiting error distributions. In this paper, we show how statistically determined margins are to be designed in the general case of correlated distributions of position errors in three-dimensional space. In particular, we show how the minimal margins for a given level of statistical confidence are found. Then, how they are to be used to determine geometrically minimal PTV that provides coverage of GTV at the assumed level of statistical confidence. Our results generalize earlier recommendations for statistical, central limit theorem

  9. On probabilistically defined margins in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papiez, Lech; Langer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Margins about a target volume subject to external beam radiation therapy are designed to assure that the target volume of tissue to be sterilized by treatment is adequately covered by a lethal dose. Thus, margins are meant to guarantee that all potential variation in tumour position relative to beams allows the tumour to stay within the margin. Variation in tumour position can be broken into two types of dislocations, reducible and irreducible. Reducible variations in tumour position are those that can be accommodated with the use of modern image-guided techniques that derive parameters for compensating motions of patient bodies and/or motions of beams relative to patient bodies. Irreducible variations in tumour position are those random dislocations of a target that are related to errors intrinsic in the design and performance limitations of the software and hardware, as well as limitations of human perception and decision making. Thus, margins in the era of image-guided treatments will need to accommodate only random errors residual in patient setup accuracy (after image-guided setup corrections) and in the accuracy of systems designed to track moving and deforming tissues of the targeted regions of the patient's body. Therefore, construction of these margins will have to be based on purely statistical data. The characteristics of these data have to be determined through the central limit theorem and Gaussian properties of limiting error distributions. In this paper, we show how statistically determined margins are to be designed in the general case of correlated distributions of position errors in three-dimensional space. In particular, we show how the minimal margins for a given level of statistical confidence are found. Then, how they are to be used to determine geometrically minimal PTV that provides coverage of GTV at the assumed level of statistical confidence. Our results generalize earlier recommendations for statistical, central limit theorem

  10. Dual origin of the left vertebral artery: extracranial MRA and CTA findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, W Oliver

    2012-02-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with a posterior circulation stroke secondary to left lateral medullary infarction. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) revealed 40-45% intracranial left vertebral artery stenosis, likely atherosclerotic in nature. CEMRA and subsequent computed tomography angiography also identified a duplicate origin of the left vertebral artery. The importance of recognition of this rare anatomical variant, its potential contribution to stroke aetiology, and the advantage of non-invasive vascular imaging prior to catheter angiography is emphasised.

  11. Laterality of pain: modulation by placebo and participants' paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenz, Caroline; Regard, Marianne; Brugger, Peter; Emch, Oliver

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effects of placebo and paranormal belief on the laterality of pain perception. The right hemisphere is dominantly involved in both the mediation of pain sensation and the belief in paranormal phenomena. We set out to assess a possible influence of long-term belief systems on placebo analgesia in response to unilateral nociceptive stimuli. Forty healthy participants (20 high and 20 low believers as indexed by the Magical Ideation Scale) underwent a placebo analgesia study measuring stimulus detection, pain threshold, and pain tolerance by electrostimulation on the right and left hand. Placebo treatment consisted of the application of a sham cream on the hands. Placebo had a positive influence on pain perception in the 3 variables. Enhanced pain sensitivity for the left side was only found for the disbelievers. Placebo treatment resulted in a double dissociation: in believers, it increased tolerance exclusively on the left side, in disbelievers on the right side. Our results confirm laterality effects in pain perception. However, only disbelievers conformed to the expected higher left-sided sensitivity. Placebo effects were dissociated between believers and disbelievers suggesting that short-term reactions to a placebo are modulated by a person's long-term belief system.

  12. Stroke Laterality Bias in the Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gavin; Wade, Carrie; McKee, Jacqueline; McCarron, Peter; McVerry, Ferghal; McCarron, Mark O

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the impact of stroke laterality on the management process and outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Consecutive patients admitted to a general hospital over 1 year with supratentorial AIS were eligible for inclusion in the study. Baseline characteristics and risk factors, delays in hospital admission, imaging, intrahospital transfer to an acute stoke unit, stroke severity and classification, length of hospital admission, as well as 10-year mortality were measured and compared among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. There were 141 patients (77 men, 64 women; median age 73 [interquartile range 63-79] years), There were 71 patients with left hemisphere AIS and 70 with right hemisphere AIS. Delays to hospital admission from stroke onset to neuroimaging were similar among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. Delay in transfer to an acute stroke unit (ASU) following hospital admission was on average 14 hours more for right hemisphere compared to left hemisphere AIS patients (P = .01). Laterality was not associated with any difference in 10-year survival. Patients with mild and nondominant AIS merit particular attention to minimize their intrahospital transfer time to an ASU. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Twenty-degree-tilt radiography for evaluation of lateral humeral condylar fracture in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hideaki; Tanaka, Ryuji; Itoh, Yohei; Kishi, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of '20 -tilt anteroposterior (A-P) radiography' in the assessment of lateral condylar fractures of the distal humerus. Eighteen children with lateral humeral condylar fractures were studied. Every child underwent conventional A-P and lateral radiography, and six children underwent multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). For the investigation of 20 -tilt radiography, ten children with lateral humeral condylar fractures had conventional and 20 -tilt A-P and lateral radiography both preoperatively and postoperatively. Fragment dislocation was measured at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture on both the conventional A-P and 20 -tilt A-P radiographs. The lateral condylar fragment was triangular and was most prominent posteriorly. The fracture line was typically tilted approximately 20 to a reference line perpendicular to the long axis of the humerus in the lateral view. The extent of dislocation at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture site by 20 -tilt A-P radiography (9.3 ± 3.6 mm and 5.6 ± 2.5 mm) was significantly wider than that measured by the conventional method (6.8 ± 4.1 mm and 2.0 ± 1.5 mm), which may influence treatment. Twenty-degree-tilt A-P radiography may more precisely demonstrate fragment dislocation than standard radiographs and may influence patient treatment. (orig.)

  14. Medio-lateral postural instability in subjects with tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi eKapoula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus.Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40cm for 51s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40Hz for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions.Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx. This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusions: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory-tinnitus and attention.

  15. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiak, Krystyna A; Luba, Małgorzata; Mathiak, Klaus; Karzel, Katarzyna; Wolańczyk, Tomasz; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Ostaszewski, Paweł

    2010-08-17

    Measuring quality of life (QOL) helps to delineate mechanisms underlying the interaction of disease and psychosocial factors. In adults, epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe led to lower QOL and higher depression and anxiety as compared to the right-sided foci. No study addressed the development of QOL disturbances depending on the lateralization of epileptogenic focus. The objective of our study was to examine QOL in children with lateralized epileptiform discharges. Thirty-one parents of children with epilepsy filled the Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). Fifteen children had foci in the left hemisphere and sixteen in the right, as verified with Electroencephalography (EEG) examinations. We found a significant correlation between foci lateralization and reduced QOL (Spearman's rho = 0.361, p < 0.046). Children with right hemispheric foci exhibited lower overall QOL, particularly in five areas: anxiety, social-activities, stigma, general-health, and quality-of-life. We demonstrated for the first time that in children left- and right-hemispheric foci were associated with discordant QOL scores. Unlike in adults, foci in the right hemisphere led to worse emotional and social functioning demonstrating that seizures impact the brain differentially during development.

  16. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathiak Krystyna A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring quality of life (QOL helps to delineate mechanisms underlying the interaction of disease and psychosocial factors. In adults, epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe led to lower QOL and higher depression and anxiety as compared to the right-sided foci. No study addressed the development of QOL disturbances depending on the lateralization of epileptogenic focus. The objective of our study was to examine QOL in children with lateralized epileptiform discharges. Methods Thirty-one parents of children with epilepsy filled the Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE. Fifteen children had foci in the left hemisphere and sixteen in the right, as verified with Electroencephalography (EEG examinations. Results We found a significant correlation between foci lateralization and reduced QOL (Spearman's rho = 0.361, p Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time that in children left- and right-hemispheric foci were associated with discordant QOL scores. Unlike in adults, foci in the right hemisphere led to worse emotional and social functioning demonstrating that seizures impact the brain differentially during development.

  17. Laterality of the lower limbs and carving turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Vaverka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discover whether the lateral preference of the lower limbs influences the execution of successive carving turns or not. Six skilled skiers (men, right lower limb preference, age 26.5±1.61 years old, height 1.80±0.04 m, body weight 78.83±5.46 kg executed 30 (18 left, 12 right symmetrical carving turns. Kinetic analysis of the final vertical component of reaction force FZ(t measured dynamometrically provided the information about the time of initiation and steering phases of the turn and the maximum force, average force and force impulse. Differences between right and left turns are not statistically significant. Factual analyses of the magnitude of measured variables confirmed that left turns were found to have a longer duration, a shorter initiation and longer steering phase, and higher level of produced force and force impulse in comparison with right turns. Based on the results it can be concluded that the turns where the outer leg is the preferred limb are preferentially used to regulate the speed of the ride. The study of laterality in symmetrical carving turns has proven that lateral preference of lower extremities influences the execution of the turn also by expert skiers.

  18. Detour behaviour, imprinting and visual lateralization in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Pagni, P

    1999-01-01

    Detour behaviour was studied in chicks faced with a vertical-bar barrier behind where an imprinting object (a red ball) was located. Right-eyed chicks took less time to detour the barrier than left-eyed chicks, and binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the left side, thus maintaining visual contact with the imprinting object using the lateral field of the right eye, while circling around the barrier. In males, the asymmetries were consistent all along the first two weeks of life, whereas in females they disappeared on days 8 and 11. When tested with a slightly novel version of the original imprinting object (i.e., a ball of a different color), binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the right side, thus showing preferential use of the left eye. The same bias occurred when unfamiliar conspecifics were used as goal-objects. Results suggest that cerebral lateralization in birds can directly affect visually-guided motor responses through selective use of the lateral field of vision of the eye contralateral to the hemisphere which has to be put in charge of control of overt behaviour. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Tract-Specific Diffusion Tensor Imaging Reveals Laterality of Neurological Symptoms in Patients with Cervical Compression Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Satoshi; Koda, Masao; Saito, Junya; Takahashi, Sho; Inada, Taigo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Iijima, Yasushi; Masuda, Yoshitada; Matsumoto, Koji; Kojima, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Obata, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2016-12-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy (CCM) generally present bilateral neurological symptoms in their extremities. However, a substantial portion of patients with CCM exhibit laterality of neurological symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between intrinsic structural damage and laterality of symptoms using spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corticospinal tract. We enrolled 10 healthy volunteers and 40 patients with CCM in this study. We evaluated motor function using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score for left and right extremities. For DTI acquisitions, a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system with diffusion-weighted spin-echo sequence was used. Regions-of-interest in the lateral column tracts were determined. We determined the correlations between fractional anisotropy (FA) and ASIA motor scores. An FA asymmetry index was calculated using left and right regions-of-interest. Four patients exhibited laterality of symptoms in their extremities, for which left and right ASIA scores correlated moderately with FA in the left and right lateral columns, respectively (left: ρ = 0.64, P laterality of symptoms. Using tract-specific DTI, we demonstrated that microstructural damages in the left and right corticospinal tracts correlated with corresponding neurological symptoms in the ipsilateral side and the FA asymmetry index could indicate laterality in neurological symptoms of patients with CCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Unicameral bone cyst of a cervical vertebral body and lateral mass with associated pathological fracture in a child. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, B E; Adesina, A; Wolfla, C E

    2001-10-01

    The authors present the case of a 10-year-old girl with a history of cervical trauma in whom a cystic lesion was found to involve all three columns of C-7 with evidence of pathological fracture. Computerized tomography scanning revealed a lytic lesion with sclerotic margins involving the left vertebral body, pedicle, lateral mass, and lamina of C-7 with an associated pathological compression fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated mixed signal on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences, with cystic and enhancing solid portions. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated anterior displacement of the left vertebral artery at C-7. The patient underwent C-7 subtotal corpectomy and posterior resection of the tumor mass; anterior and posterior fusion were performed in which instrumentation was placed. Histological examination disclosed cystic areas lined by fibromembranous tissue with calcification and osteoid deposits consistent with unicameral bone cyst. Of the four previously reported cases of unicameral bone cysts in the cervical spine, none involved all three columns simultaneously or was associated with pathological fracture. The most common differential diagnostic considerations for cystic lesions in the spine are aneurysmal bone cyst, osteoblastoma, or giant cell tumor of bone. Unicameral bone cyst, in this location, although rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis and may require resection and spinal reconstruction.

  1. CT evaluation of decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji; Ono, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    We occasionally see decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe on normal chest CT and notice that this finding could be seen in elder population. Then, we assessed the frequency, age distribution and cause of decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe. Chest CT scans of 246 patients without lung or cardiac disorders were retrospectively reviewed. Segmental low attenuation area in the superior segment of the left lower lobe was identified in 12 patients (4.9%), which were 65-92 years old with mean age of 77.2 years old. In all of them, chest CT demonstrated that the tortuous descending aorta compressed directly the superior segmental bronchus of the left lower lobe. It is concluded that the lateral tortuousity of the descending aorta could cause decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe. (author)

  2. The cortical signature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Agosta

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of regional cortical thickness in patients with non-familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and to investigate whether cortical thinning is associated with disease progression rate. Cortical thickness analysis was performed in 44 ALS patients and 26 healthy controls. Group differences in cortical thickness and the age-by-group effects were assessed using vertex-by-vertex and multivariate linear models. The discriminatory ability of MRI variables in distinguishing patients from controls was estimated using the Concordance Statistics (C-statistic within logistic regression analyses. Correlations between cortical thickness measures and disease progression rate were tested using the Pearson coefficient. Relative to controls, ALS patients showed a bilateral cortical thinning of the primary motor, prefrontal and ventral frontal cortices, cingulate gyrus, insula, superior and inferior temporal and parietal regions, and medial and lateral occipital areas. There was a significant age-by-group effect in the sensorimotor cortices bilaterally, suggesting a stronger association between age and cortical thinning in ALS patients compared to controls. The mean cortical thickness of the sensorimotor cortices distinguished patients with ALS from controls (C-statistic ≥ 0.74. Cortical thinning of the left sensorimotor cortices was related to a faster clinical progression (r = -0.33, p = 0.03. Cortical thickness measurements allowed the detection and quantification of motor and extramotor involvement in patients with ALS. Cortical thinning of the precentral gyrus might offer a marker of upper motor neuron involvement and disease progression.

  3. The cortical signature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Federica; Valsasina, Paola; Riva, Nilo; Copetti, Massimiliano; Messina, Maria Josè; Prelle, Alessandro; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of regional cortical thickness in patients with non-familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to investigate whether cortical thinning is associated with disease progression rate. Cortical thickness analysis was performed in 44 ALS patients and 26 healthy controls. Group differences in cortical thickness and the age-by-group effects were assessed using vertex-by-vertex and multivariate linear models. The discriminatory ability of MRI variables in distinguishing patients from controls was estimated using the Concordance Statistics (C-statistic) within logistic regression analyses. Correlations between cortical thickness measures and disease progression rate were tested using the Pearson coefficient. Relative to controls, ALS patients showed a bilateral cortical thinning of the primary motor, prefrontal and ventral frontal cortices, cingulate gyrus, insula, superior and inferior temporal and parietal regions, and medial and lateral occipital areas. There was a significant age-by-group effect in the sensorimotor cortices bilaterally, suggesting a stronger association between age and cortical thinning in ALS patients compared to controls. The mean cortical thickness of the sensorimotor cortices distinguished patients with ALS from controls (C-statistic ≥ 0.74). Cortical thinning of the left sensorimotor cortices was related to a faster clinical progression (r = -0.33, p = 0.03). Cortical thickness measurements allowed the detection and quantification of motor and extramotor involvement in patients with ALS. Cortical thinning of the precentral gyrus might offer a marker of upper motor neuron involvement and disease progression.

  4. Myocardial perfusion SPECT in a case of retropulmonary looping of left coronary artery in a baby after arterial switch surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is not a routine investigation in an Indian setting due to under referrals and logistic problems. However, MPI is a frequently performed and established modality of investigation in adults for the identification of myocardial ischemia and viability. We report myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in a case of retropulmonary looping of left coronary artery in a baby after arterial switch surgery. Adenosine stress MPI revealed a large infarct involving anterior segment with moderate reversible ischemia of the lateral left ventricular segment. Coronary angiogram later confirmed left main coronary artery ostial occlusion with retrograde collateral supply from dilated right coronary artery

  5. Lateralization of eye use in cuttlefish: opposite direction for anti-predatory and predatory behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerstin Schnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e. vigilant scanning. To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional

  6. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Alexandra K; Hanlon, Roger T; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  7. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  8. Gastric volvulus following left pneumonectomy in an adolescent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Farber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is a rare post-pneumonectomy complication. Although it has been described previously, published cases are limited to an older patient population. We report the youngest case of postpneumonectomy gastric volvulus to date, occurring in an 18-year-old male with a history of inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumor who underwent left intrapericardial pneumonectomy, and presented 13 years later with chronic intermittent mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. While postpneumonectomy gastric volvulus is a rare occurrence, it should remain in the differential diagnosis in postoperative thoracic surgical patients presenting with chest pain.

  9. Gastric Volvulus Following Left Pneumonectomy in an Adolescent Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Benjamin A.; Lim, Irene Isabel P.; Murphy, Jennifer M.; Price, Anita P.; Abramson, Sara J.; La Quaglia, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare post-pneumonectomy complication. Although it has been described previously, published cases are limited to an older patient population. We report the youngest case of postpneumonectomy gastric volvulus to date, occurring in an 18-year-old male with a history of inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumor who underwent left intrapericardial pneumonectomy, and presented 13 years later with chronic intermittent mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. While postpneumonectomy gastric volvulus is a rare occurrence, it should remain in the differential diagnosis in postoperative thoracic surgical patients presenting with chest pain. PMID:26504742

  10. The tectonic significance of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain in the SE Brazilian margin: a Paleoproterozoic through Cretaceous saga of a reworked continental margin

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    Renata da Silva Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain is composed of a Paleoproterozoic basement tectonically interleaved with Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Buzios-Palmital successions. It is in contact with the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Ribeira Orogen along the SE Brazilian coast. The basement was part of at least three continental margins: (a 1.97 Ga; (b 0.59 - 0.53 Ga; (c 0.14 Ga to today. It consists of continental magmatic arc rocks of 1.99 to 1.94 Ga. Zircon cores show a 2.5 - 2.6 Ga inheritance from the ancient margin of the Congo Craton. During the Ediacaran, this domain was thinned and intruded by tholeiitic mafic dykes during the development of an oceanic basin at ca. 0.59 Ma. After the tectonic inversion, these basin deposits reached high P-T metamorphic conditions, by subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, and were later exhumed as nappes over the basement. The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain collided with the arc domain of the Ribeira Orogen at ca. 0.54 Ga. It is not an exotic block, but the eastern transition between this orogen and the Congo Craton. Almost 400 m.y. later, the South Atlantic rift zone followed roughly this suture, not coincidently. It shows how the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain was reactivated as a continental margin in successive extensional and convergent events through geological time.

  11. Left cardiac isomerism in the Sonic hedgehog null mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Victoria; Webb, Sandra; Chaudhry, Bill; Peat, Jonathan D; Phillips, Helen M; Brown, Nigel; Anderson, Robert H; Henderson, Deborah J

    2009-06-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted morphogen necessary for the production of sidedness in the developing embryo. In this study, we describe the morphology of the atrial chambers and atrioventricular junctions of the Shh null mouse heart. We demonstrate that the essential phenotypic feature is isomerism of the left atrial appendages, in combination with an atrioventricular septal defect and a common atrioventricular junction. These malformations are known to be frequent in humans with left isomerism. To confirm the presence of left isomerism, we show that Pitx2c, a recognized determinant of morphological leftness, is expressed in the Shh null mutants on both the right and left sides of the inflow region, and on both sides of the solitary arterial trunk exiting from the heart. It has been established that derivatives of the second heart field expressing Isl1 are asymmetrically distributed in the developing normal heart. We now show that this population is reduced in the hearts from the Shh null mutants, likely contributing to the defects. To distinguish the consequences of reduced contributions from the second heart field from those of left-right patterning disturbance, we disrupted the movement of second heart field cells into the heart by expressing dominant-negative Rho kinase in the population of cells expressing Isl1. This resulted in absence of the vestibular spine, and presence of atrioventricular septal defects closely resembling those seen in the hearts from the Shh null mutants. The primary atrial septum, however, was well formed, and there was no evidence of isomerism of the atrial appendages, suggesting that these features do not relate to disruption of the contributions made by the second heart field. We demonstrate, therefore, that the Shh null mouse is a model of isomerism of the left atrial appendages, and show that the recognized associated malformations found at the venous pole of the heart in the setting of left isomerism are likely to arise from

  12. Anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve in relation to the lateral epicondyle and cephalic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkerdsook, Wachara; Agthong, Sithiporn; Amarase, Chavarin; Yotnuengnit, Pattarapol; Huanmanop, Thanasil; Chentanez, Vilai

    2011-01-01

    The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) is the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve supplying the lateral aspect of forearm. Because of its close proximity to the biceps brachii tendon (BBT), the lateral epicondyle (LE), and the cephalic vein (CV), surgery and venipuncture in the cubital fossa can injure the LACN. Measurement data regarding the relative anatomy of LACN are scarce. We, therefore, dissected 96 upper extremities from 26 males and 22 females to expose the LACN in the cubital fossa and forearm. The LACN consistently emerged from the lateral margin of BBT. It then pierced the deep fascia distal to the interepicondylar line (IEL) in 84.4% with mean distances of 1.8 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 0.9 cm (male and female, respectively). At the level of IEL, the LACN in all cases was medial to the LE (5.9 ± 1.1 cm male and 5.2 ± 0.9 cm female). Two types of branching were observed: single trunk (78.1%) and bifurcation (21.9%). Asymmetry in the branching pattern was observed in 6 males and 1 female. Concerning the relationship to the CV, the LACN ran medially within 1 cm at the level of IEL in 78.7%. Moreover, in 10 specimens, the LACN was directly beneath the CV. In the forearm, the LACN tends to course medial to the CV. Significant differences in the measurement data between genders but not sides were found in some parameters. These data are important for avoiding LACN injury and locating the LACN during relevant medical procedures. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  14. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  15. Image processing of x-ray left ventricular cineangiocardiograms and displays of cardiac functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiho, Shigeru; Yamada, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Michiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Cineangiocardiography has been often used as one of the highly helpful techniques to examine the cardiac function. This paper deals with the method of tracing automatically the boundaries of the left ventricle on cineangiocardiograms, the method to evaluate and display various cardiac functions, the method to reconstruct the left ventricular cavity from biplane cineangiocardiograms and the method to display a 3-dimensional shape of the left ventricle reconstructed. Our algorithm of boundary tracing is based on a heuristic search for a local maximum of the changing rate in the gray level of cineangiocardiogram. The boundaries of endocardial margins of the left ventricle on 80 to 120 consecutive frames are automatically traced by our method. By using the detected boundaries of the left ventricle, a lot of quantitative information may be established on the cardiac function. The volume change, the wall motions and the %-shortening are displayed graphically. The motion of the boundary of the left ventricle is displayed on a CRT as a moving picture. The left ventricular cavity is reconstructed from the detected boundaries of the left ventricle on biplane cineangiocardiograms. A reconstructed image can be shown as superimposed lines or halftone planes to produce a 3-dimensional perspective. The %-shortening which shows the contractility of the regional myocardium is displayed on a silhouette of the left ventricle. We can easily recognize the abnormal area of contraction and the level and spread of abnormality from this displayed image. With the use of the system described in this paper, we can grasp the movement of the left ventricle exactly and evaluate the cardiac function quantitatively. (author)

  16. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with Stroop-type tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu J Ruiz

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task. Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment. Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms, a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults.

  17. Differential effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on arm position sense in right- vs. left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lena; Artinger, Frank; Stumpf, Oliver; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The human brain is organized asymmetrically in two hemispheres with different functional specializations. Left- and right-handers differ in many functional capacities and their anatomical representations. Right-handers often show a stronger functional lateralization than left-handers, the latter showing a more bilateral, symmetrical brain organization. Recent functional imaging evidence shows a different lateralization of the cortical vestibular system towards the side of the preferred hand in left- vs. right-handers as well. Since the vestibular system is involved in somatosensory processing and the coding of body position, vestibular stimulation should affect such capacities differentially in left- vs. right-handers. In the present, sham-stimulation-controlled study we explored this hypothesis by studying the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on proprioception in both forearms in left- and right-handers. Horizontal arm position sense (APS) was measured with an opto-electronic device. Second, the polarity-specific online- and after-effects of subsensory, bipolar GVS on APS were investigated in different sessions separately for both forearms. At baseline, both groups did not differ in their unsigned errors for both arms. However, right-handers showed significant directional errors in APS of both arms towards their own body. Right-cathodal/left-anodal GVS, resulting in right vestibular cortex activation, significantly deteriorated left APS in right-handers, but had no detectable effect on APS in left-handers in either arm. These findings are compatible with a right-hemisphere dominance for vestibular functions in right-handers and a differential vestibular organization in left-handers that compensates for the disturbing effects of GVS on APS. Moreover, our results show superior arm proprioception in left-handers in both forearms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-rift deformation of the Red Sea Arabian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Davide; Schettino, Antonio; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the Oligocene, the Red Sea rift nucleated within the composite Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield. After about 30 Ma-long history of continental lithosphere thinning and magmatism, the first pulse of oceanic spreading occurred at around 4.6 Ma at the triple junction of Africa, Arabia, and Danakil plate boundaries and propagated southward separating Danakil and Arabia plates. Ocean floor spreading between Arabia and Africa started later, at about 3 Ma and propagated northward (Schettino et al., 2016). Nowadays the northern part of the Red Sea is characterised by isolated oceanic deeps or a thinned continental lithosphere. Here we investigate the deformation of thinned continental margins that develops as a consequence of the continental lithosphere break-up induced by the progressive oceanisation. This deformation consists of a system of transcurrent and reverse faults that accommodate the anelastic relaxation of the extended margins. Inversion and shortening tectonics along the rifted margins as a consequence of the formation of a new segment of ocean ridge was already documented in the Atlantic margin of North America (e.g. Schlische et al. 2003). We present preliminary structural data obtained along the north-central portion of the Arabian rifted margin of the Red Sea. We explored NE-SW trending lineaments within the Arabian margin that are the inland continuation of transform boundaries between segments of the oceanic ridge. We found brittle fault zones whose kinematics is consistent with a post-rift inversion. Along the southernmost transcurrent fault (Ad Damm fault) of the central portion of the Red Sea we found evidence of dextral movement. Along the northernmost transcurrent fault, which intersects the Harrat Lunayyir, structures indicate dextral movement. At the inland termination of this fault the evidence of dextral movement are weaker and NW-SE trending reverse faults outcrop. Between these two faults we found other dextral transcurrent

  19. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - I. Historical statistics and model framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Experts may disagree on when world oil production will peak, but there is general agreement that marginal fields will contribute a greater percentage of world supply in the future. As fields mature and operations transition into the later stages of their production cycle, decreasing revenue streams, higher operating costs, and fewer upside opportunities lead to declining profitability. Eventually, all properties are abandoned when cost exceeds the revenue of production. In this two-part paper on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, the number of marginal structures in the gulf and their expected contribution to future production is forecast using established economic models. In Part 1, a historical perspective on producing assets is provided and the inventory of committed assets is modeled and categorized. We operationalize the definition of marginal production based on a structure's economic limit. The model framework to identify marginal assets in the Gulf of Mexico is discussed and a step-by-step description of the methodology is provided. In Part 2, the results of the model are described. (author)

  20. Wintertime pytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supportedby continental margin iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus,Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2004-06-08

    Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North PacificOcean, a region that is thought to beiron-limited. Here we provideevidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in thesubarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from thecontinental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincidentwith the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was usedto describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of ironin size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis revealsthat discrete micron-sized iron-rich hotspots are ubiquitous in the upper200m at OSP, more than 900km from the closest coast. The specifics of thechemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to thecontinental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hotspots are a markerfor the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm thedelivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an oceangeneral circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at thecontinental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental marginstimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLCcondition.

  1. Circumferential scouting punch biopsies to delineate surgical margin for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Mao Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is an uncommon soft-tissue tumor involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue with a high local recurrence rate after standard excision. Mohs micrographic surgery offers a lower recurrence rate. However, the procedure requires multiple stages of excision with intraoperative histopathological mapping, which is time consuming and expensive. We report our experience of using circumferential scouting punch biopsy technique in five patients to determine in advance the resection margins for DFSP prior to wide excision. Multiple 4 mm punches, usually eight in number, were performed 1–2.5 cm around the palpable borders of DFSP to delineate the resection margins in five consecutive patients. Tumors were excised at a later date along the margin defined by these biopsies and the wounds were repaired with skin graft. The operation was completed in 2 hours in all cases excluding one that required frozen sections for deep margin. No recurrence was noted 2–10 years after the operations. The results suggest that circumferential scouting punch biopsies before wide excision may be an alternative method to define the resection margins for DFSP when Mohs surgery is not available.

  2. The stability margin on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Ping, Qian; Bao-Nian, Wan; Biao, Shen; Bing-Jia, Xiao; Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) is the first full superconducting tokamak with a D-shaped cross-sectional plasma presently in operation. Its poloidal coils are relatively far from the plasma due to the necessary thermal isolation from the superconducting magnets, which leads to relatively weaker coupling between plasma and poloidal field. This may cause more difficulties in controlling the vertical instability by using the poloidal coils. The measured growth rates of vertical stability are compared with theoretical calculations, based on a rigid plasma model. Poloidal beta and internal inductance are varied to investigate their effects on the stability margin by changing the values of parameters α n and γ n (Howl et al 1992 Phys. Fluids B 4 1724), with plasma shape fixed to be a configuration with k = 1.9 and δ = 0.5. A number of ways of studying the stability margin are investigated. Among them, changing the values of parameters κ and l i is shown to be the most effective way to increase the stability margin. Finally, a guideline of stability margin M s (κ, l i , A) to a new discharge scenario showing whether plasmas can be stabilized is also presented in this paper

  3. Fedme og risiko for marginal parodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Rohde, Jeanett Friis

    2017-01-01

    Oversigtsartiklen, der er af narrativ karakter, beskriver sammenhængen mellem overvægt/ fedme og marginal parodontitis. Artiklen er baseret på et udvalg af nyere engelsksproget litteratur og motiveres af den øgede forekomst af overvægtige og fede i befolkningen. Desuden er det afgørende, at tandl......Oversigtsartiklen, der er af narrativ karakter, beskriver sammenhængen mellem overvægt/ fedme og marginal parodontitis. Artiklen er baseret på et udvalg af nyere engelsksproget litteratur og motiveres af den øgede forekomst af overvægtige og fede i befolkningen. Desuden er det afgørende......, at tandlæger forholder sig kritisk til systemiske tilstandes mulige konsekvens for udvikling, forværring og behandling af marginal parodontitis. Der nævnes forskellige mål for fedme, hvor body mass index (BMI) og taljeomkreds er de mest anvendte. Problematikken vedrørende tidligere studiers anvendelse af...... forskellige kriterier for marginal parodontitis berøres. Litteraturgennemgangen tager udgangspunkt i de biologiske mekanismer, der udløses i fedtvæv ved overvægt/fedme og medfører en kronisk inflammatorisk tilstand med frigivelse af bl.a. adipokiner. Epidemiologiske tværsnitsog longitudinelle studier af...

  4. Second Language Learners' Use of Marginal Glosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of marginal reading glosses by 18 second language (L2) learners is examined through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of audiotaped think-aloud protocols. How these readers interact with the glosses is identified and divided into five categories or gloss interactions. Examples from each are presented. The primary research question…

  5. Large margin image set representation and classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    In this paper, we propose a novel image set representation and classification method by maximizing the margin of image sets. The margin of an image set is defined as the difference of the distance to its nearest image set from different classes and the distance to its nearest image set of the same class. By modeling the image sets by using both their image samples and their affine hull models, and maximizing the margins of the images sets, the image set representation parameter learning problem is formulated as an minimization problem, which is further optimized by an expectation - maximization (EM) strategy with accelerated proximal gradient (APG) optimization in an iterative algorithm. To classify a given test image set, we assign it to the class which could provide the largest margin. Experiments on two applications of video-sequence-based face recognition demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art image set classification methods in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency.

  6. RISK-INFORMED SAFETY MARGIN CHARACTERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Nam; Szilard, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    The concept of safety margins has served as a fundamental principle in the design and operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Defined as the minimum distance between a system's 'loading' and its 'capacity', plant design and operation is predicated on ensuring an adequate safety margin for safety-significant parameters (e.g., fuel cladding temperature, containment pressure, etc.) is provided over the spectrum of anticipated plant operating, transient and accident conditions. To meet the anticipated challenges associated with extending the operational lifetimes of the current fleet of operating NPPs, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a collaboration to conduct coordinated research to identify and address the technological challenges and opportunities that likely would affect the safe and economic operation of the existing NPP fleet over the postulated long-term time horizons. In this paper we describe a framework for developing and implementing a Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to evaluate and manage changes in plant safety margins over long time horizons

  7. Early math intervention for marginalized students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    2016-01-01

    This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...

  8. Mundhulens mikroflora hos patienter med marginal parodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Viden om marginal parodontitis’ mikrobiologi tog for alvor fart for ca. 40 år siden. Den tidlige viden var baseret på mikroskopiske og dyrkningsmæssige undersøgelser af den subgingivale plak. Anvendelsen af de nyere molekylærbiologiske metoder har betydet, at vor viden om de ætiologiske faktorer ...

  9. Large margin image set representation and classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Alzahrani, Majed A.; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel image set representation and classification method by maximizing the margin of image sets. The margin of an image set is defined as the difference of the distance to its nearest image set from different classes and the distance to its nearest image set of the same class. By modeling the image sets by using both their image samples and their affine hull models, and maximizing the margins of the images sets, the image set representation parameter learning problem is formulated as an minimization problem, which is further optimized by an expectation - maximization (EM) strategy with accelerated proximal gradient (APG) optimization in an iterative algorithm. To classify a given test image set, we assign it to the class which could provide the largest margin. Experiments on two applications of video-sequence-based face recognition demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art image set classification methods in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency.

  10. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transaction merchant is unable to effect personal contact with a leverage customer, a telegram sent to the....18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of...

  11. Thinking on the Margin: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, Joann

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important concepts being taught in principles classes is the idea of "thinking on the margin." It can also be one of the most difficult to get across. One of the most telling examples, according to this author, comes in trying to get students to learn the profit maximizing condition for perfectly competitive firms. She…

  12. Exploring laterality and memory effects in the haptic discrimination of verbal and non-verbal shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoycheva, Polina; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2018-03-14

    The brain's left hemisphere often displays advantages in processing verbal information, while the right hemisphere favours processing non-verbal information. In the haptic domain due to contra-lateral innervations, this functional lateralization is reflected in a hand advantage during certain functions. Findings regarding the hand-hemisphere advantage for haptic information remain contradictory, however. This study addressed these laterality effects and their interaction with memory retention times in the haptic modality. Participants performed haptic discrimination of letters, geometric shapes and nonsense shapes at memory retention times of 5, 15 and 30 s with the left and right hand separately, and we measured the discriminability index d'. The d' values were significantly higher for letters and geometric shapes than for nonsense shapes. This might result from dual coding (naming + spatial) or/and from a low stimulus complexity. There was no stimulus-specific laterality effect. However, we found a time-dependent laterality effect, which revealed that the performance of the left hand-right hemisphere was sustained up to 15 s, while the performance of the right-hand-left hemisphere decreased progressively throughout all retention times. This suggests that haptic memory traces are more robust to decay when they are processed by the left hand-right hemisphere.

  13. Left-Right Asymmetry of Maturation Rates in Human Embryonic Neural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kovel, Carolien G F; Lisgo, Steven; Karlebach, Guy; Ju, Jia; Cheng, Gang; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-08-01

    Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental organizing feature of the human brain, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia sometimes involve alterations of brain asymmetry. As early as 8 weeks postconception, the majority of human fetuses move their right arms more than their left arms, but because nerve fiber tracts are still descending from the forebrain at this stage, spinal-muscular asymmetries are likely to play an important developmental role. We used RNA sequencing to measure gene expression levels in the left and right spinal cords, and the left and right hindbrains, of 18 postmortem human embryos aged 4 to 8 weeks postconception. Genes showing embryonic lateralization were tested for an enrichment of signals in genome-wide association data for schizophrenia. The left side of the embryonic spinal cord was found to mature faster than the right side. Both sides transitioned from transcriptional profiles associated with cell division and proliferation at earlier stages to neuronal differentiation and function at later stages, but the two sides were not in synchrony (p = 2.2 E-161). The hindbrain showed a left-right mirrored pattern compared with the spinal cord, consistent with the well-known crossing over of function between these two structures. Genes that showed lateralization in the embryonic spinal cord were enriched for association signals with schizophrenia (p = 4.3 E-05). These are the earliest stage left-right differences of human neural development ever reported. Disruption of the lateralized developmental program may play a role in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vertebrate Left-Right Asymmetry: What Can Nodal Cascade Gene Expression Patterns Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickert, Axel; Ott, Tim; Kurz, Sabrina; Tingler, Melanie; Maerker, Markus; Fuhl, Franziska; Blum, Martin

    2017-12-29

    Laterality of inner organs is a wide-spread characteristic of vertebrates and beyond. It is ultimately controlled by the left-asymmetric activation of the Nodal signaling cascade in the lateral plate mesoderm of the neurula stage embryo, which results from a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluids at the left-right organizer. This scenario is widely accepted for laterality determination in wildtype specimens. Deviations from this norm come in different flavors. At the level of organ morphogenesis, laterality may be inverted (situs inversus) or non-concordant with respect to the main body axis (situs ambiguus or heterotaxia). At the level of Nodal cascade gene activation, expression may be inverted, bilaterally induced, or absent. In a given genetic situation, patterns may be randomized or predominantly lacking laterality (absence or bilateral activation). We propose that the distributions of patterns observed may be indicative of the underlying molecular defects, with randomizations being primarily caused by defects in the flow-generating ciliary set-up, and symmetrical patterns being the result of impaired flow sensing, on the left, the right, or both sides. This prediction, the reasoning of which is detailed in this review, pinpoints functions of genes whose role in laterality determination have remained obscure.

  15. CRBRP structural and thermal margin beyond the design base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawbridge, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    Prudent margins beyond the design base have been included in the design of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant to further reduce the risk to the public from highly improbable occurrences. These margins include Structural Margin Beyond the Design Base to address the energetics aspects and Thermal Margin Beyond the Design Base to address the longer term thermal and radiological consequences. The assessments that led to the specification of these margins are described, along with the experimental support for those assessments. 8 refs

  16. Is There an Advantage in Designing Adapted, Patient-Specific PTV Margins in Intensity Modulated Proton Beam Therapy for Prostate Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Góra, Joanna; Stock, Markus; Lütgendorf-Caucig, Carola; Georg, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate robust margin strategies in intensity modulated proton therapy to account for interfractional organ motion in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: For 9 patients, one planning computed tomography (CT) scan and daily and weekly cone beam CTs (CBCTs) were acquired and coregistered. The following planning target volume (PTV) approaches were investigated: a clinical target volume (CTV) delineated on the planning CT (CTV ct ) plus 10-mm margin (PTV 10mm ); a reduced PTV (PTV Red ): CTV ct plus 5 mm in the left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions and 8 mm in the inferior-superior (IS) directions; and a PTV Hull method: the sum of CTV ct and CTVs from 5 CBCTs from the first week plus 3 mm in the LR and IS directions and 5 mm in the AP direction. For each approach, separate plans were calculated using a spot-scanning technique with 2 lateral fields. Results: Each approach achieved excellent target coverage. Differences were observed in volume receiving 98% of the prescribed dose (V 98% ) where PTV Hull and PTV Red results were superior to the PTV 10mm concept. The PTV Hull approach was more robust to organ motion. The V 98% for CTVs was 99.7%, whereas for PTV Red and PTV 10mm plans, V 98% was 98% and 96.1%, respectively. Doses to organs at risk were higher for PTV Hull and PTV 10mm plans than for PTV Red , but only differences between PTV 10mm and PTV Red were significant. Conclusions: In terms of organ sparing, the PTV 10mm method was inferior but not significantly different from the PTV Red and PTV Hull approaches. PTV Hull was most insensitive to target motion

  17. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno

    2008-07-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  18. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  19. An elusive persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Soward; F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractA case report of a persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium with a fibromuscular left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a small atrial septal defect. The anomalous vessel escaped detection during two right and left heart catheterizations from the right arm and

  20. Consideration of margins for hypo fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschtal, A.; Foroudi, F.; Kron, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Geographical misses of the tumour are of concern in radiotherapy and are typically accommodated by introducing margins around the target. However, there is a trade-off between ensuring the target receives sufficient dose and minimising the dose to surrounding normal structures. Several methods of determining margin width have been developed with the most commonly used one proposed by M. VanHerk (VanHerk UROBP 52: 1407, 2002). VanHerk's model sets margins to achieve 95% of dose coverage for the target in 90% of patients. However, this model was derived assuming an infinite number of fractions. The aim of the present work is to estimate the modifications necessary to the model if a finite number of fractions are given. Software simulations were used to determine the true probability of a patient achieving 95% target coverage if different fraction numbers are used for a given margin width. Model parameters were informed by a large data set recently acquired at our institution using daily image guidance for prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducial markers. Assuming a 3 mm penumbral width it was found that using the VanHerk model only 74 or 54% of patients receive 95% of the prescription dose if 20 or 6 fractions are given, respectively. The steep dose gradients afforded by IMRT are likely to make consideration of the effects of hypofractionation more important. It is necessary to increase the margins around the target to ensure adequate tumour coverage if hypofractionated radiotherapy is to be used for cancer treatment. (author)

  1. Behavioral laterality in Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platto, Sara; Zhang, C; Pine, Matthew K; Feng, W K; Yang, L G; Irwin, A; Wang, D

    2017-07-01

    The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is a critically endangered species with less than 1000 individuals expected to be left in the wild. While many studies have been conducted on laterality among several cetacean species, no studies investigating the Yangtze finless porpoise have been conducted. Using event sampling methods, several behaviors such as flipper-body touching, object touching, barrel-rolls, side swimming, and swimming direction were recorded from six captive porpoises (three males and three females). Analyses of 360 observations recorded over two months revealed that, at group level, porpoises showed laterality in swimming behaviors. Porpoises swam preferentially with their right pectoral fin upward and their left pectoral fin downward with a clockwise swimming direction and also displayed a consistent bias for a counterclockwise barrel-roll direction. No significant differences were reported for flipper use either during the interaction with conspecifics or with objects. The results from the current study provide novel insight into the cerebral asymmetry in a species previously ignored within the literature, thus improving our understanding on the extent of laterality in cetaceans and on the evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality for vertebrates in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Left phrenic nerve anatomy relative to the coronary venous system: Implications for phrenic nerve stimulation during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne H; Goff, Ryan P; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize anatomy of the human phrenic nerve in relation to the coronary venous system, to reduce undesired phrenic nerve stimulation during left-sided lead implantations. We obtained CT scans while injecting contrast into coronary veins of 15 perfusion-fixed human heart-lung blocs. A radiopaque wire was glued to the phrenic nerve under CT, then we created three-dimensional models of anatomy and measured anatomical parameters. The left phrenic nerve typically coursed over the basal region of the anterior interventricular vein, mid region of left marginal veins, and apical region of inferior and middle cardiac veins. There was large variation associated with the average angle between nerve and veins. Average angle across all coronary sinus tributaries was fairly consistent (101.3°-111.1°). The phrenic nerve coursed closest to the middle cardiac vein and left marginal veins. The phrenic nerve overlapped a left marginal vein in >50% of specimens. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  4. Does Side Make a Difference? Anatomical Differences Between the Left and Right Ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Stephen E; Abernethy, Melinda G; Mueller, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Seventy to eighty percent of iatrogenic ureteral injuries involve the left ureter. We sought to evaluate potential anatomical differences between the left and right ureters that may contribute to this discrepancy. A retrospective image review was undertaken of women who underwent computed tomography urograms between 2012 and 2013. The distance to the ureters from the midline was measured at the level of the sacral promontory (S1) and the cervix. Cervical deviation from the midline was measured, and distance between the cervix and ureters was calculated. The anterior-posterior distance between ureters was also measured. Ninety-five computed tomography urograms were analyzed. The mean age was 56 years (range, 23-92 years). Mean cervical deviation was 2.9 mm left of the midline (P = 0.028). The left ureter was 4.2 mm more lateral than the right at S1 and 2.7 mm more lateral at the cervix (P = 0.000 and 0.001). There was no significant difference when accounting for cervical deviation (P = 0.220). The left ureter was 1.9 mm more anterior than the right at the cervix (P = 0.012). Age, body mass index, and ethnicity did not affect the ureteral position. Based on midline measurements, the left ureter courses 2 to 4 mm more lateral and anterior than does the right ureter. The cervix is also positioned 2 to 4 mm to the left side, and as a result, the ureters are actually symmetric to the cervix. Although seemingly small, 2 to 4 mm is the width range of a Heaney clamp. These anatomic differences may be a contributing factor to the increase in ureteral injuries on the left side compared with the right.

  5. Fatal stroke after completion pneumonectomy for torsion of left upper lobe following left lower lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolakis Efstratios

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lobar torsion after lung surgery is a rare complication with an incidence of 0.09 to 0.4 %. It may occur after twisting of the bronchovascular pedicle of the remaining lobe after lobectomy, usually on the right side. The 180-degree rotation of the pedicle produces an acute obstruction of the lobar bronchus (atelectasis and of the lobar vessels as well. Without prompt treatment it progresses to lobar ischemia, pulmonary infarction and finally fatal gangrene. Case Presentation A 62 years old female patient was admitted for surgical treatment of lung cancer. She underwent elective left lower lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma (pT2 N0. The operation was unremarkable, and the patient was extubated in the operating room. After eight hours the patient established decrease of pO2 and chest x-ray showed atelectasis of the lower lobe. To establish diagnosis, bronchoscopy was performed, demonstrating obstructed left lobar bronchus. The patient was re-intubated, and admitted to the operating room where reopening of the thoracotomy was performed. Lobar torsion was diagnosed, with the diaphragmatic surface of the upper lobe facing in an anterosuperior orientation. A completion pneumonectomy was performed. At the end of the procedure the patient developed a right pupil dilatation, presumably due to a cerebral embolism. A subsequent brain angio-CT scan established the diagnosis. She died at the intensive care unit 26 days later. Conclusion The thoracic surgeon should suspect this rare early postoperative complication after any thoracic operation in every patient with atelectasis of the neighboring lobe. High index of suspicion and prompt diagnosis may prevent catastrophic consequences, such as, infarction or gangrene of the pulmonary lobe. During thoracic operations, especially whenever the lung or lobe hilum is full mobilized, fixation of the remaining lobe may prevent this life threatening complication.

  6. Eye-hand laterality and right thoracic idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Jean-François; Guyot, Marc-Alexandre; Agnani, Olivier; Demaille, Samantha; Kolanowski, Elisabeth; Donze, Cécile

    2014-06-01

    The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) pathogenesis remains unknown. Certain studies have shown that there is a correlation between manual laterality and scoliotic deviation. A full study of manual laterality needs to be paired with one for visual dominance. With the aim of physiopathological research, we have evaluated the manual and visual laterality in AIS. A retrospective study from prospective data collection is used to evaluate the distribution of eye-hand laterality (homogeneous or crossed) of 65 right thoracic AIS (mean age 14.8 ± 1.8 years; mean Cobb angle: 32.8°) and a control group of 65 sex and age-matched (mean age 14.6 ± 1.8 years). The manual laterality was defined by the modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The evaluation of the visual laterality is done using three tests (kaleidoscope test, hole-in-the-card test, distance-hole-in-the-card test). The group of right thoracic AIS presents a significantly higher frequency of crossed eye-hand laterality (63 %) than the control group (63 vs. 29.2 %; p laterality is "right hand dominant-left eye dominant" (82.9 %). There is no relationship with the Cobb angle. Those with right thoracic AIS show a higher occurrence of crossed eye-hand laterality. This could point physiopathological research of AIS towards functional abnormality of the optic chiasma through underuse of cross visual pathways, and in particular accessory optic pathways. It would be useful to explore this by carrying out research on AISs through neuroimaging and neurofunctional exploration.

  7. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A neural network model of lateralization during letter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, N; Reggia, J A

    1999-03-01

    The causes of cerebral lateralization of cognitive and other functions are currently not well understood. To investigate one aspect of function lateralization, a bihemispheric neural network model for a simple visual identification task was developed that has two parallel interacting paths of information processing. The model is based on commonly accepted concepts concerning neural connectivity, activity dynamics, and synaptic plasticity. A combination of both unsupervised (Hebbian) and supervised (Widrow-Hoff) learning rules is used to train the model to identify a small set of letters presented as input stimuli in the left visual hemifield, in the central position, and in the right visual hemifield. Each visual hemifield projects onto the contralateral hemisphere, and the two hemispheres interact via a simulated corpus callosum. The contribution of each individual hemisphere to the process of input stimuli identification was studied for a variety of underlying asymmetries. The results indicate that multiple asymmetries may cause lateralization. Lateralization occurred toward the side having larger size, higher excitability, or higher learning rate parameters. It appeared more intensively with strong inhibitory callosal connections, supporting the hypothesis that the corpus callosum plays a functionally inhibitory role. The model demonstrates clearly the dependence of lateralization on different hemisphere parameters and suggests that computational models can be useful in better understanding the mechanisms underlying emergence of lateralization.

  9. Use of Respiratory-Correlated Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography to Determine Acceptable Treatment Margins for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Seth D.; Ford, Eric C.; Duhon, Mario; McNutt, Todd; Wong, John; Herman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory-induced excursions of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma could affect dose delivery. This study quantified tumor motion and evaluated standard treatment margins. Methods and Materials: Respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography images were obtained on 30 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma; 15 of whom underwent repeat scanning before cone-down treatment. Treatment planning software was used to contour the gross tumor volume (GTV), bilateral kidneys, and biliary stent. Excursions were calculated according to the centroid of the contoured volumes. Results: The mean ± standard deviation GTV excursion in the superoinferior (SI) direction was 0.55 ± 0.23 cm; an expansion of 1.0 cm adequately accounted for the GTV motion in 97% of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Motion GTVs were generated and resulted in a 25% average volume increase compared with the static GTV. Of the 30 patients, 17 had biliary stents. The mean SI stent excursion was 0.84 ± 0.32 cm, significantly greater than the GTV motion. The xiphoid process moved an average of 0.35 ± 0.12 cm, significantly less than the GTV. The mean SI motion of the left and right kidneys was 0.65 ± 0.27 cm and 0.77 ± 0.30 cm, respectively. At repeat scanning, no significant changes were seen in the mean GTV size (p = .8) or excursion (p = .3). Conclusion: These data suggest that an asymmetric expansion of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.6 cm along the respective SI, anteroposterior, and medial-lateral directions is recommended if a respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography scan is not available to evaluate the tumor motion during treatment planning. Surrogates of tumor motion, such as biliary stents or external markers, should be used with caution.

  10. Three-dimensional and topographic relationships between the orbital margins with reference to assessment of eyeball protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the topographic relationships among the eyeball and four orbital margins with the aim of identifying the correlation between orbital geometry and eyeball protrusion in Koreans. Three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering of the face was performed using serial computed-tomography images of 141 Koreans, and several landmarks on the bony orbit and the cornea were directly marked on the 3D volumes. The anterior-posterior distances from the apex of the cornea to each orbital margin and between the orbital margins were measured in both eyes. The distances from the apex of the cornea to the superior, medial, inferior, and lateral orbital margins were 5.8, 5.8, 12.0, and 17.9 mm, respectively. Differences between sides were observed in all of the orbital margins, and the distances from the apex of the cornea to the superior and inferior orbital margins were significantly greater in females than in males. The anterior-posterior distance between the superior and inferior orbital margins did not differ significantly between males (6.3 mm) and females (6.2 mm). The data obtained in this study will be useful when developing practical guidelines applicable to forensic facial reconstruction and orbitofacial surgeries.

  11. Seaward dipping reflectors along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence for volcanic passive margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajay, K.K.; Chaubey, A.K.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Sar, D.

    Multi-channel seismic reflection profiles across the southwest continental margin of India (SWCMI) show presence of westerly dipping seismic reflectors beneath sedimentary strata along the western flank of the Laccadive Ridge-northernmost part...

  12. Conference Report: The New Discovery of Margins: Theory-Based Excursions in Marginal Social Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babette Kirchner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At this year's spring conference of the Sociology of Knowledge Section of the German Sociological Association, a diverse range of theoretical concepts and multiple empirical insights into different marginal social fields were presented. As in everyday life, drawing a line between center and margin can be seen as an important challenge that must equally be faced in sociology. The socially constructed borderline appears to be highly variable. Therefore it has to be delineated or fixed somehow. The construction of margins is necessary for society in general and smaller social groupings alike to confirm one's own "normal" identity, or one's own membership on the fringes. The different contributions exemplify what was established at the beginning of the conference: Namely that society and its margins are defined differently according to the empirical as well as conceptual focus. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1402148

  13. Right-lateral shear and rotation as the explanation for strike-slip faulting in eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Philip; Molnar, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Bounds are placed here on the rate of rotation proposed by Cobbold and Davy (1988) for the major strike-slip faults in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. It is also concluded here that the image of lateral transport on such faults, known also as continental escape, extrusion, or expulsion, is an illusion, and that instead the left-lateral slip on east-striking plates in eastern Tibet is a manifestation of north-striking right-lateral simple shear. If this conclusion is correct, the east-striking left-lateral faults and the crustal blocks between them are rotating clockwise at 1-2 deg/Myr, the east-west dimension of eastern Tibet is shortening at 10-20 mm/yr, and little material is moving eastward out of India's path into Eursasia by left-lateral simple shear.

  14. Language, gesture, and handedness: Evidence for independent lateralized networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberling, Isabelle S; Corballis, Paul M; Corballis, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    Language, gesture, and handedness are in most people represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. To explore the relations among these attributes, we collected fMRI images in a large sample of left- and right-handers while they performed language tasks and watched action sequences. Regions of interest included the frontal and parietal areas previously identified as comprising an action-observation network, and the frontal and temporal areas comprising the primary areas for language production and comprehension. All of the language areas and most of the action-observation areas showed an overall left-hemispheric bias, despite the participation of equal numbers of left- and right-handers. A factor analysis of the laterality indices derived from the different areas during the tasks indicated three independent networks, one associated with language, one associated with handedness, and one representing action observation independent of handedness. Areas 44 and 45, which together make up Broca's area, were part of the language and action-observation networks, but were not included in the part of the action observation network that was related to handedness, which in turn was strongly linked to areas in the parietal lobe. These results suggest an evolutionary scenario in which the primate mirror neuron system (MNS) became increasingly lateralized, and later fissioned onto subsystems with one mediating language and the other mediating the execution and observation of manual actions. The second network is further subdivided into one dependent on hand preference and one that is not, providing new insight into the tripartite system of language, handedness, and praxis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Arachnoid Pit and Extensive Sinus Pnematization as the Cause of Spontaneous Lateral Intrasphenoidal Encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AlMontasheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral sphenoid encephalocele, especially within the lateral aspect of the sphenoid sinus, when the sphenoid sinus has pneumatized extensively into the pterygoid recess, are considered exceedingly rare. We report a rare case of lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele with spontaneous cerebral spinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea. Computed tomography demonstrated bilateral arachnoid pit, extensive sphenoid sinus pneumatization, and a defect in the superior wall of the left lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated anteromedial temporal lobe herniating through the bony defect.

  17. Decoding the Margins: What Can the Fractal Geometry of Basaltic Flow Margins Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, E. I.; Hamilton, C.; Neish, C.; Beard, S. P.; Bramson, A. M.; Sori, M.; Rader, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    Studying lava flows on other planetary bodies is essential to characterizing eruption styles and constraining the bodies' thermal evolution. Although planetary basaltic flows are common, many key features are not resolvable in orbital imagery. We are thus developing a technique to characterize basaltic flow type, sub-meter roughness, and sediment mantling from these data. We will present the results from upcoming fieldwork at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve with FINESSE (August) and at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (September). We build on earlier work that showed that basaltic flow margins are approximately fractal [Bruno et al., 1992; Gaonac'h et al., 1992] and that their fractal dimensions (D) have distinct `a`ā and pāhoehoe ranges under simple conditions [Bruno et al., 1994]. Using a differential GPS rover, we have recently shown that the margin of Iceland's 2014 Holuhraun flow exhibits near-perfect (R2=0.9998) fractality for ≥24 km across dm to km scales [Schaefer et al., 2016]. This finding suggests that a fractal-based technique has significant potential to characterize flows at sub-resolution scales. We are simultaneously seeking to understand how margin fractality can be modified. A preliminary result for an `a'ā flow in Hawaii's Ka'ū Desert suggests that although aeolian mantling obscures the original flow margin, the apparent margin (i.e., sediment-lava interface) remains fractal [Schaefer et al., 2015]. Further, the apparent margin's D is likely significantly modified from that of the original margin. Other factors that we are exploring include erosion, transitional flow types, and topographic confinement. We will also rigorously test the intriguing possibility that margin D correlates with the sub-meter Hurst exponent H of the flow surface, a common metric of roughness scaling [e.g., Shepard et al., 2001]. This hypothesis is based on geometric arguments [Turcotte, 1997] and is qualitatively consistent with all results so far.

  18. Conference Report: The New Discovery of Margins: Theory-Based Excursions in Marginal Social Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Babette; Lorenzen, Jule-Marie; Striffler, Christine

    2014-01-01

    At this year's spring conference of the Sociology of Knowledge Section of the German Sociological Association, a diverse range of theoretical concepts and multiple empirical insights into different marginal social fields were presented. As in everyday life, drawing a line between center and margin can be seen as an important challenge that must equally be faced in sociology. The socially constructed borderline appears to be highly variable. Therefore it has to be delineated or fixed somehow. ...

  19. The marginal band system in nymphalid butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Kinjo, Seira; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns are highly complex and diverse, but they are believed to be derived from the nymphalid groundplan, which is composed of several color pattern systems. Among these pattern systems, the marginal band system, including marginal and submarginal bands, has rarely been studied. Here, we examined the color pattern diversity of the marginal band system among nymphalid butterflies. Marginal and submarginal bands are usually expressed as a pair of linear bands aligned with the wing margin. However, a submarginal band can be expressed as a broken band, an elongated oval, or a single dot. The marginal focus, usually a white dot at the middle of a wing compartment along the wing edge, corresponds to the pupal edge spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots that signify the locations of color pattern organizing centers. A marginal band can be expressed as a semicircle, an elongated oval, or a pair of eyespot-like structures, which suggest the organizing activity of the marginal focus. Physical damage at the pupal edge spot leads to distal dislocation of the submarginal band in Junonia almana and in Vanessa indica, suggesting that the marginal focus functions as an organizing center for the marginal band system. Taken together, we conclude that the marginal band system is developmentally equivalent to other symmetry systems. Additionally, the marginal band is likely a core element and the submarginal band a paracore element of the marginal band system, and both bands are primarily specified by the marginal focus organizing center.

  20. A case of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery presenting with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Left coronary artery with its origin from the pulmonary trunk. He was admitted to the coronary care unit as a case of acute myocardial infarction with cardiovascular collapse. He received fluid resuscitation, inotropic support and standard management of heart failure. Six days later he was discharged home with a plan to ...

  1. Priming vs. Rhyming: Orthographic and Phonological Representations in the Left and Right Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The right cerebral hemisphere has long been argued to lack phonological processing capacity. Recently, however, a sex difference in the cortical representation of phonology has been proposed, suggesting discrete left hemisphere lateralization in males and more distributed, bilateral representation of function in females. To evaluate this…

  2. For Which Side the Bell Tolls: The Laterality of Approach-Avoidance Associative Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    The two hemispheres of the brain appear to play different roles in emotion and/or motivation. A great deal of previous research has examined the valence hypothesis (left hemisphere = positive; right = negative), but an increasing body of work has supported the motivational hypothesis (left hemisphere = approach; right = avoidance) as an alternative. The present investigation ( N = 117) sought to provide novel support for the latter perspective. Left versus right hemispheres were briefly activated by neutral lateralized auditory primes. Subsequently, participants categorized approach versus avoidance words as quickly and accurately as possible. Performance in the task revealed that approach-related thoughts were more accessible following left-hemispheric activation, whereas avoidance-related thoughts were more accessible following right-hemispheric activation. The present results are the first to examine such lateralized differences in accessible motivational thoughts, which may underlie more "downstream" manifestations of approach and avoidance motivation such as judgments, decision making, and behavior.

  3. A study on roentgen anatomy of the normal lateral chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Keiko

    1985-01-01

    CT findings of the various anatomical structures in 70 cases were classified into three types according to their relation to lung, mediastinal tissue (or fat) and the other thoracic organs. Posterior margin of right brachiocephalic vein-superior vena cava complex (RB-SVC), anterior and posterior margins of inferior vena cava, anterior margin of ascending aorta, anterior and posterior margins of aortic arch, posterior wall of bronchus intermedius (PWBI), posterior wall of distal portion of left main bronchus (PWDPLMB) and posterior wall of trachea (posterior tracheal stripe, PTS) were frequently visualized when lung outlined more than half of them. Anterior margin of ascending aorta was also occasionally visualized when a small amount of mediastinal fat outlined it. Anterior margin of right ventricular outflow tract was frequently visualized when lung outlined more than half of it and it was situated anterior to that of ascending aorta. Anterior tracheal stripe was frequently visualized when a large amount of mediastinal fat outlined it. PWBI, PWDPLMB and PTS were frequently visualized when lung outlined them. Cardiac incisura was frequently visualized when a large amount of anterior mediastinal fat outlined left anterior margin of heart. The statistical studies on roentgen anatomy including the visualization rates of various anatomical structures and the morphological analysis and measurements of various anatomical structures in 300 normal cases. The visualization rates were compared between Japanese and Americans, between age groups over and under 50 years old, and between males and females. The structures which were visualized by the contact with fat or made by fat were more frequently seen in Americans, and the arterial structures were more frequently shown in older people. Other differences were also seen. (J.P.N.)

  4. Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. III; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%

  5. The stability margin of elongated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portone, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Passive stabilization is a key feature in tokamak design since it indicates the efficiency of the metallic structures to 'oppose' plasma displacements. As far as plasma vertical displacement modes are concerned, usually their passive stabilization is characterized in terms of two main indices, namely the instability growth time and the stability margin. In this study-after recalling the governing equations-we extend the definition of the stability margin given in the literature (Lazarus E. et al 1990 Nucl. Fusion 30 111, Albanese R. et al 1990 IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, Kameari A. et al 1985 Nucl. Eng. Des./Fusion 365-73) for the rigid body displacement model to the non-rigid plasma model. Numerical examples are also given for the reduced task objectives/reduced cost ITER design

  6. Passive target tracking using marginalized particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A marginalized particle filtering(MPF)approach is proposed for target tracking under the background of passive measurement.Essentially,the MPF is a combination of particle filtering technique and Kalman filter.By making full use of marginalization,the distributions of the tractable linear part of the total state variables are updated analytically using Kalman filter,and only the lower-dimensional nonlinear state variable needs to be dealt with using particle filter.Simulation studies are performed on an illustrative example,and the results show that the MPF method leads to a significant reduction of the tracking errors when compared with the direct particle implementation.Real data test results also validate the effectiveness of the presented method.

  7. Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    narrative. But both the availability and suitability of “marginal” land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for jatropha....... The increasing trend of land acquisition for biofuels has led to the widespread debate about food versus biofuel because of the perceived competition for land and water. To avoid the food versus fuel debate, the use of “marginal” land for biofuel feedstock production (jatropha) has emerged as a dominant...... investments, and the agronomic performance of large-scale jatropha plantation on so-called marginal land. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be grown well on marginal land without irrigation, and thus does not compete for land and water or displace food production from agricultural land, this study...

  8. Distributions with given marginals and statistical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Fortiana, Josep; Rodriguez-Lallena, José

    2002-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the meeting `Distributions with given marginals and statistical modelling', held in Barcelona (Spain), July 17-20, 2000. In 24 chapters, this book covers topics such as the theory of copulas and quasi-copulas, the theory and compatibility of distributions, models for survival distributions and other well-known distributions, time series, categorical models, definition and estimation of measures of dependence, monotonicity and stochastic ordering, shape and separability of distributions, hidden truncation models, diagonal families, orthogonal expansions, tests of independence, and goodness of fit assessment. These topics share the use and properties of distributions with given marginals, this being the fourth specialised text on this theme. The innovative aspect of the book is the inclusion of statistical aspects such as modelling, Bayesian statistics, estimation, and tests.

  9. Marginal Loss Calculations for the DCOPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, Brent [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); O' Neill, Richard P. [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Castillo, Andrea R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The purpose of this paper is to explain some aspects of including a marginal line loss approximation in the DCOPF. The DCOPF optimizes electric generator dispatch using simplified power flow physics. Since the standard assumptions in the DCOPF include a lossless network, a number of modifications have to be added to the model. Calculating marginal losses allows the DCOPF to optimize the location of power generation, so that generators that are closer to demand centers are relatively cheaper than remote generation. The problem formulations discussed in this paper will simplify many aspects of practical electric dispatch implementations in use today, but will include sufficient detail to demonstrate a few points with regard to the handling of losses.

  10. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  11. Terrien's marginal degeneration accompanied by latticed stromal opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Jia, Hui

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of Terrien's marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen.

  12. Terrien’s Marginal Degeneration Accompanied by Latticed Stromal Opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Jia, Hui

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We report a case of Terrien’s marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. Case Report A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. Conclusions This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen. PMID:24681833

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik

    2007-01-01

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI

  15. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction after transcatheter closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Mohammed Omar; Arfi, Muhammed Amin; Nicole, Sekarski; Payot, Maurice; Hussain, Arif; Qureshi, Shakeel

    2005-11-01

    A 12-year-old boy reported in outpatient department with history of shortness of breath and dyspnoea on moderate exertion. Physical examination was significant for bounding pulses and for a continuous murmur III/VI, best heard at the left upper sternal border. Echocardiography confirmed a large patent arterial duct with shortening fraction of 33%. He underwent successful transcatheter closure of the patent arterial, using Amplatzer duct occluder 12/10. Few hours later echocardiography revealed an unexpected, yet important depression of left ventricular systolic function with shortening fraction decreasing to 24% and then two weeks later decreasing further to 20%. At a follow-up after four months, he had improved clinically but left ventricular dysfunction still persisted with shortening fraction of 24%.

  16. Systems considerations in seismic margin evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermer, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Increasing knowledge in the geoscience field has led to the understanding that, although highly unlikely, it is possible for a nuclear power plant to be subjected to earthquake ground motion greater than that for which the plant was designed. While it is recognized that there are conservatisms inherent in current design practices, interest has developed in evaluating the seismic risk of operating plants. Several plant-specific seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRA) have been completed to address questions related to the seismic risk of a plant. The results from such SPRAs are quite informative, but such studies may entail a considerable amount of expensive analysis of large portions of the plant. As an alternative to an SPRA, it may be more practical to select an earthquake level above the design basis for which plant survivability is to be demonstrated. The principal question to be addressed in a seismic margin evaluation is: At what ground motion levels does one have a high confidence that the probability of seismically induced core damage is sufficiently low? In a seismic margin evaluation, an earthquake level is selected (based on site-specific geoscience considerations) for which a stable, long-term safe shutdown condition is to be demonstrated. This prespecified earthquake level is commonly referred to as the seismic margin earthquake (SME). The Electric Power Research Institute is currently supporting a research project to develop procedures for use by the utilities to allow them to perform nuclear plant seismic margin evaluations. This paper describes the systems-related aspects of these procedures

  17. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  18. Origins of saline fluids at convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Kastner, Miriam; Egeberg, Per Kr.

    The compositions of pore and venting fluids at convergent margins differ from seawater values, reflecting mixing and diagenesis. Most significantly, the concentration of Cl-, assumed to be a conservative ion, differs from its seawater value. Chloride concentrations could be elevated by four processes, although two, the formation of gas hydrate and ion filtration by clay membranes, are insignificant in forming saline fluids at convergent margins. During the formation of gas hydrate, the resulting Cl--rich fluids, estimated to contain an average excess of ˜140 mM Cl- over seawater value, probably would be flushed from the sediment when the pore fluids vent to seawater. Ion filtration by clay membranes requires compaction pressures typical of >2 km burial depths. Even at these depths, the efficiency of ion filtration will be negligible because (1) fluids will flow through fractures, thereby bypassing clay membranes, (2) concentrations of clay minerals are diluted by other phases, and (3) during burial, smectite converts to illite, which has little capacity for ion filtration. A third process, mixing with subaerially evaporated seawater, elevates Cl- concentrations to 1043 mM in forearc basins along the Peru margin. Evaporation of seawater, however, will be important only in limited geographic regions that are characterized by enclosed basins, arid climates, and permeable sediments. At the New Hebrides and Izu-Bonin margins, Cl- concentrations are elevated to a maximum of 1241 mM. The process responsible for this increase is the alteration of volcanic ash to hydrous clay and zeolite minerals. Mass balance calculations, based on the decrease in δ18O values to -9.5‰ (SMOW), suggest that the Cl- concentrations could increase solely from the formation of smectite in a closed system. The diagenesis of volcanic ash also alters the concentrations of most dissolved species in addition to Cl-. Depending on the volume of this altered fluid, it could influence seawater

  19. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.; Carroll, R.J.; Wand, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  20. PENDIDIKAN ALTERNATIF UNTUK PEREMPUAN MARGINAL DI PEDESAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Tahir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Alternative Education for Marginalized Women in Rural Areas. The study aims to find alter­native forms of education for marginalized women, the process of forming study groups and gender based learning process that serves the center of the development of education, leadership and a source of economic empowerment. The study uses qualitative methods, involving a group of women who have attended an al­ternative education. Researchers and informants from community leaders. The results showed that the form of alternative education is a method of adult education or andragogy. Study groups consisted of basic literacy and functional literacy. The learning process begins with the sharing of learning, reflection on life experience and role play method. The result is 65% of participants have increased the ability of reading, writing and numeracy, and understanding of the issues of women who have confidence in the decision making of households and communities. Abstrak: Pendidikan Alternatif untuk Perempuan Marginal di Pedesaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui bentuk pendidikan alternatif untuk perempuan marginal, proses pembentukan kelompok belajar, dan proses pembelajaran berperspektif gender yang berfungsi menjadi pusat pengembangan pendidikan, kepemimpinan, dan sumber penguatan ekonomi. Penelitian menggunakan metode kualitatif, mengambil satu kelompok perempuan yang telah mengikuti pendidikan alternatif. Informan terdiri atas tokoh masyarakat, seperti Kepala Desa, Ketua RT/RW, dan ibu rumah tangga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bentuk pembelajaran pendidikan alternatif adalah metode pendidikan orang dewasa atau andragogy. Pembentukan kelompok belajar terdiri atas; kelompok baca tulis dan keaksaraan fungsional. Proses pembe­lajaran dimulai dengan sharing pembelajaran, refleksi pengalaman hidup, dan metode role play. Hasilnya 65% peserta pembelajaran mengalami peningkatan kemampuan membaca, menulis, dan berhitung, serta pema