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Sample records for left intraparietal sulcus

  1. Representation of Semantic Similarity in the Left Intraparietal Sulcus: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence

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    Veerle Neyens

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, semantic similarity between concrete entities correlates with the similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS during category naming. We examined the replicability of this effect under passive viewing conditions, the potential role of visuoperceptual similarity, where the effect is situated compared to regions that have been previously implicated in visuospatial attention, and how it compares to effects of object identity and location. Forty-six subjects participated. Subjects passively viewed pictures from two categories, musical instruments and vehicles. Semantic similarity between entities was estimated based on a concept-feature matrix obtained in more than 1,000 subjects. Visuoperceptual similarity was modeled based on the HMAX model, the AlexNet deep convolutional learning model, and thirdly, based on subjective visuoperceptual similarity ratings. Among the IPS regions examined, only left middle IPS showed a semantic similarity effect. The effect was significant in hIP1, hIP2, and hIP3. Visuoperceptual similarity did not correlate with similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS. The semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS was significantly stronger than in the right middle IPS and also stronger than in the left or right posterior IPS. The semantic similarity effect was similar to that seen in the angular gyrus. Object identity effects were much more widespread across nearly all parietal areas examined. Location effects were relatively specific for posterior IPS and area 7 bilaterally. To conclude, the current findings replicate the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS under passive viewing conditions, and demonstrate its anatomical specificity within a cytoarchitectonic reference frame. We propose that the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS reflects the transient uploading of semantic representations in working memory.

  2. Where syntax meets math: Right Intraparietal Sulcus activation in response to grammatical number agreement violations

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    Carreiras, Manuel; Carr, Lindsay; Barber, Horacio A.; Hernandez, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the processing of words referring to actions activated motor areas. Here we show activation of the right intraparietal sulcus, an area that has been associated with quantity processing, when participants are asked to read pairs of words with number agreement violations as opposed to phrases with gender agreement violations or with no violation. In addition, we show activation in the left premotor and left inferior frontal areas when either gender or number agreement is violated. We argue that number violation automatically activates processes linked to quantity processing which are not directly related to language mechanisms. PMID:19800410

  3. Superior Intraparietal Sulcus Controls the Variability of Visual Working Memory Precision.

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    Galeano Weber, Elena M; Peters, Benjamin; Hahn, Tim; Bledowski, Christoph; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-05-18

    Limitations of working memory (WM) capacity depend strongly on the cognitive resources that are available for maintaining WM contents in an activated state. Increasing the number of items to be maintained in WM was shown to reduce the precision of WM and to increase the variability of WM precision over time. Although WM precision was recently associated with neural codes particularly in early sensory cortex, we have so far no understanding of the neural bases underlying the variability of WM precision, and how WM precision is preserved under high load. To fill this gap, we combined human fMRI with computational modeling of behavioral performance in a delayed color-estimation WM task. Behavioral results replicate a reduction of WM precision and an increase of precision variability under high loads (5 > 3 > 1 colors). Load-dependent BOLD signals in primary visual cortex (V1) and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), measured during the WM task at 2-4 s after sample onset, were modulated by individual differences in load-related changes in the variability of WM precision. Although stronger load-related BOLD increase in superior IPS was related to lower increases in precision variability, thus stabilizing WM performance, the reverse was observed for V1. Finally, the detrimental effect of load on behavioral precision and precision variability was accompanied by a load-related decline in the accuracy of decoding the memory stimuli (colors) from left superior IPS. We suggest that the superior IPS may contribute to stabilizing visual WM performance by reducing the variability of memory precision in the face of higher load. This study investigates the neural bases of capacity limitations in visual working memory by combining fMRI with cognitive modeling of behavioral performance, in human participants. It provides evidence that the superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a critical brain region that influences the variability of visual working memory precision between and

  4. Specialization of the Right Intraparietal Sulcus for Processing Mathematics During Development.

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    Schel, Margot A; Klingberg, Torkel

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical ability, especially perception of numbers and performance of arithmetics, is known to rely on the activation of intraparietal sulcus (IPS). However, reasoning ability and working memory, 2 highly associated abilities also activate partly overlapping regions. Most studies aimed at localizing mathematical function have used group averages, where individual variability is averaged out, thus confounding the anatomical specificity when localizing cognitive functions. Here, we analyze the functional anatomy of the intraparietal cortex by using individual analysis of subregions of IPS based on how they are structurally connected to frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex. Analysis of cortical thickness showed that the right anterior IPS, defined by its connections to the frontal lobe, was associated with both visuospatial working memory, and mathematics in 6-year-old children. This region specialized during development to be specifically related to mathematics, but not visuospatial working memory in adolescents and adults. This could be an example of interactive specialization, where interacting with the environment in combination with interactions between cortical regions leads from a more general role of right anterior IPS in spatial processing, to a specialization of this region for mathematics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Developmental dyscalculia: compensatory mechanisms in left intraparietal regions in response to nonsymbolic magnitudes

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    Starke Marc

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying developmental dyscalculia are scarce and results are thus far inconclusive. Main aim of the present study is to investigate the neural correlates of nonsymbolic number magnitude processing in children with and without dyscalculia. Methods 18 children (9 with dyscalculia were asked to solve a non-symbolic number magnitude comparison task (finger patterns during brain scanning. For the spatial control task identical stimuli were employed, instructions varying only (judgment of palm rotation. This design enabled us to present identical stimuli with identical visual processing requirements in the experimental and the control task. Moreover, because numerical and spatial processing relies on parietal brain regions, task-specific contrasts are expected to reveal true number-specific activations. Results Behavioral results during scanning reveal that despite comparable (almost at ceiling performance levels, task-specific activations were stronger in dyscalculic children in inferior parietal cortices bilaterally (intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, extending to left angular gyrus. Interestingly, fMRI signal strengths reflected a group × task interaction: relative to baseline, controls produced significant deactivations in (intraparietal regions bilaterally in response to number but not spatial processing, while the opposite pattern emerged in dyscalculics. Moreover, beta weights in response to number processing differed significantly between groups in left – but not right – (intraparietal regions (becoming even positive in dyscalculic children. Conclusion Overall, findings are suggestive of (a less consistent neural activity in right (intraparietal regions upon processing nonsymbolic number magnitudes; and (b compensatory neural activity in left (intraparietal regions in developmental dyscalculia.

  6. Developmental dyscalculia: compensatory mechanisms in left intraparietal regions in response to nonsymbolic magnitudes.

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    Kaufmann, Liane; Vogel, Stephan E; Starke, Marc; Kremser, Christian; Schocke, Michael; Wood, Guilherme

    2009-08-05

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying developmental dyscalculia are scarce and results are thus far inconclusive. Main aim of the present study is to investigate the neural correlates of nonsymbolic number magnitude processing in children with and without dyscalculia. 18 children (9 with dyscalculia) were asked to solve a non-symbolic number magnitude comparison task (finger patterns) during brain scanning. For the spatial control task identical stimuli were employed, instructions varying only (judgment of palm rotation). This design enabled us to present identical stimuli with identical visual processing requirements in the experimental and the control task. Moreover, because numerical and spatial processing relies on parietal brain regions, task-specific contrasts are expected to reveal true number-specific activations. Behavioral results during scanning reveal that despite comparable (almost at ceiling) performance levels, task-specific activations were stronger in dyscalculic children in inferior parietal cortices bilaterally (intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, extending to left angular gyrus). Interestingly, fMRI signal strengths reflected a group x task interaction: relative to baseline, controls produced significant deactivations in (intra)parietal regions bilaterally in response to number but not spatial processing, while the opposite pattern emerged in dyscalculics. Moreover, beta weights in response to number processing differed significantly between groups in left - but not right - (intra)parietal regions (becoming even positive in dyscalculic children). Overall, findings are suggestive of (a) less consistent neural activity in right (intra)parietal regions upon processing nonsymbolic number magnitudes; and (b) compensatory neural activity in left (intra)parietal regions in developmental dyscalculia.

  7. Cytoarchitectonic identification and probabilistic mapping of two distinct areas within the anterior ventral bank of the human intraparietal sulcus

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    Choi, Hi-Jae; Zilles, Karl; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Schleicher, Axel; Fink, Gereon R.; Armstrong, Este; Amunts, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Anatomical studies in the macaque cortex and functional imaging studies in humans have demonstrated the existence of different cortical areas within the IntraParietal Sulcus (IPS). Such functional segregation, however, does not correlate with presently available architectonic maps of the human brain. This is particularly true for the classical Brodmann map, which is still widely used as an anatomical reference in functional imaging studies. The aim of this cytoarchitectonic mapping study was to use previously defined algorithms to determine whether consistent regions and borders can be found within the cortex of the anterior IPS in a population of ten postmortem human brains. Two areas, the human IntraParietal area 1 (hIP1) and the human IntraParietal area 2 (hIP2), were delineated in serial histological sections of the anterior, lateral bank of the human IPS. The region hIP1 is located posterior and medial to hIP2, and the former is always within the depths of the IPS. The latter, on the other hand, sometimes reaches the free surface of the superior parietal lobule. The delineations were registered to standard reference space, and probabilistic maps were calculated, thereby quantifying the intersubject variability in location and extent of both areas. In the future, they can be a tool in analyzing structure – function relationships and a basis for determining degrees of homology in the IPS among anthropoid primates. We conclude that the human intraparietal sulcus has a finer grained parcellation than shown in Brodmann’s map. PMID:16432904

  8. Pharmacological inactivation does not support a unique causal role for intraparietal sulcus in the discrimination of visual number.

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    Nicholas K DeWind

    Full Text Available The "number sense" describes the intuitive ability to quantify without counting. Single neuron recordings in non-human primates and functional imaging in humans suggest the intraparietal sulcus is an important neuroanatomical locus of numerical estimation. Other lines of inquiry implicate the IPS in numerous other functions, including attention and decision making. Here we provide a direct test of whether IPS has functional specificity for numerosity judgments. We used muscimol to reversibly and independently inactivate the ventral and lateral intraparietal areas in two monkeys performing a numerical discrimination task and a color discrimination task, roughly equilibrated for difficulty. Inactivation of either area caused parallel impairments in both tasks and no evidence of a selective deficit in numerical processing. These findings do not support a causal role for the IPS in numerical discrimination, except insofar as it also has a role in the discrimination of color. We discuss our findings in light of several alternative hypotheses of IPS function, including a role in orienting responses, a general cognitive role in attention and decision making processes and a more specific role in ordinal comparison that encompasses both number and color judgments.

  9. Variation in functional connectivity along anterior-to-posterior intraparietal sulcus, and relationship with age across late childhood and adolescence

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    Sarah A. Vinette

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region in the dorsal attention network (DAN, has been implicated in multi-sensory attention and working memory. Working memory and attention develop across childhood; changes in functional connectivity within the DAN may relate to this maturation. Previous findings regarding fronto-parietal intrinsic functional connectivity age-effects were mixed. Our study aimed to circumvent limitations of previous work using a large cross-sectional sample, 183 typically developing participants 6.5–20 years, from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, and seed regions along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the IPS. These seeds, IPS0-4, were entered into functional connectivity models. Group-level models investigated differential connectivity along the IPS and relationships with age. Anterior IPS3/4 exhibited greater connectivity with sensorimotor/pre-motor regions. Posterior IPS0/1 demonstrated greater connectivity with dorsal and ventral visual regions. Positive age-effects were found between IPS3-4 and visual regions. Negative age-effects were found between IPS and superior parietal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. Follow-up region of interest analyses were used to estimate age-effects for DAN and anticorrelated default mode network regions. Results suggest age-effects on IPS functional connectivity are relatively modest, and may differ pre- and across-adolescence. Studying typical age-related connectivity variability within this network may help to understand neurodevelopmental disorders marked by impaired attention.

  10. A computational model of fMRI activity in the intraparietal sulcus that supports visual working memory.

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    Domijan, Dražen

    2011-12-01

    A computational model was developed to explain a pattern of results of fMRI activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) supporting visual working memory for multiobject scenes. The model is based on the hypothesis that dendrites of excitatory neurons are major computational elements in the cortical circuit. Dendrites enable formation of a competitive queue that exhibits a gradient of activity values for nodes encoding different objects, and this pattern is stored in working memory. In the model, brain imaging data are interpreted as a consequence of blood flow arising from dendritic processing. Computer simulations showed that the model successfully simulates data showing the involvement of inferior IPS in object individuation and spatial grouping through representation of objects' locations in space, along with the involvement of superior IPS in object identification through representation of a set of objects' features. The model exhibits a capacity limit due to the limited dynamic range for nodes and the operation of lateral inhibition among them. The capacity limit is fixed in the inferior IPS regardless of the objects' complexity, due to the normalization of lateral inhibition, and variable in the superior IPS, due to the different encoding demands for simple and complex shapes. Systematic variation in the strength of self-excitation enables an understanding of the individual differences in working memory capacity. The model offers several testable predictions regarding the neural basis of visual working memory.

  11. The anterior intraparietal sulcus mediates grasp execution, independent of requirement to update: new insights from transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Rice, Nichola J; Tunik, Eugene; Grafton, Scott T

    2006-08-02

    Although a role of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in grasping is becoming evident, the specific contribution of regions within the IPS remains undefined. In this vein, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the anterior (aIPS), middle (mIPS), and caudal (cIPS) IPS in two tasks designed to dissociate the potential roles of the IPS in either grasp planning or execution (task 1) and its involvement in error detection or error correction (task 2). Determining the involvement of specific regions of the IPS in perceptual (planning and error detection) versus motor (execution and correction) components of grasping allowed us to assess the ecological validity of competing computational models attempting to simulate reach-to-grasp movements. In task 1, we demonstrate that, when no on-line adjustment is necessary, TMS to aIPS (but not mIPS or cIPS) disrupts grasping; this disruption is only elicited when TMS is applied during the execution (but not the planning) phase of the movement. Task 2 reveals that TMS to aIPS (but not mIPS or cIPS) disrupts grasping in the presence of a perturbation; this disruption is only elicited when TMS is applied during the error correction (but not error detection) phase of the movement. We propose that the specific contribution of the aIPS in grasping is in the on-line computation of a difference vector based on motor goal, efference copy, and sensory inputs. This computation is performed for both stable and perturbed motor goals.

  12. Influences of Long-Term Memory-Guided Attention and Stimulus-Guided Attention on Visuospatial Representations within Human Intraparietal Sulcus.

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    Rosen, Maya L; Stern, Chantal E; Michalka, Samantha W; Devaney, Kathryn J; Somers, David C

    2015-08-12

    Human parietal cortex plays a central role in encoding visuospatial information and multiple visual maps exist within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), with each hemisphere symmetrically representing contralateral visual space. Two forms of hemispheric asymmetries have been identified in parietal cortex ventrolateral to visuotopic IPS. Key attentional processes are localized to right lateral parietal cortex in the temporoparietal junction and long-term memory (LTM) retrieval processes are localized to the left lateral parietal cortex in the angular gyrus. Here, using fMRI, we investigate how spatial representations of visuotopic IPS are influenced by stimulus-guided visuospatial attention and by LTM-guided visuospatial attention. We replicate prior findings that a hemispheric asymmetry emerges under stimulus-guided attention: in the right hemisphere (RH), visual maps IPS0, IPS1, and IPS2 code attentional targets across the visual field; in the left hemisphere (LH), IPS0-2 codes primarily contralateral targets. We report the novel finding that, under LTM-guided attention, both RH and LH IPS0-2 exhibit bilateral responses and hemispheric symmetry re-emerges. Therefore, we demonstrate that both hemispheres of IPS0-2 are independently capable of dynamically changing spatial coding properties as attentional task demands change. These findings have important implications for understanding visuospatial and memory-retrieval deficits in patients with parietal lobe damage. The human parietal lobe contains multiple maps of the external world that spatially guide perception, action, and cognition. Maps in each cerebral hemisphere code information from the opposite side of space, not from the same side, and the two hemispheres are symmetric. Paradoxically, damage to specific parietal regions that lack spatial maps can cause patients to ignore half of space (hemispatial neglect syndrome), but only for right (not left) hemisphere damage. Conversely, the left parietal cortex has

  13. Multisensory speech perception without the left superior temporal sulcus.

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    Baum, Sarah H; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical site for multisensory integration of auditory and visual information during speech perception. We report a patient, SJ, who suffered a stroke that damaged the left tempo-parietal area, resulting in mild anomic aphasia. Structural MRI showed complete destruction of the left middle and posterior STS, as well as damage to adjacent areas in the temporal and parietal lobes. Surprisingly, SJ demonstrated preserved multisensory integration measured with two independent tests. First, she perceived the McGurk effect, an illusion that requires integration of auditory and visual speech. Second, her perception of morphed audiovisual speech with ambiguous auditory or visual information was significantly influenced by the opposing modality. To understand the neural basis for this preserved multisensory integration, blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) was used to examine brain responses to audiovisual speech in SJ and 23 healthy age-matched controls. In controls, bilateral STS activity was observed. In SJ, no activity was observed in the damaged left STS but in the right STS, more cortex was active in SJ than in any of the normal controls. Further, the amplitude of the BOLD response in right STS response to McGurk stimuli was significantly greater in SJ than in controls. The simplest explanation of these results is a reorganization of SJ's cortical language networks such that the right STS now subserves multisensory integration of speech. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Top-down modulation from inferior frontal junction to FEFs and intraparietal sulcus during short-term memory for visual features.

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    Sneve, Markus H; Magnussen, Svein; Alnæs, Dag; Endestad, Tor; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Visual STM of simple features is achieved through interactions between retinotopic visual cortex and a set of frontal and parietal regions. In the present fMRI study, we investigated effective connectivity between central nodes in this network during the different task epochs of a modified delayed orientation discrimination task. Our univariate analyses demonstrate that the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) is preferentially involved in memory encoding, whereas activity in the putative FEFs and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) remains elevated throughout periods of memory maintenance. We have earlier reported, using the same task, that areas in visual cortex sustain information about task-relevant stimulus properties during delay intervals [Sneve, M. H., Alnæs, D., Endestad, T., Greenlee, M. W., & Magnussen, S. Visual short-term memory: Activity supporting encoding and maintenance in retinotopic visual cortex. Neuroimage, 63, 166-178, 2012]. To elucidate the temporal dynamics of the IFJ-FEF-aIPS-visual cortex network during memory operations, we estimated Granger causality effects between these regions with fMRI data representing memory encoding/maintenance as well as during memory retrieval. We also investigated a set of control conditions involving active processing of stimuli not associated with a memory task and passive viewing. In line with the developing understanding of IFJ as a region critical for control processes with a possible initiating role in visual STM operations, we observed influence from IFJ to FEF and aIPS during memory encoding. Furthermore, FEF predicted activity in a set of higher-order visual areas during memory retrieval, a finding consistent with its suggested role in top-down biasing of sensory cortex.

  15. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

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    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  16. Useful signs for identification of the central sulcus in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, E.; Domitrovic, L.; Ypa, P.; Gandarillas Baldelomar, B.; Fuentes, F.; Arcos, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the frequency of appearance of the central sulcus localizing signs in magnetic resonance images (MRI). Material and method. The MRI of 60 adult patients (18-83 years) of both sexes (34 women / 26 men) with normal brains were studied. Axial T1 and T2 images were performed on a Phillips 1.5 tesla resonator. On the MRI we looked the following signs: union between the superior frontal sulcus and the precentral sulcus, sigmoidal hook, pars bracket, bifid post central sulcus, union between the intraparietal sulcus and the post central sulcus and, central sulcus reaching the midline. Mean frequencies were calculated. Results. The posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus joined the precentral sulcus in 95% of the cases. Sigmoidal hook sign was seen in 96.66% of the cases. Pars bracket sign was present in 95% of the observations. Bifid postcentral sulcus sign was seen in 65 % of cases. The postcentral gyrus was thinner than the precentral gyrus in 98.33% of the cases. Intraparietal sulcus joined with the postcentral gyrus in 88.33% of the cases. The central sulcus reached the midline in 86.66% of the observations. Conclusion. The signs described had a high frequency: they were found in 89.28% of the MRI studied. (authors)

  17. Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: Individual variability or false positives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Nicholas D.; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J.

    2008-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read r !sults in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In tl e first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in >= 1 left OT voxel for word:

  18. Selective Activation Around the Left Occipito-Temporal Sulcus for Words Relative to Pictures: Individual Variability or False Positives?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge ARB; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P < 0.05 uncorrected). In a second experiment, another 9/15 subjects performing a semantic decision task activated ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at thi...

  19. Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: individual variability or false positives?

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    Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J

    2008-08-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in > or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at this low statistical threshold false positives need to be excluded. The semantic decision paradigm was therefore repeated, within subject, in two different scanners (1.5 and 3 T). Both scanners consistently localised left OT activation for words relative to fixation and pictures relative to words, but there were no consistent effects for words relative to pictures. Finally, in a third experiment, we minimised the voxel size (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 mm(3)) and demonstrated a striking concordance between the voxels activated for words and pictures, irrespective of task (naming vs. one-back) or script (English vs. Hebrew). In summary, although we detected differential activation for words relative to pictures, these effects: (i) do not withstand statistical rigour; (ii) do not replicate within or between subjects; and (iii) are observed in voxels that also respond to pictures of objects. Our findings have implications for the role of left OT activation during reading. More generally, they show that studies using low statistical thresholds in single subject analyses should correct the statistical threshold for the number of comparisons made or replicate effects within subject. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Differential influences of unilateral tDCS over the intraparietal cortex on numerical cognition

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    Christina eArtemenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuro-imaging research identified the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS to be a key area associated with number processing. However, causal structure-function relationships are hard to evaluate from neuro-imaging techniques such as fMRI. Nevertheless, brain stimulation methods like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS allow for investigating the functional relevance of the IPS for number processing. Following up on a study using bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over the IPS, the current study aimed at evaluating the differential lateralized functional contributions of the left and right IPS to number processing using unilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over either the left or right IPS. Results indicated a right lateralization for the processing of the place-value structure of the Arabic number system. Importantly, the processing of number magnitude information was not affected by unilateral IPS corroborating the assumption that number magnitude is processed in the bilateral IPS. Taken together, these data suggest that even though number magnitude is represented bilaterally, the left and right IPS seem to contribute differentially to numerical cognition with respect to the processing of specific other aspects of numerical information.

  1. Curved planar reformation images for identification of the central sulcus of affected hemispheres. Comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hideaki; Inoue, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curved planar reformation (CPR) for identification of the central sulcus on affected hemispheres. Thirty four patients with an intracranial lesion adjacent to the central sulcus underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was performed with a 3.0 Tesla scanner during repetitive opening and closing of each hand. The central sulcus was defined as the nearest sulcus to the highest activation spots. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging date sets were processed using the CPR method to create brain surface reformatted images. We evaluated five anatomical features widely used for clinical identification of the central sulcus: 1, termination of the superior frontal sulcus in the precentral sulcus; 2, the intraparietal sulcus joining the postcentral sulcus; 3, the precentral gyros thicker than the postcentral gyrus; 4, inverted omega-shape of the precentral gyrus; and 5, the central sulcus as an isolated sulcus. fMRI and CPR coincided in defining the central sulcus in 34 hemispheres of patients. Applicability of each of the five signs was 61.8, 73.5, 58.8, 50.0 and 67.6%, respectively. The present study indicates that the CPR method successfully defined the central sulcus in most patients with brain tumors. For identification of the central sulcus, the CPR method will be recommended. (author)

  2. Attention to emotion modulates fMRI activity in human right superior temporal sulcus.

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    Narumoto, J; Okada, T; Sadato, N; Fukui, K; Yonekura, Y

    2001-10-01

    A parallel neural network has been proposed for processing various types of information conveyed by faces including emotion. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested the effect of the explicit attention to the emotional expression of the faces on the neuronal activity of the face-responsive regions. Delayed match to sample procedure was adopted. Subjects were required to match the visually presented pictures with regard to the contour of the face pictures, facial identity, and emotional expressions by valence (happy and fearful expressions) and arousal (fearful and sad expressions). Contour matching of the non-face scrambled pictures was used as a control condition. The face-responsive regions that responded more to faces than to non-face stimuli were the bilateral lateral fusiform gyrus (LFG), the right superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In these regions, general attention to the face enhanced the activities of the bilateral LFG, the right STS, and the left IPS compared with attention to the contour of the facial image. Selective attention to facial emotion specifically enhanced the activity of the right STS compared with attention to the face per se. The results suggest that the right STS region plays a special role in facial emotion recognition within distributed face-processing systems. This finding may support the notion that the STS is involved in social perception.

  3. Preference for orientations commonly viewed for one's own hand in the anterior intraparietal cortex.

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    Regine Zopf

    Full Text Available Brain regions in the intraparietal and the premotor cortices selectively process visual and multisensory events near the hands (peri-hand space. Visual information from the hand itself modulates this processing potentially because it is used to estimate the location of one's own body and the surrounding space. In humans specific occipitotemporal areas process visual information of specific body parts such as hands. Here we used an fMRI block-design to investigate if anterior intraparietal and ventral premotor 'peri-hand areas' exhibit selective responses to viewing images of hands and viewing specific hand orientations. Furthermore, we investigated if the occipitotemporal 'hand area' is sensitive to viewed hand orientation. Our findings demonstrate increased BOLD responses in the left anterior intraparietal area when participants viewed hands and feet as compared to faces and objects. Anterior intraparietal and also occipitotemporal areas in the left hemisphere exhibited response preferences for viewing right hands with orientations commonly viewed for one's own hand as compared to uncommon own hand orientations. Our results indicate that both anterior intraparietal and occipitotemporal areas encode visual limb-specific shape and orientation information.

  4. Superior intraparietal sulcus controls the variability of visual working memory precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeano Weber, E.M.; Peters, B.; Hahn, T.; Bledowski, C.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Limitations of working memory (WM) capacity depend strongly on the cognitive resources that are available for maintaining WM contents in an activated state. Increasing the number of items to be maintained in WM was shown to reduce the precision of WM and to increase the variability of WM precision

  5. The effect of handedness on the shape of the central sulcus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhong Yi; Klöppel, Stefan; Rivière, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Sinistrals differ from dextrals in the size of certain cortical folds. For instance, handedness has an impact on central sulcus surface area: the sulcus is larger in the dominant left hemisphere of dextrals and vice versa for sinistrals. However, the impact of handedness on the shape of the centr...... an accumulated record of both innate biases and early developmental experience. Characterizing normal variation of cortical morphology provides a means of systematically correlating behavior with cortical development....

  6. Radiology of the paraglenoid sulcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schemmer, D.; White, P.G.; Friedman, L.

    1995-01-01

    The paraglenoid sulcus is a variable groove in the ilium adjacent to the inferior end of the sacroiliac joint. This study investigates the hypothesis that the groove is due to resorption at the insertion of the anterior sacroiliac ligament in response to stress. The anatomical relationships of the groove are shown with plain films, arteriography and computed tomography. Relationship to parity was tested in 70 adult female subjects; a statistically significant relationship was found, with deep grooves occurring only in parous women. An association with osteitis condensans ilii was also demonstrated. Relationship to lumbosacral posture was tested in 102 adult females, and an association with increased lumbar lordosis was found. These findings are consistent with our initial hypothesis. (orig.)

  7. Radiology of the paraglenoid sulcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemmer, D [McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada); White, P G [Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Friedman, L [Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    The paraglenoid sulcus is a variable groove in the ilium adjacent to the inferior end of the sacroiliac joint. This study investigates the hypothesis that the groove is due to resorption at the insertion of the anterior sacroiliac ligament in response to stress. The anatomical relationships of the groove are shown with plain films, arteriography and computed tomography. Relationship to parity was tested in 70 adult female subjects; a statistically significant relationship was found, with deep grooves occurring only in parous women. An association with osteitis condensans ilii was also demonstrated. Relationship to lumbosacral posture was tested in 102 adult females, and an association with increased lumbar lordosis was found. These findings are consistent with our initial hypothesis. (orig.)

  8. Visualisation of Rouviere's Sulcus during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, P B; Maharjan, D K; Tamang, T Y; Shrestha, S K

    2015-01-01

    Safe dissection of Calot's Triangle is important during the performance of laparascopic cholucystectomy. The purpose of the study is to determine the frequency of demonstrable Rouviere's sulcus in patients with symptomatic gall stones and its role in safe dissection in Calot's triangle. This is a prospective descriptive study design done in Department of surgery, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015. Patients who were posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. During laparoscopy, Rouviere's sulcus was noted in the operative note and classified according to following: Type I: Open type was defined as a cleft in which the right hepatic pedicle was visualized and the sulcus was opened throughout its length. Type II: if the sulcus was open only at its lateral end. Type III If the sulcus was open only at its medial end. Type IV: Fused type was defined as one in which the pedicle was not visualized.  A total of 200 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during period of 2 years. Out of which Rouviere's sulcus was visualized in 150 patients (75 %).Type I (open type) was commoner in 54%, type II in 12%, Type III in 9% and type IV (fused type) in 25%. Rouviere's Sulcus is an important extra biliary land mark for safe dissection of Calot's triangle during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  Rouviere's Sulcus, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Bile duct injury.

  9. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  10. INFRAORBITAL SULCUS: A STUDY IN 100 SKULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Roshni; . Jayanthi; Shubha

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A study was done on 100 intact, unsexed human skulls in the Department of Anatomy, KIMS, Bangalore, to observe and record the presence of a groove in the lateral wall of the orbit, synonymous with infra orbital sulcus. This entity has been described by the fortieth edition of Gray’s text book of Anatomy to extend from the lateral end of superior orbital fissure to the orbital floor. It sometimes contains an anastomosis between middle meningeal artery and infr...

  11. Inferring eye position from populations of lateral intraparietal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arnulf Ba; Andersen, Richard A

    2014-05-20

    Understanding how the brain computes eye position is essential to unraveling high-level visual functions such as eye movement planning, coordinate transformations and stability of spatial awareness. The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) is essential for this process. However, despite decades of research, its contribution to the eye position signal remains controversial. LIP neurons have recently been reported to inaccurately represent eye position during a saccadic eye movement, and to be too slow to support a role in high-level visual functions. We addressed this issue by predicting eye position and saccade direction from the responses of populations of LIP neurons. We found that both signals were accurately predicted before, during and after a saccade. Also, the dynamics of these signals support their contribution to visual functions. These findings provide a principled understanding of the coding of information in populations of neurons within an important node of the cortical network for visual-motor behaviors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02813.001. Copyright © 2014, Graf and Andersen.

  12. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Nielsen

    Full Text Available Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area, whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields. Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right

  13. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jared A; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ferguson, Michael A; Lainhart, Janet E; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction) and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area), whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields). Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right-brained" network strength

  14. Developmental specialization of the left parietal cortex for the semantic representation of Arabic numerals: An fMR-adaptation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan E. Vogel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The way the human brain constructs representations of numerical symbols is poorly understood. While increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies has indicated that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS becomes increasingly specialized for symbolic numerical magnitude representation over developmental time, the extent to which these changes are associated with age-related differences in symbolic numerical magnitude representation or with developmental changes in non-numerical processes, such as response selection, remains to be uncovered. To address these outstanding questions we investigated developmental changes in the cortical representation of symbolic numerical magnitude in 6- to 14-year-old children using a passive functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation design, thereby mitigating the influence of response selection. A single-digit Arabic numeral was repeatedly presented on a computer screen and interspersed with the presentation of novel digits deviating as a function of numerical ratio (smaller/larger number. Results demonstrated a correlation between age and numerical ratio in the left IPS, suggesting an age-related increase in the extent to which numerical symbols are represented in the left IPS. Brain activation of the right IPS was modulated by numerical ratio but did not correlate with age, indicating hemispheric differences in IPS engagement during the development of symbolic numerical representation.

  15. Visualisation of Rouviere’s Sulcus during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabin Bikram Thapa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe dissection of Calot’s Triangle is important during the performance of laparascopic cholucystectomy. The purpose of the study is to determine the frequency of demonstrable Rouviere’s sulcus in patients with symptomatic gall stones and its role in safe dissection in Calot’s triangle. Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study design done in Department of surgery, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015. Patients who were posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. During laparoscopy, Rouviere’s sulcus was noted in the operative note and classified according to following: Type I: Open type was defined as a cleft in which the right hepatic pedicle was visualized and the sulcus was opened throughout its length. Type II: if the sulcus was open only at its lateral end. Type III If the sulcus was open only at its medial end. Type IV: Fused type was defined as one in which the pedicle was not visualized. Results: A total of 200 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during period of 2 years. Out of which Rouviere’s sulcus was visualized in 150 patients (75 %.Type I (open type was commoner in 54%, type II in 12%, Type III in 9% and type IV (fused type in 25%. Conclusions: Rouviere’s Sulcus is an important extra biliary land mark for safe dissection of Calot’s triangle during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Keywords: Rouviere’s Sulcus, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, bile duct injury.

  16. Opacification of the C-flex 570C intraocular lens after sulcus fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Patrick; Carbonneau, Marjorie

    2017-09-08

    To report a case of diffuse intraocular lens (IOL) opacification in a patient who started complaining of blurred vision in his left eye over the course of three years after having phacoemulsification surgery combined with capsular bag fixation of a C-flex 570C IOL. The IOL had been repositioned in the ciliary sulcus following its subluxation. An IOL exchange was performed, and the explanted IOL was sent for histopathological analysis. Scanning electron microscopy identified multiple crystalline-like deposits on both sides of the IOL. The optic was more extensively involved than the haptics. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the predominance of calcium within the deposits. The breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier seems to be a key component of this calcification process. Ciliary sulcus fixation is not a suitable option for C-flex 570C IOLs.

  17. Pigment dispersion and chronic intraocular pressure elevation after sulcus placement of 3-piece acrylic intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, M Camille; Wu, Michael C; Chen, Philip P

    2009-12-01

    A 55-year-old man had phacoemulsification and implantation of a 3-piece acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (AcrySof MA60AC) in the right eye. One month postoperatively, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was 48 mm Hg and peripheral transillumination defects were noted in the iris circumferentially, with the IOL optic edge visible as a silhouette. Gonioscopy showed dense pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork in the right eye, but in the left eye, only mild trabecular meshwork pigment was seen, along with a concave peripheral iris insertion. At 21 months, the right eye required 3 medications for IOP control. While pigment dispersion has been widely reported after placement of 1-piece acrylic IOLs in the ciliary sulcus, we conclude that in susceptible individuals with a concave peripheral iris insertion, pigment dispersion can occur with sulcus placement of a 3-piece acrylic model despite its thinner optic and angulated haptics.

  18. Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not

  19. Emergence of realism: Enhanced visual artistry and high accuracy of visual numerosity representation after left prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Saito, Fumie; Muramatsu, Taro; Yamada, Makiko; Shirahase, Joichiro; Tabuchi, Hajime; Suhara, Tetsuya; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Motoichiro

    2014-05-01

    Over the last two decades, evidence of enhancement of drawing and painting skills due to focal prefrontal damage has accumulated. It is of special interest that most artworks created by such patients were highly realistic ones, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be understood. Our hypothesis is that enhanced tendency of realism was associated with accuracy of visual numerosity representation, which has been shown to be mediated predominantly by right parietal functions. Here, we report a case of left prefrontal stroke, where the patient showed enhancement of artistic skills of realistic painting after the onset of brain damage. We investigated cognitive, functional and esthetic characteristics of the patient׳s visual artistry and visual numerosity representation. Neuropsychological tests revealed impaired executive function after the stroke. Despite that, the patient׳s visual artistry related to realism was rather promoted across the onset of brain damage as demonstrated by blind evaluation of the paintings by professional art reviewers. On visual numerical cognition tasks, the patient showed higher performance in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. These results paralleled increased perfusion in the right parietal cortex including the precuneus and intraparietal sulcus. Our data provide new insight into mechanisms underlying change in artistic style due to focal prefrontal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  1. Hand preference and magnetic resonance imaging asymmetries of the central sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundas, A L; Hong, K; Leonard, C M; Heilman, K M

    1998-04-01

    Hand preference is perhaps the most evident behavioral asymmetry observed in humans. Anatomic brain asymmetries that may be associated with hand preference have not been extensively studied, and no clear relationship between asymmetries of the motor system and hand preference have been established. Therefore, using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging methodologies, the surface area of the hand representation was measured along the length of the central sulcus in 15 consistent right- and 15 left-handers matched for age and gender. There was a significant leftward asymmetry of the motor hand area of the precentral gyrus in the right-handers, but no directional asymmetry was found in the left-handers. When asymmetry quotients were computed to determine the distribution of interhemispheric asymmetries, the left motor bank was greater than the right motor bank in 9 of 15 right-handers, the right motor bank was greater than the left motor bank in 3 of 15 right-handers, and the motor banks were equal in 3 of 15 right-handers. In contrast, among left-handers, the left motor bank was greater than the right motor bank in 5 of 15, the right motor bank was greater than the left motor bank in 5 of 15, and the motor banks were equal in 5 of 15. Although no direct measure of motor dexterity and skill was performed, these data suggest that anatomic asymmetries of the motor hand area may be related to hand preference because of the differences in right-handers and left-handers. Furthermore, the predominant leftward asymmetry in right-handers and the random distribution of asymmetries in the left-handers support Annett's right-shift theory. It is unclear, however, whether these asymmetries are the result of preferential hand use or are a reflection of a biologic preference to use one limb over the other.

  2. Olfactory bulb and olfactory sulcus depths are associated with disease duration and attack frequency in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, Nermin; Serin, Halil Ibrahim; Celikbilek, Asuman; Inan, Levent Ertugrul; Gundogdu, Fatma

    2015-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that progresses to axonal loss and demyelinization. Olfactory dysfunction in patients with MS has been reported frequently. We were interested in the associations of olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory sulcus depth (OSD) with disease duration and attack frequency. We included 25 patients with MS and 30 age- and sex-matched controls in this study. The Expanded Disability Status Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Mini Mental State Examination were applied. OB, OSD, and magnetic resonance imaging plaque numbers were calculated. OB volume and OSD in patients with MS were significantly lower than those in the control group (right and left OB: p<0.001; right OSD: p=0.001; and left OSD: p=0.039). Disease duration was negatively correlated with right and left OB volume (right OB: r=-0.434, p=0.030 and left OB: r=-0.518, p=0.008). Attack frequency was negatively correlated with left OB volume and left OSD (left OB: r=-0.428, p=0.033 and left OSD: r=-0.431, p=0.032). The OB and OSD were atrophied significantly in patients with MS, and this was correlated with disease duration and attack frequency. The left side tended to be dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in impaired social perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Eun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Hyeongrae; Shin, Young Seok; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-04-03

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by impairments in diverse thinking and emotional responses, which are related to social perception dysfunction. This fMRI study was designed to investigate a neurobiological basis of social perception deficits of patients with schizophrenia in various social situations of daily life and their relationship with clinical symptoms and social dysfunction. Seventeen patients and 19 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which participants performed a virtual social perception task, containing an avatar's speech with positive, negative or neutral emotion in a virtual reality space. Participants were asked to determine whether or not the avatar's speech was appropriate to each situation. The significant group×appropriateness interaction was seen in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting from lower activity in patients in the inappropriate condition, and left DLPFC activity was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms and positively correlated with the level of social functioning. The significant appropriateness×emotion interaction observed in the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) was present in controls, but absent in patients, resulting from the existence and absence of a difference between the inappropriate positive and negative conditions, respectively. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the DLPFC-STS network may underlie patients' abnormal social perception in various social situations of daily life. Abnormal functioning of this network may contribute to increases of negative symptoms and decreases of social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of cyclosporin-A on the oral microflora at gingival sulcus of the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R G; Edwardsson, S; Klinge, B; Attström, R

    1996-09-01

    The effect of cyclosporin-A (CyA) on the dentogingival flora of ferrets with healthy and experimentally induced periodontal breakdown was studied. Five animals were given 10 mg/kg/d CyA. At the start of the experiments (day 0), ligatures were placed around 4 teeth in the right upper and lower jaws; corresponding contralateral teeth on the left side served as control. On days 0 and 28 (end of the experiment), microbiological samples were collected from the gingival sulcus of the experimental and the control teeth and from closely located gingival mucosa membrane. The samples were subjected to viable counts and to darkfield microscopic analyses. On day 0, facultative anaerobic rods, mainly Pasteurella spp, Alcaligenes spp, Corynebacterium spp. and Rothia spp dominated in the viable counts. No anaerobic bacteria were detected in the viable counts. On day 28 spirochetes increased in the experimental gingival sulcus samples and anaerobic bacteria appeared in most of the samples and constituted 40-60% of the total cultivable flora; Fusobacterium necrophorum and Eubacterium spp. predominated in the samples from the experimental sites. The results of the present study were compared with those of our previous investigation of ferrets not medicated with cyclosporin but also subject to experimental ligature periodontitis. Eubacterium spp. were absent in the animals not treated with cyclosporin, while this species was frequently present in the immunosuppressed ferrets. The results indicate that the presence of the large numbers of gram negative rods and of anaerobic bacteria may have enhanced the inflammatory process and further provoked the gingival overgrowth observed.

  5. Deep and shallow forms of the sulcus for extensor carpi ulnaris.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, T; Hojo, T; Furukawa, H

    1993-01-01

    Anatomical variations in the sulcus for the tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris were studied in 240 upper limbs. The sulcus lies between the head and the styloid process on the dorsal surface of the distal end of the ulna. This groove has deep and shallow forms and, rarely, a flat form. The sulcus was classified into 4 grades according to its depth. Grade I, a deep sulcus, was found in 51.3%. Grades II and III are shallow, but the styloid process in grade II is more prominent than in grade III. ...

  6. Pneumopericardium and Deep Sulcus Sign After Blunt Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Tarladacalisir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumopericardium is defined as air between the leaves of the pericardium, which is usually self-limited. In tension pneumopericardium, however, rapid fluid resuscitation and haemodynamic monitoring followed by pericardial fenestration and drainage should be performed. A 49-year-old male falling from height was brought to the emergency room. On chest X-ray in supine position, a deep sulcus sign and subcutaneous emphysema with multiple rib fractures were detected. At computerized tomography, pericardial free air, right pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema were detected. A tube thoracostomy was applied to the patient. During follow-up with cardiac enzymes in the intensive care unit, no tension pneumopericardium developed, and subcutaneous emphysema regressed. A control computerized tomography scan showed a complete regression in the pneumopericardium on the tenth day.

  7. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  8. SULCUS TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF ORAL HYGIENE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERDOK, JF; LUKACOVIC, M; MAJETI, S; ARENDS, J; BUSSCHER, HJ

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using sulcus temperature measurements as an early indicator for the beginning of gingival inflammation. Sulcus temperature distributions over the arches appeared to obey a quadratic polynomial. With a test group of 10 volunteers, all dental students,

  9. The Role of the Lateral Intraparietal Area in (the Study of) Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huk, Alexander C; Katz, Leor N; Yates, Jacob L

    2017-07-25

    Over the past two decades, neurophysiological responses in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) have received extensive study for insight into decision making. In a parallel manner, inferred cognitive processes have enriched interpretations of LIP activity. Because of this bidirectional interplay between physiology and cognition, LIP has served as fertile ground for developing quantitative models that link neural activity with decision making. These models stand as some of the most important frameworks for linking brain and mind, and they are now mature enough to be evaluated in finer detail and integrated with other lines of investigation of LIP function. Here, we focus on the relationship between LIP responses and known sensory and motor events in perceptual decision-making tasks, as assessed by correlative and causal methods. The resulting sensorimotor-focused approach offers an account of LIP activity as a multiplexed amalgam of sensory, cognitive, and motor-related activity, with a complex and often indirect relationship to decision processes. Our data-driven focus on multiplexing (and de-multiplexing) of various response components can complement decision-focused models and provides more detailed insight into how neural signals might relate to cognitive processes such as decision making.

  10. Decoding target distance and saccade amplitude from population activity in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bremmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades towards moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP. Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction towards either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a, b. Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.

  11. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface. PMID:27630547

  12. Small Intestinal Submucosa Implantation for the Possible Treatment of Vocal Fold Scar, Sulcus, and Superficial Lamina Propria Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Michael J; Cabin, Jonathan A; Iacob, Codrin E

    2016-02-01

    Evaluate the histologic effects of grafting porcine-derived small intestinal submucosa (SIS) into the vocal fold superficial lamina propria (SLP) layer for the potential treatment of vocal fold scar, sulcus and superficial lamina propria atrophy. Small intestinal submucosa was implanted into the right vocal fold SLP of 6 mongrel dogs. The left vocal fold served as a sham surgical control. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks postoperative, bilateral vocal fold specimens were evaluated histologically. At 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, SIS-implanted vocal folds demonstrated moderate and mild inflammation and acute and chronic inflammation. At 6 weeks, inflammation was minimal and chronic. The 6-week specimens showed copious amounts of newly generated hyaluronic acid (HA) within the graft. There was no reactive fibrosis at 6 weeks. In the canine model, SIS appears safe for SLP grafting. Inflammation is similar to that of sham surgery. Small intestinal submucosa results in newly generated HA without concomitant fibrosis. Small intestinal submucosa has potential to be used in treatment of disorders with SLP, including vocal fold scar, sulcus, and atrophy. Studies evaluating the effect of SIS implantation on vocal fold function, as well as the ultimate fate of the graft, are required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Glutamate Concentration in the Superior Temporal Sulcus Relates to Neuroticism in Schizophrenia

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    Johanna Balz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies suggest aberrant neurotransmitter concentrations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ. Numerous studies have indicated deviant glutamate concentrations in SCZ, although the findings are inconsistent. Moreover, alterations in glutamate concentrations could be linked to personality traits in SCZ. Here, we examined the relationships between personality dimensions and glutamate concentrations in a voxel encompassing the occipital cortex (OCC and another voxel encompassing the left superior temporal sulcus (STS. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine glutamate concentrations in the OCC and the STS in 19 SCZ and 21 non-psychiatric healthy control (HC participants. Personality dimensions neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were assessed using the NEO-FFI questionnaire. SCZ compared to HC showed higher glutamate concentrations in the STS, reduced extraversion scores, and enhanced neuroticism scores. No group differences were observed for the other personality traits and for glutamate concentrations in the OCC. For the SCZ group, glutamate concentrations in STS were negatively correlated with the neuroticism scores [r = -0.537, p = 0.018] but this was not found in HC [r(19 = 0.011, p = 0.962]. No other significant correlations were found. Our study showed an inverse relationship between glutamate concentrations in the STS and neuroticism scores in SCZ. Elevated glutamate in the STS might serve as a compensatory mechanism that enables patients with enhanced concentrations to control and prevent the expression of neuroticism.

  14. Spatial Representations in Local Field Potential Activity of Primate Anterior Intraparietal Cortex (AIP.

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    Sebastian J Lehmann

    Full Text Available The execution of reach-to-grasp movements in order to interact with our environment is an important subset of the human movement repertoire. To coordinate such goal-directed movements, information about the relative spatial position of target and effector (in this case the hand has to be continuously integrated and processed. Recently, we reported the existence of spatial representations in spiking-activity of the cortical fronto-parietal grasp network (Lehmann & Scherberger 2013, and in particular in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP. To further investigate the nature of these spatial representations, we explored in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta how different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP in AIP are modulated by grip type, target position, and gaze position, during the planning and execution of reach-to-grasp movements. We systematically varied grasp type, spatial target, and gaze position and found that both spatial and grasp information were encoded in a variety of frequency bands (1-13Hz, 13-30Hz, 30-60Hz, and 60-100Hz, respectively. Whereas the representation of grasp type strongly increased towards and during movement execution, spatial information was represented throughout the task. Both spatial and grasp type representations could be readily decoded from all frequency bands. The fact that grasp type and spatial (reach information was found not only in spiking activity, but also in various LFP frequency bands of AIP, might significantly contribute to the development of LFP-based neural interfaces for the control of upper limb prostheses.

  15. Comparison of visual receptive fields in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral intraparietal area in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Pooja; Nieder, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    The concept of receptive field (RF) describes the responsiveness of neurons to sensory space. Neurons in the primate association cortices have long been known to be spatially selective but a detailed characterisation and direct comparison of RFs between frontal and parietal association cortices are missing. We sampled the RFs of a large number of neurons from two interconnected areas of the frontal and parietal lobes, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventral intraparietal area (VIP), of rhesus monkeys by systematically presenting a moving bar during passive fixation. We found that more than half of neurons in both areas showed spatial selectivity. Single neurons in both areas could be assigned to five classes according to the spatial response patterns: few non-uniform RFs with multiple discrete response maxima could be dissociated from the vast majority of uniform RFs showing a single maximum; the latter were further classified into full-field and confined foveal, contralateral and ipsilateral RFs. Neurons in dlPFC showed a preference for the contralateral visual space and collectively encoded the contralateral visual hemi-field. In contrast, VIP neurons preferred central locations, predominantly covering the foveal visual space. Putative pyramidal cells with broad-spiking waveforms in PFC had smaller RFs than putative interneurons showing narrow-spiking waveforms, but distributed similarly across the visual field. In VIP, however, both putative pyramidal cells and interneurons had similar RFs at similar eccentricities. We provide a first, thorough characterisation of visual RFs in two reciprocally connected areas of a fronto-parietal cortical network. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Learning Peri-saccadic Remapping of Receptive Field from Experience in Lateral Intraparietal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Mingsha; Wu, Si

    2017-01-01

    Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3-5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF). A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF), the future RF (FRF), and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade. A cortical wave (CW) model was also proposed, which attributes the RF remapping as a consequence of neural activity propagating in the cortex, triggered jointly by a visual stimulus and the corollary discharge (CD) signal responsible for the saccade. In this study, we investigate how this CW model is learned naturally from visual experiences at the development of the brain. We build a two-layer network, with one layer consisting of LIP neurons and the other superior colliculus (SC) neurons. Initially, neuronal connections are random and non-selective. A saccade will cause a static visual image to sweep through the retina passively, creating the effect of the visual stimulus moving in the opposite direction of the saccade. According to the spiking-time-dependent-plasticity rule, the connection path in the opposite direction of the saccade between LIP neurons and the connection path from SC to LIP are enhanced. Over many such visual experiences, the CW model is developed, which generates the peri-saccadic RF remapping in LIP as observed in the experiment.

  17. Learning Peri-saccadic Remapping of Receptive Field from Experience in Lateral Intraparietal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3–5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF. A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF, the future RF (FRF, and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade. A cortical wave (CW model was also proposed, which attributes the RF remapping as a consequence of neural activity propagating in the cortex, triggered jointly by a visual stimulus and the corollary discharge (CD signal responsible for the saccade. In this study, we investigate how this CW model is learned naturally from visual experiences at the development of the brain. We build a two-layer network, with one layer consisting of LIP neurons and the other superior colliculus (SC neurons. Initially, neuronal connections are random and non-selective. A saccade will cause a static visual image to sweep through the retina passively, creating the effect of the visual stimulus moving in the opposite direction of the saccade. According to the spiking-time-dependent-plasticity rule, the connection path in the opposite direction of the saccade between LIP neurons and the connection path from SC to LIP are enhanced. Over many such visual experiences, the CW model is developed, which generates the peri-saccadic RF remapping in LIP as observed in the experiment.

  18. Spatial representation and cognitive modulation of response variability in the lateral intraparietal area priority map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Annegret L; Goldberg, Michael E; Krishna, B Suresh

    2013-10-09

    The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) in the macaque contains a priority-based representation of the visual scene. We previously showed that the mean spike rate of LIP neurons is strongly influenced by spatially wide-ranging surround suppression in a manner that effectively sharpens the priority map. Reducing response variability can also improve the precision of LIP's priority map. We show that when a monkey plans a visually guided delayed saccade with an intervening distractor, variability (measured by the Fano factor) decreases both for neurons representing the saccade goal and for neurons representing the broad spatial surround. The reduction in Fano factor is maximal for neurons representing the saccade goal and steadily decreases for neurons representing more distant locations. LIP Fano factor changes are behaviorally significant: increasing expected reward leads to lower variability for the LIP representation of both the target and distractor locations, and trials with shorter latency saccades are associated with lower Fano factors in neurons representing the surround. Thus, the LIP Fano factor reflects both stimulus and behavioral engagement. Quantitative modeling shows that the interaction between mean spike count and target-receptive field (RF) distance in the surround during the predistractor epoch is multiplicative: the Fano factor increases more steeply with mean spike count further away from the RF. A negative-binomial model for LIP spike counts captures these findings quantitatively, suggests underlying mechanisms based on trial-by-trial variations in mean spike rate or burst-firing patterns, and potentially provides a principled framework to account simultaneously for the previously observed unsystematic relationships between spike rate and variability in different brain areas.

  19. [Identification of the central sulcus using magnetoencephalography and neuronavigator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Mayanagi, Y; Kaneko, Y

    1993-11-01

    The brain-generated currents that produce potentials measured by the electroencephalogram also produce magnetic fields which can be measured by the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), N 20 compatible evoked field after median nerve stimulation is known to be generated in primary sensory cortex. Using MEG with 37 channel SQUIDs, a current dipole is back traced which corresponds to the sensory cortex. When the dipole is projected onto the MRI of the same patient, the primary sensory cortex is precisely identified in the MRI images. These data were used as the key images for navigator enabling a surgeon identify the central cortex in the surgical field. Seven patients with peri-central mass lesion (3 meningiomas, 1 metastatic tumors, 1 angiomas, 2 gliomas) underwent surgery under MEG-navigator method. In every case, the central sulcus and motor cortex were easily identified on the cortex and the tumor was removed as far as possible preserving the motor strip. There were no postoperative worsening of the motor paresis and no other complications were noticed. The method which combines the MEG functional mapping and navigator was considered to be a powerful tool in surgery of the pericentral mass lesions.

  20. Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful syntactic processing in primary progressive aphasia

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    Stephen M Wilson

    2015-04-01

    Our findings suggest that some of the regions modulated by a syntactic processing task reflect task-related functions such as working memory, attention, and executive function, specifically the anterior insula bilaterally, the supplementary motor cortex bilaterally, and left dorsal premotor cortex. In contrast, other regions were modulated only in individuals with relatively intact syntactic processing, namely the left inferior frontal junction, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and left intraparietal sulcus, suggesting that these regions are important for syntactic processing.

  1. Face-infringement space: the frame of reference of the ventral intraparietal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Gin; Klam, François; Graf, Werner

    2012-07-01

    Experimental studies have shown that responses of ventral intraparietal area (VIP) neurons specialize in head movements and the environment near the head. VIP neurons respond to visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli, smooth pursuit eye movements, and passive and active movements of the head. This study demonstrates mathematical structure on a higher organizational level created within VIP by the integration of a complete set of variables covering face-infringement. Rather than positing dynamics in an a priori defined coordinate system such as those of physical space, we assemble neuronal receptive fields to find out what space of variables VIP neurons together cover. Section 1 presents a view of neurons as multidimensional mathematical objects. Each VIP neuron occupies or is responsive to a region in a sensorimotor phase space, thus unifying variables relevant to the disparate sensory modalities and movements. Convergence on one neuron joins variables functionally, as space and time are joined in relativistic physics to form a unified spacetime. The space of position and motion together forms a neuronal phase space, bridging neurophysiology and the physics of face-infringement. After a brief review of the experimental literature, the neuronal phase space natural to VIP is sequentially characterized, based on experimental data. Responses of neurons indicate variables that may serve as axes of neural reference frames, and neuronal responses have been so used in this study. The space of sensory and movement variables covered by VIP receptive fields joins visual and auditory space to body-bound sensory modalities: somatosensation and the inertial senses. This joining of allocentric and egocentric modalities is in keeping with the known relationship of the parietal lobe to the sense of self in space and to hemineglect, in both humans and monkeys. Following this inductive step, variables are formalized in terms of the mathematics of graph theory to deduce which

  2. Effect of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis: A single case study

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    R. Rajasudhakar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulcus vocalis is a structural deformity of the vocal ligament. It is the focal invagination of the epithelium deeply attaching to the vocal ligament. There is a dearth of literature on the outcome of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis condition.Objective: The primary objective of this study was to document voice characteristics of sulcus vocalis and the secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of voice therapy in a patient with sulcus vocalis.Method: A trial of voice therapy was given to the client who was diagnosed as having sulcus vocalis. Boon’s facilitation techniques were used in voice therapy along with other techniques such as breath holding and push and pull approach prior to surgery. Acoustic, aerodynamic, perceptual, quantitative measures of voice quality and self-rating measurements were performed before and after voice therapy.Results: Improvement was noticed in 10/10 acoustic, 4/4 aerodynamic, perceptual, dysphonia severity index and voice handicap index scores, which hinted that voice therapy can be an option critically for clients with sulcus vocalis in the initial stage.Conclusion: Voice therapy showed promising improvement in the study and it must be recommended as the initial treatment option before any surgical management.

  3. Sulcus depth reproduction with polyvinyl siloxane impression material: effects of hydrophilicity and impression temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Finger, Werner J; Kurokawa, Rie; Furukawa, Masae; Komatsu, Masashi

    2010-03-01

    To determine the sulcus penetration ability of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials by impression technique, temperature, and sulcus width. Hydrophilic Flexitime (FLE; Heraeus Kulzer) and its hydrophobic counterpart (EXP) without surfactant were investigated, using light (L), monophase (M), and heavy (H) consistencies. A truncated steel cone surrounded by a 2-mm-deep and 50-, 100-, or 200-microm-wide sulcus, simulating the gingival tissue with agar, served as the test model. Impressions were made with single-mix (L or M) and double-mix (LM or LH) techniques at 23 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively. The reproduced sulcus heights were measured with a 3D laser scanner. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD (P 1.9 mm); FLE-M, -LM, and-LH reproductions were shorter with narrow sulci. Reproductions of 50- and 100-microm sulci with EXP-L were shallower than with FLE-L. The shortest reproduction was, however, greater than 1.6 mm. In spite of some significant differences found in sulcus-reproducing ability with hydrophilic and hydrophobic impression materials applied at different impression-making temperatures and with different techniques, the practical relevance is limited.

  4. Dual Endotemponade for Extensive Long-standing Cyclodialysis Using Sulcus-fixated Cionni Ring and PCIOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Sagar, Pradeep; Gogia, Varun; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-03-01

    A young patient presented with visual acuity of hand movements only, unrecordable intraocular pressure, and total cataract after trauma 12 months ago. She reported failure to improve with conservative therapy as well as a direct cycloplexy elsewhere. After cleft localization on preoperative gonioscopy, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and intraoperative gonioscopy, a partial-thickness scleral flap was fashioned at the site of maximum cleft height. Following phacoaspiration, a multipiece intraocular lens was implanted in the sulcus; its haptics aligned to the axis with maximum height of cyclodialysis. A Cionni ring placed in sulcus was sutured to sclera under the flap to provide additional tamponading effect. Postoperative UBM and gonioscopy confirmed cleft closure. Normalization of intraocular pressure was found on repeated follow-ups till 1 year (12 to 14 mm Hg). UBM showed increase in sulcus diameter, and "double indentation sign" on the ciliary body.

  5. Three interesting cases of gyral infarction as detected by CT in the vicinity of the central sulcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiguchi, Susumu; Kurashima, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Ito, Jusuke

    1986-01-01

    In most cases of senile brain, the arrangement of the cerebral sulci and gyri of the superior surface of the hemisphere is well demonstrated by thin-sectioned CT. In these cases, it is not very difficult to identify the cortical gyri anatomically. We experienced three interesting cases with a small gyral infarction in the vicinity of the central sulcus (Roland). The lesions were detected and their anatomical localizations were precisely identified by CT, and they correlated well with their clinical findings. In Case 1, who suddenly developed clumsiness of the left hand, neurological findings were confined to her left hand, where a marked impairment of the combined sensation and position sense was found. However, there was no weakness or impaired vibration sense or disturbed superficial sensation. Since vibratory appreciation is seldom disturbed by lesions above the level of the thalamus, and since the combined sensation and joint sense were selectively impaired in this case, a lesion in the right parietal lobe was suggested. CT scan revealed a small gyral infarction which was strictly confined to the right postcentral gyrus. Case 2, developed weakness of the left hand. He could not extend the wrist against gravity, but dorsiflexion of the wrist could be elicited by grasping. Weakness was confined to his left hand, and there was no sensory disturbance. Neurological findings suggested a small cortical infraction in the right precentral gyrus. CT showed a small lesion just under the right precentral gyrus, where the cortical representation of the hand was thought to be arranged. In Case 3, who developed an adversive seizure, CT clearly demonstrated a lesion in the contralateral premotor area. Our method of the anatomical identification of the sulci and the gyri of the superior surface of the cerebral hemisphere was described. (author)

  6. Sulcus reproduction with elastomeric impression materials: a new in vitro testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Werner J; Kurokawa, Rie; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Komatsu, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the depth reproduction of differently wide sulci with elastomeric impression materials by single- and double-mix techniques using a tooth and sulcus model, simulating clinical conditions. Impressions with one vinyl polysiloxane (VPS; FLE), two polyethers (PE; IMP and P2), and one hybrid VPS/PE elastomer (FUS) were taken from a truncated steel cone with a circumferential 2 mm deep sulcus, 50, 100 or 200 microm wide. The "root surface" was in steel and the "periodontal tissue" in reversible hydrocolloid. Single-mix impressions were taken with light-body (L) or monophase (M) pastes, double-mix impressions with L as syringe and M or heavy-body (H) as tray materials (n=8). Sulcus reproduction was determined by 3D laser topography of impressions at eight locations, 45 degrees apart. Statistical data analysis by ANOVA and multiple comparison tests (pimpression materials only: FLE=IMP>FUS=P2. At 50 and 100 microm width, significant differences were found between materials (IMP>FUS=FLE>P2) and techniques (L+H=L+M>M>L). The sulcus model is considered useful for screening evaluation of elastomeric impression materials ability to reproduce narrow sulci. All tested materials and techniques reproduced 200 microm wide sulci to almost nominal depth. Irrespective of the impression technique used, IMP showed the best penetration ability in 50 and 100 microm sulci. Double-mix techniques are more suitable to reproduce narrow sulci than single-mix techniques.

  7. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, A M; Rampersad, S M; Stegeman, D F; Oostendorp, T F; Lucka, F; Lanfer, B; Aydin, Ü; Wolters, C H; Lew, S

    2013-01-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234–43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671–81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539–50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location. (paper)

  8. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A. M.; Rampersad, S. M.; Lucka, F.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Aydin, Ü.; Wolters, C. H.; Stegeman, D. F.; Oostendorp, T. F.

    2013-07-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234-43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671-81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539-50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location.

  9. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  10. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  11. Associations of olfactory bulb and depth of olfactory sulcus with basal ganglia and hippocampus in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, Nermin; Serin, Halil Ibrahim; Celikbilek, Asuman; Inan, Levent Ertugrul; Gundogdu, Fatma

    2016-05-04

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by hyposmia in the preclinical stages. We investigated the relationships of olfactory bulb (OB) volume and olfactory sulcus (OS) depth with basal ganglia and hippocampal volumes. The study included 25 patients with PD and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Idiopathic PD was diagnosed according to published diagnostic criteria. The Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale, the motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to participants. Volumetric measurements of olfactory structures, the basal ganglia, and hippocampus were performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OB volume and OS depth were significantly reduced in PD patients compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The OB and left putamen volumes were significantly correlated (p=0.048), and the depth of the right OS was significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume (p=0.018). We found significant correlations between OB and putamen volumes and OS depth and hippocampal volume. Our study is the first to demonstrate associations of olfactory structures with the putamen and hippocampus using MRI volumetric measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of neural activity by reward in medial intraparietal cortex is sensitive to temporal sequence of reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Stacey, Richard Greg; Tsoulfas, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    To restore movements to paralyzed patients, neural prosthetic systems must accurately decode patients' intentions from neural signals. Despite significant advancements, current systems are unable to restore complex movements. Decoding reward-related signals from the medial intraparietal area (MIP) could enhance prosthetic performance. However, the dynamics of reward sensitivity in MIP is not known. Furthermore, reward-related modulation in premotor areas has been attributed to behavioral confounds. Here we investigated the stability of reward encoding in MIP by assessing the effect of reward history on reward sensitivity. We recorded from neurons in MIP while monkeys performed a delayed-reach task under two reward schedules. In the variable schedule, an equal number of small- and large-rewards trials were randomly interleaved. In the constant schedule, one reward size was delivered for a block of trials. The memory period firing rate of most neurons in response to identical rewards varied according to schedule. Using systems identification tools, we attributed the schedule sensitivity to the dependence of neural activity on the history of reward. We did not find schedule-dependent behavioral changes, suggesting that reward modulates neural activity in MIP. Neural discrimination between rewards was less in the variable than in the constant schedule, degrading our ability to decode reach target and reward simultaneously. The effect of schedule was mitigated by adding Haar wavelet coefficients to the decoding model. This raises the possibility of multiple encoding schemes at different timescales and reinforces the potential utility of reward information for prosthetic performance. PMID:25008408

  13. A model for predicting sulcus-to-sulcus diameter in posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens candidates: correlation between ocular biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Mohammad; Abdi-Shahshahani, Mehdi; Peyman, Alireza; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2018-02-21

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between ocular biometric parameters and sulcus-to-sulcus (STS) diameter. This was a cross-sectional study of preoperative ocular biometry data of patients who were candidates for phakic intraocular lens (IOL) surgery. Subjects underwent ocular biometry analysis, including refraction error evaluation using an autorefractor and Orbscan topography for white-to-white (WTW) corneal diameter and measurement. Pentacam was used to perform WTW corneal diameter and measurements of minimum and maximum keratometry (K). Measurements of STS and angle-to-angle (ATA) were obtained using a 50-MHz B-mode ultrasound device. Anterior optical coherence tomography was performed for anterior chamber depth measurement. Pearson's correlation test and stepwise linear regression analysis were used to find a model to predict STS. Fifty-eight eyes of 58 patients were enrolled. Mean age ± standard deviation of sample was 28.95 ± 6.04 years. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between STS with WTW, ATA, mean K was 0.383, 0.492, and - 0.353, respectively, which was statistically significant (all P correlation of STS with WTW and mean K and potential of direct and essay measurement of WTW and mean K, it seems that current IOL sizing protocols could be estimating with WTW and mean K.

  14. Assessment of a new hydrophilic acrylic supplementary IOL for sulcus fixation in pseudophakic cadaver eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, N; Werner, L; Guan, J; Li, J; Tsaousis, K T; Mamalis, N; Srinivasan, S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Management of refractive errors after cataract surgery includes spectacles or contact lens, secondary laser vision correction, intraocular lens (IOL) exchange, or piggyback lens implantation. We evaluated for the first time a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL designed for supplementary sulcus fixation in postmortem pseudophakic human eyes. Methods Pseudophakic human cadaver eyes were imaged by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to assess position of the primary IOL. Eyes were prepared as per the Miyake-Apple technique. The supplementary IOL (Medicontur A4 Addon IOL family) was then inserted into the ciliary sulcus. AS-OCT and photographs from anterior and posterior views were used to assess IOL centration, tilt, and interlenticular distance from the primary IOL. Results Data were obtained from 12 eyes having primary IOLs of varying materials and designs in the bag and representing different sizes of eyes and severity of Soemmering's ring formation. The A4 Addon IOL was successfully inserted into the ciliary sulcus and was well centered in all cases. Four cases of tilt were observed on AS-OCT: three with mild tilt due to pre-existing zonular dehiscence, and one due to a localized area of Soemmering's ring formation. Interlenticular distance ranged from 0.34 to 1.24 mm and was not dependent on severity of Soemmering's ring or type of primary IOL. Conclusions The A4 Addon IOL was designed for sulcus fixation as a supplementary lens, with a large diameter, a square-shaped optic, four smooth loop haptics, and a convex–concave optical surface. It exhibited appropriate centration and interlenticular distance with different primary in-the-bag IOLs. PMID:28106890

  15. Temporalis Fascia Transplantation for Sulcus Vocalis and Vocal Fold Scar: Long-Term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, William E; Helman, Samuel N; Cooper, Amy; Zhang, Yuan; Pitman, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Sulcus vocalis and vocal fold scar involve derangement of the superficial lamina propria of the vocal fold, which results in significant dysphonia. Many options exist for treatment, most of which have unsatisfactory and unpredictable outcomes. Autologous transplantation of temporalis fascia into the vocal fold (ATFV) has the potential to be a better treatment option, but long-term outcomes have not been well studied. Retrospective chart review and patient survey. Twenty-one patients diagnosed with vocal fold scar or sulcus vocalis and treated with ATFV with at least 1-year follow-up were included. Voice Handicap Index 10 (VHI-10) questionnaires were collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Patients were reached at the time of the study to complete another VHI-10 and a Likert scale survey. The mean decrease in VHI-10 scores between preoperation and 6 months postoperation was 8.35 ( P vocal fold for the treatment of vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis is a safe surgery with good long-term outcomes and high patient satisfaction.

  16. The far lateral transpontomedullary sulcus approach to pontine cavernous malformations: technical report and surgical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abla, Adib A; Benet, Arnau; Lawton, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    Pontine cavernous malformations (CMs) located on a peripheral pontine surface or the fourth ventricular floor are resectable lesions, but those deep within the pons away from a pial surface are typically observed. However, the anterior bulge of the pons formed by the brachium pontis creates a unique entry point for access to deep pontine lesions from below, working upward through the pontomedullary sulcus. We developed a transpontomedullary sulcus (TPMS) approach to these lesions. The TPMS approach used the far lateral craniotomy and upper vagoaccessory triangle to define the surgical corridor. The entry point was above the olive, lateral to the pyramidal tracts and cranial nerve (CN) VI, above the preolivary sulcus and CN XII, and medial to CNs VII and VIII and CNs IX through XI. Four patients underwent this approach. All presented with hemorrhage and CN VI palsies. All pontine CMs were resected completely. Three patients were improved or unchanged, with good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) in all patients. The central pons remains difficult territory to access, and new surgical corridors are needed. The bulging underbelly of the pons allows access to pontine lesions deep to the pial surface from below. The far lateral TPMS approach is a novel and more direct alternative to the retrosigmoid transmiddle cerebellar peduncle approach. Unlike the retrosigmoid approach, the TPMS approach requires minimal parenchymal transgression and uses a brainstem entry point medial to most lower CNs. Favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of resecting pontine CMs that might have been previously deemed unresectable.

  17. Modulation of neural activity by reward in medial intraparietal cortex is sensitive to temporal sequence of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Stacey, Richard Greg; Tsoulfas, Georgios; Musallam, Sam

    2014-10-01

    To restore movements to paralyzed patients, neural prosthetic systems must accurately decode patients' intentions from neural signals. Despite significant advancements, current systems are unable to restore complex movements. Decoding reward-related signals from the medial intraparietal area (MIP) could enhance prosthetic performance. However, the dynamics of reward sensitivity in MIP is not known. Furthermore, reward-related modulation in premotor areas has been attributed to behavioral confounds. Here we investigated the stability of reward encoding in MIP by assessing the effect of reward history on reward sensitivity. We recorded from neurons in MIP while monkeys performed a delayed-reach task under two reward schedules. In the variable schedule, an equal number of small- and large-rewards trials were randomly interleaved. In the constant schedule, one reward size was delivered for a block of trials. The memory period firing rate of most neurons in response to identical rewards varied according to schedule. Using systems identification tools, we attributed the schedule sensitivity to the dependence of neural activity on the history of reward. We did not find schedule-dependent behavioral changes, suggesting that reward modulates neural activity in MIP. Neural discrimination between rewards was less in the variable than in the constant schedule, degrading our ability to decode reach target and reward simultaneously. The effect of schedule was mitigated by adding Haar wavelet coefficients to the decoding model. This raises the possibility of multiple encoding schemes at different timescales and reinforces the potential utility of reward information for prosthetic performance. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Displacement of the central sulcus in cerebral arteriovenous malformations situated in the peri-motor cortex as assessed by magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki; Ogane, Kazumi; Manabe, Hiroshi; Yagihashi, Akinori; Kikkawa, Tomoshige; Suzuki, Shigeharu

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine the optimal treatment for a pen-motor cortex lesion, preoperative orientation of central sulcus (CS) is indispensable. The purpose of this study is to detect a discrepancy between ''functional'' CS and ''anatomical'' CS in cerebral lesions. Stereotactic mapping of functional'' CS was performed on 12 subjects using somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) with MRI-linked whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system preoperatively. All subjects who underwent axial T1-weighted MRI scans had a left-sided lesion with diagnoses including: three arteriovenous malformations (AVM), six gliomas and three meningiomas. Two certified neurosurgeons identified the anatomical CS of the cerebral hemispheres in MRI. Right median nerves were stimulated at the wrists using the following parameters of stimulation: 1 Hz rectangular electrical wave, 0.2 msec duration, and 3 to 5 mA intensity. The sampling rate was 600 Hz and band pass filters were 0.1 to 200 Hz. One hundred epochs were averaged to determine SEFs during a 50 msec pre-stimulus to 300 msec following stimulus onset. Estimations of single dipole were corresponded with N20m of SEFs. Estimated current dipoles were superimposed on the MR images. Anatomical CS accorded with functional CS in the intracranial tumor cases. AVM cases in which the nidus was situated in the peri-motor cortex showed discrepancies between functional CS and anatomical CS marking one gyrus. AVMs situated in the peri-motor area have the ability to displace the CS. Preoperative consideration for AVM treatment should include functional brain mapping to decide the most suitable operative approach and avoid postoperative deficits. (author)

  19. Feasibility of Using Ultrasonography to Establish Relationships Among Sacral Base Position, Sacral Sulcus Depth, Body Mass Index, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael D; Kondrashova, Tatyana; Johnson, Jane C

    2015-11-01

    Identifying relationships among anatomical structures is key in diagnosing somatic dysfunction. Ultrasonography can be used to visualize anatomical structures, identify sacroiliac landmarks, and validate anatomical findings and measurements in relation to somatic dysfunction. As part of the osteopathic manipulative medicine course at A.T. Still University-Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, first-year students are trained to use ultrasonography to establish relationships among musculoskeletal structures. To determine the ability of first-year osteopathic medical students to establish sacral base position (SBP) and sacral sulcus depth (SSD) using ultrasonography and to identify the relationship of SBP and SSD to body mass index (BMI) and sex. Students used ultrasonography to obtain the distance between the skin and the sacral base (the SBP) and the distance between the skin and the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine bilaterally. Next, students calculated the SSD (the distance between the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine and the SBP). Data were analyzed with respect to side of the body, BMI, sex, and age. The BMI data were subdivided into normal (18-25 mg/kg) and overweight (25-30 mg/kg) groups. Ultrasound images of 211 students were included in the study. The SBP was not significantly different between the left and right sides (36.5 mm vs 36.5 mm; P=.95) but was significantly different between normal and overweight BMI categories (33.0 mm vs 40.0 mm; Psex may point to more soft tissue overlaying the sacrum in these groups. Further research is needed on the use of ultrasonography to establish criteria for somatic dysfunction.

  20. Imaging the femoral sulcus with ultrasound, CT, and MRI: reliability and generalizability in patients with patellar instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toms, Andoni P.; Cahir, John [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Departments of Radiology, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Swift, Louise [University of East Anglia, School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Donell, Simon T. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Institute of Orthopedics, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Recent advances in surgical intervention for patellar instability have led to a need for long-term radiological monitoring. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound (US) can replace computed tomography (CT) as the standard of care for the evaluation of the femoral sulcus. This was a prospective study comparing the reliability of CT, magnetic resonance (MR), and US for measuring the femoral sulcus in patients with patellar instability. Twenty-four patients were recruited to undergo a CT, MR, and US examination of each knee. Two observers independently measured femoral sulcus angles from subchondral bone and hyaline cartilage on two occasions. Intraclass correlations and generalizability coefficients were calculated to measure the reliability of each of the techniques. Thereafter, two observers measured the femoral sulcus angle from ultrasound images recorded by two independent operators to estimate interobserver and interoperator reliability. Forty-seven knees were examined with CT and US and 44 with MRI. The sulcus angle was consistently smaller when measured from subchondral bone compared to cartilage (5-7 ). Interobserver reliability for CT, MR, and US measurements from subchondral bone were 0.87, 0.80, and 0.82 and from cartilage 0.80, 0.81, and 0.50. Generalizability coefficients of measurements from subchondral bone for CT, MR, and US were 0.87, 0.76, and 0.81 and for cartilage 0.76, 0.73, and 0.05. Most of the variability in the US occurred at image acquisition rather than measurement. In patients with patellar instability, CT and MR are reliable techniques for measuring the femoral sulcus angle but US, particularly of the articular cartilage, is not. MR is therefore the most suitable tool for longitudinal studies of the femoral sulcus. (orig.)

  1. Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with tube insertion through the ciliary sulcus in pseudophakic/aphakic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Yadolla; Mohammadi, Massood; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Zarei, Reza; Moghimi, Sasan

    2014-02-01

    To report the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) insertion into the ciliary sulcus in pseudophakic/aphakic patients. A chart review was done on patients with uncontrolled glaucoma, who underwent AGV implantation with tube inserted into the ciliary sulcus. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of medications were compared with that of postoperative follow-up visits. Surgical success was defined as last IOP glaucoma control, and without loss of light perception. Postoperative complications were recorded. Twenty-three eyes of 23 patients were recruited with the mean follow-up of 9 months (range, 3 to 24 mo). The mean (SD) age of patients was 49.9 (16.9) years (range, 22 to 80 years). The mean (SD) IOP (mm Hg) was reduced from 37.9 (12.4) before surgery to 16.2 (3.6) at the last follow-up visit (P<0.001). The mean (SD) number of medications was reduced from 3.3 (0.9) preoperatively to 1 (1.1) at the last follow-up (P<0.001). Success rate was 18/23 (78.6%). Complications included endophthalmitis in 1 eye, tube exposure in 1 diabetic patient, and vitreous tube occlusion in 1 eye. No case of corneal decompensation or graft failure was seen during follow-up. Ciliary sulcus placement of the tube of AGV effectively reduces IOP and medication use in short term. It has the potential to lower corneal complications of anterior chamber tube insertion and avoids the need for pars plana vitrectomy and tube insertion in patients at higher risk of corneal decompensation.

  2. "Walk the Rim, Feel the Bone" Technique in Superior Sulcus Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Audrey L G; Yong, Kai-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Superior sulcus filler injection is a nonsurgical method to rejuvenate the upper face. Blindness and stroke are devastating complications of facial filler injection. This study describes an injection technique that minimizes the risk of blindness and includes a case study demonstrating the cosmetic benefits of this procedure. To avoid retrograde injection of filler embolus into the ophthalmic artery, we advocate a "'walk the rim, feel the bone" approach. Small boluses of hyaluronic acid filler are given in preperiosteal plane, avoiding the superior orbital foramen.

  3. Semiautomated volumetric response evaluation as an imaging biomarker in superior sulcus tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, C.G.; Paul, M.A.; Dahele, M.; Soernsen de Koste, J.R. van; Senan, S.; Bahce, I.; Smit, E.F.; Thunnissen, E.; Hartemink, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric response to therapy has been suggested as a biomarker for patient-centered outcomes. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether the volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was associated with pathological complete response (pCR) or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. The secondary aim was to evaluate a semiautomated method for serial volume assessment. In this retrospective study, treatment outcomes were obtained from a departmental database. The tumor was delineated on the computed tomography (CT) scan used for radiotherapy planning, which was typically performed during the first cycle of chemotherapy. These contours were transferred to the post-chemoradiotherapy diagnostic CT scan using deformable image registration (DIR) with/without manual editing. CT scans from 30 eligible patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 51 months. Neither absolute nor relative reduction in tumor volume following chemoradiotherapy correlated with pCR or 2-year survival. The tumor volumes determined by DIR alone and DIR + manual editing correlated to a high degree (R 2 = 0.99, P < 0.01). Volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was not correlated with pCR or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. DIR-based contour propagation merits further evaluation as a tool for serial volumetric assessment. (orig.)

  4. Nonlinear dynamic-based analysis of severe dysphonia in patients with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Hee; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.; Bless, Diane M.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this study was to evaluate a nonlinear dynamic approach to the acoustic analysis of dysphonia associated with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis. Study Design Case-control study. Methods Acoustic voice samples from scar/sulcus patients and age/sex-matched controls were analyzed using correlation dimension (D2) and phase plots, time-domain based perturbation indices (jitter, shimmer, signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]), and an auditory-perceptual rating scheme. Signal typing was performed to identify samples with bifurcations and aperiodicity. Results Type 2 and 3 acoustic signals were highly represented in the scar/sulcus patient group. When data were analyzed irrespective of signal type, all perceptual and acoustic indices successfully distinguished scar/sulcus patients from controls. Removal of type 2 and 3 signals eliminated the previously identified differences between experimental groups for all acoustic indices except D2. The strongest perceptual-acoustic correlation in our dataset was observed for SNR; the weakest correlation was observed for D2. Conclusions These findings suggest that D2 is inferior to time-domain based perturbation measures for the analysis of dysphonia associated with scar/sulcus; however, time-domain based algorithms are inherently susceptible to inflation under highly aperiodic (i.e., type 2 and 3) signal conditions. Auditory-perceptual analysis, unhindered by signal aperiodicity, is therefore a robust strategy for distinguishing scar/sulcus patient voices from normal voices. Future acoustic analysis research in this area should consider alternative (e.g., frequency- and quefrency-domain based) measures alongside additional nonlinear approaches. PMID:22516315

  5. Cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togao, Osamu; Yoshiura, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Honda, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI. Materials and methods: T2-weighted images of 70 cerebral hemispheres showing vasogenic edema infiltrating into subcortical white matter around the CS were studied retrospectively. Two neuroradiologists measured the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the CS, precentral sulci (PrCS), and postcentral sulci (PoCS). Additionally, we compared the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of each sulcus visually using a grading scale. Results: On T2-weighted images, the cerebral cortex was highlighted by a high signal-intensity vasogenic edema in the adjacent white matter, and its thickness was readily measurable. The unique cortical thickness difference between the anterior and posterior banks of the CS were confirmed with measurements of 2.67 and 1.48 mm (p < 0.0001). The cortical measurements across other cerebral sulci were 2.04 and 1.95 mm (NS) for the PrCS, and 1.67 and 1.77 mm (NS) for the PoCS. The cortical thickness ratios were 1.86 for the CS, 1.05 for the PrCS, and 0.96 for the PoCS. On visual evaluation, the anterior bank of the CS was thicker than the posterior bank in 93% (65/70). For the PrCS and PoCS, the thickness of the anterior and posterior banks appeared to be equal in over 70% of the patients. Conclusion: A prominent cortical thickness difference across the CS in the presence of vasogenic edema was confirmed. This finding is considered to facilitate the identification of the CS in patients with brain tumors

  6. Cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togao, Osamu [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)], E-mail: togao@dr.hosp.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yoshiura, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI. Materials and methods: T2-weighted images of 70 cerebral hemispheres showing vasogenic edema infiltrating into subcortical white matter around the CS were studied retrospectively. Two neuroradiologists measured the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the CS, precentral sulci (PrCS), and postcentral sulci (PoCS). Additionally, we compared the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of each sulcus visually using a grading scale. Results: On T2-weighted images, the cerebral cortex was highlighted by a high signal-intensity vasogenic edema in the adjacent white matter, and its thickness was readily measurable. The unique cortical thickness difference between the anterior and posterior banks of the CS were confirmed with measurements of 2.67 and 1.48 mm (p < 0.0001). The cortical measurements across other cerebral sulci were 2.04 and 1.95 mm (NS) for the PrCS, and 1.67 and 1.77 mm (NS) for the PoCS. The cortical thickness ratios were 1.86 for the CS, 1.05 for the PrCS, and 0.96 for the PoCS. On visual evaluation, the anterior bank of the CS was thicker than the posterior bank in 93% (65/70). For the PrCS and PoCS, the thickness of the anterior and posterior banks appeared to be equal in over 70% of the patients. Conclusion: A prominent cortical thickness difference across the CS in the presence of vasogenic edema was confirmed. This finding is considered to facilitate the identification of the CS in patients with brain tumors.

  7. The Spatial Distribution of Thermal Emission from Baghdad Sulcus, Enceladus, at 100 meter Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Howett, C. J. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Albright, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has been observing endogenic thermal emission from the south pole of Enceladus since 2005. Best spatial resolution from conventional scans is about 1km, usually from distances > 2000 km. When Cassini is closer to Enceladus, the spacecraft cannot rotate fast enough to track the surface, and the 5 seconds required to obtain a CIRS spectrum produces many kilometers of smear. However, higher-resolution mapping can be done from much closer range by exploiting the 20 msec sampling of the CIRS raw interferograms. On April 14th 2012, Cassini made a gravity pass of Enceladus at a range of 74 km. Spacecraft orientation was inertially fixed, and chosen so that the active tiger stripe Baghdad Sulcus passed through the CIRS and VIMS fields of view during the flyby. In the 7 to 17 µm region, CIRS uses linear arrays of ten detectors with IFOV of 0.29 mrad, which were oriented roughly perpendicular to the groundtrack and operated in pairs, giving five cross-track spatial resolution elements, each 43 meters wide. Along-track spatial resolution, defined by the 20 msec interferogram sampling time and the flyby speed of 7.5 km/sec, was 150 meters. At longer wavelengths, CIRS obtained a single-detector scan with a spatial resolution of 300 meters. The brief passage of the intense tiger stripe thermal emission through the field of view produced complex spikes in the CIRS interferograms. Though spectra cannot be reconstructed, we can use knowledge of the interferogram temporal response to reconstruct the time history of the incoming radiation and thus its spatial distribution. The resulting image will map tiger stripe thermal emission along a small part of Baghdad Sulcus at about ten times the spatial resolution of the best previous Cassini thermal images.

  8. The relation between chondromalacia patella and meniscal tear and the sulcus angle/ trochlear depth ratio as a powerful predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Hatice; Zateri, Coskun; Nusran, Gurdal; Goksel, Ferdi; Aylanc, Nilufer

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relation between chondromalacia patella and the sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio as a marker of trochlear morphology. In addition, we also planned to show the relationship between meniscus damage, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness as a marker of obesity, patellar tilt angle and chondromalacia patella. Patients with trauma, rheumatologic disease, a history of knee surgery and patellar variations such as patella alba and patella baja were excluded. Magnetic resonance images of the knees of 200 patients were evaluated. Trochlear morphology from standardized levels, patellar tilt angle, lateral/medial facet ratio, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness from 3 locations and meniscus injury were assessed by two specialist radiologists. Retropatellar cartilage was normal in 108 patients (54%) at radiological evaluation, while chondromalacia patella was determined in 92 (46%) cases. Trochlear sulcus angle and prepatellar subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness were significantly high in patients with chondromalacia patella, while trochlear depth and lateral patellar tilt angle were low. The trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio was also high in chondromalacia patella and was identified as an independent risk factor at regression analysis. Additionally, medial meniscal tear was observed in 35 patients (38%) in the chondromalacia patella group and in 27 patients (25%) in the normal group, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.033). An increased trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio is a significant predictor of chondromalacia patella. Medial meniscus injury is more prevalent in patients with chondromalacia patella in association with impairment in knee biomechanics and the degenerative process.

  9. The relation of sulcus nervi radialis with the fracture line of humerus fracture and radial nerve injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozden, Hilmi; Demir, Ahmet; Guven, Gul

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Radial nerve is closely in contact with the bone in sulcus nervi radialis (SNR). Location of SNR shows ethnic differences. Radial nerve is a big problem in humerus fractures and its surgery. In this study, we aimed to examine if humerus fractures of this region increases the probability...

  10. Neural correlates of the numerical distance effect in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eMussolin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In number comparison tasks, the performance is better when the distance between the two numbers to compare increases. During development this so-called numerical distance effect decreases with age and the neuroanatomical correlates of these age-related changes are poorly known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded the brain activity changes in children aged from 8 to 14 years while they performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits and a control colour comparison task on non-numerical symbols. On the one hand, we observed developmental changes in the recruitment of frontal regions and the left intraparietal sulcus, with lower activation as the age increased. On the other hand, we found that a behavioural index of selective sensitivity to the numerical distance effect was positively correlated with higher brain activity in a right lateralized occipito-temporo-parietal network including the intraparietal sulcus. This leads us to propose that the left intraparietal sulcus would be engaged in the refinement of cognitive processes involved in number comparison during development, while the right intraparietal sulcus would underlie the semantic representation of numbers and its activation would be mainly affected by the numerical proximity between them.

  11. Intracerebral stimulation of left and right ventral temporal cortex during object naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédos Ulvin, Line; Jonas, Jacques; Brissart, Hélène; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Thiriaux, Anne; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2017-12-01

    While object naming is traditionally considered asa left hemisphere function, neuroimaging studies have reported activations related to naming in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) bilaterally. Our aim was to use intracerebral electrical stimulation to specifically compare left and right VTC in naming. In twenty-three epileptic patients tested for visual object naming during stimulation, the proportion of naming impairments was significantly higher in the left than in the right VTC (31.3% vs 13.6%). The highest proportions of positive naming sites were found in the left fusiform gyrus and occipito-temporal sulcus (47.5% and 31.8%). For 17 positive left naming sites, an additional semantic picture matching was carried out, always successfully performed. Our results showed the enhanced role of the left compared to the right VTC in naming and suggest that it may be involved in lexical retrieval rather than in semantic processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mouth and Voice: A Relationship between Visual and Auditory Preference in the Human Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin L; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-03-08

    Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes. Mouth-preferring regions responded strongly to voices and showed a significant preference for vocal compared with nonvocal sounds. In contrast, eye-preferring regions did not respond to either vocal or nonvocal sounds. The converse was also true: regions of the pSTS that showed a significant response to speech or preferred vocal to nonvocal sounds responded more strongly to visually presented mouths than eyes. These findings can be explained by environmental statistics. In natural environments, humans see visual mouth movements at the same time as they hear voices, while there is no auditory accompaniment to visual eye movements. The strength of a voxel's preference for visual mouth movements was strongly correlated with the magnitude of its auditory speech response and its preference for vocal sounds, suggesting that visual and auditory speech features are coded together in small populations of neurons within the pSTS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans interacting face to face make use of auditory cues from the talker's voice and visual cues from the talker's mouth to understand speech. The human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a brain region known to be important for speech perception, is complex, with some regions responding to specific visual stimuli and others to specific auditory stimuli. Using BOLD fMRI, we show that the natural statistics of human speech, in which voices co-occur with mouth movements, are reflected in the neural architecture of

  13. Function connectivity MRI to evaluate the changes of the motorial nerve net in patients with brain tumors adjacent to the central sulcus occurred with reorganization of motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Tong; Liu Meili; Cui Shimin; Liu Li; Jin Song; Lei Jing; Liu Hui; Guo Jun; Hao Nina; Guo Ying; Xiang Huadong; Weng Xuchu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the changes of the motorial network in patients suffered from brain tumors adjacent to the central sulcus occurred with reorganization of motor function using function connectivity MRI (fcMRI) technique in order to provide the new evidence for the compensational hypothesis of the reorganization caused by focal lesions. Methods: Using 1.5 T MRI unit, 14 patients with brain tumors in the vicinity of the central sulcus occurred with reorganization of motor function and 6 normal volunteers were examined with fcMRI technique while the subjects performed no task. By selecting seed voxels (region of interest) in the regions showing the most activation in Mi area on the activated map and cross correlating with every, voxel within the brain, the fcMRI maps based on unilateral primary motor (M1) area were calculated. The location, extent and volume of the region showing significant connectivity to the several seed voxel, such as left/right M1 area in the health group and affected/unaffected Mlarea in the patient group were evaluated on the fcMRI map. Results: In healthy group, the extent and volume of the region showing significant connectivity to the left Mlarea [(9514.17±186.92)mm 3 ] were almost similar to those to the right M1 area [(9364.67±382.75) mm 3 ]. There showed no significant difference in motor connectivity between the two groups (P>0.05). In the tumor group, the volume of regions showing significant connectivity to the M1 area located in the affected hemisphere [(11193.14 ± 811.29) mm 3 ] was obviously higher than that of regions based on the seed voxel in the unaffected side [(6549.86± 400.94) mm 3 ] (t=20.383, P<0.01). The volume was significantly different among the regions showing high connectivity to the M1 of the affected side in patient group, those showing significant connectivity to the left M1 and right M1 in health group (P<0.01), the former was the biggest (P<0.01). The extent of the regions showing connectivity to

  14. Activity in the superior temporal sulcus highlights learning competence in an interaction game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-04-08

    During behavioral adaptation through interaction with human and nonhuman agents, marked individual differences are seen in both real-life situations and games. However, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. We conducted a neuroimaging experiment in which subjects maximized monetary rewards by learning in a prisoner's dilemma game with two computer agents: agent A, a tit-for-tat player who repeats the subject's previous action, and agent B, a simple stochastic cooperator oblivious to the subject's action. Approximately 1/3 of the subjects (group I) learned optimally in relation to both A and B, while another 1/3 (group II) did so only for B. Post-experiment interviews indicated that group I exploited the agent strategies more often than group II. Significant differences in learning-related brain activity between the two groups were only found in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for both A and B. Furthermore, the learning performance of each group I subject was predictable based on this STS activity, but not in the group II subjects. This differential activity could not be attributed to a behavioral difference since it persisted in relation to agent B for which the two groups behaved similarly. In sharp contrast, the brain structures for reward processing were recruited similarly by both groups. These results suggest that STS provides knowledge of the other agent's strategies for association between action and reward and highlights learning competence during interactive reinforcement learning.

  15. Hybrid video-assisted and limited open (VALO) resection of superior sulcus tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nun, Alon Ben; Simansky, David; Rokah, Merav; Zeitlin, Nona; Avi, Roni Ben; Soudack, Michalle; Golan, Nir; Apel, Sarit; Bar, Jair; Yelin, Alon

    2016-06-01

    To compare the postoperative recovery of patients with superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors) following conventional open surgery vs. a hybrid video-assisted and limited open approach (VALO). The subjects of this retrospective study were 20 patients we operated on to resect a Pancoast tumor. All patients received induction chemo-radiation followed by surgery, performed via either a conventional thoracotomy approach (n = 10) or the hybrid VALO approach (n = 10). In the hybrid VALO group, lobectomy and internal chest wall preparation were performed using a video technique, with rib resection and specimen removal through a limited incision. There was no mortality in either group. Two patients from the thoracotomy group required mechanical ventilation, but there was no major morbidity in the hybrid VALO group. The operative times were similar for the two procedures. The average length of hospital stay was shorter and the average pain scores were significantly lower in the hybrid VALO group. The incidence of chronic pain was 10 % in the hybrid VALO group vs. 50 % in the thoracotomy group. Hybrid VALO resection of Pancoast tumors is feasible and safe, resulting in faster patient recovery and a significantly lower incidence of severe chronic pain than open thoracotomy. We conclude that centers experienced with video-assisted lobectomy should consider hybrid VALO surgery as the procedure of choice for Pancoast tumors.

  16. Posterior superior temporal sulcus responses predict perceived pleasantness of skin stroking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Davidovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  17. Long-term outcomes of ciliary sulcus versus capsular bag fixation of intraocular lenses in children: An ultrasound biomicroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-E Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the long-term outcomes of ciliary sulcus versus capsular bag fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs in children after pediatric cataract surgery.IOL was implanted in the ciliary sulcus in 21 eyes of 14 children, and in the capsular bag in 19 eyes of 12 children for the treatment of pediatric cataract in an institutional setting. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM was performed. Main outcome measures included IOL decentration, IOL tilt, anterior chamber depth (ACD, angle-opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500, trabecular-iris angle (TIA, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, and incidence of postoperative complications.The mean follow-up period was 6.81 ± 1.82 years. Comparing to the capsular bag fixation group, the ciliary sulcus fixation group had higher vertical IOL decentration, horizontal IOL tilt, and vertical IOL tilt (p = 0.02, 0.01,0.01, respectively, higher incidence of iris-IOL contact and peripheral anterior synechia (p = 0.001, 0.03, respectively, smaller ACD, AOD500, and TIA (p = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, respectively, higher mean IOP (17.10 ±6.06 mmHg vs.14.15± 4.74 mmHg, p = 0.01, and higher incidence of secondary glaucoma (28.57% vs. 10.53%, p = 0.007.There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the BCVA, refractive errors, incidence of myopic shift, nystagmus, strabismus, and visual axis opacity.Ciliary sulcus fixation of IOLs in pediatric eyes may increase IOL malposition and crowding of the anterior segment, and may associate with a higher risk of secondary glaucoma compared to capsular bag fixation of IOLs.

  18. Surgical Outcomes of Deep Superior Sulcus Augmentation Using Acellular Human Dermal Matrix in Anophthalmic or Phthisis Socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Jung, Su-Kyung; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket suffer from cosmetic problems. To resolve those problems, the authors present the surgical outcomes of deep superior sulcus (DSS) augmentation using acellular dermal matrix in patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket. The authors retrospectively reviewed anophthalmic or phthisis patients who underwent surgery for DSS augmentation using acellular dermal matrix. To evaluate surgical outcomes, the authors focused on 3 aspects: the possibility of wearing contact prosthesis, the degree of correction of the DSS, and any surgical complications. The degree of correction of DSS was classified as excellent: restoration of superior sulcus enough to remove sunken sulcus shadow; fair: gain of correction effect but sunken shadow remained; or fail: no effect of correction at all. Ten eyes of 10 patients were included. There was a mean 21.3 ± 37.1-month period from evisceration or enucleation to the operation for DSS augmentation. All patients could wear contact prosthesis after the operation (100%). The degree of correction was excellent in 8 patients (80%) and fair in 2. Three of 10 (30%) showed complications: eyelid entropion, upper eyelid multiple creases, and spontaneous wound dehiscence followed by inflammation after stitch removal. Uneven skin surface and paresthesia in the forehead area of the affected eye may be observed after surgery. The overall surgical outcomes were favorable, showing an excellent degree of correction of DSS and low surgical complication rates. This procedure is effective for patients who have DSS in the absence or atrophy of the eyeball.

  19. [Endoscopically controlled optimization of trans-scleral suture fixation of posterior chamber lenses in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, C; Sundmacher, R

    1993-08-01

    Two technical difficulties have to be overcome in transscleral suture fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCL) in the ciliary sulcus: first, exact needle penetration through the sulcus, and second, exact positioning of the PCL haptics in the sulcus. Incongruence of the two may lead to long-term complications by compression or even strangulation of ciliary processes. Intraocular endoscopy was used intraoperatively to visualize the site of needle penetration and the final location of the haptics in patients. It turned out that with our previously described standard techniques the precision was far less than anticipated. Thus, new technical ways had to be sought to improve the precision of positioning. In secondary implantation without perforating keratoplasty we achieved the best results when the needle was passed ab externo before opening the eye and before anterior vitrectomy, taking advantage of a precisely prepared sclerocorneal zone. Passing the needle ab externo in an already hypotonic eyeball gives much less precise results. In combination with perforating keratoplasty with an open-sky approach, needle penetration ab interno is reliable. Correct positioning of the PCL haptics is at least as difficult as correct needle penetration, a fact which up to now has mostly been ignored. In 33 consecutively operated eyes the technique of implantation and PCL design was varied under endoscopical control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Prevalence of the acetabular sublabral sulcus at MR arthrography in patients under 17 years of age: does it exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerkurth, Olaf [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Jacobson, Jon A.; Morag, Yoav; Fessell, David [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bedi, Asheesh; Sekiya, Jon K. [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-04-18

    To retrospectively determine characteristics of contrast-filled acetabular labral clefts in patients under the age of 17 years at MR arthrography (Mra) correlated with arthroscopy, which may impact the thinking regarding the existence of a sublabral sulcus. After IRB approval, 41 patients under the age of 17 who had MRa were identified. The following observations of contrast-filled clefts were assessed: (1) presence/absence, (2) location, (3) depth, (4) abnormal signal within the labrum and (5) shape (linear, gaping, complex). Fisher's exact and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test were performed. Interreader agreement was calculated with Cohen's k. Reader 1 found clefts in 41 %. Depth was less than half in 6 %, more than half in 65 % and full thickness in 29 %. Shape was linear in 53 %, gaping in 18 % and complex in 29 %. Signal changes occurred in 88 %. Reader 2 found clefts in 29 %. Depth was less than half in 17 %, more than half in 58 % and full thickness in 25 %. Shape was linear in 50 %, gaping in 42 % and complex in 17 %. Signal changes occurred in 50 %. None of the clefts fulfilled the criteria for a sublabral sulcus at MRa and arthroscopy. None of the clefts found in our subjects under the age of 17 years met the MRa and arthroscopy criteria for a sublabral sulcus, which supports the theory that such clefts represent labral tears. (orig.)

  1. Auditory, Visual and Audiovisual Speech Processing Streams in Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Vaden, Kenneth I; Rong, Feng; Maddox, Dale; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design. Consistent with a hypothesized anterior-posterior processing gradient in STS, auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli produced the largest BOLD effects in anterior, posterior and middle STS (mSTS), respectively, based on whole-brain, linear mixed effects and principal component analyses. Notably, the mSTS exhibited preferential responses to multisensory stimulation, as well as speech compared to nonspeech. Within the mid-posterior and mSTS regions, response preferences changed gradually from visual, to multisensory, to auditory moving posterior to anterior. Post hoc analysis of visual regions in the posterior STS revealed that a single subregion bordering the mSTS was insensitive to differences in low-level motion kinematics yet distinguished between visual speech and nonspeech based on multi-voxel activation patterns. These results suggest that auditory and visual speech representations are elaborated gradually within anterior and posterior processing streams, respectively, and may be integrated within the mSTS, which is sensitive to more abstract speech information within and across presentation modalities. The spatial organization of STS is consistent with processing streams that are hypothesized to synthesize perceptual speech representations from sensory signals that provide convergent information from visual and auditory modalities.

  2. Functional integration of the posterior superior temporal sulcus correlates with facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1930-1940, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve in anterior chamber versus ciliary sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, A; Önol, M

    2017-04-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) tube insertion through the anterior chamber angle (ACA) or through the ciliary sulcus (CS).Patients and methodsIn this case-control study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of consecutive glaucoma patients who had undergone AGV implantation either through the ACA or the CS between March 2009 and December 2014. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications prescribed, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), glaucoma type, success rate, complications, and survival ratios. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS.ResultsThere were 68 eyes in the ACA group and 35 eyes in the CS group. There were no significant differences between the groups for age, sex, laterality, IOP, preoperative glaucoma medication number, BCVA or glaucoma type (P>0.05). The postoperative follow-up period was 27.2±16.5 months and 30.2±17.7 months for the ACA and the CS groups (P=0.28); IOP values were significantly reduced at the last visit to 16.4±7.2 mm Hg and 14.4±6.8 mm Hg. The difference in the last-visit IOP between the groups was not significant (P=0.06), but the IOP reduction ratio was higher in the CS group (P=0.03). There was no significant difference in the number of postoperative medications (P=0.18). Postoperative complications were similar, but the incidence of flat anterior chamber was higher in the ACA group (P=0.05).ConclusionsThe use of an AGV can control IOP in the majority of cases whether placed in the ACA or the CS. The IOP reduction ratio seemed to be higher in the CS group.

  5. [Left lateral gaze paresis due to subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Takamori, M

    1998-03-01

    We report a case of transient left lateral gaze paresis due to a hemorrhagic lesion restricted in the right precentral gyrus. A 74-year-old female experienced a sudden clumsiness of the left upper extremity. A neurological examination revealed a left central facial paresis, distal dominant muscle weakness in the left upper limb and left lateral gaze paresis. There were no other focal neurological signs. Laboratory data were all normal. Brain CTs and MRIs demonstrated a subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus. The neurological symptoms and signs disappeared over seven days. A recent physiological study suggested that the human frontal eye field (FEF) is located in the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 8) and the precentral gyrus around the precentral sulcus. More recent studies stressed the role of the precentral sulcus and the precentral gyrus. Our case supports those physiological findings. The hematoma affected both the FEF and its underlying white matter in our case. We assume the lateral gaze paresis is attributable to the disruption of the fibers from the FEF. It is likely that fibers for motor control of the face, upper extremity, and lateral gaze lie adjacently in the subcortical area.

  6. Upper midbrain profile sign and cingulate sulcus sign. MRI findings on sagittal images in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus, Alzheimer's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Michito; Ohshima, Fumi; Kawanami, Toru; Kato, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sagittal sections, we sometimes encounter abnormal aspects of the superior profile of the midbrain and the cingulate sulcus in patients with dementia. In this preliminary study, we refer to these findings as the ''upper midbrain profile sign'' and the cingulate sulcus sign.'' We prospectively evaluated the usefulness of these signs for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We evaluated the upper midbrain profile sign and the cingulate sulcus sign on MRI sagittal images obtained from 21 people with headaches but no neurological deficit (controls), 10 iNPH patients, 11 AD patients, and 5 PSP patients. The upper midbrain profile sign indicated a concave shape to the superior profile of the midbrain on mid-sagittal images, and the cingulate sulcus sign indicated a narrow, tight aspect of the posterior part of the cingulate sulcus on paramedian-sagittal images. These signs were never seen in any images from the controls. The upper midbrain profile sign was seen in 7 of 10 patients with iNPH, 5 of 11 with AD, and 3 of 5 with PSP. The cingulate sulcus sign was seen in all 10 patients with iNPH but was never seen in any patient with AD or PSP. The upper midbrain profile sign could support a diagnosis of PSP but cannot discriminate among iNPH, AD, and PSP. In contrast, the cingulate sulcus sign has a very high sensitivity for iNPH and should facilitate the distinction of iNPH from other dementias. In the clinical setting, it is momentous to evaluate these signs easily by one simple MRI sequence. (author)

  7. Management of sulcus-fixated single-piece intraocular lens-induced pigmentary glaucoma with 3-piece IOL exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Hossein Mohammad; Esfandiari, Hamed; Rikhtegar, Mohammad Hassan; Hekmat, Vahid

    2018-02-01

    To describe our experience with exchanging sulcus-fixated single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) with 3-piece IOLs for management of pigmentary glaucoma. In this retrospective study, records of patients who underwent sulcus-fixated single-piece IOL exchanged with 3-piece IOLs were retrieved, and demographic and baseline data of patients, type of IOL, pre- and post-IOL exchange BCVA, IOP, number of anti-glaucoma medications, and optic nerve head examination were documented. Baseline and final examinations were analyzed and compared. Mean age of the patients was 59 ± 10 years, and 5 (41.6%) were female. Mean interval between primary cataract extraction operation and IOL exchange was 17 ± 5 months. Nine patients received in sulcus implantation of Alcon SA60AT, and three patients had SN60WF model at the end of primary surgery. BCVA changed insignificantly from 0.06 ± 0.06 logMAR to 0.06 ± 0.06 after IOL exchange. (P = 0.22) IOP was controlled in 8 cases (66.6%), but four cases (33.3%) needed glaucoma surgery to further control glaucoma condition. IOP decreased significantly from preoperative 17 ± 3 to 14 ± 1 mmHg postoperatively. Patients with advanced age and higher baseline IOP were more likely to undergo glaucoma surgery after IOL exchange. (P = 0.07 and 0.00, respectively). single-piece IOL exchange with 3-piece IOL dramatically decreases pigment release and reduces IOP. Those with advanced age and higher IOP are less likely to respond to IOL exchange and may need glaucoma surgery to control high intraocular pressure.

  8. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a “linear” TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape...... of the central sulcus to obtain mediolateral corticomotor excitability profiles of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles. In thirteen young volunteers, we used stereotactic neuronavigation to stimulate the right M1HAND with a small eight-shaped coil at 120% of FDI resting...

  9. The effects of short-term and long-term learning on the responses of lateral intraparietal neurons to visually presented objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Heida M; Sheinberg, David L

    2015-07-01

    The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) is thought to play an important role in the guidance of where to look and pay attention. LIP can also respond selectively to differently shaped objects. We sought to understand to what extent short-term and long-term experience with visual orienting determines the responses of LIP to objects of different shapes. We taught monkeys to arbitrarily associate centrally presented objects of various shapes with orienting either toward or away from a preferred spatial location of a neuron. The training could last for less than a single day or for several months. We found that neural responses to objects are affected by such experience, but that the length of the learning period determines how this neural plasticity manifests. Short-term learning affects neural responses to objects, but these effects are only seen relatively late after visual onset; at this time, the responses to newly learned objects resemble those of familiar objects that share their meaning or arbitrary association. Long-term learning affects the earliest bottom-up responses to visual objects. These responses tend to be greater for objects that have been associated with looking toward, rather than away from, LIP neurons' preferred spatial locations. Responses to objects can nonetheless be distinct, although they have been similarly acted on in the past and will lead to the same orienting behavior in the future. Our results therefore indicate that a complete experience-driven override of LIP object responses may be difficult or impossible. We relate these results to behavioral work on visual attention.

  10. Somatotopic organization of cortical fields in the lateral sulcus of Homo sapiens: evidence for SII and PV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disbrow, E; Roberts, T; Krubitzer, L

    2000-02-28

    The human somatosensory cortex in the Sylvian fissure was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging to describe the number and internal organization of cortical fields present. Somatic stimuli were applied to the lips, face, hand, trunk, and foot of 18 human subjects. Activity patterns were transposed onto three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of the brain so that the location of activity associated with the different stimuli could be related to specific regions of the cortex. There were several consistent findings. First, there were three regions of activity in the lateral sulcus associated with stimulation of the contralateral body. The most consistent locus of activation was on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus, continuing onto the operculum. The other two areas, one rostral and one caudal to this large central area, were smaller and were activated less consistently. Second, when activity patterns in the large central area resulting from stimulation of all body parts were considered, this region appeared to contain two fields that corresponded in location and somatotopic organization to the second somatosensory area (SII) and the parietal ventral area (PV). Finally, patterns of activation within SII and PV were somewhat variable across subjects. Repeated within-subject stimulus presentation indicated that differences across subjects were not due to inconsistent stimulus presentation. Comparisons with other mammals suggest that some features of organization are found only in primates. It is hypothesized that these features may be associated with manual dexterity and coordination of the hands, a characteristic generally restricted to the primate lineage.

  11. DOES THE INFERIOR FRONTAL SULCUS PLAY A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN DECEPTION? A NEURONAVIGATED THETA-BURST TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eVerschuere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  12. What causes an icy fault to slip? Investigating strike-slip failure conditions on Ganymede at Dardanus and Tiamat Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Burkhard, L. M.; Collins, G. C.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Ganymede exhibits two geologically distinct terrains known as dark and light (grooved) terrain. The mechanism for a transition from dark to light terrain remains unclear; however, inferences of strike-slip faulting and distributed shear zones suggest that strike-slip tectonism may be important to the structural development of Ganymede's surface and in this transition. Here we investigate the role of tidal stresses on Ganymede in the formation and evolution of strike-slip structures in both dark and grooved terrains. Using numerical code SatStress, we calculate both diurnal and non-synchronous rotation (NSR) tidal stresses at Ganymede's surface. Specifically, we investigate the role of fault friction and orbital eccentricity in the development of ~45 km of right-lateral offset at Dardanus Sulcus and a possible case of study with a detailed morphological mapping of strike-slip morphologies (en echelon structures, strike-slip duplexes, laterally offset pre-existing features, and possible strained craters) at Nun Sulcus and several other locations. These structures serve as example regions to provide improved constraints for global stress mechanisms responsible for strike-slip fault evolution on Ganymede.

  13. Intraoperative definition of bottom-of-sulcus dysplasia using intraoperative ultrasound and single depth electrode recording - A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dorothea; Carney, Patrick; Archer, John S; Fitt, Gregory J; Jackson, Graeme D; Bulluss, Kristian J

    2018-02-01

    Bottom of sulcus dysplasias (BOSDs) are localized focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) centred on the bottom of a sulcus that can be highly epileptogenic, but difficult to delineate intraoperatively. We report on a patient with refractory epilepsy due to a BOSD, successfully resected with the aid of a multimodal surgical approach using neuronavigation based on MRI and PET, intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) and electrocorticography (ECoG) using depth electrodes. The lesion could be visualized on iUS showing an increase in echogenicity at the grey-white matter junction. IUS demonstrated the position of the depth electrode in relation to the lesion. Depth electrode recording showed almost continuous spiking. Thus, intraoperative imaging and electrophysiology helped confirm the exact location of the lesion. Post-resection ultrasound demonstrated the extent of the resection and depth electrode recording did not show any epileptiform activity. Thus, both techniques helped assess completeness of resection. The patient has been seizure free since surgery. Using a multimodal approach including iUS and ECoG is a helpful adjunct in surgery for BOSD and may improve seizure outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphologic expression of the left coronary artery in pigs. An approach in relation to human heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Alejandro Gómez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In spite of its importance as an experimental model, the information on the left coronary artery in pigs is sparse. Objective: To determine the morphologic features of the left coronary artery in pigs. Methods: We evaluated 158 pig hearts. The left coronary artery was perfused with synthetic resin after their ostia had been catheterized. Diameters and courses of the vascular beds were measured with an electronic caliper (Mitutoyo(r. Results: The diameter of left coronary artery was 6.98 ± 1.56 mm and its length was 3.51±0.99 mm. It was found to end up by bifurcating itself into the anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery in 79% of the cases, and by trifurcating in 21% of the cases, with the presence of the diagonal artery. The anterior interventricular artery ended up at the apex in 79.7% of the cases, and the circumflex artery at the posterior aspect of the left ventricle in 64% of the case, this artery never reached the posterior interventricular sulcus. An anastomosis between the terminal branches of the anterior interventricular artery and the posterior interventricular artery was found in 7.6% of the specimens. The antero-superior branch of the anterior interventricular artery occurred in 89.9% of the hearts. A left marginal branch was observed in 87.9% of the cases with a diameter of 2.25±0.55 mm. Conclusion: Compared with humans, pigs have shorter left coronary artery trunks and branches; even the circumflex artery never reaches the posterior interventricular sulcus. Our findings are useful for the design of experimental hemodynamic and procedural models.

  15. The effect of photodynamic therapy on pathogenic bacteria around peri-implant sulcus and in the cavity between abutment and implant after healing phase: A prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin-Yi; Shi, Jun-Yu; Zhu, Yu; Qian, Shu-Jiao; Lai, Hong-Chang; Gu, Ying-Xin

    2018-05-14

    To compare levels of pathogens from peri-implant sulcus versus abutment screw cavities after photodynamic therapy. Twenty patients were included. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied both in sulcus and cavities after sampling following suprastructures loading, and repeated after 2 weeks. Two samples each containing four paper points were collected for each implant at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 months: (i) peri-implant sulcus and (ii) abutment screw cavities. Seventy-five percent ethanol was applied in another 20 patients as the control group in the same way. qPCR was used to quantify periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans. PDT showed a better bacterial reduction than ethanol. P. g. and F. n. were most frequently detected, while less for S. m. P. gingivalis' proportion from both sites was significantly higher than the other two bacteria (P abutment screw cavities were always less than those from peri-implant sulcus and was significantly lower for total bacteria at 3 months (P abutment screw cavities significantly reduced at 3 months compared to baseline (P abutment screw cavities in the long run, suggesting PDT an effective way sterilizing inner surface of oral implant suprastrutures. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Differences in Brain Adaptive Functional Reorganization in Right and Left Total Brachial Plexus Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-Tao; Liu, Han-Qiu; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Shen, Yun-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Total brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) results in the total functional loss of the affected limb and induces extensive brain functional reorganization. However, because the dominant hand is responsible for more cognitive-related tasks, injuries on this side induce more adaptive changes in brain function. In this article, we explored the differences in brain functional reorganization after injuries in unilateral BPAI patients. We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to 10 left and 10 right BPAI patients and 20 healthy control subjects. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), which is a resting-state index, was calculated for all patients as an indication of the functional activity level of the brain. Two-sample t-tests were performed between left BPAI patients and controls, right BPAI patients and controls, and between left and right BPAI patients. Two-sample t-tests of the ALFF values revealed that right BPAIs induced larger scale brain reorganization than did left BPAIs. Both left and right BPAIs elicited a decreased ALFF value in the right precuneus (P right BPAI patients exhibited increased ALFF values in a greater number of brain regions than left BPAI patients, including the inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results revealed that right BPAIs induced greater extents of brain functional reorganization than left BPAIs, which reflected the relatively more extensive adaptive process that followed injuries of the dominant hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gram-positive bacteria as an antigen topically applied into gingival sulcus of immunized rat accelerates periodontal destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, F; Kaneko, T; Yoshinaga, Y; Ukai, T; Kuramoto, A; Nakatsu, S; Oshino, K; Ichimura, I; Hara, Y

    2013-08-01

    Periodontitis is generally accepted to relate to gram-negative bacteria, and the host defense system influences its onset and progression. However, little is known about the relation between gram-positive bacteria and periodontitis. In this study, we topically applied gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial suspensions to the gingival sulcus in rats after immunization, and then histopathologically examined their influence on periodontal destruction. Rats previously immunized with heat-treated and sonicated Staphylococcus aureus or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were used as immunized groups. The non-immunized group received only sterile phosphate-buffered saline. In each animal, S. aureus or A. actinomycetemcomitans suspension was applied topically to the palatal gingival sulcus of first molars every 24 h for 10 d. Blood samples were collected and the serum level of anti-S. aureus or anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The first molar regions were resected and observed histopathologically. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The formation of immune complexes was confirmed by immunohistological staining of C1qB. Serum levels of anti-S. aureus and anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans IgG antibodies in the immunized groups were significantly higher than those in the non-immunized groups were. The loss of attachment, increase in apical migration of the junctional epithelium, and decreases in alveolar bone level and number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in each immunized group were significantly greater than in each non-immunized group. The presence of C1qB was observed in the junctional epithelium and adjacent connective tissue in the immunized groups. Heat-treated and sonicated S. aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans induced attachment loss in rats immunized with their suspensions. Our results suggest that not only gram-negative but also gram

  18. [Lens exchange for subluxation of posterior chamber lenses implanted in the capsular bag or in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, J

    2013-04-01

    There are an increasing number of patients with decreased vision due to dislocated posterior chamber lenses, with pseudoexfoliation being the main risk factor. Various techniques for refixation of the subluxated posterior chamber IOL have been described. Experience with our technique of IOL-explantation, anterior vitrectomy and implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens are presented. In a retrospective study design all lens exchanges with implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens performed between 2003 and 2012 are analyzed. The study included 65 eyes of 61 patients (age 79.6 ± 9.2 years: 43-98). The majority of eyes (46/65; 70.8%) had Sundown Syndrome (late in-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation), in 19 eyes the posterior chamber lens was implanted primary or secondary into the ciliary sulcus. In the 46 eyes with Sundown Syndrome cataract surgery with implantation of a posterior chamber lens in the capsular bag was performed 7.4 ± 3.7 (1-22) years before subluxation within the bag. Pseudoexfoliation was the main risk factor in 42/46 (91.2%) of these eyes. A capsular tension ring (CTR) was implanted during cataract surgery in 34/46 (73.9%) eyes. The 34 IOLs with a CTR luxated significantly earlier (p IOLs without a CTR (6.6 ± 3.6 years; median 5.8 vs. 9.4 ± 3.1 years; median 9.2). The average visual gain was 0.2 logMAR in the group of luxated capsular bag lenses and 0.12 logMAR in the group of luxated sulcus lenses. Postoperative IOP decompensation was seen in 17/65 (26.2%) eyes (requiring IOP-lowering surgery in 8 eyes), 7 eyes developed corneal decompensation, 5 eyes had central retinal vein occlusion and one eye developed postoperative endophthalmitis. Lens exchange with implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens has become a routine procedure to improve vision in patients with subluxated IOLs. Postoperative IOP decompensation and vascular problems are the major complications. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  20. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  1. Neural correlates of visually induced self-motion illusion in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Gyula; Raabe, Markus; Greenlee, Mark W

    2008-08-01

    Optic-flow fields can induce the conscious illusion of self-motion in a stationary observer. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to reveal the differential processing of self- and object-motion in the human brain. Subjects were presented a constantly expanding optic-flow stimulus, composed of disparate red-blue dots, viewed through red-blue glasses to generate a vivid percept of three-dimensional motion. We compared the activity obtained during periods of illusory self-motion with periods of object-motion percept. We found that the right MT+, precuneus, as well as areas located bilaterally along the dorsal part of the intraparietal sulcus and along the left posterior intraparietal sulcus were more active during self-motion perception than during object-motion. Additional signal increases were located in the depth of the left superior frontal sulcus, over the ventral part of the left anterior cingulate, in the depth of the right central sulcus and in the caudate nucleus/putamen. We found no significant deactivations associated with self-motion perception. Our results suggest that the illusory percept of self-motion is correlated with the activation of a network of areas, ranging from motion-specific areas to regions involved in visuo-vestibular integration, visual imagery, decision making, and introspection.

  2. Formation and function of a new pollen aperture pattern in angiosperms: The proximal sulcus of Tillandsia leiboldiana (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Béatrice; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Raquin, Christian; Nadot, Sophie

    2010-02-01

    Pollen grains are generally surrounded by an extremely resistant wall interrupted in places by apertures that play a key role in reproduction; pollen tube growth is initiated at these sites. The shift from a proximal to distal aperture location is a striking innovation in seed plant reproduction. Reversals to proximal aperture position have only very rarely been described in angiosperms. The genus Tillandsia belongs to the Bromeliaceae family, and its aperture pattern has been described as distal monosulcate, the most widespread aperture patterns recorded in monocots and basal angiosperms. Here we report developmental and functional elements to demonstrate that the sulcate aperture in Tillandsia leiboldiana is not distal as previously described but proximal. Postmeitotic tetrad observation indicates unambiguously the proximal position of the sulcus, and in vitro germination of pollen grains confirms that the aperture is functional. This is the first report of a sulcate proximal aperture with proximal germination. The observation of microsporogenesis reveals specific features in the patterns of callose thickenings in postmeiotic tetrads.

  3. GABA concentration in superior temporal sulcus predicts gamma power and perception in the sound-induced flash illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Johanna; Keil, Julian; Roa Romero, Yadira; Mekle, Ralf; Schubert, Florian; Aydin, Semiha; Ittermann, Bernd; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In everyday life we are confronted with inputs of multisensory stimuli that need to be integrated across our senses. Individuals vary considerably in how they integrate multisensory information, yet the neurochemical foundations underlying this variability are not well understood. Neural oscillations, especially in the gamma band (>30Hz) play an important role in multisensory processing. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission contributes to the generation of gamma band oscillations (GBO), which can be sustained by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Hence, differences in the GABA and glutamate systems might contribute to individual differences in multisensory processing. In this combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electroencephalography study, we examined the relationships between GABA and glutamate concentrations in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), source localized GBO, and illusion rate in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In 39 human volunteers we found robust relationships between GABA concentration, GBO power, and the SIFI perception rate (r-values=0.44 to 0.53). The correlation between GBO power and SIFI perception rate was about twofold higher when the modulating influence of the GABA level was included in the analysis as compared to when it was excluded. No significant effects were obtained for glutamate concentration. Our study suggests that the GABA level shapes individual differences in audiovisual perception through its modulating influence on GBO. GABA neurotransmission could be a promising target for treatment interventions of multisensory processing deficits in clinical populations, such as schizophrenia or autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Solving intraocular lens-related pigment dispersion syndrome with repositioning of primary sulcus implanted single-piece IOL in the capsular bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Thomas; Kook, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    We describe 2 cases of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) after uneventful phacoemulsification and implantation of a posterior chamber single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) with a sharp-edge design. In both cases, several days after IOL implantation, marked pigment dispersion was seen on the iris and in the trabecular meshwork, associated with an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP). Thorough examination showed that the implanted IOL was in the ciliary sulcus. After surgical repositioning of both IOLs in the capsular bag, the pigment dispersion regressed and the IOP returned to normal limits. The 2 cases suggest that particularly in PDS patients, an IOL with an anterior sharp-edge design should be implanted in the capsular bag. Implantation in the ciliary sulcus should be avoided.

  5. A phase I/II exploratory clinical trial for intracordal injection of recombinant hepatocyte growth factor for vocal fold scar and sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shigeru; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Tateya, Ichiro; Mizuta, Masanobu; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takuya; Suzuki, Ryo; Kaneko, Mami; Naito, Yasushi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-01

    Vocal fold scar and sulcus are intractable diseases with no effective established treatments. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has preclinically proven to have potent antifibrotic and regenerative effects on vocal fold scar. The current Phase I/II clinical trial aims to examine the safety and effectiveness of intracordal injection of a recombinant human HGF drug for patients with vocal fold scar or sulcus. This is an open-label, dose-escalating, first-in-human clinical trial. Eighteen patients with bilateral vocal fold scar or sulcus were enrolled and divided into three groups: Step I received 1 μg of HGF per vocal fold; Step II received 3 μg of HGF; and Step III received 10 μg of HGF. Injections were administered once weekly for 4 weeks. The protocol treatment was performed starting with Step I and escalating to Step III. Patients were followed for 6 months post-treatment. Local and systemic safety aspects were examined as primary endpoints, and therapeutic effects were assessed as secondary endpoints using voice handicap index-10; maximum phonation time; vocal fold vibratory amplitude; grade, rough, breathy, asthenic, strained scale; and jitter. The results indicated no serious drug-related adverse events in either the systemic or local examinations. In whole-subject analysis, voice handicap index-10, vocal fold vibratory amplitude, and grade, rough, breathy, asthenic, strained scale were significantly improved at 6 months, whereas maximum phonation time and jitter varied. There were no significant differences in phonatory data between the step groups. In conclusion, intracordal injection of a recombinant human HGF drug was safe, feasible, and potentially effective for human patients with vocal fold scar or sulcus. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  7. The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett

    2012-01-01

    This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…

  8. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  9. Superior sulcus non-small cell lung carcinoma: A comparison of IMRT and 3D-RT dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Pierre; Antoni, Delphine; Santelmo, Nicola; Schumacher, Catherine; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quoix, Elisabeth; Massard, Gilbert; Noël, Georges

    2016-01-01

    A dosimetric study comparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by TomoTherapy to conformational 3D radiotherapy (3D-RT) in patients with superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). IMRT became the main technique in modern radiotherapy. However it was not currently used for lung cancers. Because of the need to increase the dose to control lung cancers but because of the critical organs surrounding the tumors, the gains obtainable with IMRT is not still demonstrated. A dosimetric comparison of the planned target and organs at risk parameters between IMRT and 3D-RT in eight patients who received preoperative or curative intent irradiation. In the patients who received at least 66 Gy, the mean V95% was significantly better with IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043). IMRT delivered a lower D2% compared to 3D-RT (p = 0.043). The IH was significantly better with IMRT (p = 0.043). The lung V 5 Gy and V 13 Gy were significantly higher in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043), while the maximal dose (D max) to the spinal cord was significantly lower in IMRT (p = 0.043). The brachial plexus D max was significantly lower in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.048). For patients treated with 46 Gy, no significant differences were found. Our study showed that IMRT is relevant for SS-NSCLC. In patients treated with a curative dose, it led to a reduction of the exposure of critical organs, allowing a better dose distribution in the tumor. For the patients treated with a preoperative schedule, our results provide a basis for future controlled trials to improve the histological complete response by increasing the radiation dose.

  10. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  11. Functional and anatomical connectivity abnormalities in left inferior frontal gyrus in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bumseok; Wible, Cynthia G; Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Kubicki, Marek

    2009-12-01

    Functional studies in schizophrenia demonstrate prominent abnormalities within the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and also suggest the functional connectivity abnormalities in language network including left IFG and superior temporal gyrus during semantic processing. White matter connections between regions involved in the semantic network have also been indicated in schizophrenia. However, an association between functional and anatomical connectivity disruptions within the semantic network in schizophrenia has not been established. Functional (using levels of processing paradigm) as well as diffusion tensor imaging data from 10 controls and 10 chronic schizophrenics were acquired and analyzed. First, semantic encoding specific activation was estimated, showing decreased activation within the left IFG in schizophrenia. Second, functional time series were extracted from this area, and left IFG specific functional connectivity maps were produced for each subject. In an independent analysis, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between groups, and to correlate these values with functional connectivity maps. Schizophrenia patients showed weaker functional connectivity within the language network that includes left IFG and left superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus. FA was reduced in several white matter regions including left inferior frontal and left internal capsule. Finally, left inferior frontal white matter FA was positively correlated with connectivity measures of the semantic network in schizophrenics, but not in controls. Our results indicate an association between anatomical and functional connectivity abnormalities within the semantic network in schizophrenia, suggesting further that the functional abnormalities observed in this disorder might be directly related to white matter disruptions. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Voxel-wise grey matter asymmetry analysis in left- and right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Friedrich, Patrick; Güntürkün, Onur; Genç, Erhan

    2016-10-28

    Handedness is thought to originate in the brain, but identifying its structural correlates in the cortex has yielded surprisingly incoherent results. One idea proclaimed by several authors is that structural grey matter asymmetries might underlie handedness. While some authors have found significant associations with handedness in different brain areas (e.g. in the central sulcus and precentral sulcus), others have failed to identify such associations. One method used by many researchers to determine structural grey matter asymmetries is voxel based morphometry (VBM). However, it has recently been suggested that the standard VBM protocol might not be ideal to assess structural grey matter asymmetries, as it establishes accurate voxel-wise correspondence across individuals but not across both hemispheres. This could potentially lead to biased and incoherent results. Recently, a new toolbox specifically geared at assessing structural asymmetries and involving accurate voxel-wise correspondence across hemispheres has been published [F. Kurth, C. Gaser, E. Luders. A 12-step user guide for analyzing voxel-wise gray matter asymmetries in statistical parametric mapping (SPM), Nat Protoc 10 (2015), 293-304]. Here, we used this new toolbox to re-assess grey matter asymmetry differences in left- vs. right-handers and linked them to quantitative measures of hand preference and hand skill. While we identified several significant left-right asymmetries in the overall sample, no difference between left- and right-handers reached significance after correction for multiple comparisons. These findings indicate that the structural brain correlates of handedness are unlikely to be rooted in macroscopic grey matter area differences that can be assessed with VBM. Future studies should focus on other potential structural correlates of handedness, e.g. structural white matter asymmetries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  14. Left regular bands of groups of left quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1988-10-01

    A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs

  15. Laser iridotomy to treat uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome secondary to reverse pupillary block in sulcus-placed intraocular lenses: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmanjit; Modabber, Milad; Safran, Steven G; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2015-10-01

    To present cases of uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome due to reverse pupillary block in sulcus-placed posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) that were managed with laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Community-based subspecialty clinics. Retrospective interventional case series. A chart review of patients with a sulcus-placed PC IOLs presenting with UGH syndrome and reverse pupillary block with posterior iris bowing as diagnosed by gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography was carried out. Laser peripheral iridotomy was performed in the eyes included in the study. The main outcome measure was clinical resolution of UGH syndrome. The study included 6 eyes of 6 patients with a mean age of 59.8 years (range 43.0 to 66.0 years) who presented with unilateral UGH syndrome a mean of 28.7 months (range 0.3 to 84.0 months) after PC IOL implantation. All patients were previously myopic, with 5 (83.3%) having a history of vitrectomy. The mean axial length was 27.0 mm ± 1.4 (SD). An LPI was used to treat the reverse pupillary block with resultant improvement in iris profile and resolution of UGH syndrome in all eyes. The mean intraocular pressure decreased from 30.5 ± 10.0 mm Hg on 0.5 ± 0.8 glaucoma medications to 15.5 ± 3.2 mm Hg postoperatively on 0.7 ± 1.2 medications. The UGH syndrome due to reverse pupillary block occurred after sulcus-placed PC IOLs in susceptible patients, those with axial myopia, and post-vitrectomized eyes. The cases were managed with LPIs. Dr. Ahmed is a consultant to Alcon Laboratories, Inc. and Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  17. Neutrosophic Left Almost Semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the theory of neutrosophy to study left almost semigroup shortly LAsemigroup. We generalize the concepts of LA-semigroup to form that for neutrosophic LA-semigroup. We also extend the ideal theory of LA-semigroup to neutrosophy and discuss different kinds of neutrosophic ideals. We also find some new type of neutrosophic ideal which is related to the strong or pure part of neutrosophy. We have given many examples to illustrate the theory of neutrosophic LA-semigroup and display many properties of neutrosophic LA-semigroup in this paper.

  18. [Application of 3D virtual reality technology with multi-modality fusion in resection of glioma located in central sulcus region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T N; Yin, X T; Li, X G; Zhao, J; Wang, L; Mu, N; Ma, K; Huo, K; Liu, D; Gao, B Y; Feng, H; Li, F

    2018-05-08

    Objective: To explore the clinical and teaching application value of virtual reality technology in preoperative planning and intraoperative guide of glioma located in central sulcus region. Method: Ten patients with glioma in the central sulcus region were proposed to surgical treatment. The neuro-imaging data, including CT, CTA, DSA, MRI, fMRI were input to 3dgo sczhry workstation for image fusion and 3D reconstruction. Spatial relationships between the lesions and the surrounding structures on the virtual reality image were obtained. These images were applied to the operative approach design, operation process simulation, intraoperative auxiliary decision and the training of specialist physician. Results: Intraoperative founding of 10 patients were highly consistent with preoperative simulation with virtual reality technology. Preoperative 3D reconstruction virtual reality images improved the feasibility of operation planning and operation accuracy. This technology had not only shown the advantages for neurological function protection and lesion resection during surgery, but also improved the training efficiency and effectiveness of dedicated physician by turning the abstract comprehension to virtual reality. Conclusion: Image fusion and 3D reconstruction based virtual reality technology in glioma resection is helpful for formulating the operation plan, improving the operation safety, increasing the total resection rate, and facilitating the teaching and training of the specialist physician.

  19. Técnica do retalho pediculado para correção do sulco vocal The pediculated flap technique to sulcus vocalis repairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Grellet

    Full Text Available Introdução: técnica do retalho pediculado de mucosa para reparar o sulco vocal permite o aparecimento da onda mucosa nessa região. A presença do sulco vocal traz como conseqüência rouquidão, soprosidade e aspereza. Outros sintomas podem estar presentes como fadiga ao falar, queimação ou ardor. Objetivo: provocar o aparecimento de onda mucosa com técnica cirúrgica. Forma de estudo: clínico retrospectivo. Material e método: Foram operados 3 pacientes para auxiliar no deslocamento do epitélio escamoso estratificado e da camada superficial da prega vocal aderidos ao ligamento vocal injetamos pequena quantidade de dexametasona. Obtemos o retalho pediculado descolando retalho de mucosa da prega vocal. Resultados: No pós-operatório, a videoestroboscopia mostra uniformidade do revestimento da cobertura da prega vocal na região do sulco vocal. Nos pacientes operados observamos a presença da onda mucosa nessa região e a coaptação das pregas vocais é satisfatória, no caso de sulco unilateral. A análise subjetiva e objetiva da voz apresenta resultados normais a partir de um ano da cirurgia. Os sintomas, esforço e fadiga ao falar, ardor e queimação, desapareceram nesse período. Para sulco bilateral operamos inicialmente o sulco de uma prega vocal com melhora dos índices acústicos utilizados, embora não atingisse valores normais em todos os parâmetros avaliados no curto período de evolução (30 dias de pós-operatório após realizarmos a correção cirúrgica do sulco da outra prega vocal. Conclusão: A técnica microfonocirúrgica de retalho pediculado de mucosa para correção do sulco vocal mostrou resultados amplamente favoráveis para reabilitação da voz nos três pacientes apresentados.Introduction: the pedicullate flap technique to repair sulcus vocalis allows the appearing of the mucous wave in this region. Sulcus vocalis cause hoarseness, breathing and roughness. Other symptoms can happen during the speech like

  20. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  1. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  2. Task-dependent modulation of regions in the left temporal cortex during auditory sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjun; Yue, Qiuhai; Zhang, Yang; Shu, Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the essential role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension along with evidence of the functional specialization of the anterior and posterior temporal sub-areas. However, it is unclear whether task demands (e.g., active vs. passive listening) modulate the functional specificity of these sub-areas. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we addressed this issue by applying both independent component analysis (ICA) and general linear model (GLM) methods. Consistent with previous studies, intelligible sentences elicited greater activity in the left lateral temporal cortex relative to unintelligible sentences. Moreover, responses to intelligibility in the sub-regions were differentially modulated by task demands. While the overall activation patterns of the anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG) were equivalent during both passive and active tasks, a middle portion of the STS/MTG was found to be selectively activated only during the active task under a refined analysis of sub-regional contributions. Our results not only confirm the critical role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension but further demonstrate that task demands modulate functional specialization of the anterior-middle-posterior temporal sub-areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased likelihood of bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus and urethra of uncircumcised men in a diverse group of HIV infected and uninfected patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological mechanism of circumcision as potentiating HIV prevention is poorly understood. Foreskin microbiota has been postulated as having a potential role; however, little is known about the relationship between bacterial pathogens and circumcision in adults. Materials and Methods: We sampled the coronal sulcus of a diverse group of circumcised and uncircumcised men (n=315 from a government chest hospital and fertility clinic in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Genital examination was conducted on three groups of men: Group 1 - HIV infected; Group 2 - TB infected; Group 3 - control. Aerobic and anaerobic specimens were cultured according to standard clinical protocols, and results were analyzed following multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Three hundred fifteen study participants - 47.6% of Group 1, 36.5% of Group 2, and 15.9% of Group 3 - were enrolled in the study and included in all analyses. Overall 37.1% of the participants were circumcised without variation across groups (P=0.29. Smegma was observed in 18.7% of the participants with no cases observed in Group 3 (P<0.001. Gram-negative pathogens were more prevalent among study participants in Group 1 (22.7% and Group 2 (30.4% as compared with those in Group 3 (6.0% (P=0.003. In multivariate regression analysis, controlling for group, age, and presence of smegma, uncircumcised men were more likely to be colonized with gram positives [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.9; P<0.05], gram negatives (AOR 2.4; P<0.05, or any pathogen (AOR 2.8; P<0.005. Conclusions: Uncircumcised men in this population in South India are more likely to harbor bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus than do their circumcised counterparts. Future studies should examine the relationship between foreskin microbiota and HIV transmission.

  4. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  5. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  6. Effects of childhood trauma on left inferior frontal gyrus function during response inhibition across psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Y; O'Reilly, N; Watkeys, O J; Carr, V J; Green, M J

    2018-07-01

    Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs). Among the participants, 71 clinical cases and 21 HCs reported significant levels of childhood trauma exposure, while 41 clinical cases and 32 HCs did not. In the absence of effects on response inhibition performance, childhood trauma exposure was associated with increased activation in the left IFG, and increased connectivity between the left IFG seed region and the cerebellum and calcarine sulcus, in both cases and healthy individuals. There was no main effect of psychosis, and no trauma-by-psychosis interaction for any other region-of-interest. Within the clinical sample, the effects of trauma-exposure on the left IFG activation were mediated by symptom severity. Trauma-related increases in activation of the left IFG were not associated with performance differences, or dependent on clinical diagnostic status; increased IFG functionality may represent a compensatory (overactivation) mechanism required to exert adequate inhibitory control of the motor response.

  7. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  8. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  9. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gestural apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcharry-Bouyx, F; Le Gall, D; Jarry, C; Osiurak, F

    Gestural apraxia was first described in 1905 by Hugo Karl Liepmann. While his description is still used, the actual terms are often confusing. The cognitive approach using models proposes thinking of the condition in terms of production and conceptual knowledge. The underlying cognitive processes are still being debated, as are also the optimal ways to assess them. Several neuroimaging studies have revealed the involvement of a left-lateralized frontoparietal network, with preferential activation of the superior parietal lobe, intraparietal sulcus and inferior parietal cortex. The presence of apraxia after a stroke is prevalent, and the incidence is sufficient to propose rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  12. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  13. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Unimodal and multimodal regions for logographic language processing in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eDeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human neocortex appears to contain a dedicated visual word form area (VWFA and an adjacent multimodal (visual/auditory area. However, these conclusions are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of alphabetic language processing, languages that have clear grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence (GPC rules that make it difficult to disassociate visual-specific processing from form-to-sound mapping. In contrast, the Chinese language has no clear GPC rules. Therefore, the current study examined whether native Chinese readers also have the same VWFA and multimodal area. Two cross-modal tasks, phonological retrieval of visual words and orthographic retrieval of auditory words, were adopted. Different task requirements were also applied to explore how different levels of cognitive processing modulate activation of putative VWFA-like and multimodal-like regions. Results showed that the left occipitotemporal sulcus responded exclusively to visual inputs and an adjacent region, the left inferior temporal gyrus, showed comparable activation for both visual and auditory inputs. Surprisingly, processing levels did not significantly alter activation of these two regions. These findings indicated that there are both unimodal and multimodal word areas for non-alphabetic language reading, and that activity in these two word-specific regions are independent of task demands at the linguistic level.

  15. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  16. The decreasing of NFκB level in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis with application of 1% curcumin on gingival sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Krismariono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic, multi-factorial disease. Chronic periodontitis is one of the main causes of tooth loss. Chronic periodontitis is usually caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis can induce NFκB activation resulting in the increasing of periodontal extracellular matrix degradation. Curcumin can inhibit NFκB activation and reduce the severity of periodontal degradation. Purpose: This research was aimed to observe level of NFκB in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis with local administration of curcumin. Methods: Sixteen Wistar rat were divided into two groups. Group 1 (treatment consisted of eight rat given 2 x 106CFU/ml P. gingivalis and 1% curcumin. Meanwhile, group 2 (control consisted of eight rat given 2 x 106 CFU/ml P. gingivalis only. GCF samples were collected from gingival sulcus. The samples were biochemically analyzed with ELISA method. Data were then analyzed statistically by using independent t-test (α=0.05. Results: The examination of NFκB level showed that there was significant difference between treatment group and control group (p<0.05. The level of NFκB in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 1% curcumin application can reduce NFκB level in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to P. gingivalis.

  17. The Impact of Single Session Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus on Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Chang Ni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation in a randomized order with a 1-week interval. Neuropsychological functions were assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Behavioral outcomes were measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. In comparison to that in the sham stimulation, the reaction time in the CCPT significantly decreased following single DLPFC session (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.71 while there were no significant differences in the CCPT and WCST following single pSTS session. Besides, the results in behavioral outcomes were inconsistent and had discrepancy between reports of parents and patients. In conclusion, a single session of iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC may alter the neuropsychological function in adults with ASD. The impacts of multiple-sessions iTBS over the DLPFC or pSTS deserve further investigations.

  18. Dissociated roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing: top-down and bottom-up mismatch detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Takeshi; Kawai, Kensuke; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Wakebe, Toshihiro; Ibaraki, Takuya; Kunii, Naoto; Matsuo, Takeshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Visual inputs can distort auditory perception, and accurate auditory processing requires the ability to detect and ignore visual input that is simultaneous and incongruent with auditory information. However, the neural basis of this auditory selection from audiovisual information is unknown, whereas integration process of audiovisual inputs is intensively researched. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) are involved in top-down and bottom-up processing, respectively, of target auditory information from audiovisual inputs. We recorded high gamma activity (HGA), which is associated with neuronal firing in local brain regions, using electrocorticography while patients with epilepsy judged the syllable spoken by a voice while looking at a voice-congruent or -incongruent lip movement from the speaker. The STS exhibited stronger HGA if the patient was presented with information of large audiovisual incongruence than of small incongruence, especially if the auditory information was correctly identified. On the other hand, the IFG exhibited stronger HGA in trials with small audiovisual incongruence when patients correctly perceived the auditory information than when patients incorrectly perceived the auditory information due to the mismatched visual information. These results indicate that the IFG and STS have dissociated roles in selective auditory processing, and suggest that the neural basis of selective auditory processing changes dynamically in accordance with the degree of incongruity between auditory and visual information.

  19. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...... [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients....

  20. ''Natural'' left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed

  1. Comparative study of the stridulatorium sulcus, buccula and rostrum of nymphs of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al and Triatoma williami Galvao et al (Hemiptera: Redivide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria B.A.; Jurberg, Jose; Galvao, Cleber; Barbosa, Helene S.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of the ventral region of the head - rostrum, buccula and stridulatorium sulcus - of 1st, 3rd and 5th instars of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al, and Triatoma williami Galvao et al, are described in here. Morphological differences in the analyzed structures for all three Triatoma species studied were detected under scanning electron microscopy, allowing their grouping by their morphological similarities. Species-specific differences at each nymphal development stage were analyzed as well. (author)

  2. Comparative study of the stridulatorium sulcus, buccula and rostrum of nymphs of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al and Triatoma williami Galvao et al (Hemiptera: Redivide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria B.A.; Jurberg, Jose; Galvao, Cleber; Barbosa, Helene S. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Estrutural. Lab. Nacional e Internacional de Referencia em Taxonomia de Triatomineos

    2010-01-15

    Ultrastructural analysis of the ventral region of the head - rostrum, buccula and stridulatorium sulcus - of 1st, 3rd and 5th instars of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al, and Triatoma williami Galvao et al, are described in here. Morphological differences in the analyzed structures for all three Triatoma species studied were detected under scanning electron microscopy, allowing their grouping by their morphological similarities. Species-specific differences at each nymphal development stage were analyzed as well. (author)

  3. Number-space interactions in the human parietal cortex: Enlightening the SNARC effect with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutini, Simone; Scarpa, Fabio; Scatturin, Pietro; Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between numbers and space have become a major issue in cognitive neuroscience, because they suggest that numerical representations might be deeply rooted in cortical networks that also subserve spatial cognition. The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) is the most robust and widely replicated demonstration of the link between numbers and space: in magnitude comparison or parity judgments, participants' reaction times to small numbers are faster with left than right effectors, whereas the converse is found for large numbers. However, despite the massive body of research on number-space interactions, the nature of the SNARC effect remains controversial and no study to date has identified its hemodynamic correlates. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we found a hemodynamic signature of the SNARC effect in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus, a core region for numerical magnitude representation, and left angular gyrus (ANG), a region implicated in verbal number processing. Activation of intraparietal sulcus was also modulated by numerical distance. Our findings point to number semantics as cognitive locus of number-space interactions, thereby revealing the intrinsic spatial nature of numerical magnitude representation. Moreover, the involvement of left ANG is consistent with the mediating role of verbal/cultural factors in shaping interactions between numbers and space.

  4. Gender differences in brain activation on a mental rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

    2012-10-01

    Few neuroimaging studies have explored gender differences on mental rotation tasks. Most studies have utilized samples with both genders, samples mainly consisting of men, or samples with six or fewer females. Graduate students in science fields or liberal arts programs (20 males, 20 females) completed a mental rotation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When a pair of cube figures was shown, the participant made a keypad response based on whether the pair is the same/similar or different. Regardless of gender, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left precuneus were activated when a subject tried to solve the mental rotation task. Increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus, the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus region, and the left middle occipital gyrus was found for men as compared to women. Better accuracy and shorter response times were correlated with an increased activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. No significant brain activity differences related to mental rotation were found between academic majors. These findings suggest that networks involved in visual attention appear to be more strongly activated in the mental rotation tasks in men as compared to women. It also suggests that men use a more automatic process when analyzing complex visual reasoning tasks while women use a more top-down process.

  5. Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma after secondary sulcus transscleral fixation of single-piece foldable posterior chamber intraocular lenses in Chinese aphakic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Nianting; Liu, Fuling; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Liangyu; Zhou, Zhanyu; Gong, Huimin; Yuan, Fuxiang

    2017-05-01

    To describe secondary pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and pigmentary glaucoma after secondary sulcus transscleral fixation of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic foldable posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) in aphakic patients in a Chinese population. Department of Ophthalmology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, China. Retrospective case series. This chart review included eyes that had secondary sulcus transscleral fixation of a 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic foldable PC IOL (Tecnis ZCB00) between March 2011 and March 2014. The patients' demographic data, clinical data, postoperative complications, intervals between initial surgery and the onset of PDS, pigmentary glaucoma occurrences, and findings on slitlamp biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) were recorded. The study comprised 23 consecutive eyes of 21 patients. Seventeen eyes of 16 patients were diagnosed with PDS, and 7 eyes of 6 patients were diagnosed with pigmentary glaucoma. The slitlamp examination and UBM showed that the location between the IOL optic and the posterior surface of the iris was very close. Slitlamp examination of the anterior chamber angle using a gonioscope showed dense pigment deposition on the IOL surfaces. A reverse pupillary block was found in 10 eyes of 9 patients. Other postoperative complications included intraocular hemorrhage, pupillary capture of the IOL optic, IOL tilt, IOL decentration, IOL dislocation, and suture erosion. The 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic foldable PC IOL was not suitable for sulcus transscleral fixation because of a high incidence of PDS and pigmentary glaucoma after surgery in a Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Framing effects in reading: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Danelli

    2014-04-01

    Anatomofunctional results (Figure 1 showed that the left occipital, the anterior and posterior temporal regions, and the left intraparietal sulcus were specifically activated when reading targets in a lexical frame. The left posterior inferior temporal and inferior parietal regions were activated in sublexical condition. Finally, reading along the two routes commonly activated the Visual Word Form Area, the premotor cortex, the left frontal areas and the left SMA, suggesting an involvement of these regions in early-input (early orthographic processing and late-output processes (phonological output buffer and articulatory programming. Conclusions: These results represent a new fine-grained description of the neurofunctional correlates of the dual route model partially supporting the recent anatomical investigations in patients with specific forms of acquired dyslexia (Ripamonti, Aggujaro, Molteni, Zonca, Ghirardi, & Luzzatti, 2014.

  7. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  8. Neural substrate of body size: illusory feeling of shrinking of the waist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Henrik Ehrsson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the size and shape of one's body (body image is a fundamental aspect of how we experience ourselves. We studied the neural correlates underlying perceived changes in the relative size of body parts by using a perceptual illusion in which participants felt that their waist was shrinking. We scanned the brains of the participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that activity in the cortices lining the left postcentral sulcus and the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus reflected the illusion of waist shrinking, and that this activity was correlated with the reported degree of shrinking. These results suggest that the perceived changes in the size and shape of body parts are mediated by hierarchically higher-order somatosensory areas in the parietal cortex. Based on this finding we suggest that relative size of body parts is computed by the integration of more elementary somatic signals from different body segments.

  9. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    At the height of mass activity on the Left, the ascendancy of the women's liberation movement (WLM), and the beginnings of real social and personal change for men and women, the 1970s are increasingly seen as the decade when sixties permissiveness began to be truly felt in Britain. This article...... draws upon a personal archive of correspondence from this turbulent decade, between two revolutionary women, Di Parkin and Annie Howells. It argues that the women's letters form an important contribution to new understandings about the construction of the post-war gendered self. The letters represent...... an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  10. Time left in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; King, Adam Philip; Gallistel, C R

    2007-02-22

    Evidence suggests that the online combination of non-verbal magnitudes (durations, numerosities) is central to learning in both human and non-human animals [Gallistel, C.R., 1990. The Organization of Learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA]. The molecular basis of these computations, however, is an open question at this point. The current study provides the first direct test of temporal subtraction in a species in which the genetic code is available. In two experiments, mice were run in an adaptation of Gibbon and Church's [Gibbon, J., Church, R.M., 1981. Time left: linear versus logarithmic subjective time. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 7, 87-107] time left paradigm in order to characterize typical responding in this task. Both experiments suggest that mice engaged in online subtraction of temporal values, although the generalization of a learned response rule to novel stimulus values resulted in slightly less systematic responding. Potential explanations for this pattern of results are discussed.

  11. Corticothalamic and corticotectal somatosensory projections from the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (SIV cortex) in neonatal cats: an anatomical demonstration with HRP and 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHaffie, J.G.; Kruger, L.; Clemo, H.R.; Stein, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    Corticothalamic and corticotectal projections from the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) in neonatal cats were studied with anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical techniques. When the injection site was relatively restricted to the sulcal walls and fundus of the rostral AES (i.e., the SIV cortex), heavy ipsilateral thalamic label was observed in the medial subdivision of the posterior group, in the suprageniculate nucleus, and in the external medullary lamina. No terminal label was seen in the contralateral thalamus although the contralateral homotopic cortex was heavily labeled. Within the ventrobasal complex (VB), dense axonal label was observed in fascicles that traversed VB, but only light terminal label was observed within VB itself. However, in cases where the tracer spread into adjacent SII, terminal label in VB was pronounced. Similarly, when the injection site extended into auditory cortex, terminal label was observed in the lateral and intermediate subdivisions of the posterior group. Rostral AES injections produced distinct, predominantly ipsilateral, terminal label in the superior colliculus that was distributed in two tiers: a discontinuous band in the stratum griseum intermedium and a more diffuse band in stratum griseum profundum. Caudally, dense terminal label was seen in the intercollicular zone and dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. When the injection site did not include rostral AES, no label was observed in the superior colliculus. Horseradish peroxidase injections into the superior colliculus of neonates produced retrogradely labeled neurons throughout the AES, but none was found on the crown of the gyrus where SII is located. Thus, the neonatal corticotectal somatosensory projection arises exclusively from AES and parallels that found in adults

  12. Functional Asymmetries Revealed in Visually Guided Saccades: An fMRI Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, L.; Zago, L.; Vigneau, M.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Mellet, E.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. [Centre for Imaging, Neurosciences and Applications to Pathologies, UMR6232 CNRS CEA (France); Mazoyer, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Caen (France); Andersson, F. [Institut Federatif de Recherche 135, Imagerie fonctionnelle, Tours (France); Mazoyer, B. [Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Because eye movements are a fundamental tool for spatial exploration, we hypothesized that the neural bases of these movements in humans should be under right cerebral dominance, as already described for spatial attention. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 right-handed participants who alternated central fixation with either large or small visually guided saccades (VGS), equally performed in both directions. Hemispheric functional asymmetry was analyzed to identify whether brain regions showing VGS activation elicited hemispheric asymmetries. Hemispheric anatomical asymmetry was also estimated to assess its influence on the VGS functional lateralization. Right asymmetrical activations of a saccadic/attentional system were observed in the lateral frontal eye fields (FEF), the anterior part of the intra-parietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior third of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the occipito-temporal junction (MT/V5 area), the middle occipital gyrus, and medially along the calcarine fissure (V1). The present rightward functional asymmetries were not related to differences in gray matter (GM) density/sulci positions between right and left hemispheres in the pre-central, intra-parietal, superior temporal, and extrastriate regions. Only V1 asymmetries were explained for almost 20% of the variance by a difference in the position of the right and left calcarine fissures. Left asymmetrical activations of a saccadic motor system were observed in the medial FEF and in the motor strip eye field along the Rolando sulcus. They were not explained by GM asymmetries. We suggest that the leftward saccadic motor asymmetry is part of a general dominance of the left motor cortex in right-handers, which must include an effect of sighting dominance. Our results demonstrate that, although bilateral by nature, the brain network involved in the execution of VGSs, irrespective of their direction, presented specific right and left asymmetries that were not related to

  13. Functional Asymmetries Revealed in Visually Guided Saccades: An fMRI Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, L.; Zago, L.; Vigneau, M.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Mellet, E.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N.; Mazoyer, B.; Andersson, F.; Mazoyer, B.

    2009-01-01

    Because eye movements are a fundamental tool for spatial exploration, we hypothesized that the neural bases of these movements in humans should be under right cerebral dominance, as already described for spatial attention. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 right-handed participants who alternated central fixation with either large or small visually guided saccades (VGS), equally performed in both directions. Hemispheric functional asymmetry was analyzed to identify whether brain regions showing VGS activation elicited hemispheric asymmetries. Hemispheric anatomical asymmetry was also estimated to assess its influence on the VGS functional lateralization. Right asymmetrical activations of a saccadic/attentional system were observed in the lateral frontal eye fields (FEF), the anterior part of the intra-parietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior third of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the occipito-temporal junction (MT/V5 area), the middle occipital gyrus, and medially along the calcarine fissure (V1). The present rightward functional asymmetries were not related to differences in gray matter (GM) density/sulci positions between right and left hemispheres in the pre-central, intra-parietal, superior temporal, and extrastriate regions. Only V1 asymmetries were explained for almost 20% of the variance by a difference in the position of the right and left calcarine fissures. Left asymmetrical activations of a saccadic motor system were observed in the medial FEF and in the motor strip eye field along the Rolando sulcus. They were not explained by GM asymmetries. We suggest that the leftward saccadic motor asymmetry is part of a general dominance of the left motor cortex in right-handers, which must include an effect of sighting dominance. Our results demonstrate that, although bilateral by nature, the brain network involved in the execution of VGSs, irrespective of their direction, presented specific right and left asymmetries that were not related to

  14. Numerical and Non-Numerical Ordinality Processing in Children with and without Developmental Dyscalculia: Evidence from fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, L.; Vogel, S. E.; Starke, M.; Kremser, C.; Schocke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ordinality is--beyond numerical magnitude (i.e., quantity)--an important characteristic of the number system. There is converging empirical evidence that (intra)parietal brain regions mediate number magnitude processing. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that the human intraparietal sulcus (IPS) supports magnitude and ordinality in a…

  15. The left fusiform gyrus hosts trisensory representations of manipulable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2011-01-01

    During object manipulation the brain integrates the visual, auditory, and haptic experience of an object into a unified percept. Previous brain imaging studies have implicated for instance the dorsal part of the lateral occipital complex in visuo-tactile and the posterior superior temporal sulcus...

  16. The functional organization of the left STS: a large scale meta-analysis of PET and fMRI studies of healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eLiebenthal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The superior temporal sulcus (STS in the left hemisphere is functionally diverse, with sub-areas implicated in both linguistic and non-linguistic functions. However, the number and boundaries of distinct functional regions remain to be determined. Here, we present new evidence, from meta-analysis of a large number of positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies, of different functional specificity in the left STS supporting a division of its middle to terminal extent into at least three functional areas. The middle portion of the left STS stem (fmSTS is highly specialized for speech perception and the processing of language material. The posterior portion of the left STS stem (fpSTS is highly versatile and involved in multiple functions supporting semantic memory and associative thinking. The fpSTS responds to both language and non-language stimuli but the sensitivity to non-language material is greater. The horizontal portion of the left STS stem and terminal ascending branches (ftSTS display intermediate functional specificity, with the anterior ascending branch adjoining the supramarginal gyrus (fatSTS supporting executive functions and motor planning and showing greater sensitivity to language material, and the horizontal stem and posterior ascending branch adjoining the angular gyrus (fptSTS supporting primarily semantic processing and displaying greater sensitivity to non-language material. We suggest that the high functional specificity of the left fmSTS for speech is an important means by which the human brain achieves exquisite affinity and efficiency for native speech perception. In contrast, the extreme multi-functionality of the left fpSTS reflects the role of this area as a cortical hub for semantic processing and the extraction of meaning from multiple sources of information. Finally, in the left ftSTS, further functional differentiation between the dorsal and ventral aspect is warranted.

  17. The functional organization of the left STS: a large scale meta-analysis of PET and fMRI studies of healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenthal, Einat; Desai, Rutvik H.; Humphries, Colin; Sabri, Merav; Desai, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the left hemisphere is functionally diverse, with sub-areas implicated in both linguistic and non-linguistic functions. However, the number and boundaries of distinct functional regions remain to be determined. Here, we present new evidence, from meta-analysis of a large number of positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, of different functional specificity in the left STS supporting a division of its middle to terminal extent into at least three functional areas. The middle portion of the left STS stem (fmSTS) is highly specialized for speech perception and the processing of language material. The posterior portion of the left STS stem (fpSTS) is highly versatile and involved in multiple functions supporting semantic memory and associative thinking. The fpSTS responds to both language and non-language stimuli but the sensitivity to non-language material is greater. The horizontal portion of the left STS stem and terminal ascending branches (ftSTS) display intermediate functional specificity, with the anterior-dorsal ascending branch (fatSTS) supporting executive functions and motor planning and showing greater sensitivity to language material, and the horizontal stem and posterior-ventral ascending branch (fptSTS) supporting primarily semantic processing and displaying greater sensitivity to non-language material. We suggest that the high functional specificity of the left fmSTS for speech is an important means by which the human brain achieves exquisite affinity and efficiency for native speech perception. In contrast, the extreme multi-functionality of the left fpSTS reflects the role of this area as a cortical hub for semantic processing and the extraction of meaning from multiple sources of information. Finally, in the left ftSTS, further functional differentiation between the dorsal and ventral aspect is warranted. PMID:25309312

  18. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  19. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörös, Peter; Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Kanat, Manuela; Hoxhaj, Eliza; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Müller, Helge H O; Thiel, Christiane; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD. Surface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014. Linear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [ F (1,27) = 26.27, p  attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.

  20. Notational usage modulates attention networks in binumerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atesh eKoul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multicultural environments require learning multiple number notations wherein some are encountered more frequently than others. This leads to differences in exposure and consequently differences in usage between notations. We find that differential notational usage imposes a significant neurocognitive load on number processing. Despite simultaneous acquisition, forty-two adult binumerate populations, familiar with two positional writing systems namely Hindu Nagari digits and Hindu Arabic digits, reported significantly lower preference and usage for Nagari as compared to Arabic. Twenty-four participants showed significantly increased reaction times and reduced accuracy while performing magnitude comparison tasks in Nagari with respect to Arabic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that processing Nagari elicited significantly greater activity in number processing and attention networks. A direct subtraction of networks for Nagari and Arabic notations revealed a neural circuit comprising of bilateral intra-parietal sulcus, inferior and mid frontal gyri, fusiform gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex (FDR p<0.005. Additionally, whole brain correlation analysis showed that activity in the left inferior parietal region was modulated by task performance in Nagari. We attribute the increased activation in Ng to increased task difficulty due to infrequent exposure and usage. Our results reiterate the role of the left intra-parietal sulcus in modulating performance in numeric tasks and highlight that of the attention network for monitoring symbolic notation mode in binumerates.

  1. Impaired neural networks for approximate calculation in dyscalculic children: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosch Mengia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental dyscalculia (DD is a specific learning disability affecting the acquisition of mathematical skills in children with otherwise normal general intelligence. The goal of the present study was to examine cerebral mechanisms underlying DD. Methods Eighteen children with DD aged 11.2 ± 1.3 years and twenty age-matched typically achieving schoolchildren were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during trials testing approximate and exact mathematical calculation, as well as magnitude comparison. Results Children with DD showed greater inter-individual variability and had weaker activation in almost the entire neuronal network for approximate calculation including the intraparietal sulcus, and the middle and inferior frontal gyrus of both hemispheres. In particular, the left intraparietal sulcus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus seem to play crucial roles in correct approximate calculation, since brain activation correlated with accuracy rate in these regions. In contrast, no differences between groups could be found for exact calculation and magnitude comparison. In general, fMRI revealed similar parietal and prefrontal activation patterns in DD children compared to controls for all conditions. Conclusion In conclusion, there is evidence for a deficient recruitment of neural resources in children with DD when processing analog magnitudes of numbers.

  2. Neural Networks for Time Perception and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Sertaç; Kale, Emre H.; Çiçek, Metehan

    2017-01-01

    Time is an important concept which determines most human behaviors, however questions remain about how time is perceived and which areas of the brain are responsible for time perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between time perception and working memory in healthy adults. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used during the application of a visual paradigm. In all of the conditions, the participants were presented with a moving black rectangle on a gray screen. The rectangle was obstructed by a black bar for a time period and then reappeared again. During different conditions, participants (n = 15, eight male) responded according to the instructions they were given, including details about time and the working memory or dual task requirements. The results showed activations in right dorsolateral prefrontal and right intraparietal cortical networks, together with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula and basal ganglia (BG) during time perception. On the other hand, working memory engaged the left prefrontal cortex, ACC, left superior parietal cortex, BG and cerebellum activity. Both time perception and working memory were related to a strong peristriate cortical activity. On the other hand, the interaction of time and memory showed activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These results support a distributed neural network based model for time perception and that the intraparietal and posterior cingulate areas might play a role in the interface of memory and timing. PMID:28286475

  3. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sörös

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD.MethodsSurface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS. Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014.ResultsLinear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [F(1,27 = 26.27, p < 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.4744]. No significant associations were found between cortical thickness and the scores on CAARS subscales in women. No significant associations were found between the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the scores on CAARS subscales, neither in men nor in women. These results remained stable when severity of depression was included as additional regressor, together with age.ConclusionIncreased cortical thickness in the left occipital cortex may represent a mechanism to compensate for dysfunctional attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.

  4. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  5. An elusive persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Soward; F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractA case report of a persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium with a fibromuscular left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a small atrial septal defect. The anomalous vessel escaped detection during two right and left heart catheterizations from the right arm and

  6. Predictive saccades in children and adults: A combined fMRI and eye tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Lukasova

    Full Text Available Saccades were assessed in 21 adults (age 24 years, SD = 4 and 15 children (age 11 years, SD = 1, using combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and eye-tracking. Subjects visually tracked a point on a horizontal line in four conditions: time and position predictable task (PRED, position predictable (pPRED, time predictable (tPRED and visually guided saccades (SAC. Both groups in the PRED but not in pPRED, tPRED and SAC produced predictive saccades with latency below 80 ms. In task versus group comparisons, children's showed less efficient learning compared to adults for predictive saccades (adults = 48%, children = 34%, p = 0.05. In adults brain activation was found in the frontal and occipital regions in the PRED, in the intraparietal sulcus in pPRED and in the frontal eye field, posterior intraparietal sulcus and medial regions in the tPRED task. Group-task interaction was found in the supplementary eye field and visual cortex in the PRED task, and the frontal cortex including the right frontal eye field and left frontal pole, in the pPRED condition. These results indicate that, the basic visuomotor circuitry is present in both adults and children, but fine-tuning of the activation according to the task temporal and spatial demand mature late in child development.

  7. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  8. Basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancar, B.

    2007-01-01

    A 91-year-old female patient was treated with irradiation for histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek. The tumour, measuring 3 x 3 cm, with the depth of 2 cm, was extending up to the lower lid of the left eye. (author)

  9. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  10. Congenital Absence of Left Circumflex Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ansari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of left circumflex artery is a rare congenitalanomaly of the coronary arteries. The prevalence of theanomaly in different studies ranges from 0.6% to 1.3%. Ofthese, 80% are benign and asymptomatic and 20% are clinicallyimportant. We report a 56-year-old man presented withacute resting chest pain who was diagnosed as having acuteanterolateral infarction accompanied by electrocardiographicchanges and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary angiographyin different views was conducted, however, no left circumflexartery was found. The territory supplied by the artery had beenperfused by the super dominant right coronary artery. Therewas no left circumflex coronary artery with anomalous origin.Sever stenosis of left anterior ascending artery superimposedto the absent left circumflex artery was presented as acute anterolateralinfarction. Although absence of the artery is mostlyconsidered as a benign condition, atherosclerotic lesions maybe more important in such cases because of diminished compensatingmechanisms.

  11. VARIATION IN THE OPENINGS (OSTIA OF LEFT PULMONARY VEINS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  12. Repair of aorto-left ventricular tunnel arising from the left sinus of valsalva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Maleki, Mahmood Hosseinzadeh; Javan, Hadi; Zirak, Nahid

    2010-05-01

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that bypasses the aortic valve via a para-valvular connection from the left ventricle to the aorta. In most cases, the tunnel arises from the right aortic sinus. In this case report, we are presenting a case of ALVT, of which the aortic orifice arose from the left aortic sinus, requiring special attention to avoid the left coronary artery injury at the time of surgical repair.

  13. Left Atrial Decompression by Percutaneous Left Atrial Venting Cannula Insertion during Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO frequently suffer from pulmonary edema due to left ventricular dysfunction that accompanies left heart dilatation, which is caused by left atrial hypertension. The problem can be resolved by left atrium (LA decompression. We performed a successful percutaneous LA decompression with an atrial septostomy and placement of an LA venting cannula in a 38-month-old child treated with venoarterial ECMO for acute myocarditis.

  14. TMS over the Left Angular Gyrus Impairs the Ability to Discriminate Left from Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Ellison, Amanda; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of the ability to discriminate left from right are hardly explored. Clinical studies from patients with impairments of left-right discrimination (LRD) and neuroimaging data suggest that the left angular gyrus is particularly involved in LRD. Moreover, it is argued that the often reported sex…

  15. Social aspects of left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout human history left-handedness has been considered as sinful. It has been associated with the devil, weakness, female gender, unhealthiness, evil, something that has to be turned to a “good” - right side by force. Left-handedness is being more and more acceptable at rational level, but in everyday life it is still considered to be unusual if someone writes with the left hand. Lessening of the number of lefthanders is associated with ageing. There are about 13% lefthanders among people in twenties and less than 1% lefthanders among those in eighties. This finding may be explaned with more pronounced socio-cultural pressure on left-handed people in the past, compared to nowadays. On the other hand, this may also support the hypothesis about a reduced life span of lefthanded people. With cross-exercising of left-handedness, certain typical characteristics and behavioral patterns appear in these people. This was a sort of provoked behavior and an attack on the integrity of an emotional attitude toward oneself. Stuttering may also appear as a consequence of unsuccessful cross-exercising of left-handedness. The hypothesis about left-handedness as an advantage is supported with the reports about relatively more lefthanders in some specific groups such as: mathematicians, sculptors, architects, painters, musicians, actors, tennis players, as well as famous army commanders and rulers.

  16. Nueva variante de abordaje al surco ciliar en la fijación transescleral de lentes de cámara posterior New variant of approach to the ciliary sulcus in the transcleral fixation of posterior chamber lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Vila Dópico

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una variante de abordaje al surco ciliar para la fijación del lente intraocular de cámara posterior, que está a nuestro alcance, en pacientes en que no existe soporte capsular o este es insuficiente. Se describe la técnica. Se realizó en 17 pacientes de los que se obtuvo mejoría visual en todos los casos (20/50-20/20 con un seguimiento promedio de 12 meses. Esta variante tiene la ventaja de evitar el paso de la aguja por el surco ciliar a ciegas, pues se utiliza el abordaje a través de la esclera y con ello evitamos dañar estructuras oculares aledañas evitando el riesgo de complicaciones por lo que se logra la recuperación anatómica y funcional en todos los casos.A variant to approach the ciliary sulcus for fixating the posterior chamber intraocular lens, which is within our reach, in patients with insufficient or no capsular support, is explained. The technique is described here and it was applied to 17 patients. Visual improvement was obtained in all cases (20/50-20/20 with an average follow-up of 12 months. This variant allows to prevent the blind passage of the needle through the ciliary sulcus, since it is approached via the sclera, avoiding to damage adjoining ocular structures and to have complications, and making possible the anatomic and functional recovery of all patients.

  17. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... systolic force and left ventricular geometry and function have not been investigated in high-risk hypertrophic hypertensive patients. Participants in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension echocardiography substudy without prevalent cardiovascular disease or atrial fibrillation (n...... = 567) underwent standard Doppler echocardiography. Left atrial systolic force was obtained from the mitral orifice area and Doppler mitral peak A velocity. Patients were divided into groups with normal or increased left atrial systolic force (>14.33 kdyn). Left atrial systolic force was high in 297...

  18. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  19. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  20. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C; Pinto, Yigal M

    2003-06-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there are structural changes in myofilaments, disorganization of the cytoskeletal framework and increased collagen synthesis. LVH is associated with progressive left ventricular remodeling that culminates to heart failure. The modern treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy is now largely based on the hypothesis that neuroendocrine activation is important in the progression of the disease and inhibition of neurohormones is likely to have long-term benefit with regard to morbidity and mortality. Drugs specifically designed to unload the left ventricle, such as diuretics and vasodilators, appears to be less effective in reducing LV mass and improving prognosis. Thus, the evolution of treatment for LVH itself has provided much enlightenment for our understanding of the fundamental biology of the disorder.

  1. Modulation of fronto-parietal connections during the rubber hand illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that parieto-frontal connections play a role in adjusting body ownership during the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Using a motor version of the rubber hand illusion paradigm, we applied single-site and dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate...... and during three RHI conditions: a) agency and ownership, b) agency but no ownership and c) neither agency nor ownership. Parietal-motor communication differed among experimental conditions. The induction of action ownership was associated with an inhibitory parietal-to-motor connectivity, which...... cortico-spinal and parietal-frontal connectivity during perceived rubber hand ownership. Healthy volunteers received a conditioning TMS pulse over left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and a test TMS pulse over left primary motor cortex (M1). Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were recorded at rest...

  2. Gaze recognition in high-functioning autistic patients. Evidence from functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebayashi, Hiroko; Ogai, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    We examined whether patients with high-functioning autistic disorder (AD) would exhibit abnormal activation in brain regions implicated in the functioning of theory of mind (TOM) during gaze recognition. We investigated brain activity during gaze recognition in 5 patients with high-functioning AD and 9 normal subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. On the gaze task, more activation was found in the left middle frontal gyrus, the right intraparietal sulcus, and the precentral and inferior parietal gyri bilaterally in controls than in AD patients, whereas the patient group showed more powerful signal changes in the left superior temporal gyrus, the right insula, and the right medial frontal gyrus. These results suggest that high-functioning AD patients have functional abnormalities not only in TOM-related brain regions, but also in widely distributed brain regions that are not normally activated upon the processing of information from another person's gaze. (author)

  3. Short-term plasticity of visuo-haptic object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    , the same stimulation gave rise to relative increases in activation during S2 processing in the right LO, left FG, bilateral IPS, and other regions previously associated with object recognition. Critically, the modality of S2 determined which regions were recruited after rTMS. Relative to sham rTMS, real r......TMS induced increased activations during crossmodal congruent matching in the left FG for haptic S2 and the temporal pole for visual S2. In addition, we found stronger activations for incongruent than congruent matching in the right anterior parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus for crossmodal matching......Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided ample evidence for the involvement of the lateral occipital cortex (LO), fusiform gyrus (FG), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visuo-haptic object integration. Here we applied 30 min of sham (non-effective) or real offline 1 Hz...

  4. Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors.

  5. Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors

  6. Assessment of left ventricular global function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuel, H.-P.; Baehre, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV), i.e. noninvasive evaluation of left venticular performance following the application of radionuclides has had a major impact on many aspects of cardiology and has proven its clinical value and reliability in the last few years. This article deals mainly with the changes in global left ventricular function. The clinical applications of RNV for coronary artery diseases and valvular heart diseases are described. (Auth.)

  7. Aetiological factors in left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateralisation associates the extremities and senses of one side of the body, which are connected by afferent and efferent pathways, with the primary motor and sensory areas of the hemisphere on the opposite side. Dominant laterality denotes the appearance of a dominant extremity or sense in the performance of complex psychomotor activities. Laterality is manifested both as right-handedness or left-handedness, which are functionally equivalent and symmetrical in the performance of activities. Right-handedness is significantly more common than left-handedness. Genetic theory is most widely accepted in explaining the onset of lateralisation. According to this theory, the models of brain organisation asymmetry (anatomical, functional, and biochemical are strongly, genetically determined. However, the inability to clearly demonstrate the association between genetic factors and left-handedness has led researchers to investigate the effects of the environment on left-handedness. Of particular interest are the intrauterine environment and the factors influencing foetal development, of which hormones and ultrasound exposure are the most significant. It has been estimated that an extra five cases of nonright-handed lateralisation can be expected in every 100 males who were exposed to ultrasound in utero compared to those who were not. Socio-cultural pressure on left-handed individuals was much more severe in the past, which is confirmed by scientific findings that left-handedness is present in 13% of individuals in their twenties, while in less than 1% of individuals in their eighties.

  8. New strict left bundle branch block criteria reflect left ventricular activation differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Kasper Janus Grønn; Risum, Niels; Hjortshøj, Søren Pihlkjær

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left ven....... CONCLUSION: Interventricular electrical delay predicts left ventricular remodeling after CRT and new, strict ECG criteria of LBBB are superior in predicting remodeling.......AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left...... ventricular electrical delay (RV-LV-IED) was measured. Response to CRT was defined as ≥15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume. RESULTS: Eighteen of 20 (90%) patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 18 of 29 (62%) with ischemic heart disease (IHD) responded to CRT, p

  9. The organization of the posterior parietal cortex devoted to upper limb actions: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Stefania; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present fMRI study examined whether upper‐limb action classes differing in their motor goal are encoded by different PPC sectors. Action observation was used as a proxy for action execution. Subjects viewed actors performing object‐related (e.g., grasping), skin‐displacing (e.g., rubbing the skin), and interpersonal upper limb actions (e.g., pushing someone). Observation of the three action classes activated a three‐level network including occipito‐temporal, parietal, and premotor cortex. The parietal region common to observing all three action classes was located dorsally to the left intraparietal sulcus (DIPSM/DIPSA border). Regions specific for observing an action class were obtained by combining the interaction between observing action classes and stimulus types with exclusive masking for observing the other classes, while for regions considered preferentially active for a class the interaction was exclusively masked with the regions common to all observed actions. Left putative human anterior intraparietal was specific for observing manipulative actions, and left parietal operculum including putative human SII region, specific for observing skin‐displacing actions. Control experiments demonstrated that this latter activation depended on seeing the skin being moved and not simply on seeing touch. Psychophysiological interactions showed that the two specific parietal regions had similar connectivities. Finally, observing interpersonal actions preferentially activated a dorsal sector of left DIPSA, possibly the homologue of ventral intraparietal coding the impingement of the target person's body into the peripersonal space of the actor. These results support the importance of segregation according to the action class as principle of posterior parietal cortex organization for action observation and by implication for action execution. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3845–3866, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley

  10. Mapping of the left-sided phrenic nerve course in patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Martin; Wutzler, Alexander; Parwani, Abdul S; Attanasio, Philipp; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Boldt, Leif-Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been associated with left-sided phrenic nerve palsy. Knowledge of the individual left phrenic nerve course therefore is essential to prevent nerve injury. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an intraprocedural pace mapping and reconstruction of the left phrenic nerve course and to characterize which anatomical areas are affected. In patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablation, a three-dimensional map of the left atrial anatomical structures was created. The left-sided phrenic nerve course was determined by high-output pace mapping and reconstructed in the map. In this study, 40 patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardias were included. Left phrenic nerve capture was observed in 23 (57.5%) patients. Phrenic nerve was captured in 22 (55%) patients inside the left atrial appendage, in 22 (55%) in distal parts, in 21 (53%) in medial parts, and in two (5%) in ostial parts of the appendage. In three (7.5%) patients, capture was found in the distal coronary sinus and in one (2.5%) patient in the left atrium near the left atrial appendage ostium. Ablation target was changed due to direct spatial relationship to the phrenic nerve in three (7.5%) patients. No phrenic nerve palsy was observed. Left-sided phrenic nerve capture was found inside and around the left atrial appendage in the majority of patients and additionally in the distal coronary sinus. Phrenic nerve mapping and reconstruction can easily be performed and should be considered prior catheter ablations in potential affected areas. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Analysis of lesions in patients with unilateral tactile agnosia using cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hömke, Lars; Amunts, Katrin; Bönig, Lutz; Fretz, Christian; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Zilles, Karl; Weder, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    We propose a novel methodical approach to lesion analyses involving high-resolution MR images in combination with probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. 3D-MR images of the whole brain and the manually segmented lesion mask are spatially normalized to the reference brain of a stereotaxic probabilistic cytoarchitectonic atlas using a multiscale registration algorithm based on an elastic model. The procedure is demonstrated in three patients suffering from aperceptive tactile agnosia of the right hand due to chronic infarction of the left parietal cortex. Patient 1 presents a lesion in areas of the postcentral sulcus, Patient 3 in areas of the superior parietal lobule and adjacent intraparietal sulcus, and Patient 2 lesions in both regions. On the basis of neurobehavioral data, we conjectured degradation of sequential elementary sensory information processing within the postcentral gyrus, impeding texture recognition in Patients 1 and 2, and disturbed kinaesthetic information processing in the posterior parietal lobe, causing degraded shape recognition in the patients 2 and 3. The involvement of Brodmann areas 4a, 4p, 3a, 3b, 1, 2, and areas IP1 and IP2 of the intraparietal sulcus was assessed in terms of the voxel overlap between the spatially transformed lesion masks and the 50%-isocontours of the cytoarchitectonic maps. The disruption of the critical cytoarchitectonic areas and the impaired subfunctions, texture and shape recognition, relate as conjectured above. We conclude that the proposed method represents a promising approach to hypothesis-driven lesion analyses, yielding lesion-function correlates based on a cytoarchitectonic model. Finally, the lesion-function correlates are validated by functional imaging reference data. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... with the cleavage-lines of industrial society, but that it is an orientational metaphor which is articulated with others-in/out, up/down and front/back-and that we are in the process of moving beyond the industrial society right/left prototype. The second part looks at where New Labour is heading when moving beyond...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  13. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Iain M.

    2018-01-01

    Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease. PMID:29755990

  14. Grammatical distinctions in the left frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, K A; Pascual-Leone, A; Mottaghy, F M; Gangitano, M; Caramazza, A

    2001-08-15

    Selective deficits in producing verbs relative to nouns in speech are well documented in neuropsychology and have been associated with left hemisphere frontal cortical lesions resulting from stroke and other neurological disorders. The basis for these impairments is unresolved: Do they arise because of differences in the way grammatical categories of words are organized in the brain, or because of differences in the neural representation of actions and objects? We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefrontal cortex and to assess its role in producing nouns and verbs. In one experiment subjects generated real words; in a second, they produced pseudowords as nouns or verbs. In both experiments, response latencies increased for verbs but were unaffected for nouns following rTMS. These results demonstrate that grammatical categories have a neuroanatomical basis and that the left prefrontal cortex is selectively engaged in processing verbs as grammatical objects.

  15. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  16. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry....... Surprisingly, existing methods only deal with special cases. In this paper, we clarify different kinds of left-truncation and suggest estimators for semiparametric survival models under specific truncation schemes. The large-sample properties of the estimators are established. Small-sample properties...

  17. Left ventricular function in right ventricular overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Shiro; Handa, Shunnosuke; Abe, Sumihisa; Onishi, Shohei; Nakamura, Yoshiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study clarified regional and global functions of the distorted left ventricle due to right ventricular overload by gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Cardiac catheterization and RNV were performed in 13 cases of atrial septal defect (ASD), 13 of pure mitral stenosis (MS), 10 of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and 10 of normal subjects (NL). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was 32.9±13.9, 45.0±12.2, 88.3±17.1, and 21.2±4.5 mmHg, respectively. The end-systolic LAO view of the left ventricle was halved into septal and free-wall sides. The end-diastolic halves were determined in the same plane. Ejection fractions of the global left ventricle (LVEF), global right ventricle (RVEF), the septal half of the left ventricle (SEPEF), and the free-wall half of the left ventricle (FWEF) were obtained. LVEF was 56.8±9.8% in NL, 52.8±10.5% in ASD, and 49.5±12.9% in PPH. In MS, LVEF (47.0±13.0%) was smaller than those in the other groups. RVEF was 37.0±5.2% in NL, 43.7±15.5% in ASD, and 32.8±11.5% in MS. In PPH, RVEF (25.0±10.6%) was smaller than those in the other groups. SEPEF was smaller in ASD (42.5±13.2%), MS (40.4±13.1%), PPH (40.5±12.5%) than in NL (53.5±8.5%). Systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was disturbed by right ventricular overload. RVEF (r=-0.35, p<0.05) and SEPEF (r=-0.51, p<0.01) had negative correlations with RVSP. As RVSP rose, systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was more severely disturbed. FWEF was the same among the four groups; NL (57.0±12.6%), ASD (48.6±15.2%), MS (50.5±12.0%), and PPH (51.1±12.3%). There was a good correlation between SEPEF and LVEF in NL (r=0.81), although in PPH this correlation was poor (r=0.64). These data showed that the distorted left ventricular due to right ventricular overload maintains its global function with preserved function of the free-wall side. (J.P.N.)

  18. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  19. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Jagia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best of our knowledge, use of multi-detector computed tomography in aortic atresia with well developed left ventricle has not been reported in literature till date.

  20. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  1. Echocardiographic study of left atrial myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal J

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed pre-operatively by echocardiography. All cases showed characteristic echocardio-graphic features of variegated shadows behind the mitral valve in diastole and within the left atrium in systole. In two cases the my-xomas were surgically removed and confirmed on histology. In one case the post-operative echocardiogram showed complete dis-appearance of the abnormal shadows. Echocardiography is the most reliable method today for the diagnosis of a myxoma.

  2. Left ventricular assist device implantation via left thoracotomy: alternative to repeat sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Howser, Renee; Donaldson, Terri; Merrill, Walter H; Dignan, Rebecca J; Drinkwater, Davis C; Christian, Karla G; Butler, Javed; Chomsky, Don; Wilson, John R; Clark, Rick; Davis, Stacy F

    2002-03-01

    Repeat sternotomy for left ventricular assist device insertion may result in injury to the right heart or patent coronary grafts, complicating intraoperative and postoperative management. In 4 critically ill patients, left thoracotomy was used as an alternative to repeat sternotomy. Anastomosis of the outflow conduit to the descending thoracic aorta provided satisfactory hemodynamic support.

  3. Left-forbidding cooperating distributed grammar systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldefus, F.; Masopust, Tomáš; Meduna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 40-42 (2010), s. 3661-3667 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : cooperating distributed grammar system * cooperating derivation mode * left-forbidding grammar * generative power * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510003440

  4. Magnetization of left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    We propose a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic fields in negative refraction index composite metamaterials. Considering the propagation of a high-frequency modulated amplitude electric field in a left-handed material (LHM), we show that the ponderomotive interaction between the field and low-frequency potential distributions leads to spontaneous generation of magnetic fields, whose form and properties are discussed

  5. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An abdominal ultrasound scan showed multiple stones in the gallbladder with no evidence of acute cholecystitis and a common bile duct (CBD) diameter of 4 mm. Owing to the atypical nature of her pain, a computed tomography (CT) scan was requested which showed a left-sided gallbladder containing gallstones (Fig. 1).

  6. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Left-right subtraction of brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Sakuma, Sadayuki

    1986-01-01

    A new image-processing method to obtain a left-right subtraction image of CT was designed for the automated detection of abnormalities in brain CT. An original CT image was divided in two by a centerline. Then the right half of the image was subtracted from the left half by calculating the absorption value of the pixels on the symmetrical positions against the centerline. The mean and the standard deviation of the absorption value of the pixels in the subtraction image were used as parameters for analysis, and the detectability of abnormal CT findings was evaluated in 100 cases - 50 cases each with normal and abnormal CT. The presence of abnormalities could be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 90 %, and an overall accuracy of 88 % when the borderline of these parameters between normal and abnormal CT was set at the mean + 2SD in the normal group. As a further analysis, the CT image was subdivided into several areas from a functional or anatomical viewpoint, such as cerebral vascular territories, and the left-right subtraction image of each area was obtained. The possibilities of diagnosing the location of an abnormality and of detecting smaller lesions with this method were shown. Left-right subtraction was considered to be a useful method for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities in the automated diagnosis of brain CT. (author)

  8. Left ventricular hypertrophy : virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, S; Sharma, UC; Pinto, YM

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, there

  9. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2003-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there

  10. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  11. Body-centred map in parietal eye fields - functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotchie, P.; Chen, D.Y.; Bradley, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In order for us to interact with our environment we need to know where objects are around us, relative to our body. In monkeys, a body-centred map of visual space is known to exist within the parietal eye fields. This map is formed by the modulation of neuronal activity by eye and head position (Brotchie et al, Nature 1995; Synder et al, Nature 1998). In humans no map of body centred space has been demonstrated. By using functional MRI we have localised a region along the intraparietal sulcus which has properties similar to the parietal eye fields of monkeys (Brotchie et al, ISMRM, 2000). The aim of this study was to determine if activity in this region is modulated by head position, consistent with a body centered representation of visual space. Functional MRI was performed on 6 subjects performing simple visually guided saccades using a 1.5 Tesla GE Echospeed scanner. 10 scans were performed on the 6 subjects at left and right body orientations. Regions of interest were selected around the intraparietal sulcus proper (IPSP) of both hemispheres and voxels with BOLD signal which correlated with the paradigm (r>0.35) were selected for further analysis. Comparisons of percentage signal change were made between the left and right IPSP using Student t test. Of the 10 MRI examinations, 6 demonstrated statistically significant differences in the amount of signal change between left and right IPSP. In each of these 6 cases, the signal change was greater within the IPSP contralateral to the direction of head position relative to the body. This indicates a modulation of activity within the IPSP related to head position, most likely reflecting modulation of the underlying neuronal activity and suggests the existence of a body-centred encoding of space within the parietal eye fields of humans. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Left ventricular function in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, B.; Amenta, A.; Kane, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was determined in 42 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation during upright exercise by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction and volume with radionuclide ventriculography. Classification of the patients according to exercise tolerance showed that patients with normal exercise tolerance (greater than or equal to 7.0 minutes) had a significantly higher ejection fraction at rest (probability [p] . 0.02) and during exercise (p . 0.0002), higher cardiac index at exercise (p . 0.0008) and lower exercise end-systolic volume (p . 0.01) than did patients with limited exercise tolerance. Similar significant differences were noted in younger patients compared with older patients in ejection fraction at rest and exercise (both p . 0.001) and cardiac index at rest (p . 0.03) and exercise (p . 0.0005). The end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise in 60% of the patients. The patients with a decrease in volume were significantly younger and had better exercise tolerance and a larger end-diastolic volume at rest than did patients who showed an increase in volume. The mean corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients with abnormal than in those with normal exercise reserve (mean +/- standard deviation 476 +/- 146 versus 377 +/- 92 mm Hg, p less than 0.05). Thus, in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: 1) left ventricular systolic function during exercise was related to age, exercise tolerance and corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio, and 2) the end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise, especially in younger patients and patients with normal exercise tolerance or a large volume at rest

  13. Left bronchial artery arising from a replaced left hepatic artery in a patient with massive hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jae Myung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 70-year-old man with a 3-year history of bronchiectasis presented with massive hemoptysis that had lasted for 3 days. In our attempt to perform bronchial artery embolization, upper abdominal angiography was required to locate the left bronchial artery, which in this case was of anomalous origin, arising from a replaced left hepatic artery, which arose from the left gastric artery-a very unusual anatomical variant. We performed embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely, with no additional complications after conservative treatment.

  14. Evaluation of left ventricular function by cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1982-01-01

    Left ventricular function was evaluated by CT, which was compared with the data of left ventriculography for various cardiac diseases. The end diastolic volume of the left ventricle can be readily computed from CT, with a satisfactory correlation with that of left ventriculography (r = 0.95). The left ventricular ejection fraction, calculated from the areal ratio of the left ventricular lumen in end-diastolic imaging to that in end-sytolic imaging, also roughly reflects left ventricular contractile function, but shows correlation with left ventriculography by only r = 0.79. Although the cardiac output is not sensitive for functional evaluation, it can be directly calculated by means of dynamic scanning and shows a satisfactory correlation with the ear piece pigment dilution (r = 0.85). Evaluation of left ventricular function by CT shows a high precision in comparison with left ventriculography, but still lacks temporal resolving power. (Chiba, N.)

  15. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  16. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  17. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  18. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  19. A constrained supersymmetric left-right model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Martin [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València, Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E. [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Theory Division, CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-03-02

    We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model’s capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.

  20. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Corballis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  1. A disappearing left-sided neck mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-07-04

    The patient was a 48-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with complaints of a left-sided painful neck mass, which changed in size relative to ingestion of meals. He denied voice change, fever, chills, weight loss, dysphagia and hoarseness. Physical examination was unremarkable. CT scan demonstrated a 3.9 mm calculus of the submandibular gland duct. Therapeutic sialendocopy was successfully performed.

  2. The New Arab Left and 1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In Arab political culture, the Naksa of 1967 had a number of watershed effects. Scholars have paid a lot of attention to the decline of secular Arab nationalism and the concurrent rise of Islamism. Much less research has been done on the way 1967 spurred radical left organizations, also known as ...... moment that followed. This moment has had a lasting impact on Arab political culture and is being re-interpreted in interesting ways today by Arab revolutionaries post-2011....

  3. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Jagia; Arun Sharma; Saurabh K Gupta; Munish Guleria

    2016-01-01

    Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best ...

  4. Total agenesis of the left pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Fº

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the report of a 46-year-old patient with the preoperative diagnosis of an atrial septal defect (ASD of the ostium secudum type. After sternectomy, partial agenesis of the left pericardium was diagnosed. It is our opinion that, if the radiographic picture is suggestive of this entity, a clinical search for cardiopulmonary anomalies should be performed, because the majority of these associated anomalies can and should be surgically corrected.

  5. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  6. Implantation of a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device via left thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang Hyun; Deo, Salil V; Schirger, John A; Pereira, Naveen L; Stulak, John M; Park, Soon J

    2012-11-01

    Left thoracotomy was used as an approach for the implantation of pulsatile ventricular assist devices. Avoiding the standard approach of median sternotomy is attractive in patients undergoing complicated redo cardiac surgery, especially with prior mediastinal radiation. We report a case of the use of left thoracotomy for the implantation of the HeartMate II axial-flow pump. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left h...

  8. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  10. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  11. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  12. Numerical transcoding proficiency in 10-year-old schoolchildren is associated with grey-matter interindividual differences: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eLubin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  13. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left

  14. The New Left in the European Democracies: The Case of the German Radical Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Damiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The new form of the social and political conflict cannot be explained by the traditional categories of right and left, but it articulates to them on two plans, that of the establishment, intended like plan of the structured political conflict from the traditional actors, and that of the anti-establishment, in which new representations of politics emerge. The New Left is characterized by type of intermittent participation and new perspectives on mobilization inside the parties and the social movements. This type of parties differs moreover from the traditional ones left of the socialist and social democratic left in not arranging of organizations collaterals placed under the direction of the leadership of the same party. The mobilization that spontaneously assumes not conventional forms of active participation of the citizens, or is primed by the action of an associative network of which the same parties take part, than however does not monopo-lize the collective action. In this regard, the attention will be dedicated to the study of Die Linke: an anti-establishment party of the non-socialist German left-wing, heir to the communist tradition. The choice was affected to the German model because: 1 Germany is a country with a strong social democratic tradition, but 25 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall the German political system identifies a new antagonist political party; 2 Die Linke represents an interesting case in the political landscape of the European radical left because is a one-party that gives up at the federation of parties to try to unify the political parties of German radical left-wing.

  15. Cortical activation patterns during long-term memory retrieval of visually or haptically encoded objects and locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Oliver; Röder, Brigitte; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Rösler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n=10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n=10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily presented words and either meaningless objects or locations in a 3-D space. During the retrieval phase one day later, participants had to decide whether two auditorily presented words shared an association with a common object or location. Thus, perceptual stimulation during retrieval was always equivalent, whereas either visually or haptically encoded object or location associations had to be reactivated. Moreover, the number of associations fanning out from each word varied systematically, enabling a parametric increase of the number of reactivated representations. Recall of visual objects predominantly activated the left superior frontal gyrus and the intraparietal cortex, whereas visually learned locations activated the superior parietal cortex of both hemispheres. Retrieval of haptically encoded material activated the left medial frontal gyrus and the intraparietal cortex in the object condition, and the bilateral superior parietal cortex in the location condition. A direct test for modality-specific effects showed that visually encoded material activated more vision-related areas (BA 18/19) and haptically encoded material more motor and somatosensory-related areas. A conjunction analysis identified supramodal and material-unspecific activations within the medial and superior frontal gyrus and the superior parietal lobe including the intraparietal sulcus. These activation patterns strongly support the idea that code-specific representations are consolidated and reactivated within anatomically distributed cell assemblies that comprise sensory and motor processing systems.

  16. Behavioral and Neural Representations of Spatial Directions across Words, Schemas, and Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Steven M; Marchette, Steven A; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2018-05-23

    Modern spatial navigation requires fluency with multiple representational formats, including visual scenes, signs, and words. These formats convey different information. Visual scenes are rich and specific but contain extraneous details. Arrows, as an example of signs, are schematic representations in which the extraneous details are eliminated, but analog spatial properties are preserved. Words eliminate all spatial information and convey spatial directions in a purely abstract form. How does the human brain compute spatial directions within and across these formats? To investigate this question, we conducted two experiments on men and women: a behavioral study that was preregistered and a neuroimaging study using multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to uncover similarities and differences among representational formats. Participants in the behavioral study viewed spatial directions presented as images, schemas, or words (e.g., "left"), and responded to each trial, indicating whether the spatial direction was the same or different as the one viewed previously. They responded more quickly to schemas and words than images, despite the visual complexity of stimuli being matched. Participants in the fMRI study performed the same task but responded only to occasional catch trials. Spatial directions in images were decodable in the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally but were not in schemas and words. Spatial directions were also decodable between all three formats. These results suggest that intraparietal sulcus plays a role in calculating spatial directions in visual scenes, but this neural circuitry may be bypassed when the spatial directions are presented as schemas or words. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human navigators encounter spatial directions in various formats: words ("turn left"), schematic signs (an arrow showing a left turn), and visual scenes (a road turning left). The brain must transform these spatial directions into a plan for action. Here, we investigate

  17. Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169

  18. Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction and left atrium reverse remodeling after mitral regurgitation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lucia R; Meneghelo, Zilda M; Le Bihan, David C S; Barretto, Rodrigo B M; Carvalho, Antonio C; Moises, Valdir A

    2014-11-06

    Left atrium enlargement has been associated with cardiac events in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). Left atrium reverse remodeling (LARR) occur after surgical correction of MR, but the preoperative predictors of this phenomenon are not well known. It is therefore important to identify preoperative predictors for postoperative LARR. We enrolled 62 patients with chronic severe MR (prolapse or flail leaflet) who underwent successful mitral valve surgery (repair or replacement); all with pre- and postoperative echocardiography. LARR was defined as a reduction in left atrium volume index (LAVI) of ≥ 25%. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of LARR. LARR occurred in 46 patients (74.2%), with the mean LAVI decreasing from 85.5 mL/m2 to 49.7 mL/m2 (p <0.001). These patients had a smaller preoperative left ventricular systolic volume (p =0.022) and a higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p =0.034). LVEF was identified as the only preoperative variable significantly associated with LARR (odds ratio, 1.086; 95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.178). A LVEF cutoff value of 63.5% identified patients with LARR of ≥ 25% with a sensitivity of 71.7% and a specificity of 56.3%. LARR occurs frequently after mitral valve surgery and is associated with preoperative LVEF higher than 63.5%.

  19. Photonic-resonant left-handed medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianqi

    2006-01-01

    A new scheme to realize simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability in a coherent atomic vapor medium (photonic-resonant material) via a coherent driving mechanism is suggested. It is verified that the atomic system coherently driven by a strong optical field will give rise to a negative refractive index in certain probe frequency ranges. One of the most remarkable features of the present scheme is such that a slab fabricated by the left-handed vapor medium is an ideal candidate for designing perfect lenses since the photonic-resonant atomic vapor cannot only exhibit an isotropic negative refractive index, but also provide a good impedance match at the air-medium interfaces

  20. Mycobacterium chimaera left ventricular assist device infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Leora B; Louie, Eddie; Hill, Fred; Levine, Jamie; Phillips, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after cardiac surgery has recently been linked to bioaerosols from contaminated heater-cooler units. The majority of cases have occurred after valvular surgery or aortic graft surgery and nearly half have resulted in death. To date, infections in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been characterized in the literature. We report two cases of device-associated M. chimaera infection in patients with continuous-flow LVADs and describe challenges related to diagnosis and management in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception...... was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive...

  2. Heart Failure with Transient Left Bundle Branch Block in the Setting of Left Coronary Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Juraschek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary arterial fistulas are rare communications between vessels or chambers of the heart. Although cardiac symptoms associated with fistulas are well described, fistulas are seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with left shoulder pain, signs of heart failure, and a new left bundle branch block (LBBB. Cardiac catheterization revealed a small left anterior descending (LAD-to-pulmonary artery (PA fistula. Diuresis led to subjective improvement of the patient's symptoms and within several days the LBBB resolved. We hypothesize that the coronary fistula in this patient contributed to transient ischemia of the LAD territory through a coronary steal mechanism. We elected to observe rather than repair the fistula, as his symptoms and ECG changes resolved with treatment of his heart failure.

  3. Coronary artery to left ventricle fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vivek

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary cameral fistulas are an uncommon entity, the etiology of which may be congenital or traumatic. They involve abnormal termination of a coronary artery, usually the right coronary, into a cardiac chamber, usually the right ventricle. Case Presentation We describe a case of female patient with severe aortic stenosis and interventricular septal hypertrophy that underwent bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement with concomitant septal myectomy. On subsequent follow-up an abnormal flow traversing the septum into the left ventricle was identified and Doppler interrogation demonstrated a continuous flow, with a predominantly diastolic component, consistent with coronary arterial flow. Conclusion The literature on coronary cameral fistulas is reviewed and the etiology of the diagnostic findings discussed. In our patient, a coronary artery to left ventricle fistula was the most likely explanation secondary to trauma to the septal perforator artery during myectomy. Since the patient was asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis no intervention was recommended and has done well on follow-up.

  4. Nonlinear left-handed transmission line metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A B; Weide, D W van der

    2008-01-01

    Metamaterials, exhibiting simultaneously negative permittivity ε and permeability μ, more commonly referred to as left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) and also known as negative-index materials, have received substantial attention in the scientific and engineering communities [1]. Most studies of LHMs (and electromagnetic metamaterials in general) have been in the linear regime of wave propagation and have already inspired new types of microwave circuits and devices. The results of these studies have already been the subject of numerous reviews and books. This review covers a less explored but rapidly developing area of investigation involving media that combine nonlinearity (dependence of the permittivity and permeability on the magnitude of the propagating field) with the anomalous dispersion exhibited by LHM. The nonlinear phenomena in such media will be considered on the example of a model system: the nonlinear left-handed transmission line. These nonlinear phenomena include parametric generation and amplification, harmonic and subharmonic generation as well as modulational instabilities and envelope solitons. (topical review)

  5. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  6. challenges left-handed students face in kenyan girls' secondary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Previous research on left-handedness has mainly taken place in developed countries. This ... participants were five left-handed science students and their respective subject teachers from a ... Qualitative data was collected through classroom.

  7. Behavioral evidence for left-hemisphere specialization of motor planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Meulenbroek, R.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the left hemisphere is dominant for the planning of motor actions. This left-hemisphere specialization hypothesis was proposed in various lines of research, including patient studies, motor imagery studies, and studies involving neurophysiological techniques. However,

  8. Incidental retroaortic left innominate vein in adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Semionov, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Retro-aortic left innominate vein is a rare vascular abnormality, usually associated with congenital heart disease. Here we report a case of isolated retro-aortic left innominate vein in an adult female.

  9. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  10. A Right Brain/Left Brain Model of Acting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlen, Clark

    Using current right brain/left brain research, this paper develops a model that explains acting's underlying quality--the actor is both himself and the character. Part 1 presents (1) the background of the right brain/left brain theory, (2) studies showing that propositional communication is a left hemisphere function while affective communication…

  11. Left Ventricular Geometry In Nigerians With Type II Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy is independently associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular and all cause mortality. In a relatively healthy hypertensive adult population, type II diabetes is associated with higher left ventricular mass, concentric left ventricular geometry and lower ...

  12. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  13. Related anomalies of origin of left vertebral and left inferior thyroid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, K.; Freckmann, N.; Boeker, D.K.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Altona, Hamburg

    1981-01-01

    The known rare occurrence of related anomalies of origin of vertebral and inferior thyroid arteries appears not to be documented in the angiographic literature. Three cases with manifestation on the left side are presented. Embryology is discussed briefly. Knowledge of such anomalies is of importance to surgeons as well as angiographers. (orig.) [de

  14. Visceral subpleural hematoma of the left diaphragmatic surface following left upper division segmentectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Mizukami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary visceral subpleural hematoma is rare. We report visceral subpleural hematoma of the left diaphragmatic surface following left upper division segmentectomy. This very rare case was difficult to distinguish from thoracic abscess. Case presentation A 68-year-old man with hypertension had undergone video-assisted thoracoscopic left upper division segmentectomy for suspected lung carcinoma. Deep vein thrombosis of the lower leg was identified and edoxaban, a so-called novel oral anticoagulant, was started on postoperative day 7. The chest drainage tube was removed on postoperative day 12 because of persistent air leakage, but fever appeared the same day. Computed tomography revealed a cavity with mixed air and fluid, so antibiotics were started on suspicion of abscess. Computed tomography-guided drainage was attempted, but proved unsuccessful. Fever continued and surgical investigation was therefore performed. Visceral subpleural hematoma was identified under the diaphragmatic surface of the left basal lung. We excised the pleura, then performed drainage and applied running sutures. The parenchyma and visceral pleura were covered with polyglycolic acid sheet and fibrin glue. Edoxaban was restarted on postoperative day 12 of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and no recurrence of hematoma has been revealed. Conclusions Visceral subpleural hematoma after thoracic surgery is extremely rare. Furthermore, correct diagnosis was difficult and surgery offered a good diagnostic and therapeutic procedure.

  15. Count-based left ventricular volume determination utilizing a left posterior oblique view for attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovitch, M.A.; Kalff, V.; Koral, K.

    1984-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the inherent error of the left ventricular volume measurement from the gated equilibrium blood pool scintigram utilizing the count-based technique. The study population consisted of 26 patients who had undergone biplane contrast ventriculography. The patients were imaged with a parallel-hole collimator in the left anterior oblique position showing the septum to best advantage. A reference blood sample was counted and radionuclide volumes calculated without correction for attenuation. Attenuation corrected volumes were derived with the factor 1/e/sup -/+d/, where d = distance from skin marker to center of the left ventricle in the orthogonal left posterior oblique view and μ = linear attenuation coefficient. A series of μ values from 0.08 to 0.15 cm -1 was evaluated. The tightest 95% confidence limits achieved for an end-diastolic 150-ml ventricle were +/- 44ml, and for an end-systolic 75-ml ventricle +/- 32 ml. In view of the magnitude of inherent error, the count-based volume measurement may be more suitable for group analyses and in cases in which an individual patient serves as his own control

  16. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  17. Effects of sedation on echocardiographic variables of left atrial and left ventricular function in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica L; Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis; Bonagura, John D

    2012-10-01

    Although sedation is frequently used to facilitate patient compliance in feline echocardiography, the effects of sedative drugs on echocardiographic variables have been poorly documented. This study investigated the effects of two sedation protocols on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats, with special emphasis on the assessment of left atrial size and function, as well as left ventricular diastolic performance. Seven cats underwent echocardiography (transthoracic two-dimensional, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging) before and after sedation with both acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM), or acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM), butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV). Heart rate increased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol/ketamine (mean±SD of increase, 40±26 beats/min) and non-invasive systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol (mean±SD of decrease, 12±19 mmHg). The majority of echocardiographic variables were not significantly different after sedation compared with baseline values. Both sedation protocols resulted in mildly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and mildly increased left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness. This study therefore failed to demonstrate clinically meaningful effects of these sedation protocols on echocardiographic measurements, suggesting that sedation with acepromazine, butorphanol and/or ketamine can be used to facilitate echocardiography in healthy cats.

  18. LEFT RENAL TUMOR: A RARE CADAVERIC FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A benign tumour is a non - cancerous growth that does not spread (metastasize to other parts of the body and is not usually life - threatening. Many researchers believe that most of the following types of kidney tumours are benign. However, others feel that some of these tumours have the potential to develop into renal cell carcinoma. There are no diagnostic tests that can confirm if a benign tumour has the potential to become cancerous. Benign tumours are sometimes found along with renal cell carcinoma when a removed kidney is examined by a pathologist. For these reasons, benign kidney tumours are treated like malignant tumours. In this case we have observed a male cadaver with a large tumour in the left kidney during our routine dissections of undergraduates .

  19. Rectal volvulus following laparoscopic left hemicolectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul Anthony; Lee, Han Sian; Din, Islah; Vimalachandran, Dale

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old lady with a history of Dukes B2 (T3N0M0) colorectal cancer presented some 2 years following a laparoscopic left hemicolectomy with a 4-day history of absolute constipation. A plain radiograph demonstrated large bowel obstruction, and subsequent CT of the abdomen showed the level of the obstruction to be at the rectum. Initially the aetiology was believed to be recurrence at the site of the anastomosis; however, subsequent review of the imaging and indeed endoscopic examination of the rectum showed it to be volvulus. This was initially treated with endoscopic decompression and later by the insertion of a flatus tube to good effect. The patient was discharged 3 days later with no recurrence of her symptoms at 2 months. PMID:23608861

  20. Polycythemia vera presenting with left hemichoreiform movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tamiharu; Shimomura, Chikako; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1985-01-01

    A 65-year-old man developed abruptly choreiform movements involving the left face, arm and leg one day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed red face and palms, hyperemic conjunctivae and atrial fibrillations. Blood pressure was 168/90. Spleen was not palpable. Hemichoreiform movements of the left face and limbs were observed. There was no other neurological abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed RBC 880x10 4 , Hb 22.4g/dl, Hct 63%, WBC 8,100, platelets 22.9x10 4 , ESR 0mm/hr, RBC oxygen saturation 97%, serum iron 67 μg/dl, LDH 593 units, uric acid 14mg/dl, and erythropoietine (HI method) 19mIU/ml (normal 28-88). Bone marrow showed myeloid nucleated cell count 38.6x10 4 . ECG showed atrial fibrillations. Chest X-ray and scintigrams of liver and spleen were normal. CSF was normal. Brain CT scan on admission disclosed a low density area in right caudate nucleus. The choreiform movements were rapidly mitigated by venesection and by oral administration of haloperidol(3mg daily). There weeks after discontinuing haloperidol, the hemichorea returned. The routine hematology showed RBC 870x10 4 , Hb 19.8g/dl, Hct 62%, WBC 10,200, and plateret 37.4x10 4 . Another venesection reduced the chorea. Pipobroman was administered to control the polycythemia vera. He has been free of choreic movements thereafter. Choreiform movement is rarely observed in polycythemia vera. The pathogenesis is still unknown. The venous congestion, however, may play a role in this case because the choreic movements disappeared by venesection. (author)

  1. The effect of percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhihong; Wu Hong; Qin Yongwen; Hu Jianqiang; Ding Zhongru; Liu Zongjun; Liu Biao; Zheng Xing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage (LAA) with a new self-manufactured LAA occluder on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in canine. Methods: A new self-manufactured LAA occluder was implanted into the LAA through a transseptal catheter in 20 dogs. Before and after the procedure, the experimental dogs were anaesthetized and examined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to measure the diameter and the volume of the left atrium, the left superior pulmonary vein flow velocity and the left atrioventricular valve flow velocity separately. The contrast radiography of the LAA and the left coronary arteriography were performed. Results: The new LAA occluder was implanted successfully in 14 dogs. No obvious changes in the diameter and the volume of the left atrium, in left superior pulmonary vein flow velocity and in left atrioventricular valve flow velocity were found. On arteriography, left circumflex artery was normally displayed after the procedure. No migration of the occluder was seen on TTE and angiography after procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage with a new self-manufactured LAA occluder has no obvious effect on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in experimental canine, which indicates that the new-type device is a safe and feasible occluder for LAA. (authors)

  2. Body posture modulates action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  3. What's Left of the Left-Right Dimension? Why the Economic Policy Positions of Europeans Do Not Fit the Left-Right Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjes, Simon

    2018-01-01

    In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension. There is also a role for the legacy of communist dictatorship: citizens who were socialised in democratic countries have views that fit the left-right dimension better than those socialised during communism.

  4. UFO in the Left Atrium: How to Capture Metal Debris Floating in the Left Atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassini, Gaetano; Moltrasio, Massimo; Conti, Sergio; Biagioli, Viviana; Tondo, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Electrophysiology procedures involving left atrium navigation are becoming more frequent, mostly due to the increase of atrial fibrillation ablation. Mapping catheters of different shapes and size as well as dedicated sheaths are mandatory tools for the accomplishment of procedural end point. Therefore, technical issues are expected, usually unrelated to significant risk. However, any accidental intra-atrial device loss of integrity implies a risk of cerebrovascular embolization. The lack of clear evidence on how to manage these events and the need for a quick solution complicate the scenario. We report an empirical solution in the case of debris floating in the left atrium. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase image characterization of ventricular contraction in left anterior hemiblock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akifumi; Mizuno, Haruyoshi; Tahara, Yorio; Ishikawa, Kyozo

    1991-01-01

    We investigated whether or not left anterior hemiblock is present in patients with left axis deviation using first-harmonic Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool images. Gated blood-pool images were taken in 50 patients without contraction abnormality. They included 14 normal subjects, 8 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB), 20 with left axis deviation (LAD) and 8 with both RBBB and LAD (RBBB+LAD). ECG gated blood-pool scans were acquired in the anterior and 'best septal' left anterior oblique projections. First, the phase images were displayed cinematically as a continuous-loop movie. Next, for quantitative analysis of the phase image, the whole left ventricular and left ventricular high lateral regions of interest were drawn. The 'regional phase shift' (RPS) was then defined as {RPS=A-a} where 'A' is the mean value of the whole left ventricular phase angles and 'a' is that of phase angles in the high lateral region. The left ventricular phase changes and the RPSs in the RBBB and LAD groups were similar to those in the normal group. In the RBBB+LAD group, the latest phase changes occurred in the high anterolateral region. The RPSs of this group were significantly lower than those in the other 3 groups (p<0.01). These data suggest that left anterior hemiblock might coexist with RBBB in patients with RBBB+LAD, whereas left anterior hemiblock might not exist in the majority of patients with LAD alone. (author)

  6. [Surgical angioplasty of the left main coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranes, Mile; Velinović, Milos; Kocica, Mladen; Mikić, Aleksandar; Velimirović, Dusan; Djukić, Petar

    2010-01-01

    The conventional treatment for isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery is bypass surgery (myocardial revascularization). However, the process of atherosclerosis is not arrested by myocardial revascularization and it will lead to the occlusion of the left main coronary artery. Revascularization will establish retrograde perfusion for 50-70% of the myocardium of the left ventricle. Direct surgical angioplasty of the left main coronary artery enables normal physiological perfusion of the whole myocardium and better myocardial function. The aim of our study is to point out a new surgical approach of treating left main coronary artery stenosis. Between October 2002 and October 2003, direct surgical angioplasty of the main left coronary artery was performed on three patients with isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery using the anterior approach and the pericardium as a patch. The procedure was performed under total endotracheal anaesthesia and standard cardiopulmonary circulation, moderate hypothermia, anterograde St. Tomas cardioplegia and local cooling. Patients were followed clinically, echocardiographically and by load-tests. All three patients were without complications. In postoperative follow-up (54-68 months) neither angina pectoris nor electrocardiographically registered ischaemic changes were found. Load-tests performed every six months on all three patients were negative. Surgical angioplasty of isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery is a preferred method for treating this type of coronary disease. Contraindications for this type of treatment are stenosis of the left main coronary artery with bifurcation and advanced calcification of the left main coronary artery.

  7. The cerebral correlates of set-shifting: an fMRI study of the trail making test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moll Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The trail making test (TMT pertains to a family of tests that tap the ability to alternate between cognitive categories. However, the value of the TMT as a localizing instrument remains elusive. Here we report the results of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study of a verbal adaptation of the TMT (vTMT. The vTMT takes advantage of the set-shifting properties of the TMT and, at the same time, minimizes the visuospatial and visuomotor components of the written TMT. Whole brain BOLD fMRI was performed during the alternating execution of vTMTA and vTMTB in seven normal adults with more than 12 years of formal education. Brain activation related to the set-shifting component of vTMTB was investigated by comparing performance on vTMTB with vTMTA, a simple counting task. There was a marked asymmetry of activation in favor of the left hemisphere, most notably in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 6 lateral, 44 and 46 and supplementary motor area/cingulate sulcus (BA 6 medial and 32. The intraparietal sulcus (BA 7 and 39 was bilaterally activated. These findings are in line with clinico-anatomic and functional neuroimaging data that point to a critical role of the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices as well as the intraparietal sulci in the regulation of cognitive flexibility, intention, and the covert execution of saccades/anti-saccades. Many commonly used neuropsychological paradigms, such as the Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting, and go - no go tasks, share some patterns of cerebral activation with the TMT.

  8. Left hand polydactyly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumoli, Nicola; Gandini, Daniele; Wamala, Edris Kalanzi; Cei, Marco

    2008-11-24

    Polydactyly is a congenital anomaly with a wide range of manifestations that occurs in many forms, ranging from varying degrees of mere splitting to completely duplicated thumb. When duplication occurs alone, it is usually unilateral and sporadic. In this case report we describe an otherwise healthy 19-year-old woman of Tibetan heritage with isolated left hand preaxial polydactyly. She experienced working related difficulties in her daily yak's milking. She subsequently underwent surgical correction, and the over number thumb was removed with associated meticulous skeletal and soft tissue reconstruction. Polydactyly is the most common congenital digital anomaly of the hand and foot. It can occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Surgery is necessary to create a single, functioning thumb and is indicated to improve cosmesis. Skin, nail, bone, ligament, and musculoskeletal elements must be combined to reconstruct an optimal digit. In this case (Tibetan society is almost exclusively a sheep-breeding one) surgery was necessary to leave a single, functioning thumb for her work as yak milkmaid.

  9. Assessment of left atrial volume and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Lønborg, Jacob; Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    dynamic LA volume changes. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) appears more appropriate for such measures. We sought to determine the relationship between LA size assessed with TTE and LA size and function assessed with CMR and MSCT. Fifty......-four patients were examined 3 months post myocardial infarction with echocardiography, CMR and MSCT. Left atrial volumes and LA reservoir function were assessed by TTE. LA time-volume curves were determined and LA reservoir function (cyclic change and fractional change), passive emptying function (reservoir...... between CMR and MSCT, with a small to moderate bias in LA(max) (4.9 ± 10.4 ml), CC (3.1 ± 9.1 ml) and reservoir volume (3.4 ± 9.1 ml). TTE underestimates LA(max) with up to 32% compared with CMR and MSCT (P ...

  10. Left-right symmetric superstring supergravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burova, M.V.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    A left-right (L-R) symmetric model of four-dimensional supergravitation with a SO(10) gauge group obtained as the low-energy limit is superstring theory is considered. The spectrum of the gauge fields and their interactions are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam theory. In addition, the model includes heavy W R ± and Z μ ' bosons. Beside the N g =3 generations of the 16-plets the SO(10) model includes the fragments of such generations which play the role of Higgs particles and also scalar chiral filds, the number of which exceeds by one the number of generations. As a result the neutrinos of each generation obtain a stable small Majorana mass. It is shown that the scalar field potential leads to spontaneous violation of the SU(2) R group and L-R symmetry and at low energies the standard Weinberg-Salam theory appears. However, reasonable values of X bosons masses M x and sun 2 Θ W (Θ W is the Weinberg angle) can be obtained in the model only in the case of high mass scale M R ∼10 10 -10 12 GeV of the right group SU(2) R violation

  11. Endocarditis in left ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Kumar, Monisha Priyadarshini; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in developed nations. End stage heart failure often requires cardiac transplantation for survival. The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been one of the biggest evolvements in heart failure management often serving as bridge to transplant or destination therapy in advanced heart failure. Like any other medical device, LVAD is associated with complications with infections being reported in many patients. Endocarditis developing secondary to the placement of LVAD is not a frequent, serious and difficult to treat condition with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few retrospective studies and case reports reporting the same. In our review, we found the most common cause of endocarditis in LVAD was due to bacteria. Both bacterial and fungal endocarditis were associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this review we will be discussing the risk factors, organisms involved, diagnostic tests, management strategies, complications, and outcomes in patients who developed endocarditis secondary to LVAD placement. PMID:27672540

  12. Left ventricular noncompaction: Clinical-echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a disorder in endomyocardial morphogenesis, seen either isolated (in the absence of other cardiac anomalies or in association with congenital heart disease and some neuromuscular diseases. Intrauterine arrest of the compaction of myocardial fibers is postulated to be the reason of LVNC. Recognition of this condition is extremely important due to its high mortality and morbidity that lead to progressive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of LVNC among consecutive outpatients according to clinical and echocardiographyic findings. Methode. A total of 3,854 consecutive patients examined at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases within a period January 2006 - January 2007 were included in the study. All the patients underwent echocardiographic examination using the same equipment (Vivid 7, GE Medical System. Echocardiographic parameters and clinical presentation in patients with echocardiographic criteria for LVNC were analyzed. Results. Analyzing 3,854 consecutive outpatients, using two-dimensional Color Doppler echocardiography from January 2006 to January 2007, 12 patients met the criteria for LVNC. Seven of them were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 45 ± 15 years. Analyzing clinical manifestation of LVNC it was found that seven patients had signs of heart failure, six had arrhythmias with no embolic events. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the real prevalence of LVNC may be higher than expected. New studies have to be done to solve this problem.

  13. Isolated Left Pulmonary Artery Agenesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis without any cardiovascular malformation is a rare anomaly. We present the imaging findings of a patient who was diagnosed as isolated left pulmonary artery agenesis. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital due to dyspnea during exercise for five years. Chest X-ray revealed minimally small left pulmonary hilum and left lung. She was admitted to our clinic with the suspicion of pulmonary artery pathology. Absent perfusion of the left lung with normal ventilation was visualized on scintigraphy. MDCT angiography of pulmonary arteries showed absent left main pulmonary artery with systemic collaterals around left hemithorax. Pulmonary artery agenesis can be asymptomatic and isolated until adulthood. Both scintigraphy and CT angiography images of pulmonary artery agenesis of a patient are rare in the literature. Pulmonary ventilation- perfusion scintigraphy can be used not only for pulmonary embolism but also pathologies involving pulmonary artery and its branches. (MIRT 2012;21:80-83

  14. Evaluation of left cardiac function by exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Horayama, Norihisa; Hamada, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi; Takezawa, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    Left ventricular systolic and diastolic features at rest and exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were evaluated by Fourier analysis of blood pool scintigraphy (intracorporeal labelling with sup(99m)Tc-RBC). In the normal group (17 subjects), the left ventricular ejection fraction showed a linear increase, but no abnormality of regional ventricular wall motion, by multistage exercises. The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy group showed higher left ventricular ejection fractions at rest than those of the normal group, and in the HCM group (non-obstructive, from morphological features; 7 cases) the left ventricular ejection fraction did not increase any more when it reached a certain plateau in accordance with increased stress. In the HOCM (obstructive; 5 cases), the left ventricular ejection fraction showed a decreasing tendency as the stress was increased and also showed contractile abnormalities from the left ventricular center to the apex. Fourier analysis was effective for the evaluation of these changes. (Chiba, N.)

  15. Effect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage function and thrombotic potential in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçelik, Muhammed Bora; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçekcioğlu, Hülya; Uçar, Özgül; Duran, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage functions, spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In 58 patients with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrilation and preserved left ventricular systolic function, left atrial appendage functions, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast grading and left ventricular diastolic functions were evaluated using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiogram. Patients divided in two groups: Group D (n=30): Patients with diastolic dysfunction, Group N (n=28): Patients without diastolic dysfunction. Categorical variables in two groups were evaluated with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The significance of the lineer correlation between the degree of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and clinical measurements was evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Peak pulmonary vein D velocity of the Group D was significantly higher than the Group N (p=0.006). However, left atrial appendage emptying velocity, left atrial appendage lateral wall velocity, peak pulmonary vein S, pulmonary vein S/D ratio were found to be significantly lower in Group D (p=0.028, patrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities respectively (r=-0.438, r=-0.328, r=-0.233, r=-0.447). Left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities were significantly lower in SEC 2-3-4 than SEC 1 (p=0.003, p=0.029, patrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial appendage functions are decreased in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may constitute a potential risk for formation of thrombus and stroke.

  16. Left Sided Amyand's Hernia, A Rare Occurance: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Mohan, G; Srinivasan, A; Ravindran, G; Ramalingam, A

    2013-06-01

    This is a case report about a 35 year old man admitted with complains of obstructed left sided inguinal hernia. On exploration of the left inguinal canal to our surprise a normal appendix was found in addition to a gangrenous omentum. Resection of the gangrenous omentum was done. Appendectomy was done. This case is reported for its rare occurance as only three such cases of left sided amyand's hernia has been reported so far in literature[4-6].

  17. On left (θ,ϕ-derivations in BCI-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Muhiuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of (regular left (θ,ϕ-derivations of a BCI-algebra is introduced, some useful examples are discussed, and related properties are investigated. Conditions for a left (θ,ϕ-derivation to be regular are provided. The concepts of a d(θ,ϕ-invariant left (θ,ϕ-derivation and θ-ideal are introduced, and their relations are discussed. Furthermore, some more interesting results are established.

  18. Total anomalous systemic venous drainage in left heterotaxy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandenahally, Ravindranath S; Deora, Surender; Math, Ravi S

    2013-04-01

    Total anomalous systemic venous drainage is an extremely rare congenital heart defect. In this study we describe an 11-year-old girl who presented with a history of fatigue and central cyanosis that she had had since early childhood with unremarkable precordial examination results. Investigations revealed left heterotaxy with all systemic venous drainage to the left-sided atrium with non-compaction of the left ventricle.

  19. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  1. The Prognostic Value of Left Atrial Peak Reservoir Strain in Acute Myocardial Infarction Is Dependent on Left Ventricular Longitudinal Function and Left Atrial Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Andersen, Mads J; Valeur, Nana

    2013-01-01

    of PALS and left ventricular longitudinal strain (global longitudinal strain) in large-scale populations in regard to prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 843 patients (mean age 62.1+/-11.8; 74% male) with acute myocardial infarction and measured global longitudinal strain, left......BACKGROUND: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) during the reservoir phase has been proposed as a measure of left atrium function in a range of cardiac conditions, with the potential for added pathophysiological insight and prognostic value. However, no studies have assessed the interrelation...

  2. Brain processing of visual sexual stimuli in healthy men: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouras, Harold; Stoléru, Serge; Bittoun, Jacques; Glutron, Dominique; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Paradis, Anne-Lise; Burnod, Yves

    2003-10-01

    The brain plays a central role in sexual motivation. To identify cerebral areas whose activation was correlated with sexual desire, eight healthy male volunteers were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Visual stimuli were sexually stimulating photographs (S condition) and emotionally neutral photographs (N condition). Subjective responses pertaining to sexual desire were recorded after each condition. To image the entire brain, separate runs focused on the upper and the lower parts of the brain. Statistical Parametric Mapping was used for data analysis. Subjective ratings confirmed that sexual pictures effectively induced sexual arousal. In the S condition compared to the N condition, a group analysis conducted on the upper part of the brain demonstrated an increased signal in the parietal lobes (superior parietal lobules, left intraparietal sulcus, left inferior parietal lobule, and right postcentral gyrus), the right parietooccipital sulcus, the left superior occipital gyrus, and the precentral gyri. In addition, a decreased signal was recorded in the right posterior cingulate gyrus and the left precuneus. In individual analyses conducted on the lower part of the brain, an increased signal was found in the right and/or left middle occipital gyrus in seven subjects, and in the right and/or left fusiform gyrus in six subjects. In conclusion, fMRI allows to identify brain responses to visual sexual stimuli. Among activated regions in the S condition, parietal areas are known to be involved in attentional processes directed toward motivationally relevant stimuli, while frontal premotor areas have been implicated in motor preparation and motor imagery. Further work is needed to identify those specific features of the neural responses that distinguish sexual desire from other emotional and motivational states.

  3. Detection of left ventricular thrombi by computerised tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, C.K.; Sketch, M.H.; Mahoney, P.D.; Lynch, J.D.; Mooss, A.N.; Kenney, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen patients suspected of having left ventricular mural thrombi were studied. All had suffered transmural myocardial infarction. Fifteen patients had a ventricular aneurysm. One had had systemic emboli. The mean length of time between the myocardial infarction and the study was 14.8 months, with a range of one month to 79 months. All patients underwent computerised tomography of the heart, M-mode echocardiography (M-mode), and two-dimensional echocardiography (2-D). Eight patients underwent left ventricular cineangiography. Five patients had surgical confirmation. Computerised tomography, two-dimensional, and M-mode echocardiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in 10, eight, and one of the 16 patients, respectively. Left ventricular cineangiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in four out of eight patients. Computerised tomography and left ventricular cineangiography correctly predicted the presence or absence of left ventricular thrombi in all five patients who underwent operation. In the same group, however, two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography failed to predict the presence of thrombi in one and three patients, respectively. Among the 11 patients without surgical confirmation, one, in whom no left ventricular thrombi were shown by M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography, was found to have thrombi on computerised tomography. In another, two-dimensional echocardiography was positive but this finding was not confirmed either by computerised tomography or by left ventricular angiography. (author)

  4. Current status of ultrafast CT to evaluate the left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, R.M.; Rees, M.R.; Maranhao, V.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrafast CT with the cine mode can enable reliable assessment of left ventricular mass and function. Two oblique planar views, the long axis and short axis, are required. Right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, stroke volume and ejection fraction, left ventricular segmental wall motion, and left ventricular mass can be measured. This exhibit emphasizes the methods and pitfalls in acquiring this information. Results from the authors' studies thus far to validate these measurements against reference standards are reviewed

  5. Extreme premature with persistent left superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz-Rivera, Carlos Manuel; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Parra-Pérez, Mariana Yazmin

    2017-10-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a congenital anomaly, that results when there is an absence of the normal regression of the left common precardinal vein during embryogenesis. Usually, this anomaly remains asymptomatic, however, when the PLSVC drains into the left atrium this could lead to a right-to-left shunt. Additionally, this can result in inadvertent delivery of air or thrombus into the systemic circulation with potential neurologic, cardiac and renal complications. In this article, we present a case of an extreme premature Mexican newborn in which the diagnosis was made after placement of a percutaneous central venues catheter.

  6. Left atrial strain: a new parameter for assessment of left ventricular filling pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Mandoli, Giulia Elena; Loiacono, Ferdinando; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Henein, Michael; Mondillo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate diagnosis, treatment and prognostication in many cardiac conditions, there is a need for assessment of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. While systole depends on ejection function of LV, diastole and its disturbances influence filling function and pressures. The commonest condition that represents the latter is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in which LV ejection is maintained, but diastole is disturbed and hence filling pressures are raised. Significant diastolic dysfunction results in raised LV end-diastolic pressure, mean left atrial (LA) pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, all referred to as LV filling pressures. Left and right heart catheterization has traditionally been used as the gold standard investigation for assessing these pressures. More recently, Doppler echocardiography has taken over such application because of its noninvasive nature and for being patient friendly. A number of indices are used to achieve accurate assessment of filling pressures including: LV pulsed-wave filling velocities (E/A ratio, E wave deceleration time), pulmonary venous flow (S wave and D wave), tissue Doppler imaging (E' wave and E/E' ratio) and LA volume index. LA longitudinal strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is also sensitive in estimating intracavitary pressures. It is angle-independent, thus overcomes Doppler limitations and provides highly reproducible measures of LA deformation. This review examines the application of various Doppler echocardiographic techniques in assessing LV filling pressures, in particular the emerging role of STE in assessing LA pressures in various conditions, e.g., HF, arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation.

  7. Left-handedness and language lateralization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Schapiro, Mark B; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-01-18

    This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and righthanded children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemispheric lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right-hemispheric lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%), respectively. Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bronchial compression by an enlarged left atrium in infants; a cause of hypovascularity of the left lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corr, L.; Hallidie-Smith, K.A.; McCarthy, P.A.; Lavender, J.P.

    1988-09-01

    In three infants seen recently at our institution we noted signs of compression of the left main bronchus associated with enlarged left atria. None of our cases demonstrated the more usual signs of hyperinflation which are a hyperlucent lung field, depressed hemidiaphragm and mediastinal shift away from the affected side. In addition, hypoperfusion of the left lung was noted in each case. We believe that bronchial compression due to an enlarged left atrium, with consequent hypoxic vasoconstriction is a clinically significant entity, which is not well described and may be unappreciated in infants in whom the typical signs of hyperinflation are absent.

  9. Left ventricular function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Ryutaro; Ifuku, Masayasu

    1985-01-01

    The present study was to investigate of left ventricular (LV) function during exercise in 26 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM) usingTc-99m equilibrium angiocardiography, and to elucidate the mechanism of impaired functional reserve during exercise. In patients with HCM, LV ejection fraction decreased from 65 ± 8 (mean ± SD) % at rest to 59 ± 18 % at peak exercise, in contrast to an increase among controls (from 56 ± 9 % to 64 ± 9 %). As compared with resting values, cardiac output increased to 168 ± 24 % at peak exercise in HCM, but the increase was significantly less than that in controls (215 ± 47 %). Stroke volume decreased gradually to 83 ± 16 % during exercise in HCM, while it increased to 114 ± 10 % at an exercise level of half intensity, and it decreased slightly to 106 ± 16 % at peak exercise. LV end-systolic volume decreased among controls to 78 ± 27 % at peak exercise, but remained unchanged in HCM (118 ± 58 %). An increase in peak ejection rate at peak exercise was less in HCM than in controls (143 ± 26 % vs 170 ± 42 %). No significant differences were observed between the two groups concerning changes in indices of LV diastolic function including LV end-diastolic volume, peak filling rate or 1/3 filling rate during exercise. In the analysis of LV function curves, pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure increased to a greater extent in HCM than in controls (19 ± 6 mmHg vs 11 ± 6 mmHg); whereas, an increase in the stroke work index was less in HCM (80 ± 26 g.m/m 2 /beat vs 121 ± 21 g.m/m 2 /beat) at peak exercise. Thus, the LV function curve shifted downward and to the right in patients with HCM. The above findings indicate that LV functional reserve during exercise is impaired, especially as to systolic function in patients with HCM, while deterioration of diastolic function may be partly compromised by elevated filling pressure. (J.P.N.)

  10. Linear regression models for quantitative assessment of left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in left ventricular structures and function have been reported in cardiomyopathies. No prediction models have been established in this environment. This study established regression models for prediction of left ventricular structures in normal subjects. A sample of normal subjects was drawn from a large urban ...

  11. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring on left ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Systemic hypertension (HTN) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are individually associated with left ventricular structural and functional adaptations. However, little is known about the impact of OSA on the left ventricle in Africans with HTN. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the association between ...

  12. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity may be related to many factors such as race, gender and haemodynamic status. Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described among Caucasians. Objectives: To describe the sex specific pattern of left ...

  13. Orthodontic intervention of an impacted upper left central incisor due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fixed orthodontic appliance was used to facilitate traction and correction of malalignement of the impacted upper left central incisor.Treatment outcome: Successful removal of the odontoma, full exposure of the crown of upper left central incisor and good alignment on the arch were achieved. Crowding on the upper and ...

  14. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H

    2013-01-01

    The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.

  15. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    42) and 24.17 ± 4.39 ... Aortic root diameter (Ao), left atrial dimension (LAD), left ventricu- ... Key: *Statistically significant, a= Chi-square, SCA= sickle cell anaemia, SD= standard deviation. ..... of fluctuations in response to changes in sympathetic.

  16. Hemangioma of the left coronary artery: Diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, A.; Wiesmann, W.; Peters, P.E.; Haesfeld, M.; Sciuk, J.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a histologically proven hemangioma in the left coronary artery of the left ventricle of a 24-year-old woman. The results of the different medical imaging methods applied are described and the treatment of cardiac angiomas is discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Radionuclide evaluation of left ventricular function with nonimaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, J P; Blaufox, M D

    1979-10-01

    Portable nonimaging probes have been developed that can evaluate left ventricular function using radionuclide techniques. Two modes of data acquisition are possible with these probe systems, first-pass and gated. Precordial radiocardiograms obtained after a bolus injection can be used to determine cardiac output, pulmonary transit time, pulmonary blood volume, left ventricle ejection fraction, and left-to-right shunts. Gated techniques can be used to determine left ventricular ejection fraction and sytolic time intervals. Probe-determined indices of left ventricular function agree excellently with comparable measurements determined by conventional camera-computer methods as well as by invasive techniques. These have begun to be used in a preliminary manner in a variety of clinical problems associated with left ventricular dysfunction. This review discusses the types of probe systems available, the methods used in positioning them, and details the specifics of their data acquisition and processing capacity. The major criticisms of probe methods are that they are nonimaging and that they measure global rather than regional left ventricular function. In spite of these criticisms, probe systems, because of their portability, high sensitivity, and relatively low cost are useful supplements to conventional camera-computer systems for the measurement of parameters of left ventricular performance using radionuclide techniques.

  18. Left subclavian artery revascularization as part of thoracic stent grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saouti, N.; Hindori, V.; Morshuis, W.J.; Heijmen, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intentional covering of the left subclavian artery (LSA) as part of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can cause (posterior) strokes or left arm malperfusion. LSA revascularization can be done as prophylaxis against, or as treatment of, these complications. We report our

  19. Reversible left ventricular dysfunction - important clinical problem of contemporary cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, A.

    1994-01-01

    An important clinical issue there is determination whether left ventricular damages are reversible or not single photon emission computed tomography and positron computed tomography techniques are shown to provide valuable data in this problem. Article describes basic syndromes connected with left ventricular dysfunction, namely: hibernating myocardium, stunned myocardium and ischemic myocardium preconditioning. (author). 18 refs

  20. Evaluation of left ventricular function using digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozuka, Takahiro; Ohta, Mitsushige

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion images, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 45 patients with ischemic heart disease. Validity of the technique was compared with data obtained from cine left ventriculogram in all patients and 201 T1 myocardial images in 20 patients. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) calculated from DSA were correlated closely with those from cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.92, r = 0.94 and r = 0.86, respectively). Regional contractility at the antero-lateral wall of the left ventricle, assessed by DSA, was also correlated well with cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.75). Evaluation of the inferior wall motion showed less correlation in both procedures (r = 0.68). Phase and amplitude analysis with the same technique with radionuclide cardiac angiography was successfully applied in left ventriculogram obtained by DSA. The procedure seems to be helpful for objective evaluation of the left ventricular wall motion. Myocardial perfusion image, obtained with modified Radtke's technique, showed good coincidence with 201 T1 images. Thus, DSA is applicable for evaluation of function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion in patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  1. The organisational and ideological development of Green Left

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucardie, Anthonie; Voerman, Gerrit; Botella, Joan; Ramiro, Luis

    2003-01-01

    In 1991 the Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN) dissolved itself into the new organisation GreenLeft, founded in 1990. Thus, GreenLeft may be considered the major ‘post-communist party’ in the Netherlands. Yet it is not the only one. A minority of former CPN-members established in 1992 the New

  2. Urban School Principals and the "No Child Left Behind" Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary E.; Canfield-Davis, Kathy; Anderson, Keith LeMar

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how six practicing school principals responded to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind law (United States Congress Public Law 107-110, 2002, January, No Child Left Behind Act, http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf ) in light of the multicultural leadership demands presented by an urban…

  3. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Sheon-Young; Chang Ick-Soon; Kim Hark-Mahn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation). Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation) mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  4. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sheon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  5. Transient left atrial dysfunction is a feature of Takotsubo syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiermaier, Thomas; Graf, Tobias; Möller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by a transient left and/or right ventricular dysfunction as a consequence of a distinctive pattern of regional wall motion abnormalities. However, a systematic evaluation of the left atrial (LA) function in patients with TTS is lacking. The ai...

  6. Right-Brained Kids in Left-Brained Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1976-01-01

    Students who learn well through left hemisphere brain input (oral and written) have minimal practice in using the right hemisphere, while those who are more proficient in right hemisphere (visual) input processing are handicapped by having to use primarily their left brains. (MB)

  7. Evaluation of left ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Thomsen, C; Mehlsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were determined in 17 patients with different levels of left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 1.5 Tesla Magnet was used obtaining ECG triggered single and multiple slices. Calculated cardiac outputs were compared...

  8. Benign Multicystic Mesothelioma in the Left Round Ligament: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, So Young; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Park, Seong Jin; Cho, Gyu Seok; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2010-01-01

    Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare mesothelial lesion that forms multicystic masses in the upper abdomen, pelvis, and retroperitoneum. Most cases have a benign course. We present the ultrasound and MR findings of benign multicystic mesothelioma in the left round ligament, which caused a left inguinal hernia in a 46-year-old woman

  9. Benign Multicystic Mesothelioma in the Left Round Ligament: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, So Young; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Park, Seong Jin; Cho, Gyu Seok; Kwak, Jeong Ja [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare mesothelial lesion that forms multicystic masses in the upper abdomen, pelvis, and retroperitoneum. Most cases have a benign course. We present the ultrasound and MR findings of benign multicystic mesothelioma in the left round ligament, which caused a left inguinal hernia in a 46-year-old woman.

  10. Congenital bicuspid stenosis with left ventricular hypoplasia in a kitten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nie, C J; van Messel, M A; Straatman, T J

    1980-01-15

    Congenital bicuspid stenosis with left ventricular hypoplasia was diagnosed in a kitten. Clinical weakness, dyspnoea and marked cardiomegaly (X rays) were related to postmortem findings. The cardiomegaly had resulted from an enlargement of the left auricular appendage. It is supposed the cardiomegaly developed after the closing of the foramen ovale.

  11. Effect of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction on Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne K. Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA volumes are known to be increased in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and are a predictor of adverse outcome. In addition, LA function is impaired and is presumed to be due to left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction as a result of hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. In the current study, we assess the incremental effect of outflow tract obstruction (and concomitant mitral regurgitation on LA function as assessed by LA strain. Patients with HCM (50 obstructive, 50 nonobstructive were compared to 50 normal controls. A subset of obstructive patients who had undergone septal myectomy was also studied. Utilising feature-tracking software applied to cardiovascular magnetic resonance images, LA volumes and functional parameters were calculated. LA volumes were significantly elevated and LA ejection fraction and strain were significantly reduced in patients with HCM compared with controls and were significantly more affected in patients with obstruction. LA volumes and function were significantly improved after septal myectomy. LVOT obstruction and mitral regurgitation appear to further impair LA mechanics. Septal myectomy results in a significant reduction in LA volumes, paralleled by an improvement in function.

  12. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Performance in a State-Wide Test of Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkey, Eric D.; Cutting, Laurie E.; Price, Gavin R.

    2018-01-01

    The development of math skills is a critical component of early education and a strong indicator of later school and economic success. Recent research utilizing population-normed, standardized measures of math achievement suggest that structural and functional integrity of parietal regions, especially the intraparietal sulcus, are closely related…

  13. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-...

  14. Functional Anatomy of Writing with the Dominant Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najee-ullah, Muslimah ‘Ali; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    While writing performed by any body part is similar in style, indicating a common program, writing with the dominant hand is particularly skilled. We hypothesized that this skill utilizes a special motor network supplementing the motor equivalence areas. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 13 normal subjects, we studied nine conditions: writing, zigzagging and tapping, each with the right hand, left hand and right foot. We identified brain regions activated with the right (dominant) hand writing task, exceeding the activation common to right-hand use and the writing program, both identified without right-hand writing itself. Right-hand writing significantly differed from the other tasks. First, we observed stronger activations in the left dorsal prefrontal cortex, left intraparietal sulcus and right cerebellum. Second, the left anterior putamen was required to initiate all the tested tasks, but only showed sustained activation during the right-hand writing condition. Lastly, an exploratory analysis showed clusters in the left ventral premotor cortex and inferior and superior parietal cortices were only significantly active for right-hand writing. The increased activation with right-hand writing cannot be ascribed to increased effort, since this is a well-practiced task much easier to perform than some of the other tasks studied. Because parietal-premotor connections code for particular skills, it would seem that the parietal and premotor regions, together with basal ganglia-sustained activation likely underlie the special skill of handwriting with the dominant hand. PMID:23844132

  15. Functional anatomy of writing with the dominant hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Silvina G; Gallea, Cecile; Najee-Ullah, Muslimah 'ali; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    While writing performed by any body part is similar in style, indicating a common program, writing with the dominant hand is particularly skilled. We hypothesized that this skill utilizes a special motor network supplementing the motor equivalence areas. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 13 normal subjects, we studied nine conditions: writing, zigzagging and tapping, each with the right hand, left hand and right foot. We identified brain regions activated with the right (dominant) hand writing task, exceeding the activation common to right-hand use and the writing program, both identified without right-hand writing itself. Right-hand writing significantly differed from the other tasks. First, we observed stronger activations in the left dorsal prefrontal cortex, left intraparietal sulcus and right cerebellum. Second, the left anterior putamen was required to initiate all the tested tasks, but only showed sustained activation during the right-hand writing condition. Lastly, an exploratory analysis showed clusters in the left ventral premotor cortex and inferior and superior parietal cortices were only significantly active for right-hand writing. The increased activation with right-hand writing cannot be ascribed to increased effort, since this is a well-practiced task much easier to perform than some of the other tasks studied. Because parietal-premotor connections code for particular skills, it would seem that the parietal and premotor regions, together with basal ganglia-sustained activation likely underlie the special skill of handwriting with the dominant hand.

  16. Topography of the accessory left gastric artery (ALGA) analyzed by CT angiography from the left hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yasukazu; Takasaka, Isao; Onaya, Hiroaki

    2003-01-01

    To avoid gastric complications when we perform transcatheter treatment via left hepatic artery, we analyzed the topography of ALGA (accessory left gastric artery) by left hepatic arteriography and CT angiography from left hepatic artery. Six hundred seventy eight cases of CT angiography were performed between 1995 and 2000. Among them, selective left hepatic arteriography was done in 85 cases. We analyzed the frequency and the course of ALGA on the hepatic angiogram and CT angiogram. ALGA were identified in eighteen (21.2 %) of the 85 cases. We classified them into eleven cases of the proximal type and six cases of the distal type. When ALGA bifurcated from the left hepatic artery very close to the bifurcation of A2 (dorsolateral branch) and A3 (ventrolateral branch), we classified them as the distal type on hepatic angiogram. On the other hand, when ALGA bifurcated from the left hepatic artery apart from the bifurcation of A2 and A3 they were classified as the proximal type. In one rare case ALGA originated from the dorsolateral branch of the left hepatic artery. ALGA were classified as the distal and proximal types. Distal type of ALGA often overlapped dorsolateral branch of the left hepatic artery, and it was sometimes difficult to notice the existence of them. We should check the existence of ALGA on the arterial phase of dynamic CT before we plan to make a transcatheter treatment from the left hepatic artery. Then we can avoid gastric complications caused by a transcatheter treatment from the left hepatic artery. (author)

  17. Left ventricular lipoma with pseudoaneurysm-like appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarai, Shun-ichi; Yaginuma, Gen-ya; Abe, Kazuo; Hamasaki, Azumi; Ishikawa, Kazunori; Tanaka, Daizo

    2010-06-01

    We describe an extremely rare cardiac lipoma, with electrocardiographic changes in ST segments and T waves, suggesting ischemic heart disease. The abnormal electrocardiogram was identified during a routine physical examination of an asymptomatic 57-year-old man. Coronary angiography showed no stenotic or occlusive lesions in the coronary arteries except that the left anterior descending artery followed a winding course in the apical region. Left ventriculography revealed a pseudoaneurysm-like mass around the apical portion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cardiac lipoma that communicated with the left ventricle and resembled a pseudoaneurysm. After complete resection of the lipoma and left ventricle patch plasty, the postoperative course was uneventful. Histologically, the tumor was an intramyocardiac lipoma with no evidence of malignancy. To our knowledge, we are the first to describe an intramyocardiac lipoma resembling a left ventricle pseudoaneurysm.

  18. Annular subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C; Filho, A S; Esteves, J P; Abreu, W N; Vinhaes, L A; de Almeida Souza, J A; Machado, A

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of left ventricular aneurysm, a 16-year-old black boy and a 23-year-old white girl, from Bahia, Brazil, are presented. In both patients there was enlargement of the cardiac silhouette and a prominent bulge of the left inferior border. On the right oblique view a ring of calcium at the ventricular opening of the aneurysms was visualized. A left ventriculogram showed a huge aneurysm in the first case and a bulge on the lateral wall of the left ventricle in the other. Cardiac catheterization showed a rise in left and right ventricular end-diastolic pressures and in the mean pulmonary artery pressure. In the first case the contour of the right ventricular pressure curve showed a restrictive pattern. The similarities of these aneurysms with the annular submitral type described in young black Africans are stressed.

  19. A case of luftsichel sign for left upper lobe collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden Erol Ünlüer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of dyspnea in Emergency Department (ED patients is broad and atelectasis is one of the differentials among these. We present a 29-year-old women presented to our ED for evaluation of shortness of breath. On her chest examination, air entry and breath sounds were diminished on the left side but normal on the right. A posteroanterior chest radiograph showed radioluscent area in the upper zone of the left lung, around the aortic arch and also hyperdens area neighbouring this, like covered by a veil. Luftsichel sign together with this hiperdensity were consistent with the diagnose of left lung upper lobe collapse. The Luftsichel sign represents the hyperexpanded superior segment of the left lower lobe interposed between the atelectatic left upper lobe and aortic arch. Patient was discharged to home with chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises together with analgesic prescreption.

  20. The detection of contingency and animacy from simple animations in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, S-J; Boyer, P; Pachot-Clouard, M; Meltzoff, A; Segebarth, C; Decety, J

    2003-08-01

    Contingencies between objects and people can be mechanical or intentional-social in nature. In this fMRI study we used simplified stimuli to investigate brain regions involved in the detection of mechanical and intentional contingencies. Using a factorial design we manipulated the 'animacy' and 'contingency' of stimulus movement, and the subject's attention to the contingencies. The detection of mechanical contingency between shapes whose movement was inanimate engaged the middle temporal gyrus and right intraparietal sulcus. The detection of intentional contingency between shapes whose movement was animate activated superior parietal networks bilaterally. These activations were unaffected by attention to contingency. Additional regions, the right middle frontal gyrus and left superior temporal sulcus, became activated by the animate-contingent stimuli when subjects specifically attended to the contingent nature of the stimuli. Our results help to clarify neural networks previously associated with 'theory of mind' and agency detection. In particular, the results suggest that low-level perception of agency in terms of objects reacting to other objects at a distance is processed by parietal networks. In contrast, the activation of brain regions traditionally associated with theory of mind tasks appears to require attention to be directed towards agency and contingency.

  1. Color-word matching stroop task: separating interference and response conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysset, S; Müller, K; Lohmann, G; von Cramon , D Y

    2001-01-01

    The Stroop interference task requires a person to respond to a specific dimension of a stimulus while suppressing a competing stimulus dimension. Previous PET and fMRI studies using the Color Stroop paradigm have shown increased activity in the "cognitive division" of the cingulate cortex. In our fMRI study with nine subjects, we used a Color-Word Matching Stroop task. A frontoparietal network, including structures in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the frontopolar region, the intraparietal sulcus, as well as the lateral occipitotemporal gyrus, was activated when contrasting the incongruent vs the neutral condition. However, no substantial activation in either the right or left hemisphere of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was detected. In accordance with a series of recent articles, we argue that the ACC is not specifically involved in interference processes. The ACC seems rather involved in motor preparation processes which were controlled in the present Color-Word Matching Stroop task. We argue that the region around the banks of the inferior frontal sulcus is required to solve interference problems, a concept which can also be seen as a component of task set management. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Neural correlates of strategy use during auditory working memory in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, K; Mueller, K; Koelsch, S

    2011-01-01

    Working memory (WM) performance in humans can be improved by structuring and organizing the material to be remembered. For visual and verbal information, this process of structuring has been associated with the involvement of a prefrontal-parietal network, but for non-verbal auditory material, the brain areas that facilitate WM for structured information have remained elusive. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study compared neural correlates underlying encoding and rehearsal of auditory WM for structured and unstructured material. Musicians and non-musicians performed a WM task on five-tone sequences that were either tonally structured (with all tones belonging to one tonal key) or tonally unstructured (atonal) sequences. Functional differences were observed for musicians (who are experts in the music domain), but not for non-musicians - The right pars orbitalis was activated more strongly in musicians during the encoding of unstructured (atonal) vs. structured (tonal) sequences. In addition, data for musicians showed that a lateral (pre)frontal-parietal network (including the right premotor cortex, right inferior precentral sulcus and left intraparietal sulcus) was activated during WM rehearsal of structured, as compared with unstructured, sequences. Our findings indicate that this network plays a role in strategy-based WM for non-verbal auditory information, corroborating previous results showing a similar network for strategy-based WM for visual and verbal information. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Stay tuned: Inter-individual neural synchronization during mutual gaze and joint attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke N Saito

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Eye contact provides a communicative link between humans, prompting joint attention. As spontaneous brain activity may have an important role in coordination of neuronal processing within the brain, their inter-subject synchronization may occur during eye contact. To test this, we conducted simultaneous functional MRI in pairs of adults. Eye contact was maintained at baseline while the subjects engaged in real-time gaze exchange in a joint attention task. Averted gaze activated the bilateral occipital pole extending to the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Following a partner’s gaze towards an object activated the left intraparietal sulcus. After all task-related effects were modeled out, inter-individual correlation analysis of residual time-courses was performed. Paired subjects showed more prominent correlations than non-paired subjects in the right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting that this region is involved in sharing intention during eye contact that provides the context for joint attention.

  4. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Left ventricular mass in borderline hypertension assessed by echo cardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzasalma, L.; Ghione, S.; Palonebo, C.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between clinical measurement of blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension appears to be weak in most studies. On the contrary, stronger correlations with target organ damage in general, and left ventricular hypertrophy in particular, have been reported for blood pressure measurements obtained by ambulatory monitoring; this finding may indicate a possible role for blood pressure response to naturally occurring stresses in determining left ventricular hypertrophy. Aim of this study was to investigate, in 18 patients with borderline arterial hypertension, the relationships between echocardiographically assessed left ventricular mass and, respectively, casual BP and BP responses to some standardized stress tests. Only three patients had a diastolic wall thickness of the interventricular septum and of the posterior wall ≥1.2 cm and none had a pathologically increased left ventricular mass index. The following statistically significant correlations were found: casual diastolic BP vs. left ventricular mass index (r=0.53, p<0.02), systolic BP response to bicycle exercise test vs. left ventricular mass index (r=0.55, p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that almost fifty percent of the variability of left ventricular mass index could be predicted by these two BP measurements. These findings suggest that besides the chronically increased afterload, also the transient hypertensive responses to naturally occuring physical stresses may have a role in determining the extent of cardiac structural changes in borderline hypertensive patients. In addition, they indicate a direct relation between left ventricular mass and blood pressure levels also in borderline hypertension, as previously shown for established hypertension, despite the fact that left ventricular hypertrophy represents only an occasional finding in early stages of hypertension

  6. Increased prevalences of left-handedness and left-eye sighting dominance in individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHandedness and eye sighting dominance were assessed in a sample of 50 individuals (25 male, 25 female; aged 5 – 38 years) with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). The prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness were compared to the normative prevalences in the general population. We

  7. Perceiving pitch absolutely: Comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaug Gottfried

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceptual-cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of Absolute Pitch (AP are not fully understood. The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do not. Results We found a common activation pattern for both groups that included the superior temporal gyrus (STG extending into the adjacent superior temporal sulcus (STS, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL extending into the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS, the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, and superior lateral cerebellar regions. Significant between-group differences were seen in the left STS during the early encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in AP musicians and in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL/intraparietal sulcus (IPS during the early perceptual phase (ITP 0–3 and later working memory/multimodal encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in non-AP musicians. Non-significant between-group trends were seen in the posterior IFG (more in AP musicians and the IPL (more anterior activations in the non-AP group and more posterior activations in the AP group. Conclusion Since the increased activation of the left STS in AP musicians was observed during the early perceptual encoding phase and since the STS has been shown to be involved in categorization tasks, its activation might suggest that AP musicians involve categorization regions in tonal tasks. The increased activation of the right SPL/IPS in non-AP musicians indicates either an increased use of regions that are part of a tonal working memory (WM network, or the use of a multimodal encoding strategy such as the utilization of a visual-spatial mapping scheme (i.e., imagining notes on a staff or using a spatial coding for their relative pitch height for pitch

  8. Isolated left-sided pulmonary artery agenesis with left lung hypoplasia: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Govindaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral absence of pulmonary artery or pulmonary artery agenesis (UAPA is a rare congenital malformation that can present as an isolated lesion or in association with other cardiac anomalies. Though congenital, presentation in adults are also reported. Most common presentation in adults is of exercise intolerance. The developing lung on the affected side is hypoplastic. Diagnosis of UAPA is established by imaging methods like CT and MRI . There is no specific treatment for this condition. Treatment depends on patients symptomatology, presence of pulmonary hypertension and collateral circulation. Presence of pulmonary hypertension carries a bad prognosis. We present two adult patients with isolated left sided unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with ipsilateral lung hypoplasia. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT chest and perfusion scan.

  9. Left-right asymmetry in neutrino-produced hadron jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagh, H.C.; Bingham, H.H.; Lawry, T.J.; Lys, J.; Lynch, G.R.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stevenson, M.L.; Huson, F.R.; Schmidt, E.; Smart, W.; Treadwell, E.; Cence, R.J.; Harris, F.A.; Jones, M.D.; Koide, A.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Lubatti, H.J.; Moriyasu, K.; Wolin, E.

    1989-01-01

    In an experiment (E546) to study interactions of left-angle E right-angle=100 GeV and left-angle Q 2 right-angle=17 GeV 2 neutrinos in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber, we have looked for a left-right asymmetry in the azimuthal angle φ of individual hadrons about the direction of the lepton momentum transfer (q vector). Significant asymmetry is found for forward positive hadrons; for x F >0.10, we find left-angle cosφ right-angle=-0.029±0.008, where x F is the Feynman x variable. Negative hadrons with x F >0.10 show no asymmetry, left-angle cosφ right-angle=0.004±0.011. A model which includes parton intrinsic transverse momentum k t reproduces the asymmetry of combined positive and negative hadrons with x F >0.10, left-angle cosφ right-angle=-0.018±0.0065, if left-angle k t 2 right-angle=0.065±0.024 GeV 2 /c 2 . But the model predicts almost equal asymmetries for positive and negative hadrons. The model also agrees poorly with the observed dependence on the kinematic variables x and Q 2 if the k t distribution is assumed to be independent of kinematic variables

  10. Anosognosia for hemiparesis after left-sided stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Vucurevic, Goran; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Glassl, Oliver; Geber, Christian; Dieterich, Marianne; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2014-12-01

    In patients with left-sided lesions, anosognosia for hemiparesis (AHP) seems to be a rare phenomenon. It has been discussed whether this rareness might be due to an inevitable bias due to language dysfunction and whether the left hemisphere's role for our self-awareness of motor actions thus is underestimated. By applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined whether patients with AHP following a left hemisphere stroke show a regular, left-sided or a reversed, right-sided lateralization of language functions. Only the former observation would argue for an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. In a consecutive series of 44 acute left-sided stroke patients, only one patient (=2%) was identified showing AHP. In this case, we could verify by using fMRI that lateralization of AHP and spatial neglect on the one hand and of language functions on the other hand were reversed. The present single case observation thus argues against an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. We discuss the data in the context of previous observations in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neglect severity after left and right brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchan, Julia; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-05-01

    While unilateral spatial neglect after left brain damage is undoubtedly less common than spatial neglect after a right hemisphere lesion, it is also assumed to be less severe. Here we directly test this latter hypothesis using a continuous measure of neglect severity: the so-called Center of Cancellation (CoC). Rorden and Karnath (2010) recently validated this index for right brain damaged neglect patients. A first aim of the present study was to evaluate this new measure for spatial neglect after left brain damage. In a group of 48 left-sided stroke patients with and without neglect, a score greater than -0.086 on the Bells Test and greater than -0.024 on the Letter Cancellation Task turned out to indicate neglect behavior for acute left brain damaged patients. A second aim was to directly compare the severity of spatial neglect after left versus right brain injury by using the new CoC measure. While neglect is less frequent following left than right hemisphere injury, we found that when this symptom occurs it is of similar severity in acute left brain injury as in patients after acute right brain injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Left main coronary artery disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Carlos; Capodanno, Davide; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Banning, Adrian; Stone, Gregg W; Taggart, David P; Sabik, Joseph; Serruys, Patrick W

    2018-06-01

    The advent of coronary angiography in the 1960s allowed for the risk stratification of patients with stable angina. Patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease have an increased risk of death related to the large amount of myocardium supplied by this vessel. Although coronary angiography remains the preferred imaging modality for the evaluation of left main coronary artery stenosis, this technique has important limitations. Angiograms of the left main coronary artery segment can be difficult to interpret, and almost one-third of patients can be misclassified when fractional flow reserve is used as the reference. In patients with clinically significant unprotected left main coronary artery disease, surgical revascularization was shown to improve survival compared with medical therapy and has been regarded as the treatment of choice for unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Two large-scale clinical trials published in 2016 support the usefulness of catheter-based revascularization in selected patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease. In this Review, we describe the pathophysiology of unprotected left main coronary artery disease, discuss diagnostic approaches in light of new noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques, and detail risk stratification models to aid the Heart Team in the decision-making process for determining the best revascularization strategy for these patients.

  13. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.J.; Okada, R.D.; Ewy, G.A.; Hellman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle, M-mode echocardiograms and systolic time intervals were obtained in 13 patients while they were clinically hyperthyroid and again when they were euthyroid following radioactive iodine therapy. Echocardiographic tracings of the septum and left ventricular posterior wall were digitized and analyzed to provide the maximum velocity of shortening and maximum velocity of lengthening. These velocities were normalized for left ventricular diastolic dimension. The left ventricular minor axis fractional shortening and the normalized maximum velocity of shortening were both increased during the hyperthyroid state. The normalized maximum velocity of lengthening, a measure of diastolic left ventricular function, was also increased during the hyperthyroid state when compared to the euthyroid state. The preejection period index and the preejection period/left ventricular ejection time ratio were lower when the patients were hyperthyroid than when they were euthyroid. These data confirm the increased inotropic state and demonstrated increased diastolic relaxation velocities of the hyperthyroid left ventricle

  14. Fatal stroke after completion pneumonectomy for torsion of left upper lobe following left lower lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolakis Efstratios

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lobar torsion after lung surgery is a rare complication with an incidence of 0.09 to 0.4 %. It may occur after twisting of the bronchovascular pedicle of the remaining lobe after lobectomy, usually on the right side. The 180-degree rotation of the pedicle produces an acute obstruction of the lobar bronchus (atelectasis and of the lobar vessels as well. Without prompt treatment it progresses to lobar ischemia, pulmonary infarction and finally fatal gangrene. Case Presentation A 62 years old female patient was admitted for surgical treatment of lung cancer. She underwent elective left lower lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma (pT2 N0. The operation was unremarkable, and the patient was extubated in the operating room. After eight hours the patient established decrease of pO2 and chest x-ray showed atelectasis of the lower lobe. To establish diagnosis, bronchoscopy was performed, demonstrating obstructed left lobar bronchus. The patient was re-intubated, and admitted to the operating room where reopening of the thoracotomy was performed. Lobar torsion was diagnosed, with the diaphragmatic surface of the upper lobe facing in an anterosuperior orientation. A completion pneumonectomy was performed. At the end of the procedure the patient developed a right pupil dilatation, presumably due to a cerebral embolism. A subsequent brain angio-CT scan established the diagnosis. She died at the intensive care unit 26 days later. Conclusion The thoracic surgeon should suspect this rare early postoperative complication after any thoracic operation in every patient with atelectasis of the neighboring lobe. High index of suspicion and prompt diagnosis may prevent catastrophic consequences, such as, infarction or gangrene of the pulmonary lobe. During thoracic operations, especially whenever the lung or lobe hilum is full mobilized, fixation of the remaining lobe may prevent this life threatening complication.

  15. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjewar SS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swapnil S Lanjewar,1 Lovely Chhabra,1 Vinod K Chaubey,1 Saurabh Joshi,1 Ganesh Kulkarni,1 Chandrasekhar Kothagundla,1 Sudesh Kaul,1 David H Spodick21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration.Methods: We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were computed and compared between the two subgroups.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1 between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy.Conclusion: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.Keywords: emphysema, electrocardiogram, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic

  16. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  17. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkvatan, A.; Yelgec, N.S.; Calikoglu, U.; Olcer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  18. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkvatan, A. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yelgec, N.S. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Calikoglu, U.; Olcer, T. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  19. Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.; Kelly, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationships of different forms of exercise training to left ventricular mass and body mass are investigated by echocardiographic studies of weight lifters, long-distance runners, and comparatively sized untrained control subjects. Left ventricular mass determinations by the Penn convention reveal increased absolute left ventricular masses in long-distance runners and competitive weight lifters with respect to controls matched for age, body weight, and body surface area, and a significant correlation between ventricular mass and lean body mass. When normalized to lean body mass, the ventricular masses of distance runners are found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups, suggesting that dynamic training elevates left ventricular mass compared to static training and no training, while static training increases ventricular mass only to the extent that lean body mass is increased.

  20. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  1. Delusional misidentifications and duplications: right brain lesions, left brain delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2009-01-06

    When the delusional misidentification syndromes reduplicative paramnesia and Capgras syndromes result from neurologic disease, lesions are usually bifrontal and/or right hemispheric. The related disorders of confabulation and anosognosis share overlapping mechanisms and anatomic pathology. A dual mechanism is postulated for the delusional misidentification syndromes: negative effects from right hemisphere and frontal lobe dysfunction as well as positive effects from release (i.e., overactivity) of preserved left hemisphere areas. Negative effects of right hemisphere injury impair self-monitoring, ego boundaries, and attaching emotional valence and familiarity to stimuli. The unchecked left hemisphere unleashes a creative narrator from the monitoring of self, memory, and reality by the frontal and right hemisphere areas, leading to excessive and false explanations. Further, the left hemisphere's cognitive style of categorization, often into dual categories, leads it to invent a duplicate or impostor to resolve conflicting information. Delusions result from right hemisphere lesions. But it is the left hemisphere that is deluded.

  2. Unusual metastasis of left colon cancer: considerations on two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, Adelmo; Moccia, Giancarlo; Malinconico, Francesca Antonella; Gilio, Francesco; Iside, Giovanni; Califano, Umberto G A; Foroni, Fabrizio; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Parmeggiani, Domenico; Agresti, Massimo

    2009-04-01

    Usually, left colon cancer metastasis concerns liver, abdominal lymph nodes and lungs. Other localizations are quite rare occurrences. In spite of this, some uncommon metastasis sites are reported in literature, such as: peritoneum, ovaries, uterus, kidney testis, bones, thyroid, oral cavity and central nervous system. We report two cases of unusual localizations of left colon cancer metastasis localization, one into the retroperitoneal space and the other at the left axillary lynphnodes and between liver and pancreas. In the first reported case the diffusion pathway may have been the lymphatic mesocolic vessels, partially left in place from the previous surgery. In the second case the alleged metastatic lane may have been through the periumbilical lymph nodes to the parasternal lymph nodes and then to the internal mammary ones, finally reaching the axillary limph nodes.

  3. Sonographic determination of spleen to left kidney ratio among Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light ... Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between .... obtained in the coronal plane passing through the renal.

  4. Right and left ventricular performance by nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, T.; Uehara, T.; Hayashida, K.; Kozuka, T.

    1983-01-01

    Right and left ventricular performance by Nuclear Stethoscope using Kr-81m and Tc-99m-RBC were performed. And physiological and pharmacological interventions were also investigated for the evaluation of coronary artery diseases (CAD)

  5. Ostial left main coronary stenosis in a frequent flyer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, John F

    2009-05-15

    A 52 year old gentleman presented with chest pain, after a long distance flight from India; he had made long haul flights every 2 weeks over the last 5 years as part of his job. His ECG revealed T wave inversion in leads V1-3. Cardiac biomarkers including troponin were negative; we proceeded to exercise stress testing (EST). This revealed 2 mm ST depression at 2 min of the standard Bruce protocol, associated with chest pain. He was taken immediately to the coronary catheterization laboratory; engagement of the left main caused pressure damping with 6 French, then 5 French diagnostic Judkins left 4 catheters. An ostial left main stenosis was seen; the right and left coronary trees otherwise had no significant stenoses. He had normal LV function. He underwent inpatient CABG 7 days later.

  6. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a cervicomediastinal ... Her voice was hoarse but there was no eye signs suggestive of thyrotoxicosis. ... A presumptive diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with retrosternal extension was made.

  8. Left coronary arterial blood flow: Noninvasive detection by Doppler US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramiak, R.; Holen, J.; Moss, A.J.; Gutierrez, O.H.; Picone, A.L.; Roe, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) and pulsed Doppler ultrasound studies with spectral analysis were used to detect the left coronary arterial blood flow in patients who were undergoing routine echocardiography. The pulmonary artery is a stable ultrasonic landmark from which detection of the blood flow can be effected. The left coronary artery can be distinguished by its blood flow toward the cardiac apex and by specific, functional flow features. Flow patterns vary among the left main, circumflex, and anterior descending arteries; patterns also vary with respiration cycles. In the present study, coronary arterial blood flow was detected in 58 of 70 patients (83%). Findings were validated by selectively injecting an agitated saline contrast medium into the left coronary artery and, in another study, by comparing human Doppler phasic flow waveforms with electromagnetic flowmeter recordings obtained in dogs

  9. The Colombian Left: A Paradoxical Past; A Promising Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bergquist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the paradoxical history of the left in Colombia: how and why one of the weakest lefts in Latin America brought about the strongest and most lasting Marxist insurrection in the hemisphere in the decades following the Cuban Revolution. The article argues that the terms of this paradox are related, that the historic weakness of the left partly explains the force and longevity of revolutionary guerrillas, and that said paradox helps clarify not only the failure of several attempts to achieve a negotiated settlement of the armed conflict, but also the negative vote in the October 2016 plebiscite. Finally, it envisions a more promising future for the country’s left, provided that a lasting peace is consolidated.

  10. Times of Crisis : Success or Decline of the Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Tarditi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that especially since the 2008 has shown the deep weakness of the capitalistic economic model induces to reflect on the role of the radical left parties and on their capacity to propose alternative policies, interpreting the citizens’ demands. Starting from these premises this article analyses three parties of the radical left party family- United Left, Left Freedom and Ecology and Syriza- that act respectively in Spain, Italy and Greece, three of the European democracies most affected by the social consequences of the crisis. The article proposes a diachronic comparison of the three parties’ policy pro-posals, organizational model and strategies in order to explain their greater or lesser ability to attract con-sensus in the last years.

  11. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J

    2010-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right...... the right or left SMG. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence that the right SMG contributes to accurate and efficient phonological decisions in the healthy brain, with no evidence that the left and right SMG can compensate for one another during TMS. Our findings motivate detailed...... hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS...

  12. Contemporary Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M.; Claggett, Brian; Kitzman, Dalane

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although age-Associated changes in left ventricular diastolic function are well recognized, limited data exist characterizing measures of diastolic function in older adults, including both reference ranges reflecting the older adult population and prognostically relevant values...

  13. Left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabbekoorn, M.; Horlings, H. M.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Windhausen, A.; Van der Sloot, J. A. P.; Lagrand, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved diagnostic tools and expanded treatment options, left-sided native valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection remains a serious and destructive disease. The high morbidity and mortality, however, can be reduced by early recognition, correct diagnosis, and

  14. Left ventricular structure and function in black normotensive type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Black normotensive patients, left ventricular function, type 2 DM. Résumé ... sickle cell disease and structural heart disease were excluded ... Pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity ... had abnormal ECG pattern compared with 30%.

  15. Fetal Diagnosis of Abnormal Origin of the Left Pulmonary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Justin T; Tretter, Eric M; Rafii, Daniela Y; Anderson, Robert H; Bhatla, Puneet

    2016-08-01

    Isolated anomalies of the branch pulmonary arteries are rare, more often occurring in the setting of complex congenital heart disease. These isolated anomalies are often not identified in the prenatal period. We describe two cases of isolated anomalies of the left pulmonary artery which were identified on fetal echocardiography and confirmed postnatally, an anomalous left pulmonary artery arising from the base of the left-sided brachiocephalic artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch, and a left pulmonary artery sling. These two cases support our current understanding of normal and abnormal development of the extrapericardial arterial vessels and highlight the importance of meticulous attention when sweeping from the three-vessel tracheal view. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quantitation of global and regional left ventricular function by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, RJ; Reiber, JHC; Reiber, JHC; VanDerWall, EE

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several imaging strategies for assessing left ventricular function. As a three-dimensional imaging technique, all measurements can be performed without relying on geometrical assumptions. Global and regional function parameters can be derived from

  17. Left-handed materials in metallic magnetic granular composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, S.T.; Lin, Z.F.; Hu, L.-B.

    2003-01-01

    There is recently interests in the 'left-handed' materials. In these materials the direction of the wave vector of electromagnetic radiation is opposite to the direction of the energy flow. We present simple arguments that suggests that magnetic composites can also be left-handed materials. However, the physics involved seems to be different from the original argument. In our argument, the imaginary part of the dielectric constant is much larger than the real part, opposite to the original argument

  18. Political Left and Right: Our Hands-On Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Frits Bienfait; Walter E. A. van Beek

    2014-01-01

    The origins and immediate vitality of the left/right divide which emerged in French revolutionary politics from 1789 can only be understood against the background of a much older classification dynamic based on the primacy of the right hand, first described by Robert Hertz in 1909. This dynamic infused political thinking first in Versailles and since 1815 in democracies throughout the world. In the process, the classical left/right polarity acquired a new dimension: the complementary notions ...

  19. Jordan and left derivations on locally C*-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, Naseer

    2002-07-01

    We show that left derivations as well as Jordan derivations on locally G*-algebras are always continuous. We also obtain some noncommutative extensions of the classical Singer-Wermer theorem for locally C*-algebras: (1) Every left derivation D on a locally (7*-algebra A is identically zero. (2) Every Jordan derivation D on a locally C*-algebra A which satisfies [D(x), x]D(x]=0 for all x in A, is identically zero. (author)

  20. Left Atrium Papillary Fibroelastomas: A Cause of Cerebral Emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ciss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary fibroelastomas are cardiac benign tumours. Among the benign cardiac tumor, papillary fibroelastomas are reported second after myxomas. Most often diagnosed incidentally, papillary fibroelastomas may embolize to cerebral circulation. Valvular locations are predominant; location in left atrium is rare. In this paper, we present a case of papillary fibroelastoma located in left atrium with symptoms of cerebral embolization. Transoesophageal echocardiography diagnosed a mobile mass. The patient was treated with surgical resection without further embolic complication.

  1. Tensor product of left n-invertible operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duggal, B.P.; Müller, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 215, č. 2 (2013), s. 113-125 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Banach space * essentially left n- invertible operator * left n-invertible operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.630, year: 2013 http://journals.impan.pl/cgi-bin/doi?sm215-2-2

  2. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  3. Right Site, Wrong Route - Cannulating the Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Peter; Arukala, Sanjay K; Sule, Anupam A

    2018-01-09

    Central venous catheters are placed in approximately five million patients annually in the US. The preferred site of insertion is one with fewer risks and easier access. Although the right internal jugular vein is preferred, on occasion, the left internal jugular may have to be accessed. A patient was admitted for septic shock, cerebrovascular accident, and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A central venous line was needed for antibiotic and vasopressor administration. Due to trauma from a fall to the right side and previously failed catheterization attempts at the left subclavian and femoral veins, the left internal jugular vein was accessed. On chest radiography for confirmation, the left internal jugular central venous catheter was seen projecting down the left paraspinal region. It did not take the expected course across the midline toward the right and into the superior vena cava (SVC). A review of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest with contrast done on a prior admission revealed a duplicated SVC on the left side that had not been reported in the original CT scan interpretation. A left-sided SVC is present in approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of the population, with 90% of these draining into the coronary sinus. During placements of central venous lines and pacemakers, irritation of the coronary sinus may result in hypotension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, or cardiac arrest. A widened mediastinum can be an indication of a duplicated SVC. When attempting a left internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement, it is important to be aware of venous anomalies in order to prevent complications.

  4. Variation of left heart function and thyroid hormone in cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junchi; Du Sujun; Mao Shaorong; Lu Jun; Tang Xiaoling

    1996-01-01

    The observation of 52 cases of cirrhosis left heart function indices traced with 113 In m in quiet and motion, and the combining determination of thyroid hormone serum levels with RIA are described. The cirrhosis to the function of liver damage increased, the indices of left heart function has great change. Moreover, the serum levels of T 3 , FT 3 in thyroid hormone are decreased obviously and the serum level of rT 3 is also increased significantly

  5. Weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    The present status of weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry is reviewed. The theoretical basis for asymptotic parity conservation, manifest left-right symmetry in charged current weak interactions, natural parity conservation in neutral currents and CP-violation in the context of SU(2)/sub L/ circled x SU (2)/sub R/ circled x U(1) models are outlined in detail. Various directions for further research in the theoretical and experimental side are indicated

  6. Automatic extraction of left ventricle in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Zhao Shujun; Yao Zhiming; Wang Daoyu

    1999-01-01

    An automatic method of extracting left ventricle from SPECT myocardial perfusion data was introduced. This method was based on the least square analysis of the positions of all short-axis slices pixels from the half sphere-cylinder myocardial model, and used a iterative reconstruction technique to automatically cut off the non-left ventricular tissue from the perfusion images. Thereby, this technique provided the bases for further quantitative analysis

  7. Foucault's Flirt? Neoliberalism, the Left and the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    2015-01-01

    An essay on the review of works interpreting the lectures of Michel Foucault on neoliberalism is presented. It offers a history of neoliberalism as a way to reinvent the left and examines the way Foucault betrayed the left while resisting to be connected with a normative political programme...... or principle for a neoliberal stance. The author relates the risks in neoliberal thought for losing what is specific in definitive statements and the loss of neoliberal thought coherence within a reality....

  8. Giant left atrium encountered during right-sided thoracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Advani

    Full Text Available Giant left atrium is an uncommon pathology to encounter during bedside chest ultrasound, but is an important structure to be aware of when considering thoracentesis. This cardiac structure could easily be mistaken for loculated pleural fluid. This case also supports growing evidence that expert users can safely perform thoracentesis without completely reversing therapeutic anticoagulation. Keywords: Giant left atrium, Thoracentesis, Rheumatic heart disease, Ultrasound

  9. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF, and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. Objective: To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. Methods: A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind, and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e' were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. Results: One hundred seventeen patients (82.9% were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months. LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m2 ± 10.6 mL/m2 to 22.6 mL/m2 ± 1.1 mL/m2, p < 0.001 compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m2 ± 14.3 mL/m2 to 37.5 mL/m2 ± 14.5 mL/m2, p = ns. Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001 but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns. The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001. Conclusion: Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  10. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Simone Nascimento dos, E-mail: simonens@cardiol.br [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil); Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento dos; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m{sup 2} ± 10.6 mL/m{sup 2} to 22.6 mL/m{sup 2} ± 1.1 mL/m{sup 2}, p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.3 mL/m{sup 2} to 37.5 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.5 mL/m{sup 2}, p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  11. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Simone Nascimento dos; Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento dos; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m 2 ± 10.6 mL/m 2 to 22.6 mL/m 2 ± 1.1 mL/m 2 , p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m 2 ± 14.3 mL/m 2 to 37.5 mL/m 2 ± 14.5 mL/m 2 , p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure

  12. Skin Sodium Concentration Correlates with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus P; Raff, Ulrike; Kopp, Christoph; Scheppach, Johannes B; Toncar, Sebastian; Wanner, Christoph; Schlieper, Georg; Saritas, Turgay; Floege, Jürgen; Schmid, Matthias; Birukov, Anna; Dahlmann, Anke; Linz, Peter; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Schmieder, Roland E; Titze, Jens M; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD is incompletely understood. Sodium intake, which is usually assessed by measuring urinary sodium excretion, has been inconsistently linked with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, tissues such as skin and muscle may store sodium. Using 23 sodium-magnetic resonance imaging, a technique recently developed for the assessment of tissue sodium content in humans, we determined skin sodium content at the level of the calf in 99 patients with mild to moderate CKD (42 women; median [range] age, 65 [23-78] years). We also assessed total body overhydration (bioimpedance spectroscopy), 24-hour BP, and left ventricular mass (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Skin sodium content, but not total body overhydration, correlated with systolic BP ( r =0.33, P =0.002). Moreover, skin sodium content correlated more strongly than total body overhydration did with left ventricular mass ( r =0.56, P skin sodium content is a strong explanatory variable for left ventricular mass, unaffected by BP and total body overhydration. In conclusion, we found skin sodium content to be closely linked to left ventricular mass in patients with CKD. Interventions that reduce skin sodium content might improve cardiovascular outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Enhancing No Child Left Behind-School mental health connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P; Burke, Robert; Hare, Isadora; Mills, Carrie; Owens, Celeste; Moore, Elizabeth; Weist, Mark D

    2006-11-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was signed into law by President George W. Bush in January 2002 and is regarded as the most significant federal education policy initiative in a generation. The primary focus of the No Child Left Behind Act is on promoting educational success for all children; however, the legislation also contains opportunities to advance school-based mental health. Unfortunately, the complexities of the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act have made it difficult for educators, stakeholders, and mental health professionals to understand the legal and practical interface between No Child Left Behind and the school mental health movement. Therefore, the goals of this article are to (1) raise awareness about the challenges educators and school mental health professionals face as a result of the implementation of No Child Left Behind and (2) provide ideas and recommendations to advance the interface between No Child Left Behind and school mental health, which will support key provisions of the act and the growth of the field.

  14. Temporal order processing of syllables in the left parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Dana; Baker, Julie M; Sanchez, Carmen E; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2009-10-07

    Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results revealed increased neural recruitment in the left inferior parietal lobe when participants made judgments about syllable order compared with both syllable identification and gender identification. These findings suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe plays an important role in processing syllable order and support the hypothesized role of this region as an interface between auditory speech and the articulatory code. Furthermore, a breakdown in this interface may explain some components of the speech deficits observed after posterior damage to the left hemisphere.

  15. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Hanson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate definitive calculi. After a temporary improvement in flank pain with medication, the patient experienced acute worsening of her left flank pain. Urology was consulted and further imaging was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was consistent with bilateral hydronephrosis and rupture of the left renal calyx. Given the patient’s worsening pain in the setting of left calyceal rupture, the urology team planned for placement of a left ureteral stent. However, before the patient could receive her stent, she progressed to active labor and delivered a viable female infant vaginally. Following delivery, the patient’s flank pain resolved rapidly and spontaneously, so no surgical intervention was performed. A summary of the literature and the details of this specific clinical situation are provided.

  16. The new left and democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Panizza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Without embarking on a theoretical debate over the meaning of the term, it is obvious that the left is on the rise in Latin America. However, we should not ignore the fact that the coming to power of left-wing and centre-left parties and movements presents a certain amount of paradoxes and questions. One of the most important of the many paradoxes is the fact that, in spite of the leftwards electoral shift in the region, there is no evidence that the electorate of Latin America has moved to the left in a significant manner. As for the questions, these concern the connection between left-wing governments and democracy, and especially the future challenges that these governments must face to preserve and develop democracy. In an attempt to unravel the paradox and answer these questions, this article examines the roots, contexts and political challenges of left-wing governments in Latin America. To this end, the author analyses a number of issues, such as the tensions between different logics of political representation and their implications for democracy, in addition to discussing the conditions under which the tensions between the different logics of political representation can contribute (or not to the developing of democracy in the region.

  17. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2010-09-21

    Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over the right or left SMG. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence that the right SMG contributes to accurate and efficient phonological decisions in the healthy brain, with no evidence that the left and right SMG can compensate for one another during TMS. Our findings motivate detailed studies of phonological processing in patients with acute or long-term damage of the right SMG.

  18. Radical Left in Albania and Kosovo: Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Këlliçi Klejd

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research question for this paper is: Are there radical left wing movements in Albania and Kosovo and what are their main traits? Through answering this question, we will explore the development (or lack thereof of radical left wing movements. With radical left we intend movements that reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism and its values and practices without opposing democracy. Through a thorough desk research and several interviews with experts and activists both in Albania and Kosovo, we look at the two case Political Opportunity Structures to study the emergence, the strategies, success or failures of the radical left. In Albania the radical left has been in decline since 1992, with only a recent revival from 2009 on. In Kosovo, the Lëvizja Vetëvendojse! (Self-Determination Movement, a civil movement transformed in a party, has succeeded in imposing its left agenda. Both cases employ a new rhetoric unrelated to the past communist regimes thus changing the perspective of political debate in both countries.

  19. Left versus right deceased donor renal allograft outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    It has been suggested that the left kidney is easier to transplant than the right kidney because of the longer length of the left renal vein, facilitating the formation of the venous anastomosis. There are conflicting reports of differing renal allograft outcomes based on the side of donor kidney transplanted (left or right).We sought to determine the effect of side of donor kidney on early and late allograft outcome in our renal transplant population. We performed a retrospective analysis of transplanted left-right deceased donor kidney pairs in Ireland between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. We used a time to death-censored graft failure approach for long-term allograft survival and also examined serum creatinine at different time points post-transplantation. All outcomes were included from day of transplant onwards. A total of 646 transplants were performed from 323 donors. The incidence of delayed graft function was 16.1% in both groups and there was no significant difference in acute rejection episodes or serum creatinine from 1 month to 8 years post-transplantation.There were 47 death-censored allograft failures in the left-sided group compared to 57 in the right-sided group (P = 0.24). These observations show no difference in renal transplant outcome between the recipients of left- and right-sided deceased donor kidneys.

  20. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  1. Levels of integration in cognitive control and sequence processing in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Korb, Franziska M; Gratton, Caterina; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive control is necessary to flexibly act in changing environments. Sequence processing is needed in language comprehension to build the syntactic structure in sentences. Functional imaging studies suggest that sequence processing engages the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In contrast, cognitive control processes additionally recruit bilateral rostral lateral PFC regions. The present study aimed to investigate these two types of processes in one experimental paradigm. Sequence processing was manipulated using two different sequencing rules varying in complexity. Cognitive control was varied with different cue-sets that determined the choice of a sequencing rule. Univariate analyses revealed distinct PFC regions for the two types of processing (i.e. sequence processing: left ventrolateral PFC and cognitive control processing: bilateral dorsolateral and rostral PFC). Moreover, in a common brain network (including left lateral PFC and intraparietal sulcus) no interaction between sequence and cognitive control processing was observed. In contrast, a multivariate pattern analysis revealed an interaction of sequence and cognitive control processing, such that voxels in left lateral PFC and parietal cortex showed different tuning functions for tasks involving different sequencing and cognitive control demands. These results suggest that the difference between the process of rule selection (i.e. cognitive control) and the process of rule-based sequencing (i.e. sequence processing) find their neuronal underpinnings in distinct activation patterns in lateral PFC. Moreover, the combination of rule selection and rule sequencing can shape the response of neurons in lateral PFC and parietal cortex.

  2. Continuity and change in children's longitudinal neural responses to numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert W; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2015-03-01

    Human children possess the ability to approximate numerical quantity nonverbally from a young age. Over the course of early childhood, children develop increasingly precise representations of numerical values, including a symbolic number system that allows them to conceive of numerical information as Arabic numerals or number words. Functional brain imaging studies of adults report that activity in bilateral regions of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) represents a key neural correlate of numerical cognition. Developmental neuroimaging studies indicate that the right IPS develops its number-related neural response profile more rapidly than the left IPS during early childhood. One prediction that can be derived from previous findings is that there is longitudinal continuity in the number-related neural responses of the right IPS over development while the development of the left IPS depends on the acquisition of numerical skills. We tested this hypothesis using fMRI in a longitudinal design with children ages 4 to 9. We found that neural responses in the right IPS are correlated over a 1-2-year period in young children whereas left IPS responses change systematically as a function of children's numerical discrimination acuity. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that functional properties of the right IPS in numerical processing are stable over early childhood whereas the functions of the left IPS are dynamically modulated by the development of numerical skills. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The "handwriting brain": a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of motor versus orthographic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planton, Samuel; Jucla, Mélanie; Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Démonet, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a modality of language production whose cerebral substrates remain poorly known although the existence of specific regions is postulated. The description of brain damaged patients with agraphia and, more recently, several neuroimaging studies suggest the involvement of different brain regions. However, results vary with the methodological choices made and may not always discriminate between "writing-specific" and motor or linguistic processes shared with other abilities. We used the "Activation Likelihood Estimate" (ALE) meta-analytical method to identify the cerebral network of areas commonly activated during handwriting in 18 neuroimaging studies published in the literature. Included contrasts were also classified according to the control tasks used, whether non-specific motor/output-control or linguistic/input-control. These data were included in two secondary meta-analyses in order to reveal the functional role of the different areas of this network. An extensive, mainly left-hemisphere network of 12 cortical and sub-cortical areas was obtained; three of which were considered as primarily writing-specific (left superior frontal sulcus/middle frontal gyrus area, left intraparietal sulcus/superior parietal area, right cerebellum) while others related rather to non-specific motor (primary motor and sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, thalamus and putamen) or linguistic processes (ventral premotor cortex, posterior/inferior temporal cortex). This meta-analysis provides a description of the cerebral network of handwriting as revealed by various types of neuroimaging experiments and confirms the crucial involvement of the left frontal and superior parietal regions. These findings provide new insights into cognitive processes involved in handwriting and their cerebral substrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship of left ventricular systolic function to persistence or development of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okin, Peter M; Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva

    2014-01-01

    left ventricular systolic function in patients with new or persistent ECG LVH. METHODS: Baseline and year-3 ECG LVH and left ventricular midwall shortening (MWS) were examined in 725 hypertensive patients in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiographic...... 1.03-3.50, P = 0.040) at year 3. CONCLUSION: Persistence or development of new ECG LVH during antihypertensive therapy is associated with an increased risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction after 3 years' follow-up. These findings provide insight into a possible mechanism by which changes......BACKGROUND: Persistence or development of ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by Cornell product criteria is associated with an increased risk of developing heart failure compared with regression or continued absence of LVH. We postulated that this association might be in part mediated via worse...

  5. The left atrium, atrial fibrillation, and the risk of stroke in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Devereux, R.B.; Lyle, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    was superior to atenolol-based treatment for reducing new-onset AF and complications, especially stroke, associated with new-onset or pre-existing AF. Potential mechanisms of AF prevention by angiotensin receptor blockade supported by LIFE results include greater reduction in left atrial size and LV......The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study provided extensive data on predisposing factors, consequences, and prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Randomized losartan-based treatment...... hypertrophy. Differential effects of antihypertensive treatment on the left atrium and left ventricle may help prevent AF and reduce risk of stroke associated with hypertensive heart disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  6. Is there any relationship between right and left hand dominance and right and left nasal airflow dominance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A; Eccles, R

    2017-10-01

    Left- or right-handedness is a common human trait, and it has been previously reported that human nasal airflow dominance correlates with hand dominance. Any relationship between hand dominance and nasal airflow dominance would be unusual. This study aimed to measure nasal airflow and look for any relationship to handedness. The modified Glatzel mirror was used to record the dominant nasal passage at 15-minute intervals over a 6-hour period in 29 healthy participants consisting of 15 left-handers and 14 right-handers. In left-handers, the percentage of time that the left nasal passage was dominant ranged from 0 to 100 per cent. In right-handers, the percentage of time that the right nasal passage was dominant ranged from 4.2 to 95.8 per cent. No correlation between nasal airflow dominance and hand dominance was identified. The results do not support the hypothesis that nasal airflow and handedness are related.

  7. Longitudinal strain predicts left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsomino, Sandro; Lucà, Fabiana; Parise, Orlando; Lorusso, Roberto; Rao, Carmelo Massimiliano; Vizzardi, Enrico; Gensini, Gian Franco; Maessen, Jos G

    2013-11-01

    We explored the influence of global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography on left ventricular mass regression (LVMR) in patients with pure aortic stenosis (AS) and normal left ventricular function undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The study population included 83 patients with severe AS (aortic valve area regression (all P regression in patients with pure AS undergoing AVR. Our findings must be confirmed by further larger studies.

  8. Ultrasound-guided catheterization of the left subclavian vein without recognition of persistent left superior vena cava

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sun Young; Yoo, Jae Hwa; Kim, Mun Gyu; Kim, Sang Ho; Park, Byoung-Won; Oh, Hong Chul; Kim, Hojoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is rare, but the most common thoracic venous anomaly. We report a case of PLSVC unrecognized during left subclavian vein catheterization using real-time ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach. Patient concerns: A 79-year-old man with history of hypertension presented with traumatic subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and epidural hemorrhage. Before the operation, a central venous catheter (CVC) was placed into the ...

  9. Left Ulnar Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Left Hand Swelling Simulated by Elephantiasis in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Pin Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elephantiasis is a condition featured by gross enlargement of body parts to massive proportions. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a multisystem genetic disorder. Vascular anomaly is one among the complications of NF1. We report a case of NF1 who had a left hand vascular pseudoaneurysm with left hand swelling mimicking elephantiasis. The characteristics of sonography make it an excellent imaging modality to investigate this sort of superficial vascular lesion.

  10. Modulation of left primary motor cortex excitability after bimanual training and intermittent theta burst stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neva, Jason L; Vesia, Michael; Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2014-03-15

    Bimanual visuomotor movement training (BMT) enhances the excitability of human preparatory premotor and primary motor (M1) cortices compared to unimanual movement. This occurs when BMT involves mirror symmetrical movements of both upper-limbs (in-phase) but not with non-symmetrical movements (anti-phase). The neural mechanisms mediating the effect of BMT is unclear, but may involve interhemispheric connections between homologous M1 representations as well as the dorsal premotor cortices (PMd). The purpose of this study is to assess how intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of the left PMd affects left M1 excitability, and the possible combined effects of iTBS to left PMd applied before a single session of BMT. Left M1 excitability was quantified using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in terms of both the amplitudes and spatial extent of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) before and multiple time points following (1) BMT, (2) iTBS to left PMd or (3) iTBS to left PMd and BMT. Although there was not a greater increase in either specific measure of M1 excitability due to the combination of the interventions, iTBS applied before BMT showed that both the spatial extent and global MEP amplitude for the ECR became larger in parallel, whereas the spatial extent was enhanced with BMT alone and global MEP amplitude was enhanced with iTBS to left PMd alone. These results suggest that the modulation of rapid functional M1 excitability associated with BMT and iTBS of the left PMd could operate under related early markers of neuro-plastic mechanisms, which may be expressed in concurrent and distinct patterns of M1 excitability. Critically, this work may guide rehabilitation training and stimulation techniques that modulate cortical excitability after brain injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, Yasuji, E-mail: oshiro4211@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Okinawa Hospital, 20-14 Ganeko 3-chome, Ginowan city, Okinawa 901-2214 (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Ohta, Morio [Department of Surgery, Nakagami Hospital, 6-25-5 Chibana, Okinawa-city, Okinawa 904-2195 (Japan); Teruya, Takao [Second Department of Surgery, University of the Ryukus School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung.

  12. CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus in adults: Its importance for performing safe left pulmonary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Yasuji; Murayama, Sadayuki; Ohta, Morio; Teruya, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the CT findings of a displaced left upper division bronchus (DLUDB) in adults. Materials and methods: Ten patients with DLUDB were identified. The following CT features were assessed: origin of the DLUDB; distance between the origin of the DLUDB and the origin of the left upper lobe (LUL) bronchus; height of the origin of the DLUDB against the left pulmonary artery (LPA); difference of the main bronchial length; ventilated segment; course of the left pulmonary artery against the DLUDB; and presence of an accessory fissure or other anomalies. Results: DLUDB arose from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of the left main bronchus immediately proximal to the origin of the LUL bronchus. It tended to course along the posterior wall of the LPA and to ventilate the apicoposterior segment with or without the anterior segment. The LPA passed between the displaced bronchus and the lingular bronchus. The origin of the DLUDB was located lower than the inferior wall of the proximal LPA in 6 patients. The accessory fissure between the associated segment and remaining part of the LUL and right tracheal bronchus coexisted in 7 and 3 patients respectively. Conclusion: DLUDB has characteristic findings on CT. Radiologists should be aware of this entity and inform the surgeon as it can prevent serious complications in a patient who may undergo lobectomy of the left lung

  13. Evaluation of left ventricular function by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ootaki, Makoto; Matsuyama, Seiya; Kanemoto, Nariaki; Furuya, Hideo

    1985-01-01

    Effects of contrast medium doses on left ventriculographic images using intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA-LVG) were assessed. The validity of IVDSA-LVG in evaluating ejection fraction (FF) and left ventricular regional wall motion was determined by comparison with conventional left ventriculography using direct injection (direct LVG). The advantages of left ventriculography using intraarterial subtraction angiography (IADSA-LVG) performed by injecting small doses of contrast media directly into the left ventricle were stressed. 1. To assess the effects of doses of contrast media on IVDSA-LVG, 10, 20, and 30 ml Urografin-76 were injected into the superior vena cava in 16 patients, and the resulting images were compared in each patient. With only 10 ml contrast medium, left ventricular opacification was fairly good, and regional wall motion was evaluated in many cases, but 30 ml were needed to calculate ventricular volume and EF. 2. To determine the validity of IVDSA-LVG in evaluating EF and regional wall motion, we compared IVDSA-LVG using 30 ml of contrast medium with direct LVG in 18 patients. There was a good correlation between the two methods in determining EF (r = 0.877), and 90 % of the interpretations of regional wall motion were in agreement by the two methods. IVDSA-LVG was useful and accurate in evaluating EF and regional wall motion of the left ventricle. 3. IADSA-LVG was performed for five patients, and good quality images were obtained in many cases, even with relatively small doses (10 ml) of contrast media. These results suggested that this method may be used in cases with impaired LV function, to avoid hemodynamic derangement induced by conventional direct LVG using large doses of contrast medium. (author)

  14. Improving left spatial neglect through music scale playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò Francesco; Cioffi, Maria Cristina; Ronchi, Roberta; Maravita, Angelo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Zigiotto, Luca; Perucca, Laura; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed whether the auditory reference provided by a music scale could improve spatial exploration of a standard musical instrument keyboard in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. As performing music scales involves the production of predictable successive pitches, the expectation of the subsequent note may facilitate patients to explore a larger extension of space in the left affected side, during the production of music scales from right to left. Eleven right-brain-damaged stroke patients with left spatial neglect, 12 patients without neglect, and 12 age-matched healthy participants played descending scales on a music keyboard. In a counterbalanced design, the participants' exploratory performance was assessed while producing scales in three feedback conditions: With congruent sound, no-sound, or random sound feedback provided by the keyboard. The number of keys played and the timing of key press were recorded. Spatial exploration by patients with left neglect was superior with congruent sound feedback, compared to both Silence and Random sound conditions. Both the congruent and incongruent sound conditions were associated with a greater deceleration in all groups. The frame provided by the music scale improves exploration of the left side of space, contralateral to the right hemisphere, damaged in patients with left neglect. Performing a scale with congruent sounds may trigger at some extent preserved auditory and spatial multisensory representations of successive sounds, thus influencing the time course of space scanning, and ultimately resulting in a more extensive spatial exploration. These findings offer new perspectives also for the rehabilitation of the disorder. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varix draining via the left inferior phrenic vein into the left hepatic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibukuro, Kenji; Mori, Koichi; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Yukako; Tagawa, Kazumi

    1999-01-01

    We encountered a patient with gastric varix draining not via the usual left suprarenal vein but via the left inferior phrenic vein joining the left hepatic vein. Transfemoral balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of the varix was performed under balloon occlusion of the left inferior phrenic vein via the left hepatic vein and retrograde injection of the sclerosing agent (5% of ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix. Disappearance of the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic examination 2 months later.

  16. Evaluation of left ventricular function using digital subtraction ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiannikas, J.; Detrano, R.

    1986-01-01

    Digital subtraction ventriculography following injections of contrast via peripheral veins provides excellent images to assess left ventricular function. The images are essentially identical to those following DCV, but allow more uniform mixing of contrast in the left ventricular chamber. Furthermore, few, if any, cardiac arrhythmias occur, hence obviating difficulties that arise from DCV. The spatial resolution of the method is such that regional wall motion assessment of ventricular function is more accurate than that of other noninvasive imaging methods. The use of video-densitometry allows accurate assessment of left ventricular function even when the left ventricular cavity is nonsymmetrically deformed and aneurysmal. In the setting of the cardiac catheterization laboratory, digital ventriculography may provide a safer means of assessing left ventricular function when critical coronary or myocardial disease is present and allows multiple assessments of ventricular function during the same study. Although excellent correlations with standard ventriculography have been noted by all workers, significant discrepancies still exist in individual patients, particularly in the calculations of end diastolic volumes. In the authors experience and in those of most workers, the largest discrepancies existed in patients in whom suboptimal studies are included for analysis. The most frequent reason for the occasional suboptimal study as with all digital subtraction work is the misregistration that results from motion

  17. CT assessment of tracheobronchial anomaly in left pulmonary artery sling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu-Min M.; Zhu, Ming; Sun, Ai-Min M.; Wang, Qian [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2010-11-15

    The left pulmonary artery sling (LPAS) is a rare vascular anomaly where the left pulmonary artery arises from the right pulmonary artery, passes over the right bronchus, and goes posteriorly between the trachea and esophagus. The LPAS is frequently associated with cardiac and non-cardiac defects including tracheobronchial abnormalities. To evaluate the utility of multislice CT (MSCT) and helical CT (HCT) in diagnosing and defining the tracheobronchial anomaly and anatomic relationships between the trachea and aberrant left pulmonary artery. MSCT or HCT was performed in 27 children to determine the tracheobronchial anatomy and identify tracheobronchial stenosis. Eighteen children underwent surgery. According to the Wells [6] classification of LPAS, which includes two main types and two subtypes, there were eight cases of type 1A, five cases of type 1B, six cases of type 2A and eight cases of type 2B in this group. Twenty-four of the 27 children had substantial tracheobronchial stenosis. Four died before surgery; the 18 had reanastomosis of the left pulmonary artery. Five children also had tracheoplasty; three died after surgery. CT, especially MSCT, is an ideal modality for simultaneously identifying aberrant left pulmonary artery and any associated tracheobronchial anomaly. The Wells classification is useful for operative planning. (orig.)

  18. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined. Objective. The aim of the study was: (a re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order, and (b examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods. Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth putative agents are examined. Results. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6 can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively. The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Conclusion. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  19. Etiological aspect of left-handedness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragović, Milan; Milenković, Sanja; Kocijancić, Dusica; Zlatko, Sram

    2013-01-01

    Lateralization of brain functions such as language and manual dominance (hand preferences and fine motor control) are most likely under genetic control. However, this does not preclude the effect of various environmental factors on functional brain lateralization. A strong association of non-right-handedness (left- and mixed-handedness) with various neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome) implies that in some cases, non-right-handedness may be acquired rather than inherited (i.e., pathologically determined). The aim of the study was: (a) re-investigation of several known risk factors for left-handedness (age of mother and/or father, twin pregnancies, and birth order), and (b) examination of hitherto uninvestigated factors (type of birth, Apgar score, maternal smoking during pregnancy). Putative, causative environmental agents for this shift in manual distributions are explored in a sample of 1031 high school students (404 males and 627 females) from Belgrade. Both pre-existing (age of parents, twin pregnancy, and birth order) and new (Apgar score, maternal smoking, type of birth) putative agents are examined. We found that maternal smoking and low Apgar score (2-6) can significantly increase risk for left-handedness (p=0.046 and p=0.042, respectively).The remaining factors showed no significant association with left-handedness in adolescents. Our study clearly demonstrates that left-handedness may be related to maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low Apgar score on birth.

  20. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  1. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  2. Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories.

  3. Correlation of vocals and lyrics with left temporal musicogenic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-En J; Lim, Siew-Na; Chen, Lu-An; Jou, Shuo-Bin; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yao; Cheng, Mei-Yun; Chang, Chun-Wei; Li, Han-Tao; Chiang, Hsing-I; Wu, Tony

    2018-03-15

    Whether the cognitive processing of music and speech relies on shared or distinct neuronal mechanisms remains unclear. Music and language processing in the brain are right and left temporal functions, respectively. We studied patients with musicogenic epilepsy (ME) that was specifically triggered by popular songs to analyze brain hyperexcitability triggered by specific stimuli. The study included two men and one woman (all right-handed, aged 35-55 years). The patients had sound-triggered left temporal ME in response to popular songs with vocals, but not to instrumental, classical, or nonvocal piano solo versions of the same song. Sentimental lyrics, high-pitched singing, specificity/familiarity, and singing in the native language were the most significant triggering factors. We found that recognition of the human voice and analysis of lyrics are important causal factors in left temporal ME and provide observational evidence that sounds with speech structure are predominantly processed in the left temporal lobe. A literature review indicated that language-associated stimuli triggered ME in the left temporal epileptogenic zone at a nearly twofold higher rate compared with the right temporal region. Further research on ME may enhance understanding of the cognitive neuroscience of music. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  5. Novel nonsurgical left ventricular assist device and system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiri, Juna; DeSimone, Christopher V; Park, Soon J; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Friedman, Paul A; Bruce, Charles J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for advanced stages of congestive heart failure remain limited. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have emerged as a means to support failing circulation. However, these devices are not without significant risk such as major open chest surgery. We utilized a novel approach for device placement at the aorto-left atria continuity as a site to create a conduit capable of accommodating a percutaneous LVAD system. We designed and developed an expandable nitinol based device for placement at this site to create a shunt between the LA and aorta. Our experiments support this anatomic location as an accessible and feasible site for accommodation of an entirely percutaneous LVAD. The novelty of this approach would bypass the left ventricle, and thereby minimize complications and morbidities associated with current LVAD placement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younus, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Iftikhar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery also recognized as Bland White Garland syndrome is a very rare congenital condition. A two-months old baby boy presented with dyspnoea for two weeks and a pansystolic murmur on auscultation. The base line investigations showed cardiomegaly and bilateral basal haze on X-ray chest. ECG showed ST elevation in leads l and AVl and echocardiography showed situs solitus, levocardia, hypokinetic intraventricular septum, ejection fraction of 30%, mitral regurgitation of grade-I and an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from pulmonary artery was diagnosed. Patient was in left heart failure. It was rectified surgically by creating a transpulmonary tunnel (Takeuchi repair). Postoperative course was uneventful and he was finally discharged in stable condition. (author)

  7. Early changes in left atrial volume after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkestrom, R.; Andersen, Mads J; Ersboll, M.

    2016-01-01

    . The objective was to assess changes in LA volume early after MI in patients with diastolic dysfunction and the relation to invasive hemodynamics and natriuretic peptides. Methods: 62 patients with left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) >= 45%, diastolic E/e' > 8 and LA volume index >34 ml/m(2) within 48 h......Background: Dilatation of left atrium (LA) reflects chronic LA pressure or volume overload that possesses considerable prognostic information. Little is known regarding the interaction between LA remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (MI) and left atrial pressure at rest and during exercise...... of MI were enrolled. After 1 and 4 months blood sampling, echocardiography and right heart catheterization were performed during exercise test. Results: LA remodeling was considered in patients with a change from mild (35-41 ml/m(2)), to severe (>48ml/m(2)) dilatation after 4 months (Found in 22...

  8. Evolving Concepts of Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Left Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Bhavadharini; Thenappan, Thenappan

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease is the most common form of pulmonary hypertension. Although its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, it is now well recognized that the presence of pulmonary hypertension is associated with a worse prognosis. Right ventricular failure has independent and additive prognostic value over pulmonary hypertension for adverse outcomes in left heart disease. Recently, several new terminologies have been introduced to better define and characterize the nature and severity of pulmonary hypertension. Several new treatment options including the use of pulmonary arterial hypertension specific therapies are being considered, but there is lack of evidence. Here, we review the recent advances in this field and summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of use in the management of pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease.

  9. Left-Handed W bosons at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Lance

    2011-01-01

    The production of W bosons in association with jets is an important background to new physics at the LHC. Events in which the W carries large transverse momentum and decays leptonically lead to large missing energy and are of particular importance. We show that the left-handed nature of the W coupling, combined with valence quark domination at a pp machine, leads to a large left-handed polarization for both W + and W - bosons at large transverse momenta. The polarization fractions are very stable with respect to QCD corrections. The leptonic decay of the W +- bosons translates the common left-handed polarization into a strong asymmetry in transverse momentum distributions between positrons and electrons, and between neutrinos and anti-neutrinos (missing transverse energy). Such asymmetries may provide an effective experimental handle on separating W +jets from top quark production, which exhibits very little asymmetry due to C invariance, and from various types of new physics.

  10. Left-right correlation in coupled F-center defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G

    2016-08-07

    This work explores how left-right correlation, a textbook problem in electronic structure theory, manifests in a textbook example of electrons trapped in crystal defects. I show that adjacent F-center defects in lithium fluoride display symptoms of "strong" left-right correlation, symptoms similar to those seen in stretched H2. Simulations of UV/visible absorption spectra qualitatively fail to reproduce experiment unless left-right correlation is taken into account. This is of interest to both the electronic structure theory and crystal-defect communities. Theorists have a new well-behaved system to test their methods. Crystal-defect groups are cautioned that the approximations that successfully model single F-centers may fail for adjacent F-centers.

  11. Left-right correlation in coupled F-center defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    This work explores how left-right correlation, a textbook problem in electronic structure theory, manifests in a textbook example of electrons trapped in crystal defects. I show that adjacent F-center defects in lithium fluoride display symptoms of “strong” left-right correlation, symptoms similar to those seen in stretched H 2 . Simulations of UV/visible absorption spectra qualitatively fail to reproduce experiment unless left-right correlation is taken into account. This is of interest to both the electronic structure theory and crystal-defect communities. Theorists have a new well-behaved system to test their methods. Crystal-defect groups are cautioned that the approximations that successfully model single F-centers may fail for adjacent F-centers.

  12. Left-right entanglement entropy of Dp-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics,The University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Tecnología y Metodología,Centro Universitario del Sur, Universidad de Guadalajara,Enrique Arreola Silva 883, C.P. 49000, Cd. Guzmán, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2016-11-04

    We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics; however, we advance a themodynamic argument that seems to favor a particular choice of replica. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.

  13. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  14. Economic analysis of medical management applied for left colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savlovschi, C; Serban, D; Andreescu, Cv; Dascalu, Am; Pantu, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of surgical treatment costs for left colostomy, aiming to calculate a medium cost per procedure and to identify the means to maximize the economic management of this type of surgicale procedure. A retrospective study was conducted on a group of 8 patients hospitalized in the 4th Surgery Department,Emergency University Hospital Bucharest, during the year 2012 for left colic neoplasms with obstruction signs that were operated on with a left colostomy. The followed parameters in the studied group of patients were represented by medical expenses, divided in: preoperative, intra-operative and immediate postoperative (postop. hospitalization). Two major types of colostomy were performed: left loop colostomy with intact tumour for 6 patients and left end colostomy and tumour resection (Hartmann's procedure) for 2 patients. The medium cost of this type of surgical intervention was 4396.807 RON, representing 1068.742 euro. Statistic data analysis didn't reveal average costs to vary with the type of procedure. The age of the study subjects was between 49 and 88, with an average of 61 years, without it being possible to establish a correlation between patient age and the level of medical spendings. Reducing the costs involved by left colostomy can be efficiently done by decreasing the number of days of hospitalisation in the following ways: preoperative preparation and assessment of the subject in an outpatient regimen; the accuracy of the surgical procedure with the decrease of early postoperative complications and antibiotherapy- the second major cause of increased postoperative costs. Celsius.

  15. Left atrial isolation associated with mitral valve operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Minzioni, G; Salerno, J; Viganò, M

    1992-12-01

    Surgical isolation of the left atrium was performed for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation secondary to valvular disease in 100 patients who underwent mitral valve operations. From May 1989 to September 1991, 62 patients underwent mitral valve operations (group I); 19, mitral valve operations and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (group II); 15, mitral and aortic operations (group III); and 4, mitral and aortic operations and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (group IV). Left atrial isolation was performed, prolonging the usual left paraseptal atriotomy toward the left fibrous trigone anteriorly and the posteromedial commissure posteriorly. The incision was conducted a few millimeters apart from the mitral valve annulus, and cryolesions were placed at the edges to ensure complete electrophysiological isolation of the left atrium. Operative mortality accounted for 3 patients (3%). In 79 patients (81.4%) sinus rhythm recovered and persisted until discharge from the hospital. No differences were found between the groups (group I, 80.7%; group II, 68.5%; group III, 86.7%; group IV, 75%; p = not significant). Three late deaths (3.1%) were registered. Long-term results show persistence of sinus rhythm in 71% of group I, 61.2% of group II, 85.8% of group III, and 100% of group IV. The unique risk factor for late recurrence of atrial fibrillation was found to be preoperative atrial fibrillation longer than 6 months. Due to the satisfactory success rate in recovering sinus rhythm, we suggest performing left atrial isolation in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation undergoing valvular operations.

  16. Influence of left ventricular hypertrophy on infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Małek, Łukasz A.; Śpiewak, Mateusz; Kłopotowski, Mariusz; Petryka, Joanna; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz; Kruk, Mariusz; Kępka, Cezary; Miśko, Jolanta; Rużyłło, Witold; Witkowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) predisposes to larger infarct size, which may be underestimated by the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) due to supranormal systolic performance often present in patients with LVH. The aim of the study was to compare infarct size and LVEF in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and increased left ventricular mass on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: The study included unselected group of 52 patients (61 ± 11 years, 69% male) with first STEMI who had CMR after median 5 days from the onset of the event. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was defined as left ventricular mass index exceeding 95th percentile of references values for age and gender. Infarct size was assessed with means of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Results: LVH was found in 16 patients (31%). In comparison to the rest of the group, patients with LVH had higher absolute and relative infarct mass (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). LVH was related to higher prevalence of microvascular obstruction and myocardial haemorrhage and higher number of LV segments with transmural necrosis (p = 0.02, p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). Despite marked difference in the infarct size between both studied subgroups there was no difference in LVEF and mean number of dysfunctional LV segments. Conclusions: Patients with LVH undergoing STEMI have larger infarct size underestimated by the LV systolic performance in comparison to patients without LVH.

  17. Biliary tract variations of the left liver with special reference to the left medial sectional bile duct in 500 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Akira; Yokoyama, Takahide; Shimizu, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Kanai, Keita; Arakura, Norikazu; Yamada, Akira; Kitou, Yoshihiro; Miyagawa, Shin-Ichi

    2015-08-01

    Among the intrahepatic bile ducts, the biliary system of the left medial sectional bile duct (B4) is known to have relatively complex patterns. The records of 500 patients who had been diagnosed as having hepato-pancreatico-biliary disease were retrospectively studied for anatomical biliary variations of the left liver with special reference to the drainage system of B4 using magnetic resonance images. The left hepatic duct was present in 494 patients (98.8%), whereas it was lacking in 6 patients (1.2%), and these patients exhibited the following B4 confluence patterns: B4 drained into the common hepatic duct in 2 patients (.4%), the right anterior sectional bile duct in 3 patients (.6%), and the right posterior sectional bile duct in 1 patient (.2%). The left hepatic duct was absent more frequently in patients with portal venous variations than in patients with a common branching pattern (8.2% vs .4%, P = .0011). The presently reported data are useful for obtaining a better understanding of the surgical anatomy of the biliary system of the left liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Boundaries and Secularism in the Lebanese Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the social meaning of boundaries in Lebanon through debates about secularism in and around the Lebanese Left. The aim is to elucidate the political and social meaning of ‘Left’ in a Lebanese context, and the positioning of liminal political subjectivity in a system organized...... along sectarian boundaries. Based on readings of debates about secularism in 1975 and 1976, the article proposes that the Left has since that year been forced to embrace secularism as its primary ideological marker. This experience in turn has become constitutive for what it means to be a leftist...

  19. Case report 387: Gaucher disease affecting the skeleton (left femur)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabas, J.H.; Daffner, R.H.; Hartsock, R.J.; Blakley, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    A case is described of a non-Jewish (Italian) 49-year-old man who presented to the hospital with pain in the left hip. Radionuclide studies showed decreased tracer activity with 99m Tc MDP over a lytic area in the subtrochanteric region of the left femur. Increased activity, however, was present in the right temporal bone, low anterior rib cage and right tenth posterior rib. The presence of subendosteal sclerosis with some cortical thickening adjacent to the femoral lesion, suggested the possibility of malignant neoplasm, (e.g. chondrosarcoma). Biopsy of the bone marrow showed the presence of Gaucher disease. (orig./SHA)

  20. Case report 387: Gaucher disease affecting the skeleton (left femur)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabas, J.H.; Daffner, R.H.; Hartsock, R.J.; Blakley, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A case is described of a non-Jewish (Italian) 49-year-old man who presented to the hospital with pain in the left hip. Radionuclide studies showed decreased tracer activity with /sup 99m/Tc MDP over a lytic area in the subtrochanteric region of the left femur. Increased activity, however, was present in the right temporal bone, low anterior rib cage and right tenth posterior rib. The presence of subendosteal sclerosis with some cortical thickening adjacent to the femoral lesion, suggested the possibility of malignant neoplasm, (e.g. chondrosarcoma). Biopsy of the bone marrow showed the presence of Gaucher disease. (orig./SHA).

  1. Left hand tactile agnosia after posterior callosal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Maddalena; Trojano, Luigi; Giamundo, Arcangelo; Grossi, Dario

    2008-09-01

    We report a patient with a hemorrhagic lesion encroaching upon the posterior third of the corpus callosum but sparing the splenium. She showed marked difficulties in recognizing objects and shapes perceived through her left hand, while she could appreciate elementary sensorial features of items tactually presented to the same hand flawlessly. This picture, corresponding to classical descriptions of unilateral associative tactile agnosia, was associated with finger agnosia of the left hand. This very unusual case report can be interpreted as an instance of disconnection syndrome, and allows a discussion of mechanisms involved in tactile object recognition.

  2. Assessment of the left ventricular function with the nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkowska, A.; Adam, W.E.; Bitter, F.

    1980-08-01

    The evaluation of the left ventricular function with the Nuclear Stethoscope was performed on 27 patients with heart diseases. The reproducibility of the measurements was good. Repetitions of EF, ER and EDV estimations yielded errors of 2.63%, 1.45% and 0.31%. The comparison with the results of camera ventriculography showed a good agreement of EF, contraction velocity parameters and relaxation velocity parameters, with a cor. coeff. of greater or equal to 0.750. A particularly high correlation was found between the NS EF and NS ER (r = 0.968). It was concluded that the Nuclear Stethoscope provides a reliable evaluation of left ventricular function.

  3. Assessment of the left ventricular function with the nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkowska, A.; Adam, W.E.; Bitter, F.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the left ventricular function with the Nuclear Stethoscope was performed on 27 patients with heart diseases. The reproducibility of the measurements was good. Repetitions of EF, ER and EDV estimations yielded errors of 2.63%, 1.45% and 0.31%. The comparison with the results of camera ventriculography showed a good agreement of EF, contraction velocity parameters and relaxation velocity parameters, with a cor. coeff. of greater or equal to 0.750. A particularly high correlation was found between the NS EF and NS ER (r = 0.968). It was concluded that the Nuclear Stethoscope provides a reliable evaluation of left ventricular function. (orig.) [de

  4. Simultaneous determination of left ventricular perfusion and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremillet, E.; Champailler, A.; Esquerre, J.P.; Ouhayoun, E.; Coca, F.; Furber, A.; Le Jeune, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a very useful tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. The evaluation of left ventricular function during stress testing in also very useful to determine the prognosis of coronary artery disease. This chapter highlights three different imaging methods to assess left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion/ The first one consists of sequential dual isotope myocardial SPECT with ECG-gating. The second concerns magnetic resonance imaging and the third explores first pass exercise ventriculography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy simultaneously evaluated by means of 99m Tc-sestamibi. (authors)

  5. Left cardiac isomerism in the Sonic hedgehog null mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Victoria; Webb, Sandra; Chaudhry, Bill; Peat, Jonathan D; Phillips, Helen M; Brown, Nigel; Anderson, Robert H; Henderson, Deborah J

    2009-06-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted morphogen necessary for the production of sidedness in the developing embryo. In this study, we describe the morphology of the atrial chambers and atrioventricular junctions of the Shh null mouse heart. We demonstrate that the essential phenotypic feature is isomerism of the left atrial appendages, in combination with an atrioventricular septal defect and a common atrioventricular junction. These malformations are known to be frequent in humans with left isomerism. To confirm the presence of left isomerism, we show that Pitx2c, a recognized determinant of morphological leftness, is expressed in the Shh null mutants on both the right and left sides of the inflow region, and on both sides of the solitary arterial trunk exiting from the heart. It has been established that derivatives of the second heart field expressing Isl1 are asymmetrically distributed in the developing normal heart. We now show that this population is reduced in the hearts from the Shh null mutants, likely contributing to the defects. To distinguish the consequences of reduced contributions from the second heart field from those of left-right patterning disturbance, we disrupted the movement of second heart field cells into the heart by expressing dominant-negative Rho kinase in the population of cells expressing Isl1. This resulted in absence of the vestibular spine, and presence of atrioventricular septal defects closely resembling those seen in the hearts from the Shh null mutants. The primary atrial septum, however, was well formed, and there was no evidence of isomerism of the atrial appendages, suggesting that these features do not relate to disruption of the contributions made by the second heart field. We demonstrate, therefore, that the Shh null mouse is a model of isomerism of the left atrial appendages, and show that the recognized associated malformations found at the venous pole of the heart in the setting of left isomerism are likely to arise from

  6. Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2014-01-28

    Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 ± 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised meal. Both ESS and cESS decreased significantly (P stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects.

  7. Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 +/- 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised me...

  8. "Heart rate-dependent" electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madias, John E

    2013-05-01

    A case is presented revealing the common phenomenon of heart rate-dependent diagnosis of electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which consists of satisfaction of LVH criteria only at faster rates whereas ECGs with a slow heart rate do not satisfy such criteria. The mechanism of the phenomenon has been attributed to the tachycardia-mediated underfilling of the left ventricle bringing the electrical "centroid" of the heart closer to the recording electrodes, which results in augmentation of the amplitude of QRS complexes, particularly in leads V2-V4. ©2012, The Author. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Patterns of effective connectivity during memory encoding and retrieval differ between patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, B M; Khoshnoodi, M; Yan, W; Deshpande, G; Sathian, K

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that there is considerable overlap in the neural networks mediating successful memory encoding and retrieval. However, little is known about how the relevant human brain regions interact during these distinct phases of memory or how such interactions are affected by memory deficits that characterize mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition that often precedes dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Here we employed multivariate Granger causality analysis using autoregressive modeling of inferred neuronal time series obtained by deconvolving the hemodynamic response function from measured blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) time series data, in order to examine the effective connectivity between brain regions during successful encoding and/or retrieval of object location associations in MCI patients and comparable healthy older adults. During encoding, healthy older adults demonstrated a left hemisphere dominant pattern where the inferior frontal junction, anterior intraparietal sulcus (likely involving the parietal eye fields), and posterior cingulate cortex drove activation in most left hemisphere regions and virtually every right hemisphere region tested. These regions are part of a frontoparietal network that mediates top-down cognitive control and is implicated in successful memory formation. In contrast, in the MCI patients, the right frontal eye field drove activation in every left hemisphere region examined, suggesting reliance on more basic visual search processes. Retrieval in the healthy older adults was primarily driven by the right hippocampus with lesser contributions of the right anterior thalamic nuclei and right inferior frontal sulcus, consistent with theoretical models holding the hippocampus as critical for the successful retrieval of memories. The pattern differed in MCI patients, in whom the right inferior frontal junction and right anterior thalamus drove successful memory retrieval, reflecting the

  10. Comparison of the neural correlates of retrieval success in tests of cued recall and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kayoko; Vilberg, Kaia L; Rugg, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    The neural correlates of successful retrieval on tests of word stem recall and recognition memory were compared. In the recall test, subjects viewed word stems, half of which were associated with studied items and half with unstudied items, and for each stem attempted to recall a corresponding study word. In the recognition test, old/new judgments were made on old and new words. The neural correlates of successful retrieval were identified by contrasting activity elicited by correctly endorsed test items. Old > new effects common to the two tasks were found in medial and lateral parietal and right entorhinal cortex. Common new > old effects were identified in medial and left frontal cortex, and left anterior intra-parietal sulcus. Greater old > new effects were evident for cued recall in inferior parietal regions abutting those demonstrating common effects, whereas larger new > old effects were found for recall in left frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate. New > old effects were also found for the recall task in right lateral anterior prefrontal cortex, where they were accompanied by old > new effects during recognition. It is concluded that successful recall and recognition are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of recollection-sensitive parietal regions, and that the greater activation in these regions during recall reflects the greater dependence of that task on recollection. Larger new > old effects during recall are interpreted as reflections of the greater opportunity for iterative retrieval attempts when retrieval cues are partial rather than copy cues. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Neural correlates of pantomiming familiar and unfamiliar tools: action semantics versus mechanical problem solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Guy; Vandekerckhove, Elisabeth; Honoré, Pieterjan; Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to reveal the neural correlates of planning and executing tool use pantomimes and explores the brain's response to pantomiming the use of unfamiliar tools. Sixteen right-handed volunteers planned and executed pantomimes of equally graspable familiar and unfamiliar tools while undergoing fMRI. During the planning of these pantomimes, we found bilateral temporo-occipital and predominantly left hemispheric frontal and parietal activation. The execution of the pantomimes produced additional activation in frontal and sensorimotor regions. In the left posterior parietal region both familiar and unfamiliar tool pantomimes elicit peak activity in the anterior portion of the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus--A region associated with the representation of action goals. The cerebral activation during these pantomimes is remarkably similar for familiar and unfamiliar tools, and direct comparisons revealed only few differences. First, the left cuneus is significantly active during the planning of pantomimes of unfamiliar tools, reflecting increased visual processing of the novel objects. Second, executing (but not planning) familiar tool pantomimes showed significant activation on the convex portion of the inferior parietal lobule, a region believed to serve as a repository for skilled object-related gestures. Given the striking similarity in brain activation while pantomiming familiar and unfamiliar tools, we argue that normal subjects use both action semantics and function from structure inferences simultaneously and interactively to give rise to flexible object-to-goal directed behavior. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Prospective relations between resting-state connectivity of parietal subdivisions and arithmetic competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Yeo, Darren J; Wilkey, Eric D; Cutting, Laurie E

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigates the relation between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex at the end of 1st grade and arithmetic performance at the end of 2nd grade. Results revealed a dissociable pattern of relations between rsFC and arithmetic competence among subdivisions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG). rsFC between right hemisphere IPS subdivisions and contralateral IPS subdivisions positively correlated with arithmetic competence. In contrast, rsFC between the left hIP1 and the right medial temporal lobe, and rsFC between the left AG and left superior frontal gyrus, were negatively correlated with arithmetic competence. These results suggest that strong inter-hemispheric IPS connectivity is important for math development, reflecting either neurocognitive mechanisms specific to arithmetic processing, domain-general mechanisms that are particularly relevant to arithmetic competence, or structural 'cortical maturity'. Stronger connectivity between IPS, and AG, subdivisions and frontal and temporal cortices, however, appears to be negatively associated with math development, possibly reflecting the ability to disengage suboptimal problem-solving strategies during mathematical processing, or to flexibly reorient task-based networks. Importantly, the reported results pertain even when controlling for reading, spatial attention, and working memory, suggesting that the observed rsFC-behavior relations are specific to arithmetic competence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations of Blood Pressure Dipping Patterns With Left Ventricular Mass and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Marwah; Caughey, Melissa C; Tanner, Rikki M; Booth, John N; Diaz, Keith M; Anstey, D Edmund; Sims, Mario; Ravenell, Joseph; Muntner, Paul; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi

    2017-04-05

    Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP), including nondipping patterns, assessed using ambulatory BP monitoring, have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk among white and Asian adults. We examined the associations of BP dipping patterns (dipping, nondipping, and reverse dipping) with cardiovascular target organ damage (left ventricular mass index and left ventricular hypertrophy), among participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black population-based cohort. Analyses included 1015 participants who completed ambulatory BP monitoring and had echocardiography data from the baseline visit. Participants were categorized based on the nighttime to daytime systolic BP ratio into 3 patterns: dipping pattern (≤0.90), nondipping pattern (>0.90 to ≤1.00), and reverse dipping pattern (>1.00). The prevalence of dipping, nondipping, and reverse dipping patterns was 33.6%, 48.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. In a fully adjusted model, which included antihypertensive medication use and clinic and daytime systolic BP, the mean differences in left ventricular mass index between reverse dipping pattern versus dipping pattern was 8.3±2.1 g/m 2 ( P pattern versus dipping pattern was -1.0±1.6 g/m 2 ( P =0.536). Compared with participants with a dipping pattern, the prevalence ratio for having left ventricular hypertrophy was 1.65 (95% CI, 1.05-2.58) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.63-1.97) for those with a reverse dipping pattern and nondipping pattern, respectively. In this population-based study of blacks, a reverse dipping pattern was associated with increased left ventricular mass index and a higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Identification of a reverse dipping pattern on ambulatory BP monitoring may help identify black at increased risk for cardiovascular target organ damage. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Sen; Sun, Xi-Wen; Yu, Dong; Jie, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months

  15. Multislice CT imaging of ruptured left sinus of Valsalva aneurysm with fistulous track between left sinus and right atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampapati, Praveenkumar; Rao, Hejmadi Tati Gururaj; Radhesh, Srinivasan; Anand, Hejjaji Krishnamurthy; Praveen, Lokkur Srinivasamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Sinus of valsalva aneurysm is a rare condition arising from any of the three aortic sinuses. Among them, an aneurysm arising from the left coronary sinus is the rarest. Most of these cases were earlier diagnosed using echocardiography and conventional angiography. But with the availability of advanced imaging modalities like 64 slice cardiac CT and MR modalities, this condition can be accurately assessed noninvasively. We report a case of ruptured aneurysm originating from the left coronary sinus with a long windsock type of fistulous track between the aneurysm and right atrium evaluated by 64 slice cardiac CT imaging. This was later confirmed perioperatively.

  16. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com; Sun, Xi-Wen, E-mail: xwsun@citiz.net; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong_mail@126.com; Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com [Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China)

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  17. Teaching Creativity for Right Brain and Left Brain Thinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Joel

    Right brain and left brain dominant people process information differently and need different techniques to learn how to become more creative. Various exercises can help students take advantage of both sides of their brains. Students must feel comfortable and unthreatened to reach maximal creativity, and a positive personal relationship with…

  18. Linear regression models for quantitative assessment of left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... of left ventricular function and structures using M-mode echocardiography ... Pearson's correlation coefficients were computed. Tests were two tailed ... tation may be problematic in some subjects. Excellent temporal ... excluded were subjects with obstructive airway disease, sickle cell disease, pregnancy ...

  19. Left ventricular hypertrophy among chronic kidney disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with worsening cardiovascular outcomes. There is a dearth of data on LVH in Ghanaian CKD patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital ...

  20. anomalous left anterior cerebral artery with hypoplastic right anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... We report an extremely rare anomalous variation of left anterior cerebral artery arising from the ... paraclinoid internal carotid artery and right ... Studies on the arteries of the brain: II-The anterior cerebral artery: Some anatomic ...

  1. Occlusion of left atrial appendage in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Н. Ганеева

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews a new method of prophylaxis of thromboembolitic complications, specifically occlusion of left atrial appendage, in patients with atrial fibrillation. Indications and contraindications for the procedure, as well as a step-by-step process of the intervention itself are described. Special emphasis is placed on the up-to-date evidence and the review of clinical trials.

  2. Generalised left ventricular dysfunction after traumatic right coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A patient with traumatic right coronary artery to right atrial fistula, which was repaired by direct closure and aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass grafting, is described. Cardiac catheterisation and selective cine angiocardiography were performed pre- and postoperatively, and left ventricular (LV) function was studied in ...

  3. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring on Left Ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring on Left Ventricular Mass and Diastolic Function in. Hypertensive Nigerians. Akintunde AA1,2, Kareem L1, Bakare A1, Audu M1. 1Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso,. Nigeria, 2Goshen ...

  4. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Left ventricular systolic function, sickle cell anaemia, echocardiographic evaluation, adult Nigerian patients. ..... Quadratic .505. -0.390. 12.231. 8.587 .001*. Cubic .510. -0.180. 8.264. 8.619 .001*. This relationship was further evaluated by means of scat- ter plots and subsequently by regression analysis. The.

  5. Anaesthesia for left thoracoscopic sympathectomy for refractory long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mutations including life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Left thoracoscopic sympathectomy is an effective treatment for patients who are refractory to medical therapy or who need frequent epicardial internal cardio defibrillator intervention. The authors report three cases, one adult and two children, who ...

  6. The left atrial catheter: its uses and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, B S; Naidich, D P; McGuinness, G; McCauley, D I

    1992-11-01

    The authors describe the radiographic appearance of the left atrial catheter, a widely used postsurgical intracardiac device. Recognition of the characteristic appearance of this catheter should be of value in detection of potential complications, including line fracture with resultant retention and/or embolization, infection, prosthetic valve dysfunction, and even cardiac tamponade.

  7. Bicornuate unicollis uterus with left renal agenesis | Adeyinka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of a 30 year old lady with 8 years history of 2 Infertility. Radiological findings by Hystero-salpingography (HSG) revealed a Bicornuate Unicolis uterus. This was further confirmed by Ultrasound, which also demonstrated a Left Renal agenesis inclusive. Radiological features, clinical presentation and ...

  8. Early Verb Constructions in French: Adjacency on the Left Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Edy; Clark, Eve V.

    2016-01-01

    Children acquiring French elaborate their early verb constructions by adding adjacent morphemes incrementally at the left edge of core verbs. This hypothesis was tested with 2657 verb uses from four children between 1;3 and 2;7. Consistent with the Adjacency Hypothesis, children added clitic subjects frst only to present tense forms (as in…

  9. Intraoperative colonic irrigation in the management of left sided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the safety and benefits of antegrade intraoperative colonic irrigation (lavage) and primary anastomosis, after colonic resection, in the treatment of left sided large bowel emergencies. Design: A prospective descriptive study. Setting: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Participants: Thirty ...

  10. Anaesthesia for left thoracoscopic sympathectomy for refractory long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare genetic disorder that has been associated with various genetic mutations ... Left thoracoscopic sympathectomy is an effective treatment for patients ... frequency of cardiac events/ICD shocks postoperatively. The ... inheritance, dental abnormalities, clinodactyly, and bidirectional.

  11. Apraxia and spatial inattention dissociate in left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpert, David C; Weiss, Peter H; Vossel, Simone; Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R

    2015-10-01

    Theories of lateralized cognitive functions propose a dominance of the left hemisphere for motor control and of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Accordingly, spatial attention deficits (e.g., neglect) are more frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke, whereas apraxia is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Clinical reports of spatial attentional deficits after left hemisphere (LH) stroke also exist, but are often neglected. By applying parallel analysis (PA) and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to data from a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of 74 LH stroke patients, we here systematically investigate the relationship between spatial inattention and apraxia and their neural bases. PA revealed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits loaded on one common component, while deficits in attention tests were explained by another independent component. Statistical lesion analyses with the individual component scores showed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits were significantly associated with lesions of the left superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF). Data suggest that in LH stroke spatial attention deficits dissociate from apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits. These findings contribute to models of lateralised cognitive functions in the human brain. Moreover, our findings strongly suggest that LH stroke patients should be assessed systematically for spatial attention deficits so that these can be included in their rehabilitation regime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Left ventricular hypertrophy in renal failure review | Arodiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal failure is becoming increasingly common in our enironment. Advances in management like availability of dialysis and transplantation is prolonging the live of patients. As a consequence complication are increasingly being encountered. Cardiovascular complication is one of the commonest; and left ventricular ...

  13. Changes in Left Ventricular Diastolic Function During Hemodialysis Sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assa, Solmaz; Hummel, Yoran M.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Kuipers, Johanna; Groen, Henk; de Jong, Paul E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is common in hemodialysis patients and is associated with worse outcome. Previous studies have shown that diastolic function worsens from pre- to post-dialysis session, but this has not been studied during hemodialysis. We studied the evolution of

  14. No Child Left Behind: A Postmortem for Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Wm. Gregory; Boden, Camille; Karpenski, Jeremy; Muchowicz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the outcomes of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), as implemented in Illinois, are evaluated in terms of high school standards testing results between 2003-2013. NCLB was a policy dedicated to closing the gap in schooling outcomes nationally in the space of a decade. There have been few systematic examinations of its macro-level results…

  15. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, M.I.; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, W.; Szatmári, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. Case presentation: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  16. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, Maria Irene; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Szatmári, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  17. Normal left ventricular function does not protect against propafenone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal left ventricular function does not protect against propafenone-induced incessant ventricular tachycardia. R. N. Scott Millar, J. B. Lawrenson, D.A. Milne. Abstract. Propafenone is a class Ic anti-arrhythmic agent with mild B-blocking properties which has recently become available in South Africa. We have used the ...

  18. Normalised radionuclide measures of left ventricular diastolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.J.; Southee, A.E.; Bautovich, G.J.; Freedman, B.; McLaughlin, A.F.; Rossleigh, M.A.; Hutton, B.F.; Morris, J.G.; Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal left ventricular diastolic function is being increasingly recognised in patients with clinical heart failure and normal systolic function. A simple routine radionuclide measure of diastolic function would therefore be useful. To establish, the relationship of peak diastolic filling rate (normalized for either end diastolic volume, stroke volume, or peak systolic emptying rate), and heart rate, age, and left ventricular ejection fraction was studied in 64 subjects with normal cardiovascular systems using routine gated heart pool studies. The peak filling rate when normalized to end diastolic volume correlated significantly with heart rate, age and left ventricular ejection fraction, whereas normalization to stroke volume correlated significantly to heart rate and age but not to left ventricular ejection fraction. Peak filling rate normalized for peak systolic emptying rate correlated with age only. Multiple regression equations were determined for each of the normalized peak filling rates in order to establish normal ranges for each parameter. When using peak filling rate normalized for end diastolic volume or stroke volume, appropriate allowance must be made for heart rate, age and ejection fraction. Peak filling rate normalized to peak ejection rate is a heart rate independent parameter which allows the performance of the patient's ventricle in diastole to be compared with its systolic function. It may be used in patients with normal systolic function to serially follow diastolic function, or if age corrected to screen for diastolic dysfunction. (orig.)

  19. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  20. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa Elsheshtawy; Priatharsini Sriganesh; Vasudev Virparia; Falgun Patel; Ashok Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  1. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery indeed a rare finding? Braham van der Merwe, Christelle Ackermann, Shaun Scheepers, Sulaiman Moosa. Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Tygerberg, Western Cape. Braham van der Merwe, MB ChB , DA (SA).

  2. Negative remodeling at the ostium of the left circumflex artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Mehran, R; Moussa, I; Reyes, A; Moses, J W

    2001-12-01

    We report an ostial lesion with negative remodeling. Coronary angiography revealed a 60% stenosis at the ostium of the left circumflex artery (LCX). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided directional atherectomy followed by stenting was planned. However, IVUS images revealed no significant stenosis and negative remodeling at the ostium of the LCX. The lesion did not undergo intervention.

  3. Solitons and decoherence in left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Shukla, Padma K.; Stenflo, Lennart; Brodin, Gert

    2005-01-01

    We present exact electromagnetic solitary pulses that can be experimentally obtained within nonlinear left-handed metamaterials. The effect of pulse decoherence on the modulation instability of partially incoherent electromagnetic waves is also investigated. The results may contribute to a better understanding of nonlinear electromagnetic pulse propagation in media with negative index of refraction

  4. Left Dislocation and its translation in some Germanic languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of the theoretical framework of an influential recent model of Bible translation, Left Dislocation (=LD) can be regarded as a “communicate clue” that translators must try to interpretively resemble in their target text translation. This exploratory study investigates how twenty translations (fifteen English, three Afrikaans, ...

  5. Is the Brain Stuff Still the Right (or Left) Stuff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Dudley

    1986-01-01

    The author presents evidence that supports the argument for the validity of right brain-left brain theories. Discusses the brain's "sense of the future," what the brain does with new information, and altering the brain's ability to process change. A bibliography of further readings is included. (CT)

  6. Commentary: Left Hand, Right Hand and on the Other Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2011-01-01

    It was deeply ingrained in the author from his undergraduate studies of psychology and courses in learning theory that people have a rational left brain and a creative right brain. Learning theory suggested that activities needed to be tailored to develop both hemispheres. Handedness in relation to abilities has been commented on from the 1800s by…

  7. In-utero treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Helvind, Morten; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2015-01-01

    In-utero treatment of fetal aortic stenosis (AS) may prevent hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A girl was diagnosed prenatally with severe AS and was referred to the Women's and Children's Hospital in Linz, Austria, where she underwent an intrauterine valvuloplasty of the aortic valve. Postnatally...

  8. Brain Activation Associated with Practiced Left Hand Mirror Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, T.; Arzouan, Y.; Karni, A.; Manor, D.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror writing occurs in healthy children, in various pathologies and occasionally in healthy adults. There are only scant experimental data on the underlying brain processes. Eight, right-handed, healthy young adults were scanned (BOLD-fMRI) before and after practicing left-hand mirror-writing (lh-MW) over seven sessions. They wrote dictated…

  9. Left Brain/Right Brain Learning for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Contrasts and compares the theory and practice of adult education as it relates to the issue of right brain/left brain learning. The author stresses the need for a whole-brain approach to teaching and suggests that adult educators, given their philosophical directions, are the perfect potential users of this integrated system. (Editor/CT)

  10. Left handedness and spine deformities in early adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkovic, Sanja; Kocijancic, Radojka; Belojevic, Goran

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between laterality and spine deformities in early adolescence, with special reference to sex differences. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and clinical examinations of body posture were carried out on a sample of 2546 schoolchildren, aged from 11 to 14 years, in seven elementary schools in the centre of Belgrade. Possible confounding factors (age, sex, body weight and body height) were controlled for. The overall prevalence of spine deformities (scoliosis and/or thoracic hyperkyphosis) in the investigated population was 11.8%, out of which there were 7.8% adolescents with scoliosis, 4.0% with thoracic hyperkyphosis, and 0.3% with both spine deformities. The prevalence of scoliosis was 2.7 times higher in girls compared to boys (11.7% vs. 4.3%) while the prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis was 1,6 higher among boys (5.0% vs. 3.2%). We found 7.6% of the schoolchildren examined to be left-handed. Left handedness was significantly related to scoliosis in girls (crude OR=1.60 and 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.54). Multivariate analysis showed that significant independent factors for scoliosis were female sex (p < 0.001), age (p=0.01) and left handedness (p=0.02). We did not find any appreciable relation between left handedness and thoracic hyperkyphosis in both sexes

  11. Left Alone: End Time for Marxist Educational Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikowski, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Marxist educational theory from the 1960s through the 1990s, analyzes its decline and degeneration, and looks at possible future directions. Explores five developments that have undercut the "old" educational Marxism: hyper-academicism; dislocations between theory and practice; the postmodern challenge; the liberal left challenge; and…

  12. Histomorphological features of atherosclerosis in the left anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of coronary artery atherosclerosis is valuable in informing mitigation strategies for coronary heart disease. Histomorphological data on this disease among Africans living in Sub Saharan Africa are, however, scarce. The left anterior descending is one of the most commonly afflicted arteries. This study, therefore ...

  13. "Crisis Brewing?" Paraprofessionals and the No Child Left Behind Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban Institute (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), enacted in January 2002, includes among its provisions new requirements for all employees providing instructional support (paraprofessionals, teacher aides, tutors, etc.) in programs/schools supported with Title I, Part A funds. The law stipulates that paraprofessionals or teacher aides must meet one of the…

  14. Ischemic Colitis of the Left Colon in a Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios J. Karayiannakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus may affect the gastrointestinal tract possibly as a result of autonomic neuropathy. Here we present a 68-year-old male with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who presented with prolonged watery diarrhea and in whom imaging studies demonstrated ischemic colitis of the left colon. Resection of the affected colon resulted in sustained disappearance of symptoms.

  15. Hand Matters: Left-Hand Gestures Enhance Metaphor Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Paraskevi; Mohr, Christine; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that speech-accompanying gestures influence cognitive processes, but it is not clear whether the gestural benefit is specific to the gesturing hand. Two experiments tested the "(right/left) hand-specificity" hypothesis for self-oriented functions of gestures: gestures with a particular hand enhance cognitive processes…

  16. Anomalous left the pulmonary dilemma coronary artery artery from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anomalous origin ofthe left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is an unusual congenital ... led us to review our experience of this anomaly over the past 10 years. During this .... New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978: 1345. 5. Bland EF, White PO, ...

  17. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described ... used for analysis. ... risk due to LVH and that cardiac adaptation to ... had history taking, physical examination and ..... between the gender specific differences in cardiac ... A metaanalysis of individual.

  18. Continuons left-right symmetrical model of electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkin, O.M.

    1993-01-01

    The left-right model (LR) is suggested which is characterized by the orientation angle of the SU(2) R generator in the group space. This model reproduces all the known LR models. The production processes of gauge bosons at electron-positron and hardon colliders are investigated

  19. Left coronary aneurysmal dilation and subaortic stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Juan L; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Girard, Christiane; Pibarot, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    A 6-month-old German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Upon physical examination, the auscultated heart rate was 120 beats/min, and a grade IV/VI systolic heart murmur with a point of maximal intensity over the left heart base radiating up the neck was heard. The standard echocardiographic examination showed subaortic stenosis and an anechoic tubular structure extending from the sinus of Valsalva to the left ventricular posterior wall. Aneurysmal left coronary artery (CA) was confirmed by angiography. The dog was euthanized and post-mortem examination showed severe dilatation of the proximal left CA and confirmed the subaortic stenosis. Histopathology did not demonstrate abnormalities in the walls of the CA, aorta or pulmonary artery. The exact cause of the CA aneurysmal dilation remains unknown. Subaortic stenosis, elevated coronary vascular resistance or a congenital anomaly may have contributed to the dilation. To our knowledge, coronary aneurysmal dilation has never been described in dogs. Standard echocardiography provides reliable information on coronary anatomy.

  20. Relationship between obesity and left ventricular hypertrophy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Rompis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD increasing morbidity-mortality rates. It is apparent that a variety of adaptations/alterations in cardiac structure and function occurs as excessive adipose tissue accumulates. This leads to a decrease in diastolic compliance, eventually resulting in an increase in left ventricular filling pressure and left ventricular enlargement. Objective To evaluate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH among  obese using electrocardiographic (ECG criteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 74 children aged 10-15 years from February 2009 to October 2009. The subjects were divided into obese and control groups. Physical examination and standard 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG were done in both groups. Results Of 37 obese children, LVH were featured in 3 subjects, while in control group, only 1 child had LVH (P= 0.304. We found that mean RV6 in obese and control group were 9.8446 (SD 3.5854 and 11.9662 (SD 3.2857, respectively (P=0.005. As an additional findings, we found that birth weight was related to obesity in children. Conclusion There is no relation between obesity and left ventricular using ECG criteria in obese children aged 10-15 years.