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Sample records for left inferior temporal

  1. The role of left posterior inferior temporal cortex in spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapcsak, Steven Z; Beeson, Pélagie M

    2004-06-22

    To determine whether damage to left posterior inferior temporal cortex (PITC) is associated with agraphia and to characterize the nature of the spelling impairment. Left angular gyrus may play a critical role in spelling. However, this traditional view is challenged by reports of agraphia after left temporo-occipital lesions and by functional imaging studies demonstrating activation of left PITC during writing in normal individuals. Patients with focal damage to the left temporo-occipital cortex and normal control subjects were administered a comprehensive spelling battery that included regular words, irregular words, and nonwords as stimuli. Although patients performed worse than control subjects in all experimental conditions, the spelling deficit was particularly severe for irregular words, whereas regular word and nonword spelling were less impaired. Additional analyses indicated that orthographic regularity and word frequency had a much more pronounced effect on spelling accuracy in patients compared with control subjects. Most errors on irregular words were phonologically plausible, consistent with reliance on a sublexical phonologic spelling strategy (i.e., phoneme-grapheme conversion). Overall, the spelling impairment of the patients showed the characteristic profile of lexical agraphia. Lesion analyses indicated that the damage in the majority of patients encompassed an area within the left PITC (BA 37/20) where the authors previously obtained evidence of activation in a functional imaging study of writing in normal participants. The behavioral and neuroanatomic observations in the patients are consistent with functional imaging studies of writing in neurologically intact individuals and provide converging evidence for the role of left PITC in spelling. Together, these findings implicate left PITC as a possible neural substrate of the putative orthographic lexicon that contains stored memory representations for the written forms of familiar words.

  2. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over Left Inferior Frontal and Posterior Temporal Cortex Disrupts Gesture-Speech Integration.

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    Zhao, Wanying; Riggs, Kevin; Schindler, Igor; Holle, Henning

    2018-02-21

    Language and action naturally occur together in the form of cospeech gestures, and there is now convincing evidence that listeners display a strong tendency to integrate semantic information from both domains during comprehension. A contentious question, however, has been which brain areas are causally involved in this integration process. In previous neuroimaging studies, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) have emerged as candidate areas; however, it is currently not clear whether these areas are causally or merely epiphenomenally involved in gesture-speech integration. In the present series of experiments, we directly tested for a potential critical role of IFG and pMTG by observing the effect of disrupting activity in these areas using transcranial magnetic stimulation in a mixed gender sample of healthy human volunteers. The outcome measure was performance on a Stroop-like gesture task (Kelly et al., 2010a), which provides a behavioral index of gesture-speech integration. Our results provide clear evidence that disrupting activity in IFG and pMTG selectively impairs gesture-speech integration, suggesting that both areas are causally involved in the process. These findings are consistent with the idea that these areas play a joint role in gesture-speech integration, with IFG regulating strategic semantic access via top-down signals acting upon temporal storage areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous neuroimaging studies suggest an involvement of inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus in gesture-speech integration, but findings have been mixed and due to methodological constraints did not allow inferences of causality. By adopting a virtual lesion approach involving transcranial magnetic stimulation, the present study provides clear evidence that both areas are causally involved in combining semantic information arising from gesture and speech. These findings support the view that, rather than being

  3. Bilateral inferior frontal language-related activation correlates with verbal recall in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and typical language distribution.

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    Sanjuán, Ana; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; García-Porcar, María; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Forn, Cristina; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campos, Anabel; Palau, Juan; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Villanueva, Vicente; Avila, César

    2013-03-01

    Language fMRI has been used in the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) patients with atypical language lateralization are at lower risk of postsurgical verbal memory decline, hypothesizing co-occurrence of verbal memory and language reorganization presurgically. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the recruitment of right frontal language-related areas is associated with the preservation of verbal memory performance in these patients. However, less is known about the correlation between these functions specifically in LTLE patients with left language dominance, although they are more prone to postsurgical verbal memory decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the relationship between verbal memory scores and frontal language activation is also observed in LTLE patients with typical language dominance. Eighteen healthy controls, 12 right temporal lobe epilepsy patients and 12 LTLE patients with typical language distribution as assessed by an fMRI verbal fluency task were selected. Verbal memory scores were obtained from the patients' neuropsychological presurgical evaluation. Our results showed a positive correlation between verbal recall and activation of bilateral inferior frontal areas in LTLE patients. These results support the hypothesis of a link between language representation in inferior frontal areas and hippocampal functioning, and indicate that both hemispheres are related to the preservation of verbal memory in patients with hippocampal damage and typical language dominance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation and Functional Connectivity of the Left Inferior Temporal Gyrus during Visual Speech Priming in Healthy Listeners and Listeners with Schizophrenia.

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    Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yingjun; Li, Juanhua; Zhang, Bei; Li, Ruikeng; Wu, Haibo; She, Shenglin; Liu, Sha; Peng, Hongjun; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Under a "cocktail-party" listening condition with multiple-people talking, compared to healthy people, people with schizophrenia benefit less from the use of visual-speech (lipreading) priming (VSP) cues to improve speech recognition. The neural mechanisms underlying the unmasking effect of VSP remain unknown. This study investigated the brain substrates underlying the unmasking effect of VSP in healthy listeners and the schizophrenia-induced changes in the brain substrates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activation and functional connectivity for the contrasts of the VSP listening condition vs. the visual non-speech priming (VNSP) condition were examined in 16 healthy listeners (27.4 ± 8.6 years old, 9 females and 7 males) and 22 listeners with schizophrenia (29.0 ± 8.1 years old, 8 females and 14 males). The results showed that in healthy listeners, but not listeners with schizophrenia, the VSP-induced activation (against the VNSP condition) of the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG) was significantly correlated with the VSP-induced improvement in target-speech recognition against speech masking. Compared to healthy listeners, listeners with schizophrenia showed significantly lower VSP-induced activation of the left pITG and reduced functional connectivity of the left pITG with the bilateral Rolandic operculum, bilateral STG, and left insular. Thus, the left pITG and its functional connectivity may be the brain substrates related to the unmasking effect of VSP, assumedly through enhancing both the processing of target visual-speech signals and the inhibition of masking-speech signals. In people with schizophrenia, the reduced unmasking effect of VSP on speech recognition may be associated with a schizophrenia-related reduction of VSP-induced activation and functional connectivity of the left pITG.

  5. TMS interferes with lexical-semantic retrieval in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus: Evidence from cyclical picture naming.

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    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    We used TMS to investigate the contribution of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) to lexical/semantic selection and retrieval processes using a cyclical naming paradigm. Participants named pictures that were presented repeatedly across six cycles, either in semantically related or unrelated sets. Previous research has suggested that selection demands are higher for related sets, especially after repetition, since participants experience competition from the activation of semantic neighbours. In contrast, retrieval demands are greater for unrelated sets in the absence of semantic priming, particularly on the first cycle when the target names have not been previously activated. Therefore, this paradigm can reveal independent effects of (i) retrieval demands (i.e., the ease of accessing picture names from visual input) and (ii) selection/competition. We found that rTMS to LIFG and pMTG produced similar behavioural effects: stimulation of both sites disrupted picture naming performance on early cycles (when participants were less practised at producing the picture names) and for semantically-related sets (when there was the potential for increased competition and yet also facilitation from semantic neighbours). There were no effects of TMS when either retrieval or selection requirements were maximal on their own. The data therefore support the view that both LIFG and pMTG contribute to picture name retrieval, with both sites playing a critical role in mediating the semantic facilitation of naming when retrieval demands are high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Context-dependent lexical ambiguity resolution: MEG evidence for the time-course of activity in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus.

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    Mollo, Giovanna; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Cornelissen, Piers; Gennari, Silvia P

    An MEG study investigated the role of context in semantic interpretation by examining the comprehension of ambiguous words in contexts leading to different interpretations. We compared high-ambiguity words in minimally different contexts (to bowl, the bowl) to low-ambiguity counterparts (the tray, to flog). Whole brain beamforming revealed the engagement of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMTG). Points of interest analyses showed that both these sites showed a stronger response to verb-contexts by 200 ms post-stimulus and displayed overlapping ambiguity effects that were sustained from 300 ms onwards. The effect of context was stronger for high-ambiguity words than for low-ambiguity words at several different time points, including within the first 100 ms post-stimulus. Unlike LIFG, LPMTG also showed stronger responses to verb than noun contexts in low-ambiguity trials. We argue that different functional roles previously attributed to LIFG and LPMTG are in fact played out at different periods during processing. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Roentgenologic appearance of left-sided inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko; Takeuchi, Akira; Saitoh, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    2 Cases of left-sided inferior vena cava, and 2 cases of left-sided inferior vena cava with azygos and hemiazygos continuation were evaluated with computed tomography and other roentgenologic procedures and discussed thier clinical and radiological significance. Left-sided inferior vena cava with azygos (hemiazygos) continuation is often associated with cyanotic or acyanotic congenital heart disease and abnormalities of cardiovascular position, abdominal situs and polysplenia. But, single left-sided inferior vena cavas have little tendency having associated anomalies. Both venous anomalies also shuld be embryologically differentiated, namely, failure of development of the lower portion of the supracardinal veins results in infrahepatic interruption of inferior vena cava with azygos continuation, persistence of the left cardinal system and atrophy of the right system lead to the left-side inferior vena cava. Knowledge of inferior vena cava anomalies is important to the radiologist in order to differentiate between venous anomalies and an enlarged lymph nodes in a patient with malignant tumor. (author)

  8. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

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    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  9. Added clinical value of the inferior temporal EEG electrode chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Justesen, Anders; Eskelund Johansen, Ann Berit; Martinussen, Noomi Ida

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic added value of supplementing the 10–20 EEG array with six electrodes in the inferior temporal chain. Methods EEGs were recorded with 25 electrodes: 19 positions of the 10–20 system, and six additional electrodes in the inferior temporal chain (F9/10, T9/10, P...... in the inferior chain) and 6% (only seen at the inferior chain). Conclusions Adding six electrodes in the inferior temporal electrode chain to the 10–20 array improves the localization and identification of EEG abnormalities, especially those located in the temporal region. Significance Our results suggest...

  10. Added clinical value of the inferior temporal EEG electrode chain.

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    Bach Justesen, Anders; Eskelund Johansen, Ann Berit; Martinussen, Noomi Ida; Wasserman, Danielle; Terney, Daniella; Meritam, Pirgit; Gardella, Elena; Beniczky, Sándor

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic added value of supplementing the 10-20 EEG array with six electrodes in the inferior temporal chain. EEGs were recorded with 25 electrodes: 19 positions of the 10-20 system, and six additional electrodes in the inferior temporal chain (F9/10, T9/10, P9/10). Five-hundred consecutive standard and sleep EEG recordings were reviewed using the 10-20 array and the extended array. We identified the recordings with EEG abnormalities that had peak negativities at the inferior temporal electrodes, and those that only were visible at the inferior temporal electrodes. From the 286 abnormal recordings, the peak negativity was at the inferior temporal electrodes in 81 cases (28.3%) and only visible at the inferior temporal electrodes in eight cases (2.8%). In the sub-group of patients with temporal abnormalities (n = 134), these represented 59% (peak in the inferior chain) and 6% (only seen at the inferior chain). Adding six electrodes in the inferior temporal electrode chain to the 10-20 array improves the localization and identification of EEG abnormalities, especially those located in the temporal region. Our results suggest that inferior temporal electrodes should be added to the EEG array, to increase the diagnostic yield of the recordings. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Memory of music: roles of right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus.

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    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yagishita, Sho; Kikyo, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    We investigated neural correlates of retrieval success for music memory using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. To minimize the interference from MRI scan noise, we used sparse temporal sampling technique. Newly composed music materials were employed as stimuli, which enabled us to detect regions in absence of effects of experience with the music stimuli in this study. Whole brain analyses demonstrated significant retrieval success activities in the right hippocampus, bilateral lateral temporal regions, left inferior frontal gyrus and left precuneus. Anatomically defined region-of-interests analyses showed that the activity of the right hippocampus was stronger than that of the left, while the activities of the inferior frontal gyri showed the reverse pattern. Furthermore, performance-based analyses demonstrated that the retrieval success activity of the right hippocampus was positively correlated with the corrected recognition rate, suggesting that the right hippocampus contributes to the accuracy of music retrieval outcome.

  12. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

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    O.A. Olulade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA, is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009. Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007. Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009. Building on these studies, we here (1 investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2 compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3 examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We

  13. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Chronic Schizophrenia: An MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Shenton, Martha E.; Salisbury, Dean F.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Kasai, Kiyoto; Toner, Sarah K.; Frumin, Melissa; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus subserve language and semantic memory processing, visual perception, and multimodal sensory integration. Functional deficits in these cognitive processes have been well documented in patients with schizophrenia. However, there have been few in vivo structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia. Method: Middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyru...

  14. Generating predictions: lesion evidence on the role of left inferior frontal cortex in rapid syntactic analysis.

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    Jakuszeit, Maria; Kotz, Sonja A; Hasting, Anna S

    2013-01-01

    A well-documented phenomenon in event-related electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies on language processing is that syntactic violations of different types elicit negativities as early as 100 msec after the violation point. Recently, these responses have been associated with activations in or very close to sensory cortices, suggesting the involvement of basic sensory mechanisms in the detection of syntactic violations. The present study investigated whether intact auditory cortices and adjacent temporal regions are sufficient to generate early syntactic negativities in the auditory event-related potential (ERP). We tested ten clinically non-aphasic patients with left inferior frontal lesions, but intact temporal cortices in a passive auditory ERP paradigm that had reliably elicited early negativities in response to violations of subject-verb agreement and word category in the past. Subject-verb agreement violations failed to elicit early grammaticality effects in these patients, whereas a group of ten age-matched controls showed a reliable early negativity. This finding supports the idea that sensory aspects of syntactic analysis as reflected in early syntactic negativities critically depend on top-down predictions generated by the left inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, word category violations elicited a small, marginally significant early negativity both in controls and patients, suggesting an additional involvement of temporal regions in early phrase structure processing. In an additional auditory oddball experiment patients showed a regular P300, but no N2b component in response to deviant tones, indicating that their deficit in generating sensory predictions extends beyond the language domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuropsychology Outcomes Following Trephine Epilepsy Surgery: The Inferior Temporal Gyrus Approach for Amygdalohippocampectomy in Medically Refractory Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Clifton, William E; Sever, Ryan W; Vale, Fernando L

    2017-06-08

    Surgery is indicated in cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy(MTLE) that are refractory to medical management. The inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) approach provides access to the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) structures with minimal tissue disruption. Reported neuropsychology outcomes following this approach are limited. To report neuropsychological outcomes using an ITG approach to amygdalohippocampectomy (AH) in patients with medically refractory MTLE based on a prospective design. Fifty-four participants had Engel class I/II outcome following resection of MTL using the ITG approach. All participants had localization-related epilepsy confirmed by long-term surface video-electroencephalography and completed pre/postsurgical evaluations that included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Wada test or functional MRI, and neuropsychology assessment. Clinical semiology/video-electroencephalography indicated that of the 54 patients, 28 (52%) had left MTLE and 26 (48%) had right MTLE. Dominant hemisphere resections were performed on 23 patients (43%), nondominant on 31(57%). Twenty-nine (29) had pathology-confirmed mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Group level analyses found declines in verbal memory for patients with language-dominant resections ( P .05). Neuropsychology outcomes of an ITG approach for selective mesial temporal resection are comparable to other selective AH techniques showing minimal adverse cognitive effects. These data lend support to the ITG approach for selective AH as an option for MTLE. © Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2017.

  16. A follow-up MRI study of the fusiform gyrus and middle and inferior temporal gyri in schizophrenia spectrum.

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    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Nakamura, Kazue; Tanino, Ryoichiro; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Kyo; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Michio

    2011-12-01

    While longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated progressive gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) during the early phases of schizophrenia, it remains largely unknown whether other temporal lobe structures also exhibit similar progressive changes and whether these changes, if present, are specific to schizophrenia among the spectrum disorders. In this longitudinal MRI study, the gray matter volumes of the fusiform, middle temporal, and inferior temporal gyri were measured at baseline and follow-up scans (mean inter-scan interval=2.7 years) in 18 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 13 patients with schizotypal disorder, and 20 healthy controls. Both schizophrenia and schizotypal patients had a smaller fusiform gyrus than controls bilaterally at both time points, whereas no group difference was found in the middle and inferior temporal gyri. In the longitudinal comparison, the schizophrenia patients showed significant fusiform gyrus reduction (left, -2.6%/year; right, -2.3%/year) compared with schizotypal patients (left: -0.4%/year; right: -0.2%/year) and controls (left: 0.1%/year; right: 0.0%/year). However, the middle and inferior temporal gyri did not exhibit significant progressive gray matter change in all diagnostic groups. In the schizophrenia patients, a higher cumulative dose of antipsychotics during follow-up was significantly correlated with less severe gray matter reduction in the left fusiform gyrus. The annual gray matter loss of the fusiform gyrus did not correlate with that of the STG previously reported in the same subjects. Our findings suggest regional specificity of the progressive gray matter reduction in the temporal lobe structures, which might be specific to overt schizophrenia within the schizophrenia spectrum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

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    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  18. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com; Sun, Xi-Wen, E-mail: xwsun@citiz.net; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong_mail@126.com; Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com [Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China)

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  19. The left inferior frontal gyrus: A neural crossroads between abstract and concrete knowledge.

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    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Canini, Matteo; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Cappa, Stefano F

    2018-04-12

    Evidence from both neuropsychology and neuroimaging suggests that different types of information are necessary for representing and processing concrete and abstract word meanings. Both abstract and concrete concepts, however, conjointly rely on perceptual, verbal and contextual knowledge, with abstract concepts characterized by low values of imageability (IMG) (low sensory-motor grounding) and low context availability (CA) (more difficult to contextualize). Imaging studies supporting differences between abstract and concrete concepts show a greater recruitment of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) for abstract concepts, which has been attributed either to the representation of abstract-specific semantic knowledge or to the request for more executive control than in the case of concrete concepts. We conducted an fMRI study on 27 participants, using a lexical decision task involving both abstract and concrete words, whose IMG and CA values were explicitly modelled in separate parametric analyses. The LIFG was significantly more activated for abstract than for concrete words, and a conjunction analysis showed a common activation for words with low IMG or low CA only in the LIFG, in the same area reported for abstract words. A regional template map of brain activations was then traced for words with low IMG or low CA, and BOLD regional time-series were extracted and correlated with the specific LIFG neural activity elicited for abstract words. The regions associated to low IMG, which were functionally correlated with LIFG, were mainly in the left hemisphere, while those associated with low CA were in the right hemisphere. Finally, in order to reveal which LIFG-related network increased its connectivity with decreases of IMG or CA, we conducted generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. The connectivity strength values extracted from each region connected with the LIFG were correlated with specific LIFG neural activity for abstract words, and a regression

  20. Inferior parietal lobule encodes visual temporal resolution processes contributing to the critical flicker frequency threshold in humans.

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    Andrea Nardella

    Full Text Available The measurement of the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold is used to study the visual temporal resolution in healthy subjects and in pathological conditions. To better understand the role played by different cortical areas in the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold perception we used continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS, an inhibitory plasticity-inducing protocol based on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The Critical Flicker Frequency threshold was measured in twelve healthy subjects before and after cTBS applied over different cortical areas in separate sessions. cTBS over the left inferior parietal lobule altered the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold, whereas cTBS over the left mediotemporal cortex, primary visual cortex and right inferior parietal lobule left the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold unchanged. No statistical difference was found when the red or blue lights were used. Our findings show that left inferior parietal lobule is causally involved in the conscious perception of Critical Flicker Frequency and that Critical Flicker Frequency threshold can be modulated by plasticity-inducing protocols.

  1. Inferior parietal lobule encodes visual temporal resolution processes contributing to the critical flicker frequency threshold in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardella, Andrea; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Conte, Antonella; Bologna, Matteo; Suppa, Antonio; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold is used to study the visual temporal resolution in healthy subjects and in pathological conditions. To better understand the role played by different cortical areas in the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold perception we used continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS), an inhibitory plasticity-inducing protocol based on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The Critical Flicker Frequency threshold was measured in twelve healthy subjects before and after cTBS applied over different cortical areas in separate sessions. cTBS over the left inferior parietal lobule altered the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold, whereas cTBS over the left mediotemporal cortex, primary visual cortex and right inferior parietal lobule left the Critical Flicker Frequency threshold unchanged. No statistical difference was found when the red or blue lights were used. Our findings show that left inferior parietal lobule is causally involved in the conscious perception of Critical Flicker Frequency and that Critical Flicker Frequency threshold can be modulated by plasticity-inducing protocols.

  2. Guenther Tulip Filter Retrieval from a Left-sided Inferior Vena Cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brountzos, Elias N.; Kaufman, John A.; Lakin, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    Optional (retrievable) inferior cava filters (IVC) may have advantages over permanent filters in a certain subset of patients, especially in view of recent concerns about the long-term thrombotic complications of the latter. Retrieval of the Guenther Tulip Filter (GTF), an optional filter, has been reported in a total of 76 patients. We present the first description of GTF retrieval from a left-sided IVC using the right internal jugular approach

  3. Distinct roles of left inferior frontal regions that explain individual differences in second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kuniyoshi L; Nauchi, Arihito; Tatsuno, Yoshinori; Hirano, Kazuyoshi; Muraishi, Yukimasa; Kimura, Masakazu; Bostwick, Mike; Yusa, Noriaki

    2009-08-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition is more susceptible to environmental and idiosyncratic factors than first language acquisition. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging for L2 learners of different ages of first exposure (mean: 12.6 and 5.6 years) in a formal school environment, and compared the cortical activations involved in processing English sentences containing either syntactic or spelling errors, where the testing ages and task performances of both groups were matched. We found novel activation patterns in two regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) that correlated differentially with the performances of the late and early learners. Specifically, activations of the dorsal and ventral triangular part (F3t) of the left IFG correlated positively with the accuracy of the syntactic task for the late learners, whereas activations of the left ventral F3t correlated negatively with the accuracy for the early learners. In contrast, other cortical regions exhibited differential correlation patterns with the reaction times (RTs) of the syntactic task. Namely, activations of the orbital part (F3O) of the left IFG, as well as those of the left angular gyrus, correlated positively with the RTs for the late learners, whereas those activations correlated negatively with the RTs for the early learners. Moreover, the task-selective activation of the left F3O was maintained for both the late and early learners. These results explain individual differences in L2 acquisition, such that the acquisition of linguistic knowledge in L2 is subserved by at least two distinct inferior frontal regions of the left F3t and F3O. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Dysregulated left inferior parietal activity in schizophrenia and depression: functional connectivity and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika I. Müller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal cortex (IPC is a heterogeneous region that is known to be involved in a multitude of diverse different tasks and processes, though its contribution to these often-complex functions is yet poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that patients with depression failed to deactivate the left IPC during processing of congruent audiovisual information. We now found the same dysregulation (same region and condition in schizophrenia. By using task-independent (resting state and task-dependent (MACM analyses we aimed at characterizing this particular region with regard to its connectivity and function. Across both approaches, results revealed functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal seed region with bilateral IPC, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PrC/PCC, medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, left middle frontal (MFG as well as inferior frontal (IFG gyrus. Network-level functional characterization further revealed that on the one hand, all interconnected regions are part of a network involved in memory processes. On the other hand, sub-networks are formed when emotion, language, social cognition and reasoning processes are required. Thus, the IPC-region that is dysregulated in both depression and schizophrenia is functionally connected to a network of regions which, depending on task demands may form sub-networks. These results therefore indicate that dysregulation of left IPC in depression and schizophrenia might not only be connected to deficits in audiovisual integration, but is possibly also associated to impaired memory and deficits in emotion processing in these patient groups.

  5. Semantic dementia and the left and right temporal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Julie S; Harris, Jennifer M; Thompson, Jennifer C; Kobylecki, Christopher; Jones, Matthew; Richardson, Anna M; Neary, David

    2017-08-31

    Semantic dementia, a circumscribed disorder of semantic knowledge, provides a unique model for understanding the neural basis for semantic representation. The study addressed areas of contention: the relative roles of the left and right temporal lobe, the contribution of anterior versus posterior temporal cortex and the status of the anterior temporal lobes as amodal hub. Naming and word comprehension was examined in 41 semantic dementia patients, 31 with left-predominant and 10 right-predominant atrophy. In keeping with expectation, naming and comprehension were significantly poorer in left-predominant patients. Structural magnetic resonance image analysis, using a visual rating scale, showed strong inverse correlations between naming scores and severity of both left anterior and posterior temporal lobe atrophy. By contrast, comprehension performance was more strongly correlated with left posterior temporal atrophy. Analysis of naming errors revealed a correlation between anterior temporal atrophy and associative/functional descriptive responses, implying availability of semantic information. By contrast, 'don't know' responses, indicative of loss of semantic knowledge, were linked to left posterior temporal lobe atrophy. Semantic errors, the hallmark of semantic dementia, were linked to right hemisphere atrophy, especially the right posterior temporal lobe. Matched visual-verbal tasks (famous face and name identification, Pyramids and Palm trees pictures and words, animal knowledge from 3-D models and animal names) administered to nine patients elicited variable correspondence between performance on nonverbal and verbal versions of the task. Marked performance dissociations were demonstrated in some patients: poorer understanding of names/words in left-predominant patients and of faces/pictures/models in right-predominant cases. The findings are compatible with the notion of the anterior temporal lobes as areas of convergence, but are less easily accommodated

  6. Correlation of vocals and lyrics with left temporal musicogenic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-En J; Lim, Siew-Na; Chen, Lu-An; Jou, Shuo-Bin; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yao; Cheng, Mei-Yun; Chang, Chun-Wei; Li, Han-Tao; Chiang, Hsing-I; Wu, Tony

    2018-03-15

    Whether the cognitive processing of music and speech relies on shared or distinct neuronal mechanisms remains unclear. Music and language processing in the brain are right and left temporal functions, respectively. We studied patients with musicogenic epilepsy (ME) that was specifically triggered by popular songs to analyze brain hyperexcitability triggered by specific stimuli. The study included two men and one woman (all right-handed, aged 35-55 years). The patients had sound-triggered left temporal ME in response to popular songs with vocals, but not to instrumental, classical, or nonvocal piano solo versions of the same song. Sentimental lyrics, high-pitched singing, specificity/familiarity, and singing in the native language were the most significant triggering factors. We found that recognition of the human voice and analysis of lyrics are important causal factors in left temporal ME and provide observational evidence that sounds with speech structure are predominantly processed in the left temporal lobe. A literature review indicated that language-associated stimuli triggered ME in the left temporal epileptogenic zone at a nearly twofold higher rate compared with the right temporal region. Further research on ME may enhance understanding of the cognitive neuroscience of music. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Negative temporal summation of the responses to pairs of tone bursts in albino mice inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikov, Nikolay G.; Cai, Chen Qi; Jie, Tang

    2003-10-01

    The extracellular activities of single units in an inferior colliculus of narcotized albino mice have been studied. As a stimuli pairs of best frequency (BF) tone bursts with different duration have been used and forward masking has been studied. The test tone usually has a 40 ms duration at intensity 5 dB above threshold. The intensity and duration of the masker could be changed. It was shown that the forward masking essentially depends upon the duration of the first burst. In many cases, the negative temporal summation can be seen. The increase in the duration of first burst (or masker) leads to the decrease in the whole response. Moreover, the BF tone burst which did not evoke any spike response could inhibit the response to the second (test) tone in some cases. Therefore in many units the inhibitory threshold was lower than the excitatory threshold even at the best frequency. The local application of bicuculline through a multibarrel-electrode increased the pulse activity considerably. However, the effect of forward masking usually left even after an inhibitory antagonist (bicuculline) application. [Work supported by grants 39970251 from NSFC, T010360056 from the Foreign Expert Bureau of the State Council of China, and 02-04-3900 from RFBR-NSFC.

  8. [Postero'inferior aneurysm of the left ventricle following myocardial infarction. Diagnosis and surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Covarrubias, S E; Acoltzin Vidal, C; Nava Lopez, G; Palacios Macedo, X

    1979-01-01

    This is a report of the first four cases of left ventricle aneurysm of the posterior and inferior segments successfully treated surgically in the Hospital de Cardiología y Neumología del Centro Médico Nacional, México D. F., and represent the twelve per cent of all realized aneurysmectomies. The patients were all men with 57 years mean age, and a previous history of posteroinferior myocardial infarction, complicated in three of them with angor and severe ventricle arrythmias; chest X ray in lateral view showed a bump of the posteroinferior border of the cardiac silhouette; the echocardiography increase in the ventricular diameter below the mitral valve; the ventriculography made evident a diastolic bulging with systolic expansion of posterior and inferior segments of the left ventricle and no mitral regurgitation; selective coronary arteriography showed a dominant right pattern with 100 per cent proximal occlusion. Aneurysmectomy was done in all four cases and aortocoronary by-pass in two. The posteromedial papilar muscle was found respected in all cases and in two cases a mural thrombus was detected.

  9. Famous People Knowledge and the Right and Left Temporal Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Julie S.; Thompson, Jennifer C.; Neary, David

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the anterior temporal lobes support knowledge of famous people. The specific roles of the right and left temporal lobe remain a subject of debate, with some studies suggesting differential roles based on modality (visual versus verbal information) and others category (person knowledge versus general semantics). The present study re-examined performance of semantic dementia patients with predominantly right and predominantly left temporal lobe atrophy on famous face, famous name and general semantic tasks, with the specific aim of testing the hypothesis that the right temporal lobe has a privileged role for person knowledge and the left temporal lobe for general semantic knowledge. Comparisons of performance rankings across tasks showed no evidence to support this hypothesis. By contrast, there was robust evidence from naming, identification and familiarity measures for modality effects: right-sided atrophy being associated with relatively greater impairment for faces and visual tasks and left-sided atrophy for names and verbal tasks. A double dissociation in test scores in two patients reinforced these findings. The data present a challenge for the influential ‘semantic hub’ model, which views the anterior temporal lobes as an area of convergence in which semantic information is represented in amodal form. PMID:22207421

  10. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia: An MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroki, Noriomi; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth; Salisbury, Dean; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert William

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia reveal temporal lobe structural brain abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus and the amygdala-hippocampal complex. However, the middle and inferior temporal gyri have received little investigation, especially in first-episode schizophrenia. Method: High-spatial-resolution MRI was used to measure gray matter volume in the inferior, middle, and superior temporal gyri in 20 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 20 pa...

  11. Left-sided and duplicate inferior vena cava: a case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wee Choen; Doyle, Terry; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-11-01

    Left-sided and duplicate inferior vena cava (IVC) are two major anatomical variants within the spectrum of IVC malformations, both of which are developmental abnormalities of the supracardinal veins. Four clinical cases are described to highlight the computed tomographic appearances of these vascular malformations and provide novel data on venous dimensions. A systematic review of the recent literature (2000-2011) was conducted focusing on the anatomy, demographics, and associated pathology (congenital and acquired) of isolated left-sided and duplicate IVC. A total of 73 relevant articles were retrieved, consisting of case reports and small case series. The prevalence of left-sided IVC is about 0.1-0.4% and that for duplicate IVC about 0.3-0.4%; both anomalies show a slight male preponderance. In each condition, there are documented variations in the course and tributaries of the IVC. The clinical importance of these anomalies lies in three principal areas: the potential for misdiagnosis on imaging; technical difficulties during retroperitoneal surgery (particularly abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and live donor nephrectomy); and their significance in relation to the etiology and management of venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acute wiiitis representing as thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and left pelvic veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, M; Gary, T; Hafner, F; Eller, P; Deutschmann, H; Pilger, E; Seinost, G

    2015-08-01

    Deep venous thrombosis as a result of venous wall injury provoked by trauma is a common finding. It often occurs in patients with sportive overstraining, caused by over fatigue of the body structures. In 2007, the entity of "acute wiiitis" was first described in a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine. Acute wiiitis sums up all affections, mainly skeletal and muscle affections, provoked by playing Nintendo Wii, a very common and loved video-game system. Deep venous thrombosis as a consequence of Nintendo Wii has not been described so far. We present a patient with a massive free floating thrombus of the left pelvic veins originating from the gluteal veins and reaching into the inferior vena cava after playing Nintendo Wii. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Left inferior frontal gyrus mediates morphosyntax: ERP evidence from verb processing in left-hemisphere damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Stefanie; Kotz, Sonja A; Henseler, Ilona; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Neurocognitive models of language comprehension have proposed different mechanisms with different neural substrates mediating human language processing. Whether the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is engaged in morpho-syntactic information processing is currently still controversially debated. The present study addresses this issue by examining the processing of irregular verb inflection in real words (e.g., swim > swum > swam) and pseudowords (e.g., frim > frum > fram) by using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in neurological patients with lesions in the LIFG involving Broca's area as well as healthy controls. Different ERP patterns in response to the grammatical violations were observed in both groups. Controls showed a biphasic negativity-P600 pattern in response to incorrect verb inflections whereas patients with LIFG lesions displayed a N400. For incorrect pseudoword inflections, a late positivity was found in controls, while no ERP effects were obtained in patients. These findings of different ERP patterns in the two groups strongly indicate an involvement of LIFG in morphosyntactic processing, thereby suggesting brain regions' specialization for different language functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudo and real words: an event-related functional MRI study on auditory lexical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhuangwei; Xu Weixiong; Zhang Xuexin; Wang Xiaoyi; Weng Xuchu; Wu Renhua; Wu Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study lexical processing of pseudo words and real words by using a fast event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI) design. Methods: Participants did an auditory lexical decision task on a list of pseudo-randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. Pseudo words were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical codes properties. Results: The behavioral performance of fourteen participants indicated that response to pseudowords was significantly slower and less accurate than to real words (mean error rate: 9.9% versus 3.9%, mean reaction time: 1618 ms versus 1143 ms). Processing of pseudo words and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudo words than for real words. Conclusion: The results indicate that the processing of left inferior frontal gyrus in judging pseudo words and real words is not related to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, but rather to making positive versus negative responses in decision making. (authors)

  15. Interrupted inferior vena cava with hemiazygos continuation in an adult with a persistent left superior vena cava and left single coronary artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Jin; Kwon, Se Hwan; Ahn, Sung Eun; Kim, Soo Joong; Oh, Joo Hyeong [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our institution for medical screening due to an incidental finding on abdominal ultrasonography. She underwent chest, abdomen and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Her MDCT revealed absence of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC), with hemiazygos continuation and a left single coronary artery. The dilated hemiazygos vein drained directly into the persistent left superior vena cava (SVC). Herein, we reported a very rare case combining an incidentally found interrupted IVC with hemiazygos vein continuation, persistent left SVC and a left single coronary artery diagnosed by MDCT.

  16. Early-latency categorical speech sound representations in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Jussi; Green, Brannon M; May, Patrick J C; Sams, Mikko; Tiitinen, Hannu; Rauschecker, Josef P; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P

    2016-04-01

    Efficient speech perception requires the mapping of highly variable acoustic signals to distinct phonetic categories. How the brain overcomes this many-to-one mapping problem has remained unresolved. To infer the cortical location, latency, and dependency on attention of categorical speech sound representations in the human brain, we measured stimulus-specific adaptation of neuromagnetic responses to sounds from a phonetic continuum. The participants attended to the sounds while performing a non-phonetic listening task and, in a separate recording condition, ignored the sounds while watching a silent film. Neural adaptation indicative of phoneme category selectivity was found only during the attentive condition in the pars opercularis (POp) of the left inferior frontal gyrus, where the degree of selectivity correlated with the ability of the participants to categorize the phonetic stimuli. Importantly, these category-specific representations were activated at an early latency of 115-140 ms, which is compatible with the speed of perceptual phonetic categorization. Further, concurrent functional connectivity was observed between POp and posterior auditory cortical areas. These novel findings suggest that when humans attend to speech, the left POp mediates phonetic categorization through integration of auditory and motor information via the dorsal auditory stream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple Stability of a Sparsely Encoded Attractor Neural Network Model for the Inferior Temporal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Tomoyuki; Uezu, Tatsuya; Okada, Masato

    2008-12-01

    We study a neural network model for the inferior temporal cortex, in terms of finite memory loading and sparse coding. We show that an uncorrelated Hopfield-type attractor and some correlated attractors have multiple stability, and examine the retrieval dynamics for these attractors when the initial state is set to a noise-degraded memory pattern. Then, we show that there is a critical initial overlap: that is, the system converges to the correlated attractor when the noise level is large, and otherwise to the Hopfield-type attractor. Furthermore, we study the time course of the correlation between the correlated attractors in the retrieval dynamics. On the basis of these theoretical results, we resolve the controversy regarding previous physiologic experimental findings regarding neuron properties in the inferior temporal cortex and propose a new experimental paradigm.

  18. Percutaneous closure of a hemodynamically significant connection between the inferior vena cava and the left atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Jens; Rixe, Johannes; Nef, Holger

    2015-10-01

    A connection between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the left atrium (LA) can occur as a rare complication after surgical atrial septum defect (ASD) repair. We demonstrate the first case of a percutaneous closure of this connection. A 67-year-old female was admitted to hospital due to exertional dyspnea. A history of a surgical ASD repair in 1960 and 1966 with a residual shunt was already known. Transesophageal echocardiography and a CT scan revealed a hemodynamically significant drainage of the IVC into the LA. This connection was successfully closed percutaneously with an AMPLATEZR Duct Occluder I (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN). Post-procedural CT-scan and transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a stable position and there was also no evidence of a residual shunt. The patient reported a significant reduction of exertional dyspnea. Percutaneous closure of an IVC to LA connection in this case was safe and feasible. The decision about which device is optimal must be made on an individual basis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Middle Temporal Gyrus Versus Inferior Temporal Gyrus Transcortical Approaches to High-Grade Astrocytomas in the Mediobasal Temporal Lobe: A Comparison of Outcomes, Functional Restoration, and Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Raza, Shaan M; Ahmed, Ishrat; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Chaichana, Kaisorn; Olivi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    High-grade astrocytomas of the mesial temporal lobe may pose surgical challenges. Several approaches (trans-sylvian, subtemporal, and transcortical) have been designed to circumnavigate the critical neurovascular structures and white fiber tracts that surround this area. Considering the paucity of literature on the transcortical approach for these lesions, we describe our institutional experience with transcortical approaches to Grade III/IV astrocytomas in the mesial temporal lobe. Between 1999 and 2009, 23 patients underwent surgery at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions for Grade III/IV astrocytomas involving the mesial temporal lobe (without involvement of the temporal neocortex). Clinical notes, operative records, and imaging were reviewed. Thirteen patients had tumors in the dominant hemisphere. All patients underwent surgery via a transcortical approach (14 via the inferior temporal gyrus and 9 via the middle temporal gyrus). Gross total resection was obtained in 92 % of the cohort. Neurological outcomes were: clinically significant stroke (2 patients), new visual deficits (2 patients), new speech deficit (1 patient); seizure control (53 %). In comparison to reported results in the literature for the transylvian and subtemporal approaches, the transcortical approach may provide the access necessary for a gross total resection with minimal neurological consequences. In our series of patients, there was no statistically significant difference in outcomes between the middle temporal gyrus versus the inferior temporal gyrus trajectories.

  20. Cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point as a reliable landmark to place the corticectomy and reach the temporal horn through a middle temporal gyrus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, Thomas; Rhoton, Albert; Paglioli, Eliseu; Azambuja, Ney

    2014-10-01

    To establish preoperatively the localization of the cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point (ICP) and use it as a reliable landmark when approaching the temporal horn through a middle temporal gyrus access. To review relevant anatomical features regarding selective amigdalohippocampectomy (AH) for treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point was used in more than 300 surgeries by one authors as a reliable landmark to reach the temporal horn. In the laboratory, forty cerebral hemispheres were examined. The cortical projection of the ICP is a reliable landmark for reaching the temporal horn.

  1. Reading without the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Neufeld, Nicholas H.; Zeidman, Peter; Leff, Alex P.; Mechelli, Andrea; Nagendran, Arjuna; Riddoch, Jane M.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (LvOT) is thought to be essential for the rapid parallel letter processing that is required for skilled reading. Here we investigate whether rapid written word identification in skilled readers can be supported by neural pathways that do not involve LvOT. Hypotheses were derived from a stroke patient who acquired dyslexia following extensive LvOT damage. The patient followed a reading trajectory typical of that associated with pure alexia, re-gaining the ability to read aloud many words with declining performance as the length of words increased. Using functional MRI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we found that, when short (three to five letter) familiar words were read successfully, visual inputs to the patient’s occipital cortex were connected to left motor and premotor regions via activity in a central part of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS). The patient analysis therefore implied a left hemisphere “reading-without-LvOT” pathway that involved STS. We then investigated whether the same reading-without-LvOT pathway could be identified in 29 skilled readers and whether there was inter-subject variability in the degree to which skilled reading engaged LvOT. We found that functional connectivity in the reading-without-LvOT pathway was strongest in individuals who had the weakest functional connectivity in the LvOT pathway. This observation validates the findings of our patient’s case study. Our findings highlight the contribution of a left hemisphere reading pathway that is activated during the rapid identification of short familiar written words, particularly when LvOT is not involved. Preservation and use of this pathway may explain how patients are still able to read short words accurately when LvOT has been damaged. PMID:23017598

  2. Classic identity negative priming involves accessing semantic representations in the left anterior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie; Eastburn, Mathew; Pringle, Alan; Lorenz, Lina

    2006-10-15

    Classic identity negative priming (NP) refers to the finding that when an object is ignored, subsequent naming responses to it are slower than when it has not been previously ignored (Tipper, S.P., 1985. The negative priming effect: inhibitory priming by ignored objects. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 37A, 571-590). It is unclear whether this phenomenon arises due to the involvement of abstract semantic representations that the ignored object accesses automatically. Contemporary connectionist models propose a key role for the anterior temporal cortex in the representation of abstract semantic knowledge (e.g., McClelland, J.L., Rogers, T.T., 2003. The parallel distributed processing approach to semantic cognition. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4, 310-322), suggesting that this region should be involved during performance of the classic identity NP task if it involves semantic access. Using high-field (4 T) event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we observed increased BOLD responses in the left anterolateral temporal cortex including the temporal pole that was directly related to the magnitude of each individual's NP effect, supporting a semantic locus. Additional signal increases were observed in the supplementary eye fields (SEF) and left inferior parietal lobule (IPL).

  3. Short-Term and Procedural Memory for Colours and Inferior Temporal Cortex Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castro-Sierra

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two children (male, 10 years, and female, 13 years one month with tumours of the inferior temporal (IT cortex of the brain were studied post-surgically for their abilities to carry out a short-term memory test. This involved: differences in colour, number and shape of small plastic objects; differences in receptacles where these objects should be placed and in ways in which this placement should be done; a procedural task involving differences either in colour or in size of wooden rings employed in the task. Their performances in these tests, and those of patients with tumours of other encephalic areas, were compared with the performances of normal controls. The subjects with IT tumours spent a significantly greater amount of time than normal subjects of their age in carrying out the procedural task involving differences in colour. One of the IT subjects also spent a significantly greater amount of time in the procedural task involving size differences. Other differences in the performances of patients with encephalic tumours and the performances of normal controls were not significant. Results are discussed in relation to findings of colour and size perception and memory localized to the inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices.

  4. Heterogeneity of the left temporal lobe in semantic representation and control: priming multiple versus single meanings of ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Carin; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Kircher, Tilo

    2011-04-01

    Semantic judgments involve both representations of meaning plus executive mechanisms that guide knowledge retrieval in a task-appropriate way. These 2 components of semantic cognition-representation and control-are commonly linked to left temporal and prefrontal cortex, respectively. This simple proposal, however, remains contentious because in most functional neuroimaging studies to date, the number of concepts being activated and the involvement of executive processes during retrieval are confounded. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined a task in which semantic representation and control demands were dissociable. Words with multiple meanings like "bank" served as targets in a double-prime paradigm, in which multiple meaning activation and maximal executive demands loaded onto different priming conditions. Anterior inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) was sensitive to the number of meanings that were retrieved, suggesting a role for this region in semantic representation, while posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and inferior frontal cortex showed greater activation in conditions that maximized executive demands. These results support a functional dissociation between left ITG and pMTG, consistent with a revised neural organization in which left prefrontal and posterior temporal areas work together to underpin aspects of semantic control.

  5. Does a single session of theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation of inferior temporal cortex affect tinnitus perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Tobias

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortical excitability changes as well as imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory circuits play a distinct pathophysiological role in chronic tinnitus. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the temporoparietal cortex was recently introduced to modulate tinnitus perception. In the current study, the effect of theta-burst stimulation (TBS, a novel rTMS paradigm was investigated in chronic tinnitus. Twenty patients with chronic tinnitus completed the study. Tinnitus severity and loudness were monitored using a tinnitus questionnaire (TQ and a visual analogue scale (VAS before each session. Patients received 600 pulses of continuous TBS (cTBS, intermittent TBS (iTBS and intermediate TBS (imTBS over left inferior temporal cortex with an intensity of 80% of the individual active or resting motor threshold. Changes in subjective tinnitus perception were measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS. Results TBS applied to inferior temporal cortex appeared to be safe. Although half of the patients reported a slight attenuation of tinnitus perception, group analysis resulted in no significant difference when comparing the three specific types of TBS. Converting the NRS into the VAS allowed us to compare the time-course of aftereffects. Only cTBS resulted in a significant short-lasting improvement of the symptoms. In addition there was no significant difference when comparing the responder and non-responder groups regarding their anamnestic and audiological data. The TQ score correlated significantly with the VAS, lower loudness indicating less tinnitus distress. Conclusion TBS does not offer a promising outcome for patients with tinnitus in the presented study.

  6. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A.; Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H.; Roger, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  7. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  8. Enhancing verbal creativity: modulating creativity by altering the balance between right and left inferior frontal gyrus with tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayseless, N; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2015-04-16

    Creativity is the production of novel ideas that have value. Previous research indicated that while regions in the right hemisphere are implicated in the production of new ideas, damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is associated with increased creativity, indicating that the left IFG damage may have a "releasing" effect on creativity. To examine this, in the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate activity of the right and the left IFG. In the first experiment we show that whereas anodal tDCS over the right IFG coupled with cathodal tDCS over the left IFG increases creativity as measured by a verbal divergent thinking task, the reverse stimulation does not affect creative production. To further confirm that only altering the balance between the two hemispheres is crucial in modulating creativity, in the second experiment we show that stimulation targeting separately the left IFG (cathodal stimulation) or the right IFG (anodal stimulation) did not result in changes in creativity as measured by verbal divergent thinking. These findings support the balance hypothesis, according to which verbal creativity requires a balance of activation between the right and the left frontal lobes, and more specifically, between the right and the left IFG. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined ERP/fMRI evidence for early word recognition effects in the posterior inferior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dien, Joseph; Brian, Eric S; Molfese, Dennis L; Gold, Brian T

    2013-10-01

    Two brain regions with established roles in reading are the posterior middle temporal gyrus and the posterior fusiform gyrus (FG). Lesion studies have also suggested that the region located between them, the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG), plays a central role in word recognition. However, these lesion results could reflect disconnection effects since neuroimaging studies have not reported consistent lexicality effects in pITG. Here we tested whether these reported pITG lesion effects are due to disconnection effects or not using parallel Event-related Potentials (ERP)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We predicted that the Recognition Potential (RP), a left-lateralized ERP negativity that peaks at about 200-250 msec, might be the electrophysiological correlate of pITG activity and that conditions that evoke the RP (perceptual degradation) might therefore also evoke pITG activity. In Experiment 1, twenty-three participants performed a lexical decision task (temporally flanked by supraliminal masks) while having high-density 129-channel ERP data collected. In Experiment 2, a separate group of fifteen participants underwent the same task while having fMRI data collected in a 3T scanner. Examination of the ERP data suggested that a canonical RP effect was produced. The strongest corresponding effect in the fMRI data was in the vicinity of the pITG. In addition, results indicated stimulus-dependent functional connectivity between pITG and a region of the posterior FG near the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) during word compared to nonword processing. These results provide convergent spatiotemporal evidence that the pITG contributes to early lexical access through interaction with the VWFA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of inferior temporal neurons in visual memory. II. Multiplying temporal waveforms related to vision and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandar, E N; Optican, L M; Richmond, B J

    1992-10-01

    1. In the companion paper we reported on the activity of neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex during a sequential pattern matching task. In this task a sample stimulus was followed by a test stimulus that was either a match or a nonmatch. Many of the neurons encoded information about the patterns of both current and previous stimuli in the temporal modulation of their responses. 2. A simple information processing model of visual memory can be formed with just four steps: 1) encode the current stimulus; 2) recall the code of a remembered stimulus; 3) compare the two codes; 4) and decide whether they are similar or different. The analysis presented in the first paper suggested that some IT neurons were performing the comparison step of visual memory. 3. We propose that IT neurons participate in the comparison of temporal waveforms related to vision and memory by multiplying them together. This product could form the basis of a crosscorrelation-based comparison. 4. We tested our hypothesis by fitting a simple multiplicative model to data from IT neurons. The model generated waveforms in separate memory and visual channels. The waveforms arising from the two channels were then multiplied on a point by point basis to yield the output waveform. The model was fitted to the actual neuronal data by a gradient descent method to find the best fit waveforms that also had the lowest total energy. 5. The multiplicative model fit the neuronal responses quite well. The multiplicative model made consistently better predictions of the actual response waveforms than did an additive model. Furthermore, the fit was better when the actual relationship between the responses and the sample and test stimuli were preserved than when that relationship was randomized. 6. We infer from the superior fit of the multiplicative model that IT neurons are multiplying temporally modulated waveforms arising from separate visual and memory systems in the comparison step of visual memory.

  11. Effects of emotional music on visual processes in inferior temporal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomori, Izumi; Hoshiyama, Minoru; Uemura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Yoshiro; Hoshino, Aiko; Iwamoto, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of emotional music on visual processes, we analyzed visual evoked magnetic fields (VEF) on listening to emotional music in 14 healthy subjects. Positive and negative pieces of music were delivered during VEF recording following stimulation by emotionally neutral pictures of faces and landscapes. VEF components at 100 (M100) and 150 (M170)ms after stimulus onset were analyzed, and the estimated current strength for M170 following face stimulation was enhanced with negative compared to positive music in the right hemisphere. The equivalent current dipole for M100 and M170 was estimated in the primary visual cortex (V1) and inferior temporal area (IT), respectively. The present results indicate that background music showed a top-down control of the visual processes in IT, which is a core site responsible for the interpretation of facial expression. The emotional contents of music could alter visual processes, especially those involving the face.

  12. Parallel, multi-stage processing of colors, faces and shapes in macaque inferior temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Visual-object processing culminates in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. To assess the organization of IT, we measured fMRI responses in alert monkey to achromatic images (faces, fruit, bodies, places) and colored gratings. IT contained multiple color-biased regions, which were typically ventral to face patches and, remarkably, yoked to them, spaced regularly at four locations predicted by known anatomy. Color and face selectivity increased for more anterior regions, indicative of a broad hierarchical arrangement. Responses to non-face shapes were found across IT, but were stronger outside color-biased regions and face patches, consistent with multiple parallel streams. IT also contained multiple coarse eccentricity maps: face patches overlapped central representations; color-biased regions spanned mid-peripheral representations; and place-biased regions overlapped peripheral representations. These results suggest that IT comprises parallel, multi-stage processing networks subject to one organizing principle. PMID:24141314

  13. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli eEmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (< 8 Hz oscillation in the spike train, prior and phase-locked to the stimulus onset, was correlated with increased gamma power and neuronal baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance.

  14. Rare case of left adrenal cortical carcinoma with level 3 inferior vena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observation: A 21-year-old male, incidentally detected with left supra renal tumor invading the left renal vein and the thrombus extending into the supra diaphragmatic IVC, underwent laparotomy with simultaneous median sternotomy on total cardiac bypass for removal of IVC tumor thrombus and radical excision of the ...

  15. Neural correlates of associative face memory in the anterior inferior temporal cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifuku, Satoshi; Nakata, Ryuzaburo; Sugimori, Michiya; Ono, Taketoshi; Tamura, Ryoi

    2010-11-10

    To investigate the neural basis of the associative aspects of facial identification, we recorded neuronal activity from the ventral, anterior inferior temporal cortex (AITv) of macaque monkeys during the performance of an asymmetrical paired-association (APA) task that required associative pairing between an abstract pattern and five different facial views of a single person. In the APA task, after one element of a pair (either an abstract pattern or a face) was presented as a sample cue, the reward-seeking monkey correctly identified the other element of the pair among various repeatedly presented test stimuli (faces or patterns) that were temporally separated by interstimulus delays. The results revealed that a substantial number of AITv neurons responded both to faces and abstract patterns, and the majority of these neurons responded selectively to a particular associative pair. It was demonstrated that in addition to the view-invariant identity of faces used in the APA task, the population of AITv neurons was also able to represent the associative pairing between faces and abstract patterns, which was acquired by training in the APA task. It also appeared that the effect of associative pairing was not so strong that the abstract pattern could be treated in a manner similar to a series of faces belonging to a unique identity. Together, these findings indicate that the AITv plays a crucial role in both facial identification and semantic associations with facial identities.

  16. Dynamic temporal signal processing in the inferior colliculus of echolocating bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eJen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In nature, communication sounds among animal species including humans are typical complex sounds that occur in sequence and vary with time in several parameters including amplitude, frequency, duration as well as separation and order of individual sounds. Among these multiple parameters, sound duration is a simple but important one that contributes to the distinct spectral and temporal attributes of individual biological sounds. Likewise, the separation of individual sounds is an important temporal attribute that determines an animal’s ability in distinguishing individual sounds. Whereas duration selectivity of auditory neurons underlies an animal’s ability in recognition of sound duration, the recovery cycle of auditory neurons determines a neuron’s ability in responding to closely spaced sound pulses and therefore it underlies the animal’s ability in analyzing the order of individual sounds. Since the multiple parameters of naturally occurring communication sounds vary with time, the analysis of a specific sound parameter by an animal would be inevitably affected by other co-varying sound parameters. This is particularly obvious in insectivorous bats which rely on analysis of returning echoes for prey capture when they systematically vary the multiple pulse parameters throughout a target approach sequence. In this review article, we present our studies of dynamic variation of duration selectivity and recovery cycle of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the frequency-modulated bats to highlight the dynamic temporal signal processing of central auditory neurons. These studies use single pulses and three biologically relevant pulse-echo (P-E pairs with varied duration, gap and amplitude difference similar to that occurring during search, approach and terminal phases of hunting by bats. These studies show that most collicular neurons respond maximally to a best tuned sound duration (BD. The sound to which these

  17. Surgical skills acquisition among left-handed trainees-true inferiority or unfair assessment: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Mucksavage, Phillip; McDougall, Elspeth M

    2013-01-01

    Studies involving the formal assessment of surgical skills have often reported inferior abilities among left-handed surgical trainees (LHT). Most surgical training curricula and assessment methods, however, are inherently geared toward right-handed trainees (RHT); potentially placing LHT at both a training and assessment disadvantage. We evaluated the effect of a hand dominance-based curriculum for acquisition of basic suturing and knot tying skills among medical students. After Institutional Review Board approval, first- and second-year medical students from the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine were recruited to participate in a basic suturing and knot tying skills course. Consenting students were randomized to either a left-handed curriculum or a right-handed curriculum consisting of (1) a 30-minute introductory video and (2) a 2-hour instructor-led, hands-on training session on basic suturing and knot tying. All instructional methods, instruments, and instructors were exclusively right-handed or left-handed for the right-handed curriculum or left-handed curriculum, respectively. Students were assessed on the performance of 2 suturing tasks, continuous running suturing and instrument knot tying, and performance assessments were conducted both immediately and 2 weeks posttraining. A total of 19 students completed the training course and both assessments (8 LHT, 11 RHT). Students randomized to a curriculum "concordant" with their hand dominance performed significantly better than those randomized to a "discordant" curriculum on both tasks (p hand dominance might have inferior acquisition of basic suturing and knot tying skills. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A fractured inferior vena cava filter strut migrating to the left pulmonary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Hudali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inferior vena cava filters are increasingly used in patients with recurrent venous thromboembolism who are contraindicated to anticoagulation. Migration of a broken strut to the pulmonary artery is a very rare complication of these filters. We report the case of an 83-year-old female who experienced this complication with the migratory strut remaining in the same position for years. This case provides evidence that such filters probably have higher rates of complications than what has been thought that remain asymptomatic. The indications and the management of complications of such devices need to be studied further.

  19. Stimulating the Brain's Language Network: Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution after TMS to the Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Middle Temporal Gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acheson, D.J.; Hagoort, P.

    2013-01-01

    The posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) are two critical nodes of the brain's language network. Previous neuroimaging evidence has supported a dissociation in language comprehension in which parts of the MTG are involved in the retrieval of lexical syntactic

  20. Mechanisms of spectral and temporal integration in the mustached bat inferior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey James Wenstrup

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review describes mechanisms and circuitry underlying combination-sensitive response properties in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Combination-sensitive neurons, performing a type of auditory spectro-temporal integration, respond to specific, properly timed combinations of spectral elements in vocal signals and other acoustic stimuli. While these neurons are known to occur in the auditory forebrain of many vertebrate species, the work described here establishes their origin in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Focusing on the mustached bat, we review several major findings: 1 Combination-sensitive responses involve facilitatory interactions, inhibitory interactions, or both when activated by distinct spectral elements in complex sounds. 2 Combination-sensitive responses are created in distinct stages: inhibition arises mainly in lateral lemniscal nuclei of the auditory brainstem, while facilitation arises in the inferior colliculus (IC of the midbrain. 3 Spectral integration underlying combination-sensitive responses requires a low frequency input tuned well below a neuron’s characteristic frequency (ChF. Low-ChF neurons in the auditory brainstem project to high-ChF regions in brainstem or IC to create combination sensitivity. 4 At their sites of origin, both facilitatory and inhibitory combination-sensitive interactions depend on glycinergic inputs and are eliminated by glycine receptor blockade. Surprisingly, facilitatory interactions in IC depend almost exclusively on glycinergic inputs and are largely independent of glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs. 5 The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, the lateral lemniscal nuclei, and the IC play critical roles in creating combination-sensitive responses. We propose that these mechanisms, based on work in the mustached bat, apply to a broad range of mammals and other vertebrates that depend on temporally sensitive integration of information across the audible spectrum.

  1. A preference for mathematical processing outweighs the selectivity for Arabic numbers in the inferior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotheer, Mareike; Jeska, Brianna; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2018-03-28

    A region in the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), referred to as the number form area (NFA, here ITG-numbers) has been implicated in the visual processing of Arabic numbers. However, it is unknown if this region is specifically involved in the visual encoding of Arabic numbers per se or in mathematical processing more broadly. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during experiments that systematically vary tasks and stimuli, we find that mathematical processing, not preference to Arabic numbers, consistently drives both mean and distributed responses in the posterior ITG. While we replicated findings of higher responses in ITG-numbers to numbers than other visual stimuli during a 1-back task, this preference to numbers was abolished when participants engaged in mathematical processing. In contrast, an ITG region (ITG-math) that showed higher responses during an adding task vs. other tasks maintained this preference for mathematical processing across a wide range of stimuli including numbers, number/letter morphs, hands, and dice. Analysis of distributed responses across an anatomically-defined posterior ITG expanse further revealed that mathematical task but not Arabic number form can be successfully and consistently decoded from these distributed responses. Together, our findings suggest that the function of neuronal regions in the posterior ITG goes beyond the specific visual processing of Arabic numbers. We hypothesize that they ascribe numerical content to the visual input, irrespective of the format of the stimulus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. One-way traffic: The inferior frontal gyrus controls brain activation in the middle temporal gyrus during divergent thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Beatty, Erin L.; Smith, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    the hypothesis that the PFC exerts unidirectional control over the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), vs. the hypothesis that these two sets of regions exert bidirectional control over each other (in the form of feedback loops). The data were consistent with the former model...... by demonstrating that the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) exerts unidirectional control over MTG and IPL, although the evidence was somewhat stronger in the case of the MTG than the IPL. Our findings highlight potential causal pathways that could underlie the neural bases of divergent thinking....

  3. The regional neuronal activity in left posterior middle temporal gyrus is correlated with the severity of chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Dunren; Gao, Wei; Sun, Xichun; Xie, Haizhu; Zhang, Gang; Li, Jian; Li, Honglun; Li, Kefeng

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most disabling cognitive deficits affecting >2 million people in the USA. The neuroimaging characteristics of chronic aphasic patients (>6 months post onset) remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the regional signal changes of spontaneous neuronal activity of brain and the inter-regional connectivity in chronic aphasia. Resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to obtain fMRI data from 17 chronic aphasic patients and 20 healthy control subjects in a Siemens Verio 3.0T MR Scanner. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was determined, which directly reflects the regional neuronal activity. The functional connectivity (FC) of fMRI was assessed using a seed voxel linear correlation approach. The severity of aphasia was evaluated by aphasia quotient (AQ) scores obtained from Western Aphasia Battery test. Compared with normal subjects, aphasic patients showed decreased ALFF values in the regions of left posterior middle temporal gyrus (PMTG), left medial prefrontal gyrus, and right cerebellum. The ALFF values in left PMTG showed strong positive correlation with the AQ score (coefficient r =0.79, P temporal gyrus (BA20), fusiform gyrus (BA37), and inferior frontal gyrus (BA47\\45\\44). Left PMTG might play an important role in language dysfunction of chronic aphasia, and ALFF value might be a promising indicator to evaluate the severity of aphasia.

  4. Increased cortical thickness and altered functional connectivity of the right superior temporal gyrus in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Lu, Fengmei; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Altered structure in the temporal cortex has been implicated in the variable language laterality of left-handers (LH). The neuroanatomy of language lateralization and the corresponding synchronous functional connectivity (FC) in handedness cohorts are not, however, fully understood. We used structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the effect of altered cortical thickness on FC in LH and right-handers (RH). Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between the LH and RH. We observed increased cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the LH. A further FC analysis was conducted between the right STG and the remaining voxels in the brain. Compared with RH, the LH showed significantly higher FC in the left STG, right occipital cortex, and lower FC in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Our findings suggest that LH have atypical connectivity in the language network, with an enhanced role of the STG, findings which provide novel insights into the structural and functional substrates underlying the atypical language development of left-handed individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low dimensional representation of face space by face-selective inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Sina; Dehaqani, Mohammad-Reza A; Esteky, Hossein

    2017-05-01

    The representation of visual objects in primate brain is distributed and multiple neurons are involved in encoding each object. One way to understand the neural basis of object representation is to estimate the number of neural dimensions that are needed for veridical representation of object categories. In this study, the characteristics of the match between physical-shape and neural representational spaces in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex were evaluated. Specifically, we examined how the number of neural dimensions, stimulus behavioral saliency and stimulus category selectivity of neurons affected the correlation between shape and neural representational spaces in IT cortex. Single-unit recordings from monkey IT cortex revealed that there was a significant match between face space and its neural representation at lower neural dimensions, whereas the optimal match for the non-face objects was observed at higher neural dimensions. There was a statistically significant match between the face and neural spaces only in the face-selective neurons, whereas a significant match was observed for non-face objects in all neurons regardless of their category selectivity. Interestingly, the face neurons showed a higher match for the non-face objects than for the faces at higher neural dimensions. The optimal representation of face space in the responses of the face neurons was a low dimensional map that emerged early (~150 ms post-stimulus onset) and was followed by a high dimensional and relatively late (~300 ms) map for the non-face stimuli. These results support a multiplexing function for the face neurons in the representation of very similar shape spaces, but with different dimensionality and timing scales. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. One-way traffic: The inferior frontal gyrus controls brain activation in the middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule during divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Beatty, Erin L; Smith, Ingrid; Blackler, Kristen; Lam, Quan; Forbes, Sarah

    2018-02-23

    Contrary to earlier approaches that focused on the contributions of isolated brain regions to the emergence of creativity, there is now growing consensus that creative thought emerges from the interaction of multiple brain regions, often embedded within larger brain networks. Specifically, recent evidence from studies of divergent thinking suggests that kernel ideas emerge in posterior brain regions residing within the semantic system and/or the default mode network (DMN), and that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions within the executive control network (ECN) constrain those ideas for generating outputs that meet task demands. However, despite knowing that regions within these networks exhibit interaction, to date the direction of the relationship has not been tested directly. By applying Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to fMRI data collected during a divergent thinking task, we tested the hypothesis that the PFC exerts unidirectional control over the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), vs. the hypothesis that these two sets of regions exert bidirectional control over each other (in the form of feedback loops). The data were consistent with the former model by demonstrating that the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) exerts unidirectional control over MTG and IPL, although the evidence was somewhat stronger in the case of the MTG than the IPL. Our findings highlight potential causal pathways that could underlie the neural bases of divergent thinking. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drilling simulated temporal bones with left-handed tools: a left-hander's right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Cory S; Brydges, Ryan; Chen, Joseph M; Dubrowski, Adam

    2007-11-01

    Left-handed trainees can be at a disadvantage in the surgical environment because of a right-handed bias. The effectiveness of teaching left-handed trainees to use an otologic drill designed for their dominant hand versus the conventional right-handed drill was examined. Novice medical students were recruited from the university community. Twenty-four subjects were left-handed, and 12 were right-handed. Eight left-handed surgeons also participated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the performance of left-handed trainees using novel left-handed drills to that of left-handed trainees using right-handed tools and to that of right-handed trainees using right-handed tools. The evaluation consisted of 3 phases: pretest, skill acquisition, and 2 post-tests. The measurement tools included expert assessment of performance, and subjective and objective final product analyses. An initial construct validity phase was conducted in which validity of the assessment tools was ensured. Both the left-handers using left-handed tools and the right-handers using right-handed tools significantly outperformed the left-handers using right-handed tools at pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest. All participants improved their performance as a function of practice. The left-handed trainees learned bone drilling better with tools designed for the left hand. These tools may be incorporated into residency training programs for the development of surgical technical skills. Future studies should assess skill transfer between the left-handed and right-handed drills.

  8. Surgery for gliomas involving the left inferior parietal lobule: new insights into the functional anatomy provided by stimulation mapping in awake patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Igor Lima; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Bertram, Luc; Moulinié, Gérard; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-10-01

    Surgery in the left dominant inferior parietal lobule (IPL) is challenging because of a high density of somatosensory and language structures, both in the cortex and white matter. In the present study, on the basis of the results provided by direct cerebral stimulation in awake patients, the authors revisit the anatomofunctional aspects of surgery within the left IPL. Fourteen consecutive patients underwent awake craniotomy for a glioma involving the left IPL. Intraoperative motor, sensory, and language mapping was performed before and during the tumor removal, at both the cortical and subcortical levels, to optimize the extent of resection, which was determined based on functional boundaries. Anatomofunctional correlations were performed by combining the results of intraoperative mapping and those provided by pre- and postoperative MR imaging. At the cortical level, the primary somatosensory area (retrocentral gyrus) limited the resection anteriorly in all cases, at least partially. Less frequently, speech arrest or articulatory problems were observed within the parietal operculum (4 cases). The lateral limit was determined by language sites that were variably distributed. Anomia was the most frequent response (9 cases) at the posterior third of the superior (and/or middle) temporal gyrus. Posteriorly, less reproducible reorganized language sites were seldom observed in the posterior portion of the angular gyrus (2 cases). At the subcortical level, in addition to somatosensory responses due to stimulation of the thalamocortical pathways, articulatory disturbances were induced by stimulation of white matter in the anterior and lateral part of the surgical cavity (11 cases). This tract anatomically corresponds to the horizontal portion of the lateral segment of the superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF III). Deeper and superiorly, phonemic paraphasia was the main language disturbance (12 cases), elicited by stimulation of the posterosuperior portion of the arcuate

  9. Superior Temporal Gyrus Volume Abnormalities and Thought Disorder in Left-Handed Schizophrenic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinger, Dorothy P.; Shenton, Martha E.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Donnino, Robert; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Studies of schizophrenia have not clearly defined handedness as a differentiating variable. Moreover, the relationship between thought disorder and anatomical anomalies has not been studied extensively in left-handed schizophrenic men. The twofold purpose of this study was to investigate gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe (left and right hemispheres) in left-handed schizophrenic men and left-handed comparison men, in order to determine whether thought disorder in the left-handed schizophrenic men correlated with tissue volume abnormalities. Method Left-handed male patients (N=8) with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia were compared with left-handed comparison men (N=10) matched for age, socioeconomic status, and IQ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 1.5-T magnet was used to obtain scans, which consisted of contiguous 1.5-mm slices of the whole brain. MRI analyses (as previously defined by the authors) included the anterior, posterior, and total superior temporal gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres. Results There were three significant findings regarding the left-handed schizophrenic men: 1) bilaterally smaller gray matter volumes in the posterior superior temporal gyrus (16% smaller on the right, 15% smaller on the left); 2) a smaller volume on the right side of the total superior temporal gyrus; and 3) a positive correlation between thought disorder and tissue volume in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions These results suggest that expression of brain pathology differs between left-handed and right-handed schizophrenic men and that the pathology is related to cognitive disturbance. PMID:10553736

  10. The regional neuronal activity in left posterior middle temporal gyrus is correlated with the severity of chronic aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jianlin Li,1,* Dunren Du,2,* Wei Gao,1 Xichun Sun,3 Haizhu Xie,1 Gang Zhang,1 Jian Li,1 Honglun Li,1 Kefeng Li4 1Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, Yantai Laishan Branch Hospital of Yuhuangding Hospital, Medical College of Qingdao University, 3Department of Radiology, Yantai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yantai, China; 4School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Aphasia is one of the most disabling cognitive deficits affecting >2 million people in the USA. The neuroimaging characteristics of chronic aphasic patients (>6 months post onset remain largely unknown.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the regional signal changes of spontaneous neuronal activity of brain and the inter-regional connectivity in chronic aphasia. Materials and methods: Resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to obtain fMRI data from 17 chronic aphasic patients and 20 healthy control subjects in a Siemens Verio 3.0T MR Scanner. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF was determined, which directly reflects the regional neuronal activity. The functional connectivity (FC of fMRI was assessed using a seed voxel linear correlation approach. The severity of aphasia was evaluated by aphasia quotient (AQ scores obtained from Western Aphasia Battery test.Results: Compared with normal subjects, aphasic patients showed decreased ALFF values in the regions of left posterior middle temporal gyrus (PMTG, left medial prefrontal gyrus, and right cerebellum. The ALFF values in left PMTG showed strong positive correlation with the AQ score (coefficient r=0.79, P<0.05. There was a positive FC in chronic aphasia between left PMTG and left inferior temporal gyrus (BA20, fusiform gyrus (BA37, and inferior frontal gyrus (BA47\\45\\44. Conclusion: Left PMTG might play

  11. Motion verb sentences activate left posterior middle temporal cortex despite static context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, M; Ellegaard Lund, Torben; Østergaard, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The left posterior middle temporal region, anterior to V5/MT, has been shown to be responsive both to images with implied motion, to simulated motion, and to motion verbs. In this study, we investigated whether sentence context alters the response of the left posterior middle temporal region....... 'Fictive motion' sentences are sentences in which an inanimate subject noun, semantically incapable of self movement, is coupled with a motion verb, yielding an apparent semantic contradiction (e.g. 'The path comes into the garden.'). However, this context yields no less activation in the left posterior...... middle temporal region than sentences in which the motion can be applied to the subject noun. We speculate that the left posterior middle temporal region activity in fictive motion sentences reflects the fact that the hearer applies motion to the depicted scenario by scanning it egocentrically...

  12. The role of the left inferior parietal lobule in second language learning: An intensive language training fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elise B; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Soles, Jennika; Berken, Jonathan; Baum, Shari; Watkins, Kate E; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    Research to date suggests that second language acquisition results in functional and structural changes in the bilingual brain, however, in what way and how quickly these changes occur remains unclear. To address these questions, we studied fourteen English-speaking monolingual adults enrolled in a 12-week intensive French language-training program in Montreal. Using functional MRI, we investigated the neural changes associated with new language acquisition. The participants were scanned before the start of the immersion program and at the end of the 12 weeks. The fMRI scan aimed to investigate the brain regions recruited in a sentence reading task both in English, their first language (L1), and in French, their second language (L2). For the L1, fMRI patterns did not change from Time 1 to Time 2, while for the L2, the brain response changed between Time 1 and Time 2 in language-related areas. Of note, for the L2, there was higher activation at Time 2 compared to Time 1 in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) including the supramarginal gyrus. At Time 2 this higher activation in the IPL correlated with faster L2 reading speed. Moreover, higher activation in the left IPL at Time 1 predicted improvement in L2 reading speed from Time 1 to Time 2. Our results suggest that learning-induced plasticity occurred as early as 12 weeks into immersive second-language training, and that the IPL appears to play a special role in language learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava involving bilateral renal veins: Surgical challenges and reconstruction with upfront saphenous vein interposition graft for left renal vein outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Nayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava (IVC involving bilateral renal veins presents a surgical challenge. Herein, we report the successful management of two such cases using restoration of left renal venous outflow by saphenous vein interposition graft as first step of surgery. Then radical resection of tumor and right kidney was done. IVC was lastly reconstructed using Gore-Tex graft. This report highlights the surgical challenges to ensure radical resection. Furthermore, the importance of restoring left renal outflow in presence of concomitant right nephrectomy is discussed. Both the patients were disease free at six months with no loss of left renal glomerular filtration rate.

  14. Temporal lobe and inferior frontal gyrus dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia during face-to-face conversation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yuichi; Suda, Masashi; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Miho; Sakurai, Noriko; Narita, Kosuke; Fukuda, Masato; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2013-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SC) is marked by poor social-role performance and social-skill deficits that are well reflected in daily conversation. Although the mechanism underlying these impairments has been investigated by functional neuroimaging, technical limitations have prevented the investigation of brain activation during conversation in typical clinical situations. To fill this research gap, this study investigated and compared frontal and temporal lobe activation in patients with SC during face-to-face conversation. Frontal and temporal lobe activation in 29 patients and 31 normal controls (NC) (n = 60) were measured during 180-s conversation periods by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The grand average values of oxyhemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) changes during task performance were analyzed to determine their correlation with clinical variables and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) subscores. Compared to NCs, patients with SC exhibited decreased performance in the conversation task and decreased activation in both the temporal lobes and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during task performance, as indicated by the grand average of [oxy-Hb] changes. The decreased activation in the left temporal lobe was negatively correlated with the PANSS disorganization and negative symptoms subscores and that in the right IFG was negatively correlated with illness duration, PANSS disorganization, and negative symptom subscores. These findings indicate that brain dysfunction in SC during conversation is related to functional deficits in both the temporal lobes and the right IFG and manifests primarily in the form of disorganized thinking and negative symptomatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

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    R.R. Uchida

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t21 = 2.37, P = 0.028. In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10 to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t21 = 1.99, P = 0.06, right amygdala (8%, t21 = 1.83, P = 0.08, left amygdala (5%, t21 = 1.78, P = 0.09 and left hippocampus (9%, t21 = 1.93, P = 0.07 in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025, with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures.

  16. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

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    Uchida, R.R.; Del-Ben, C.M.; Araujo, D.; Crippa, J.A.; Graeff, F.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Psicologia Medica]. E-mail: fgraeff@keynet.com.br; Santos, A.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Guimaraes, F.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia

    2003-07-01

    Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t{sub 21} = 2.37, P = 0.028). In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10) to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t{sub 21} = 1.99, P = 0.06), right amygdala (8%, t{sub 21} = 1.83, P = 0.08), left amygdala (5%, t{sub 21} = 1.78, P 0.09) and left hippocampus (9%, t{sub 21} = 1.93, P = 0.07) in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025), with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures. (author)

  17. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, R.R.; Del-Ben, C.M.; Araujo, D.; Crippa, J.A.; Graeff, F.G.; Santos, A.C.; Guimaraes, F.S.

    2003-01-01

    Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t 21 = 2.37, P = 0.028). In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10) to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t 21 = 1.99, P = 0.06), right amygdala (8%, t 21 = 1.83, P = 0.08), left amygdala (5%, t 21 = 1.78, P 0.09) and left hippocampus (9%, t 21 = 1.93, P = 0.07) in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025), with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures. (author)

  18. Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Sensitivity to Phonetic Competition in Receptive Language Processing: A Comparison of Clear and Conversational Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Myers, Emily

    2018-03-01

    The speech signal is rife with variations in phonetic ambiguity. For instance, when talkers speak in a conversational register, they demonstrate less articulatory precision, leading to greater potential for confusability at the phonetic level compared with a clear speech register. Current psycholinguistic models assume that ambiguous speech sounds activate more than one phonological category and that competition at prelexical levels cascades to lexical levels of processing. Imaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is modulated by phonetic competition between simultaneously activated categories, with increases in activation for more ambiguous tokens. Yet, these studies have often used artificially manipulated speech and/or metalinguistic tasks, which arguably may recruit neural regions that are not critical for natural speech recognition. Indeed, a prominent model of speech processing, the dual-stream model, posits that the LIFG is not involved in prelexical processing in receptive language processing. In the current study, we exploited natural variation in phonetic competition in the speech signal to investigate the neural systems sensitive to phonetic competition as listeners engage in a receptive language task. Participants heard nonsense sentences spoken in either a clear or conversational register as neural activity was monitored using fMRI. Conversational sentences contained greater phonetic competition, as estimated by measures of vowel confusability, and these sentences also elicited greater activation in a region in the LIFG. Sentence-level phonetic competition metrics uniquely correlated with LIFG activity as well. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the LIFG responds to competition at multiple levels of language processing and that recruitment of this region does not require an explicit phonological judgment.

  19. Functional dissociation between anterior temporal lobe and inferior frontal gyrus in the processing of dynamic body expressions: Insights from behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastorff, Jan; De Winter, Francois-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; Vandenberghe, Rik; Giese, Martin A; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-12-01

    Several brain regions are involved in the processing of emotional stimuli, however, the contribution of specific regions to emotion perception is still under debate. To investigate this issue, we combined behavioral testing, structural and resting state imaging in patients diagnosed with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and age matched controls, with task-based functional imaging in young, healthy volunteers. As expected, bvFTD patients were impaired in emotion detection as well as emotion categorization tasks, testing dynamic emotional body expressions as stimuli. Interestingly, their performance in the two tasks correlated with gray matter volume in two distinct brain regions, the left anterior temporal lobe for emotion detection and the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for emotion categorization. Confirming this observation, multivoxel pattern analysis in healthy volunteers demonstrated that both ROIs contained information for emotion detection, but that emotion categorization was only possible from the pattern in the IFG. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed reduced connectivity between the two regions in bvFTD patients. Our results illustrate that the mentalizing network and the action observation network perform distinct tasks during emotion processing. In bvFTD, communication between the networks is reduced, indicating one possible cause underlying the behavioral symptoms. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4472-4486, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ictal spitting in left temporal lobe epilepsy: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Miyashira, Flavia Saori; Hamad, Ana Paula Andrade; Lin, Katia; Carrete, Henrique; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2006-09-01

    Ictal spitting is rarely reported in patients with epilepsy. More often it is observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and is presumed to be a lateralizing sign to language nondominant hemisphere. We report three patients with left TLE who had ictal spitting registered during prolonged video-EEG monitoring. Medical charts of all patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy submitted to prolonged video-EEG monitoring in the Epilepsy Unit at UNIFESP during a 3-year period were reviewed, in search of reports of ictal spitting. The clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging data of the identified patients were reviewed. Among 136 patients evaluated with prolonged video-EEG monitoring, three (2.2%) presented spitting automatisms during complex partial seizures. All of them were right-handed, and had clear signs of left hippocampal sclerosis on MRI. In two patients, in all seizures in which ictal spitting was observed, EEG seizure onset was seen in the left temporal lobe. In the third patient, ictal onset with scalp electrodes was observed in the right temporal lobe, but semi-invasive monitoring with foramen ovale electrodes revealed ictal onset in the left temporal lobe, confirming false lateralization in surface records. The three patients became seizure-free following left anterior temporal lobectomy. Ictal spitting is a rare finding in patients with epilepsy, and may be considered a localizing sign of seizure onset in the temporal lobe. It may be observed in seizures originating from the left temporal lobe, and thus should not be considered a lateralizing sign of nondominant TLE.

  1. A functional MRI study of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aihong; Wang Xiaoyi; Xu Guoqing; Li Yongjie; Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng; Wang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using fMRI. Materials and methods: Eight patients with left MTLE and 15 healthy subjects were evaluated. An auditory semantic judgment (AJ) paradigm was used. The fMRI data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by AFNI (analysis of functional neuroimages) to generate the activation map. Results: Behavioral data showed that the reaction time of the left MTLE patients was significantly longer than that of controls on the AJ task (t = -3.396, P < 0.05). The left MTLE patients also exhibited diffusively decreased activation in the AJ task. Right hemisphere dominance of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was demonstrated in left MTLE patients. Conclusions: Long-term activation of spikes in left MTLE patients results in language impairment, which is associated with an abnormality of the brain neural network.

  2. Impairment of language is related to left parieto-temporal glucose metabolism in aphasic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbe, H; Szelies, B; Herholz, K; Heiss, W D

    1990-02-01

    Twenty-six aphasic patients who had an ischaemic infarct in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) were investigated. Cranial computed tomography (CT) showed various lesion sites: infarcts restricted to cortical structures in 12 patients, combined cortical and subcortical infarcts in 7 and isolated subcortical infarcts sparing the left cortex in another 7 cases. 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed remote hypometabolism of the left convexity cortex and of the left basal ganglia, which was extended further than the morphological infarct zone in all cases. Types and degrees of aphasia were classified using the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT): 10 patients had global aphasia, 2 Broca's, 5 Wernicke's, and 5 amnesic aphasia. Four patients suffered from minimal or residual aphasic symptoms. The AAT results were compared with the regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose of the left hemisphere. Irrespective of the infarct location all five AAT subtests (Token test, repetition, written language, confrontation naming, auditory and reading comprehension) were closely correlated among each other and with left parieto-temporal metabolic rates, whereas left frontal and left basal ganglia metabolism showed no significant correlation. The close relation between left temporo-parietal functional activity and all five AAT subtests suggests that the different aspects of aphasia tested by AAT can be related to a common disorder of language processing in those areas.

  3. Verbal Memory Compensation: Application to Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epileptic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson, Christel; Lespinet-Najib, Veronique; Rougier, Alain; Claverie, Bernard; N'Kaoua, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the compensatory impact of cognitive aids on left and right temporal lobe epileptic patients suffering from verbal memory disorders, who were candidates for surgery. Cognitive aids are defined in the levels-of-processing framework and deal with the depth of encoding, the elaboration of information, and the use of retrieval…

  4. BOLD Response to Motion Verbs in Left Posterior Middle Temporal Gyrus during Story Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Hojlund; Vuust, Peter; Dohn, Anders; Roepstorff, Andreas; Lund, Torben Ellegaard

    2011-01-01

    A primary focus within neuroimaging research on language comprehension is on the distribution of semantic knowledge in the brain. Studies have shown that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMT), a region just anterior to area MT/V5, is important for the processing of complex action knowledge. It has also been found that motion verbs cause…

  5. BOLD response to motion verbs in left posterior middle temporal gyrus during story comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Vuust, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A primary focus within neuroimaging research on language comprehension is on the distribution of semantic knowledge in the brain. Studies have shown that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMT), a region just anterior to area MT/V5, is important for the processing of complex action...

  6. Simple Learned Weighted Sums of Inferior Temporal Neuronal Firing Rates Accurately Predict Human Core Object Recognition Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A.; DiCarlo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT (“face patches”) did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a

  7. Perturbation of the left inferior frontal gyrus triggers adaptive plasticity in the right homologous area during speech production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Saur, Dorothee; Price, Cathy J

    2013-01-01

    The role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery after left hemisphere damage remains unclear. Increased activation of the right hemisphere has been observed after left hemisphere damage. This may simply reflect a release from transcallosal inhibition that does not contribute to language...... hemisphere lesion. Our findings lend further support to the notion that increased activation of homologous right hemisphere areas supports aphasia recovery after left hemisphere damage....

  8. Activation of the left superior temporal gyrus of musicians by music-derived sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshie; Tanaka, Satomi; Kazai, Koji; Tsuzaki, Minoru; Katayose, Haruhiro

    2013-01-09

    Previous studies have suggested that professional musicians comprehend features of music-derived sound even if the sound sequence lacks the traditional temporal structure of music. We tested this hypothesis through behavioral and functional brain imaging experiments. Musicians were better than nonmusicians at identifying scrambled pieces of piano music in which the original temporal structure had been destroyed. Bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG) activity was observed while musicians listened to the scrambled stimuli, whereas this activity was present only in the right STG of nonmusicians under the same experimental conditions. We suggest that left STG activation is related to the processing of deviants, which appears to be enhanced in musicians. This may be because of the superior knowledge of musical temporal structure held by this population.

  9. Greater pre-stimulus effective connectivity from the left inferior frontal area to other areas is associated with better phonological decoding in dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Frye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that neural networks that subserve reading are organized differently in dyslexic readers (DRs and typical readers (TRs, yet the hierarchical structure of these networks has not been well studied. We used Granger Causality (GC to examine the effective connectivity of the preparatory network that occurs prior to viewing a non-word stimulus that requires phonological decoding in 7 DRs and 10 TRs who were young adults. The neuromagnetic activity that occurred 500 ms prior to each rhyme trial was analyzed from sensors overlying the left and right inferior frontal areas (IFA, temporoparietal areas (TPA, and ventral occipitotemporal areas (VOTA within the low, medium, and high beta and gamma sub-bands. A mixed-model analysis determined whether connectivity to or from the left and right IFAs differed across connectivity direction (into vs. out of the IFAs, brain areas, reading group, and/or performance. Results indicated that greater connectivity in the low beta sub-band from the left IFA to other cortical areas was significantly related to better non-word rhyme discrimination in DRs but not TRs. This suggests that the left IFA is an important cortical area involved in compensating for poor phonological function in DRs. We suggest that the left IFA activates a wider-than usual network prior to each trial in the service of supporting otherwise effortful phonological decoding in DRs. The fact that the left IFA provides top-down activation to both posterior left hemispheres areas used by typical readers for phonological decoding and homologous right hemisphere areas is discussed. In contrast, within the high gamma sub-band, better performance was associated with decreased connectivity between the left IFA and other brain areas, in both reading groups. Overly strong gamma connectivity during the pre-stimulus period may interfere with subsequent transient activation and deactivation of sub-networks once the non

  10. Independent representations of verbs and actions in left lateral temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, Marius V; Romagno, Domenica; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    Verbs and nouns differ not only on formal linguistic grounds but also in what they typically refer to: Verbs typically refer to actions, whereas nouns typically refer to objects. Prior neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions in the left lateral temporal cortex (LTC), including the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), respond selectively to action verbs relative to object nouns. Other studies have implicated the left pMTG in action knowledge, raising the possibility that verb selectivity in LTC may primarily reflect action-specific semantic features. Here, using functional neuroimaging, we test this hypothesis. Participants performed a simple memory task on visually presented verbs and nouns that described either events (e.g., "he eats" and "the conversation") or states (e.g., "he exists" and "the value"). Verb-selective regions in the left pMTG and the left STS were defined in individual participants by an independent localizer contrast between action verbs and object nouns. Both regions showed equally strong selectivity for event and state verbs relative to semantically matched nouns. The left STS responded more to states than events, whereas there was no difference between states and events in the left pMTG. Finally, whole-brain group analysis revealed that action verbs, relative to state verbs, activated a cluster in pMTG that was located posterior to the verb-selective pMTG clusters. Together, these results indicate that verb selectivity in LTC is independent of action representations. We consider other differences between verbs and nouns that may underlie verb selectivity in LTC, including the verb property of predication.

  11. Potential role of a cognitive rehabilitation program following left temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Vasconcelos Geraldi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Research into memory and epilepsy has focused on measuring problems and exploring causes with limited attention directed at the role of neuropsychological rehabilitation in alleviating post-operative memory difficulties. Objectives To assess the effects of a memory rehabilitation program in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy following surgery. Methods Twenty-four patients agreed to participate and 18 completed the study; nine received memory rehabilitation while nine had no input and were designated as controls. Verbal learning efficiency, naming abilities, memory subjective ratings, ecological activity measures and a language fMRI paradigm were used as outcome measures. Results Improved verbal learning and naming test performance, increase in memory strategy use and improved self-perception were observed following the rehabilitation. Changes in fMRI activation patterns were seen in the rehabilitation group over the long term. Conclusion The findings support the potential role of a cognitive rehabilitation program following left temporal lobe surgery.

  12. Can FDG PET predict verbal specific memory decline after surgery for left temporal lobe epilepsy when MRI is normal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagona, J.A.; Rowe, C.C.; Thomas, D.; Dickinson-Rowe, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Temporal lobectomy gives excellent control of seizures in over 80% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The left temporal lobe, particularly the left hippocampus, is primarily responsible for verbal memory. In most patients, the hippocampus which lies in the medial temporal lobe is abnormal and can be removed without loss of memory function. However, removal of the left hippocampus when it appears normal on MRI, often causes a significant decline in verbal specific memory (VSM) function. This paper explores the significance of pre-operative FDG-PET asymmetry in temporal lobe metabolism in predicting the VSM outcome after left temporal lobectomy when MRI demonstrates a normal hippocampus. Fifteen patients between 1993 and 2000, underwent left temporal lobectomy including left hippocampal resection, Pre-operatively all patients underwent 1.5T MRI, FDG PET and neuropsychological assessment. Neuropsychological assessment was repeated post-operatively. The left hippocampus was normal on MRI in nine and demonstrated mild T2 signal change without atrophy in six. FDG PET demonstrated temporal lobe hypometabolism in 12 patients. Post-operatively, neuropsychological evaluation documented a decline in verbal specific memory function in six patients, three with normal MRI and three with mild T2 change. We found that all patients with normal FDG PET studies (n=3) demonstrated significant verbal memory deterioration post-operatively. Nine of twelve patients (75%) with left temporal lobe hypometabolism did not show new verbal memory deficits. FDG PET improves the risk stratification for verbal specific memory decline with left temporal lobectomy in patients with normal hippocampi on MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Left fronto-temporal dynamics during agreement processing: evidence for feature-specific computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barber, Horacio A; Pérez, Alejandro; Parkkonen, Lauri; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Grammatical agreement is a widespread language phenomenon that indicates formal syntactic relations between words; however, it also conveys basic lexical (e.g. grammatical gender) or semantic (e.g. numerosity) information about a discourse referent. In this study, we focus on the reading of Spanish noun phrases, violating either number or gender determiner-noun agreement compared to grammatical controls. Magnetoencephalographic activity time-locked to the onset of the noun in both types of violation revealed a left-lateralized brain network involving anterior temporal regions (~220 ms) and, later in time, ventro-lateral prefrontal regions (>300 ms). These activations coexist with dependency-specific effects: in an initial step (~170 ms), occipito-temporal regions are employed for fine-grained analysis of the number marking (in Spanish, presence or absence of the suffix '-s'), while anterior temporal regions show increased activation for gender mismatches compared to grammatical controls. The semantic relevance of number agreement dependencies was mainly reflected by left superior temporal increased activity around 340 ms. These findings offer a detailed perspective on the multi-level analyses involved in the initial computation of agreement dependencies, and theoretically support a derivational approach to agreement computation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased functional connectivity strength of right inferior temporal gyrus in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qinji; Yao, Dapeng; Jiang, Muliang; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Jiajing; Xu, Chunxing; Dai, Yi; Yu, Miaoyu; Long, Liling; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Jianrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Changqing; Guo, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of brain structural and functional alterations have been implicated in patients with somatization disorder (SD). However, little is known about brain functional connectivity in SD. In the present study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and graph theory were used to obtain a comprehensive view of whole-brain functional connectivity and to investigate the changes of voxel-wise functional networks in patients with SD. Twenty-five first-episode, medication-naive patients with SD and 28 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state fMRI. The graph theory approach was employed to analyze the data. Compared to the HCs, patients with SD showed significantly increased functional connectivity strength in the right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). There is a significant positive correlation between the z-values of the cluster in the right ITG and Hamilton Anxiety Scale scores. Our findings indicate that there is a disruption of the functional connectivity pattern in the right ITG in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD, which bears clinical significance. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  15. Acoustic cue selection and discrimination under degradation: differential contributions of the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-02-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill for perceiving the acoustic environment. Categorization depends on the discriminability of the sensory input as well as on the ability of the listener to adaptively make use of the relevant features of the sound. Previous studies on categorization have focused either on speech sounds when studying discriminability or on visual stimuli when assessing optimal cue utilization. Here, by contrast, we examined neural sensitivity to stimulus discriminability and optimal cue utilization when categorizing novel, non-speech auditory stimuli not affected by long-term familiarity. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, listeners categorized sounds from two category distributions, differing along two acoustic dimensions: spectral shape and duration. By introducing spectral degradation after the first half of the experiment, we manipulated both stimulus discriminability and the relative informativeness of acoustic cues. Degradation caused an overall decrease in discriminability based on spectral shape, and therefore enhanced the informativeness of duration. A relative increase in duration-cue utilization was accompanied by increased activity in left parietal cortex. Further, discriminability modulated right planum temporale activity to a higher degree when stimuli were spectrally degraded than when they were not. These findings provide support for separable contributions of parietal and posterior temporal areas to perceptual categorization. The parietal cortex seems to support the selective utilization of informative stimulus cues, while the posterior superior temporal cortex as a primarily auditory brain area supports discriminability particularly under acoustic degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Amygdala lesions disrupt modulation of functional MRI activity evoked by facial expression in the monkey inferior temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Liu, Ning; Bell, Andrew H.; Gothard, Katalin M.; Luh, Wen-Ming; Tootell, Roger B. H.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that facial expressions modulate functional MRI activity in the face-processing regions of the macaque monkey’s amygdala and inferior temporal (IT) cortex. Specifically, we showed that faces expressing emotion yield greater activation than neutral faces; we term this difference the “valence effect.” We hypothesized that amygdala lesions would disrupt the valence effect by eliminating the modulatory feedback from the amygdala to the IT cortex. We compared the valence effects within the IT cortex in monkeys with excitotoxic amygdala lesions (n = 3) with those in intact control animals (n = 3) using contrast agent-based functional MRI at 3 T. Images of four distinct monkey facial expressions—neutral, aggressive (open mouth threat), fearful (fear grin), and appeasing (lip smack)—were presented to the subjects in a blocked design. Our results showed that in monkeys with amygdala lesions the valence effects were strongly disrupted within the IT cortex, whereas face responsivity (neutral faces > scrambled faces) and face selectivity (neutral faces > non-face objects) were unaffected. Furthermore, sparing of the anterior amygdala led to intact valence effects in the anterior IT cortex (which included the anterior face-selective regions), whereas sparing of the posterior amygdala led to intact valence effects in the posterior IT cortex (which included the posterior face-selective regions). Overall, our data demonstrate that the feedback projections from the amygdala to the IT cortex mediate the valence effect found there. Moreover, these modulatory effects are consistent with an anterior-to-posterior gradient of projections, as suggested by classical tracer studies. PMID:23184972

  17. Memory outcome following left anterior temporal lobectomy in patients with a failed Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Alexander, Aley; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the memory outcome following left anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) between patients with a failed Wada test and patients who passed the Wada test. From 1996 to 2002, we performed the Wada test on all patients with unilateral left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) and concordant electroclinical data before ATL. We used a 12-item recognition paradigm for memory testing and awarded a score of +1 for each correct response and -0.5 for each incorrect response. No patient was denied surgery on the basis of Wada scores. We assessed cognitive and memory functions using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Memory Scale preoperatively and at one year after ATL. We compared the number of patients who showed decline in memory scores, as per the published reliable change indices, between the patients with a failed Wada test and the patients who passed the Wada test. Out of the 116 eligible patients with left MTLE-HS, 88 underwent bilateral Wada test, while 28 underwent ipsilateral Wada test. None of them developed postoperative amnesia. Approximately, one-third of patients with a failed Wada memory test when the failure was defined as a contralateral score of 8, and as an asymmetry score of failed Wada memory test and the group who passed the Wada memory test. The results remained the same when analyses were repeated at various other cutoff points. The patients with left MTLE-HS with concordant electroclinical, MRI, and neuropsychological data should not be denied ATL solely on the basis of Wada memory test results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Left Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus within the Primary Sensory Area of Inferior Parietal Lobe Plays a Role in Dysgraphia of Kana Omission within Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobusada Shinoura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurological changes after surgery combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI tractography can directly provide evidence of anatomical localization of brain function. Using these techniques, a patient with dysgraphia before surgery was analyzed at our hospital in 2011. The patient showed omission of kana within sentences before surgery, which improved after surgery. The brain tumor was relatively small and was located within the primary sensory area (S1 of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL. DTI tractography before surgery revealed compression of the branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF by the brain tumor. These results suggest that the left SLF within the S1 of IPL plays a role in the development of dysgraphia of kana omission within sentences.

  19. Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: Individual variability or false positives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Nicholas D.; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J.

    2008-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read r !sults in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In tl e first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in >= 1 left OT voxel for word:

  20. Bihemispheric stimulation over left and right inferior frontal region enhances recovery from apraxia of speech in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangolo, Paola; Fiori, Valentina; Cipollari, Susanna; Campana, Serena; Razzano, Carmelina; Di Paola, Margherita; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have already shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful tool for enhancing recovery in aphasia. However, all tDCS studies have previously investigated the effects using unihemisperic stimulation. No reports to date have examined the role of bihemispheric tDCS on aphasia recovery. Here, eight aphasic persons with apraxia of speech underwent intensive language therapy in two different conditions: real bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional stimulation over the left Broca's area and cathodic contralesional stimulation over the right homologue of Broca's area, and a sham condition. In both conditions, patients underwent concurrent language therapy for their apraxia of speech. The language treatment lasted 10 days (Monday to Friday, then weekend off, then Monday to Friday). There was a 14-day intersession interval between the real and the sham conditions. In all patients, language measures were collected before (T0), at the end of (T10) and 1 week after the end of (F/U) treatment. Results showed that after simultaneous excitatory stimulation to the left frontal hemisphere and inhibitory stimulation to the right frontal hemisphere regions, patients exhibited a significant recovery not only in terms of better accuracy and speed in articulating the treated stimuli but also in other language tasks (picture description, noun and verb naming, word repetition, word reading) which persisted in the follow-up session. Taken together, these data suggest that bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional and cathodic contralesional stimulation in chronic aphasia patients may affect the treated function, resulting in a positive influence on different language tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Left Superior Temporal Gyrus Is Coupled to Attended Speech in a Cocktail-Party Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ghinst, Marc; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Op de Beeck, Marc; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Hassid, Sergio; Choufani, Georges; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-02-03

    Using a continuous listening task, we evaluated the coupling between the listener's cortical activity and the temporal envelopes of different sounds in a multitalker auditory scene using magnetoencephalography and corticovocal coherence analysis. Neuromagnetic signals were recorded from 20 right-handed healthy adult humans who listened to five different recorded stories (attended speech streams), one without any multitalker background (No noise) and four mixed with a "cocktail party" multitalker background noise at four signal-to-noise ratios (5, 0, -5, and -10 dB) to produce speech-in-noise mixtures, here referred to as Global scene. Coherence analysis revealed that the modulations of the attended speech stream, presented without multitalker background, were coupled at ∼0.5 Hz to the activity of both superior temporal gyri, whereas the modulations at 4-8 Hz were coupled to the activity of the right supratemporal auditory cortex. In cocktail party conditions, with the multitalker background noise, the coupling was at both frequencies stronger for the attended speech stream than for the unattended Multitalker background. The coupling strengths decreased as the Multitalker background increased. During the cocktail party conditions, the ∼0.5 Hz coupling became left-hemisphere dominant, compared with bilateral coupling without the multitalker background, whereas the 4-8 Hz coupling remained right-hemisphere lateralized in both conditions. The brain activity was not coupled to the multitalker background or to its individual talkers. The results highlight the key role of listener's left superior temporal gyri in extracting the slow ∼0.5 Hz modulations, likely reflecting the attended speech stream within a multitalker auditory scene. When people listen to one person in a "cocktail party," their auditory cortex mainly follows the attended speech stream rather than the entire auditory scene. However, how the brain extracts the attended speech stream from the whole

  2. Non-perceptual Regions in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobe Support Phonological Short-term Memory: Evidence for a Buffer Account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qiuhai; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Rose, Nathan S

    2018-03-07

    Buffer versus embedded processes accounts of short-term memory (STM) for phonological information were addressed by testing subjects' perception and memory for speech and non-speech auditory stimuli. Univariate and multivariate (MVPA) approaches were used to assess whether brain regions recruited in recognizing speech were involved in maintaining speech representations over a delay. As expected, a left superior temporal region was found to support speech perception. However, contrary to the embedded processes approach, this region failed to show a load effect, or any sustained activation, during a maintenance delay. Moreover, MVPA decoding during the maintenance stage was unsuccessful in this region by a perception classifier or an encoding classifier. In contrast, the left supramarginal gyrus showed both sustained activation and a load effect. Using MVPA, stimulus decoding was successful during the delay period. In addition, a functional connectivity analysis showed that, as memory load increased, the left temporal lobe involved in perception became more strongly connected with the parietal region involved in maintenance. Taken together, the findings provide greater support for a buffer than embedded processes account of phonological STM.

  3. Genetic underpinnings of left superior temporal gyrus thickness in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthusen, Rick P F; Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Turner, Jessica A; Rössner, Veit; Sponheim, Scott R; Ho, Beng-Choon; Holt, Daphne J; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-08-07

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous phenotypic appearance. We aimed to further the understanding of some of the underlying genetics of schizophrenia, using left superior temporal gyrus (STG) grey matter thickness reduction as an endophenoptype in a genome-wide association (GWA) study. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic data of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium (MCIC) study of schizophrenia were used to analyse the interaction effects between 1,067,955 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease status on left STG thickness in 126 healthy controls and 113 patients with schizophrenia. We next used a pathway approach to detect underlying pathophysiological pathways that may be related to schizophrenia. No SNP by diagnosis interaction effect reached genome-wide significance (5 × 10 -8 ) in our GWA study, but 10 SNPs reached P-values less than 10 -6 . The most prominent pathways included those involved in insulin, calcium, PI3K-Akt and MAPK signalling. Our strongest findings in the GWA study and pathway analysis point towards an involvement of glucose metabolism in left STG thickness reduction in patients with schizophrenia only. These results are in line with recently published studies, which showed an increased prevalence of psychosis among patients with metabolic syndrome-related illnesses including diabetes.

  4. Storage of Verbal Associations Is Sufficient to Activate the Left Medial Temporal Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Mayes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory encoding activates the medial temporal lobe (MTL. Many believe that these activations are related to novelty but it remains unproven which is critical - novelty detection or the rich associative encoding it triggers. We examined MTL activation during verbal associative encoding using functional magnetic resonance imaging. First, associative encoding activated left posterior MTL more than single word encoding even though novelty detection was matched, indicating not only that associative encoding activates the MTL particularly strongly, but also that activation does not require novelty detection. Moreover, it remains to be convincingly shown that novelty detection alone does produce such activation. Second, repetitive associative encoding produced less MTL activation than initial associative encoding, indicating that priming of associative information reduces MTL activation. Third, re-encoding familiar associations in a well-established way had a minimal effect on both memory and MTL activation, indicating that MTL activation reflects storage of associations, not merely their initial representation.

  5. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  6. Morphometry of Left Frontal and Temporal Poles Predicts Analogical Reasoning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichelburg, Clarisse; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Humbert, Frederic; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical for making inferences and adapting to novelty. It can be studied experimentally using tasks that require creating similarities between situations or concepts, i.e., when their constituent elements share a similar organization or structure. Brain correlates of analogical reasoning have mostly been explored using functional imaging that has highlighted the involvement of the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) in healthy subjects. However, whether inter-individual variability in analogical reasoning ability in a healthy adult population is related to differences in brain architecture is unknown. We investigated this question by employing linear regression models of performance in analogy tasks and voxel-based morphometry in 54 healthy subjects. Our results revealed that the ability to reason by analogy was associated with structural variability in the left rlPFC and the anterior part of the inferolateral temporal cortex. Tractography of diffusion-weighted images suggested that these 2 regions have a different set of connections but may exchange information via the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest that enhanced integrative and semantic abilities supported by structural variation in these areas (or their connectivity) may lead to more efficient analogical reasoning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Lesion of extrahippocampal cortices of left medial temporal lobe: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, J A; Galíndez, C; Spada, A

    The cortex of medial temporal lobe is a group of different allocortical fields which included the hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, hippocampus proper, and subicular complex) and extrahippocampal cortices (entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal). It is widely accepted that both of them play an important role in memory process. In humans, several reports indicates that damage to the hippocampus alone would lead to a clinically significant amnesia; when the injuries are more extensive others cognitive disorders, as those related to visual sphere, make worse the clinic picture, and some of these cases were reported as associative visual agnosias. Nevertheless, although evidence from animal studies points to the importance of the extrahippocampal medial temporal lobe cortices in order to recognise visual stimuli, such involvement has not been demonstrated in humans. A 44 year-old male who consulted us because they had lost about of '80% of his vision' after a stroke. Ophthalmological examination was entirely within normal limits, but neuropsychological test put in evidence difficulties in the visuo-verbal naming, discrimination of superposed images, recognition of faces and, mainly, in the test of immediate and deferred visual memory. Anterograde memory impairment was also revealed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion of left entorhinal, perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. We suggest, in relation to anatomical evidences, that isolation of hippocampus is responsible for symptomatollogy of our patient.

  8. Dissociating the semantic function of two neighbouring subregions in the left lateral anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Ana; Hope, Thomas M H; Jones, 'Ōiwi Parker; Prejawa, Susan; Oberhuber, Marion; Guerin, Julie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2015-09-01

    We used fMRI in 35 healthy participants to investigate how two neighbouring subregions in the lateral anterior temporal lobe (LATL) contribute to semantic matching and object naming. Four different levels of processing were considered: (A) recognition of the object concepts; (B) search for semantic associations related to object stimuli; (C) retrieval of semantic concepts of interest; and (D) retrieval of stimulus specific concepts as required for naming. During semantic association matching on picture stimuli or heard object names, we found that activation in both subregions was higher when the objects were semantically related (mug-kettle) than unrelated (car-teapot). This is consistent with both LATL subregions playing a role in (C), the successful retrieval of amodal semantic concepts. In addition, one subregion was more activated for object naming than matching semantically related objects, consistent with (D), the retrieval of a specific concept for naming. We discuss the implications of these novel findings for cognitive models of semantic processing and left anterior temporal lobe function. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Tell it to a child! A brain stimulation study of the role of left inferior frontal gyrus in emotion regulation during storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Mattiassi, Alan D A; Buiatti, Tania; Marini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    In everyday life we need to continuously regulate our emotional responses according to their social context. Strategies of emotion regulation allow individuals to control time, intensity, nature and expression of emotional responses to environmental stimuli. The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is involved in the cognitive control of the selection of semantic content. We hypothesized that it might also be involved in the regulation of emotional feelings and expressions. We applied continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over LIFG or a control site before a newly-developed ecological regulation task that required participants to produce storytelling of pictures with negative or neutral valence to either a peer (unregulated condition) or a child (regulated condition). Linguistic, expressive, and physiological responses were analyzed in order to assess the effects of LIFG-cTBS on emotion regulation. Results showed that the emotion regulation context modulated the emotional content of narrative productions, but not the physiologic orienting response or the early expressive behavior to negative stimuli. Furthermore, LIFG-cTBS disrupted the text-level structuring of negative picture storytelling and the early cardiac and muscular response to negative pictures; however, it did not affect the contextual emotional regulation of storytelling. These results may suggest that LIFG is involved in the initial detection of the affective arousal of emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Presurgical language fMRI activation correlates with postsurgical verbal memory decline in left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Mertens, Markus; Aengenendt, Joerg; Ebner, Alois; Woermann, Friedrich G

    2010-12-01

    We analysed the association of presurgical language fMRI activations and postsurgical verbal memory changes in 16 left-sided mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with initially intact memory. Patients with severe verbal memory decline after surgery (n = 9) had stronger presurgical fMRI activations within the left posterior temporal lobe, compared to those with no decline (n = 7). Language fMRI activation may predict verbal memory outcome, even in patients with a high risk of postsurgical memory deterioration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Specific spatio-temporal activities in the cerebral ganglion of Incilaria fruhstorferi in response to superior and inferior tentacle nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinae, Hisanori; Makino, Yoshinari; Obara, Tsukasa; Yano, Masafumi

    2008-09-22

    In terrestrial gastropod mollusks (slugs and snails), olfaction is the dominant sensory modality guiding various kinds of behavior. Anatomical studies indicate that olfactory information is processed in the brain (the cerebral ganglion) in two lobes in particular: the procerebrum (PC) and the metacerebrum (MtC). This implies that olfactory functions emerge from simultaneous and cooperative processing in the PC and the MtC. However, no previous physiological study has investigated the activity in these two lobes simultaneously. In the present study, the activity evoked by electrical stimulation of the olfactory nerves, the superior and inferior tentacle nerves, was recorded optically from the whole cerebral ganglion of the terrestrial slug, Incilaria fruhstorferi. The results indicated that the evoked activity in the PC and the MtC showed two specific spatio-temporal patterns. First, when either set of nerves was stimulated, the activity of the medial neuropilar region of the MtC (the mMtC) always preceded the activity in the PC. Second, stimulation of the superior tentacle nerves activated the medial and lateral halves of the mMtC almost evenly, whereas stimulation of the inferior tentacle nerves activated the lateral half of the mMtC more strongly than the medial half. These results suggest that the activated region of the mMtC plays an important role in olfactory processing, especially with respect to the functional differences between the superior and inferior tentacles.

  12. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  13. Right-to-left-shunt detected by c-TCD using the orbital window in comparison with temporal bone windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kimura, Kazumi; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Kenichirou; Aoki, Junya; Iwanaga, Takeshi; Shibazaki, Kensaku

    2012-01-01

    There have been some reports on right-to-left shunt as a cause of cryptogenic stroke. Although contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) can detect RLS, an insufficient temporal window has occasionally restricted its applicability. Thus, we compared the rates of detecting RLS among temporal windows for the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and the orbital window for the internal carotid artery (ICA) on c-TCD. We used c-TCD to detect RLS in patients with suspected ischemic stroke. We enrolled patients who had both sufficient bilateral temporal windows for MCAs and a right orbital window for ICA and performed c-TCD using all three windows simultaneously. We enrolled 106 consecutive patients and identified microembolic signals (MES) in 30 (28%) of them. Among these 30 patients, 15 had MES from all 3 windows. When these 30 patients were defined as being positive for RLS, the rates of detection were 67%, 73%, and 80% from the right temporal, left temporal, and right orbital windows, respectively (P= .795). The right orbital window as well as the temporal window for c-TCD could detect RLS. Insonation from the orbital window should be useful for patients who lack temporal windows. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  14. Interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p associated with mild mental retardation, epilepsy and polymicrogyria of the left temporal lobe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, R S; Hansen, C P; Jackson, G D

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we present a 38-year-old woman with an interstitial deletion of 4p15.1-15.3, mild mental retardation, epilepsy and polymicrogyria adjacent to an arachnoid cyst of the left temporal lobe. The deletion was ascertained through array-comparative genome hybridization screening of patien...

  15. Dynamic changes during evacuation of a left temporal abscess in open MRI: technical case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernays, R.L.; Yonekawa, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Kollias, S.S. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-05-01

    We demonstrate the usefulness of ''near real-time'' neuro-navigation by open MRI systems for guidance of stereotactic evacuation of intracranial abscesses. A 70-year-old patient was referred to our institution with an intracranial left temporal abscess. He presented with headache, senso-motor aphasia and mild right hemiparesis. The abscess (35 x 25 mm) was stereotactically evacuated under MRI guidance, and a recurrence of a daughter abscess was again evacuated on the 9th postoperative day. ''Near real-time'' imaging showed an indentation of the abscess wall of 11 mm along the trajectory. A thermosensitive MRI protocol demonstrated a higher temperature around the abscess capsule than in the brain tissue more distant to the capsule, demonstrating the inflammatory process. The patient had 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy for gram-negative bacteria and was discharged with improved clinical symptoms 5 weeks after admission. Follow-up CT 2 months postoperatively showed a complete resolution of the abscess. Open MRI-guided interventions with ''near real-time'' imaging demonstrate the anatomical changes during an ongoing procedure and can be accommodated for enhancing the overall precision of stereotactic procedures. Thermosensitive MRI protocols are capable of revealing temperature gradients around inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic changes during evacuation of a left temporal abscess in open MRI: technical case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernays, R.L.; Yonekawa, Y.; Kollias, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the usefulness of ''near real-time'' neuro-navigation by open MRI systems for guidance of stereotactic evacuation of intracranial abscesses. A 70-year-old patient was referred to our institution with an intracranial left temporal abscess. He presented with headache, senso-motor aphasia and mild right hemiparesis. The abscess (35 x 25 mm) was stereotactically evacuated under MRI guidance, and a recurrence of a daughter abscess was again evacuated on the 9th postoperative day. ''Near real-time'' imaging showed an indentation of the abscess wall of 11 mm along the trajectory. A thermosensitive MRI protocol demonstrated a higher temperature around the abscess capsule than in the brain tissue more distant to the capsule, demonstrating the inflammatory process. The patient had 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy for gram-negative bacteria and was discharged with improved clinical symptoms 5 weeks after admission. Follow-up CT 2 months postoperatively showed a complete resolution of the abscess. Open MRI-guided interventions with ''near real-time'' imaging demonstrate the anatomical changes during an ongoing procedure and can be accommodated for enhancing the overall precision of stereotactic procedures. Thermosensitive MRI protocols are capable of revealing temperature gradients around inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  17. BOLD response to motion verbs in left posterior middle temporal gyrus during story comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Vuust, Peter; Dohn, Anders; Roepstorff, Andreas; Lund, Torben Ellegaard

    2011-12-01

    A primary focus within neuroimaging research on language comprehension is on the distribution of semantic knowledge in the brain. Studies have shown that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMT), a region just anterior to area MT/V5, is important for the processing of complex action knowledge. It has also been found that motion verbs cause activation in LPMT. In this experiment we investigated whether this effect could be replicated in a setting resembling real life language comprehension, i.e. without any overt behavioral task during passive listening to a story. During fMRI participants listened to a recording of the story "The Ugly Duckling". We incorporated a nuisance elimination regression approach for factoring out known nuisance variables both in terms of physiological noise, sound intensity, linguistic variables and emotional content. Compared to the remaining text, clauses containing motion verbs were accompanied by a robust activation of LPMT with no other significant effects, consistent with the hypothesis that this brain region is important for processing motion knowledge, even during naturalistic language comprehension conditions. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. You talkin' to me? Communicative talker gaze activates left-lateralized superior temporal cortex during perception of degraded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Jasmin, Kyle; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Josephs, Oliver J; Calder, Andrew J; Jessop, Rosemary; Lawson, Rebecca P; Spielmann, Mona; Scott, Sophie K

    2017-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies of speech perception have consistently indicated a left-hemisphere dominance in the temporal lobes' responses to intelligible auditory speech signals (McGettigan and Scott, 2012). However, there are important communicative cues that cannot be extracted from auditory signals alone, including the direction of the talker's gaze. Previous work has implicated the superior temporal cortices in processing gaze direction, with evidence for predominantly right-lateralized responses (Carlin & Calder, 2013). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the lateralization of responses to talker gaze differs in an auditory communicative context. Participants in a functional MRI experiment watched and listened to videos of spoken sentences in which the auditory intelligibility and talker gaze direction were manipulated factorially. We observed a left-dominant temporal lobe sensitivity to the talker's gaze direction, in which the left anterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus and temporal pole showed an enhanced response to direct gaze - further investigation revealed that this pattern of lateralization was modulated by auditory intelligibility. Our results suggest flexibility in the distribution of neural responses to social cues in the face within the context of a challenging speech perception task. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation of neuropsychological and metabolic changes after epilepsy surgery in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Canan; Dupont, Patrick; Van den Stock, Jan; Seynaeve, Laura; Porke, Kathleen; Dries, Eva; Van Bouwel, Karen; van Loon, Johannes; Theys, Tom; Goffin, Karolien E; Van Paesschen, Wim

    2018-04-12

    Epilepsy surgery often causes changes in cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism. Our aim was to explore relationships between pre- and postoperative cerebral metabolism as measured with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological test scores in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. Thirteen patients were included. All had neuropsychological testing and an interictal FDG-PET scan of the brain pre- and postoperative. Correlations between changes in neuropsychological test scores and metabolism were examined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). There were no significant changes in the neuropsychological test scores pre- and postoperatively at the group level. Decreased metabolism was observed in the left mesial temporal regions and occipital lobe. Increased metabolism was observed in the bi-frontal and right parietal lobes, temporal lobes, occipital lobes, thalamus, cerebellum, and vermis. In these regions, we did not find a correlation between changes in metabolism and neuropsychological test scores. A significant negative correlation, however, was found between metabolic changes in the precuneus and Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores. There are significant metabolic decreases in the left mesial temporal regions and increases in the bi-frontal lobes; right parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes; right thalamus; cerebellum; and vermis in patients with left MTLE-HS who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. We could not confirm that these changes translate into significant cognitive changes. A significant negative correlation was found between changes in confrontation naming and changes in metabolism in the precuneus. We speculate that the precuneus may play a compensatory role in patients with postoperative naming difficulties after left TLE surgery. Understanding of these neural mechanisms may aid in

  20. Temporal Changes in Left Ventricular Mechanics: Impact of Bed Rest and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Martin, David S.; Downs, Meghan; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current techniques used to assess cardiac function following spaceflight or head-down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) involve invasive and time consuming procedures such as Swan-Ganz catheterization or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. An alternative approach, echocardiography, can monitor cardiac morphology and function via sequential measurements of left ventricular (LV) mass and ejection fraction (EF). However, LV mass and EF are insensitive measures of early (subclinical) cardiac deconditioning, and a decrease in LV mass and EF become evident only once significant deconditioning has already occurred. The use of more sensitive and specific echocardiographic techniques such as speckle tracking imaging may address the current limitations of conventional cardiac imaging techniques to provide insight into the magnitude and time course of cardiac deconditioning. METHODS Speckle tracking assessment of longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain and twist was used to evaluate the impact of 70 days of HDTBR (n=7) and HDTBR + exercise (n=11) on temporal changes in LV mechanics. Echocardiograms were performed pre (BR-2), during (BR31, 70), and following (BR+4hr) HDTBR. Multi-level modeling was used to evaluate the effect of HDTBR condition (Control, Exercise) on cardiac variables. RESULTS Compared to BR-2, longitudinal (BR-2: - 19.0 +/- 1.8%; BR31: -15.9 +/- 2.4%; BR70: -14.9 +/- 2.4%; BR+4hr: -16.0 +/- 2.1%) and radial (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 1.9%; BR31: 12.3 +/- 2.4%; BR70: 11.3 +/- 2.2%; BR+4hr: 13.5 +/- 2.5% ) strains were significantly impaired during and following bed rest (pmechanics for longitudinal strain (BR-2: -19.1 +/- 1.5%; BR 31: -19.0 +/- 2.4%; BR70: -19.1 +/- 2.7%; BR+4hr: -17.8 +/- 2.1%), radial strain (BR-2: 13.8 +/- 2.4; BR31: 14.7 +/- 2.4; BR70: 14.4 +/- 1.6; BR+4hr: 14.4 +/- 2.4), and twist (BR-2: 17.8 +/- 3.6deg; BR31: 18.0 +/- 3.6deg; BR70: 18.2 +/- 5.9deg; BR+4hr: 18.3 +/- 4.2deg). CONCLUSIONS Speckle-tracking echocardiography provides important

  1. Composition of complex numbers: Delineating the computational role of the left anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Elorrieta, Esti; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2016-01-01

    What is the neurobiological basis of our ability to create complex messages with language? Results from multiple methodologies have converged on a set of brain regions as relevant for this general process, but the computational details of these areas remain to be characterized. The left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) has been a consistent node within this network, with results suggesting that although it rather systematically shows increased activation for semantically complex structured stimuli, this effect does not extend to number phrases such as 'three books.' In the present work we used magnetoencephalography to investigate whether numbers in general are an invalid input to the combinatory operations housed in the LATL or whether the lack of LATL engagement for stimuli such as 'three books' is due to the quantificational nature of such phrases. As a relevant test case, we employed complex number terms such as 'twenty-three', where one number term is not a quantifier of the other but rather, the two terms form a type of complex concept. In a number naming paradigm, participants viewed rows of numbers and depending on task instruction, named them as complex number terms ('twenty-three'), numerical quantifications ('two threes'), adjectival modifications ('blue threes') or non-combinatory lists (e.g., 'two, three'). While quantificational phrases failed to engage the LATL as compared to non-combinatory controls, both complex number terms and adjectival modifications elicited a reliable activity increase in the LATL. Our results show that while the LATL does not participate in the enumeration of tokens within a set, exemplified by the quantificational phrases, it does support conceptual combination, including the composition of complex number concepts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Organization and trade-off of spectro-temporal tuning properties of duration-tuned neurons in the mammalian inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James A; Farzan, Faranak; Fremouw, Thane; Sayegh, Riziq; Covey, Ellen; Faure, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    Neurons throughout the mammalian central auditory pathway respond selectively to stimulus frequency and amplitude, and some are also selective for stimulus duration. First found in the auditory midbrain or inferior colliculus (IC), these duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) provide a potential neural mechanism for encoding temporal features of sound. In this study, we investigated how having an additional neural response filter, one selective to the duration of an auditory stimulus, influences frequency tuning and neural organization by recording single-unit responses and measuring the dorsal-ventral position and spectral-temporal tuning properties of auditory DTNs from the IC of the awake big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Like other IC neurons, DTNs were tonotopically organized and had either V-shaped, U-shaped, or O-shaped frequency tuning curves (excitatory frequency response areas). We hypothesized there would be an interaction between frequency and duration tuning in DTNs, as electrical engineering theory for resonant filters dictates a trade-off in spectral-temporal resolution: sharp tuning in the frequency domain results in poorer resolution in the time domain and vice versa. While the IC is a more complex signal analyzer than an electrical filter, a similar operational trade-off could exist in the responses of DTNs. Our data revealed two patterns of spectro-temporal sensitivity and spatial organization within the IC: DTNs with sharp frequency tuning and broad duration tuning were located in the dorsal IC, whereas cells with wide spectral tuning and narrow temporal tuning were found in the ventral IC. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Asymmetry of temporal auditory T-complex: right ear-left hemisphere advantage in Tb timing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Nicole; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie; Roux, Sylvie; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Gomot, Marie

    2015-02-01

    To investigate brain asymmetry of the temporal auditory evoked potentials (T-complex) in response to monaural stimulation in children compared to adults. Ten children (7 to 9 years) and ten young adults participated in the study. All were right-handed. The auditory stimuli used were tones (1100 Hz, 70 dB SPL, 50 ms duration) delivered monaurally (right, left ear) at four different levels of stimulus onset asynchrony (700-1100-1500-3000 ms). Latency and amplitude of responses were measured at left and right temporal sites according to the ear stimulated. Peaks of the three successive deflections (Na-Ta-Tb) of the T-complex were greater in amplitude and better defined in children than in adults. Amplitude measurements in children indicated that Na culminates on the left hemisphere whatever the ear stimulated whereas Ta and Tb culminate on the right hemisphere but for left ear stimuli only. Peak latency displayed different patterns of asymmetry. Na and Ta displayed shorter latencies for contralateral stimulation. The original finding was that Tb peak latency was the shortest at the left temporal site for right ear stimulation in children. Amplitude increased and/or peak latency decreased with increasing SOA, however no interaction effect was found with recording site or with ear stimulated. Our main original result indicates a right ear-left hemisphere timing advantage for Tb peak in children. The Tb peak would therefore be a good candidate as an electrophysiological marker of ear advantage effects during dichotic stimulation and of functional inter-hemisphere interactions and connectivity in children. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Pulmonary Hypertension with Left Heart Disease: Prevalence, Temporal Shifts in Etiologies and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitsman, Tatyana; Weisz, Giora; Farkash, Rivka; Klutstein, Marc; Butnaru, Adi; Rosenmann, David; Hasin, Tal

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has many causes. While it is conventionally thought that the most prevalent is left heart disease, little information about its proportion, causes, and implications on outcome is available. Between 1993 and 2015, 12,115 of 66,949 (18%) first adult transthoracic echocardiograms were found to have tricuspid incompetence gradient ≥40 mm Hg, a pulmonary hypertension surrogate. Left heart disease was identified in 8306 (69%) and included valve malfunction in 4115 (49%), left ventricular systolic dysfunction in 2557 (31%), and diastolic dysfunction in 1776 (21%). Patients with left heart disease, as compared with those without left heart disease, were of similar age, fewer were females (50% vs 63% P pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease. Independent predictors of mortality were age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05; 95% CI, 1.04-1.05; P pulmonary hypertension but without left heart disease (HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20-1.42 and HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.33-1.55, respectively; P Pulmonary hypertension was found to be associated with left heart disease in 69% of patients. Among these patients, valve malfunction and diastolic dysfunction emerged as prominent causes. Left ventricular dysfunction carries additional risk to patients with pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Language localization in cases of left temporal lobe arachnoid cyst : Evidence against interhemispheric reorganization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, LA; Go, KG; Pruim, J; den Dunnen, W; Meiners, LC; Paans, AMJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether left-hemisphere arachnoid cysts lead to reorganization of the language function using PET. A group analysis demonstrated that patients showed no more right-hemisphere activation than a matched control group. Several patients had clear language localizations in the left

  6. Spontaneous neural activity in the right superior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus is associated with insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Zhong, Mingtian; Gan, Jun; Liu, Wanting; Niu, Chaoyang; Liao, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongchun; Tan, Changlian; Yi, Jinyao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-01-01

    Insight into illness is an important issue for psychiatry disorder. Although the existence of a poor insight subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was recognized in the DSM-IV, and the insight level in OCD was specified further in DSM-V, the neural underpinnings of insight in OCD have been rarely explored. The present study was designed to bridge this research gap by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Spontaneous neural activity were examined in 19 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI), 18 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI), and 25 healthy controls (HC) by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the resting state. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between regional ALFFs and insight levels among OCD patients. OCD-GI and OCD-PI demonstrated overlapping and distinct brain alterations. Notably, compared with OCD-GI, tOCD-PI had reduced ALFF in left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG), as well as increased ALFF in right middle occipital gyrus. Further analysis revealed that ALFF values for the left MTG and right STG were correlated negatively with insight level in patients with OCD. Relatively small sample size and not all patients were un-medicated are our major limitations. Spontaneous brain activity in left MTG and right STG may be neural underpinnings of insight in OCD. Our results suggest the great role of human temporal brain regions in understanding insight, and further underscore the importance of considering insight presentation in understanding the clinical heterogeneity of OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lateralization of spatial rather than temporal attention underlies the left hemifield advantage in rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanowicz, Dariusz; Kruse, Lena; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting. In the unilateral task, the targets were presented block-wise in the LVF or RVF only, such that no spatial orienting was needed for target identification. Temporal attention was manipulated in both tasks by varying the T1-T2 lag. The results showed that the LVF advantage disappeared when involvement of stimulus-driven spatial orienting was eliminated, whereas the manipulation of temporal attention had no effect on the asymmetry. In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention, and provide further evidence that the LVF advantage reflects right hemisphere predominance in stimulus-driven orienting of spatial attention. These conclusions fit evidence that temporal attention is implemented by bilateral parietal areas and spatial attention by the right-lateralized ventral frontoparietal network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Silberstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 days GBE and 14 days placebo in random order. For both groups, SSVEP was recorded from 64 scalp electrode sites during the completion of an object WM task both pre- and 14 days post-treatment. GBE was found to improve behavioural performance on the WM task. GBE was also found to increase the SSVEP amplitude at occipital and frontal sites and increase SSVEP latency at left temporal and left frontal sites during the hold component of the WM task. These SSVEP changes associated with GBE may represent more efficient processing during WM task completion.

  9. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademacher, J.; Seitz, R.J.; Aulich, A.; Reifenberger, G.; Kiwit, J.C.W.; Langen, K.J.; Schmidt, D.

    2000-01-01

    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[ 123 I]iodo-α-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  10. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, J.; Seitz, R.J. [Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf (Germany); Aulich, A. [Department of Radiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Reifenberger, G. [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kiwit, J.C.W. [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Langen, K.J.; Schmidt, D. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[{sup 123}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  11. Auditory verbal hallucinations are related to cortical thinning in the left middle temporal gyrus of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Liu, B; Song, M; Lipnicki, D M; Li, J; Xie, S; Chen, Y; Li, P; Lu, L; Lv, L; Wang, H; Yan, H; Yan, J; Zhang, H; Zhang, D; Jiang, T

    2018-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are one of the most common and severe symptoms of schizophrenia, but the neuroanatomical abnormalities underlying AVHs are not well understood. The present study aims to investigate whether AVHs are associated with cortical thinning. Participants were schizophrenia patients from four centers across China, 115 with AVHs and 93 without AVHs, as well as 261 healthy controls. All received 3 T T1-weighted brain scans, and whole brain vertex-wise cortical thickness was compared across groups. Correlations between AVH severity and cortical thickness were also determined. The left middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was significantly thinner in schizophrenia patients with AVHs than in patients without AVHs and healthy controls. Inferences were made using a false discovery rate approach with a threshold at p < 0.05. Left MTG thickness did not differ between patients without AVHs and controls. These results were replicated by a meta-analysis showing them to be consistent across the four centers. Cortical thickness of the left MTG was also found to be inversely correlated with hallucination severity across all schizophrenia patients. The results of this multi-center study suggest that an abnormally thin left MTG could be involved in the pathogenesis of AVHs in schizophrenia.

  12. Topiramate and its effect on fMRI of language in patients with right or left temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Allendorfer, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is well recognized for its negative effects oncognition, language performance and lateralization results on the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). But, the effects of TPM on functional MRI (fMRI) of language and the fMRI signals are less clear. Functional MRI is increasingly used for presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients in place of IAP for language lateralization. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the effects of TPM on fMRI signals. In this study, we included 8 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) and 8 with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) taking TPM (+TPM). Matched to them for age, handedness and side of seizure onset were 8 patients with RTLE and 8 with LTLE not taking TPM (−TPM). Matched for age and handedness to the patients with TLE were 32 healthy controls. The fMRI paradigm involved semantic decision/tone decision task (in-scanner behavioral data were collected). All epilepsy patients received a standard neuropsychological language battery. One sample t-tests were performed within each group to assess task-specific activations. Functional MRI data random-effects analysis was performed to determine significant group activation differences and to assess the effect of TPM dose on task activation. Direct group comparisons of fMRI, language and demographic data between patients with R/L TLE +TPM vs. −TPM and the analysis of the effects of TPM on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal were performed. Groups were matched for age, handedness and, within the R/L TLE groups, for the age of epilepsy onset/duration and the number of AEDs/TPM dose. The in-scanner language performance of patients was worse when compared to healthy controls — all pTPM vs. −TPM showed significant fMRI signal differences between groups (increases in left cingulate gyrus and decreases in left superior temporal gyrus in the patients with LTLE +TPM; increases in the right BA 10 and left visual cortex and decreases in the

  13. Dissociated roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing: top-down and bottom-up mismatch detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Uno

    Full Text Available Visual inputs can distort auditory perception, and accurate auditory processing requires the ability to detect and ignore visual input that is simultaneous and incongruent with auditory information. However, the neural basis of this auditory selection from audiovisual information is unknown, whereas integration process of audiovisual inputs is intensively researched. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and superior temporal sulcus (STS are involved in top-down and bottom-up processing, respectively, of target auditory information from audiovisual inputs. We recorded high gamma activity (HGA, which is associated with neuronal firing in local brain regions, using electrocorticography while patients with epilepsy judged the syllable spoken by a voice while looking at a voice-congruent or -incongruent lip movement from the speaker. The STS exhibited stronger HGA if the patient was presented with information of large audiovisual incongruence than of small incongruence, especially if the auditory information was correctly identified. On the other hand, the IFG exhibited stronger HGA in trials with small audiovisual incongruence when patients correctly perceived the auditory information than when patients incorrectly perceived the auditory information due to the mismatched visual information. These results indicate that the IFG and STS have dissociated roles in selective auditory processing, and suggest that the neural basis of selective auditory processing changes dynamically in accordance with the degree of incongruity between auditory and visual information.

  14. Dissociated roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing: top-down and bottom-up mismatch detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Takeshi; Kawai, Kensuke; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Wakebe, Toshihiro; Ibaraki, Takuya; Kunii, Naoto; Matsuo, Takeshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Visual inputs can distort auditory perception, and accurate auditory processing requires the ability to detect and ignore visual input that is simultaneous and incongruent with auditory information. However, the neural basis of this auditory selection from audiovisual information is unknown, whereas integration process of audiovisual inputs is intensively researched. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) are involved in top-down and bottom-up processing, respectively, of target auditory information from audiovisual inputs. We recorded high gamma activity (HGA), which is associated with neuronal firing in local brain regions, using electrocorticography while patients with epilepsy judged the syllable spoken by a voice while looking at a voice-congruent or -incongruent lip movement from the speaker. The STS exhibited stronger HGA if the patient was presented with information of large audiovisual incongruence than of small incongruence, especially if the auditory information was correctly identified. On the other hand, the IFG exhibited stronger HGA in trials with small audiovisual incongruence when patients correctly perceived the auditory information than when patients incorrectly perceived the auditory information due to the mismatched visual information. These results indicate that the IFG and STS have dissociated roles in selective auditory processing, and suggest that the neural basis of selective auditory processing changes dynamically in accordance with the degree of incongruity between auditory and visual information.

  15. Inactivation of the left auditory cortex impairs temporal discrimination in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Šuta, Daniel; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 209, č. 1 (2010), s. 123-130 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/07/1336; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : auditory cortex * temporal discrimination * hemispheric lateralization Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2010

  16. Selective Familiarity Deficits after Left Anterior Temporal-Lobe Removal with Hippocampal Sparing Are Material Specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris B.; Bowles, Ben; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Kohler, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Research has firmly established a link between recognition memory and the functional integrity of the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Dual-process models of MTL organization maintain that there is a division of labour within the MTL, with the hippocampus (HC) supporting recollective processes and perirhinal cortex (PRc) supporting familiarity…

  17. Treatment for Alexia With Agraphia Following Left Ventral Occipito-Temporal Damage: Strengthening Orthographic Representations Common to Reading and Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Kindle; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Damage to left ventral occipito-temporal cortex can give rise to written language impairment characterized by pure alexia/letter-by-letter (LBL) reading, as well as surface alexia and agraphia. The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of a combined treatment approach to address concurrent LBL reading with surface alexia/agraphia. Method Simultaneous treatment to address slow reading and errorful spelling was administered to 3 individuals with reading and spelling impairments after left ventral occipito-temporal damage due to posterior cerebral artery stroke. Single-word reading/spelling accuracy, reading latencies, and text reading were monitored as outcome measures for the combined effects of multiple oral re-reading treatment and interactive spelling treatment. Results After treatment, participants demonstrated faster and more accurate single-word reading and improved text-reading rates. Spelling accuracy also improved, particularly for untrained irregular words, demonstrating generalization of the trained interactive spelling strategy. Conclusion This case series characterizes concomitant LBL with surface alexia/agraphia and demonstrates a successful treatment approach to address both the reading and spelling impairment. PMID:26110814

  18. The role of the left anterior temporal lobe in exception word reading: reconciling patient and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maximiliano A; Joubert, Sven; Ferré, Perrine; Belleville, Sylvie; Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Joanette, Yves; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona Maria

    2012-05-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disease that occurs following the atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs). It is characterised by the degradation of semantic knowledge and difficulties in reading exception words (surface dyslexia). This disease has highlighted the role of the ATLs in the process of exception word reading. However, imaging studies in healthy subjects have failed to detect activation of the ATLs during exception word reading. The aim of the present study was to test whether the functional brain regions that mediate exception word reading in normal readers overlap those brain regions atrophied in SD. In Study One, we map the brain regions of grey matter atrophy in AF, a patient with mild SD and surface dyslexia profile. In Study Two, we map the activation pattern associated with exception word compared to pseudoword reading in young, healthy participants using fMRI. The results revealed areas of significant activation in healthy subjects engaged in the exception word reading task in the left anterior middle temporal gyrus, in a region observed to be atrophic in the patient AF. These results reconcile neuropsychological and functional imaging data, revealing the critical role of the left ATL in exception word reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The left middle temporal gyrus in the middle of an impaired social-affective communication network in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Chang; Ku, Jeonghun; Shin, Jung-Eun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Choi, Soo-Hee

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies on patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) reported changed patterns of the resting-state functional connectivity network (rs-FCN) between the prefrontal cortices and other prefrontal, amygdalar or striatal regions. Using a graph theory approach, this study explored the modularity-based community profile and patterns of inter-/intra-modular communication for the rs-FCN in SAD. In total, for 28 SAD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in resting-state and subjected to a graph theory analysis. The within-module degree z-score for a hub region [out of a total of 10 hub regions ranked using the participation coefficient] named left middle temporal gyrus was impaired in SAD compared to HC, proportional to the severity of clinician-scored and patient-reported functional impairment in SAD. Most of participants included in this study were undergraduate students in their early-to-mid 20's. This study showed the importance of functional communication from the left middle temporal gyrus with other opercular-insular-subcortical regions for better objective functioning and lesser subjective disability in SAD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity in Left Temporal Area Is Associated with Pleasant Emotion Induced by Video Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Kortelainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that specific neural correlates for the key elements of basic emotions do exist and can be identified by neuroimaging techniques. In this paper, electroencephalogram (EEG is used to explore the markers for video-induced emotions. The problem is approached from a classifier perspective: the features that perform best in classifying person’s valence and arousal while watching video clips with audiovisual emotional content are searched from a large feature set constructed from the EEG spectral powers of single channels as well as power differences between specific channel pairs. The feature selection is carried out using a sequential forward floating search method and is done separately for the classification of valence and arousal, both derived from the emotional keyword that the subject had chosen after seeing the clips. The proposed classifier-based approach reveals a clear association between the increased high-frequency (15–32 Hz activity in the left temporal area and the clips described as “pleasant” in the valence and “medium arousal” in the arousal scale. These clips represent the emotional keywords amusement and joy/happiness. The finding suggests the occurrence of a specific neural activation during video-induced pleasant emotion and the possibility to detect this from the left temporal area using EEG.

  1. Increased emergence of alpha activity over the left but not the right temporal lobe within a dark acoustic chamber: differential response of the left but not the right hemisphere to transcerebral magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, M A

    1999-11-01

    The percentages of alpha activity per minute over the left and right temporal lobes were measured for the first and second successive 15-min intervals while subjects wore opaque goggles within an acoustic chamber. A weak (5 microT), burst-firing magnetic field was presented during this period for 1 s every 4 s primarily over the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. The results indicated that the left temporal lobe became less vigilant between the first and second 15 min while the right temporal lobe did not. When standardized scores for each subject's measures over time and across hemispheres were employed, increased alpha time over the left temporal lobe relative to the right temporal lobe was observed only when the transcerebral magnetic field was applied over the left hemisphere. Stimulation of the right hemisphere did not evoke this discrepancy. The detection of the effects of this specific complex magnetic field upon electroencephalographic activity may be more probable when the subjects are exposed to partial sensory deprivation.

  2. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  3. P1-5: Effect of Luminance Contrast on the Color Selective Responses in the Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons of the Macaque Monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Namima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the relationship between color signal and luminance signal is an important problem in visual perception, relatively little is known about how the luminance contrast affects the responses of color selective neurons in the visual cortex. In this study, we examined this problem in the inferior temporal (IT of the awake monkey performing a visual fixation task. Single neuron activities were recorded from the anterior and posterior color selective regions in IT cortex (AITC and PITC identified in previous studies where color selective neurons are accumulated. Color stimuli consisted of 28 stimuli that evenly distribute across the gamut of the CRT display defined on the CIE- xychromaticity diagram at two different luminance levels (5 cd/m 2or 20 cd/m 2 and 2 stimuli at white points. The background was maintained at 10 cd/m 2gray. We found that the effect of luminance contrast on the color selectivity was markedly different between AITC and PITC. When we examined the correlation between the responses to the bright stimuli and those to the dark stimuli with the same chromaticity coordinates, most AITC neurons exhibited high correlation whereas many PITC neurons showed no correlation or only weak correlation. In PITC, the effect was specifically large for neutral colors (white, gray, black and for colors with low saturation. These results indicate that the effect of luminance contrast on the color selective responses differs across different areas and suggest that the separation between color signal and luminance signal involves a higher stage of the cortical color processing.

  4. Compressed sensing cine imaging with high spatial or high temporal resolution for analysis of left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Juliane; Nensa, Felix; Schemuth, Haemi P; Maderwald, Stefan; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai

    2016-08-01

    To assess two compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with high spatial or high temporal resolution in comparison to a reference steady-state free precession cine (SSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes. LV short axis stacks of two compressed sensing breath-hold cine sequences with high spatial resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HS: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.0 × 1.0 mm(2) ) and high temporal resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HT: temporal resolution: 11 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) and of a reference cine SSFP sequence (standard SSFP: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) were acquired in 16 healthy volunteers on a 1.5T MR system. LV parameters were analyzed semiautomatically twice by one reader and once by a second reader. The volumetric agreement between sequences was analyzed using paired t-test, Bland-Altman plots, and Passing-Bablock regression. Small differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HS for stroke volume (SV; -7 ± 11 ml; P = 0.024), ejection fraction (EF; -2 ± 3%; P = 0.019), and myocardial mass (9 ± 9 g; P = 0.001), but not for end-diastolic volume (EDV; P = 0.079) and end-systolic volume (ESV; P = 0.266). No significant differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HT regarding EDV (P = 0.956), SV (P = 0.088), and EF (P = 0.103), but for ESV (3 ± 5 ml; P = 0.039) and myocardial mass (8 ± 10 ml; P = 0.007). Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between the sequences (maximum bias ≤ -8%). Two compressed sensing cine sequences, one with high spatial resolution and one with high temporal resolution, showed good agreement with standard SSFP for LV volume assessment. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:366-374. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bilingual language processing after a lesion in the left thalamic and temporal regions. A case report with early childhood onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lieshout, P.; Renier, W.; Eling, P.; de Bot, K.; Slis, I.

    1990-01-01

    This case study concerns an 18-year-old bilingual girl who suffered a radiation lesion in the left (dominant) thalamic and temporal region when she was 4 years old. Language and memory assessment revealed deficits in auditory short-term memory, auditory word comprehension, nonword repetition, syntactic processing, word fluency, and confrontation naming tasks. Both languages (English and Dutch) were found to be affected in a similar manner, despite the fact that one language (English) was acquired before and the other (Dutch) after the period of lesion onset. Most of the deficits appear to be related to verbal (short-term) memory dysfunction. Several hypotheses of subcortical involvement in memory processes are discussed with reference to existing theories in this area

  6. Top-down regulation of left temporal cortex by hypnotic amusia for rhythm: a pilot study on mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Ermani, Mario; Rampazzo, Patrizia; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Saladini, Marina; Zanette, Gastone; Casiglia, Edoardo; Spiegel, David

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of hypnotically induced amusia for rhythm (a condition in which individuals are unable to recognize melodies or rhythms) on mismatch negativity (MMN), 5 highly (HH) and 5 poorly (LH) hypnotizable nonmusician volunteers underwent MMN recording before and during a hypnotic suggestion for amusia. MMN amplitude was recorded using a 19-channel montage and then processed using the low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localize its sources. MMN amplitude was significantly decreased during hypnotic amusia (p < .04) only in HH, where the LORETA maps of MMN showed a decreased source amplitude in the left temporal lobe, suggesting a hypnotic top-down regulation of activity of these areas and that these changes can be assessed by neurophysiological investigations.

  7. Success of Anomia Treatment in Aphasia Is Associated With Preserved Architecture of Global and Left Temporal Lobe Structural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Leonardo; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Nesland, Travis; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2016-03-01

    Targeted speech therapy can lead to substantial naming improvement in some subjects with anomia following dominant-hemisphere stroke. We investigated whether treatment-induced improvement in naming is associated with poststroke preservation of structural neural network architecture. Twenty-four patients with poststroke chronic aphasia underwent 30 hours of speech therapy over a 2-week period and were assessed at baseline and after therapy. Whole brain maps of neural architecture were constructed from pretreatment diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to derive measures of global brain network architecture (network small-worldness) and regional network influence (nodal betweenness centrality). Their relationship with naming recovery was evaluated with multiple linear regressions. Treatment-induced improvement in correct naming was associated with poststroke preservation of global network small worldness and of betweenness centrality in temporal lobe cortical regions. Together with baseline aphasia severity, these measures explained 78% of the variability in treatment response. Preservation of global and left temporal structural connectivity broadly explains the variability in treatment-related naming improvement in aphasia. These findings corroborate and expand on previous classical lesion-symptom mapping studies by elucidating some of the mechanisms by which brain damage may relate to treated aphasia recovery. Favorable naming outcomes may result from the intact connections between spared cortical areas that are functionally responsive to treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Rapid MR assessment of left ventricular systolic function after acute myocardial infarction using single breath-hold cine imaging with the temporal parallel acquisition technique (TPAT) and 4D guide-point modelling analysis of left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, Holger C.; Jensen, Christoph J.; Sabin, Georg V.; Naber, Christoph K.; Bruder, Oliver; Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We compared four-dimensional guide-point modelling left ventricular function analysis (4DVF) results of cine images in four short-axis and two long-axis slices acquired in a single breath-hold, obtained with the temporal parallel acquisition technique (TPAT), with standard left ventricular function (LVF) analysis results determined by the summation of discs method, in patients who had recently suffered myocardial infarction. Despite wall motion abnormalities, 4DVF yields results for left ventricular ejection fractions and end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes that are in excellent agreement with standard LVF analysis results in these patients. A shortened cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol using single breath-hold cine image acquisition could facilitate the assessment of left ventricular function soon after myocardial infarction in critically ill patients who are unable to comply with the multiple breath-holds required for standard LVF analysis. (orig.)

  9. Cerebral and cerebellar language organization in a right-handed subject with a left temporal porencephalic cyst : An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coninck, Mattias; Van Hecke, Wim; Crols, Roe; van Dun, Kim; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter P.; Brysbaert, Marc; Marien, Peter

    To test the hypothesis of crossed cerebro-cerebellar language dominance (Marien, Engelborghs, Fabbro, & De Deyn, 2001) in atypical populations, the pattern of cerebral and cerebellar language organization in a right-handed woman with a large porencephalic cyst in the left temporal lobe with no

  10. Intermuscular pterygoid-temporal abscess following inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia-A computer tomography based navigated surgical intervention: Case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Jürgen; Reinbacher, Knut Ernst; Pau, Mauro; Feichtinger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) anesthesia is a common local anesthetic procedure. Although IANB anesthesia is known for its safety, complications can still occur. Today immediately or delayed occurring disorders following IANB anesthesia and their treatment are well-recognized. We present a case of a patient who developed a symptomatic abscess in the pterygoid region as a result of several inferior alveolar nerve injections. Clinical symptoms included diffuse pain, reduced mouth opening and jaw's hypomobility and were persistent under a first step conservative treatment. Since image-based navigated interventions have gained in importance and are used for various procedures a navigated surgical intervention was initiated as a second step therapy. Thus precise, atraumatic surgical intervention was performed by an optical tracking system in a difficult anatomical region. A symptomatic abscess was treated by a computed tomography-based navigated surgical intervention at our department. Advantages and disadvantages of this treatment strategy are evaluated.

  11. Loss of resting-state posterior cingulate flexibility is associated with memory disturbance in left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douw, Linda; Leveroni, Catherine L; Tanaka, Naoaki; Emerton, Britt C; Cole, Andrew J; Cole, Andrew C; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The association between cognition and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been the focus of many recent studies, most of which use stationary connectivity. The dynamics or flexibility of connectivity, however, may be seminal for understanding cognitive functioning. In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), stationary connectomic correlates of impaired memory have been reported mainly for the hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). We therefore investigate resting-state and task-based hippocampal and PCC flexibility in addition to stationary connectivity in left TLE (LTLE) patients. Sixteen LTLE patients were analyzed with respect to rs-fMRI and task-based fMRI (t-fMRI), and underwent clinical neuropsychological testing. Flexibility of connectivity was calculated using a sliding-window approach by determining the standard deviation of Fisher-transformed Pearson correlation coefficients over all windows. Stationary connectivity was also calculated. Disturbed memory was operationalized as having at least one memory subtest score equal to or below the 5th percentile compared to normative data. Lower PCC flexibility, particularly in the contralateral (i.e. right) hemisphere, was found in memory-disturbed LTLE patients, who had up to 22% less flexible connectivity. No significant group differences were found with respect to hippocampal flexibility, stationary connectivity during both rs-fMRI and t-fMRI, or flexibility during t-fMRI. Contralateral resting-state PCC flexibility was able to classify all but one patient with respect to their memory status (94% accuracy). Flexibility of the PCC during rest relates to memory functioning in LTLE patients. Loss of flexible connectivity to the rest of the brain originating from the PCC, particularly contralateral to the seizure focus, is able to discern memory disturbed patients from their preserved counterparts. This study indicates that the dynamics of resting-state connectivity are associated with cognitive status of LTLE

  12. Loss of resting-state posterior cingulate flexibility is associated with memory disturbance in left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Douw

    Full Text Available The association between cognition and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI has been the focus of many recent studies, most of which use stationary connectivity. The dynamics or flexibility of connectivity, however, may be seminal for understanding cognitive functioning. In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, stationary connectomic correlates of impaired memory have been reported mainly for the hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. We therefore investigate resting-state and task-based hippocampal and PCC flexibility in addition to stationary connectivity in left TLE (LTLE patients. Sixteen LTLE patients were analyzed with respect to rs-fMRI and task-based fMRI (t-fMRI, and underwent clinical neuropsychological testing. Flexibility of connectivity was calculated using a sliding-window approach by determining the standard deviation of Fisher-transformed Pearson correlation coefficients over all windows. Stationary connectivity was also calculated. Disturbed memory was operationalized as having at least one memory subtest score equal to or below the 5th percentile compared to normative data. Lower PCC flexibility, particularly in the contralateral (i.e. right hemisphere, was found in memory-disturbed LTLE patients, who had up to 22% less flexible connectivity. No significant group differences were found with respect to hippocampal flexibility, stationary connectivity during both rs-fMRI and t-fMRI, or flexibility during t-fMRI. Contralateral resting-state PCC flexibility was able to classify all but one patient with respect to their memory status (94% accuracy. Flexibility of the PCC during rest relates to memory functioning in LTLE patients. Loss of flexible connectivity to the rest of the brain originating from the PCC, particularly contralateral to the seizure focus, is able to discern memory disturbed patients from their preserved counterparts. This study indicates that the dynamics of resting-state connectivity are associated with cognitive status

  13. Osteoprotegerin levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal profile and association with myocardial injury and left ventricular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetelig, Christian; Limalanathan, Shanmuganathan; Eritsland, Jan; Hoffmann, Pavel; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Gran, Jon Michael; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Andersen, Geir Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with adverse outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the role of OPG in myocardial injury and adverse remodeling in STEMI patients remains unclear. The aims of this observational cohort study were to evaluate: 1) the temporal profile of OPG during STEMI, 2) possible associations between OPG measured acutely and after 4 months, with infarct size, adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, microvascular obstruction (MVO) and myocardial salvage and 3) the effect of heparin administration on OPG levels. Methods Blood samples were drawn repeatedly from 272 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in the acute phase and after 4 months. The effect of heparin administration on OPG levels was studied in 20 patients referred to elective coronary angiography. Results OPG levels measured acutely were significantly higher than Day 1 and during follow-up. OPG levels were correlated with age. No association was found between early OPG levels and CMR measurements at 4 months. Patients with >median OPG levels measured at Day 1 had larger final infarct size, lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 4 months and higher frequency of MVO. There were no associations between OPG and change in end-diastolic volume or myocardial salvage. OPG remained associated with infarct size and LVEF after adjustment for relevant covariates, except peak troponin T and CRP. A 77% increase in OPG levels following heparin administration was found in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Conclusions OPG was found to be associated with myocardial injury, but not with LV remodeling or myocardial salvage. The use of OPG as a biomarker in STEMI patients seems to be limited by a strong association with age, confounding effect of heparin administration, and little additive value to established biomarkers. PMID

  14. A conceptual lemon: theta burst stimulation to the left anterior temporal lobe untangles object representation and its canonical color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Rocco; Sowman, Paul F; Etchell, Andrew C; Rich, Anina N

    2014-05-01

    Object recognition benefits greatly from our knowledge of typical color (e.g., a lemon is usually yellow). Most research on object color knowledge focuses on whether both knowledge and perception of object color recruit the well-established neural substrates of color vision (the V4 complex). Compared with the intensive investigation of the V4 complex, we know little about where and how neural mechanisms beyond V4 contribute to color knowledge. The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is thought to act as a "hub" that supports semantic memory by integrating different modality-specific contents into a meaningful entity at a supramodal conceptual level, making it a good candidate zone for mediating the mappings between object attributes. Here, we explore whether the ATL is critical for integrating typical color with other object attributes (object shape and name), akin to its role in combining nonperceptual semantic representations. In separate experimental sessions, we applied TMS to disrupt neural processing in the left ATL and a control site (the occipital pole). Participants performed an object naming task that probes color knowledge and elicits a reliable color congruency effect as well as a control quantity naming task that also elicits a cognitive congruency effect but involves no conceptual integration. Critically, ATL stimulation eliminated the otherwise robust color congruency effect but had no impact on the numerical congruency effect, indicating a selective disruption of object color knowledge. Neither color nor numerical congruency effects were affected by stimulation at the control occipital site, ruling out nonspecific effects of cortical stimulation. Our findings suggest that the ATL is involved in the representation of object concepts that include their canonical colors.

  15. Left atrial appendage segmentation and quantitative assisted diagnosis of atrial fibrillation based on fusion of temporal-spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Feng, Jianjiang; Wang, Lei; Yu, Heng; Liu, Jiang; Lu, Jiwen; Zhou, Jie

    2018-03-09

    In this paper, we present an approach for left atrial appendage (LAA) multi-phase fast segmentation and quantitative assisted diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) based on 4D-CT data. We take full advantage of the temporal dimension information to segment the living, flailed LAA based on a parametric max-flow method and graph-cut approach to build 3-D model of each phase. To assist the diagnosis of AF, we calculate the volumes of 3-D models, and then generate a "volume-phase" curve to calculate the important dynamic metrics: ejection fraction, filling flux, and emptying flux of the LAA's blood by volume. This approach demonstrates more precise results than the conventional approaches that calculate metrics by area, and allows for the quick analysis of LAA-volume pattern changes of in a cardiac cycle. It may also provide insight into the individual differences in the lesions of the LAA. Furthermore, we apply support vector machines (SVMs) to achieve a quantitative auto-diagnosis of the AF by exploiting seven features from volume change ratios of the LAA, and perform multivariate logistic regression analysis for the risk of LAA thrombosis. The 100 cases utilized in this research were taken from the Philips 256-iCT. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can construct the 3-D LAA geometries robustly compared to manual annotations, and reasonably infer that the LAA undergoes filling, emptying and re-filling, re-emptying in a cardiac cycle. This research provides a potential for exploring various physiological functions of the LAA and quantitatively estimating the risk of stroke in patients with AF. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Left Lobe Mobilization Strategy of Right-Sided Major Hepatectomy for Treatment of a Tumor Causing Severe Inferior Vena Cava Compression: A Novel Strategy Using the Modified Liver-Hanging Maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kenichiro; Kubo, Norio; Ishii, Norihiro; Tsukagoshi, Mariko; Igarashi, Takamichi; Watanabe, Akira; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Shirabe, Ken

    2018-02-14

    Massive bleeding during major hepatectomy is associated with greater mortality and morbidity.1 Our previous study shows that inferior vena cava (IVC) compression by tumor and an anterior approach without the liver-hanging maneuver (LHM) are risk factors for massive bleeding.2 The LHM is useful for controlling bleeding in deeper parenchymal transection planes.3 However, severe compression of the IVC by tumor makes it difficult to insert a hanging tape.4 The study shows a novel modified LHM strategy for severe IVC compression to minimize intraoperative bleeding. The procedure was disassembled into six steps: (1) the glissonian bifurcation is encircled using an extrahepatic approach (2) the hepatic ligaments are dissected, and the root of each hepatic vein trunk is exposed (3) the left lobe is fully mobilized, and the short hepatic veins are carefully dissected with a systematic procedure established from hemi-left lobe procurement in living donor liver transplantation5 (4) the tape is inserted from the space between the right and middle hepatic vein trunks into the glissonian bifurcation along the anterior surface of the IVC (5) liver parenchymal transection is performed with upward pulling of the tape (6) the right hepatic vein is dissected, and the right lobe is dissected from the diaphragm and the right hepatic ligaments. Right hepatectomy with this procedure was performed for two patients with IVC compressed by hepatocellular carcinoma. The operative times were respectively 483 and 396 min. The respective estimated blood losses were 1195 and 485 ml, without transfusion. Both patients had acceptable outcomes without complications. The novel modified LHM strategy ensured minimal bleeding in the resection of a huge liver tumor causing severe IVC compression.

  17. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  18. Proposal for a new classification of variations in the iliac venous system based on internal iliac veins: a case series and a review of double and left inferior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Hirai, Shuichi; Terayama, Hayato; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Fukuzawa, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    There are many reports on variations in the inferior vena cava (IVC), particularly double IVC (DIVC) and left IVC (LIVC). However, no systematic report has recorded iliac vein (IV) flow patterns in the DIVC and LIVC. In this study, we examined IV flow patterns in both DIVC and LIVC observed during gross anatomy courses conducted for medical students and in previously reported cases. During the gross anatomy courses, three cases of DIVC and one case of LIVC were found in 618 cadavers. The IV flow pattern from these four cases and all other previously reported cases can be classified into one of the following three types according to the vein into which the internal iliac vein drained: the ipsilateral external IV; confluence of the ipsilateral external IV and IVC; and the communicating vein, which connects the IVC and the contralateral IVC or its iliac branch. This classification, which is based on the internal IV course, is considered to be useful because IV variations have the potential to cause clinical problems during related retroperitoneal surgery, venous interventional radiology, and diagnostic procedures for pelvic cancer.

  19. Language development at 2 years is correlated to brain microstructure in the left superior temporal gyrus at term equivalent age: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Alec; De Tiège, Xavier; Creuzil, Marylise; David, Philippe; Balériaux, Danielle; Van Overmeire, Bart; Metens, Thierry; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This study aims at testing the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abilities at age 2 years are related with local brain microstructure of preterm infants at term equivalent age. Forty-one preterm infants underwent brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging sequences to measure mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), longitudinal and transverse diffusivity (λ// and λ[perpendicular]) at term equivalent age. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2 years corrected age using the Bayley III scale. A voxel-based analysis approach, statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), was used to correlate changes of the Bayley III scores with the regional distribution of MD, FA, λ// and λ[perpendicular]. We found that language abilities are negatively correlated to MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] in the left superior temporal gyrus in preterm infants. These findings suggest that higher MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] values at term-equivalent age in the left superior temporal gyrus are associated with poorer language scores in later childhood. Consequently, it highlights the key role of the left superior temporal gyrus for the development of language abilities in children. Further studies are needed to assess on an individual basis and on the long term the prognostic value of brain DTI at term equivalent age for the development of language. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparability of the expanded WMS-III standardization protocol to the published WMS-III among right and left temporal lobectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, R C; Chelune, G J; Naugle, R I

    2000-11-01

    We examined whether differences between the expanded standardization protocol (SP) used to derive norms for the final published version (PB) of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997a) would result in differences on the Primary Indexes in a neurologic sample. Specifically, we examined the comparability of the performances of 63 patients with temporal lobectomy (TL) who were administered either the expanded SP protocol (n = 33: 22 left TL and 11 right TL) or the PB battery (n = 30: 11 left TL and 19 right TL). Patients who were administered the SP or PB were comparable in terms of age, sex, education, seizure duration, postsurgical seizure status, and Full Scale IQ. Postoperative intervals were significantly longer for the SP group, although correlational analyses demonstrated no significant relationship between postoperative follow-up interval and WMS-III performance. A series of t tests revealed no significant differences on any of the eight Primary Index scores between patients taking the two versions of the WMS-III for either left or right TL groups. Furthermore, repeated measures analyses of variance failed to show significant differences on modality-specific memory scores between the SP and PB for the left and right TL groups. The current study indicates that temporal lobectomy patients obtained comparable scores on the two versions of the WMS-III.

  1. Executive Semantic Processing Is Underpinned by a Large-scale Neural Network: Revealing the Contribution of Left Prefrontal, Posterior Temporal, and Parietal Cortex to Controlled Retrieval and Selection Using TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Carin; Kirk, Marie; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    To understand the meanings of words and objects, we need to have knowledge about these items themselves plus executive mechanisms that compute and manipulate semantic information in a task-appropriate way. The neural basis for semantic control remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies have focused on the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus…

  2. Loss of Resting-State Posterior Cingulate Flexibility Is Associated with Memory Disturbance in Left Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, L.; Leveroni, C.L.; Tanaka, N.; Emerton, B.C.; Cole, A.C.; Reinsberger, C.; Stufflebeam, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between cognition and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been the focus of many recent studies, most of which use stationary connectivity. The dynamics or flexibility of connectivity, however, may be seminal for understanding cognitive functioning. In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE),

  3. Top-down and bottom-up influences on the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex during visual word recognition: an analysis of effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Crone, Julia; Richlan, Fabio; Klackl, Johannes; Wimmer, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    The functional role of the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOT) in visual word processing has been studied extensively. A prominent observation is higher activation for unfamiliar but pronounceable letter strings compared to regular words in this region. Some functional accounts have interpreted this finding as driven by top-down influences (e.g., Dehaene and Cohen [2011]: Trends Cogn Sci 15:254-262; Price and Devlin [2011]: Trends Cogn Sci 15:246-253), while others have suggested a difference in bottom-up processing (e.g., Glezer et al. [2009]: Neuron 62:199-204; Kronbichler et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1584-1594). We used dynamic causal modeling for fMRI data to test bottom-up and top-down influences on the left vOT during visual processing of regular words and unfamiliar letter strings. Regular words (e.g., taxi) and unfamiliar letter strings of pseudohomophones (e.g., taksi) were presented in the context of a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does the item sound like a word?"). We found no differences in top-down signaling, but a strong increase in bottom-up signaling from the occipital cortex to the left vOT for pseudohomophones compared to words. This finding can be linked to functional accounts which assume that the left vOT contains neurons tuned to complex orthographic features such as morphemes or words [e.g., Dehaene and Cohen [2011]: Trends Cogn Sci 15:254-262; Kronbichler et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1584-1594]: For words, bottom-up signals converge onto a matching orthographic representation in the left vOT. For pseudohomophones, the propagated signals do not converge, but (partially) activate multiple orthographic word representations, reflected in increased effective connectivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anomalies of the vena cava inferior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, F.R.; Bouwer, A.J.; Bornman, M.S.; Du Plessis, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of anomalous inferior vena cava are presented, with the emphasis on embryology. The firts patient was investigated by venography for a clinically proven varicocele as a probable cause of infertility. A double inferior vena cava was found during venography, and was confirmed by computed tomography (CT). In the second case a left-sided inferior vena cava was an incidental finding when a CT scan was done as a diagnostic procedure in a case of Hodgkin's disease. A short summary of the embryology and the significance of the variants is presented

  5. Decreased left middle temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maorong; Li, Jun; Eyler, Lisa; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wei, Qingling; Tang, Jingsong; Liu, Feng; He, Zhong; Li, Lihua; Jin, Hua; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Juan; Liu, Fang; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-03-01

    The shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings might represent intermediate phenotypes that could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility to the illness. We sought to discover gray matter volume differences in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, their unaffected siblings and age-, sex- and handedness-matched healthy controls. We used VBM to investigate differences in gray matter volume among the 3 groups. There were significant gray matter volumetric differences among the 3 groups in bilateral hippocampal and parahippocampal gyri, bilateral middle temporal gyri, and superior temporal gyri (FDR ptemporal gyrus, and volume of this region was not different between siblings and patients. Our findings confirm and extend previous VBM analyses in schizophrenia and it indicate that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal development of cerebral lateralization. Furthermore, these data argue that patients and their unaffected siblings might share decreases in the gray matter volume of the left middle temporal gyrus, and this regional reduction might be a potential endophenotype for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The grounding of temporal metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H

    2016-03-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strength of Temporal White Matter Pathways Predicts Semantic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés, Pablo; Biel, Davina; Peñaloza, Claudia; Kaufmann, Jörn; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Noesselt, Toemme; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-11-15

    Learning the associations between words and meanings is a fundamental human ability. Although the language network is cortically well defined, the role of the white matter pathways supporting novel word-to-meaning mappings remains unclear. Here, by using contextual and cross-situational word learning, we tested whether learning the meaning of a new word is related to the integrity of the language-related white matter pathways in 40 adults (18 women). The arcuate, uncinate, inferior-fronto-occipital and inferior-longitudinal fasciculi were virtually dissected using manual and automatic deterministic fiber tracking. Critically, the automatic method allowed assessing the white matter microstructure along the tract. Results demonstrate that the microstructural properties of the left inferior-longitudinal fasciculus predict contextual learning, whereas the left uncinate was associated with cross-situational learning. In addition, we identified regions of special importance within these pathways: the posterior middle temporal gyrus, thought to serve as a lexical interface and specifically related to contextual learning; the anterior temporal lobe, known to be an amodal hub for semantic processing and related to cross-situational learning; and the white matter near the hippocampus, a structure fundamental for the initial stages of new-word learning and, remarkably, related to both types of word learning. No significant associations were found for the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus or the arcuate. While previous results suggest that learning new phonological word forms is mediated by the arcuate fasciculus, these findings show that the temporal pathways are the crucial neural substrate supporting one of the most striking human abilities: our capacity to identify correct associations between words and meanings under referential indeterminacy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The language-processing network is cortically (i.e., gray matter) well defined. However, the role of the

  8. Validation of the WMS-III Facial Memory subtest with the Graduate Hospital Facial Memory Test in a sample of right and left anterior temporal lobectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Tulsky, David S; Glosser, Guila

    2004-06-01

    A number of studies have shown visuospatial memory deficits following anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in the right, nondominant temporal lobe (RATL). The current study examines 26 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy who underwent ATL in either the right (RATL, n = 16) or left temporal lobe (LATL, n = 10) on two tests of facial memory abilities, the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) Faces subtest and the Graduate Hospital Facial Memory Test (FMT). Repeated measures ANOVA on the FMT indicated a significant main effect of side of surgery. The RATL group performed significantly below the LATL group overall. Both groups showed a slight, but non-significant, improvement in performance from pre- to postsurgery on the FMT immediate memory, likely due to practice effects. Repeated measures ANOVA on the WMS-III Faces subtest revealed a significant interaction of group (RATL vs. LATL) by delay (immediate vs. delayed). Overall, the LATL group showed an improvement in recognition scores from immediate to delayed memory, whereas the RATL group performed similarly at both immediate and delayed testing. No effects of surgery were noted on the WMS-III. Following initial data analysis the WMS-III Faces I and II data were re-scored using the scoring suggested by Holdnack and Delis (2003), earlier in this issue. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a trend toward significance in the three-way interaction of group (RATL vs. LATL) x time of testing (pre- versus postop) x delay (immediate vs. delayed memory). On the Faces I subtest, both the RATL and LATL groups showed a decline from preoperative to postoperative testing. However, on Faces II the LATL group showed an increase in performance from preoperative to postoperative testing, while the RALT group showed a decline in performance from preoperative to postoperative testing. While the FMT appears to be superior to the WMS-III Faces subtest in identifying deficits in facial memory prior to and following RATL, the

  9. Computed tomographic evaluation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio; Nakada, Gyojiro; Onishi, Tetsuo; Higashi, Yoichiro; Machida, Toyohei

    1980-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma not rarely invades the renal vein and inferior vena cava with formation of tumor thrombus. On the other hand, congenital anomalies of these venous channels are occasionally encountered. At the time of surgery of renal cell carcinoma, therefore, preoperative evaluation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava is desirable. In 22 cases of renal cell carcinoma treated at the Jikei University Hospital during 16 months period from Jan. 1979 to apr. 1980, the ranal vein and inferior vena cava were examined by computed tomography (CT). Intravenous tumor thrombus was diagnosed in 4, double inferior vena cava in one and retroaortic left renal vein in one. All these CT diagnosis were confirmed to be correct by surgery. Three of tumor thrombus cases showed involvement of inferior vena cava. CT findings included dilated vein in 4 and filling defect after contrast enhancement in 2. In double inferior vena cava, CT at the level of the upper pole of kidney showed the left inferior vena cava traversing in front of the aorta and conjoining the left inferior vena cava, CT at the level of renal vein the left renal vein draining into the left inferior vena cava and CT at the lower level two round inferior vena cava with the aorta between them. It was a diagnostically useful finding that the left inferior vena cava was markedly stained in CT after contrast enhancement jestas the aorta and the right inferior vena cava. In retroaortic left renal vein, CT showed the left renal vein running behind the aorta and draining into the inferior vena cava. Preoperative information on congenital anomalies of the renal vein and inferior vena cava or tumor thrombus and its extension are very important particularly for radical surgery to be conducted safely without postoperative complications. Computed tomography is quite useful in evaluation of morbid state of the renal vein and inferior vena cava. (author)

  10. [Inferior vestibular neuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzuphar, Stephen Jacques; Maire, Raphaël

    2017-10-04

    Inferior vestibular neuritis is a rare form of acute peripheral vestibular loss that only implies the lesion of the inferior vestibular nerve. The diagnosis is based on the observation of a spontaneous downbeating nystagmus, pathological head impulse test for the posterior semicircular canal and abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. Bithermal caloric testing and head impulse test for horizontal and anterior canals are normal, as well as the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The differential diagnosis of inferior vestibular neuritis includes the various central lesions that produce vertical down beating nystagmus (posterior fossa) and a cerebral magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory.

  11. Temporal change of myocardial tissue character is associated with left ventricular reverse remodeling in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeta, Takeru; Inomata, Takayuki; Fujita, Teppei; Iida, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuki; Sato, Takanori; Ishii, Shunsuke; Maekawa, Emi; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Naruke, Takashi; Koitabashi, Toshimi; Inoue, Yusuke; Ako, Junya

    2017-08-01

    Prognostic significance of temporal change in myocardial tissue characterization by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has not been elucidated in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Sixty-eight patients with newly-diagnosed DCM who underwent CMR including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) both at baseline and during follow-up period were enrolled. LGE score was defined by a signal intensity of ≥5 standard deviations above the remote reference myocardium mean. Left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) defined as a LV ejection fraction increase of ≥10% and a decrease in indexed LV end-diastolic diameter of ≥10% compared to those at baseline was detected in 38% of the patients. There was no significant difference in LGE score between baseline and follow-up (5.8% vs. 7.3%; p=0.38). The change in LGE area (delta-LGE) was significantly lower in patients with LVRR than those without (-0.5%±3.4% vs. 3.0±7.4%; p=0.02). On the other hand, T2 ratio during the follow-up significantly reduced (1.95±0.48 vs. 1.67±0.56; p<0.01); however, there was no significant difference in the change in T2 ratio between patients with LVRR and those without (-0.29±0.73 vs. -0.27±0.66; p=0.88). Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that baseline LGE score [odds ratio; 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 0.90; p<0.01] together with delta-LGE (odds ratio; 0.77; 95% CI 0.61 to 0.92; p=0.01) were independently associated with subsequent LVRR (p<0.01). The temporal change of LGE-CMR score during the clinical course was significantly correlated with following LVRR. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hippocampal activation correlates with visual confrontation naming: fMRI findings in controls and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Powell, Rob; Thompson, Pamela J; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Focke, Niels K; Stretton, Jason; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark R; Price, Cathy J; Duncan, John S; Koepp, Matthias J

    2011-08-01

    In patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) decreased naming ability is common, suggesting a critical role for the medial left temporal lobe in this task. We investigated the integrity of language networks with functional MRI (fMRI) in controls and TLE patients. We performed an fMRI verbal fluency paradigm in 22 controls and 66 patients with unilateral mesial TLE (37 left HS, 29 right HS). Verbal fluency and naming ability were investigated as part of the standard presurgical neuropsychological assessment. Naming ability was assessed using a visual confrontation naming test. Left TLE patients had significantly lower naming scores than controls and those with right TLE. Right TLE patients performed less well than controls, but better than those with left TLE. Left TLE had significantly lower scores for verbal fluency than controls. In controls and right TLE, left hippocampal activation during the verbal fluency task was significantly correlated with naming, characterised by higher scores in subjects with greater hippocampal fMRI activation. In left TLE no correlation with naming scores was seen in the left hippocampus, but there was a significant correlation in the left middle and inferior frontal gyri, not observed in controls and right TLE. In left and right TLE, out of scanner verbal fluency scores significantly correlated with fMRI activation for verbal fluency in the left middle and inferior frontal gyri. Good confrontation naming ability depends on the integrity of the hippocampus and the connecting fronto-temporal networks. Functional MRI activation in the left hippocampus during verbal fluency is associated with naming function in healthy controls and patients with right TLE. In left TLE, there was evidence of involvement of the left frontal lobe when naming was more proficient, most likely reflecting a compensatory response due to the ongoing epileptic activity and/or underlying pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  13. Altered anterior-posterior connectivity through the arcuate fasciculus in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Leveroni, Catherine; Cole, Andrew J; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2016-12-01

    How the interactions between cortices through a specific white matter pathway change during cognitive processing in patients with epilepsy remains unclear. Here, we used surface-based structural connectivity analysis to examine the change in structural connectivity with Broca's area/the right Broca's homologue in the lateral temporal and inferior parietal cortices through the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in 17 patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared with 17 healthy controls. Then, we investigated its functional relevance to the changes in task-related responses and task-modulated functional connectivity with Broca's area/the right Broca's homologue during a semantic classification task of a single word. The structural connectivity through the AF pathway and task-modulated functional connectivity with Broca's area decreased in the left midtemporal cortex. Furthermore, task-related response decreased in the left mid temporal cortex that overlapped with the region showing a decrease in the structural connectivity. In contrast, the region showing an increase in the structural connectivity through the AF overlapped with the regions showing an increase in task-modulated functional connectivity in the left inferior parietal cortex. These structural and functional changes in the overlapping regions were correlated. The results suggest that the change in the structural connectivity through the left frontal-temporal AF pathway underlies the altered functional networks between the frontal and temporal cortices during the language-related processing in patients with left TLE. The left frontal-parietal AF pathway might be employed to connect anterior and posterior brain regions during language processing and compensate for the compromised left frontal-temporal AF pathway. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4425-4438, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Imaging language networks before and after anterior temporal lobe resection: results of a longitudinal fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Thompson, Pamela J; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Vollmar, Christian; Powell, Robert H W; Symms, Mark R; McEvoy, Andrew W; Micallef, Caroline; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S

    2012-04-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) controls seizures in up to 70% of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but, in the language dominant hemisphere, may impair language function, particularly naming. Functional reorganization can occur within the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. We investigated reorganization of language in left-hemisphere-dominant patients before and after ATLR; whether preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicts postoperative naming decline; and efficiency of postoperative language networks. We studied 44 patients with TLE due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (24 left) on a 3T GE-MRI scanner. All subjects performed language fMRI and neuropsychological testing preoperatively and again 4 months after left or right ATLR. Postoperatively, individuals with left TLE had greater bilateral middle/inferior frontal fMRI activation and stronger functional connectivity from the left inferior/middle frontal gyri to the contralateral frontal lobe than preoperatively, and this was not observed in individuals with right TLE. Preoperatively, in left and right TLE, better naming correlated with greater preoperative left hippocampal and left frontal activation for verbal fluency (VF). In left TLE, stronger preoperative left middle frontal activation for VF was predictive of greater decline in naming after ATLR. Postoperatively, in left TLE with clinically significant naming decline, greater right middle frontal VF activation correlated with better postoperative naming. In patients without postoperative naming decline, better naming correlated with greater activation in the remaining left posterior hippocampus. In right TLE, naming ability correlated with left hippocampal and left and right frontal VF activation postoperatively. In left TLE, early postoperative reorganization to the contralateral frontal lobe suggests multiple systems support language function. Postoperatively, ipsilateral recruitment

  15. Inferior vestibular neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2012-08-01

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) mostly involves the superior portion of the vestibular nerve and labyrinth. This study aimed to describe the clinical features of VN involving the inferior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents only. Of the 703 patients with a diagnosis of VN or labyrinthitis at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2004 to 2010, we retrospectively recruited 9 patients (6 women, age range 15-75) with a diagnosis of isolated inferior VN. Diagnosis of isolated inferior VN was based on torsional downbeating spontaneous nystagmus, abnormal head-impulse test (HIT) for the posterior semicircular canal (PC), and abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in the presence of normally functioning horizontal and anterior semicircular canals, as determined by normal HIT and bithermal caloric tests. All patients presented with acute vertigo with nausea, vomiting, and imbalance. Three patients also had tinnitus and hearing loss in the involved side. The rotation axis of torsional downbeating spontaneous nystagmus was best aligned with that of the involved PC. HIT was also positive only for the involved PC. Cervical VEMP was abnormal in seven patients, and ocular VEMP was normal in all four patients tested. Ocular torsion and subjective visual vertical tests were mostly within the normal range. Since isolated inferior VN lacks the typical findings of much more prevalent superior VN, it may be mistaken for a central vestibular disorder. Recognition of this rare disorder may help avoid unnecessary workups in patients with acute vestibulopathy.

  16. Inferiority is compex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jess

    2017-07-01

    In Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong and the New Research That's Rewriting the Story, author Angela Saini puts forward the idea that bad science has been used to endorse the cultural prejudice that women are both biologically and psychologically second rate to men.

  17. Cortical Activation during a Cognitive Challenge in Patients with Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy—A Dynamic SPECT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Kirkpatrick

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot group of six patients suffering from chronic temporal lobe epilepsy, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT has been used to image the changes in relative cerebral blood flow between rest (static scan and conditions of cognitive activation (activated scan. The cognitive challenge used during activation comprised a test of word memory, and the performance was expressed as a word memory score (WMS for each individual. An activation index (AI was calculated from the mean normalized density counts in specific regions of interest (ROIs, and values obtained were analysed for correlation with the WMS. The mean AI was increased significantly in the right lateral temporal cortex, the right and left inferior frontal regions, the left temporal pole, and the right medial temporal cortex. A positive correlation with the WMS was found in the medial temporal cortices, and this relationship was significant for the right medial temporal ROI.

  18. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigetoshi eTakaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The arcuate fasciculus (AF in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca’s area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homologue of Broca’s area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca’s area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca’s area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca’s area, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  19. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  20. Cognitive Functioning in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A BOLD-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lili; Bai, Genji; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Daoyan; Zheng, Jiyong; Xu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to analyze the association between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (re-fMRI) and cognitive function (including language, executive, and memory functions) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, which will help to explore the mechanism of brain function in patients. 15 TLE patients and 15 non-TLE patients were recruited. All subjects underwent neuropsychological testing and memory functional evaluation. Changes in verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ), full intelligence quotient (FIQ), and memory quotient (MQ) were compared between two groups. Re-fMRI data were also collected from two groups to evaluate these changes. Each individual score of neuropsychological testing and memory functional evaluation were higher in control group, which was statistically different (all P temporal gyrus back, right superior temporal gyrus, left cerebellum, left angular gyrus, left wedge anterior lobe, and left central back; while the negatively activated brain regions were left prefrontal, right cerebellum, right corner back, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. During the language task, the activated brain regions of the TLE patients were right prefrontal lobe, the lateral temporal gyri, the left cerebellum, left cornu laterale gyrus, left precuneus, and the left postcentral gyrus, whereas the negatively activated brain areas were the left prefrontal cortex, the right cerebellum, right cornu laterale gyrus, and the right anterior cingulate gyrus. During the executive task, epilepsy patients showed activation difference in right prefrontal and right frontal lobe and right brain, left superior temporal gyrus, and right cerebellum anterior lobe compared with the control group; no negatively activated differences in brain areas. During the memory task, the difference lay in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral wedge anterior lobe while the negatively activated brain areas were the left inferior frontal

  1. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  2. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Raghavendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric - inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up.

  3. Hepatic and postrenal segment anomalies of inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1986-01-01

    Postrenal segment anomalies of inferior vena cava such as bilateral inferior vena cava and left-sided inferior vena cava can simulate lymphadenopathy on CT scan and these anomalous veins need consideration in retroperitoneal operations such as procedures for prevention of venous embolism, splenorenal shunt operation and aortic prosthetic replacement. Retrocaval ureter is a rare cause of obstructive uropathy or medical deviation of ureter. We analyzed 16 cases of postrenal segment anomalies diagnosed by CT, vena cavography, retrograde pyelography and ultrasonography including six rare positional anomalies at hepatic segment of inferior vena cava diagnosed by cardiac angiography. The results were as follows. 1. Postrenal segment anomalies were 6 cases of bilateral IVC, 8 cases of left-sided IVC and 2 cases of retrocaval ureters. On CT scan, 3 cases of bilateral IVC and 4 cases of left-sided IVC were accompanied by malignant tumors, but caval veins could be discriminated from enlarged nodes because of continuous tubular nature of vein on consecutive sections with homogeneous strong enhancement. Two cases of retrocaval ureters showed hydroureteronephrosis due to ureteral compression by IVC. 2. Hepatic segment anomalies were 6 cases. Five cases of IVC on left side of vertebra crossed midline at live to enter right-sided right atrium and one case of IVC on right side crossed midline to enter left-sided right atrium. Four cases of complex cardiac anomalies, 4 cases of annapolis and 2 cases of situs ambiguous were associated with these anomalies.

  4. Activations in temporal areas using visual and auditory naming stimuli: A language fMRI study in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Gloria G; Trimmel, Karin; Haag, Anja; van Graan, Louis A; Koepp, Matthias J; Thompson, Pamela J; Duncan, John S

    2016-12-01

    Verbal fluency functional MRI (fMRI) is used for predicting language deficits after anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but primarily engages frontal lobe areas. In this observational study we investigated fMRI paradigms using visual and auditory stimuli, which predominately involve language areas resected during ATLR. Twenty-three controls and 33 patients (20 left (LTLE), 13 right (RTLE)) were assessed using three fMRI paradigms: verbal fluency, auditory naming with a contrast of auditory reversed speech; picture naming with a contrast of scrambled pictures and blurred faces. Group analysis showed bilateral temporal activations for auditory naming and picture naming. Correcting for auditory and visual input (by subtracting activations resulting from auditory reversed speech and blurred pictures/scrambled faces respectively) resulted in left-lateralised activations for patients and controls, which was more pronounced for LTLE compared to RTLE patients. Individual subject activations at a threshold of T>2.5, extent >10 voxels, showed that verbal fluency activated predominantly the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in 90% of LTLE, 92% of RTLE, and 65% of controls, compared to right IFG activations in only 15% of LTLE and RTLE and 26% of controls. Middle temporal (MTG) or superior temporal gyrus (STG) activations were seen on the left in 30% of LTLE, 23% of RTLE, and 52% of controls, and on the right in 15% of LTLE, 15% of RTLE, and 35% of controls. Auditory naming activated temporal areas more frequently than did verbal fluency (LTLE: 93%/73%; RTLE: 92%/58%; controls: 82%/70% (left/right)). Controlling for auditory input resulted in predominantly left-sided temporal activations. Picture naming resulted in temporal lobe activations less frequently than did auditory naming (LTLE 65%/55%; RTLE 53%/46%; controls 52%/35% (left/right)). Controlling for visual input had left-lateralising effects. Auditory and picture naming activated

  5. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  6. Abstract Linguistic Structure Correlates with Temporal Activity during Naturalistic Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Jonathan R.; Stabler, Edward P.; Van Wagenen, Sarah E.; Luh, Wen-Ming; Hale, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Neurolinguistic accounts of sentence comprehension identify a network of relevant brain regions, but do not detail the information flowing through them. We investigate syntactic information. Does brain activity implicate a computation over hierarchical grammars or does it simply reflect linear order, as in a Markov chain? To address this question, we quantify the cognitive states implied by alternative parsing models. We compare processing-complexity predictions from these states against fMRI timecourses from regions that have been implicated in sentence comprehension. We find that hierarchical grammars independently predict timecourses from left anterior and posterior temporal lobe. Markov models are predictive in these regions and across a broader network that includes the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that while linear effects are wide-spread across the language network, certain areas in the left temporal lobe deal with abstract, hierarchical syntactic representations. PMID:27208858

  7. Transhepatic approach for extracardiac inferior cavopulmonary connection stent fenestration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Damien

    2012-02-01

    We report on a 3-year-old male who underwent transcatheter stent fenestration of the inferior portion of an extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection in the setting of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Transhepatic approach, following an unsuccessful attempt from the femoral vein facilitated delivery of a diabolo-shaped stent.

  8. Efficient visual object and word recognition relies on high spatial frequency coding in the left posterior fusiform gyrus: evidence from a case-series of patients with ventral occipito-temporal cortex damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel J; Woollams, Anna M; Kim, Esther; Beeson, Pelagie M; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2013-11-01

    Recent visual neuroscience investigations suggest that ventral occipito-temporal cortex is retinotopically organized, with high acuity foveal input projecting primarily to the posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG), making this region crucial for coding high spatial frequency information. Because high spatial frequencies are critical for fine-grained visual discrimination, we hypothesized that damage to the left pFG should have an adverse effect not only on efficient reading, as observed in pure alexia, but also on the processing of complex non-orthographic visual stimuli. Consistent with this hypothesis, we obtained evidence that a large case series (n = 20) of patients with lesions centered on left pFG: 1) Exhibited reduced sensitivity to high spatial frequencies; 2) demonstrated prolonged response latencies both in reading (pure alexia) and object naming; and 3) were especially sensitive to visual complexity and similarity when discriminating between novel visual patterns. These results suggest that the patients' dual reading and non-orthographic recognition impairments have a common underlying mechanism and reflect the loss of high spatial frequency visual information normally coded in the left pFG.

  9. Crisis del lóbulo temporal registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía: caso clínico Temporal lobe seizure recorded by magnetoencephalography: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Amo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La localización del inicio de las crisis es un factor importante para la evaluación prequirúrgica de la epilepsia. En este trabajo se describe la localización del inicio de una crisis registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía (MEG en un niño de 12 años que presenta crisis parciales complejas farmacorresistentes. La RM muestra una lesión de 20mm de diámetro en el hipocampo izquierdo. EEG de superficie con ondas theta temporales izquierdas. Registro MEG interictal con punta-onda aislada posterior e inferior a la lesión de la RM. Registro MEG ictal con punta-onda (2 Hz. La localización de los dipolos indica el inicio de la crisis en la circunvolución temporal inferior en la misma localización que la actividad interictal MEG. Esta actividad ictal se propaga bilateralmente a áreas frontales. El registro corticográfico intraquirúrgico confirma los resultados de la localización interictal mediante MEG.Ictal onset localization is a important factor in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. This paper describes the localization of a seizure onset recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG from a 12-year-old male patient who suffered from complex partial drug-resistant seizures. MRI revealed a 20mm diameter lesion located in left hippocampus. Scalp EEG showed left temporal theta waves. Interictal MEG registrations detected isolated spike-wave activity posterior and inferior to the MRI lesion. Ictal MEG showed continuous spike-wave activity (2 Hz. Dipole localization sited seizure onset in the inferior left temporal gyrus, the same localization of the interictal MEG activity. This ictal activity spreads bilaterally to frontal areas. Intrasurgical electrocorticography recording confirmed interictal MEG results.

  10. Development of rostral inferior parietal lobule area functional connectivity from late childhood to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Haifeng; Du, Xiaoxia

    2017-06-01

    Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the PFt area with other brain areas and whether these networks change over time. Here, we investigated the FC development of the PFt area-based network in 59 healthy subjects aged 7-26 years at resting-state to study brain development from late childhood through adolescence to early adulthood. The bilateral PFt showed similar core FC networks, which included the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyri, the insula, the somatosensory cortex, the precuneus, the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the temporal lobe, and the cerebellum posterior lobes. Furthermore, the FC between the left PFt and the left IPL exhibited a significantly positive correlation with age, and the FC between the left PFt and the right postcentral gyrus exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. In addition, the FC between the right PFt and the right putamen exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. Our findings suggest that the PFt area-based network develops and is reorganized with age. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% [mean +/- S.E.M.] vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury

  12. Role of the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention: An rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareham, Corinne A; Georgieva, Stanimira D; Kamke, Marc R; Lloyd, David; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Mattingley, Jason B

    2018-02-01

    Selective attention is the process of directing limited capacity resources to behaviourally relevant stimuli while ignoring competing stimuli that are currently irrelevant. Studies in healthy human participants and in individuals with focal brain lesions have suggested that the right parietal cortex is crucial for resolving competition for attention. Following right-hemisphere damage, for example, patients may have difficulty reporting a brief, left-sided stimulus if it occurs with a competitor on the right, even though the same left stimulus is reported normally when it occurs alone. Such "extinction" of contralesional stimuli has been documented for all the major sense modalities, but it remains unclear whether its occurrence reflects involvement of one or more specific subregions of the temporo-parietal cortex. Here we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right hemisphere to examine the effect of disruption of two candidate regions - the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) - on auditory selective attention. Eighteen neurologically normal, right-handed participants performed an auditory task, in which they had to detect target digits presented within simultaneous dichotic streams of spoken distractor letters in the left and right channels, both before and after 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the SMG, STG or a somatosensory control site (S1). Across blocks, participants were asked to report on auditory streams in the left, right, or both channels, which yielded focused and divided attention conditions. Performance was unchanged for the two focused attention conditions, regardless of stimulation site, but was selectively impaired for contralateral left-sided targets in the divided attention condition following stimulation of the right SMG, but not the STG or S1. Our findings suggest a causal role for the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. The left superior temporal gyrus is a shared substrate for auditory short-term memory and speech comprehension: evidence from 210 patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Alexander P; Schofield, Thomas M; Crinion, Jennifer T; Seghier, Mohamed L; Grogan, Alice; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    Competing theories of short-term memory function make specific predictions about the functional anatomy of auditory short-term memory and its role in language comprehension. We analysed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images from 210 stroke patients and employed a novel voxel based analysis to test the relationship between auditory short-term memory and speech comprehension. Using digit span as an index of auditory short-term memory capacity we found that the structural integrity of a posterior region of the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus predicted auditory short-term memory capacity, even when performance on a range of other measures was factored out. We show that the integrity of this region also predicts the ability to comprehend spoken sentences. Our results therefore support cognitive models that posit a shared substrate between auditory short-term memory capacity and speech comprehension ability. The method applied here will be particularly useful for modelling structure-function relationships within other complex cognitive domains.

  14. Collateral circulations in inferior vena cava obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Beum; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung; Park, Soo Soung

    1985-01-01

    Obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is an uncommon condition, and the collateral pathway varies according to the level, extent, duration and the cause of obstruction. Membranous obstruction of IVC in its hepatic portion might be one of the principle cause among Korean, though not reported till now. Analytical study was performed in 26 cases of IVC obstruction with various cause. 1. The level of the obstruction showed relatively even distribution as follows, upper caval in 11 cases, middle caval in 6 cases and infrarenal in 9 cases. 2. The main cause of upper caval obstruction was membranous obstruction. 3. As a whole, the main collateral pathway was the central route (22 cases: 85%). 4. Characteristic collateral pathway unique to upper caval obstruction was transhepatic venous collateral, developed between the obstructed segment and unobstructed segment of IVC. 5. Scalloping of left cardiac border produced by pericardiophrenic venous collateral was characteristic simple chest x-ray finding in IVC obstruction

  15. Superior temporal gyrus thickness correlates with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Asaf; Chapman, Joab; Tal, Sigal; Bercovich, Eran; Gil, Hararai; Achiron, Anat

    2013-07-01

    Decreased cortical thickness that signifies gray matter pathology and its impact on cognitive performance is a research field with growing interest in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and needs to be further elucidated. Using high-field 3.0 T MRI, three-dimensional T1-FSPGR (voxel size 1 × 1 × 1 mm) cortical thickness was measured in 82 regions in the left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) in 20 RRMS patients with low disease activity and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects that in parallel underwent comprehensive cognitive evaluation. The correlation between local cortical atrophy and cognitive performance was examined. We identified seven regions with cortical tissue loss that differed between RRMS and age-matched healthy controls. These regions were mainly located in the frontal and temporal lobes, specifically within the gyrus rectus, inferior frontal sulcus, orbital gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, with preferential left asymmetry. Increased cortical thickness was identified in two visual sensory regions, the LH inferior occipital gyrus, and the RH cuneus, implicating adaptive plasticity. Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the LH superior temporal gyrus thickness was associated with cognitive performance and its thickness correlated with motor skills (r = 0.65, p = 0.003), attention (r = 0.45, p = 0.042), and information processing speed (r = 0.50, p = 0.025). Our findings show that restricted cortical thinning occurs in RRMS patients with mild disease and that LH superior temporal gyrus atrophy is associated with cognitive dysfunction.

  16. CT findings of bilateral inferior vena cava: Differentiation from dilated retroperitoneal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Joo; Lee, Si Kyung; Lee, Joo Hyuk

    1993-01-01

    We experience five cases of bilateral inferior vena cava for recent one year. We evaluated the CT findings of the cases and of dilated veins located in the left retroperitoneum (seven left gonadal, seven inferior mesenteric, and two left ascending lumber veins) in the viewpoints of the size, location and relation with the surrounding structures. Bilateral inferior vena cava (IVC) may be asymmetric and the left IVC may be smaller than other retroperitoneal veins with a round contour. The left IVC was located anterior to the spinal body and corresponded with contralateral vena cava in the anteroposterior plane. The gonadal vein was located anterio or anterolateral side of the psoas and always crossed the ureter. Most of the inferior mesenteric vein showed similar location to the opposite site of the vena cava in the anterolateral side of the muscle, medial to the left ureter without crossing. The left ascending lumbar vein was similarly located to the left vena cava but dilated in a short segment. It is required to trace the vessel upward and downward and observe its continuity for correct differentiation. If it is impossible, some differential points suggested in the results of our study will be helpful for distinguishing them

  17. [MASSIVE HEMORRHAGE FROM THE FISTULA FORMATION BETWEEN CUTANEOUS URETEROSTOMY AND INFERIOR EPIGASTRIC ARTERY: A CASE REPORT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Tadamasa; Mori, Kenichi; Shin, Toshitaka; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Fuminori; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Sato, Yoshiyasu; Matsubara, Takanori; Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Kamei, Noritaka; Hongo, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    A 87-year-old man received radical nephroureterectomy for right renal pelvic cancer in 2009 and left cutaneous ureterostomy after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in 2013. He visited the hospital for exchanging a 7 or 8 Fr single-J catheter every 2 to 4 weeks. Eleven months after the 2nd operation, massive bleeding from the stoma occurred when ureteral catheter was exchanged. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed that left inferior epigastric artery was located close to left ureter. Angiography of the left inferior epigastric artery didn't show an obvious fistula, but revealed the stoma was surrounded by ramified new blood vessels from left inferior epigastric artery. We suspected a rupture of the vessels and performed embolization for the branch of inferior epigastric artery to left ureter. This embolization made it possible for the bleeding to be controlled. Massive bleeding from the branch of inferior epigastric artery is very rare, and we report the case and review the literature.

  18. Suspected spinocellular carcinoma of the inferior eyelid resulted multiple chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onesti, Maria Giuseppina; Troccola, Antonietta; Maruccia, Michele; Conversi, Andrea; Scuderi, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Chalazion is a subacute granulomatous inflammation of the eyelid caused by retention of tarsal gland secretions and it's the most common inflammatory lesion of the eyelid. In cases of doubtful clinical presentation the diagnosis with a biopsy and a histopathological examination is important because it can orientate an appropriate surgical treatment. We report a case of a 64-years-old diabetic man, suspected for a spinocellular lesion of the inferior eyelid of the left eye, it resulted unexpectedly a chalazion.

  19. Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Associated with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Koeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM.

  20. Learning Morse Code Alters Microstructural Properties in the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus: A DTI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, Lara; Leemans, Alexander; Schweizer, Lauren M; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Learning relies on neuroplasticity, which has mainly been studied in gray matter (GM). However, there is mounting evidence indicating a critical role of white matter changes involved in learning processes. One of the most important learning processes in human development is language acquisition. However, due to the length of this learning process, it has been notoriously difficult to investigate the underlying neuroplastic changes. Here, we report a novel learning paradigm to assess the role of white matter plasticity for language acquisition. By acoustically presenting Morse Code (MC) using an in house developed audio book as a model for language-type learning, we generated a well-controlled learning environment that allows for the detection of subtle white matter changes related to language type learning in a much shorter time frame than usual language acquisition. In total 12 letters of the MC alphabet were learned within six learning session, which allowed study participants to perform a word recognition MC decoding task. In this study, we found that learning MC was associated with significant microstructural changes in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). The fractional anisotropy (FA) of this associative fiber bundle connecting the occipital and posterior temporal cortex with the temporal pole as well as the hippocampus and amygdala was increased. Furthermore, white matter plasticity was associated with task performance of MC decoding, indicating that the structural changes were related to learning efficiency. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate an important role of white matter neuroplasticity for acquiring a new language skill.

  1. Learning Morse Code Alters Microstructural Properties in the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus: A DTI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Schlaffke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning relies on neuroplasticity, which has mainly been studied in gray matter (GM. However, there is mounting evidence indicating a critical role of white matter changes involved in learning processes. One of the most important learning processes in human development is language acquisition. However, due to the length of this learning process, it has been notoriously difficult to investigate the underlying neuroplastic changes. Here, we report a novel learning paradigm to assess the role of white matter plasticity for language acquisition. By acoustically presenting Morse Code (MC using an in house developed audio book as a model for language-type learning, we generated a well-controlled learning environment that allows for the detection of subtle white matter changes related to language type learning in a much shorter time frame than usual language acquisition. In total 12 letters of the MC alphabet were learned within six learning session, which allowed study participants to perform a word recognition MC decoding task. In this study, we found that learning MC was associated with significant microstructural changes in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF. The fractional anisotropy (FA of this associative fiber bundle connecting the occipital and posterior temporal cortex with the temporal pole as well as the hippocampus and amygdala was increased. Furthermore, white matter plasticity was associated with task performance of MC decoding, indicating that the structural changes were related to learning efficiency. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate an important role of white matter neuroplasticity for acquiring a new language skill.

  2. The curious case of the disappearing IVC: A case report and review of the aetiology of Inferior Vena Cava Agenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Michael; Robson, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a previously well 18-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department with lower limb pain. An ultrasound demonstrated extensive left sided deep vein thrombosis and computed tomography demonstrated inferior vena cava agenesis, leading to the diagnosis of inferior vena cava agenesis associated deep vein thrombosis. The aetiology of inferior vena cava agenesis is explored in depth. PMID:24967034

  3. Congenital inferior vena cava anomalies: a review of findings at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Catherine; Trad, Henrique Simão; Mendonça, Silvana Machado; Trad, Clovis Simão

    2013-01-01

    Inferior vena cava anomalies are rare, occurring in up to 8.7% of the population, as left renal vein anomalies are considered. The inferior vena cava develops from the sixth to the eighth gestational weeks, originating from three paired embryonic veins, namely the subcardinal, supracardinal and postcardinal veins. This complex ontogenesis of the inferior vena cava, with multiple anastomoses between the pairs of embryonic veins, leads to a number of anatomic variations in the venous return fro...

  4. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  5. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior turbinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Harper, Jr., MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the inferior nasal turbinate. The patient, a 68-year-old Caucasian male, presented with 4–6 weeks of epistaxis that was resistant to nasal packing and septal cautery. Upon inspection in the operating room, a small mass was excised from the inferior turbinate. High-power H&E-stained microscopy demonstrated bundles of malignant smooth muscle cells, and immunohistochemical stains were strongly positive for desmin, smooth muscle actin and vimentin, while negative for pankeratin EA1/EA3 and CaM 5.2, suggesting leiomyosarcoma as the diagnosis. Clear margins were obtained at a second surgery. At the time of this writing it is 8 months since his last surgery and he has remained symptom free.

  6. Factors associated with failure to identify the culprit artery by the electrocardiogram in inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahvanainen, Minna; Nikus, Kjell C; Holmvang, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Right and left circumflex coronary artery occlusions cause inferior myocardial infarction. To improve the targeting of diagnostic and therapeutic measures individually, factors interfering with identification of the culprit artery by the electrocardiogram (ECG) were explored.......Right and left circumflex coronary artery occlusions cause inferior myocardial infarction. To improve the targeting of diagnostic and therapeutic measures individually, factors interfering with identification of the culprit artery by the electrocardiogram (ECG) were explored....

  7. Decreased middle temporal gyrus connectivity in the language network in schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Huaning; Li, Liang; Liao, Qimei; Liu, Yang; Bao, Xianghong; Liu, Wenlei; Yin, Hong; Lu, Hongbing; Tan, Qingrong

    2017-07-13

    As the most common symptoms of schizophrenia, the long-term persistence of obstinate auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) brings about great mental pain to patients. Neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia have indicated that AVHs were associated with altered functional and structural connectivity within the language network. However, effective connectivity that could reflect directed information flow within this network and is of great importance to understand the neural mechanisms of the disorder remains largely unknown. In this study, we utilized stochastic dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate directed connections within the language network in schizophrenia patients with and without AVHs. Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia (18 with AVHs and 18 without AVHs), and 37 healthy controls participated in the current resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The results showed that the connection from the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) to left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) was significantly decreased in patients with AVHs compared to those without AVHs. Meanwhile, the effective connection from the left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) to LMTG was significantly decreased compared to the healthy controls. Our findings suggest aberrant pattern of causal interactions within the language network in patients with AVHs, indicating that the hypoconnectivity or disrupted connection from frontal to temporal speech areas might be critical for the pathological basis of AVHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justich, E.

    1982-04-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed.

  9. [Massive inferior vena cava thrombosis in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic hepatorenal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Gil, F; Costero, O; Pobes, A

    2002-01-01

    We report a 68-year-old man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, who developed multiple venous thromboses (inferior vena cava, left renal vein and iliofemoral veins) caused by local compression of the intrahepatic inferior vena cava by hepatic cysts. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of inferior vena cava thrombosis caused by hepatic cysts compression. Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were effective in documenting the venous thromboses and the underlying lesions non-invasively. Long-term anticoagulation was an efficient and safe treatment.

  10. Left dorsal speech stream components and their contribution to phonological processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Kell, Christian A; Restle, Julia; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2015-01-28

    Models propose an auditory-motor mapping via a left-hemispheric dorsal speech-processing stream, yet its detailed contributions to speech perception and production are unclear. Using fMRI-navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we virtually lesioned left dorsal stream components in healthy human subjects and probed the consequences on speech-related facilitation of articulatory motor cortex (M1) excitability, as indexed by increases in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of a lip muscle, and on speech processing performance in phonological tests. Speech-related MEP facilitation was disrupted by rTMS of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the sylvian parieto-temporal region (SPT), and by double-knock-out but not individual lesioning of pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and not by rTMS of the ventral speech-processing stream or an occipital control site. RTMS of the dorsal stream but not of the ventral stream or the occipital control site caused deficits specifically in the processing of fast transients of the acoustic speech signal. Performance of syllable and pseudoword repetition correlated with speech-related MEP facilitation, and this relation was abolished with rTMS of pSTS, SPT, and pIFG. Findings provide direct evidence that auditory-motor mapping in the left dorsal stream causes reliable and specific speech-related MEP facilitation in left articulatory M1. The left dorsal stream targets the articulatory M1 through pSTS and SPT constituting essential posterior input regions and parallel via frontal pathways through pIFG and dPMC. Finally, engagement of the left dorsal stream is necessary for processing of fast transients in the auditory signal. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351411-12$15.00/0.

  11. Involuntary switching into the native language induced by electrocortical stimulation of the superior temporal gyrus: a multimodal mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Marin, Dario; Canderan, Cinzia; Maieron, Marta; Budai, Riccardo; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2014-09-01

    We describe involuntary language switching from L2 to L1 evoked by electro-stimulation in the superior temporal gyrus in a 30-year-old right-handed Serbian (L1) speaker who was also a late Italian learner (L2). The patient underwent awake brain surgery. Stimulation of other portions of the exposed cortex did not cause language switching as did not stimulation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, where we evoked a speech arrest. Stimulation effects on language switching were selective, namely, interfered with counting behaviour but not with object naming. The coordinates of the positive site were combined with functional and fibre tracking (DTI) data. Results showed that the language switching site belonged to a significant fMRI cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus found activated for both L1 and L2, and for both the patient and controls, and did not overlap with the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). This area, also known as Stp, has a role in phonological processing. Language switching phenomenon we observed can be partly explained by transient dysfunction of the feed-forward control mechanism hypothesized by the DIVA (Directions Into Velocities of Articulators) model (Golfinopoulos, E., Tourville, J. A., & Guenther, F. H. (2010). The integration of large-scale neural network modeling and functional brain imaging in speech motor control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Right Ventricular Involvement in either Anterior or Inferior Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Abtahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike left ventricular function, less attention has been paid to Right Ventricular (RV function after Myocardial Infarction (MI. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare RV function in patients with inferior and anterior MI. Patients and Methods: During the study period, 60 patients consecutively presented to the Emergency Department with chest pain were divided into two groups based on their electrocardiographic findings. Accordingly, 25 patients had inferior MI (IMI group and 35 ones had anterior MI (AMI group. Echocardiography was performed 48 hours after starting the standard therapy. Conventional echocardiographic parameters and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI measurements were acquired from the standard views. Student t-test and the chi-square test were respectively used for comparisons of the normally distributed continuous and categorical variables in the two groups. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

  13. Intrahepatic venous collaterals forming via the inferior right hepatic vein in 3 patients with obstruction of the inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayasu, K.; Moriyama, N.; Muramatsu, Y.

    1985-01-01

    When the inferior vena cava is obstructed, collateral veins enlarge, connecting with the inferior (acessory) right hepatic vein (IRHV) and thence through various hepatic veins to the right atrium. Three such cases are described. In one patient, most contrast material flowed into the IRHV and from there to the left hepatic vein. The second patient had several large collaterals arising from the IRHV and flowing into the right and middle hepatic veins, while the third patient demonstrated anastomoses between the IRHV and the middle hepatic vein. All of these hepatic venous shunts eventually drained into the right atrium. There were no clinical manifestations such as ascites, edema, or dilatation of the abdominal veins. Cavography alone or combined with computed tomography proved to be diagnostic in the assessment of these intrahepatic collaterals

  14. Inferior Vena Cava Duplication: Incidental Case in a Young Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Coco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a double inferior vena cava (IVC with retroaortic left renal vein, azygos continuation of the IVC, and presence of the hepatic portion of the IVC drained into the right renal vein is reported and the embryologic, clinical, and radiological significance is discussed. The diagnosis is suggested by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT, which reveals the aberrant vascular structures. Awareness of different congenital anomalies of IVC is necessary for radiologists to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and they should be remembered because they can influence several surgical interventions and endovascular procedures.

  15. The right inferior frontal gyrus processes nested non-local dependencies in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Vincent K M; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D; Koelsch, Stefan

    2018-02-28

    Complex auditory sequences known as music have often been described as hierarchically structured. This permits the existence of non-local dependencies, which relate elements of a sequence beyond their temporal sequential order. Previous studies in music have reported differential activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when comparing regular and irregular chord-transitions based on theories in Western tonal harmony. However, it is unclear if the observed activity reflects the interpretation of hierarchical structure as the effects are confounded by local irregularity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that violations to non-local dependencies in nested sequences of three-tone musical motifs in musicians elicited increased activity in the right IFG. This is in contrast to similar studies in language which typically report the left IFG in processing grammatical syntax. Effects of increasing auditory working demands are moreover reflected by distributed activity in frontal and parietal regions. Our study therefore demonstrates the role of the right IFG in processing non-local dependencies in music, and suggests that hierarchical processing in different cognitive domains relies on similar mechanisms that are subserved by domain-selective neuronal subpopulations.

  16. Clinical implications of anterior S-T segment depression in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, C.H.; Woodward, W.; Nicod, P.; Corbett, J.R.; Lewis, S.E.; Willerson, J.T.; Rude, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    To assess various factors associated with anterior S-T segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction, 47 consecutive patients with electrocardiographic evidence of a first transmural inferior infarction were studied prospectively with radionuclide ventriculography an average of 7.3 hours (range 2.9 to 15.3) after the onset of symptoms. Thirty-nine patients (Group I) had anterior S-T depression in the initial electrocardiogram and 8 (Group II) did not have such reciprocal changes. There was no difference between the two groups in left ventricular end-diastolic or end-diastolic volume index or left ventricular ejection fraction. Stroke volume index was greater in Group I than in Group II. There were no group differences in left ventricular total or regional wall motion scores. A weak correlation existed between the quantities (mV) or inferior S-T segment elevation and reciprocal S-T depression. No relation between anterior S-T segment depression and the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index could be demonstrated; the extent of left ventricular apical and right ventricular wall motion abnormalities, both frequently associated with inferior infarction, did not correlate with the quantity of anterior S-T depression. These data show that anterior S-T segment depression occurs commonly during the early evolution of transmural inferior infarction, is not generally a marker of functionally significant anterior ischemia and cannot be used to predict left ventricular function in individual patients. Anterior S-T segment depression may be determined by reciprocal mechanisms

  17. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  18. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

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    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  19. [The effect of weakening inferior oblique muscles on the status of ocular torsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Guang-Huan; Yu, Xin-Ping; Yu, Huan-Yun; Chen, Jing-Chang; Deng, Da-Ming; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Kang, Ying; Wu, He-Ping

    2004-04-01

    To understand the clinical significance of subjective and objective examination of cyclodeviations and investigate the effect of weakening inferior oblique muscles on the status of ocular torsion. Twenty patients (40 eyes) with overacting inferior oblique muscles underwent bilateral myotomy or partial myectomy of inferior oblique muscles. Subjective cyclodeviations were measured before surgery as well as one week, two months after surgery by double maddox rod test (DMRT). Objective cyclodeviations were assessed by fundus photography before and 7 days after surgery in 15 cases. The photograph was transferred to a computer, and the fovea-disc angle was measured by means of drawing picture software. Nine patients with primary overaction of inferior oblique muscles were negative with DMRT before surgery, and only one case revealed incyclotropia 5.0 degrees tested two months after surgery. Four out of 11 patients with secondary overaction of inferior oblique muscles showed excyclotropia 2.5 degrees - 5.0 degrees with DMRT before surgery, and all patients indicated no subjective cyclotropia with DMRT two months after surgery. Fundus photography determination of the right eye revealed extorsion 16.83 degrees +/- 6.39 degrees, the left eye 14.92 degrees +/- 4.51 degrees before surgery. The reduction of the cyclodeviations by weakening inferior oblique muscle for the right and left eye was 13.07 degrees +/- 3.38 degrees and 10.54 degrees +/- 3.75 degrees respectively. The comparison of objective ocular torsion for both eyes showed high significant differences (P < 0.01) pre- and post-operatively. The results of subjective and objective examination of cyclodeviations in patients with primary or secondary overacting inferior oblique muscle early after birth were not consistent. Weakening inferior oblique muscle could correct excyclodeviation. There exist complicated compensatory mechanisms for subjective change of ocular torsion after surgery. The changes of subjective and

  20. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. © 2016 The authors.

  1. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Zampetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70% makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres.

  2. Right anterior temporal lobe dysfunction underlies theory of mind impairments in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Semantic dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the amodal and profound loss of semantic knowledge attributable to the degeneration of the left anterior temporal lobe. Although traditionally conceptualized as a language disorder, patients with semantic dementia display significant alterations in behaviour and socioemotional functioning. Recent evidence points to an impaired capacity for theory of mind in predominantly left-lateralized cases of semantic dementia; however, it remains unclear to what extent semantic impairments contribute to these deficits. Further the neuroanatomical signature of such disturbance remains unknown. Here, we sought to determine the neural correlates of theory of mind performance in patients with left predominant semantic dementia (n=11), in contrast with disease-matched cases with behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (n=10) and Alzheimer's disease (n=10), and healthy older individuals (n=14) as control participants. Participants completed a simple cartoons task, in which they were required to describe physical and theory of mind scenarios. Irrespective of subscale, patients with semantic dementia exhibited marked impairments relative to control subjects; however, only theory of mind deficits persisted when we covaried for semantic comprehension. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that atrophy in right anterior temporal lobe structures, including the right temporal fusiform cortex, right inferior temporal gyrus, bilateral temporal poles and amygdalae, correlated significantly with theory of mind impairments in the semantic dementia group. Our results point to the marked disruption of cognitive functions beyond the language domain in semantic dementia, not exclusively attributable to semantic processing impairments. The significant involvement of right anterior temporal structures suggests that with disease evolution, the encroachment of pathology into the contralateral hemisphere heralds the

  3. Subclinical delusional thinking predicts lateral temporal cortex responses during social reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Benjamin K; Coombs, Garth; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J; Moran, Joseph M; Holt, Daphne J

    2014-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated associations between delusions in psychotic disorders and abnormalities of brain areas involved in social cognition, including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, and lateral temporal cortex (LTC). General population studies have linked subclinical delusional thinking to impaired social cognition, raising the question of whether a specific pattern of brain activity during social perception is associated with delusional beliefs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that subclinical delusional thinking is associated with changes in neural function, while subjects made judgments about themselves or others ['social reflection' (SR)]. Neural responses during SR and non-social tasks, as well as resting-state activity, were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 22 healthy subjects. Delusional thinking was measured using the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Delusional thinking was negatively correlated with responses of the left LTC during SR (r = -0.61, P = 0.02, Bonferroni corrected), and connectivity between the left LTC and left ventral MPFC, and was positively correlated with connectivity between the left LTC and the right middle frontal and inferior temporal cortices. Thus, delusional thinking in the general population may be associated with reduced activity and aberrant functional connectivity of cortical areas involved in SR.

  4. Endovascular treatment for ruptured distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun; Yoon, Il-Gyu

    2014-03-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus. Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment.

  5. Tuberculosis pulmonar de campos inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis (TB que compromete sólo los campos pulmonares inferiores (TBCI es poco frecuente en el adulto y en general está asociada a alguna causa de inmunodepresión. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue determinar la incidencia de TBCI en nuestra población y comparar sus características respecto de la TB pulmonar de localización habitual. Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva en el período de 2004 a 2008, 42 pacientes con TBCI que fueron comparados con 84 pacientes con TB pulmonar de localización habitual (grupo control. Se excluyeron pacientes con HIV. La TBCI representó el 6% del total de TB pulmonar. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a edad, sexo, presencia de cavidades en la radiografía, días de evolución y nivel de albúmina. La TBCI tuvo significativamente mayor proporción de comorbilidades (p < 0.001, presencia de condensación (p < 0.001 y compromiso unilateral (p < 0.001 en la radiografía de tórax, junto con mayor número de internaciones (p = 0.02. Cabe destacar que sólo16 de los 42 pacientes con TBCI (38% tenían alguna comorbilidad demostrada. La TBCI puede presentarse aun sin comorbilidades asociadas y debe sospecharse en neumonías de evolución tórpida independientemente de su localización.

  6. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

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    Fujimori, Masato; Koyama, Yukiko; Enomoto, Fuyuki; Ichikawa, Ginichiro [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    We report a case of temporal bone necrosis that emerged after radiotherapy for epipharyngeal carcinoma performed 13 years ago. The patient was a 51-year-old male. His major complaint was left facial swelling. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Co 60, 6120 rad), as the treatment of that period, for epipharyngeal carcinoma from September 30, 1986 to January 31, 1987. He also underwent lobectomy of the left temporal lobe in brain surgery for left temporal lobe necrosis in August, 1989. After that operation, we saw constriction in his left external acoustic meatus and continued the follow-up. On October 22, 1999 he felt a left facial swelling. We found skin defects and ulcer formation in the front part of his left ear. Although we administered an antiseptic and antibiotic to the diseased area, his condition did not improve. He was hospitalized for the purpose of undergoing medical treatment on January 6, 2000. We found extensive skin necrosis and defects in his left auricular area. The corrupted temporal bone reached the zygomatic, the bone department external acoustic meatus and the mastoid process was exposing. We performed debridement of the diseased area on January 19, 2000. On February 23, we performed reconstruction by left trapezius muscle flap after debridement once again. One year after the operation, the flap was completely incorporated. (author)

  7. Peritoneal fluid causing inferior attenuation on SPECT thallium-201 myocardial imaging in women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rab, S.T.; Alazraki, N.P.; Guertler-Krawczynska, E.

    1988-11-01

    On SPECT thallium images, myocardial left ventricular (LV) anterior wall attenuation due to breast tissue is common in women. In contrast, in men, inferior wall counts are normally decreased compared to anterior counts. The purpose of this report is to describe cases of inferior wall attenuation of counts in women caused by peritoneal fluid, not myocardial disease. Twelve consecutive SPECT thallium myocardial studies performed in women on peritoneal dialysis, being evaluated for kidney transplant, were included in this study. For all studies, 3.5 mCi 201Tl were injected intravenously. Thirty-two images were acquired over 180 degrees (45 degrees RAO progressing to 45 degrees LPO) at 40 sec per stop. SPECT images were reviewed in short axis, horizontal long and vertical long axes. Data were also displayed in bullseye format with quantitative comparison to gender-matched normal files. Ten of 12 female patients studied had inferior wall defects on images, confirmed by bullseye display. All patients had approximately 2 liters of peritoneal fluid. Review of planar rotational views showed diaphragm elevation and fluid margin attenuations affecting left ventricular inferior wall. Thus, peritoneal fluid is a cause of inferior attenuation on 201Tl cardiac imaging.

  8. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H215O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H 2 15 O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period

  9. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Traumatismos de veia cava inferior

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    Cleinaldo de Almeida Costa

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, o perfil clínico e as estratégias operatórias dos ferimentos de Veia Cava Inferior (VCI. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os prontuários de 76 doentes com ferimento de VCI atendidos nos dois prontossocorros de Manaus, no período de janeiro de 1997 a julho de 2002. Mecanismo de lesão, mortalidade, estado hemodinâmico, índice de trauma abdominal penetrante (PATI, achados intra-operatórios e conduta cirúrgica foram estudados. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e nove (65% doentes sofreram lesão por arma branca, 26 (34% por arma de fogo e um por traumatismo abdominal fechado. Quarenta e um (54% doentes sobreviveram. Quase todos chegaram acordados, entretanto 40% estavam hipotensos (pressão arterial sistólica < 70mmHg. O índice de trauma abdominal penetrante (PATI médio foi maior que 40. À laparotomia, todos demonstraram sangramento retroperitoneal ativo ou hematoma retroperitoneal em expansão. Vinte e um pacientes possuíam lesão de VCI retro-hepática, enquanto nos outros 55 a lesão era infra-hepática. O reparo operatório predominante foi a venorrafia lateral em 65 doentes. Houve necessidade de tóraco-freno-laparotomia em quatro doentes do total de oito doentes que foram à toracotomia direita por lesão retro-hepática. Foram realizados shunts átrio-cavais em seis doentes, dos quais três sobreviveram. CONCLUSÕES: O ferimento de VCI é uma lesão de alta letalidade e possui uma relação intrínseca com a violência urbana. A sobrevivência depende de uma imediata e vigorosa reposição de volume, um manejo operatório adequado e todo esforço em evitar-se hipotermia.

  11. DCDC2 polymorphism is associated with left temporoparietal gray and white matter structures during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darki, Fahimeh; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-10-22

    Three genes, DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319, have been previously associated with dyslexia, neuronal migration, and ciliary function. Three polymorphisms within these genes, rs3743204 (DYX1C1), rs793842 (DCDC2), and rs6935076 (KIAA0319) have also been linked to normal variability of left temporoparietal white matter volume connecting the middle temporal cortex to the angular and supramarginal gyri. Here, we assessed whether these polymorphisms are also related to the cortical thickness of the associated regions during childhood development using a longitudinal dataset of 76 randomly selected children and young adults who were scanned up to three times each, 2 years apart. rs793842 in DCDC2 was significantly associated with the thickness of left angular and supramarginal gyri as well as the left lateral occipital cortex. The cortex was significantly thicker for T-allele carriers, who also had lower white matter volume and lower reading comprehension scores. There was a negative correlation between white matter volume and cortical thickness, but only white matter volume predicted reading comprehension 2 years after scanning. These results show how normal variability in reading comprehension is related to gene, white matter volume, and cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe. Possibly, the variability of gray and white matter structures could both be related to the role of DCDC2 in ciliary function, which affects both neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414455-08$15.00/0.

  12. Detailed anatomy of a left accessory aberrant colic artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Vlad, M; Voinea, L M; Curcă, G C; Sişu, A M

    2008-10-01

    In an aged human female cadaver a left accessory aberrant colic artery (LAACA) was observed and studied. It originated from the superior mesenteric artery at 3 cm proximal to the middle colic artery, at the inferior border of pancreas, passing over Treitz's muscle and continued covered by the superior duodenal fold where it crossed the inferior mesenteric vein. Further, it continued with a satellite vein anterior to the left renal vein and the anterior branch of the renal artery. The LAACA divided into an ascending branch and a descending one, anastomosed with the middle colic and proper left colic arteries; between its two primary branches and the splenic flexure of colon, a hypovascular area was observed. The surgical relevance of the LAACA detailed anatomy mainly relates to specific procedures performed in left colectomies and nephrectomies.

  13. [Inferior vestibular neuritis: diagnosis using VEMP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Repik, I

    2012-02-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are a new method to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. The sacculocollic reflex of the cervical VEMP to air conduction (AC) reflects predominantly saccular function due to saccular afferents to the inferior vestibular nerve. We describe a case of inferior vestibular neuritis as a rare differential diagnosis of vestibular neuritis. Clinical signs were a normal caloric response, unilaterally absent AC cVEMPs and bilaterally preserved ocular VEMPs (AC oVEMPs).

  14. Sarcoma of the vena cava inferior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Alvarez, Jorge Luis; Rosello Silva, Nelson; Llorens Nunnez, Martha; Ochoa Montes, Luis Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Authors present an infrequent case of a female patient with abdominal tumor a great superficial collateral circulation type cava-cava, the abdominal ultrasound, the transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram and the computerized axial tomography (CAT) identified a tumor of the vena cava inferior. The fine-needle aspiration cytology of lesion confirmed the presence of primary fusopleomorphous sarcoma of high degree of malignancy of vena cava inferior

  15. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  16. Cognitive priming in sung and instrumental music: activation of inferior frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, B; Koelsch, S; Escoffier, N; Bigand, E; Lalitte, P; Friederici, A D; von Cramon, D Y

    2006-07-15

    Neural correlates of the processing of musical syntax-like structures have been investigated via expectancy violation due to musically unrelated (i.e., unexpected) events in musical contexts. Previous studies reported the implication of inferior frontal cortex in musical structure processing. However - due to the strong musical manipulations - activations might be explained by sensory deviance detection or repetition priming. Our present study investigated neural correlates of musical structure processing with subtle musical violations in a musical priming paradigm. Instrumental and sung sequences ended on related and less-related musical targets. The material controlled sensory priming components, and differences in target processing required listeners' knowledge on musical structures. Participants were scanned with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while performing speeded phoneme and timbre identification judgments on the targets. Behavioral results acquired in the scanner replicated the facilitation effect of related over less-related targets. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal linked to target processing revealed activation of right inferior frontal areas (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, frontal operculum, anterior insula) that was stronger for less-related than for related targets, and this was independent of the material carrying the musical structures. This outcome points to the implication of inferior frontal cortex in the processing of syntactic relations also for musical material and to its role in the processing and integration of sequential information over time. In addition to inferior frontal activation, increased activation was observed in orbital gyrus, temporal areas (anterior superior temporal gyrus, posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, posterior middle temporal gyrus) and supramarginal gyrus.

  17. Facilitating memory for novel characters by reducing neural repetition suppression in the left fusiform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Poldrack, Russell A; Dong, Qi

    2010-10-06

    The left midfusiform and adjacent regions have been implicated in processing and memorizing familiar words, yet its role in memorizing novel characters has not been well understood. Using functional MRI, the present study examined the hypothesis that the left midfusiform is also involved in memorizing novel characters and spaced learning could enhance the memory by enhancing the left midfusiform activity during learning. Nineteen native Chinese readers were scanned while memorizing the visual form of 120 Korean characters that were novel to the subjects. Each character was repeated four times during learning. Repetition suppression was manipulated by using two different repetition schedules: massed learning and spaced learning, pseudo-randomly mixed within the same scanning session. Under the massed learning condition, the four repetitions were consecutive (with a jittered inter-repetition interval to improve the design efficiency). Under the spaced learning condition, the four repetitions were interleaved with a minimal inter-repetition lag of 6 stimuli. Spaced learning significantly improved participants' performance during the recognition memory test administered one hour after the scan. Stronger left midfusiform and inferior temporal gyrus activities during learning (summed across four repetitions) were associated with better memory of the characters, based on both within- and cross-subjects analyses. Compared to massed learning, spaced learning significantly reduced neural repetition suppression and increased the overall activities in these regions, which were associated with better memory for novel characters. These results demonstrated a strong link between cortical activity in the left midfusiform and memory for novel characters, and thus challenge the visual word form area (VWFA) hypothesis. Our results also shed light on the neural mechanisms of the spacing effect in memorizing novel characters.

  18. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  19. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  20. Assessment of cardiac exposure in left-tangential breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vees, H.; Bigler, R.; Gruber, G.; Bieri, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. - To assess the value of treatment-planning related parameters namely, the breast volume; the distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm; and the cardio-thoracic ratio for left-tangential breast irradiation. Patients and methods. - Treatment plans of 27 consecutively left-sided breast cancer patients after breast conserving surgery were evaluated for several parameters concerning heart-irradiation. We measured the heart distance respective to the cardio-thoracic ratio and the distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm, as well as the breast volume in correlation with the irradiated heart volume. Results. - The mean heart and left breast volumes were 504 cm 3 and 672.8 cm 3 , respectively. The mean heart diameter was 13.4 cm; the mean cardio-thoracic ratio 0.51 and the mean distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm was 1.4 cm. Cardio-thoracic ratio (p = 0.01), breast volume (p = 0.0002), distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm (p = 0.02) and central lung distance (p = 0.02) were significantly correlated with the measured heart distance. A significant correlation was also found between cardio-thoracic ratio, breast volume and distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm with the irradiated heart volume measured by V10, V20 and V40. Conclusion. - The verification of parameters like cardio-thoracic ratio, distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm and breast volume in left-sided breast cancer patients may help in determining which patients could benefit from more complex planning techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy to reduced risk of late cardiac injury. (authors)

  1. Structural connectivity in spatial attention network: reconstruction from left hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takaaki; Ito, Kenji; Nakazawa, Chika; Numasawa, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Mayumi; Aoki, Shigeki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ishiai, Sumio; Yokota, Takanori

    2018-04-01

    Left hemispatial neglect (neglect) is an impaired state of spatial attention. We aimed to reconstruct structural connectivity in the spatial attention network and to identify disconnection patterns underlying neglect. We enrolled 59 right-handed patients who had their first-ever infarction in the right hemisphere and classified them into neglect group (34 patients with neglect) and control group (25 patients without neglect). The neglect group was further subcategorized into 6 subgroups based on infarcted vascular territories. Diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from all patients. Fractional anisotropy maps were compared between neglect group/subgroups and the control group by using non-parametric voxel-based analysis, generating a lesion path mask. Probabilistic tractography analysis using the lesion path mask reconstructed the following structural connectivity in the spatial attention network, which is specifically damaged in neglect patients: (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) I connecting the superior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus with the superior frontal gyrus/frontal eye field (SFG/FEF) (dorsal attention network); (2) SLF III/the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the extreme capsule/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) connecting the right inferior parietal lobule/temporoparietal junction/superior temporal gyrus (IPL/TPJ/STG) with the middle frontal gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus (ventral attention network); (3) the thalamic radiations to the spatial attention-related cortices; and (4) SLF II and IFOF interconnecting dorsal and ventral attention networks. Individual analysis indicated that isolated damage in SLF I, SLF II, SLF III/AF or the thalamic radiations to IPL/TPJ/STG due to posterior cerebral artery infarction, or simultaneous damage in four thalamic radiations due to anterior choroidal artery infarction, underlies different phenotypes of neglect.

  2. Q-ball of inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caverzasi

    Full Text Available The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF is historically described as the longest associative bundle in the human brain and it connects various parts of the occipital cortex, temporo-basal area and the superior parietal lobule to the frontal lobe through the external/extreme capsule complex. The exact functional role and the detailed anatomical definition of the IFOF are still under debate within the scientific community. In this study we present a fiber tracking dissection of the right and left IFOF by using a q-ball residual-bootstrap reconstruction of High-Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI data sets in 20 healthy subjects. By defining a single seed region of interest on the coronal fractional anisotropy (FA color map of each subject, we investigated all the pathways connecting the parietal, occipital and posterior temporal cortices to the frontal lobe through the external/extreme capsule. In line with recent post-mortem dissection studies we found more extended anterior-posterior association connections than the "classical" fronto-occipital representation of the IFOF. In particular the pathways we evidenced showed: a diffuse projections in the frontal lobe, b fronto-parietal lobes connections trough the external capsule in almost all the subjects and c widespread connections in the posterior regions. Our study represents the first consistent in vivo demonstration across a large group of individuals of these novel anterior and posterior terminations of the IFOF detailed described only by post-mortem anatomical dissection. Furthermore our work establishes the feasibility of consistent in vivo mapping of this architecture with independent in vivo methodologies. In conclusion q-ball tractography dissection supports a more complex definition of IFOF, which includes several subcomponents likely underlying specific function.

  3. Aneurysm of Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery-posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Khursheed Ahmad; Menon, Girish; Nair, Suresh; Abraham, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    Aneurysms arising from anterior inferior cerebellar artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA-PICA) variant are extremely rare. They usually present with subarachnoid hemorrhage. This is probably the second case report of a large thrombosed AICA-PICA variant aneurysm presenting as a cerebellopontine angle mass lesion with cranial nerve palsy, managed successfully by surgical clipping. PMID:29492120

  4. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of left intraventricular conduction disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1979-01-01

    Both, the vectorcardiographic changes produced by the various degrees of left bundle branch block and these observed with the different types of left distal block, are described. When a "wave jumping" phenomenon exists, the vectorcardiographic changes are more characteristic in the horizontal plane than in the frontal plane and can be interpreted satisfactorily in basis of the ventricular activation sequence. The normal counterclockwise rotation of the horizontal vectorcardiogram persists in the presence of left bundle branch block of slight and moderate degrees, since the electromotive forces of the free left ventricular wall are still predominant. In the majority of intermediate degree blocks, the middle portion of the RH loop develops with a clockwise rotation and general aspect with a clockwise rotation and the general aspect of the ventricular loop resembles an eight figure. This is due to the electromotive forces originated by the delayed depolarization of the left septal mass that starts to predominate. With advanced degrees of block, the largest portion of the RH loop shows a clockwise rotation, as well as marked notchings and slurrings. The initial anterior portion of the horizontal vectorcardiogram does not disappear, but is situated to the left of the anterior-posterior axis with a counterclockwise rotation (first right septal vector). Otherwise, the direct electrical sign of left distal block emphasized: evidence of delayed activation in a limited zone of the homolateral ventricle. This local delay gives rise to an asynchronism of the activation phenomenon between the upper and lower regions of the ventricle. The diagnosis of left bifascicular block is based essentially on the evidence of unequal delay of the activation sequence in the basal regions and in the inferior ones of the homolateral ventricle and also on the frequent persistence of the first left septal vector.

  5. Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Powell, Robert H W; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Samson, Rebecca S; Symms, Mark R; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S

    2010-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate the functional anatomy of cognitive processes. In patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, evaluation of preoperative verbal and visual memory function is important as anterior temporal lobe resections may result in material specific memory impairment, typically verbal memory decline following left and visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection. This study aimed to investigate reorganization of memory functions in temporal lobe epilepsy and to determine whether preoperative memory functional magnetic resonance imaging may predict memory changes following anterior temporal lobe resection. We studied 72 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (41 left) and 20 healthy controls. A functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm for pictures, words and faces was used testing verbal and visual memory in a single scanning session on a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Fifty-four patients subsequently underwent left (29) or right (25) anterior temporal lobe resection. Verbal and design learning were assessed before and 4 months after surgery. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that in left temporal lobe epilepsy, greater left hippocampal activation for word encoding correlated with better verbal memory. In right temporal lobe epilepsy, greater right hippocampal activation for face encoding correlated with better visual memory. In left temporal lobe epilepsy, greater left than right anterior hippocampal activation on word encoding correlated with greater verbal memory decline after left anterior temporal lobe resection, while greater left than right posterior hippocampal activation correlated with better postoperative verbal memory outcome. In right temporal lobe epilepsy, greater right than left anterior hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activation on face encoding predicted greater visual memory decline

  6. The compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Castro Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics.

  8. Inferior parietal transcranial direct current stimulation with training improves cognition in anomic Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Kniefel, Heike; Service, Erik; Thiel, Alexander; Probst, Stephan; Chertkow, Howard

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve picture-naming abilities in subjects with anomic Alzheimer or frontotemporal dementias. Using a double-blind crossover design, 10 participants were trained on picture naming over a series of 10 sessions with either 30 minutes of anodal (2 mA) tDCS stimulation to the left inferior parieto-temporal region (P3) or sham stimulation. We evaluated performance on a trained picture-naming list, an equivalent untrained list, and additional neuropsychological tasks. Participants improved significantly more receiving real stimulation rather than sham stimulation (40% vs. 19%, P  < .01), lasting at least 2 weeks after stimulation. Furthermore, these participants showed a small increase for untrained picture-naming items and digit span when they received real stimulation but a decrease when sham stimulation was received. tDCS stimulation has promise as a treatment for anomia in demented individuals and the effect can generalize to unstudied items as well as other cognitive abilities.

  9. Time-Perception Network and Default Mode Network Are Associated with Temporal Prediction in a Periodic Motion Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabiana M; Chaim, Khallil T; Sanchez, Tiago A; de Araujo, Draulio B

    2016-01-01

    The updating of prospective internal models is necessary to accurately predict future observations. Uncertainty-driven internal model updating has been studied using a variety of perceptual paradigms, and have revealed engagement of frontal and parietal areas. In a distinct literature, studies on temporal expectations have also characterized a time-perception network, which relies on temporal orienting of attention. However, the updating of prospective internal models is highly dependent on temporal attention, since temporal attention must be reoriented according to the current environmental demands. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate to what extend the continuous manipulation of temporal prediction would recruit update-related areas and the time-perception network areas. We developed an exogenous temporal task that combines rhythm cueing and time-to-contact principles to generate implicit temporal expectation. Two patterns of motion were created: periodic (simple harmonic oscillation) and non-periodic (harmonic oscillation with variable acceleration). We found that non-periodic motion engaged the exogenous temporal orienting network, which includes the ventral premotor and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum, as well as the presupplementary motor area, which has previously been implicated in internal model updating, and the motion-sensitive area MT+. Interestingly, we found a right-hemisphere preponderance suggesting the engagement of explicit timing mechanisms. We also show that the periodic motion condition, when compared to the non-periodic motion, activated a particular subset of the default-mode network (DMN) midline areas, including the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PC). It suggests that the DMN plays a role in processing contextually expected information and supports recent evidence that the DMN may

  10. The diagnostic importance of the recognition of the inferior Vena cava abnormalities on CT-examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouliamos, A.; Striggaris, K.; Haliasos, N.; Vlahos, N.; Pontifex, G.

    1981-01-01

    Two unusual variations of the Vena cava inferior, as shown by CT examinations, are reported and characteristic X-rays, as well as CT scans, are presented. The first case shows an IVC course to the left of the aorta and the second case absence of the intrahepatic portion of the IVC with azygos continuation. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis are analyzed and discussed, both demonstrated by plain X-rays and CT scans. (orig.) [de

  11. Reciprocal ST segment changes in acute inferior myocardial infarction: Clinical, hemodynamic and angiographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem El Atroush

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The significance of reciprocal ST depression on the electrocardiogram during the course of inferior MI remains uncertain, opinion is divided as to whether it is a benign electrical phenomenon or a sign of a greater myocardial necrosis and more frequent left coronary artery disease, from our study we support the latter opinion. This simple ECG finding may be used to differentiate high risk patients for a more aggressive approach.

  12. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period.

  13. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback to down-regulate superior temporal gyrus activity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; Giampietro, Vincent; O'Daly, Owen; Lam, Sheut-Ling; Barker, Gareth J; Rubia, Katya; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Allen, Paul

    2018-02-12

    Neurocognitive models and previous neuroimaging work posit that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) arise due to increased activity in speech-sensitive regions of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG). Here, we examined if patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and AVH could be trained to down-regulate STG activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF). We also examined the effects of rtfMRI-NF training on functional connectivity between the STG and other speech and language regions. Twelve patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH were recruited to participate in the study and were trained to down-regulate STG activity using rtfMRI-NF, over four MRI scanner visits during a 2-week training period. STG activity and functional connectivity were compared pre- and post-training. Patients successfully learnt to down-regulate activity in their left STG over the rtfMRI-NF training. Post- training, patients showed increased functional connectivity between the left STG, the left inferior prefrontal gyrus (IFG) and the inferior parietal gyrus. The post-training increase in functional connectivity between the left STG and IFG was associated with a reduction in AVH symptoms over the training period. The speech-sensitive region of the left STG is a suitable target region for rtfMRI-NF in patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH. Successful down-regulation of left STG activity can increase functional connectivity between speech motor and perception regions. These findings suggest that patients with AVH have the ability to alter activity and connectivity in speech and language regions, and raise the possibility that rtfMRI-NF training could present a novel therapeutic intervention in SCZ.

  14. The right posterior inferior frontal gyrus contributes to phonological word decisions in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Price, Cathy J; Baumgaertner, Annette

    2010-01-01

    There is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in language processing, but functional imaging studies have shown that the right as well as the left posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG) are activated when healthy right-handed individuals make phonological word decisions. Here we...... used online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the functional relevance of the right pIFG for auditory and visual phonological decisions. Healthy right-handed individuals made phonological or semantic word judgements on the same set of auditorily and visually presented words while...... they received stereotactically guided TMS over the left, right or bilateral pIFG (n=14) or the anterior left, right or bilateral IFG (n=14). TMS started 100ms after word onset and consisted of four stimuli given at a rate of 10Hz and intensity of 90% of active motor threshold. Compared to TMS of aIFG, TMS of p...

  15. [Scleral buckling for inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, M; Chraibi, F; Benatiya Andaloussi, I; Tahri, H

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic factors in cases of inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RD) treated by scleral buckling surgery. A retrospective chart review was performed on 45 patients (45 eyes) with inferior RD with only inferior tears (4:00-8:00), who had been treated by scleral buckling surgery over a 6-year period from 2006 to 2011. The parameters studied included patient demographics, refractive status, time until consultation, clinical exam data, treatment modalities and functional and anatomic results. Forty-five cases were included in this study (45 eyes), with an average patient age of 44.5 years (14 to 75 years) and a slight male predominance (56%). Myopia was observed in 60%. Mean time until consultation was 3.5 months. Visual acuity on admission was less than 1/10 in 53.33%. Macular detachment was found in 80%. Causative lesions were holes in 26 eyes. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy was essentially stage B in 48.9%. Scleral buckling surgery was performed in all patients, with drainage of subretinal fluid in 37.8%. Retinal reattachment was obtained in 36 eyes (80%) with a final visual acuity greater than or equal to 1/10 in 71.11%. The mean follow-up in our study was 6.62 months. Inferior retinal detachment has a predilection for young myopes. The time until consultation is often long, and extraocular surgery, although difficult, exhibits documented efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. fMRI brain response during sentence reading comprehension in children with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, D; Tucholka, A; Mendizabal, S; Tremblay, J; Poulin, C; Oskoui, M; Srour, M; Carmant, L; Major, P; Lippé, S

    2015-11-01

    Children with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) often have language problems. Abnormal epileptic activity is found in central and temporal brain regions, which are involved in reading and semantic and syntactic comprehension. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined reading networks in BECTS children with a new sentence reading comprehension task involving semantic and syntactic processing. Fifteen children with BECTS (age=11y 1m ± 16 m; 12 boys) and 18 healthy controls (age=11 y 8m ± 20 m; 11 boys) performed an fMRI reading comprehension task in which they read a pair of syntactically complex sentences and decided whether the target sentence (the second sentence in the pair) was true or false with respect to the first sentence. All children also underwent an exhaustive neuropsychological assessment. We demonstrated weaknesses in several cognitive domains in BECTS children. During the sentence reading fMRI task, left inferior frontal regions and bilateral temporal areas were activated in BECTS children and healthy controls. However, additional brain regions such as the left hippocampus and precuneus were activated in BECTS children. Moreover, specific activation was found in the left caudate and putamen in BECTS children but not in healthy controls. Cognitive results and accuracy during the fMRI task were associated with specific brain activation patterns. BECTS children recruited a wider network to perform the fMRI sentence reading comprehension task, with specific activation in the left dorsal striatum. BECTS cognitive performance differently predicted functional activation in frontal and temporal regions compared to controls, suggesting differences in brain network organisation that contribute to reading comprehension. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional Pericarditis Mimicking Inferior Myocardial Infarction following Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad T. Alhammouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pericarditis is common but illusive, often mimicking acute coronary syndrome in its clinical and electrocardiographic presentation. Regional pericarditis, though rare, presents further challenge with a paucity of published diagnostic criteria. We present a case of postoperative regional pericarditis and discuss helpful electrocardiographic findings. A 66-year-old male with history of open drainage of a liver abscess presented with abdominal pain and tenderness. CT of the abdomen was concerning for pneumatosis intestinalis of the distal descending colon. He underwent lysis of liver adhesions; exploration revealed only severe colonic impaction, for which he had manual disimpaction and peritoneal irrigation. Postoperatively, he developed sharp chest pain. Electrocardiogram revealed inferior ST elevation. Echocardiogram revealed normal left and right ventricular dimensions and systolic function without wall motion abnormalities. Emergent coronary angiography did not identify a culprit lesion, and left ventriculogram showed normal systolic function without wall motion abnormalities. He received no intervention, and the diagnosis of regional pericarditis was entertained. His cardiac troponin was 0.04 ng/dL and remained unchanged, with resolution of the ECG abnormalities in the following morning. Review of his preangiography ECG revealed PR depression, downsloping baseline between QRS complexes, and reciprocal changes in the anterior leads, suggestive of regional pericarditis.

  18. Neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during sensorimotor synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine ePecenka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical ensemble performance requires temporally precise interpersonal action coordination. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably rely on anticipatory mechanisms that enable them to predict the timing of sounds produced by co-performers. Previous studies have shown that individuals differ in their ability to predict upcoming tempo changes in paced finger-tapping tasks (indexed by cross-correlations between tap timing and pacing events and that the degree of such prediction influences the accuracy of sensorimotor synchronization (SMS and interpersonal coordination in dyadic tapping tasks. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during SMS in a within-subject design. Hemodynamic responses were recorded from 18 musicians while they tapped in synchrony with auditory sequences containing gradual tempo changes under conditions of varying cognitive load (achieved by a simultaneous visual n-back working-memory task comprising three levels of difficulty: observation only, 1-back, and 2-back object comparisons. Prediction ability during SMS decreased with increasing cognitive load. Results of a parametric analysis revealed that the generation of auditory temporal predictions during SMS recruits (1 a distributed network in cortico-cerebellar motor-related brain areas (left dorsal premotor and motor cortex, right lateral cerebellum, SMA proper and bilateral inferior parietal cortex and (2 medial cortical areas (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex. While the first network is presumably involved in basic sensory prediction, sensorimotor integration, motor timing, and temporal adaptation, activation in the second set of areas may be related to higher-level social-cognitive processes elicited during action coordination with auditory signals that resemble music performed by human agents.

  19. Neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during sensorimotor synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Nadine; Engel, Annerose; Keller, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Musical ensemble performance requires temporally precise interpersonal action coordination. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably rely on anticipatory mechanisms that enable them to predict the timing of sounds produced by co-performers. Previous studies have shown that individuals differ in their ability to predict upcoming tempo changes in paced finger-tapping tasks (indexed by cross-correlations between tap timing and pacing events) and that the degree of such prediction influences the accuracy of sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) and interpersonal coordination in dyadic tapping tasks. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during SMS in a within-subject design. Hemodynamic responses were recorded from 18 musicians while they tapped in synchrony with auditory sequences containing gradual tempo changes under conditions of varying cognitive load (achieved by a simultaneous visual n-back working-memory task comprising three levels of difficulty: observation only, 1-back, and 2-back object comparisons). Prediction ability during SMS decreased with increasing cognitive load. Results of a parametric analysis revealed that the generation of auditory temporal predictions during SMS recruits (1) a distributed network of cortico-cerebellar motor-related brain areas (left dorsal premotor and motor cortex, right lateral cerebellum, SMA proper and bilateral inferior parietal cortex) and (2) medial cortical areas (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex). While the first network is presumably involved in basic sensory prediction, sensorimotor integration, motor timing, and temporal adaptation, activation in the second set of areas may be related to higher-level social-cognitive processes elicited during action coordination with auditory signals that resemble music performed by human agents.

  20. Inferior ST-Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction or an Inferior-Lead Brugada-like Electrocardiogram Pattern Associated With the Use of Pregabalin and Quetiapine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Natale D; Ieva, Riccardo; Correale, Michele; Cuculo, Andrea; Santoro, Francesco; Guaricci, Andrea I; De Gennaro, Luisa; Gaglione, Antonio; Di Biase, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Brugada electrocardiogram pattern is characterized by coved-type ST-elevation (>2 mm) in the right precordial leads. We report the case of a 62-year-old man, with bipolar disorder, admitted to the emergency department because of dyspnea and chest discomfort. The patient was on treatment with pregabalin and quetiapine. Unexpectedly, electrocardiogram at admission showed diffuse ST-elevation, more evident in inferior leads, where a Brugada-like pattern was present. The patient underwent coronary angiography with a diagnosis of suspected acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography, however, showed mild coronary artery disease not requiring coronary angioplasty. Echocardiography did not reveal left ventricular dysfunction or pericardial effusion. Troponin levels remained normal over serial controls. Eventually, chest radiography showed lung opacities and consolidation suggestive for pneumonia. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first cases showing a transient Brugada-like electrocardiogram pattern in inferior leads, probably amplified by the administration of pregabalin and quetiapine.

  1. Unimodal and multimodal regions for logographic language processing in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eDeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human neocortex appears to contain a dedicated visual word form area (VWFA and an adjacent multimodal (visual/auditory area. However, these conclusions are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of alphabetic language processing, languages that have clear grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence (GPC rules that make it difficult to disassociate visual-specific processing from form-to-sound mapping. In contrast, the Chinese language has no clear GPC rules. Therefore, the current study examined whether native Chinese readers also have the same VWFA and multimodal area. Two cross-modal tasks, phonological retrieval of visual words and orthographic retrieval of auditory words, were adopted. Different task requirements were also applied to explore how different levels of cognitive processing modulate activation of putative VWFA-like and multimodal-like regions. Results showed that the left occipitotemporal sulcus responded exclusively to visual inputs and an adjacent region, the left inferior temporal gyrus, showed comparable activation for both visual and auditory inputs. Surprisingly, processing levels did not significantly alter activation of these two regions. These findings indicated that there are both unimodal and multimodal word areas for non-alphabetic language reading, and that activity in these two word-specific regions are independent of task demands at the linguistic level.

  2. Modulation of neural circuits underlying temporal production by facial expressions of pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ballotta

    Full Text Available According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study. Subjects were asked to perform a temporal production task and a concurrent gender discrimination task, while viewing faces of unknown people with either pain-related or neutral expressions. Behavioural data showed temporal underestimation (i.e., longer produced intervals during implicit pain expression processing; this was accompanied by increased activity of right middle temporal gyrus, a region known to be active during the perception of emotional and painful faces. Psycho-Physiological Interaction analyses showed that: 1 the activity of middle temporal gyrus was positively related to that of areas previously reported to play a role in timing: left primary motor cortex, middle cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, right anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral cerebellum and basal ganglia; 2 the functional connectivity of supplementary motor area with several frontal regions, anterior cingulate cortex and right angular gyrus was correlated to the produced interval during painful expression processing. Our data support the hypothesis that observing emotional expressions distorts subjective time perception through the interaction of the neural network subserving processing of facial expressions with the brain network involved in timing. Within this frame, middle temporal gyrus appears to be the key region of the interplay between the two neural systems.

  3. Modulation of neural circuits underlying temporal production by facial expressions of pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Fausta; Porro, Carlo Adolfo; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Benuzzi, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study. Subjects were asked to perform a temporal production task and a concurrent gender discrimination task, while viewing faces of unknown people with either pain-related or neutral expressions. Behavioural data showed temporal underestimation (i.e., longer produced intervals) during implicit pain expression processing; this was accompanied by increased activity of right middle temporal gyrus, a region known to be active during the perception of emotional and painful faces. Psycho-Physiological Interaction analyses showed that: 1) the activity of middle temporal gyrus was positively related to that of areas previously reported to play a role in timing: left primary motor cortex, middle cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, right anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral cerebellum and basal ganglia; 2) the functional connectivity of supplementary motor area with several frontal regions, anterior cingulate cortex and right angular gyrus was correlated to the produced interval during painful expression processing. Our data support the hypothesis that observing emotional expressions distorts subjective time perception through the interaction of the neural network subserving processing of facial expressions with the brain network involved in timing. Within this frame, middle temporal gyrus appears to be the key region of the interplay between the two neural systems. PMID:29447256

  4. Comparison of manual tracing versus a semiautomatic radial measurement method in temporal lobe MRI volumetry for pharmacoresistant epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christian-Andreas; Scorzin, Jasmin; Schramm, Johannes [University of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Koenig, Roy; Urbach, Horst [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology Neuroradiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Institute of Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany); Zentner, Josef [University of Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg (Germany); Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas [Charite-University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neurosurgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of this study was to test a modified radial semiautomated volumetry technique (radial divider technique, RDT) versus the manual volumetry technique (MVT) for proportionality of temporal subvolumes in 30 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Included in the study were 30 patients (15 female, 15 male; mean age 39.6 years) with pharmacoresistant epilepsy (mean duration 26.6 years). MRI studies were performed preoperatively on a 1.5-T scanner. All image processing steps and volume measurements were performed using ANALYZE software. The volumes of six subregions were measured bilaterally; these included the superior temporal gyrus (STG), middle + inferior temporal gyrus (MITG), fusiform gyrus (FG), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), amygdala (AM), and hippocampus (HP). Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between the comparable subvolumes obtained with MVT and RDT. Very high correlations (R {sup 2} >0.95) between RDT and MVT were observed for the STG + MITG and the STG + MITG + FG, but low correlations for the PHG subvolumes and the combined PHG + HP + AM subvolumes. These observations were independent of the side of the pathology and of hemisphere. The two measurement techniques provided highly reliable proportional results. This series in a homogeneous group of TLE patients suggests that the much quicker RDT is suitable for determining the volume of temporolateral and laterobasal temporal lobe compartments, of both the affected and the non-affected side and the right and left hemisphere. (orig.)

  5. Using time-to-contact information to assess potential collision modulates both visual and temporal prediction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Coull

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of the time-to-contact (TTC of approaching objects are crucial for survival. We used an ecologically valid driving simulation to compare and contrast the neural substrates of egocentric (head-on approach and allocentric (lateral approach TTC tasks in a fully factorial, event-related fMRI design. Compared to colour control tasks, both egocentric and allocentric TTC tasks activated left ventral premotor cortex/frontal operculum and inferior parietal cortex, the same areas that have previously been implicated in temporal attentional orienting. Despite differences in visual and cognitive demands, both TTC and temporal orienting paradigms encourage the use of temporally predictive information to guide behaviour, suggesting these areas may form a core network for temporal prediction. We also demonstrated that the temporal derivative of the perceptual index tau (tau-dot held predictive value for making collision judgements and varied inversely with activity in primary visual cortex (V1. Specifically, V1 activity increased with the increasing likelihood of reporting a collision, suggesting top-down attentional modulation of early visual processing areas as a function of subjective collision. Finally, egocentric viewpoints provoked a response bias for reporting collisions, rather than no-collisions, reflecting increased caution for head-on approaches. Associated increases in SMA activity suggest motor preparation mechanisms were engaged, despite the perceptual nature of the task.

  6. Comparison of manual tracing versus a semiautomatic radial measurement method in temporal lobe MRI volumetry for pharmacoresistant epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Christian-Andreas; Scorzin, Jasmin; Schramm, Johannes; Koenig, Roy; Urbach, Horst; Fimmers, Rolf; Zentner, Josef; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test a modified radial semiautomated volumetry technique (radial divider technique, RDT) versus the manual volumetry technique (MVT) for proportionality of temporal subvolumes in 30 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Included in the study were 30 patients (15 female, 15 male; mean age 39.6 years) with pharmacoresistant epilepsy (mean duration 26.6 years). MRI studies were performed preoperatively on a 1.5-T scanner. All image processing steps and volume measurements were performed using ANALYZE software. The volumes of six subregions were measured bilaterally; these included the superior temporal gyrus (STG), middle + inferior temporal gyrus (MITG), fusiform gyrus (FG), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), amygdala (AM), and hippocampus (HP). Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between the comparable subvolumes obtained with MVT and RDT. Very high correlations (R 2 >0.95) between RDT and MVT were observed for the STG + MITG and the STG + MITG + FG, but low correlations for the PHG subvolumes and the combined PHG + HP + AM subvolumes. These observations were independent of the side of the pathology and of hemisphere. The two measurement techniques provided highly reliable proportional results. This series in a homogeneous group of TLE patients suggests that the much quicker RDT is suitable for determining the volume of temporolateral and laterobasal temporal lobe compartments, of both the affected and the non-affected side and the right and left hemisphere. (orig.)

  7. Reconstrucción de extremidad inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrett Brian, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de la extremidad inferior es parte esencial de la cirugía plástica y se concentra en el tratamiento de heridas y defectos causados por trauma, cáncer, o procesos de enfermedades crónicas. Durante los últimos 25 años, los avances en técnicas de cirugía plástica tales como la transferencia libre de tejidos tecnologías más avanzadas de cuidado de heridas han revolucionado este campo, permitiendo salvar extremidades que de otro modo habrían sido amputadas. Este documento analizará el campo de la reconstrucción de extremidades inferiores concentrándose en la evaluación de defectos y heridas de pierna y las variadas opciones de tratamiento.

  8. Percutaneous placement of bird's nest inferior vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki

    1999-01-01

    To describe clinical experiences of the use of Bird's Nest inferior vena cava(IVC) filter. Between August 1991 and August 1997, IVC filter was percutaneously inserted in 51 patients with pulmonary embolism(PE) and deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. Indications for the placement of this filter were contraindication to anticoagulation in 17 patients, prophylaxis of PE in 17, failed anticoagulation in 11, massive PE with residual floating thrombus in three and complications involving anticoagulation in 3. In order to delineate the location of renal vein and extension of deep vein thrombosis into the IVC, all patients under went inferior vena cavography before filter placement. Thirty filters were inserted through the right femoral vein, 19 through the right internal jugular vein and three through the left femoral vein. The patients involved were followed up for periods ranging from one week to six years (mean 10 months). A Bird's Nest IVC filter was placed in the infrarenal IVC in 44 patients and in the suprarenal IVC in 7. Certain complicatioins ensued. IVC penetration occurred in three patients(5.9%), and in seven(1.37%) the filter wire prolapsed. Except for transient pain, however, there were no serious IVC penetration-related complications and no evidence of recurrence of PE in the cases involving prolapse of the filter wire. During follow up, clinically suspected recurrent PE was noted in two patients(3.9%), but there was no evidence of newly developed occlusion of the IVC. In patients who under went follow up, Bird's Nest IVC filter effectively prevented the development and recurrence of PE, and there were no complications. To prevent of penetration of the IVC and prolapse of the filter, however, technical skill was needed

  9. Exploring the role of the posterior middle temporal gyrus in semantic cognition: Integration of anterior temporal lobe with executive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, James; Thompson, Hannah E; Hallam, Glyn; Karapanagiotidis, Theodoros; Murphy, Charlotte; De Caso, Irene; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Bernhardt, Boris C; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2016-08-15

    Making sense of the world around us depends upon selectively retrieving information relevant to our current goal or context. However, it is unclear whether selective semantic retrieval relies exclusively on general control mechanisms recruited in demanding non-semantic tasks, or instead on systems specialised for the control of meaning. One hypothesis is that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) is important in the controlled retrieval of semantic (not non-semantic) information; however this view remains controversial since a parallel literature links this site to event and relational semantics. In a functional neuroimaging study, we demonstrated that an area of pMTG implicated in semantic control by a recent meta-analysis was activated in a conjunction of (i) semantic association over size judgements and (ii) action over colour feature matching. Under these circumstances the same region showed functional coupling with the inferior frontal gyrus - another crucial site for semantic control. Structural and functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that this site is at the nexus of networks recruited in automatic semantic processing (the default mode network) and executively demanding tasks (the multiple-demand network). Moreover, in both task and task-free contexts, pMTG exhibited functional properties that were more similar to ventral parts of inferior frontal cortex, implicated in controlled semantic retrieval, than more dorsal inferior frontal sulcus, implicated in domain-general control. Finally, the pMTG region was functionally correlated at rest with other regions implicated in control-demanding semantic tasks, including inferior frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus. We suggest that pMTG may play a crucial role within a large-scale network that allows the integration of automatic retrieval in the default mode network with executively-demanding goal-oriented cognition, and that this could support our ability to understand actions and non

  10. Damage to Broca’s area OR the anterior temporal lobe is implicated in stroke-induced agrammatic comprehension: it depends on the task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corianne Rogalsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiology of sentence comprehension remains unresolved. Previous large-scale studies of stroke patients have yielded conflicting results regarding sentence comprehension, implicating inferior frontal, anterior temporal and/or posterior temporal regions (Dronkers et al., 2004; Magnusdottir et al., 2013; Thothathiri et al. 2012. Furthermore, only one large-scale lesion study (Magnusdottir et al. 2013 has examined the neural underpinnings of agrammatic comprehension (i.e. substantially worse performance on sentences with noncanonical word orders compared to canonical word order sentences in English, a hallmark of Broca’s aphasia. This one previous study of noncanonical < canonical sentence performance on a sentence picture-matching task implicated damage to the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL and to a lesser degree Broca’s area damage (i.e. < 10% of significant voxels (Magnusdottir et al. 2013. The present study investigated the neurobiology of agrammatic comprehension with two sentence comprehension tasks in the MARC test battery: a sentence-picture matching task (the SOAP Test: a test of syntactic complexity; Love & Oster, 2002 and a sentence plausibility judgment task. Each task contained active, passive, subject-relative and object-relative sentences. Participants included 91 patients with chronic focal cerebral damage. First, we conducted voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM; Bates et al. 2003 for each sentence type in each task. Consistent with previous studies (Magnusdottir et al. 2013; Thothathiri et al. 2012, the VLSMs identified a significant association between sentence comprehension impairments and damage to a large left temporal-inferior parietal network for all sentences (peak t values were in posterior temporal and inferior parietal voxels; no areas of frontal lobe damage were significant for any sentence type/task. We then conducted VLSMs to identify areas of damage associated specifically with agrammatic

  11. How Left Inferior Frontal Cortex Participates in Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tracy; Swinney, David; Walenski, Matthew; Zurif, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    We report on three experiments that provide a real-time processing perspective on the poor comprehension of Broca's aphasic patients for non-canonically structured sentences. In the first experiment we presented sentences (via a Cross Modal Lexical Priming (CMLP) paradigm) to Broca's patients at a normal rate of speech. Unlike the pattern found…

  12. Rare case of left adrenal cortical carcinoma with level 3 inferior vena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. Jain

    2017-05-02

    May 2, 2017 ... On behalf of all the authors the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interests. Source of funding. No source of funding to declare. References. [1] Kebebew E, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A. Extent of disease at presentation and outcome for adrenocortical carcinoma: have we made.

  13. Non-inferiority trials: are they inferior? A systematic review of reporting in major medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehal, Sunita; Morris, Tim P; Fielding, Katherine; Carpenter, James R; Phillips, Patrick P J

    2016-10-07

    To assess the adequacy of reporting of non-inferiority trials alongside the consistency and utility of current recommended analyses and guidelines. Review of randomised clinical trials that used a non-inferiority design published between January 2010 and May 2015 in medical journals that had an impact factor >10 (JAMA Internal Medicine, Archives Internal Medicine, PLOS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine). Ovid (MEDLINE). We searched for non-inferiority trials and assessed the following: choice of non-inferiority margin and justification of margin; power and significance level for sample size; patient population used and how this was defined; any missing data methods used and assumptions declared and any sensitivity analyses used. A total of 168 trial publications were included. Most trials concluded non-inferiority (132; 79%). The non-inferiority margin was reported for 98% (164), but less than half reported any justification for the margin (77; 46%). While most chose two different analyses (91; 54%) the most common being intention-to-treat (ITT) or modified ITT and per-protocol, a large number of articles only chose to conduct and report one analysis (65; 39%), most commonly the ITT analysis. There was lack of clarity or inconsistency between the type I error rate and corresponding CIs for 73 (43%) articles. Missing data were rarely considered with (99; 59%) not declaring whether imputation techniques were used. Reporting and conduct of non-inferiority trials is inconsistent and does not follow the recommendations in available statistical guidelines, which are not wholly consistent themselves. Authors should clearly describe the methods used and provide clear descriptions of and justifications for their design and primary analysis. Failure to do this risks misleading conclusions being drawn, with consequent effects on clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  14. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract

  15. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  16. Frontal and temporal contributions to understanding the iconic co-speech gestures that accompany speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Mok, Eva H; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Small, Steven L

    2014-03-01

    In everyday conversation, listeners often rely on a speaker's gestures to clarify any ambiguities in the verbal message. Using fMRI during naturalistic story comprehension, we examined which brain regions in the listener are sensitive to speakers' iconic gestures. We focused on iconic gestures that contribute information not found in the speaker's talk, compared with those that convey information redundant with the speaker's talk. We found that three regions-left inferior frontal gyrus triangular (IFGTr) and opercular (IFGOp) portions, and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTGp)--responded more strongly when gestures added information to nonspecific language, compared with when they conveyed the same information in more specific language; in other words, when gesture disambiguated speech as opposed to reinforced it. An increased BOLD response was not found in these regions when the nonspecific language was produced without gesture, suggesting that IFGTr, IFGOp, and MTGp are involved in integrating semantic information across gesture and speech. In addition, we found that activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STSp), previously thought to be involved in gesture-speech integration, was not sensitive to the gesture-speech relation. Together, these findings clarify the neurobiology of gesture-speech integration and contribute to an emerging picture of how listeners glean meaning from gestures that accompany speech. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Drenagem anômala de veia pulmonar inferior direita em veia cava inferior associada a apêndice hepático intracardíaco Anomalous drainage of the right inferior pulmonary vein into the inferior vena cava associated to intrathoracic hepatic appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R Moraes

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o caso de uma paciente de 61 anos de idade, com drenagem anômala de veia pulmonar inferior direita em veia cava inferior, associada a apêndice hepático intratorácico, herniado através de fenda no diafragma. A correção cirúrgica foi realizada por anastomose direta da veia anômala com o átrio esquerdo, pela redução do apêndice hepático para a cavidade abdominal e, finalmente, pelo fechamento do defeito diafragmático. O pós-operatório decorreu sem qualquer complicação. Os autores chamam a atenção para a raridade do caso.The authors present a case of a 61-year-old woman with anomalous drainage of the right inferior pulmonary vein into the inferior vena cava associated to an intrathoracic hepatic appendix herniated through a diaphragmatic defect. Surgical correction was obtained by direct anastomosis of the anomalous vein to the left atrium, reduction of the hepatic appendix to the abdominal cavity and closure of the diphragmatic defect. The postoperative course was unevenftul. The rarity of this condition is stressed.

  18. Congenital inferior vena cava anomalies: a review of findings at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Inferior vena cava anomalies are rare, occurring in up to 8.7% of the population, as left renal vein anomalies are considered. The inferior vena cava develops from the sixth to the eighth gestational weeks, originating from three paired embryonic veins, namely the subcardinal, supracardinal and postcardinal veins. This complex ontogenesis of the inferior vena cava, with multiple anastomoses between the pairs of embryonic veins, leads to a number of anatomic variations in the venous return from the abdomen and lower limbs. Some of such variations have significant clinical and surgical implications related to other cardiovascular anomalies and in some cases associated with venous thrombosis of lower limbs, particularly in young adults. The authors reviewed images of ten patients with inferior vena cava anomalies, three of them with deep venous thrombosis. The authors highlight the major findings of inferior vena cava anomalies at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, correlating them the embryonic development and demonstrating the main alternative pathways for venous drainage. The knowledge on the inferior vena cava anomalies is critical in the assessment of abdominal images to avoid misdiagnosis and to indicate the possibility of associated anomalies, besides clinical and surgical implications.

  19. Congenital inferior vena cava anomalies: a review of findings at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Catherine; Trad, Clovis Simao [Central de Diagnostico Ribeirao Preto (CEDIRP), SP (Brazil); Trad, Henrique Simao, E-mail: hstrad@terra.com.br [Central de Diagnostico Ribeirao Preto (CEDIRP), SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-FMRPUSP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Mendonca, Silvana Machado [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Inferior vena cava anomalies are rare, occurring in up to 8.7% of the population, as left renal vein anomalies are considered. The inferior vena cava develops from the sixth to the eighth gestational weeks, originating from three paired embryonic veins, namely the subcardinal, supracardinal and postcardinal veins. This complex ontogenesis of the inferior vena cava, with multiple anastomoses between the pairs of embryonic veins, leads to a number of anatomic variations in the venous return from the abdomen and lower limbs. Some of such variations have significant clinical and surgical implications related to other cardiovascular anomalies and in some cases associated with venous thrombosis of lower limbs, particularly in young adults. The authors reviewed images of ten patients with inferior vena cava anomalies, three of them with deep venous thrombosis. The authors highlight the major findings of inferior vena cava anomalies at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, correlating them the embryonic development and demonstrating the main alternative pathways for venous drainage. The knowledge on the inferior vena cava anomalies is critical in the assessment of abdominal images to avoid misdiagnosis and to indicate the possibility of associated anomalies, besides clinical and surgical implications. (author)

  20. Congenital inferior vena cava anomalies: a review of findings at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Catherine; Trad, Clovis Simao; Trad, Henrique Simao

    2013-01-01

    Inferior vena cava anomalies are rare, occurring in up to 8.7% of the population, as left renal vein anomalies are considered. The inferior vena cava develops from the sixth to the eighth gestational weeks, originating from three paired embryonic veins, namely the subcardinal, supracardinal and postcardinal veins. This complex ontogenesis of the inferior vena cava, with multiple anastomoses between the pairs of embryonic veins, leads to a number of anatomic variations in the venous return from the abdomen and lower limbs. Some of such variations have significant clinical and surgical implications related to other cardiovascular anomalies and in some cases associated with venous thrombosis of lower limbs, particularly in young adults. The authors reviewed images of ten patients with inferior vena cava anomalies, three of them with deep venous thrombosis. The authors highlight the major findings of inferior vena cava anomalies at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, correlating them the embryonic development and demonstrating the main alternative pathways for venous drainage. The knowledge on the inferior vena cava anomalies is critical in the assessment of abdominal images to avoid misdiagnosis and to indicate the possibility of associated anomalies, besides clinical and surgical implications. (author)

  1. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  2. Temporal lobe association fiber tractography as compared to histology and dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Nathalie; Noblet, Vincent; Rodrigo, Sébastian; Dietemann, Jean L; Mekhbi, Mustapha Ben; Kehrli, Pierre; Wolfram-Gabel, Renée; Braun, Marc; Kremer, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    To compare the temporal lobe white matter fiber bundles obtained by diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography to that by histology and dissection, and to study the interindividual variability of the obtained tracts. DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) acquisitions (30 directions) were obtained from nine healthy volunteers. Imaging post-processing was performed with FSL (FMRIB Software Library) software. Uncinate fasciculus, longitudinal inferior fasciculus and optic radiations were tracked after positioning of the region of interest (ROI) in predetermined anatomical landmarks. Histological data were obtained by cutting 15 µm coronal sections in one left brain hemisphere and staining with modified Heidenhain-Woelcke myelin stain. Dissection was performed on the left brain hemisphere prepared in accordance with the Klingler method. Tractography of each bundle was compared to histology and dissection data. To highlight the interindividual variability of the considered fiber tracts, all the images were affinely registered on an arbitrarily chosen reference image by considering the B0 images. Fiber tracts were then warped according to the corresponding estimated transformation and an average fiber tract image was then computed. Our results demonstrated a good concordance between tractography of the temporal lobe white matter bundles and dissection and histological data. The interindividual reproducibility of each tract seemed to be good, particularly in the middle part. The variability was more important at both ends, probably in relation to the dispersion of fiber bundles. Diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography of temporal lobe white matter tracts seemed to be in accordance with histological and dissection data. Taking into account some limitations, it could be of particular interest for the presurgical planning of temporal lobectomy.

  3. The use of ice-cream to reduce inferior and liver uptake of 99mTc Sestamibi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine if ice-cream has any role in reducing the main drawback of sestamibi imaging namely inferior and liver uptake of sestamibi in myocardial imaging. This inferior uptake from, Stomach, Loops of Bowel and Left Lobe of liver can make interpretation difficult Can obscure a defect in the inferior margin of the heart and Hot inferior uptake can produce false adjacent cold defect when using a Fourier kernel. Material and Methods: To remove the confounding factor of various 'stress' regimes adenosine exercise and Dobutamine, only resting Sestamibi scans were examined. Patients where Given ice cream on a stick (ice covered) just prior to injection Imaged at 90 mins post injection of 500 Mbq Tc99m Sestamibi with > 90% purity, using eccentric non-elliptical non circular orbit to maximise resolution, for 18 mins with 2 heads. Processing: Reconstruct (for this purpose) with a butterworth filter of 0.4 and a power factor of 2. Sum all coronal views: Make a rectangular ROI covering the inferior 1/2 or the myocardium. Duplicate this ROI and place at same vertical position over highest activity region of liver. Duplicate region and place immediately underneath cardiac region. Create a BGD region of interest between heart and liver. Data: Ratios of heart to liver and inferior to heart are created with and without background correction. Results: Summary: Ice cream reduces the inferior uptake of Sestamibi by 30%. Ice cream reduces the liver uptake by 14%. Conclusion: Given: The low risk of an ice cream intervention. The high acceptance by patients. The low cost. The effect on inferior uptake. The possible effect on liver uptake. I would recommend the use of Ice Cream for all Myocardial Sestamibi Imaging

  4. A survey of temporal data mining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequences within a group have similar functional properties (Corpet 1988; Miller et al 1999;. Osata et al 2002). .... A rule consists of a pair of Boolean-valued propositions, namely, a left-hand side proposition (the ... The problem now is to search for representative (temporal) patterns within each group. Each temporal pattern ...

  5. Left ventricular noncompaction in a patient presenting with a left ventricular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Anđelkov Anđelka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a congenital disorder characterised by prominent trabeculations in the left ventricular myocardium. This heart condition very often goes completely undetected, or is mistaken for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or coronary disease. Case report. A middle-aged female with a positive family history of coronary disease was admitted with chest pain, electrocardiography (ECG changes in the area of the inferolateral wall and elevation in cardiac specific enzymes. Initially, she was suspected of having acute coronary syndrome. However, in the left ventricular apex, especially alongside the lateral and inferior walls, cardiac ultrasound visualised hypertrabeculation with multiple trabeculae projecting inside the left ventricular cavity. A short-axis view of the heart above the papillary muscles revealed the presence of two layers of the myocardium: a compacted homogeneous layer adjacent to the epicardium and a spongy layer with trabeculae and sinusoids under the endocardium. The thickness ratio between the two layers was 2.2:1. The same abnormalities were corroborated by multislice computed tomography (MSCT of the heart. Conclusion. Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare, usually hereditary cardiomyopathy, which should be considered as a possibility in patients with myocardial hypertrophy. It is very often mistaken for coronary disease owing to ECG changes and elevated cardiac specific enzymes associated with myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure.

  6. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with bilateral inferior collicular hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. An 8-year-old boy presented with progressive behavioral changes, cognitive decline and myoclonic jerks, progressing to a bed bound state over 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in the subcortical areas of the left occipital lobe and brachium of the inferior colliculus on both sides. EEG showed bilateral, synchronous periodic discharges. Serum/cerebrospinal fluid measles IgG titer was significantly positive. The overall features were suggestive of SSPE. MRI finding of bilateral inferior colliculus changes on MRI without significant involvement of other commonly involved areas suggests an uncommon/rare imaging pattern of SSPE.

  7. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  8. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...

  9. Plasticity of left perisylvian white-matter tracts is associated with individual differences in math learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Dietsje; Wassermann, Demian; Chokhani, Ritika; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Bammer, Roland; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Plasticity of white matter tracts is thought to be essential for cognitive development and academic skill acquisition in children. However, a dearth of high-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data measuring longitudinal changes with learning, as well as methodological difficulties in multi-time point tract identification have limited our ability to investigate plasticity of specific white matter tracts. Here, we examine learning-related changes of white matter tracts innervating inferior parietal, prefrontal and temporal regions following an intense 2-month math tutoring program. DTI data were acquired from 18 third grade children, both before and after tutoring. A novel fiber tracking algorithm based on a White Matter Query Language (WMQL) was used to identify three sections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) linking frontal and parietal (SLF-FP), parietal and temporal (SLF-PT) and frontal and temporal (SLF-FT) cortices, from which we created child-specific probabilistic maps. The SLF-FP, SLF-FT, and SLF-PT tracts identified with the WMQL method were highly reliable across the two time points and showed close correspondence to tracts previously described in adults. Notably, individual differences in behavioral gains after 2 months of tutoring were specifically correlated with plasticity in the left SLF-FT tract. Our results extend previous findings of individual differences in white matter integrity, and provide important new insights into white matter plasticity related to math learning in childhood. More generally, our quantitative approach will be useful for future studies examining longitudinal changes in white matter integrity associated with cognitive skill development.

  10. Prior auditory information shapes visual category-selectivity in ventral occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ruth; Noppeney, Uta

    2010-10-01

    Objects in our natural environment generate signals in multiple sensory modalities. This fMRI study investigated the influence of prior task-irrelevant auditory information on visually-evoked category-selective activations in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Subjects categorized pictures as landmarks or animal faces, while ignoring the preceding congruent or incongruent sound. Behaviorally, subjects responded slower to incongruent than congruent stimuli. At the neural level, the lateral and medial prefrontal cortices showed increased activations for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli consistent with their role in response selection. In contrast, the parahippocampal gyri combined visual and auditory information additively: activation was greater for visual landmarks than animal faces and landmark-related sounds than animal vocalizations resulting in increased parahippocampal selectivity for congruent audiovisual landmarks. Effective connectivity analyses showed that this amplification of visual landmark-selectivity was mediated by increased negative coupling of the parahippocampal gyrus with the superior temporal sulcus for congruent stimuli. Thus, task-irrelevant auditory information influences visual object categorization at two stages. In the ventral occipito-temporal cortex auditory and visual category information are combined additively to sharpen visual category-selective responses. In the left inferior frontal sulcus, as indexed by a significant incongruency effect, visual and auditory category information are integrated interactively for response selection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve in a man undergoing thyroidectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A non-recurrent variant of the inferior laryngeal nerve has been seldom reported. These reports are mostly based on cadaveric dissection studies or large chart review studies in which the emphasis is placed on the determination of the frequency of the variation, and not on the clinical appearance of this variant. We graphically describe the intraoperative identification of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve. Case Presentation A 44-year old Caucasian man was referred to the Head and Neck Surgery Outpatient Clinic with the diagnosis of a nodular mass in his left thyroid lobe that had been growing for one year. A fine needle aspiration puncture was compatible with thyroid papillary cancer. It was decided that the patient should undergo total thyroidectomy. During surgery, a non-recurrent right inferior laryngeal nerve was noted. This nerve emanated from the right vagus nerve, entering the larynx 3 cm after its origin. The nerve did not show a recurrent course. The nerve on the left side had a normal configuration. The surgery and post-operative period were uneventful, and the patient had no change in his voice. Conclusion This paper allows those interested to become acquainted with the normal intraoperative appearance of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve. This will undoubtedly be of significance for all of those performing invasive diagnostic and surgical procedures in the neck and upper thoracic regions, in order to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injury to this nerve. This is of extreme importance, since a unilateral lesion of this nerve may result in permanent hoarseness, and a bilateral lesion may lead to aphonia and life-threatening dyspnea.

  12. Inferior alveolar canal course: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Xia, Bing; Gu, Zhiyuan

    2009-11-01

    To describe the morphology and course of the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) as it appears in digital panoramic radiographs. Three hundred and eighty-six digital rotational panoramic radiographs (OPG) were studied using the Clinview Software (6.1.3.7 version, Instrumentarium). Among the 386 radiographs, 86 radiographs with 5-mm steel balls were used to calculate the magnification. The average magnification of radiographs in this study was 7.24+/-7.55%. The course of IAC as seen in the panoramic radiograph may be classified into four types: (1) linear curve, 12.75%, (2) spoon-shaped curve, 29.25%, (3) elliptic-arc curve, 48.5%, and (4) turning curve, 9.5%. On panoramic radiographs, the IAC appeared closest to the inferior border of the mandible in the region of the first molar. In relation to the teeth, on panoramic radiographs, the IAC appeared closest to the distal root tip of the third molar and furthest from the mesial root tip of the first molar. In the OPG, there are four types of IAC: linear, spoon shape, elliptic-arc, and turning curve. The data found in the study may be useful for dental implant, mandibule surgery, and dental anesthesia. The limitations of the panoramic radiograph in depicting the true three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the IAC are recognized, computed tomography (CT) and cone beam (CB)3D imaging being more precise.

  13. SU-G-IeP4-15: Ultrasound Imaging of Absorbable Inferior Vena Cava Filters for Proper Placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitcham, T; Bouchard, R; Melancon, A; Melancon, M; Eggers, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are used in patients with a high risk of pulmonary embolism in situations when the use of blood thinning drugs would be inappropriate. These filters are implanted under x-ray guidance; however, this provides a dose of ionizing radiation to both patient and physician. B-mode ultrasound (US) imaging allows for localization of certain implanted devices without radiation dose concerns. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of imaging the placement of absorbable IVCFs using US imaging to alleviate the dosage concern inherent to fluoroscopy. Methods: A phantom was constructed to mimic a human IVC using tissue-mimicking material with 0.5 dB/cm/MHz acoustic attenuation, while agar inclusions were used to model acoustic mismatch at the venous interface. Absorbable IVCF’s were imaged at 15 cm depth using B-mode US at 2, 3, 5, and 7 MHz transmit frequencies. Then, to determine temporal stability, the IVCF was left in the phantom for 10 weeks; during this time, the IVCF was imaged using the same techniques as above, while the integrity of the filter was analyzed by inspecting for fiber discontinuities. Results: Visualization of the inferior vena cava filter was possible at 5, 7.5, and 15 cm depth at US central frequencies of 2, 3, 5, and 7 MHz. Imaging the IVCF at 5 MHz yielded the clearest images while maintaining acceptable spatial resolution for identifying the IVCF’s, while lower frequencies provided noticeably worse image quality. No obvious degradation was observed over the course of the 10 weeks in a static phantom environment. Conclusion: Biodegradable IVCF localization was possible up to 15 cm in depth using conventional B-mode US in a tissue-mimicking phantom. This leads to the potential for using B-mode US to guide the placement of the IVCF upon deployment by the interventional radiologist. Mitch Eggers is an owner of Adient Medical Technologies. There are no other conflicts of interest to disclose.

  14. SU-G-IeP4-15: Ultrasound Imaging of Absorbable Inferior Vena Cava Filters for Proper Placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitcham, T; Bouchard, R; Melancon, A; Melancon, M [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Eggers, M [Adient Medical Technologies, Pearland, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are used in patients with a high risk of pulmonary embolism in situations when the use of blood thinning drugs would be inappropriate. These filters are implanted under x-ray guidance; however, this provides a dose of ionizing radiation to both patient and physician. B-mode ultrasound (US) imaging allows for localization of certain implanted devices without radiation dose concerns. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of imaging the placement of absorbable IVCFs using US imaging to alleviate the dosage concern inherent to fluoroscopy. Methods: A phantom was constructed to mimic a human IVC using tissue-mimicking material with 0.5 dB/cm/MHz acoustic attenuation, while agar inclusions were used to model acoustic mismatch at the venous interface. Absorbable IVCF’s were imaged at 15 cm depth using B-mode US at 2, 3, 5, and 7 MHz transmit frequencies. Then, to determine temporal stability, the IVCF was left in the phantom for 10 weeks; during this time, the IVCF was imaged using the same techniques as above, while the integrity of the filter was analyzed by inspecting for fiber discontinuities. Results: Visualization of the inferior vena cava filter was possible at 5, 7.5, and 15 cm depth at US central frequencies of 2, 3, 5, and 7 MHz. Imaging the IVCF at 5 MHz yielded the clearest images while maintaining acceptable spatial resolution for identifying the IVCF’s, while lower frequencies provided noticeably worse image quality. No obvious degradation was observed over the course of the 10 weeks in a static phantom environment. Conclusion: Biodegradable IVCF localization was possible up to 15 cm in depth using conventional B-mode US in a tissue-mimicking phantom. This leads to the potential for using B-mode US to guide the placement of the IVCF upon deployment by the interventional radiologist. Mitch Eggers is an owner of Adient Medical Technologies. There are no other conflicts of interest to disclose.

  15. [Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava. Case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, José Antonio; Tallón-Aguilar, Luis; Marenco-de la Cuadra, Beatriz; López-Pérez, José; Oliva-Mompeán, Fernando; Padillo-Ruiz, Javier

    Large vessel sarcomas are rare tumours. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava is the most common. About 300 cases have been reported in the literature. They tend to be large, and not develop metastasis. The prognosis of these tumours is poor. An 81 year-old woman who complained of pain in the right flank, with no other symptoms. Abdominal computed tomography showed a large retroperitoneal mass, which affected the inferior vena cava, with signs of thrombosis inside. It also encompassed the right renal vein and the right kidney. Excision of the tumour was performed in block, performing an autologous saphenous vein bypass between left the renal vein and proximal segment of inferior vena cava. Leiomyosarcomas of the inferior vena cava are classified according to their relationship with adjacent structures. The clinical signs and symptoms are generally non-specific. Diagnosis is made using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and biopsy of the retroperitoneal mass. Surgery is the only treatment capable of providing prolonged survival. The surgical management is determined by: the level of involvement, the extension, and the presence or absence of collateral veins. The role of adjuvant therapy is controversial. Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcomas remain a challenge for surgeons. At present, radical resection with negative margins, offers the highest survival rate. The best results are obtained with a multidisciplinary approach by experienced teams in the management of these tumours. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  17. The inferior cochlear vein: surgical aspects in cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, HongLei; Chen, Wei; Zhu, XiaoQuan; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-02-01

    The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). This may be essential to consider during selection of different trajectories for electrode insertion aiming at preserving residual hearing. Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. The vein also drains blood from the modiolus containing the spiral ganglion neurons. Surgical interference with this vein could cause neural damage influencing CI outcome. We analyzed the topographical relationship between the RW and ICV bony channel and cochlear aqueduct (CA) from a surgical standpoint. Archival human temporal bones were further microdissected to visualize the CA and its accessory canals (AC1 and AC2). This was combined with examinations of plastic and silicone molds of the human labyrinth. Metric analyses were made using photo stereomicroscopy documenting the proximal portion of the AC1, the internal aperture of the CA and the RW. The mean distance between the AC1 and the anterior rim of the RW was 0.81 mm in bone specimens and 0.67 mm assessed in corrosion casts. The AC1 runs from the floor of the scala tympani through the otic capsule passing parallel to the CA to the posterior cranial fossa. The mean distance between the CA and AC1 canal was 0.31 and 0.25 mm, respectively.

  18. Perceived Conventionality in Co-speech Gestures Involves the Fronto-Temporal Language Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhana Wolf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Face-to-face communication is multimodal; it encompasses spoken words, facial expressions, gaze, and co-speech gestures. In contrast to linguistic symbols (e.g., spoken words or signs in sign language relying on mostly explicit conventions, gestures vary in their degree of conventionality. Bodily signs may have a general accepted or conventionalized meaning (e.g., a head shake or less so (e.g., self-grooming. We hypothesized that subjective perception of conventionality in co-speech gestures relies on the classical language network, i.e., the left hemispheric inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca's area and the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, Wernicke's area and studied 36 subjects watching video-recorded story retellings during a behavioral and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment. It is well documented that neural correlates of such naturalistic videos emerge as intersubject covariance (ISC in fMRI even without involving a stimulus (model-free analysis. The subjects attended either to perceived conventionality or to a control condition (any hand movements or gesture-speech relations. Such tasks modulate ISC in contributing neural structures and thus we studied ISC changes to task demands in language networks. Indeed, the conventionality task significantly increased covariance of the button press time series and neuronal synchronization in the left IFG over the comparison with other tasks. In the left IFG, synchronous activity was observed during the conventionality task only. In contrast, the left pSTG exhibited correlated activation patterns during all conditions with an increase in the conventionality task at the trend level only. Conceivably, the left IFG can be considered a core region for the processing of perceived conventionality in co-speech gestures similar to spoken language. In general, the interpretation of conventionalized signs may rely on neural mechanisms that engage during language comprehension.

  19. Perceived Conventionality in Co-speech Gestures Involves the Fronto-Temporal Language Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dhana; Rekittke, Linn-Marlen; Mittelberg, Irene; Klasen, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face communication is multimodal; it encompasses spoken words, facial expressions, gaze, and co-speech gestures. In contrast to linguistic symbols (e.g., spoken words or signs in sign language) relying on mostly explicit conventions, gestures vary in their degree of conventionality. Bodily signs may have a general accepted or conventionalized meaning (e.g., a head shake) or less so (e.g., self-grooming). We hypothesized that subjective perception of conventionality in co-speech gestures relies on the classical language network, i.e., the left hemispheric inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca's area) and the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, Wernicke's area) and studied 36 subjects watching video-recorded story retellings during a behavioral and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. It is well documented that neural correlates of such naturalistic videos emerge as intersubject covariance (ISC) in fMRI even without involving a stimulus (model-free analysis). The subjects attended either to perceived conventionality or to a control condition (any hand movements or gesture-speech relations). Such tasks modulate ISC in contributing neural structures and thus we studied ISC changes to task demands in language networks. Indeed, the conventionality task significantly increased covariance of the button press time series and neuronal synchronization in the left IFG over the comparison with other tasks. In the left IFG, synchronous activity was observed during the conventionality task only. In contrast, the left pSTG exhibited correlated activation patterns during all conditions with an increase in the conventionality task at the trend level only. Conceivably, the left IFG can be considered a core region for the processing of perceived conventionality in co-speech gestures similar to spoken language. In general, the interpretation of conventionalized signs may rely on neural mechanisms that engage during language comprehension. PMID:29249945

  20. Malformação de veia cava inferior e trombose venosa profunda: fator de risco de trombose venosa em jovens Inferior vena cava malformation and deep venous thrombosis: a risk factor of venous thrombosis in the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Roque Onzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência da veia cava inferior, alteração no processo de formação embriológica que ocorre entre a sexta e a oitava semanas de gestação, é uma rara anomalia congênita. Porém, recentemente foi confirmada como sendo um fator de risco importante para o desenvolvimento de trombose venosa profunda, especialmente em jovens. Apresentamos um caso de trombose em veias cava inferior, ilíacas, femorais e poplíteas num jovem de 16 anos com agenesia de um segmento de veia cava infra-renal e veia renal esquerda retroaórtica.Absence of inferior vena cava, caused by aberrant development within the sixth to eighth weeks of gestation, is a rare congenital anomaly. However, it has been recently confirmed as a major risk factor for the development of deep venous thrombosis, especially in young patients. We report a case of inferior vena cava, iliac, femoral and popliteal vein thrombosis in a 16-year-old patient with inferior vena cava agenesis and retroaortic left renal vein.

  1. Total laparoscopic retrieval of inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrashid, Ehsan; Adkar, Shaunak Sanjay; Bennett, Kyla Megan; Zani, Sabino; Cox, Mitchell Wayne

    2015-01-01

    While there is some local variability in the use of inferior vena cava filters and there has been some evolution in the indications for filter placement over time, inferior vena cava filters remain a standard option for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. Indications are clear in certain subpopulations of patients, particularly those with deep venous thrombosis and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation. There are, however, a variety of reported inferior vena cava filter complications in the short and long term, making retrieval of the filter desirable in most cases. Here, we present the case of a morbidly obese patient complaining of chronic abdominal pain after inferior vena cava filter placement and malposition of the filter with extensive protrusion outside the inferior vena cava. She underwent successful laparoscopic retrieval of her malpositioned inferior vena cava filters after failure of a conventional endovascular approach.

  2. Total laparoscopic retrieval of inferior vena cava filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Benrashid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is some local variability in the use of inferior vena cava filters and there has been some evolution in the indications for filter placement over time, inferior vena cava filters remain a standard option for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. Indications are clear in certain subpopulations of patients, particularly those with deep venous thrombosis and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation. There are, however, a variety of reported inferior vena cava filter complications in the short and long term, making retrieval of the filter desirable in most cases. Here, we present the case of a morbidly obese patient complaining of chronic abdominal pain after inferior vena cava filter placement and malposition of the filter with extensive protrusion outside the inferior vena cava. She underwent successful laparoscopic retrieval of her malpositioned inferior vena cava filters after failure of a conventional endovascular approach.

  3. Rare Inferior Shoulder Dislocation (Luxatio Erecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cift, Hakan; Soylemez, Salih; Demiroglu, Murat; Ozkan, Korhan; Ozden, Vahit Emre; Ozkut, Afsar T.

    2015-01-01

    Although shoulder dislocations have been seen very frequently, inferior dislocation of shoulder constitutes only 0.5% of all shoulder dislocations. We share our 4 patients with luxatio erecta and present their last clinical control. 2 male and 2 female Caucasian patients were diagnosed as luxatio erecta. Patients' ages were 78, 62, 65, and 76. All patients' reduction was done by traction-abduction and contour traction maneuver in the operating room. The patients had no symptoms and no limitation of range of motion of their shoulder at their last control. Luxatio erecta is seen rarely, and these patients may have neurovascular injury. These patients should be carefully examined and treated by the orthopaedic and traumatology surgeons. PMID:25883820

  4. Rare Inferior Shoulder Dislocation (Luxatio Erecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Cift

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although shoulder dislocations have been seen very frequently, inferior dislocation of shoulder constitutes only 0.5% of all shoulder dislocations. We share our 4 patients with luxatio erecta and present their last clinical control. 2 male and 2 female Caucasian patients were diagnosed as luxatio erecta. Patients’ ages were 78, 62, 65, and 76. All patients’ reduction was done by traction-abduction and contour traction maneuver in the operating room. The patients had no symptoms and no limitation of range of motion of their shoulder at their last control. Luxatio erecta is seen rarely, and these patients may have neurovascular injury. These patients should be carefully examined and treated by the orthopaedic and traumatology surgeons.

  5. Working memory and left medial temporal cortical thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Kubo, Tadeu Takao Almodovar; Regalla, Maria Angélica; Mesquita, Cíntia Machado; Coutinho, Gabriel; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Figueiredo, Otávio; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Alexandra Prüfer de Queiroz Campos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To perform a pilot study to investigate the association between working memory and cortical thickness in a sample of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods Seventeen children aged 7-10 years diagnosed with ADHD and 16 healthy children underwent a magnetic resonance scan for cortical thickness measurements. Data was correlated with working memory performance using the Backwards Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. ...

  6. Obstruction of the hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deok; Choi, Han Chin

    1985-01-01

    Five patients with obstruction of the hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava diagnosed by digital subtraction inferior vena cavography were reported. All of these patients, aged from 38 to 52, were female who had never used the oral contraceptives. Main collateral pathway of these patients was the central channels through ascending lumbar veins, internal and external vertebral plexuses, azygos-hemiazygos complex, and inferior vena cava itself above the obstructed segment

  7. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Jong Sung; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Cho, On Koo

    1993-01-01

    A 29 year old woman with unresectable Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava extending into the right atrium of the heart was presented. The upper and middle inferior vena cava was involved and there were both intrinsic and extrinsic tumor growth components. The diagnosis was made by a combination of radiological studies including ultrasound, CT, inferior vena cavography and arteriography and the diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound guided tumor biopsy. The clinical and radiological presenting features were reviewed

  8. Subcomponents and connectivity of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus revealed by diffusion spectrum imaging fiber tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The definitive structure and functional role of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF are still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the connectivity, asymmetry and segmentation patterns of this bundle. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI analysis was performed on ten healthy adults and a 90-subject DSI template (NTU-90 Atlas. In addition, a new tractography approach based on the anatomic subregions and two regions of interest (ROI was evaluated for the fiber reconstructions. More widespread anterior-posterior connections than previous standard definition of the IFOF were found. This distinct pathway demonstrated a greater inter-subjects connective variability with a maximum of 40% overlap in its central part. The statistical results revealed no asymmetry between the left and right hemispheres and no significant differences existed in distributions of the IFOF according to sex. In addition, five subcomponents within the IFOF were identified according to the frontal areas of originations. As the subcomponents passed through the anterior floor of the external capsule, the fibers radiated to the posterior terminations. The most common connection patterns of the subcomponents were as follows: IFOF-I, from frontal polar cortex to occipital pole, inferior occipital lobe, middle occipital lobe, superior occipital lobe and pericalcarine; IFOF-II, from orbito-frontal cortex to occipital pole, inferior occipital lobe, middle occipital lobe, superior occipital lobe and pericalcarine; IFOF-III, from inferior frontal gyrus to inferior occipital lobe, middle occipital lobe, superior occipital lobe, occipital pole and pericalcarine; IFOF-IV, from middle frontal gyrus to occipital pole and inferior occipital lobe; IFOF-V, from superior frontal gyrus to occipital pole, inferior occipital lobe and middle occipital lobe. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of high resolution diffusion tensor tractography with sufficient

  9. Congenital Vitelline Band Causing Intestinal Obstruction in an Adult with a Double Inferior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihiri Wettasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitelline artery remnants are rare causes of intra-abdominal bands leading to bowel obstruction. These bands may be associated with Meckel’s diverticulum. Double inferior vena cava (IVC is a rare presentation and is usually identified incidentally. Case Presentation. A sixty-year-old male presented with progressive vomiting for five days and he was clinically diagnosed with intestinal obstruction. Plain X-ray abdomen showed evidence of small bowel obstruction. CT scan of the abdomen revealed dilated small bowel loops with a small outpouching in the distal ileum with a band like structure attached to it. In the CT, left sided patent IVC draining into the left renal vein was identified. Left external iliac vein was in continuity with the left IVC. Left internal iliac vein was draining into the right IVC. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a Meckel’s diverticulum with a band identified as the vitelline remnant attached to its apex and inserting at the anterior abdominal wall near the umbilicus. Discussion. Meckel’s diverticulum with vitelline bands, although rare, should be borne in mind in adult patients with intestinal obstruction. Identification of this anomaly can be difficult in imaging studies. Presence of double IVC should be mentioned in the imaging findings to prevent possible catastrophic complications during surgery.

  10. Percutaneous insertion of the inferior vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lianjun; Jiang Shiliang; Zhao Shihua; Yang Jianguo; Dai Ruping

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of inferior vena cava filter for prevention of pulmonary embolus (PE) formation. Methods: Twenty-eight cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were treated with insertion of the inferior vena cava filter. Results: The filter was implanted into inferior vena cava below the rena vein. There were no severe complications occurred in the group. Twenty-seven cases were followed up to 2-34 months, and no migration of the filters were found. And no pulmonary embolism were revealed in fifteen cases without pulmonary thromboembolism. Conclusions: The inferior vena cava filter implantation is a safe and effective method to prevent pulmonary thromboembolism

  11. Diferenças de força dos membros inferiores por preferencia lateral em futebolistas Sub-17

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Morais, J.E.; Reis, A.; Barbosa, Tiago M.

    2016-01-01

    A força dos músculos ântero-posteriores dos membros inferiores direitos nos esquerdinos e ambidestros deve ser tanto quanto possível, desenvolvida de forma equilateral. Antero-posterior muscles strength in right limbs should be developed in a similar way with left ones, intending to reduces differences as much as possible. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  12. Temporal coordination between performing musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, Janeen D; Palmer, Caroline

    2011-11-01

    Many common behaviours require people to coordinate the timing of their actions with the timing of others' actions. We examined whether representations of musicians' actions are activated in coperformers with whom they must coordinate their actions in time and whether coperformers simulate each other's actions using their own motor systems during temporal coordination. Pianists performed right-hand melodies along with simple or complex left-hand accompaniments produced by themselves or by another pianist. Individual performers' preferred performance rates were measured in solo performance of the right-hand melody. The complexity of the left-hand accompaniment influenced the temporal grouping structure of the right-hand melody in the same way when it was performed by the self or by the duet partner, providing some support for the action corepresentation hypothesis. In contrast, accompaniment complexity had little influence on temporal coordination measures (asynchronies and cross-correlations between parts). Temporal coordination measures were influenced by a priori similarities between partners' preferred rates; partners who had similar preferred rates in solo performance were better synchronized and showed mutual adaptation to each other's timing during duet performances. These findings extend previous findings of action corepresentation and action simulation to a task that requires precise temporal coordination of independent yet simultaneous actions.

  13. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  14. The influence of anatomic variance in the coronary artery on cardiac function with PCI after acute inferior wall myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hongming; Feng Jue; Fang Fengning; Wu Heping; Wang Fengqin; Ma Huili

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the influence in anatomic variance of coronary artery on function of left and right ventricles after acute inferior myocardial infarction (AIMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention therapy (PCI). Methods: Forty-seven inferior AIMI patients were divided into 2 groups: 12 left dominant group [including equipollent case, i.e. inferior wall of left ventricle supplied by left circumflex coronary artery (LCX), right ventricle by right coronary artery (RCA)] and 35 right dominant group (both inferior wall and right ventricle were supplied by RCA). Equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were used for comparing the influence between different coronary artery flow patterns on biventricular hemodynamics, blood supply and prognosis of PCI after 3 months. Results: Comparison of ventricular function in left and right dominant coronal artery type groups discharged 7- 10 d after PCI, there were differences in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) [(63.03 ± 5.64)% vs (57.67 ± 7.35)%, P=0.012], peak ejection rate (PER) [(3.52 ± 0.66) end-diastolic volume (EDV)/s vs (2.93 ± 0.73) EDV/s, P =0.011], peak filling rate (PFR) [(2.71 ± 0.88) EDV/s vs (2.11 ± 0.45 ) EDV/s, P=0.004], left free-wall regional ejection fraction [(81.94 ± 20.75)% vs (67.25 ± 16.54)%, P = O.032], and right free-wall regional ejection fraction [(57.86 ± 11.77)% vs (67.83 ± 10.38)%, P=0.012], right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) [(37.89 ± 3.86)% vs (41.67 ± 4.81)%, P=0.09]. After 3 months,there was difference only in RVEF [(44.60 ± 5.29)% vs (48.00 ± 3.30)%, P=0.043], but no difference in myocardial perfusion of left ventricle (P=0.357). Conclusions: In acute stage of AIMI right dominant group, there was more severe injury of right ventricle, in convalescent stage most of the right ventricular function resumed. The sustained right ventricular function in part of the patients can be demonstrated by ERNA

  15. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. Perforation of inferior alveolar nerve by maxillary artery

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-01-01

    La fosa infratemporal es un área anatómica clínicamente importante para la administración de agentes anestésicos locales en odontología y cirugía maxilofacial. Fueron estudiadas variaciones en la anatomía del nervio alveolar inferior y la arteria maxilar en la disección infratemporal. Durante la disección rutinaria de la cabeza en el cadáver de un varón adulto, fue observada una variación excepcional en el origen del nervio alveolar inferior y su relación con las estructuras circundantes. El ...

  16. Relação entre terceiros molares inferiores e nervo alveolar inferior (NAI)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidigal, Victor Laviola

    2017-01-01

    Exodontias de terceiros molares são procedimentos comuns realizados por médicos dentistas, e apesar de rotineiro podem causar transtornos ou complicações trans e/ou pós operatórias. Vários fatores estão ligados às possíveis complicações, como idade e o grau de impactação do dente, em casos de terceiros molares inferiores, a sua íntima relação com o nervo alveolar inferior. Existem exames imaginológicos como radiografias e tomografias computadorizadas que podem ser utilizadas no pré-operatório...

  17. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. LA PERFORACION DEL NERVIO ALVEOLAR INFERIOR POR LA ARTERIA MAXILAR

    OpenAIRE

    Vanishree S Nayak; Ramachandra Bhat K; Prakash Billakanti Babu

    2011-01-01

    Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originate...

  18. Superficial and deep vein thrombosis associated with congenital absence of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava in a young male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Donal B; O'Brien, Noel; Khani, Tahir; Sheehan, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Congenital absence of the inferior vena cava (AIVC) is a rare vascular anomaly that may be associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It is underreported and may be present in up to 5% of young patients with DVT. We report a unique case of simultaneous thrombosis of both superficial and deep veins in a patient with AIVC. A 20-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of a swollen, painful, left lower limb. On examination, the left leg and thigh were found to be swollen and varicosities were present along the lower abdominal wall. Ultrasound showed extensive superficial and deep venous thrombosis of the entire left lower limb. Computed tomography venogram revealed an infrahepatic AIVC with lower limb drainage through enlarged intrathoracic continuations of the azygous and hemiazygous veins. The patient was put on oral anticoagulant therapy and was well at 6-month follow-up. The hypothesis for DVT in patients with AIVC is that venous drainage of the lower limbs is inadequate, leading to venous stasis and thrombosis. All young patients presenting with idiopathic DVT should be investigated for inferior vena cava anomalies with computed tomography if ultrasound does not visualize the inferior vena cava. Copyright © 2011 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Creating a Fontan fenestration in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkumar Charlagorla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of the Fontan operation. Transcatheter Fontan fenestration can ameliorate symptoms by decompressing elevated venous pressures. Transcatheter creation of a fenestration can be technically challenging in cases with complex venous anatomy. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with heterotaxy, dextrocardia with unbalanced atrioventricular canal (AVC, atrial and visceral situs inversus, left-sided superior vena cava (SVC, and left-sided interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC with azygos continuation. With few modifications to the equipment, a successful Fontan fenestration with stent implantation was performed via transjugular approach. At 2-year follow-up, his symptoms of plastic bronchitis improved significantly.

  20. Development of Right-hemispheric Dominance of Inferior Parietal Lobule in Proprioceptive Illusion Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru

    2017-11-01

    Functional lateralization can be an indicator of brain maturation. We have consistently shown that, in the adult brain, proprioceptive processing of muscle spindle afferents generating illusory movement of the right hand activates inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in a right-side dominant manner in addition to the cerebrocerebellar motor network. Here we provide novel evidence regarding the development of the right-dominant use of the inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in humans using this task. We studied brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while 60 right-handed blindfolded healthy children (8-11 years), adolescents (12-15 years), and young adults (18-23 years) (20 per group) experienced the illusion. Adult-like right-dominant use of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was observed in adolescents, while children used the IPL bilaterally. In contrast, adult-like lateralized cerebrocerebellar motor activation patterns were already observable in children. The right-side dominance progresses during adolescence along with the suppression of the left-sided IPL activity that emerges during childhood. Therefore, the neuronal processing implemented in the adult's right IPL during the proprioceptive illusion task is likely mediated bilaterally during childhood, and then becomes right-lateralized during adolescence at a substantially later time than the lateralized use of the cerebrocerebellar motor system for kinesthetic processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava level II involvement: curative resection and reconstruction of renal veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Quan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVCL is a rare retroperitoneal tumor. We report two cases of level II (middle level, renal veins to hepatic veins IVCL, who underwent en bloc resection with reconstruction of bilateral or left renal venous return using prosthetic grafts. In our cases, IVCL is documented to be occluded preoperatively, therefore, radical resection of tumor and/or right kidney was performed and the distal end of inferior vena cava was resected and without caval reconstruction. None of the patients developed edema or acute renal failure postoperatively. After surgical resection, adjuvant radiation therapy was administrated. The patients have been free of recurrence 2 years and 3 months, 9 months after surgery, respectively, indicating the complete surgical resection and radiotherapy contribute to the better survival. The reconstruction of inferior vena cava was not considered mandatory in level II IVCL, if the retroperitoneal venous collateral pathways have been established. In addition to the curative resection of IVCL, the renal vascular reconstruction minimized the risks of procedure-related acute renal failure, and was more physiologically preferable. This concept was reflected in the treatment of the two patients reported on.

  2. Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Phosphatidylcholine and Executive Functions in Healthy, Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Zwilling, Chris E; Barbey, Aron K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and executive functions in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher plasma levels of phosphatidylcholine are associated with better performance on a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that have been implicated in cognitive flexibility. Methods: We examined 72 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 in an observational, cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between blood biomarkers of phosphatidylcholine, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test), and gray matter structure of regions within the PFC. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions and we controlled for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index. Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the PFC, the left inferior PFC (Brodmann's Area 45), mediates the relationship between phosphatidylcholine blood biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that particular nutrients may slow or prevent age-related cognitive decline by influencing specific structures within the brain. This report demonstrates a novel structural mediation between plasma phosphatidylcholine levels and cognitive flexibility. Future work should examine the potential mechanisms underlying this mediation, including phosphatidylcholine-dependent cell membrane integrity of the inferior PFC and phosphatidylcholine-dependent cholinergic projections to the inferior PFC.

  3. Retroperitoneal arteriovenous malformation extending through the inferior vena cava into the heart and causing inferior vena cava dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yon Mi; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Seung Woo; Park, Pyo Won; Sung, Chang Ohk

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of retroperitoneal arteriovenous malformation extending through the inferior vena cava into the heart, which was associated with dissection of the inferior vena cava in a 32-year-old female. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a double-lumen inferior vena cava and a rod-like solid component attached to a sac-like lesion in the right heart chambers. Digital subtraction angiography showed an arteriovenous malformation draining to the inner lumen of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  4. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  5. Clinico-anatomical correlations of left posterior cerebral artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Osamu; Shiota, Junichi; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizou; Maki, Toshiyuki.

    1988-01-01

    The relation between neurological signs and symptoms and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was examined in 11 cases of occlusion of the left posterior cerebral artery. All the patients were righthanded. Right homonimous hemianopia was noted in 8 cases, right upper quadrantanopia in 2 cases, and right lower quadrantanopia in 1 case. Of the 11 cases, alexia without agraphia was noted in 9 cases, all 9 of which showed lesions of inferior occipital cortex (lingual and fusiform gyri) and subjacent white matter. Lesions of splenium were found in only 5 of the cases of alexia without agraphia. In 2 cases with neither alexia nor agraphia, lesions were seen in the medial occipital cortex and the subjacent white matter but not in the inferior occipital lobe. Three patients had color anomia which was accompanied by memory disturbances and alexia without agraphia. In 2 of these 3, lesions were widespread in the region of the left posterior cerebral artery. Memory disturbances were observed in 6 cases, all of which also showed alexia without agraphia. The lesions extended not only of the inferior surface of the occipital lobe and along the interhemispheric fissure, but also of hippocampal and parahippocampal gyri. In 3 cases of alexia without agraphia in which no memory distrubance was found, the symptoms of alexia were slight and disappeared at an early stage. (J.P.N.)

  6. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  7. A novel supra-temporal approach to retrobulbar anaesthesia in dogs: Preliminary study in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaccini, Ludovica; Micieli, Fabiana; Meomartino, Leonardo; Duffee, Lauren R; Vesce, Giancarlo

    2017-05-01

    A novel supra-temporal technique for retrobulbar anaesthesia in dogs is described and compared to the inferior temporal palpebral approach. Supra-temporal and inferior temporal palpebral retrobulbar injections were performed in 20 orbits of canine cadavers. Distribution of injected contrast medium within the intraconal space and around the optic nerve was analysed using computed tomography. There was adequate distribution of contrast medium within the intraconal space with both techniques. Concurrent intraconal and extraconal distribution was observed using the inferior temporal palpebral approach in 3/10 orbits and using the supra-temporal approach in 5/10 orbits. In 3/10 supra-temporal injections, the injected vehicle was distributed preferentially in the caudal aspect of the retrobulbar cone, closer to the orbital fissure. Accidental intraocular injection was never observed. The supra-temporal approach appears to be a valid alternative to the inferior temporal palpebral approach for retrobulbar anaesthesia in dogs, being less technically challenging. Further studies are required to confirm the clinical efficacy of this approach in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Left atrio-vertebral ratio: A new computed-tomography measurement to identify left atrial dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque-Juston, Marie; Volondat, Manuelle; Fontas, Eric; Roger, Coralie; Brunner, Philippe; Padovani, Bernard; Chevallier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Left cardiac chambers dilation, interstitial lung changes and pleural effusions are the characteristics of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema on computed tomography (CT) of the chest but mensuration of the left atrial size is not routinely performed. Cardiac chambers normal dimensions are known to be proportional to the patient's build and anthropomorphic data but adjustment of chambers dimensions to available elements seen on the axial CT images has never been evaluated before. Our objective was to use data easily available on axial images to directly scale the left atrium. We chose to divide the left atrial diameter by the thoracic vertebral diameter, using the latter as a body-mass indicator. As a preliminary study, we aimed to evaluate the range of values of this left atrio-vertebral ratio (LAVR) by comparing patients suffering from cardiogenic pulmonary oedema with patients free of cardiac disease. We hypothesized that if the difference of values in these two populations of patients was significant enough, this ratio would be relevant and could be used as a quick criterion in different clinical situations. Two radiologists reviewed CT scans of 32 of patients free of cardiac disease and 40 patients in acute cardiac failure. The maximum diameter of the left atrium at the level of the right inferior pulmonary vein was divided by the vertebral transverse diameter to generate a left atrio-vertebral ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves identified the threshold associated with pulmonary oedema. The mean LAVR was 1.85 ± 0.27 in asymptomatic patients and 2.48 ± 0.35 in patients with pulmonary oedema. A LAVR of 2.1 yielded 85% sensitivity and 88% specificity for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. LAVR is a simple new measure directly scaling the left atrial diameter to the anthropomorphic characteristics of the patient. In our series, a ratio above 2.1 is strongly associated with cardiogenic pulmonary oedema indirectly suggesting left atrial dilation

  9. Effects of single-sided inferior turbinectomy on nasal function and airflow characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yang; Chung, Kang Soo; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Sung Kyun

    2012-03-15

    Knowledge of airflow characteristics in the nasal cavity is essential to understanding the physiologic and pathologic aspects of nasal breathing. Airflows inside post-surgery models were investigated both experimentally and numerically to simulate the inferior turbinectomy. The left cavities of all three models are normal and right cavity is modified by (1) excision of the head of the inferior turbinate, (2) resection of the lower fifth of the inferior turbinate, and (3) resection of almost the entire inferior turbinate. Thin-slice CT (computed tomography) data (0.6mm deep) and meticulous refinement of the model surface by over a decade-long collaboration between engineers and an experienced ENT doctor resulted in the creation of sophisticated nasal cavity models. After numerical experiments and validation by comparison with the PIV results, the CFD code using the Reynolds stress turbulent model and variable temperature boundary condition on the mucosal wall was chosen as the proper numerical framework. Both global quantities (pressure drop, flow rate ratio, total wall heat transfer) and local changes (velocity, temperature, humidity, pressure gradient, and wall shear stress) were numerically investigated. The turbinectomy obviously altered the main stream direction. The flow rate in the upper airway near the olfactory slit decreased in models (1) and (3). This may weaken the olfactory function of the nose. Fluid and thermal properties that are believed to be related with physiology and prognosis are dependent on turbinate resection volume, position, and manner. Widening of the inferior airway does not always result in decreased flow resistance or wall heat transfer. The gains and losses of inferior turbinectomy were considered by analysis of the post-surgery model results. Nasal resistance was increased in model (1) due to sudden airway expansion. Nasal resistance increased and the wall heat transfer decreased in model (3) due to sudden airway expansion and

  10. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  11. Clinical characteristics of inferior vestibular neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Murofushi, Toshihisa; Yagi, Masato; Inoue, Aki; Fujimoto, Chisato; Egami, Naoya; Ushio, Munetaka; Karino, Shotaro; Sugasawa, Keiko; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2012-12-01

    Inferior vestibular neuritis (IVN) is a relatively minor subtype of vestibular neuritis (VN) and its clinical characteristics are unique. To clarify clinical characteristics of IVN in comparison with conventional VN. This was a retrospective case series review. Caloric responses and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) responses were measured in 71 patients with VN. The patients were classified into three groups: (1) IVN group, who showed only asymmetrical cVEMP responses; (2) superior VN (SVN) group, who showed only asymmetrical caloric responses; (3) total VN (TVN) group, who showed asymmetrical responses in both tests. The clinical records of time course of subjective symptoms (duration of attack, duration of hospitalization, and time to remission) were reviewed and other profiles (age, sex, affected side, acute symptoms, and sequelae) were evaluated. Of the 71 patients with VN, 13 (18%) were classified as having IVN. The mean age and time to remission of patients with IVN (44.2 ± 4.8 years, 0.9 ± 0.5 months) were significantly lower and shorter, respectively, than those of patients with TVN (57.3 ± 2.5 years, 4.9 ± 4.7 months). There were no significant differences in other symptoms and profiles among the three groups. No patients with IVN showed benign paroxysmal positional vertigo as a sequela.

  12. 'Pseudothrombus' of the inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebayashi, Shigeo; Odagiri, Kunio; Matsui, Kengo; Hayano, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Normal Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) of 15 cases were studies on CT with bolus injection in the foot vein.FWell dilated IVC were obtained on scan both at full-inspiration and full-expiration. As the normal findings of IVC, different opacification patterns which may be designate ''homogenous'', ''layered'' and ''pseudothrombus'' were obtained. The ''homogenous'' opacification was noted both at full-inspiration and full-expiration. In homogenous patterns as noted as ''layered'' and ''pseudothrombus'' were suspected to occur in the case of insufficient mixing of contrast agent with blood and/or insufficient amount of contrast agent. And both these patterns were observed in dilated IVC. The ''layered'' opacified IVC was shown on scan at full-inspiration at which respiratory phase the blood flow in IVC may decrease.FThe ''pseudothrombus'' pattern was generally noted at full-expiration at which the blood flow may increase.FAlthough bolus injection of contrast agent into foot vein is useful for evaluation of IVC, one shound be aware of normal opacification of IVC including ''pseudothrombus'' pattern. (author)

  13. Ultrasound evaluation of the inferior epigastric artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrossian, E; Menegus, M A; Issenberg, H J; Jones, A; Frame, R; Brodman, R F

    1994-04-01

    Color-flow Doppler ultrasound was used to assess the anatomic characteristics of the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) bilaterally in 20 nonatherosclerotic (group I; mean age, 28 years) and 20 atherosclerotic (group II; mean age, 57 years) subjects. Forty-nine percent of the IEAs were located laterally within the rectus sheath with 34% in a mid and 17% in a medial location. Seventeen percent had a large branch within 5 cm of the origin. Average length of the IEA was 10.7 +/- 3.2 cm. Average proximal and distal internal diameters were 3.0 +/- 0.45 and 1.9 +/- 0.35 mm, respectively. Neither length nor vessel diameter showed any correlation with age or body surface area. Sixty-two percent of the IEAs were greater than or equal to 9 cm in length and 1.5 mm in distal diameter. Stenosis of the vessel (more than 50% diameter) was noted at the proximal 1 cm segment in 20% of the IEAs in the atherosclerotic group but none of the IEAs in the nonatherosclerotic group. Beyond this proximal segment, there was freedom from atherosclerotic stenosis as demonstrated by the IEAs' similarity of length and diameter irrespective of age in these atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic populations.

  14. Reduced left precentral regional responses in patients with major depressive disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Noa; Mikawa, Wakako; Tsujimoto, Emi; Adachi, Toru; Niwa, Atsushi; Ono, Hisae; Shirakawa, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed frontal and temporal functional abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of suicidal behavior. However, it is unknown whether multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal changes among individuals with MDD are associated with a history of suicide attempts and a diathesis for suicidal behavior (impulsivity, hopelessness, and aggression). Therefore, we aimed to explore frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts using 52-channel NIRS. We recruited 30 patients with MDD and a history of suicidal behavior (suicide attempters; SAs), 38 patient controls without suicidal behavior (non-attempters; NAs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, gender ratio, and estimated IQ. Regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task (VFT) were monitored using NIRS. Our results showed that severities of depression, impulsivity, aggression, and hopelessness were similar between SAs and NAs. Both patient groups had significantly reduced activation compared with HCs in the bilateral frontotemporal regions. Post hoc analyses revealed that SAs exhibited a smaller hemodynamic response in the left precentral gyrus than NAs and HCs. Furthermore, the reduced response in the left inferior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with impulsivity level and hemodynamic responses in the right middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with hopelessness and aggression in SAs but not in NAs and HCs. Our findings suggest that MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts demonstrate patterns of VFT-induced NIRS signal changes different from those demonstrated by individuals without a history of suicidal behaviors, even in cases where clinical symptoms are similar. NIRS has a relatively high time resolution, which may help visually differentiate SAs from NAs.

  15. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  16. The clinical application of inferior vena caval CO2-DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinhe; Teng Gaojun; Zhu Guangyu; Li Guozhao; Fang Wen; He Shicheng; Deng Tang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and safety of inferior vena caval CO 2 -DSA and evaluate the results of inferior vena cavography using CO 2 -DSA or iodinated contrast media. Methods: 25 patients diagnosed as deep venous thrombosis of lower limb were prepared to conceive the implantation of inferior vena caval filter. The inferior vena cava and right renal vein CO 2 -DSA and iodinated contrast media DSA were carried out through jugular or femoral vein approach in all patients. Results: The inferior vena caval angiography with CO 2 -DSA or iodinated contrast media were carried out successfully in all patients. The quality of the inferior vena caval angiogram showed: with CO 2 as contrast media, 14 cases obtained excellent images and 11 cases had good images; with iodinated contrast media the images of 18 cases were excellent and 7 cases were good. No thrombus and variation of inferior vena cava were found by the two kinds of angiography. The diameter of inferior vena cava showed: (20.01 ± 0.83) mm with CO 2 contrast media and (20.15 ± 0.92) mm with iodinated contrast media, (P=0.006); having statistical significance between them. The safety of angiography with CO 2 presented only 1 case with transient slight decrease of O 2 saturation. No abnormal changes were found in blood pressure, heart rate and so on. Conclusions: Inferior vena caval CO 2 -DSA is feasible and safe, with statistical significance in the measurement of inferior vena caval diameter comparing with iodinated contrast material but with no influence on the implantation of filter. (authors)

  17. Where is the exact origin of narrow premature ventricular contractions manifesting qR in inferior wall leads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Jin; Lin, Jia-Xuan; Wang, Lu-Ping; Lin, Jia-Feng

    2016-04-04

    In recent years, radiofrequency catheter ablation(RFCA) has been established as an effective therapy for idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), however, its effect on the narrow PVCs (QRS duration qR pattern in inferior leads, may not been fully concluded. Characteristics of 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and electrophysiologic recordings were analyzed in 40 patients with symptomatic PVCs manifesting narrow QRS complex with qR pattern in inferior leads. The procedure of RFCA was performed based on pace mapping and activation mapping. Among the 40 patients with narrow PVCs, complete elimination of PVCs was achieved by RFCA in 35 patients during a median follow-up period of 23 months. Successful ablation was achieved on 19 patients at the sites where earliest Purkinje potentials were recorded in left ventricular anterosuperior septum, thus PVCs arising from left anterior fascicle (LAF) were confirmed, for these PVCs, the QRS morphology were right bundle branch and left posterior fascicle block (RBBB + LPFB) with rightward axis, the average QRS duration 116.07 ± 7.96 ms, R or rsR'in lead V1,with transition zone ahead of lead V1 in precordial leads. Another 16 successful RFCA were achieved by energy delivery at interleaflet triangle(ILT) between right coronary cusp(RCC) and left coronary cusp(LCC) where no Purkinje potentials were recorded, for narrow PVCs arising from the L-RCC ILT, the QRS morphology were similar to the PVCs arising from LAF but much narrower in QRS duration (100.44 ± 3.49 vs. 116.07 ± 7.96 ms, p qR pattern in inferior leads can be cured by the procedure of RFCA. On the basis of our study, we proposed that for narrow PVCs presenting qR pattern in inferior leads, when the ablation procedure failed at proximity of LAF within left anterosuperior septum, mapping and ablation in L-RCC ILT can be tried. The present findings can be helpful for planning catheter ablation for narrow PVCs manifesting qR in inferior leads.

  18. Aneurisma da artéria cerebelar ântero-inferior: relato de caso Aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Oscar Alarcón Adorno

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas intracranianos do sistema vértebro-basilar representam cerca de 5 a 10% de todos os aneurismas cerebrais. Os aneurismas da artéria cerebelar ântero-inferior (AICA são considerados raros, podendo causar síndrome do ângulo ponto cerebelar, com ou sem hemorragia subaracnóidea. Desde 1948, foram descritos poucos casos na literatura. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente, de 33 anos, na qual, após investigação de quadro de hemorragia subaracnóidea, diagnosticou-se aneurisma sacular da AICA esquerda. Foi submetida a clipagem do aneurisma, com ótimo resultado pós operatório.The intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation have been reported between 5 and 10% of all cerebral aneurysms and the aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA are considered rare, can cause cerebello pontine angle (CPA syndrome with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since 1948 few cases were described in the literature. We report on a 33 year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to sacular aneurysm of the left AICA. She was submitted to clipage of the aneurysm without complications.

  19. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  20. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Left Leg: A Case of May-Thurner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiten Desai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman presented with gradually worsening shortness of breath associated with dull left leg pain over 5 days. She denied any recent travel, recent surgeries or immobilization. CT pulmonary angiography and CT venography revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary emboli and extensive left pelvic and left lower extremity deep vein thromboses. Contrast-enhanced CT showed that the right common iliac artery crossed the left common iliac vein and compressed it externally, indicative of May–Thurner syndrome. Catheter-directed thrombolysis of the left lower extremity was performed and heparin infusion was started. The patient also underwent left iliac vein balloon angioplasty with stenting and infra-renal inferior vena cava filter placement via the jugular approach to prevent further embolization.

  2. Attention, emotion, and deactivation of default activity in inferior medial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2008-01-01

    significantly lowered blood flow (rCBF) in left IMPC, left and right insula, and right amygdala, and significantly raised blood flow in motor cortex and right precuneus. Restricted searches of rCBF changes by emotion, at coordinates of significant effect in previous studies of the medial prefrontal and temporal...... cortices, revealed significant activation in the fusiform gyrus, independently of the task. In contrast, we found no effect of emotional content in the IMPC, where emotions failed to override the effect of the task. The results are consistent with a role of the IMPC in the selection among competitive...

  3. The allocentric neglect due to injury of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in a stroke patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Jang, Woo Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    We report on a patient who developed allocentric neglect due to injury of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) following intracranial hemorrhage, diagnosed using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Her cognition seemed normal (A 17-year-old, right-handed female patient). However, in spite of a normal visual field, her perception was missing on the left side, and she had no awareness of her deficit. She was unable to perceive the left side in each of 2 objects, regardless of position of the 2 objects, and failed at detail exploration of the left side of 1 object. In addition, the line bisection test, the most representative neglect test, did not reveal any abnormality. She was diagnosed with an intracerebral hemorrhage (right thalamus), intraventricular hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to arteriovenous malformation in the right thalamus. Seven weeks after onset, she began rehabilitation. Consequently, the apple cancellation test to discriminate between allocentric and egocentric neglect was performed, with the result of severe allocentric neglect. The right superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus were well-reconstructed without definite injury compared with those of the left side. However, the right IFOF was discontinued in the anterior portion around the frontal lobe. Allocentric neglect due to injury of IFOF was demonstrated in a stroke patient using DTT. It appears that DTT would be helpful in demonstrating the neglect type and pathway in patients with neglect. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional connectivity of the hippocampus in temporal lobe epilepsy: feasibility of a task-regressed seed-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukboyaci, Nuri Erkut; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Cheng, Chris E; Girard, Holly M; Tecoma, Evelyn S; Iragui, Vicente J; McDonald, Carrie R

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has revealed marked network dysfunction in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared to healthy controls. However, the nature and the location of these changes have not been fully elucidated nor confirmed by other methodologies. We assessed the presence of hippocampal FC changes in TLE based on the low frequency residuals of task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data after the removal of task-related activation [i.e., task-regressed functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI)]. We employed a novel, task-regressed approach to quantify hippocampal FC, and compare hippocampal FC in 17 patients with unilateral TLE (9 left) with 17 healthy controls. Our results suggest widespread FC reductions in the mesial cortex associated with the default mode network (DMN), and some local FC increases in the lateral portions of the right hemisphere. We found more pronounced FC decreases in the left hemisphere than in the right, and these FC decreases were greatest in patients with left TLE. Moreover, the FC reductions observed between the hippocampus and posterior cingulate, inferior parietal, paracentral regions are in agreement with previous resting state studies. Consistent with the existing literature, FC reductions in TLE appear widespread with prominent reductions in the medial portion of the DMN. Our data expand the literature by demonstrating that reductions in FC may be greatest in the left hemisphere and in patients with left TLE. Overall, our findings suggest that task-regressed FC is a viable alternative to resting state and that future studies may extract similar information on network connectivity from already existing datasets.

  5. The Left Atrio-Vertebral Ratio: a new simple means for assessing left atrial enlargement on Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillet, Marie; Baqué-Juston, Marie; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Sandra; Berthier, Frédéric; Zarqane, Naïma; Brunner, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new method to quickly estimate left atrial enlargement (LAE) on Computed Tomography. Left atrial (LA) volume was assessed with a 3D-threshold Hounsfield unit detection technique, including left atrial appendage and excluding pulmonary venous confluence, in 201 patients with ECG-gated 128-slice dual-source CT and indexed to body surface area. LA and vertebral axial diameter and area were measured at the bottom level of the right inferior pulmonary vein ostium. Ratio of LA diameter and surface on vertebra (LAVD and LAVA) were compared to LA volume. In accordance with the literature, a cutoff value of 78 ml/m 2 was chosen for maximal normal LA volume. 18% of LA was enlarged. The best cutoff values for LAE assessment were 2.5 for LAVD (AUC: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.58-0.73; sensitivity: 57%; specificity: 71%), and 3 for LAVA (AUC: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.72-0.84; sensitivity: 67%; specificity: 79%), with higher accuracy for LAVA (P=0.015). Inter-observer and intra-observer variability were either good or excellent for LAVD and LAVA (respective intraclass coefficients: 0.792 and 0.910; 0.912 and 0.937). A left atrium area superior to three times the vertebral area indicates LAE with high specificity. • Left atrial enlargement is a frequent condition associated with poor cardiac outcome. • Left atrial enlargement is highly time-consuming to diagnose on CT. • The left atrio-vertebral ratio quickly assesses left atrial enlargement. • A left atrial area > three times vertebral area is highly specific.

  6. Fibrous dysplasia of inferior turbinate, middle turbinate, and frontal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, K M; Akdogan, O; Gedikli, Y; Ozcan, I; Dere, H; Unal, T

    2007-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-neoplastic fibro-osseous lesion. Paranasal sinus involvement is infrequent. Involvement of the frontal sinus, sphenoid sinus, and middle turbinate is rare, and only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature. Nasal turbinates and especially the inferior turbinate are the least involved bones of the craniofacial region. To the best of our knowledge, only one case with McCune-Albright syndrome had FD of the inferior turbinate. Here, we report a rare case with FD of inferior and middle turbinates and review literature concerning FD of the craniofacial region.

  7. Isquemia aguda de miembros inferiores secundaria a ergortismo

    OpenAIRE

    Franco J. Vallejo, MD; Juan F. Gómez, MD; Natalia Tamayo, MD

    2011-01-01

    Paciente de género femenino, de 21 años de edad, quien ingresó por dolor progresivo e intenso en miembros inferiores, y refirió antecedente reciente de ingestión de derivados del ergot. Al examen físico se observó ausencia de pulsos en ambos miembros inferiores. Por angiotomografia se documentó disminución severa, generalizada y bilateral, del calibre de los vasos arteriales de miembros inferiores. Se diagnosticó isquemia arterial aguda secundaria a ergotismo y se inició tratamiento con vasod...

  8. MDCT of inferior mesenteric vein: normal anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E.; Turkbey, B. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Karcaaltincaba, M. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: musturayk@yahoo.com; Karaosmanoglu, D.; Akata, D. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a useful technique for imaging the inferior mesenteric vein. The aim of the present review was to discuss the normal anatomy and the pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein, including partial or total thrombosis secondary to inflammation (pyophlebitis) and malignancy, occlusion, dilatation and reversed flow, which are rarely encountered. Optimal reconstruction techniques are also discussed. The pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein can be clearly demonstrated using MDCT using curved-planar reformatted multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and minimum intensity projection (MIP) images.

  9. MDCT of inferior mesenteric vein: normal anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, E.; Turkbey, B.; Karcaaltincaba, M.; Karaosmanoglu, D.; Akata, D.

    2008-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a useful technique for imaging the inferior mesenteric vein. The aim of the present review was to discuss the normal anatomy and the pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein, including partial or total thrombosis secondary to inflammation (pyophlebitis) and malignancy, occlusion, dilatation and reversed flow, which are rarely encountered. Optimal reconstruction techniques are also discussed. The pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein can be clearly demonstrated using MDCT using curved-planar reformatted multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and minimum intensity projection (MIP) images

  10. Auditory attention enhances processing of positive and negative words in inferior and superior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Martin; Herbert, Cornelia; Ethofer, Thomas; Flaisch, Tobias; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-11-01

    Visually presented emotional words are processed preferentially and effects of emotional content are similar to those of explicit attention deployment in that both amplify visual processing. However, auditory processing of emotional words is less well characterized and interactions between emotional content and task-induced attention have not been fully understood. Here, we investigate auditory processing of emotional words, focussing on how auditory attention to positive and negative words impacts their cerebral processing. A Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study manipulating word valence and attention allocation was performed. Participants heard negative, positive and neutral words to which they either listened passively or attended by counting negative or positive words, respectively. Regardless of valence, active processing compared to passive listening increased activity in primary auditory cortex, left intraparietal sulcus, and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). The attended valence elicited stronger activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left SFG, in line with these regions' role in semantic retrieval and evaluative processing. No evidence for valence-specific attentional modulation in auditory regions or distinct valence-specific regional activations (i.e., negative > positive or positive > negative) was obtained. Thus, allocation of auditory attention to positive and negative words can substantially increase their processing in higher-order language and evaluative brain areas without modulating early stages of auditory processing. Inferior and superior frontal brain structures mediate interactions between emotional content, attention, and working memory when prosodically neutral speech is processed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  12. Validation of semi-automatic segmentation of the left atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R., III; Camp, J. J.; Packer, D. L.; Robb, R. A.

    2008-03-01

    Catheter ablation therapy has become increasingly popular for the treatment of left atrial fibrillation. The effect of this treatment on left atrial morphology, however, has not yet been completely quantified. Initial studies have indicated a decrease in left atrial size with a concomitant decrease in pulmonary vein diameter. In order to effectively study if catheter based therapies affect left atrial geometry, robust segmentations with minimal user interaction are required. In this work, we validate a method to semi-automatically segment the left atrium from computed-tomography scans. The first step of the technique utilizes seeded region growing to extract the entire blood pool including the four chambers of the heart, the pulmonary veins, aorta, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and other surrounding structures. Next, the left atrium and pulmonary veins are separated from the rest of the blood pool using an algorithm that searches for thin connections between user defined points in the volumetric data or on a surface rendering. Finally, pulmonary veins are separated from the left atrium using a three dimensional tracing tool. A single user segmented three datasets three times using both the semi-automatic technique as well as manual tracing. The user interaction time for the semi-automatic technique was approximately forty-five minutes per dataset and the manual tracing required between four and eight hours per dataset depending on the number of slices. A truth model was generated using a simple voting scheme on the repeated manual segmentations. A second user segmented each of the nine datasets using the semi-automatic technique only. Several metrics were computed to assess the agreement between the semi-automatic technique and the truth model including percent differences in left atrial volume, DICE overlap, and mean distance between the boundaries of the segmented left atria. Overall, the semi-automatic approach was demonstrated to be repeatable within

  13. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    and attractive renderings of bright light sources. Based on the anatomy of the human eye, we propose a model that enables real-time simulation of dynamic glare on a GPU. This allows an improved depiction of HDR images on LDR media for interactive applications like games, feature films, or even by adding movement......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  14. Collateral veins in left renal vein stenosis demonstrated via CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, H.H.; Lund, G.; Talle, K.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve patients with left renal vein stenosis from tumor compression were studied with CT. All had distended collateral veins in the perirenal space which either formed a radiating or a cobweb pattern or appeared as marked longitudinal veins. Inferior phrenic vein branches were seen in seven patients and were considerably enlarged in two. Other major veins possibly taking part in collateral circulation could not be recognized due to obliteration of fat planes. The renal fascia was thickened in eleven patients, probably due to edema. A close study of the perirenal space with CT may give valuable information about collateral development. (orig.)

  15. Enhanced Modiolar Stimulation Effects in the Inferior Colliculus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lithgow, Brian

    2001-01-01

    This preliminary study quantifies and provides one explanation for the extent of modiolar stimulation observed as a function of current level as recorded in a population of Inferior Colliculus units...

  16. Frustrative reward omission increases aggressive behaviour of inferior fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Vela-Avitua, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive proce...

  17. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Meneka K.; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Bonelli, Silvia; Centeno, Maria; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Koepp, Matthias J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated reorganization of memory encoding networks within the temporal lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy, but little is known of the extra-temporal networks in these patients. We investigated the temporal and extra-temporal reorganization of memory encoding networks in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and the neural correlates of successful subsequent memory formation. We studied 44 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (24 left) and 26 healthy control subjects. All participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm of faces and words with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. A blocked analysis was used to investigate activations during encoding and neural correlates of subsequent memory were investigated using an event-related analysis. Event-related activations were then correlated with out-of-scanner verbal and visual memory scores. During word encoding, control subjects activated the left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis showed significant additional right temporal and extra-temporal activations. Control subjects displayed subsequent verbal memory effects within left parahippocampal gyrus, left orbitofrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis activated only right posterior hippocampus, parahippocampus and fusiform gyrus. Correlational analysis showed that patients with left hippocampal sclerosis with better verbal memory additionally activated left orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior hippocampus. During face encoding, control subjects showed right lateralized prefrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampal activations. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed increased temporal activations within the superior temporal gyri bilaterally and no increased extra-temporal areas of activation compared with

  18. Collateral veins in inferior caval vein occlusion demonstrated via CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, H.H.; Lund, G.

    1983-01-01

    CT-scans of 12 patients with tumour-induced occlusion of the inferior vena cava were studied with regard to collateral veins. A comparison was performed with findings at phlebography in 10 patients and at autopsy in 2. The site and appearance of the main collateral pathway are presented. A close study of vascular structures renders useful information on collateral circulation in occlusion of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  19. The effect of shoulder position on inferior glenohumeral mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Dexter W; Talbott, Nancy R

    2017-03-09

    Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Inferior mobilizations are used to treat patients with shoulder dysfunctions. Common positions recommended for promoting an inferior glide include: (1) an open-packed position (OPP) in which the shoulder is in 55° of abduction, 30° of horizontal adduction, and no rotation; (2) neutral position (NP) of the shoulder; and (3) position of 90° of shoulder abduction (ABDP). Studies comparing the impact of position on inferior mobilization are lacking. To determine the effect of shoulder position on humeral movement and mobilization force during inferior mobilizations. Twenty-three subjects were tested bilaterally. Subjects were placed in the OPP, and an ultrasound transducer placed over the superior glenohumeral joint. As inferior mobilization forces were applied through a dynamometer, ultrasound images were taken at rest and during 3 grades of inferior mobilization. This process was repeated in the NP and the ABDP. In the NP, movements during grade 1, 2, and 3 mobilizations were 1.8, 3.8, and 4.5 mm, respectively. Movements measured in the OPP (1.0, 2.4, and 3.6 mm, respectively) and in the ABDP (1.0, 2.2, and 2.3 mm, respectively) were less. Forces were higher in the NP during grade 1, 2, and 3 mobilizations (51.8, 138.7, and 202.1 N, respectively) than in the OPP (37.2, 91.2, and 139.9 N, respectively) and the ABPD (42.5, 115.3, and 165.5 N, respectively). Mobilization position altered the movement and force during inferior mobilizations. Shoulder position should be considered when utilizing inferior mobilizations. NA. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive impairments in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgol Tavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicated that WMS-III and WAIS-R can differentiate patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy from normal subjects. However, the obtained cognitive profile could not differentiate between the right and the left TLE.

  1. Temporal Lobe White Matter Asymmetry and Language Laterality in Epilepsy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmore, Timothy M.; Beauchamp, Michael S.; Breier, Joshua I.; Slater, Jeremy D.; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P.; O’Neill, Thomas J.; Disano, Michael A.; Tandon, Nitin

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have advanced our knowledge of the organization of white matter subserving language function. It remains unclear, however, how DTI may be used to predict accurately a key feature of language organization: its asymmetric representation in one cerebral hemisphere. In this study of epilepsy patients with unambiguous lateralization on Wada testing (19 left and 4 right lateralized subjects; no bilateral subjects), the predictive value of DTI for classifying the dominant hemisphere for language was assessed relative to the existing standard - the intra-carotid Amytal (Wada) procedure. Our specific hypothesis is that language laterality in both unilateral left- and right-hemisphere language dominant subjects may be predicted by hemispheric asymmetry in the relative density of three white matter pathways terminating in the temporal lobe implicated in different aspects of language function: the arcuate (AF), uncinate (UF), and inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF). Laterality indices computed from asymmetry of high anisotropy AF pathways, but not the other pathways, classified the majority (19 of 23) of patients using the Wada results as the standard. A logistic regression model incorporating information from DTI of the AF, fMRI activity in Broca’s area, and handedness was able to classify 22 of 23 (95.6%) patients correctly according to their Wada score. We conclude that evaluation of highly anisotropic components of the AF alone has significant predictive power for determining language laterality, and that this markedly asymmetric distribution in the dominant hemisphere may reflect enhanced connectivity between frontal and temporal sites to support fluent language processes. Given the small sample reported in this preliminary study, future research should assess this method on a larger group of patients, including subjects with bihemispheric dominance. PMID:19874899

  2. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  3. Starch granules size distribution in superior and inferior grains of wheat is related to enzyme activities and their gene expressions during grain filling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanhui; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    studied in superior and inferior grains during grain filling. Compared with inferior grains, superior grains showed higher grain weight, contents of starch, amylose and amylopectin. The formation of A-, B-, C-type starch granules initiated at 4, 8, 20 DAF, respectively, and was well consistent...... with the temporally change patterns of starch synthase activities and relative gene expression levels. For instance, activities of soluble and granule-bound starch synthases (designated SSS and GBSS) peaked at 20 and 24 DAF. Genes encoding isoforms of starch synthases expressed at different grain filling periods...

  4. Pelvic Venous Variations in Patients with Congenital Inferior Vena Cava Anomalies: Classification with Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, S.; Higuchi, M.; Saito, N.; Mitsuhashi, N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pelvic venous variations of congenital inferior vena cava (IVC) anomalies that have the potential to cause problems during related surgery and interventional radiology are not fully appreciated. Purpose: To classify pelvic venous variations of congenital IVC anomalies using computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: CT images for 36 patients with congenital IVC anomalies were retrospectively reviewed. Pelvic venous variations were classified with regard to the relationship with the iliac veins and the presence of interiliac communication. Results: Pelvic venous variations were classified into eight types. One azygous continuation displayed normal connection with the bilateral common iliac veins (CIV) (type 1). Of 28 double IVCs, 11 (39.3%) displayed no interiliac communication (type 2a), five (17.9%) displayed interiliac communication from the left CIV (type 2b), one (3.6%) had communication from the right CIV (type 2c), six (21.4%) had communication from the left internal iliac vein (IIV) (type 2d), and five (17.9%) had communication from the right IIV (type 2e). Six left IVCs displayed symmetrical-to-normal connection with the bilateral CIV (type 3). One absence of infrarenal IVC displayed no connection with the CIV (type 4). Conclusion: Eight types of pelvic venous variations of congenital IVC anomalies were classified using CT

  5. Unusual Presentation of Testicular Cancer with Tumor Thrombus Extending to the Inferior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Dusaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man with a left testis tumor with a 25 mm para-aortic lymph node swelling, multiple bilateral pulmonary metastases, bilateral pulmonary embolism, and inferior vena cava (IVC thrombus underwent a radical orchidectomy in our institution. The thrombus extended from the left gonadal vein to the left renal vein to the IVC. The fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (f-FDG positron emission tomography (PET computerized tomography (CT demonstrated a hypermetabolic focus in the retroperitoneum and in the IVC thrombus. Before orchidectomy only lactate dehydrogenase (LDH was high but all the serum tumor markers increased postoperatively. The tumor was staged pT1N2M1aS1, which was an intermediate prognosis, based on the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group consensus (IGCCCG. After 4 courses of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP chemotherapy the patient’s tumor markers normalized and the thrombus disappeared. There was only one residual retroperitoneal lymph node M1. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed. The pathological examination revealed only necrotic tissues. The patient has been disease-free since surgery.

  6. Isolated primary amyloidosis of the inferior rectus muscle mimicking Graves' orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mário Luiz Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Allan Christian Pieroni; Bezerra, Alanna Mara Pinheiro Sobreira

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy is usually straightforward. However, orbital diseases that mimick some clinical signs of Graves' orbitopathy may cause diagnostic confusion, particularly when associated to some form of thyroid dysfunction. This report describes the rare occurrence of localized inferior rectus muscle amyloidosis in a patient with autoimmune hypothyroidism, who was misdiagnosed as Graves' orbitopathy. A 48-year-old man complained of painless progressive proptosis on the left side and intermittent vertical diplopia for 6 months. The diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy was entertained after magnetic resonance imaging revealing a markedly enlarged, tendon-sparing inferior rectus enlargement on the left side, and an autoimmune hypothyroidism was disclosed on systemic medical workup. After no clinical improvement with treatment, the patient was referred to an ophthalmologist and further investigation was performed. The presence of calcification in the inferior rectus muscle on computed tomography, associated with the clinical findings led to a diagnostic biopsy, which revealed amyloid deposition. This report emphasizes that a careful evaluation of atypical forms of Graves' orbitopathy may be crucial and should include, yet with rare occurrence, amyloidosis in its differential diagnosis. RESUMO O diagnóstico de orbitopatia de Graves usualmente é fácil de ser estabelecido. No entanto, doenças da órbita que simulam alguns sinais clínicos da orbitopatia de Graves podem levar à confusão diagnóstica, particularmente quando associada à alguma forma de disfunção tireoidiana. Relatamos a ocorrência rara de amiloidose localizada no músculo reto inferior em paciente com hipotireoidismo autoimune, que recebeu inicialmente o diagnóstico errôneo de orbitopatia de Graves. Paciente masculino, 48 anos, com queixa de proptose progressiva e indolor do lado esquerdo e diplopia vertical intermitente há 6 meses. O diagnóstico de orbitopatia de Graves foi

  7. Creative innovation with temporal lobe epilepsy and lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghacibeh, Georges A; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2013-01-15

    Some patients with left temporal degeneration develop visual artistic abilities. These new artistic abilities may be due to disinhibition of the visuo-spatially dominant right hemisphere. Many famous artists have had epilepsy and it is possible that some may have had left temporal seizures (LTS) and this left temporal dysfunction disinhibited their right hemisphere. Alternatively, unilateral epilepsy may alter intrahemispheric connectivity and right anterior temporal lobe seizures (RTS) may have increased these artists' right hemisphere mediated visual artistic creativity. To test the disinhibition versus enhanced connectivity hypotheses we studied 9 participants with RTS and 9 with left anterior temporal seizures (LTS) who underwent unilateral lobectomy for the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. Creativity was tested using the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). There were no between group differences in either the verbal or figural scores of the TTCT, suggesting that unilateral anterior temporal ablation did not enhance visual artistic ability; however, for the RTS participants' figural creativity scores were significantly higher than verbal scores. Whereas these results fail to support the left temporal lobe disinhibition postulate of enhanced figural creativity, the finding that the patients with RTS had better figural than verbal creativity suggests that their recurrent right hemispheric seizures lead to changes in their right hemispheric networks that facilitated visual creativity. To obtain converging evidence, studies on RTS participants who have not undergone lobectomy will need to be performed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  9. THE IMPACT OF LEFT HEMISPHERE STROKE ON FORCE CONTROL WITH FAMILIAR AND NOVEL OBJECTS: NEUROANATOMIC SUBSTRATES AND RELATIONSHIP TO APRAXIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Amanda M.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.; Duff, Susan V.

    2010-01-01

    Fingertip force scaling for lifting objects frequently occurs in anticipation of finger contact. An ongoing question concerns the types of memories that are used to inform predictive control. Object-specific information such as weight may be stored and retrieved when previously encountered objects are lifted again. Alternatively, visual size and shape cues may provide estimates of object density each time objects are encountered. We reasoned that differences in performance with familiar versus novel objects would provide support for the former possibility. Anticipatory force production with both familiar and novel objects was assessed in 6 left hemisphere stroke patients, 2 of whom exhibited deficient actions with familiar objects (ideomotor apraxia; IMA), along with 5 control subjects. In contrast to healthy controls and stroke participants without IMA, participants with IMA displayed poor anticipatory scaling with familiar objects. However, like the other groups, IMA participants learned to differentiate fingertip forces with repeated lifts of both familiar and novel objects. Finally, there was a significant correlation between damage to the inferior parietal and superior and middle temporal lobes, and impaired anticipatory control for familiar objects. These data support the hypotheses that anticipatory control during lifts of familiar objects in IMA patients are based on object-specific memories, and that the ventro-dorsal stream is involved in the long-term storage of internal models used for anticipatory scaling during object manipulation. PMID:19945445

  10. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  11. The clinical implications of variants of vena cava inferior and aorta on retroperitoneal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Mukhtarulina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study variants of retroperitoneal vascular structure and its clinical implications on retroperitoneal surgery in patients with cervical cancer IA–IIB stage.Materials and methods. 101 patients who underwent paraaortic and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in this study. 10 patients of the first group with anomalies of inferior vena cava, renal arteries and veins, common iliac vein and ovarian vessels were compared with 91 patients of the second group without anomalies.Results. Variants of major retroperitoneal vascular structure were present in 10 (9.9 % patients. Supernumerary renal arteries and veins observed in 5 (4.9 % patients; retroaortic left renal vein type I and II – in 3 (3.0 % patients. Double vena cava inferior detected in 1 (1.0 % patient. Patients with variants of retroperitoneal vascular structures hadn’t vessel injury. There was no difference in intraoperative hemorrhage, transfusion red blood cell, rate of intraoperative hemoglobin and removed paraaortic lymph nodes between the groups. Risk factors for intraoperative bleeding in patients with cervical cancer, depending on the presence or absence of anomalies of retroperitoneal vessels had no significant difference.Conclusion. Despite the fact that the variants of retroperitoneal vascular structures are rare (9.9 %, the success of retroperitoneal surgery is associated with the knowledge of vascular variations which decrease serious, life-threatening complications.

  12. Inferior Frontal Cortex Contributions to the Recognition of Spoken Words and Their Constituent Speech Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jack C; Davis, Matthew H

    2017-05-01

    Speech perception and comprehension are often challenged by the need to recognize speech sounds that are degraded or ambiguous. Here, we explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in resolving ambiguity in the identity of speech sounds using syllables that contain ambiguous phonetic segments (e.g., intermediate sounds between /b/ and /g/ as in "blade" and "glade"). We used an audio-morphing procedure to create a large set of natural sounding minimal pairs that contain phonetically ambiguous onset or offset consonants (differing in place, manner, or voicing). These ambiguous segments occurred in different lexical contexts (i.e., in words or pseudowords, such as blade-glade or blem-glem) and in different phonological environments (i.e., with neighboring syllables that differed in lexical status, such as blouse-glouse). These stimuli allowed us to explore the impact of phonetic ambiguity on the speed and accuracy of lexical decision responses (Experiment 1), semantic categorization responses (Experiment 2), and the magnitude of BOLD fMRI responses during attentive comprehension (Experiment 3). For both behavioral and neural measures, observed effects of phonetic ambiguity were influenced by lexical context leading to slower responses and increased activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus for high-ambiguity syllables that distinguish pairs of words, but not for equivalent pseudowords. These findings suggest lexical involvement in the resolution of phonetic ambiguity. Implications for speech perception and the role of inferior frontal regions are discussed.

  13. A case of angiographically occult, distal small anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hisashi; Sanada, Yasuhiro; Nagatsuka, Kazuhiro; Kato, Amami

    2015-01-01

    Background: A small aneurysm at an unusual location, such as a distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm, may conceal as a computed tomography angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-occult aneurysm. Case Description: We herein present the case of a patient suffering from a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with two aneurysms in which the AICA aneurysm was negative by CTA and DSA. CTA demonstrated a right anterior choroidal artery aneurysm, which was revealed to be an unruptured aneurysm after surgical exploration. A small distal AICA aneurysm was detected by 3D rotational angiography (3DRA). The patient fully recovered except for left-side hearing loss four months after the second operation. Conclusion: We recommend a meticulous diagnosis by 3DRA in patients with SAH in which the distribution is not coincident with a typical aneurysmal location. PMID:26110079

  14. Why Are the Right and Left Hemisphere Conceptual Representations Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gainotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present survey develops a previous position paper, in which I suggested that the multimodal semantic impairment observed in advanced stages of semantic dementia is due to the joint disruption of pictorial and verbal representations, subtended by the right and left anterior temporal lobes, rather than to the loss of a unitary, amodal semantic system. The main goals of the present review are (a to survey a larger set of data, in order to confirm the differences in conceptual representations at the level of the right and left hemispheres, (b to examine if language-mediated information plays a greater role in left hemisphere semantic knowledge than sensory-motor information in right hemisphere conceptual knowledge, and (c to discuss the models that could explain both the differences in conceptual representations at the hemispheric level and the prevalence of the left hemisphere language-mediated semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually based conceptual representations.

  15. Inferior vestibular neuritis: a novel subtype of vestibular neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Fan, Z; Han, Y; Yu, G; Wang, H

    2010-05-01

    To report eight cases of inferior vestibular neuritis, in order to raise awareness of this new subtype of vestibular neuritis. We retrospectively analysed 216 patients (104 males and 112 females; age range 10-64 years; mean age 38.4 years) with full clinical documentation who had attended our hospital's vertigo clinic between May 2007 and December 2008. All patients underwent systematic investigation, including hearing tests, radiology, caloric testing and vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing. Of 216 patients with vestibular neuritis, eight cases were diagnosed as inferior vestibular neuritis, based on comprehensive analysis of test data. The clinical features of these eight patients were consistent with the characteristics of vestibular neuritis. The results of pure tone audiometry and caloric testing were normal, and the possibility of central lesions was excluded by cerebral computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging on admission. Six cases had unilateral loss of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, whereas two had a unilateral lower amplitude of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Inferior vestibular neuritis is a novel subtype of vestibular neuritis, which involves the inferior vestibular nerve alone. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing is a useful aid to the diagnosis of inferior vestibular neuritis.

  16. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [ 3 H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [ 3 H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [ 3 H]AMPA binding data

  17. Inferior oblique muscle injury from local anesthesia for cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, D G; Lam, G C; Guyton, D L

    1995-03-01

    Vertical rectus muscle injury is commonly cited as a cause of strabismus after cataract surgery. Injury to the inferior oblique muscle or nerve as a complication of cataract surgery has not been described previously. Four patients without pre-existing strabismus who had diplopia after cataract surgery were studied. Analysis included prism and cover testing, Lancaster red-green testing, and fundus torsion assessment. Three patients had a delayed-onset hypertropia with fundus extorsion in the eye that underwent surgery, which is consistent with inferior oblique muscle overaction secondary to presumed contracture. The fourth patient had an immediate-onset hypotropia with fundus intorsion in the eye that underwent surgery, which is consistent with inferior oblique muscle paresis. Damage to a vertical rectus muscle or "unmasking" of a pre-existing superior oblique muscle paresis could not explain the history and findings in this group of four patients. The inferior oblique muscle contracture observed in three patients may have been caused by local anesthetic myotoxicity, whereas the paresis observed in one patient may have been due to mechanical trauma or anesthetic toxicity directly to the nerve innervating the muscle. Inferior oblique muscle or nerve injury should be considered as another possible cause of postoperative strabismus, especially when significant fundus torsion accompanies a vertical deviation.

  18. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (pgravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  20. VENOUS SAMPLING FOR CUSHING DISEASE: COMPARISON OF INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN AND INFERIOR PETROSAL SINUS SAMPLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvany, Martin G; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gallia, Gary L; Wand, Gary S; Salvatori, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fails to detect many adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is considered the gold standard to differentiate Cushing disease (CD) from ectopic ACTH secretion syndrome (EAS). Some authors have suggested internal jugular vein sampling (IJVS) as an alternative to IPSS. We simultaneously compared IJVS to IPSS in 30 consecutive patients referred for ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome and equivocal MRI exams. Five sites were simultaneously sampled in each patient (right and left IPS, right and left IJV, and femoral vein) before and after the administration of corticotrophin-releasing hormone or desmopressin. The test was considered consistent with CD when the IPS to peripheral ratio was >2 at baseline or >3 after stimulus and the IJV to peripheral ratio was >1.7 at baseline or >2 after stimulus. In 27 of 30 patients, IPSS results were consistent with a central source of ACTH. Two of the other 3 patients had EAS (one lung carcinoid and one occult), and 1 patient had pathology-proven CD. The sensitivity of IPSS was 96.4%. Only 64.2% of these patients had results meeting criteria for a central source of ACTH by IJVS criteria. Twenty patients with centralizing IPPS have undergone pituitary surgery. Of these, the central origin of excessive ACTH was confirmed with certainty in 16 patients. Among these 16 patients, the IPSS sensitivity was 93.8%, whereas 5 patients had false-negative IJVS (68.7% sensitivity). These results do not support the routine use of IJVS in establishing if the pituitary is the source of excessive ACTH. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone CD = Cushing disease CRH = corticotrophin-releasing hormone CS = Cushing syndrome DDAVP = desmopressin EAS = ectopic ACTH secretion IJVS = internal jugular vein sampling IPSS = inferior petrosal sinus sampling JVS = jugular venous sampling MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Gait Patterns in Hemiplegic Children with Cerebral Palsy: Comparison of Right and Left Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitatively the gait strategy of the right and left hemiplegic children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) using gait analysis. The gait strategy of 28 right hemiparetic CP (RHG) and 23 left hemiparetic CP (LHG) was compared using gait analysis (spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters) and considering the hemiplegic…

  2. Quantum Temporal Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-01-01

    The concept of quantum temporal imaging is proposed to manipulate the temporal correlation of entangled photons. In particular, we show that time correlation and anticorrelation can be converted to each other using quantum temporal imaging.

  3. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shao Chun; Li, Xue Hua; Sun, Can Hui; Feng, Shi Ting; Peng, Zhen Peng; Huang, Si Yun; Li, Zi Ping [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-15

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement.

  4. Symptomatic duodenal perforation by inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista Sincos, Anna Pw; Sincos, Igor R; Labropoulos, Nicos; Donegá, Bruno C; Klepacz, Andrea; Aun, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is rare and life threatening. Our objective is to find out number of occurrences and compare diagnosis and treatments. Method The reference list of Malgor's review in 2012 was considered as well as all new articles with eligible features. Search was conducted on specific databases: MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde. Results Most of the patients presented with upper abdominal pain and the use of radiologic studies was crucial for diagnosis. The most common treatment was laparotomy with filter or strut removal plus duodenum repair. However, clinical conditions of patients must be considered and the endovascular technique with endograft deployment into inferior vena cava may be an alternative. Conclusion Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is uncommon and in high-risk surgical patients endovascular repair must be considered.

  5. Isquemia aguda de miembros inferiores secundaria a ergortismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco J. Vallejo, MD

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de género femenino, de 21 años de edad, quien ingresó por dolor progresivo e intenso en miembros inferiores, y refirió antecedente reciente de ingestión de derivados del ergot. Al examen físico se observó ausencia de pulsos en ambos miembros inferiores. Por angiotomografia se documentó disminución severa, generalizada y bilateral, del calibre de los vasos arteriales de miembros inferiores. Se diagnosticó isquemia arterial aguda secundaria a ergotismo y se inició tratamiento con vasodilatadores y calcio-antagonistas, que resolvió los síntomas en su totalidad.

  6. Birefringence in a chiral medium, via temporal cloaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Humayun; Haneef, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports theoretical investigation of birefringence in a chiral medium for the creation of temporal cloaking. The chiral medium splits the input probe beam into left/right circular polarized beams. These left/right circular polarized beams are then controlled and modified within the chiral medium. The left circular polarized beam delays by 24 ns whereas the right circular polarized beam advances by  -23 ns at a control field of rabbi frequency 6γ . This opens a 47 ns time gap for temporal cloaking to hide information without noise corruption and energy loss. The results have potential applications in communication devices for secure propagation of light pulse.

  7. Agenesia de veia cava inferior associada à trombose venosa profunda Agenesis of inferior vena cava associated with deep venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Luis Konopka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A agenesia da veia cava inferior é uma anomalia congênita rara, que foi recentemente identificada como um importante fator de risco para o desenvolvimento e a recorrência de trombose venosa profunda de membros inferiores em jovens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar o caso de uma paciente que apresentou trombose venosa profunda dois meses após a realização de cirurgia de varizes. A angiotomografia computadorizada demonstrou a presença de anomalia venosa complexa com ausência da veia cava inferior.The agenesis of the inferior vena cava is a rare congenital anomaly, which was recently identified as an important risk factor for the development and recurrence of deep venous thrombosis especially in young people. The goal of this work was to report the case of a patient who presented deep venous thrombosis approximately two months after varicose vein surgery. The computerized angiotomography demonstrated the presence of a complex venous anomaly with absence of the inferior vena cava.

  8. [Surgery of inferior vena cava-associated urological tumor lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Meyer, F; Liehr, U B; Halloul, Z

    2013-10-01

    Tumor lesions of the inferior vena cava are extremely challenging with regard to adequate therapeutic management also in advanced malignant urological tumor lesions which can be caused by malignant adhesion, impression and tumor infiltration from the surrounding tissue. This can be the case with metastases from a seminoma or testicular carcinoma (differential diagnosis: primary vena cava leiomyosarcoma), tumor-associated growth into and within the inferior vena cava originating from renal cell carcinoma or carcinoma of the pararenal gland. The aim of this overview was to summarize current clinical and operative experiences in the treatment of inferior vena cava-associated urological tumor lesions, perioperative management, individual-specific and finding-adapted surgical technique and possible outcome, including prognostic considerations from clinical daily practice and representative data found in the literature. The primary aim of the surgical approach is to achieve R0 resection with reconstruction of the inferior vena cava lumen providing a reasonable risk-benefit ratio, which comprises i) complete resection and substitution of the inferior vena cava by a prosthesis along the previous extent of tumor growth, ii) partial resection of the vena cava wall with subsequent patch-plasty or tangential resection with primary suture or iii) removal of the vena cava thrombus after cavotomy. Particular attention should be paid to tumor thrombi reaching the right atrium which need to be extracted after sternotomy and atriotomy using an extracorporeal circulation (cardiac surgeon). For surgical planning, subdivision of the inferior vena cava into three segments, infracardiac, infrahepatic and infrarenal third, has been proven and tested. The current development status and advances in surgical approaches as well as advances in medical technology allow the successful approach to such advanced stage urological tumor manifestations. A deciding factor is the abdominal and

  9. Inferior alveolar nerve trajectory, mental foramen location and incidence of mental nerve anterior loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Torres, M; Padial-Molina, M; Avila-Ortiz, G; García-Delgado, R; Catena, A; Galindo-Moreno, P

    2017-09-01

    Injury of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is a serious intraoperative complication that may occur during routine surgical procedures, such as dental implant placement or extraction of impacted teeth. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the trajectory of the mandibular canal (MC), the location of the mental foramen (MF) and the presence and extension of an anterior loop of the mental nerve (AL). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 348 CBCTs were analyzed. Distances from MC to the surface of the basal, medial and lateral cortical of the mandible were measured at the level of the second molar, first molar and second premolar. Location of the MF relative to the apices of the premolars, as well as incidence and anterior extent of the AL were also determined. Significant and clinically relevant correlations were found between the position of the MC in women, which was located more caudal (r=-0.219, p=0.007; r=-0.276, p<0.001; right and left, respectively) and lateral (r=-0.274, p=0.001; r=-0.285, p<0.001; right and left, respectively), particularly at the level of the premolars. Additionally, the presence (r=-0.181, p=0.001; r=-0.163, p=0.002; right and left, respectively) and anterior extension (r=-0.180, p=0.009; r=-0.285, p=0.05; right and left, respectively) of the AL was found to be inversely correlated with the age of the patient. This analysis of a Caucasian population has found that the older the patient, the lower the incidence of the loop and the shorter its anterior extension.

  10. Inferior alveolar nerve trajectory, mental foramen location and incidence of mental nerve anterior loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Avila-Ortiz, Gustavo; García-Delgado, Raúl; Catena, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Background Injury of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is a serious intraoperative complication that may occur during routine surgical procedures, such as dental implant placement or extraction of impacted teeth. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the trajectory of the mandibular canal (MC), the location of the mental foramen (MF) and the presence and extension of an anterior loop of the mental nerve (AL). Study Design In this cross-sectional study, a total of 348 CBCTs were analyzed. Distances from MC to the surface of the basal, medial and lateral cortical of the mandible were measured at the level of the second molar, first molar and second premolar. Location of the MF relative to the apices of the premolars, as well as incidence and anterior extent of the AL were also determined. Results Significant and clinically relevant correlations were found between the position of the MC in women, which was located more caudal (r=-0.219, p=0.007; r=-0.276, p<0.001; right and left, respectively) and lateral (r=-0.274, p=0.001; r=-0.285, p<0.001; right and left, respectively), particularly at the level of the premolars. Additionally, the presence (r=-0.181, p=0.001; r=-0.163, p=0.002; right and left, respectively) and anterior extension (r=-0.180, p=0.009; r=-0.285, p=0.05; right and left, respectively) of the AL was found to be inversely correlated with the age of the patient. Conclusions This analysis of a Caucasian population has found that the older the patient, the lower the incidence of the loop and the shorter its anterior extension. Key words:Cone-beam computed tomography, mandibular nerve, mental foramen. PMID:28809376

  11. Projecte constructiu d'un pas inferior entre andanes

    OpenAIRE

    Sabate Cots, Guerau

    2010-01-01

    El condicionante fundamental de la solución adoptada es la no afectación a la explotación de la línea de ferrocarril. La ejecución del paso inferior se resuelve mediante la construcción de una estructura tipo marco unicelular y su posterior empuje, bajo las vías del ferrocarril porque de este modo se disminuye la afección de las obras al tráfico ferroviario, evitando el corte de vías. El Sistema de Empuje consiste esencialmente en la construcción de la estructura del paso inferior fue...

  12. WMS-III performance in epilepsy patients following temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Robert C; Chelune, Gordon J; Naugle, Richard I

    2004-03-01

    We examined performances on the Wechsler Memory Scale-3rd Edition (WMS-III) among patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for the control of medically intractable epilepsy. There were 51 right (RTL) and 56 left (LTL) temporal lobectomy patients. All patients were left hemisphere speech-dominant. The LTL and RTL patients were comparable in terms of general demographic, epilepsy, and intellectual/attention factors. Multivariate analyses revealed a significant crossover interaction (p WMS-III is sensitive to modality-specific memory performance associated with unilateral temporal lobectomy.

  13. Complications after mesial temporal lobe surgery via inferiortemporal gyrus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Fernando L; Reintjes, Stephen; Garcia, Hermes G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the complications associated with the inferior temporal gyrus approach to anterior mesial temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy. This retrospective study examined complications experienced by 483 patients during the 3 months after surgery. All surgeries were performed during 1998-2012 by the senior author (F.L.V.). A total of 13 complications (2.7%) were reported. Complications were 8 delayed subdural hematomas (1.6%), 2 superficial wound infections (0.4%), 1 delayed intracranial hemorrhage (0.2%), 1 small lacunar stroke (0.2%), and 1 transient frontalis nerve palsy (0.2%). Three patients with subdural hematoma (0.6%) required readmission and surgical intervention. One patient (0.2%) with delayed intracranial hemorrhage required readmission to the neuroscience intensive care unit for observation. No deaths or severe neurological impairments were reported. Among the 8 patients with subdural hematoma, 7 were older than 40 years (87.5%); however, this finding was not statistically significant (p = 0.198). The inferior temporal gyrus approach to mesial temporal lobe resection is a safe and effective method for treating temporal lobe epilepsy. Morbidity and mortality rates associated with this procedure are lower than those associated with other neurosurgical procedures. The finding that surgical complications seem to be more common among older patients emphasizes the need for early surgical referral of patients with medically refractory epilepsy.

  14. The value of attenuation correction by hybrid SPECT/CT imaging on infarct size quantification in male patients with previous inferior myocardial infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubbini, Raffaele Mario Tarquinio; Gabanelli, Sara; Lucchini, Silvia; Merli, Giuseppe; Puta, Erinda; Rodella, Carlo; Motta, Federica; Paghera, Barbara; Rossini, Pierluigi; Terzi, Arturo; Bertagna, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) has been shown to improve the accuracy of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection and evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease. Attenuation artifacts, because of diaphragmatic attenuation, frequently affect the evaluation of the inferior wall, especially in male patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of AC for the assessment of infarct size in coronary artery disease patients after inferior myocardial infarction. Gated-SPECT with Tc-labeled compounds with AC by hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) was performed in 56 male patients with documented previous inferior myocardial infarction. Both corrected and uncorrected SPECT images were processed after motion and scatter correction by ordered-subset expectation maximization iterative reconstruction. When needed, a manual realignment between SPECT and computed tomography (CT) sections was performed. Uncorrected and corrected SPECT images were analyzed for perfusion using a 5-point segmental scoring scale from 0 (normal) to 4 (absent). Summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), and summed difference score (SDS) of the inferior left ventricle wall (inferoseptal, inferior, infero-apical and infero-lateral segments) were determined and compared with the regional wall motion score as determined by uncorrected gated-SPECT. The SSS, SRS, SDS for attenuation-uncorrected and attenuation-corrected studies were 14.02 ± 7.9, 9.51 ± 7, 4.5 ± 3.2 and 9.39 ± 7.1, 5.6 ± 6.1, 3.8 ± 2.8, respectively. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.0001) for SSS and SRS but not for SDS. The regional summed rest score of the inferior wall (SRS of inferior segments) showed a better correlation with the regional summed wall motion score of the same segments: R²=0.50 in comparison to uncorrected SRS, R²=0.46. The combination of diaphragmatic attenuation and inferior myocardial infarction determines an artifactual

  15. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  16. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H

    1997-11-15

    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  17. The Left-Handed Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  18. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  19. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  20. Similar psychological distance reduces temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Schnall, Simone; White, Mathew P

    2013-08-01

    People often prefer inferior options in the present even when options in the future are more lucrative. Five studies investigated whether decision making could be improved by manipulating construal level and psychological distance. In Studies 1a, 1b, and 2, temporal discounting was reduced when future rewards (trips to Paris) were construed at a relatively concrete level, thus inducing a similar level of construal to present rewards. By contrast, Studies 3 and 4 reduced temporal discounting by making present financial rewards more psychologically distant via a social proximity manipulation, and thus linked to a similar high level of construal as future rewards. These results suggest that people prefer the more lucrative option when comparing two intertemporal choices that are construed on a similar level instead of on a different level. Thus, changes in construal level and mental representations can be used to promote more desirable choices in economic decision making.

  1. Temporal dynamics of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak-Edmans, M; Ng, T H B; Chan, Y C; Chew, E; Chuang, K H; Chen, S H A

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of the human cerebellum in working memory has been well established in the last decade. However, the cerebro-cerebellar network for visual working memory is not as well defined. Our previous fMRI study showed superior and inferior cerebellar activations during a block design visual working memory task, but specific cerebellar contributions to cognitive processes in encoding, maintenance and retrieval have not yet been established. The current study examined cerebellar contributions to each of the components of visual working memory and presence of cerebellar hemispheric laterality was investigated. 40 young adults performed a Sternberg visual working memory task during fMRI scanning using a parametric paradigm. The contrast between high and low memory load during each phase was examined. We found that the most prominent activation was observed in vermal lobule VIIIb and bilateral lobule VI during encoding. Using a quantitative laterality index, we found that left-lateralized activation of lobule VIIIa was present in the encoding phase. In the maintenance phase, there was bilateral lobule VI and right-lateralized lobule VIIb activity. Changes in activation in right lobule VIIIa were present during the retrieval phase. The current results provide evidence that superior and inferior cerebellum contributes to visual working memory, with a tendency for left-lateralized activations in the inferior cerebellum during encoding and right-lateralized lobule VIIb activations during maintenance. The results of the study are in agreement with Baddeley's multi-component working memory model, but also suggest that stored visual representations are additionally supported by maintenance mechanisms that may employ verbal coding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  3. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  4. Open removal of a retained retrohepatic inferior vena cava filter with a residual primary neuroectodermal renal tumoral thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Carlos A; Torres-Machorro, Adriana; Lizola, Rene; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E

    2015-10-29

    Primary neuroectodermal renal tumours (PNET) are rare and aggressive neoplasms; thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is associated with this entity. We report here the case of a 19-year-old man who experienced a new onset of abdominal pain. A CT scan revealed a large left renal mass, perirenal haematoma and IVC thrombosis. Owing to an acute drop in haemoglobin and subsegmentary pulmonary embolism, he underwent emergency selective renal artery angiography and embolisation of bleeding vessels and IVC filter (IVCF) placement. Once stable, he underwent a left radical nephrectomy and IVC thrombectomy; the pathology report confirmed PNET. 6 months later, imaging revealed a residual tumoral thrombus in the IVCF located in the retrohepatic IVC. The patient underwent removal of this device and the thrombus via a right thoracoabdominal approach. He recovered well and at 4 months, he continues his chemotherapy cycles. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Case Report: Supernumerary right renal vein draining inferior to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increase in renal transplantations, renovascular reconstructions and imaging advances, meticulous knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the renal vasculature is important to avoid potential pitfalls. We report a case of an accessory renal vein arising from the right kidney, and draining into the inferior ...

  6. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Matherials and Methods: Forty patients, who.

  7. Renal Angiomyolipoma Associated with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Durand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old woman was found to have an inferior vena cava involvement of a known sinusal angiomyolipoma incompletely resected three years beforehand. Intravascular extension into the IVC of angiomyolipoma has rarely been reported. We present a new case and reconsider the literature about this uncommon complication of a benign renal tumor.

  8. Does the reduction of inferior turbinate affect lower airway functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Ozlem; Ozkahraman, Mehtap; Ozkarafakili, Mufide Arzu; Akpinar, Meltem; Korkut, Arzu Yasemin; Kurt Dizdar, Senem; Uslu Coskun, Berna

    2017-11-06

    Although the nose and lungs are separate organs, numerous studies have reported that the entire respiratory system can be considered as a single anatomical and functional unit. The upper and lower airways affect each other either directly or through reflex mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the radiofrequency ablation of persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy on nasal and pulmonary function. Twenty-seven patients with bilateral persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy without septal deviation were included in this study. All of the patients were evaluated using anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, acoustic rhinometry, a visual analogue scale, and flow-sensitive spirometry on the day before and 4 months after the radiofrequency ablation procedure. The post-ablation measurements revealed that the inferior turbinate ablation caused an increase in the mean cross-sectional area and volume of the nose, as well as in the forced expiratory volume in 1s, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow of the patients. These differences between the pre- and post-ablation results were statistically significant. The post-ablation visual analogue scale scores were lower when compared with the pre-ablation scores, and this difference was also statistically significant. This study demonstrated that the widening of the nasal passage after the reduction of the inferior turbinate size had a favorable effect on the pulmonary function tests. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  10. Incidental right Bochdalek hernia with interruption of the inferior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-30

    May 30, 2014 ... Case Report doi:10.4102/sajr.v18i1.592 http://sajr.org.za. Incidental right Bochdalek hernia with interruption of the inferior vena cava and hepatic venous collateral continuation: A case report. Authors: Farzanah I. Ismail1. Rule Human2. Anith Chacko1. Parmanand Naran2. Samia Ahmad1. Siraj Ellemdin2.

  11. Brucellosis and thrombosis of the inferior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegger, Kristina; Tarr, Philip; Karatolios, Konstantinos; Humburg, Jörg; Hügli, Rolf; Jeanneret, Christina

    2017-01-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year old woman with a newly diagnosed thrombosis of the inferior vena cava associated with a Brucella melitensis infection. We suggest possible mechanisms leading to brucellosis-associated venous thrombosis and review 14 previously reported cases.
.

  12. reduction mammoplasty using inferior pedicle in heavy breasts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-09

    Sep 9, 2011 ... reduction of the breast as well as enhancement of the aesthetic appearance of the breasts. In this study, the inferior ... of the procedure is reduction in weight, volume and improvement in aesthetic appearance ... resections are done in a beveling fashion leaving a carpet of breast tissue of the muscle fascia ...

  13. Buccal infiltration versus inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, who had irreversible ...

  14. Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma: vascular reconstruction is not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of inferior vena cava is a rare and aggressive tumor, arising from the smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. A large complete surgical resection is the essential treatment. The need of vascular reconstruction is not always mandatory. It's above all to understand the place of the reconstruction with ...

  15. Suprarenal inferior vena cava filter placement prior to transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of a renal cell carcinoma with large renal vein tumor thrombus: Prevention of pulmonary tumor emboli after TAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Shozo; Matsumoto, Shinnichi; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Koshino, Tukasa; Sako, Masao; Kono, Michio

    1997-01-01

    To prevent embolization of necrotic renal vein tumor after transcatheter embolization of a left renal cell carcinoma, we placed a suprarenal Bird's nest inferior vena cava filter. The patient tolerated the procedure well and had extensive tumor infarction including the tumor thrombus on 6-month follow-up computed tomography

  16. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in

  17. Injuries of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava and the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koprivica Radenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Beckground. Injuries of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava, and the liver have mortality rate up to 71-78%. We presented a patient with combined injury of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava, liver, craniocerebral and thoracic traumas, inflicted in a traffic accident. Case report. Man, 20 years old has been injured in a traffic accident. At admission, 20 minutes after the injury, the patient was comatose and hypotensive. Bloody content was obtained by abdominal tracer. The patient underwent emergent laparotomy, utilizing trifurcated incision and cell saver device. Abdominal exploration revealed two liters of free blood and massive retroperitoneal hematoma. Manual compression of the liver was done, as well as perihepatic packing, complete hepatic vascular exclusion and mobilization of the right liver lobe. Due to impressive chemodynamic instability supraceliac aortic clamping was performed. Upon exposure of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava and right liver lobe, multiple lacerations of retrohepatic inferior vena cava and right hepatic vein, and right hepatic vein avulsion were found. We also identified an injury of VII and VIII segments of the liver (grade V according to the Moore's classification. Nonexpansive hepatoduodenal ligament hematoma and the injury of II and III segments of the liver group II/III according to Moore were found. Venorrhaphy of the inferior vena cava was done in the area of circumference of the right hepatic vein, a portion of which served as autologous vein patch. Continuous prolene 3/0 venorrhaphy of the distal caval laceration was done. Total caval and aorta clamping time of the inferior vena cava was 41 minutes. Atypical resection, debridment, of hepatic segments was done by using a harmonic scalpel. Hepatoduodenal ligament was declamped after 65 minutes. Fibrin glue was applied on the resectioned area of liver. The patient received 3.2 l of autologuos blood transfusion with 5 units of packed red blood cells, 6

  18. Anorexia Nervosa during Adolescence Is Associated with Decreased Gray Matter Volume in the Inferior Frontal Gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi X Fujisawa

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is an eating disorder characterized by the relentless pursuit to lose weight, mostly through self-starvation, and a distorted body image. AN tends to begin during adolescence among women. However, the underlying neural mechanisms related to AN remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry based on magnetic resonance imaging scans, we investigated whether the presence of AN was associated with discernible changes in brain morphology. Participants were 20 un-medicated, right-handed patients with early-onset AN and 14 healthy control subjects. Group differences in gray matter volume (GMV were assessed using high-resolution, T1-weighted, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging datasets (3T Trio scanner; Siemens AG and analyzed after controlling for age and total GMV, which was decreased in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG (left IFG: FWE corrected, p < 0.05; right IFG: uncorrected, p < 0.05 of patients with AN. The GMV in the bilateral IFG correlated significantly with current age (left IFG: r = -.481, p < .05; right IFG: r = -.601, p < .01 and was limited to the AN group. We speculate that decreased IFG volume might lead to deficits in executive functioning or inhibitory control within neural reward systems. Precocious or unbalanced neurological trimming within this particular region might be an important factor for the pathogenesis of AN onset.

  19. Life-Threatening Retropharyngeal Hemorrhage Secondary to Rupture of the Inferior Thyroid Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina G. Calogero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inferior thyroid artery (ITA rupture is rare and may progress to life-threatening conditions. We present a patient who visited the emergency department after an episode of syncope and dizziness in which he had a mechanical fall that resulted in abrasions and a hematoma to his left forehead. The patient presented with dysphagia and anterior neck swelling that progressed rapidly into airway compromise requiring endotracheal intubation. Emergent computed tomography revealed a large retropharyngeal hematoma, with active arterial extravasation that was thought to be arising from the thyrocervical trunk on the left. The hematoma measured approximately 6.7 cm transversely and 3.2 cm anteroposteriorly and extended from the level of the lower nasopharynx, down the neck into the retropharyngeal and danger space and into the mediastinum posterior to the esophagus, overall approximately 25 cm. The larynx was deviated anteriorly and there was esophageal compression. An emergent arteriogram and catheterization confirmed bleeding from branches of the ITA, and successful embolization was performed. It is important to recognize the ITA rupture as a potential etiology of an acute airway compromise. In emergent situations, while securing an airway is a priority, rapidly initiating diagnostic testing to confirm the diagnosis and arranging for arterial embolization can be life-saving.

  20. [Total dream loss secondary to left temporo-occipital brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, J J; Martí Massó, J F

    2006-04-01

    Recently the case of a woman who reported cessation of dreaming after a bilateral PCA stroke but without REM sleep loss has been reported, suggesting that deep bilateral occipital lobe damage including the right inferior lingual gyrus may represent the "minimal lesion extension" necessary for dream loss. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who ceased dreaming after a unilateral left temporo- occipital hematoma. The polysomnographic characteristics in rapid eyes movements (REM) sleep were otherwise normal. Our patient demonstrates that a unilateral left temporo-occipital injury could be sufficient for losing dreams.

  1. Laparoscopic Technique for Serial Collection of Para-Colonic, Left Colic, and Inferior Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Smedley

    Full Text Available Unlike peripheral lymph nodes (PLN, the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN draining the gastrointestinal (GI tract are exposed to microbes and microbial products from the intestines and as such, are immunologically distinct. GI draining (MLN have also been shown to be sites of early viral replication and likely impact early events that determine the course of HIV infection. They also are important reservoir sites that harbor latently-infected cells and from which the virus can emerge even after prolonged combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Changes in the microbial flora and increased permeability of the GI epithelium associated with lentiviral infection can impact the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and induce changes to secondary lymphoid organs limiting immune reconstitution with cART. Nonhuman primate models for AIDS closely model HIV infection in humans and serial sampling of the GALT and associated secondary lymphoid organs in this model is crucial to gain a better understanding of the critical early events in infection, pathogenesis, and the role of immune responses or drugs in controlling virus at these sites. However, current techniques to sample GI draining (MLN involve major surgery and/or necropsy, which have, to date, limited the ability to investigate mechanisms mediating the initiation, persistence and control of infection in this compartment. Here, we describe a minimally invasive laparoscopic technique for serial sampling of these sites that can be used with increased sampling frequency, yields greater cell numbers and immune cell subsets than current non-invasive techniques of the GALT and reduces the potential for surgical complications that could complicate interpretation of the results. This procedure has potential to facilitate studies of pathogenesis and evaluation of preventive and treatment interventions, reducing sampling variables that can influence experimental results, and improving animal welfare.

  2. Involvement of the Left Supramarginal Gyrus in Manipulation Judgment Tasks: Contributions to Theories of Tool Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Mathieu; Osiurak, François; Navarro, Jordan; Reynaud, Emanuelle

    2017-09-01

    Two theories of tool use, namely the gesture engram and the technical reasoning theories, make distinct predictions about the involvement of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in manipulation judgement tasks. The objective here is to test these alternative predictions based on previous studies on manipulation judgment tasks using transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) targeting the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). We review recent TMS studies on manipulation judgement tasks and confront these data with predictions made by both tool use theories. The left SMG is a highly intertwined region, organized following several functionally distinct areas and TMS may have disrupted a cortical network involved in the ability to use tools rather than only one functional area supporting manipulation knowledge. Moreover, manipulation judgement tasks may be impaired following virtual lesions outside the IPL. These data are more in line with the technical reasoning hypothesis, which assumes that the left IPL does not store manipulation knowledge per se. (JINS, 2017, 23, 685-691).

  3. Detection of active left ventricular thrombosis during acute myocardial infarction using indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekowitz, M.D.; Kellerman, D.J.; Smith, E.O.; Streitz, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    Platelet scintigraphy with radioactive indium-111 may be used both to identify and to reflect the activity of thrombin in vivo in man. Forty-one patients with acute myocardial infarction were studied for active left ventricular thrombosis by platelet scintigraphy and followed until in-hospital death, discharge, or same-admission cardiac surgery for evidence of systemic embolization. Group 1 (n . 29) had transmural myocardial infarctions, of which 21 were anterior and eight were inferior. Group 2 (n . 12) had subendocardial myocardial infarctions. Those with subendocardial and transmural inferior myocardial infarctions had neither left ventricular thrombosis nor emboli. Ten (48 percent) of 21 with anterior transmural myocardial infarctions had left ventricular thrombosis by platelet scintigraphy. Three with and one without such thrombosis by scintigraphy had acute neurologic episodes. In the group with anterior myocardial infarctions, seven of ten patients with and four of 11 without left ventricular thrombosis received heparin subcutaneously. We conclude that platelet scintigraphy may be used to monitor antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy in patients with anterior transmural myocardial infarctions who are at risk for left ventricular thrombosis and systemic embolization

  4. Encoding of Auditory Temporal Gestalt in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Michael P; Hanke, Michael; Murray, Micah M; Geiser, Eveline

    2018-01-20

    The perception of an acoustic rhythm is invariant to the absolute temporal intervals constituting a sound sequence. It is unknown where in the brain temporal Gestalt, the percept emerging from the relative temporal proximity between acoustic events, is encoded. Two different relative temporal patterns, each induced by three experimental conditions with different absolute temporal patterns as sensory basis, were presented to participants. A linear support vector machine classifier was trained to differentiate activation patterns in functional magnetic resonance imaging data to the 2 different percepts. Across the sensory constituents the classifier decoded which percept was perceived. A searchlight analysis localized activation patterns specific to the temporal Gestalt bilaterally to the temporoparietal junction, including the planum temporale and supramarginal gyrus, and unilaterally to the right inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis). We show that auditory areas not only process absolute temporal intervals, but also integrate them into percepts of Gestalt and that encoding of these percepts persists in high-level associative areas. The findings complement existing knowledge regarding the processing of absolute temporal patterns to the processing of relative temporal patterns relevant to the sequential binding of perceptual elements into Gestalt. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Structural Plasticity of White Matter Networks Following Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogarajah, Mahinda; Focke, Niels K.; Bonelli, Silvia B.; Thompson, Pamela; Vollmar, Christian; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Alexander, Daniel C.; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J.; Duncan, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural consequences of such surgery in the white matter, and how these relate to language function after surgery remain unknown. We carried out a longitudinal study with diffusion tensor imaging in 26 left and 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy…

  6. [Reversibility of cardiomyopathy after therapy of incessant left ventricular tachycardia with radiofrequency ablation in a newborn infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Bartolomé F; Sánchez Fernández-Bernal C

    2000-08-01

    We present a 15-month-old infant with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy secondary to idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia, which was incessant despite medical treatment. In the electrocardiogram, the tachycardia showed right bundle branch morphology and left superior axis deviation and was successfully ablated with the application of radiofrequency in the inferior apical septal region of the left ventricle. One week after the procedure the shortening fraction increased from 12% to 30% and at 18 months of follow-up the patient is tachycardia-free.

  7. Variations in the origin of inferior phrenic arteries and their relationship to celiac axis variations on CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslaner, Ramazan; Pekcevik, Yeliz; Sahin, Hilal [Dept. of Radiology, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir (Turkmenistan); Toka, Onur [Dept. of Statistics, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2017-04-15

    Knowing the origin of the inferior phrenic artery (IPA) is important prior to surgical interventions and interventional radiological procedures related to IPA. We aimed to identify variations in the origin of IPA and to investigate the relationship between the origin of IPA and celiac axis variations using computed tomography angiography (CTA). The CTA images of 1000 patients (737 male and 263 female, the mean age 60, range 18–94 years) were reviewed in an analysis of IPA and celiac axis variations. The origin of IPA was divided into two groups, those originating as a common trunk and those originating independently without a truncus. The relationship between the origin of IPA and celiac axis variation was analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Both IPAs originated from a common trunk in 295 (29.5%) patients. From which the majority of the common trunk originated from the aorta. Contrastingly, the inferior phrenic arteries originated from different origins in 705 (70.5%) patients. The majority of the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA) and the left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA) originated independently from the celiac axis. Variation in the celiac axis were detected in 110 (11%) patients. The origin of IPA was found to be significantly different in the presence of celiac axis variation. The majority of IPA originated from the aorta in patients with a common IPA trunk, while the majority of RIPA and LIPA originating from the celiac axis in patients without a common IPA trunk. Thus, the origin of IPA may widely differ in the presence of celiac axis variation.

  8. Anterior cingulate volume predicts response to psychotherapy and functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Fabio; Doerig, Nadja; Hänggi, Jürgen; Wolf, Robert Christian; Brakowski, Janis; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Seifritz, Erich; Spinelli, Simona

    2018-01-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been associated with clinical outcome as well as with antidepressant treatment response. Nonetheless, the association between individual differences in ACC structure and function and the response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is still unexplored. For this aim, twenty-five unmedicated patients with MDD were scanned with structural and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before the beginning of CBT treatment. ACC morphometry was correlated with clinical changes following psychotherapy. Furthermore, whole-brain resting state functional connectivity with the ACC was correlated with clinical measures. Greater volume in the left subgenual (subACC), the right pregenual (preACC), and the bilateral supragenual (supACC) predicted depressive symptoms improvement after CBT. Greater subACC volume was related to stronger functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stronger subACC-inferior parietal cortex connectivity correlated with greater adaptive rumination. Greater preACC volume was associated with stronger functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, greater right supACC volume was related to lower functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex. These results suggest that ACC volume and its functional connectivity with the fronto-parietal cortex are associated with CBT response in MDD, and this may be mediated by adaptive forms of rumination. Our findings support the role of the subACC as a potential predictor for CBT response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Variations in the origin of inferior phrenic arteries and their relationship to celiac axis variations on CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslaner, Ramazan; Pekcevik, Yeliz; Sahin, Hilal; Toka, Onur

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the origin of the inferior phrenic artery (IPA) is important prior to surgical interventions and interventional radiological procedures related to IPA. We aimed to identify variations in the origin of IPA and to investigate the relationship between the origin of IPA and celiac axis variations using computed tomography angiography (CTA). The CTA images of 1000 patients (737 male and 263 female, the mean age 60, range 18–94 years) were reviewed in an analysis of IPA and celiac axis variations. The origin of IPA was divided into two groups, those originating as a common trunk and those originating independently without a truncus. The relationship between the origin of IPA and celiac axis variation was analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Both IPAs originated from a common trunk in 295 (29.5%) patients. From which the majority of the common trunk originated from the aorta. Contrastingly, the inferior phrenic arteries originated from different origins in 705 (70.5%) patients. The majority of the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA) and the left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA) originated independently from the celiac axis. Variation in the celiac axis were detected in 110 (11%) patients. The origin of IPA was found to be significantly different in the presence of celiac axis variation. The majority of IPA originated from the aorta in patients with a common IPA trunk, while the majority of RIPA and LIPA originating from the celiac axis in patients without a common IPA trunk. Thus, the origin of IPA may widely differ in the presence of celiac axis variation

  10. Left Hand Dominance Affects Supra-Second Time Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Bonní, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies exploring specific brain functions of left- and right-handed subjects have shown variances in spatial and motor abilities that might be explained according to consistent structural and functional differences. Given the role of both spatial and motor information in the processing of temporal intervals, we designed a study aimed at investigating timing abilities in left-handed subjects. To this purpose both left- and right-handed subjects were asked to perform a time reproduction of sub-second vs. supra-second time intervals with their left and right hand. Our results show that during processing of the supra-second intervals left-handed participants sub-estimated the duration of the intervals, independently of the hand used to perform the task, while no differences were reported for the sub-second intervals. These results are discussed on the basis of recent findings on supra-second motor timing, as well as emerging evidence that suggests a linear representation of time with a left-to-right displacement. PMID:22028685

  11. Dissociable roles of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and fornix in face and place perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Carl J; Postans, Mark; Shine, Jonathan P; Jones, Derek K; Lawrence, Andrew D; Graham, Kim S

    2015-08-29

    We tested a novel hypothesis, generated from representational accounts of medial temporal lobe (MTL) function, that the major white matter tracts converging on perirhinal cortex (PrC) and hippocampus (HC) would be differentially involved in face and scene perception, respectively. Diffusion tensor imaging was applied in healthy participants alongside an odd-one-out paradigm sensitive to PrC and HC lesions in animals and humans. Microstructure of inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, connecting occipital and ventro-anterior temporal lobe, including PrC) and fornix (the main HC input/output pathway) correlated with accuracy on odd-one-out judgements involving faces and scenes, respectively. Similarly, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in PrC and HC, elicited during oddity judgements, was correlated with face and scene oddity performance, respectively. We also observed associations between ILF and fornix microstructure and category-selective BOLD response in PrC and HC, respectively. These striking three-way associations highlight functionally dissociable, structurally instantiated MTL neurocognitive networks for complex face and scene perception.

  12. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  14. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar

    2015-09-01

    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  15. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  16. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  17. Inferior frontal oscillations reveal visuo-motor matching for actions and speech: evidence from human intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halje, Pär; Seeck, Margitta; Blanke, Olaf; Ionta, Silvio

    2015-12-01

    The neural correspondence between the systems responsible for the execution and recognition of actions has been suggested both in humans and non-human primates. Apart from being a key region of this visuo-motor observation-execution matching (OEM) system, the human inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is also important for speech production. The functional overlap of visuo-motor OEM and speech, together with the phylogenetic history of the IFG as a motor area, has led to the idea that speech function has evolved from pre-existing motor systems and to the hypothesis that an OEM system may exist also for speech. However, visuo-motor OEM and speech OEM have never been compared directly. We used electrocorticography to analyze oscillations recorded from intracranial electrodes in human fronto-parieto-temporal cortex during visuo-motor (executing or visually observing an action) and speech OEM tasks (verbally describing an action using the first or third person pronoun). The results show that neural activity related to visuo-motor OEM is widespread in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Speech OEM also elicited widespread responses partly overlapping with visuo-motor OEM sites (bilaterally), including frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Interestingly a more focal region, the inferior frontal gyrus (bilaterally), showed both visuo-motor OEM and speech OEM properties independent of orolingual speech-unrelated movements. Building on the methodological advantages in human invasive electrocorticography, the present findings provide highly precise spatial and temporal information to support the existence of a modality-independent action representation system in the human brain that is shared between systems for performing, interpreting and describing actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  19. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bilateral macular colobomata: Temporal dragging of optic disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male presented with decreased vision and squint from childhood. He had bilateral large colobomata at the macula in each eye, the one on the right being larger than the left. The disc was dragged temporally with straightening of the temporal retinal vessels. This is a case report of bilateral large macular coloboma and serves to report its association with a temporally dragged disc and straightened temporal retinal vessels. A dragged disc if present with a colobomatous defect at the macula may strengthen the case for diagnosis of macular coloboma and help exclude other differentials.

  1. Bilateral macular colobomata: Temporal dragging of optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, David J

    2015-04-01

    A 13-year-old male presented with decreased vision and squint from childhood. He had bilateral large colobomata at the macula in each eye, the one on the right being larger than the left. The disc was dragged temporally with straightening of the temporal retinal vessels. This is a case report of bilateral large macular coloboma and serves to report its association with a temporally dragged disc and straightened temporal retinal vessels. A dragged disc if present with a colobomatous defect at the macula may strengthen the case for diagnosis of macular coloboma and help exclude other differentials.

  2. [Surface ECG characteristics of right and left atrial flutter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostock, Thomas; Konrad, Torsten; Sonnenschein, Sebastian; Mollnau, Hanke; Ocete, Blanca Quesada; Bock, Karsten; Spittler, Raphael; Huber, Carola; Theis, Cathrin

    2015-09-01

    Atrial tachycardia in virtually all areas of both atria has become more important in the clinical management of patients with previous complex atrial fibrillation ablation. Accurate interpretation of surface electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristics is of paramount importance to localize the origin of atrial tachycardia, particularly for planning interventional treatment. This article highlights the ECG features of different types of right and left atrial tachycardia. Typical right atrial flutter through the cavotricuspid isthmus conducts septally in a cranial direction and demonstrates sawtooth-like flutter waves which start negative in II, III and aVF and then show a steep slope upwards to the isoelectric line. The flutter rate typically ranges between 240-250 beats/min. In contrast, right atrial flutter in a clockwise rotation, flutter around the vena cava inferior or superior and around a scar (e.g. after cardiac surgery) show positive or biphasic flutter waves (lower or upper loop reentry). Left atrial flutter waves (e.g. around the mitral valve or around the pulmonary veins) are very heterogeneous and are typically positive in V1 as the left atrium is located in the posterior mediastinum. Specific knowledge of flutter wave morphology in surface ECG facilitates planning and performance of the ablation strategy.

  3. Some problems with non-inferiority tests in psychotherapy research: psychodynamic therapies as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2018-02-14

    In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others. We conclude that non-inferiority trials have specific risks of different types of validity problems, usually favoring an (erroneous) non-inferiority conclusion. Non-inferiority trials require the definition of non-inferiority margins, and currently used thresholds have a tendency to be inflationary, not protecting sufficiently against degradation. The use of non-inferiority approaches can lead to the astonishing result that one single analysis can suggest both, superiority of the comparator (here: CBT) and non-inferiority of the other treatment (here PDT) at the same time. We provide recommendations how to improve the quality of non-inferiority trials, and we recommend to consider them among other criteria when evaluating manuscripts examining non-inferiority trials. If psychotherapeutic families (such as PDT and CBT) differ on the number of investigating trials, and in the fields of clinical applications, and in other validity aspects mentioned above, conclusions about their general non-inferiority are no more than a best guess, typically expressing the favored approach of the lead author.

  4. Microvascular Decompression of Facial Nerve and Pexy of the Left Vertebral Artery for Left Hemifacial Spasm: 3-Dimensional Operative Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun-Yu; Shetty, Rakshith; Martinez, Vicente; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2018-03-29

    A 73-yr-old man presented with intractable left hemifacial spasm of 4 yr duration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed significant compression of left facial nerve by the left vertebral artery (VA) and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA).The patient underwent a left retrosigmoid craniotomy and a microvascular decompression of the cranial nerve (CN) VII. Intraoperatively, we found that the distal AICA had a protracted subarcuate extradural course.1 This was relieved by intra/extradural dissection. The left VA and the AICA loop were compressing the root exit zone of CN VII. The VA was mobilized, and pexy into the petrosal dura was done with 8-0 nylon sutures (Ethilon Nylon Suture, Ethicon Inc, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, Somerville, New Jersey). Once this was done, the lateral spread disappeared.2 The AICA loop was decompressed with 2 pieces of Teflon felt (Bard PTFE felt, Bard peripheral Vascular Inc, a subsidiary of CR Bard Inc, Temp, Arizona). After this, wave V of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) disappeared completely, with no recovery despite the application of the nicardipine on the internal auditory artery (IAA). The IAA appeared to be stretched by the microvascular decompression. Arachnoidal dissection was done to release the CN VIII and an additional felt piece was placed to elevate the AICA loop; the BAEP recovered completely. The patient had a complete disappearance of the hemifacial spasm postoperatively, and hearing was unchanged.This 3-D video shows the technical nuances of performing a vertebropexy, release of the AICA from its extradural subarcuate course, and the surgical maneuvers in the event of an unexpected change in neuromonitoring response. The suture technique of vertebropexy is preferred to a loop technique, to avoid kinking of the VA.3Informed consent was obtained from the patient prior to the surgery that included videotaping of the procedure and its distribution for educational purposes. All relevant

  5. Treatment of an Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm With Microsurgical Trapping and In Situ Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery to Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Bypass: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bryan S; Witek, Alex M; Moore, Nina Z; Bain, Mark D

    2017-12-30

    Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysms are rare lesions whose treatment can involve microsurgical and/or endovascular techniques. Such treatment can be challenging and may carry a significant risk of neurological morbidity. To demonstrate a case involving a complex AICA aneurysm that was treated with a unique microsurgical approach involving trapping the aneurysm and performing in Situ bypass from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to the distal AICA. The nuances of AICA aneurysms and revascularization strategies are discussed. The aneurysm and the distal segments of AICA and PICA were exposed with a retrosigmoid and far lateral approach. A side-to-side anastomosis was performed between the adjacent caudal loops of PICA and AICA. The AICA aneurysm was then treated by trapping the aneurysm-bearing segment of the parent vessel between 2 clips. A postoperative angiogram demonstrated a patent PICA-AICA bypass and complete occlusion of the AICA aneurysm. There were no complications, and the patient made an excellent recovery. The combination of parent vessel sacrifice and bypass remains an excellent option for certain difficult-to-treat aneurysms. This case involving PICA-AICA bypass to treat an AICA aneurysm serves as an example of the neurosurgeon's ability to develop unique solutions that take advantage of individual anatomy. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  6. Anterior Inferior cerebellar artery infarction misdiagnosed as inner ear disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Ikemiyagi, Y; Ikemiyagi, F; Tamura, Y; Suzuki, M; Tsuyusaki, Y

    2016-08-01

    Anterior Inferior cerebellar artery infarction misdiagnosed as inner ear disease. The clinical >resentation of anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarction may mimic that of inner ear disease. lethodology: This report presents two patients with cerebellar artery infarction initially misdiagnosed with inner ear lisease. ase Report: Both the patients presented with sudden hearing loss and vertigo. The patient in case 1 was initially liagnosed with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The patient in case 2 presented with 17 days of vertigo and iearing loss. Both were correctly diagnosed with AICA infarction after performing magnetic resonance imaging. esults and Conclusions: We differentiated AICA from inner ear disease based on the variability in degree and frequency ange of hearing loss, the duration of vertigo, and the manifestation of nystagmus. Because cases of AICA infarction and nner ear disease may present with si'milar symptoms, a detailed examination including clinical course assessments, aboratory findings, and neurological imaging is essential for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Extraluminal leimyosarcoma of inferior vena cava. Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza, S. de; Arenal, F.; Garcia, M.

    1997-01-01

    The leiomyosarcoma is the second most common primary retroperitoneal tumor in adults, after liposarcoma. Retroperitoneal leimyosarcoma (RLMS) and leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava are presently considered to belong to the same group of tumors. RMLS presents three major growth patterns: a) totally extravascular (extraluminal); b) totally intravascular (intraluminal), and c) extra and intraluminal. In most cases, the growth of RLMS is extrinsic to the blood vessels. The most common clinical sign is a large abdominal mass. The variability in the findings and the potential intravascular extension results in differing radiological images. That most frequently observed is that of a large mass of soft tissue with partial necrosis, within the retroperitoneum, sometimes extending into vena cava. We present a typical case of RLMS with totally extravascular growth, which was discovered during surgery to be intimately joined to inferior vena cava. (Author) 13 refs

  8. Congenital absence of inferior vena cava and thrombosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Javaid

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A congenitally absent Inferior Vena Cava (IVC is a rare anomaly that is recognised to be associated with idiopathic Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT, particularly in the young. It may not be apparent until later in life. Retrospectively, as discussed in this case, there can be clues indicating the presence of such an anomaly from a young age. However, it is not clear whether early recognition of this condition would affect the prognosis and treatment. Case presentation A 54 year old gentleman was admitted with 3 weeks of abdominal pain and localised swelling over the right flank. Examination revealed palpable 'snake-like' tortuous, tender lumps on the abdominal wall. Past history revealed chronic non-healing venous leg ulcers, and varicose veins necessitating varicose vein ligation at a very young age. The ulcers eventually needed skin grafting. During this, current admission he was investigated and diagnosed with Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT. CT scan, performed to search for intra-abdominal cancer, revealed absence of the Inferior Vena Cava with extensive thrombosed collaterals of the superficial abdominal and azygous veins and a congenitally atrophic left kidney. Conclusion This is a case of one of the oldest patient described in the literature to be diagnosed with absence of the IVC. It is thought that IVC anomalies are under-diagnosed, and may be commoner than once believed. However there were vital clues in his previous medical history suspicious for an underlying venous anomaly. Idiopathic DVT in a relatively young person with a past history of chronic leg ulceration or varicose veins should be investigated for congenital anomalies of the IVC. This is best achieved by CT scan of the abdomen.

  9. Drive for thinness as a women's strategy to avoid inferiority

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, C.; Pinto-Gouveia, J.; Duarte, C.

    2013-01-01

    Ferreira, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Duarte, C. (2013). Drive for thinness as a women's strategy to avoid inferiority. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 13(1), 15-29. http://www.ijpsy.com/volumen13/num1/344.html The emphasis on the need to achieve and be successful, and the contextual competitive dynamics in Western societies, may explain the increase of distinct forms of psychopathology. This study examined sex differences relative to the expression and conseque...

  10. Las alteraciones posturales en miembros inferiores en el surf

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspe, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Cuando el equilibrio neuromuscular no es óptimo durante la práctica de un deporte, es posible que, a largo plazo, aparezcan trastornos posturales que, dependiendo del tiempo de entrenamiento, pueden convertirse en un obstáculo para la salud. Es por esto, que mediante esta investigación he pretendido mostrar las alteraciones posturales que el surf puede llegar a provocar en quienes lo practican. Objetivo: Analizar las alteraciones posturales en los miembros inferiores de surfist...

  11. The Inferiority Complex of Homunculus in Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist

    OpenAIRE

    Thenady, Tania P; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the causes and effects of inferiority complex in a character of a manga created by Hiromu Arakawa, Fullmetal Alchemist. Commonly seen as a child's play and underestimated by the society of literature, comic book or manga actually has the same quality as those considered as literary arts and stands equally with them. It embraces issues freely without the restriction of social rules and individual or group and uncontaminated by social, personal, or political influences. On...

  12. Nerve damage associated with inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Bryan, J; Regezi, J

    1995-08-01

    The authors reviewed 12 cases in which altered sensation occurred in the distribution of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerves following injection of a local anesthetic for restorative treatment only. Most patients suffered only partial damage, but recovery was poor. The exact mechanism of the nerve damage is unknown, but a number of theories are proposed. The extent of this problem is also unknown, but many more cases probably exist than have been reported to date.

  13. Optional inferior vena caval filters: where are we now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, A N

    2008-08-01

    With the advent of newer optional\\/retrievable inferior vena caval filters, there has been a rise in the number of filters inserted globally. This review article examines the currently available approved optional filter models, outlines the clinical indications for filter insertion and examines the expanding indications. Additionally, the available evidence behind the use of optional filters is reviewed, the issue of anticoagulation is discussed and possible future filter developments are considered.

  14. Inferior vestibular neuritis in a fighter pilot: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Su Jiang; Jia, Hong Bo; Xu, Po; Zheng, Ying Juan

    2013-06-01

    Spatial disorientation in airplane pilots is a leading factor in many fatal flying accidents. Spatial orientation is the product of integrative inputs from the proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual systems. One condition that can lead to sudden pilot incapacitation in flight is vestibular neuritis. Vestibular neuritis is commonly diagnosed by a finding of unilateral vestibular failure, such as a loss of caloric response. However, because caloric response testing reflects the function of only the superior part of the vestibular nerve, it cannot detect cases of neuritis in only the inferior part of the nerve. We describe the case of a Chinese naval command fighter pilot who exhibited symptoms suggestive of vestibular neuritis but whose caloric response test results were normal. Further testing showed a unilateral loss of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). We believe that this pilot had pure inferior nerve vestibular neuritis. VEMP testing plays a major role in the diagnosis of inferior nerve vestibular neuritis in pilots. We also discuss this issue in terms of aeromedical concerns.

  15. Gaining surgical access for repositioning the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Siweedi, Saif Yousif Abdullah; Nambiar, P; Shanmuhasuntharam, P; Ngeow, W C

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining anatomical landmarks that can be used to gain access to the inferior alveolar neurovascular (IAN) bundle. Scanned CBCT (i-CAT machine) data of sixty patients and reconstructions performed using the SimPlant dental implant software were reviewed. Outcome variables were the linear distances of the mandibular canal to the inferior border and the buccal cortex of the mandible, measured immediately at the mental foramen (D1) and at 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm (D2-D5) distal to it. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, and gender of subjects. Apicobasal assessment of the canal reveals that it is curving downward towards the inferior mandibular border until 20 mm (D3) distal to the mental foramen where it then curves upwards, making an elliptic-arc curve. The mandibular canal also forms a buccolingually oriented elliptic arc in relation to the buccal cortex. Variations due to age, ethnicity, and gender were evident and this study provides an accurate anatomic zone for gaining surgical access to the IAN bundle. The findings indicate that the buccal cortex-IAN distance was greatest at D3. Therefore, sites between D2 and D5 can be used as favorable landmarks to access the IAN bundle with the least complications to the patient.

  16. Gaining Surgical Access for Repositioning the Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Yousif Abdullah Al-Siweedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining anatomical landmarks that can be used to gain access to the inferior alveolar neurovascular (IAN bundle. Scanned CBCT (i-CAT machine data of sixty patients and reconstructions performed using the SimPlant dental implant software were reviewed. Outcome variables were the linear distances of the mandibular canal to the inferior border and the buccal cortex of the mandible, measured immediately at the mental foramen (D1 and at 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm (D2–D5 distal to it. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, and gender of subjects. Apicobasal assessment of the canal reveals that it is curving downward towards the inferior mandibular border until 20 mm (D3 distal to the mental foramen where it then curves upwards, making an elliptic-arc curve. The mandibular canal also forms a buccolingually oriented elliptic arc in relation to the buccal cortex. Variations due to age, ethnicity, and gender were evident and this study provides an accurate anatomic zone for gaining surgical access to the IAN bundle. The findings indicate that the buccal cortex-IAN distance was greatest at D3. Therefore, sites between D2 and D5 can be used as favorable landmarks to access the IAN bundle with the least complications to the patient.

  17. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  18. Mesial Temporal Sclerosis: Accuracy of NeuroQuant versus Neuroradiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, M; Carone, M; Ying, S H; Yousem, D M

    2015-08-01

    We sought to compare the accuracy of a volumetric fully automated computer assessment of hippocampal volume asymmetry versus neuroradiologists' interpretations of the temporal lobes for mesial temporal sclerosis. Detecting mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is important for the evaluation of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy as it often guides surgical intervention. One feature of MTS is hippocampal volume loss. Electronic medical record and researcher reports of scans of patients with proved mesial temporal sclerosis were compared with volumetric assessment with an FDA-approved software package, NeuroQuant, for detection of mesial temporal sclerosis in 63 patients. The degree of volumetric asymmetry was analyzed to determine the neuroradiologists' threshold for detecting right-left asymmetry in temporal lobe volumes. Thirty-six patients had left-lateralized MTS, 25 had right-lateralized MTS, and 2 had bilateral MTS. The estimated accuracy of the neuroradiologist was 72.6% with a κ statistic of 0.512 (95% CI, 0.315-0.710) [moderate agreement, P NeuroQuant was 79.4% with a κ statistic of 0.588 (95% CI, 0.388-0.787) [moderate agreement, P NeuroQuant compares favorably with trained neuroradiologists in predicting the side of mesial temporal sclerosis. Neuroradiologists can often detect even small temporal lobe volumetric changes visually. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Simulation of Left Atrial Function Using a Multi-Scale Model of the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironet, Antoine; Dauby, Pierre C.; Paeme, Sabine; Kosta, Sarah; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Desaive, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    During a full cardiac cycle, the left atrium successively behaves as a reservoir, a conduit and a pump. This complex behavior makes it unrealistic to apply the time-varying elastance theory to characterize the left atrium, first, because this theory has known limitations, and second, because it is still uncertain whether the load independence hypothesis holds. In this study, we aim to bypass this uncertainty by relying on another kind of mathematical model of the cardiac chambers. In the present work, we describe both the left atrium and the left ventricle with a multi-scale model. The multi-scale property of this model comes from the fact that pressure inside a cardiac chamber is derived from a model of the sarcomere behavior. Macroscopic model parameters are identified from reference dog hemodynamic data. The multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including the left atrium is then simulated to show that the physiological roles of the left atrium are correctly reproduced. This include a biphasic pressure wave and an eight-shaped pressure-volume loop. We also test the validity of our model in non basal conditions by reproducing a preload reduction experiment by inferior vena cava occlusion with the model. We compute the variation of eight indices before and after this experiment and obtain the same variation as experimentally observed for seven out of the eight indices. In summary, the multi-scale mathematical model presented in this work is able to correctly account for the three roles of the left atrium and also exhibits a realistic left atrial pressure-volume loop. Furthermore, the model has been previously presented and validated for the left ventricle. This makes it a proper alternative to the time-varying elastance theory if the focus is set on precisely representing the left atrial and left ventricular behaviors. PMID:23755183

  20. Simulation of left atrial function using a multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Pironet

    Full Text Available During a full cardiac cycle, the left atrium successively behaves as a reservoir, a conduit and a pump. This complex behavior makes it unrealistic to apply the time-varying elastance theory to characterize the left atrium, first, because this theory has known limitations, and second, because it is still uncertain whether the load independence hypothesis holds. In this study, we aim to bypass this uncertainty by relying on another kind of mathematical model of the cardiac chambers. In the present work, we describe both the left atrium and the left ventricle with a multi-scale model. The multi-scale property of this model comes from the fact that pressure inside a cardiac chamber is derived from a model of the sarcomere behavior. Macroscopic model parameters are identified from reference dog hemodynamic data. The multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including the left atrium is then simulated to show that the physiological roles of the left atrium are correctly reproduced. This include a biphasic pressure wave and an eight-shaped pressure-volume loop. We also test the validity of our model in non basal conditions by reproducing a preload reduction experiment by inferior vena cava occlusion with the model. We compute the variation of eight indices before and after this experiment and obtain the same variation as experimentally observed for seven out of the eight indices. In summary, the multi-scale mathematical model presented in this work is able to correctly account for the three roles of the left atrium and also exhibits a realistic left atrial pressure-volume loop. Furthermore, the model has been previously presented and validated for the left ventricle. This makes it a proper alternative to the time-varying elastance theory if the focus is set on precisely representing the left atrial and left ventricular behaviors.

  1. The absent inferior epigastric artery: a unique anomaly and implications for deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Warren M; Houseman, Nicholas D; Ashton, Mark W

    2009-06-01

    The abdominal wall is particularly advantageous as a donor site due to the reliability of its vascular supply. Although the cutaneous perforators of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) may show significant individual variability, the DIEA itself has been shown to be ever-present as a vascular pedicle and to be highly dependable. The increasing use of preoperative computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has led to increasing reports of anatomic variability. With the use of preoperative CTA, we describe a unique case of a completely absent DIEA in patient who had not previously undergone any open abdominal surgery. The absence of the DIEA had led to vascular changes throughout the abdominal wall, including dilatation of both SIEAs and the ipsilateral deep superior epigastric artery. Preoperative CTA in this setting helped us identify this anomaly and aided surgical planning. The incidence of this anomaly was subsequently reviewed in 150 consecutive CTA scans performed at our institution.

  2. Inferior colliculus contributions to phase encoding of stop consonants in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Catherine M; Abrams, Daniel A; Nicol, Trent G; Kraus, Nina

    2011-12-01

    The human auditory brainstem is known to be exquisitely sensitive to fine-grained spectro-temporal differences between speech sound contrasts, and the ability of the brainstem to discriminate between these contrasts is important for speech perception. Recent work has described a novel method for translating brainstem timing differences in response to speech contrasts into frequency-specific phase differentials. Results from this method have shown that the human brainstem response is surprisingly sensitive to phase differences inherent to the stimuli across a wide extent of the spectrum. Here we use an animal model of the auditory brainstem to examine whether the stimulus-specific phase signatures measured in human brainstem responses represent an epiphenomenon associated with far-field (i.e., scalp-recorded) measurement of neural activity, or alternatively whether these specific activity patterns are also evident in auditory nuclei that contribute to the scalp-recorded response, thereby representing a more fundamental temporal processing phenomenon. Responses in anaesthetized guinea pigs to three minimally-contrasting consonant-vowel stimuli were collected simultaneously from the cortical surface vertex and directly from central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc), measuring volume conducted neural activity and multiunit, near-field activity, respectively. Guinea pig surface responses were similar to human scalp-recorded responses to identical stimuli in gross morphology as well as phase characteristics. Moreover, surface-recorded potentials shared many phase characteristics with near-field ICc activity. Response phase differences were prominent during formant transition periods, reflecting spectro-temporal differences between syllables, and showed more subtle differences during the identical steady state periods. ICc encoded stimulus distinctions over a broader frequency range, with differences apparent in the highest frequency ranges analyzed, up to 3000

  3. Mesial temporal sclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    2005-07-29

    Jul 29, 2005 ... tail of the hippocampus were involved, with associated poor grey- white matter differentiation. In addi- tion, there was atrophy of the hip- pocampus and fornix, with dilatation of the temporal horn (Figs 1 - 4). Discussion. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the commonest cause of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  4. Memory reorganization following anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Thompson, Pamela J; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Powell, Robert H W; Samson, Rebecca S; McEvoy, Andrew W; Symms, Mark R; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S

    2013-06-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50-60% of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy but may impair memory function, typically verbal memory following left, and visual memory following right anterior temporal lobe resection. Functional reorganization can occur within the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. We investigated the reorganization of memory function in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy before and after left or right anterior temporal lobe resection and the efficiency of postoperative memory networks. We studied 46 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (25/26 left hippocampal sclerosis, 16/20 right hippocampal sclerosis) before and after anterior temporal lobe resection on a 3 T General Electric magnetic resonance imaging scanner. All subjects had neuropsychological testing and performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm for words, pictures and faces, testing verbal and visual memory in a single scanning session, preoperatively and again 4 months after surgery. Event-related analysis revealed that patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy had greater activation in the left posterior medial temporal lobe when successfully encoding words postoperatively than preoperatively. Greater pre- than postoperative activation in the ipsilateral posterior medial temporal lobe for encoding words correlated with better verbal memory outcome after left anterior temporal lobe resection. In contrast, greater postoperative than preoperative activation in the ipsilateral posterior medial temporal lobe correlated with worse postoperative verbal memory performance. These postoperative effects were not observed for visual memory function after right anterior temporal lobe resection. Our findings provide evidence for effective preoperative reorganization of verbal memory function to the ipsilateral posterior medial temporal lobe due to the underlying disease, suggesting that it is the capacity

  5. Association of dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus fibers in the deep parietal lobe with both reading and writing processes: a brain mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kazuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing.

  6. Three dimensional endo-cardiovascular volume-rendered cine computed tomography of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia; A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  7. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  8. Preliminary experimental study of retrievable nitinol inferior vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Baojie; Zhai Renyou; Ding Jingran; Dai Dingke

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate, in vitro and in an animal model together with the placement, stability, clot capturing efficacy, retrieval and safety of a new non-invasive retrievable nitinol inferior vena cava filter (RNIVCF) for temporary or permanent use. Methods: RNIVCF were made by wrapping nitinol monofilament wire on a steel mandrill to form a steric configuration. A 5-F Teflon sheath/dilator was taken for placement and retrieval. In vitro clots' trapping was assessed with size of 2.5/3/4-mm-diameter clots. Twenty adult mongrel dogs were used in this study. 2.5-mm-diameter homologous radiopaque clots (2.5-mm-HRC) were injected into IVC until the experimental animals die of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and then to determine the minimum fatal quantity of clots in 8 dogs. RNIVCFs were introduced into the inferior vena cava in 12 dogs. For 10 animals, 10-ml 2.5-mm-HRC were injected below the filter to test its thrombus-trapping efficacy. The retrieval of filter was attempted on the 7th day after placement in two other dogs. Plain films of the abdomen and chest were made to document the effectiveness of the filter. Results: Initial experimental study showed that the RNIVCF functioned as intended. In vitro all 3 and 4-mm-diameter clots injected in the device simulating IVC flow was trapped by the filter. However, 95%-100% 2.5-mm-diameter clots were also captured by it. More than 10-ml 2.5-mm-HRC with once injection into IVC could cause the death of experimental animals due to acute PE in per-experiment. RNIVCF could be easily and successfully placed percutaneously in the inferior vena cava of the dogs through a 5-F sheath. The filter was accurately positioned in the inferior vena cava by moving the retrieval wire. All 13 RNIVCFs were placed in 12 dogs, one of those has double inferior vena cava and two filters were implanted. The filters trapped these 2.5-mm-diameter clots in the iliac veins of 8 dogs and none of them died of acute PE. But the initial two dogs with two

  9. Healing of periodontal defects and calcitonin gene related peptide expression following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Linlin; Wang, Yanzhi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Li, Shu

    2014-06-01

    The roles of nerve and neuropeptides in the process of bone formation and remolding have been studied previously. However, the effects of nervous system and neuropeptide on periodontal alveolar bone formation remained unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of innervation on regeneration of alveolar bone and expression levels of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in periodontal tissues of rats, so as to have a better understanding of the effect of nerve and its related neuropeptide on periodontal tissue regeneration. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve and a surgery to produce bilateral periodontal defect, then the alveolar tissue was obtained from animals of each group at week 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson staining were performed to evaluate the ability to restore and repair periodontal tissues at 4, 6 and 8 after surgery. Then new bone formation area and mineralized area were quantified using imagepro-plus6.0 software after pictures were taken under the microscope and SPSS17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to investigate the expression of CGRP at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve surgery and were then sacrificed at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 after the operation. The change of CGRP expression in periodontal tissue was detected using immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that the volume of new bone formation was not significantly difference between the experimental and control groups, but the mineralized new bone area between the two groups was statistically significant. The level of CGRP expression was lower than normal at week 1, and then it began to rise in the next stage. The plateau, at higher than normal level, was reached at 6 weeks post-surgery. Results of transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve demonstrated the expression of CGRP

  10. Vestibular neuritis affects both superior and inferior vestibular nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael L; McGarvie, Leigh A; Reid, Nicole; Young, Allison S; Halmagyi, G Michael; Welgampola, Miriam S

    2016-10-18

    To characterize the profiles of afferent dysfunction in a cross section of patients with acute vestibular neuritis using tests of otolith and semicircular canal function sensitive to each of the 5 vestibular end organs. Forty-three patients fulfilling clinical criteria for acute vestibular neuritis were recruited between 2010 and 2016 and studied within 10 days of symptom onset. Otolith function was evaluated with air-conducted cervical and bone-conducted ocular/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the subjective visual horizontal test. Canal-plane video head impulse tests (vHITs) assessed the function of each semicircular canal. Patterns of recovery were investigated in 16 patients retested after a 6- to 12-month follow-up period. Rates of horizontal canal (97.7%), anterior canal (90.7%), and utricular (72.1%) dysfunction were significantly higher than rates of posterior canal (39.5%) and saccular (39.0%) dysfunction (p vestibular nerve divisions; 18 patients (41.9%) had superior neuritis; and 1 patient (2.3%) had inferior neuritis. A test battery that included horizontal and posterior canal vHIT and the cervical/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials identified superior or inferior neuritis in all patients tested acutely. Eight of 16 patients who were retested at follow-up had recovered a normal vestibular evoked myogenic potential and vHIT profile. Acute vestibular neuritis most often affects both vestibular nerve divisions. The horizontal vHIT alone identifies superior nerve dysfunction in all patients with vestibular neuritis tested acutely, whereas both cervical/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and posterior vHIT are necessary for diagnosing inferior vestibular nerve involvement. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Impact of Middle vs. Inferior Total Turbinectomy on Nasal Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Anupriya; Rhee, John S.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This computational study aims to: (1) Use virtual surgery to theoretically investigate the maximum possible change in nasal aerodynamics after turbinate surgery; (2) Quantify the relative contributions of the middle and inferior turbinates to nasal resistance and air conditioning; (3) Quantify to what extent total turbinectomy impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity. Study Design Virtual surgery and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Ten patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy were studied. Three-dimensional models of their nasal anatomies were built based on pre-surgery computed tomography scans. Virtual surgery was applied to create models representing either total inferior turbinectomy (TIT) or total middle turbinectomy (TMT). Airflow, heat transfer, and humidity transport were simulated at a 15 L/min steady-state inhalation rate. The surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling was defined as the area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2. Results In both virtual total turbinectomy models, nasal resistance decreased and airflow increased. However, the surface area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2 either decreased (TIT) or did not change significantly (TMT), suggesting that total turbinectomy may reduce the stimulation of cold receptors by inspired air. Nasal heating and humidification efficiencies decreased significantly after both TIT and TMT. All changes were greater in the TIT models than in the TMT models. Conclusion TIT yields greater increases in nasal airflow, but also impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity to a greater extent than TMT. Radical resection of the turbinates may decrease the surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling. PMID:27165673

  12. Impact of Middle versus Inferior Total Turbinectomy on Nasal Aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Anupriya; Rhee, John S; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2016-09-01

    This computational study aims to (1) use virtual surgery to theoretically investigate the maximum possible change in nasal aerodynamics after turbinate surgery, (2) quantify the relative contributions of the middle and inferior turbinates to nasal resistance and air conditioning, and (3) quantify to what extent total turbinectomy impairs the nasal air-conditioning capacity. Virtual surgery and computational fluid dynamics. Academic tertiary medical center. Ten patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy were studied. Three-dimensional models of their nasal anatomies were built according to presurgery computed tomography scans. Virtual surgery was applied to create models representing either total inferior turbinectomy (TIT) or total middle turbinectomy (TMT). Airflow, heat transfer, and humidity transport were simulated at a steady-state inhalation rate of 15 L/min. The surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling was defined as the area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/m(2). In both virtual total turbinectomy models, nasal resistance decreased and airflow increased. However, the surface area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/m(2) either decreased (TIT) or did not change significantly (TMT), suggesting that total turbinectomy may reduce the stimulation of cold receptors by inspired air. Nasal heating and humidification efficiencies decreased significantly after both TIT and TMT. All changes were greater in the TIT models than in the TMT models. TIT yields greater increases in nasal airflow but also impairs the nasal air-conditioning capacity to a greater extent than TMT. Radical resection of the turbinates may decrease the surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  13. ST depression in lead aVL differentiates inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction from pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Johanna E; Worrall, Christine; Thompson, Peter; Marti, David; Smith, Stephen W

    2016-02-01

    ST-segment elevation (STE) due to inferior STE myocardial infarction (STEMI) may be misdiagnosed as pericarditis. Conversely, this less life-threatening etiology of ST elevation may be confused for inferior STEMI. We sought to determine if the presence of any ST-segment depression in lead aVL would differentiate inferior STEMI from pericarditis. Retrospective study of 3 populations. Cohort 1 included patients coded as inferior STEMI, cohort 2 included patients with a discharge diagnosis of pericarditis who presented with chest pain and at least 0.5 mm of ST elevation in at least 1 inferior lead. We analyzed the presenting electrocardiogram in both populations, with careful assessment of leads II, III, aVF, and aVL. In addition, we retrospectively studied a third cohort of patients with subtle inferior STEMI (pericarditis group, all 49 had some inferior STE but none had any ST-segment depression in lead aVL (specificity, 100%; confidence interval, 91%-100%). In the third cohort, there were 272 inferior MIs with coronary occlusion, of which 54 were "subtle." Of these, 49 had some ST depression in lead aVL. When there is inferior ST-segment elevation, the presence of any ST depression in lead aVL is highly sensitive for coronary occlusion in inferior myocardial infarction and very specific for differentiating inferior myocardial infarction from pericarditis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Complete inferior rectus muscle transection secondary to orbital blowout fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Jonathan M; Lewis, Kyle T

    2018-01-05

    Complete extraocular muscle transection is uncommon in the setting of blunt trauma. We report a case of a 53-year-old male that developed diplopia after hitting his face directly on a concrete slab after a fall. On examination, he had a right hypertropia with a complete infraduction deficit. A CT scan of the face showed an orbital floor blowout fracture with complete inferior rectus transection. On surgical exploration, the distal and proximal ends of the muscle were identified and sutured together, and the floor fracture was repaired. At his post-operative visits, the patient had a persistent infraduction deficit, but subjectively had improved diplopia.

  15. A Novel Technique for Inferior Vena Cava Filter Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Edward William; Rowe, Luke Michael Morgan; Brookes, Jocelyn; Raja, Jowad; Hague, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are used to protect against pulmonary embolism in high-risk patients. Whilst the insertion of retrievable IVC filters is gaining popularity, a proportion of such devices cannot be removed using standard techniques. We describe a novel approach for IVC filter removal that involves snaring the filter superiorly along with the use of flexible forceps or laser devices to dissect the filter struts from the caval wall. This technique has used to successfully treat three patients without complications in whom standard techniques failed

  16. Evidence of mirror neurons in human inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J; Frith, Chris D

    2009-08-12

    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG.

  17. Amiloidosis renal en paciente con osteomielitis de extremidad inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vicente Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La amiloidosis secundaria (AA sistémica es una entidad frecuente, asociada con enfermedades inflamatorias e infecciones de larga evolución, así como con algunas neoplasias. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 58 años, con antecedente de úlcera en miembro inferior derecho de más de 30 años de evolución y con síndrome nefrótico secundario a amiloidosis AA.

  18. Hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus impacts perception of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Palla, Antonella; Marti, Sarah; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Straumann, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the dentato-olivary projections, interconnecting the dentate nucleus (DN) and the contralateral inferior olivary nucleus (ION), is predicted to interfere with the DN' role in estimating direction of gravity. In a patient with pendular nystagmus due to hypertrophy of the ION secondary to predominantly right-sided ponto-mesencephalic hemorrhage, perceived vertical shifted from clockwise to counter-clockwise deviations within 4 months. We hypothesize that synchronized oscillations of ION neurons induce a loss of inhibitory control, leading to hyperactivity of the contralateral DN and, as a result, to perceived vertical roll-tilt to the side of the over-active DN.

  19. Omental flap transposition for inferior vena cava filter penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Yamaguchi, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with uterine malignancy, deep vein thrombosis, and nonmassive pulmonary embolism in both lungs. Gunter-tulip filter was inserted, because she had severe genital bleeding, which is one of the contraindications to anticoagulation therapy. Total hysterectomy was conducted and anticoagulation therapy was started afterward. The thrombus worsened perioperatively, and the filter could not be retrieved. Since there was lymph node recurrence, the second time operation was performed. During operation, the struts were found to be penetrating the inferior vena cava. Omental flap was used to cover the struts, and no associated complications occurred after operation.

  20. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1987-02-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  1. Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishizawa, Y; Olsen, T S; Larsen, B

    1982-01-01

    1. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during rest and during listening to simple words. The xenon-133 intracarotid technique was used and results were obtained from 254 regions of seven right hemispheres and seven left hemispheres. The measurements were performed just after carotid...... of the entire hemisphere. The focal rCBF increases were localized to the superior part of the temporal regions, the prefrontal regions, the frontal eye fields, and the orbitofrontal regions. Significant asymmetries were found in particular in the superior temporal region with the left side showing a more...

  2. Differential diagnosis of endodontic-related inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia with cone beam computed tomography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, G; Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Testarelli, L; Prencipe, M; Messineo, D; Fratini, L; D'Ambrosio, F

    2011-02-01

    To discuss the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the differential diagnosis of a case of labiomandibular paraesthesia caused by extrusion of endodontic sealer into the mandibular canal. A 59-year-old woman suffering from a paraesthesia on the left posterior mandible and numbness on the left side of the lower lip was referred to an endodontic specialist 1 month after multiple root canal treatments. A panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of extruded root